WorldWideScience

Sample records for model qualitatively describes

  1. Describing disease processes using a probabilistic logic of qualitative time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, M. van der; Lucas, P.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical knowledge about progress of diseases is characterised by temporal information as well as uncertainty. However, precise timing information is often unavailable in medicine. In previous research this problem has been tackled using Allen's qualitative algebra of time, which, despit

  2. Describing dengue epidemics: Insights from simple mechanistic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Maíra; Stollenwerk, Nico; Kooi, Bob W.

    2012-09-01

    We present a set of nested models to be applied to dengue fever epidemiology. We perform a qualitative study in order to show how much complexity we really need to add into epidemiological models to be able to describe the fluctuations observed in empirical dengue hemorrhagic fever incidence data offering a promising perspective on inference of parameter values from dengue case notifications.

  3. Frameworks for understanding and describing business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides in a chronological fashion an introduction to six frameworks that one can apply to describing, understanding and also potentially innovating business models. These six frameworks have been chosen carefully as they represent six very different perspectives on business models ...... Maps (2001) • Intellectual Capital Statements (2003) • Chesbrough’s framework for Open Business Models (2006) • Business Model Canvas (2008)......This chapter provides in a chronological fashion an introduction to six frameworks that one can apply to describing, understanding and also potentially innovating business models. These six frameworks have been chosen carefully as they represent six very different perspectives on business models...... and in this manner “complement” each other. There are a multitude of varying frameworks that could be chosen from and we urge the reader to search and trial these for themselves. The six chosen models (year of release in parenthesis) are: • Service-Profit Chain (1994) • Strategic Systems Auditing (1997) • Strategy...

  4. A Dualistic Model To Describe Computer Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitezki, Peter; Engel, Michael

    1985-07-01

    The Dualistic Model for Computer Architecture Description uses a hierarchy of abstraction levels to describe a computer in arbitrary steps of refinement from the top of the user interface to the bottom of the gate level. In our Dualistic Model the description of an architecture may be divided into two major parts called "Concept" and "Realization". The Concept of an architecture on each level of the hierarchy is an Abstract Data Type that describes the functionality of the computer and an implementation of that data type relative to the data type of the next lower level of abstraction. The Realization on each level comprises a language describing the means of user interaction with the machine, and a processor interpreting this language in terms of the language of the lower level. The surface of each hierarchical level, the data type and the language express the behaviour of a ma-chine at this level, whereas the implementation and the processor describe the structure of the algorithms and the system. In this model the Principle of Operation maps the object and computational structure of the Concept onto the structures of the Realization. Describing a system in terms of the Dualistic Model is therefore a process of refinement starting at a mere description of behaviour and ending at a description of structure. This model has proven to be a very valuable tool in exploiting the parallelism in a problem and it is very transparent in discovering the points where par-allelism is lost in a special architecture. It has successfully been used in a project on a survey of Computer Architecture for Image Processing and Pattern Analysis in Germany.

  5. Describing Ecosystem Complexity through Integrated Catchment Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Peiffer, S.

    2011-12-01

    Land use and climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, and agricultural yield. The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integration of physical, economic, and social data over several scales to assess effects on water resources and ecology. Field-based meteorology, hydrology, soil physics, plant production, solute and sediment transport, economic, and social behavior data were measured in a South Korean catchment. A variety of models are being used to simulate plot and field scale experiments within the catchment. Results from each of the local-scale models provide identification of sensitive, local-scale parameters which are then used as inputs into a large-scale watershed model. We used the spatially distributed SWAT model to synthesize the experimental field data throughout the catchment. The approach of our study was that the range in local-scale model parameter results can be used to define the sensitivity and uncertainty in the large-scale watershed model. Further, this example shows how research can be structured for scientific results describing complex ecosystems and landscapes where cross-disciplinary linkages benefit the end result. The field-based and modeling framework described is being used to develop scenarios to examine spatial and temporal changes in land use practices and climatic effects on water quantity, water quality, and sediment transport. Development of accurate modeling scenarios requires understanding the social relationship between individual and policy driven land management practices and the value of sustainable resources to all shareholders.

  6. Modeling Approaches for Describing Microbial Population Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lencastre Fernandes, Rita

    , ethanol and biomass throughout the reactor. This work has proven that the integration of CFD and population balance models, for describing the growth of a microbial population in a spatially heterogeneous reactor, is feasible, and that valuable insight on the interplay between flow and the dynamics......Although microbial populations are typically described by averaged properties, individual cells present a certain degree of variability. Indeed, initially clonal microbial populations develop into heterogeneous populations, even when growing in a homogeneous environment. A heterogeneous microbial......) to predict distributions of certain population properties including particle size, mass or volume, and molecular weight. Similarly, PBM allow for a mathematical description of distributed cell properties within microbial populations. Cell total protein content distributions (a measure of cell mass) have been...

  7. Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials in grant proposals: a documentary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Sarah J; O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-02-18

    There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for doing the qualitative research and

  8. Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials in grant proposals: a documentary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Methods Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. Results 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Conclusions Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for

  9. Using Metaphorical Models for Describing Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzmann, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    To date, there has only been little conceptual change research regarding conceptions about glaciers. This study used the theoretical background of embodied cognition to reconstruct different metaphorical concepts with respect to the structure of a glacier. Applying the Model of Educational Reconstruction, the conceptions of students and scientists…

  10. Dispersive models describing mosquitoes’ population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, W. M. S.; Takahashi, L. T.; Chapiro, G.

    2016-08-01

    The global incidences of dengue and, more recently, zica virus have increased the interest in studying and understanding the mosquito population dynamics. Understanding this dynamics is important for public health in countries where climatic and environmental conditions are favorable for the propagation of these diseases. This work is based on the study of nonlinear mathematical models dealing with the life cycle of the dengue mosquito using partial differential equations. We investigate the existence of traveling wave solutions using semi-analytical method combining dynamical systems techniques and numerical integration. Obtained solutions are validated through numerical simulations using finite difference schemes.

  11. Using Metaphorical Models for Describing Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzmann, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    To date, there has only been little conceptual change research regarding conceptions about glaciers. This study used the theoretical background of embodied cognition to reconstruct different metaphorical concepts with respect to the structure of a glacier. Applying the Model of Educational Reconstruction, the conceptions of students and scientists regarding glaciers were analysed. Students' conceptions were the result of teaching experiments whereby students received instruction about glaciers and ice ages and were then interviewed about their understandings. Scientists' conceptions were based on analyses of textbooks. Accordingly, four conceptual metaphors regarding the concept of a glacier were reconstructed: a glacier is a body of ice; a glacier is a container; a glacier is a reflexive body and a glacier is a flow. Students and scientists differ with respect to in which context they apply each conceptual metaphor. It was observed, however, that students vacillate among the various conceptual metaphors as they solve tasks. While the subject context of the task activates a specific conceptual metaphor, within the discussion about the solution, the students were able to adapt their conception by changing the conceptual metaphor. Educational strategies for teaching students about glaciers require specific language to activate the appropriate conceptual metaphors and explicit reflection regarding the various conceptual metaphors.

  12. A qualitative study describing nursing home nurses sensemaking to detect medication order discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsmeier, Amy; Anderson, Ruth A; Anbari, Allison; Ganong, Lawrence; Farag, Amany; Niemeyer, MaryAnn

    2017-08-04

    Medication reconciliation is a safety practice to identify medication order discrepancies when patients' transitions between settings. In nursing homes, registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs), each group with different education preparation and scope of practice responsibilities, perform medication reconciliation. However, little is known about how they differ in practice when making sense of medication orders to detect discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe differences in RN and LPN sensemaking when detecting discrepancies. We used a qualitative methodology in a study of 13 RNs and 13 LPNs working in 12 Midwestern United States nursing homes. We used both conventional content analysis and directed content analysis methods to analyze semi-structured interviews. Four resident transfer vignettes embedded with medication order discrepancies guided the interviews. Participants were asked to describe their roles with medication reconciliation and their rationale for identifying medication order discrepancies within the vignettes as well as to share their experiences of performing medication reconciliation. The analysis approach was guided by Weick's Sensemaking theory. RNs provided explicit stories of identifying medication order discrepancies as well as examples of clinical reasoning to assure medication order appropriateness whereas LPNs described comparing medication lists. RNs and LPNs both acknowledged competing demands, but when performing medication reconciliation, RNs were more concerned about accuracy and safety, whereas LPNs were more concerned about time. Nursing home nurses, particularly RNs, are in an important position to identify discrepancies that could cause resident harm. Both RNs and LPNs are valuable assets to nursing home care and keeping residents safe, yet RNs offer a unique contribution to complex processes such as medication reconciliation. Nursing home leaders must acknowledge the differences

  13. Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials in grant proposals: a documentary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Drabble, SJ; O'Cathain, A.; Thomas, KJ; Rudolph, A; Hewison, J

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Methods Using the metaRegister of Controlle...

  14. Qualitative and Quantitative Integrated Modeling for Stochastic Simulation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation and optimization of an actual physics system are usually constructed based on the stochastic models, which have both qualitative and quantitative characteristics inherently. Most modeling specifications and frameworks find it difficult to describe the qualitative model directly. In order to deal with the expert knowledge, uncertain reasoning, and other qualitative information, a qualitative and quantitative combined modeling specification was proposed based on a hierarchical model structure framework. The new modeling approach is based on a hierarchical model structure which includes the meta-meta model, the meta-model and the high-level model. A description logic system is defined for formal definition and verification of the new modeling specification. A stochastic defense simulation was developed to illustrate how to model the system and optimize the result. The result shows that the proposed method can describe the complex system more comprehensively, and the survival probability of the target is higher by introducing qualitative models into quantitative simulation.

  15. New model describing the dynamical behaviour of penetration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Tohru; Minagawa, Hiroe; Chiba, Michiko

    2013-02-01

    We propose a hierarchical logistic equation as a model to describe the dynamical behaviour of a penetration rate of a prevalent stuff. In this model, a memory, how many people who already possess it a person who does not process it yet met, is considered, which does not exist in the logistic model. As an application, we apply this model to iPod sales data, and find that this model can approximate the data much better than the logistic equation.

  16. Icosahedral symmetry described by an incommensurately modulated crystal structure model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolny, Janusz; Lebech, Bente

    1986-01-01

    A crystal structure model of an incommensurately modulated structure is presented. Although six different reciprocal vectors are used to describe the model, all calculations are done in three dimensions making calculation of the real-space structure trivial. Using this model, it is shown that both...

  17. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola;

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  18. Dynamic modelling of pectin extraction describing yield and functional characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Cognet, T.; Santacoloma, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    A dynamic model of pectin extraction is proposed that describes pectin yield, degree of esterification and intrinsic viscosity. The dynamic model is one dimensional in the peel geometry and includes mass transport of pectin by diffusion and reaction kinetics of hydrolysis, degradation and de-esterification....... The model takes into account the effects of the process conditions such as temperature and acid concentration on extraction kinetics. It is shown that the model describes pectin bulk solution concentration, degree of esterification and intrinsic viscosity in pilot scale extractions from lime peel...

  19. An autocatalytic kinetic model for describing microbial growth during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarz, Albert; Augusto, Pedro E D

    2015-01-01

    The mathematical modelling of the behaviour of microbial growth is widely desired in order to control, predict and design food and bioproduct processing, stability and safety. This work develops and proposes a new semi-empirical mathematical model, based on an autocatalytic kinetic, to describe the microbial growth through its biomass concentration. The proposed model was successfully validated using 15 microbial growth patterns, covering the three most important types of microorganisms in food and biotechnological processing (bacteria, yeasts and moulds). Its main advantages and limitations are discussed, as well as the interpretation of its parameters. It is shown that the new model can be used to describe the behaviour of microbial growth.

  20. Learning Action Models: Qualitative Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolander, T.; Gierasimczuk, N.; van der Hoek, W.; Holliday, W.H.; Wang, W.-F.

    2015-01-01

    In dynamic epistemic logic, actions are described using action models. In this paper we introduce a framework for studying learnability of action models from observations. We present first results concerning propositional action models. First we check two basic learnability criteria: finite

  1. Digital clocks: simple Boolean models can quantitatively describe circadian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozgur E; Watterson, Steven; Parton, Andrew; Binns, Nigel; Millar, Andrew J; Ghazal, Peter

    2012-09-07

    The gene networks that comprise the circadian clock modulate biological function across a range of scales, from gene expression to performance and adaptive behaviour. The clock functions by generating endogenous rhythms that can be entrained to the external 24-h day-night cycle, enabling organisms to optimally time biochemical processes relative to dawn and dusk. In recent years, computational models based on differential equations have become useful tools for dissecting and quantifying the complex regulatory relationships underlying the clock's oscillatory dynamics. However, optimizing the large parameter sets characteristic of these models places intense demands on both computational and experimental resources, limiting the scope of in silico studies. Here, we develop an approach based on Boolean logic that dramatically reduces the parametrization, making the state and parameter spaces finite and tractable. We introduce efficient methods for fitting Boolean models to molecular data, successfully demonstrating their application to synthetic time courses generated by a number of established clock models, as well as experimental expression levels measured using luciferase imaging. Our results indicate that despite their relative simplicity, logic models can (i) simulate circadian oscillations with the correct, experimentally observed phase relationships among genes and (ii) flexibly entrain to light stimuli, reproducing the complex responses to variations in daylength generated by more detailed differential equation formulations. Our work also demonstrates that logic models have sufficient predictive power to identify optimal regulatory structures from experimental data. By presenting the first Boolean models of circadian circuits together with general techniques for their optimization, we hope to establish a new framework for the systematic modelling of more complex clocks, as well as other circuits with different qualitative dynamics. In particular, we anticipate

  2. Assessing the state of substitution models describing noncoding RNA evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E; Whelan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is widely used to investigate the relationships between homologous sequences. RNA molecules have played a key role in these studies because they are present throughout life and tend to evolve slowly. Phylogenetic inference has been shown to be dependent on the substitution model used. A wide range of models have been developed to describe RNA evolution, either with 16 states describing all possible canonical base pairs or with 7 states where the 10 mismatched nucleotides are reduced to a single state. Formal model selection has become a standard practice for choosing an inferential model and works well for comparing models of a specific type, such as comparisons within nucleotide models or within amino acid models. Model selection cannot function across different sized state spaces because the likelihoods are conditioned on different data. Here, we introduce statistical state-space projection methods that allow the direct comparison of likelihoods between nucleotide models and 7-state and 16-state RNA models. To demonstrate the general applicability of our new methods, we extract 287 RNA families from genomic alignments and perform model selection. We find that in 281/287 families, RNA models are selected in preference to nucleotide models, with simple 7-state RNA models selected for more conserved families with shorter stems and more complex 16-state RNA models selected for more divergent families with longer stems. Other factors, such as the function of the RNA molecule or the GC-content, have limited impact on model selection. Our models and model selection methods are freely available in the open-source PHASE 3.0 software.

  3. New models for describing outliers in meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rose; Jackson, Dan

    2016-09-01

    An unobserved random effect is often used to describe the between-study variation that is apparent in meta-analysis datasets. A normally distributed random effect is conventionally used for this purpose. When outliers or other unusual estimates are included in the analysis, the use of alternative random effect distributions has previously been proposed. Instead of adopting the usual hierarchical approach to modelling between-study variation, and so directly modelling the study specific true underling effects, we propose two new marginal distributions for modelling heterogeneous datasets. These two distributions are suggested because numerical integration is not needed to evaluate the likelihood. This makes the computation required when fitting our models much more robust. The properties of the new distributions are described, and the methodology is exemplified by fitting models to four datasets. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Statistical models describing the energy signature of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Thavlov, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one third of the primary energy production in Denmark is used for heating in buildings. Therefore efforts to accurately describe and improve energy performance of the building mass are very important. For this purpose statistical models describing the energy signature of a building, i.......e. the heat dynamics of the building, have been developed. The models can be used to obtain rather detailed knowledge of the energy performance of the building and to optimize the control of the energy consumption for heating, which will be vital in conditions with increasing fluctuation of the energy supply...... or varying energy prices. The paper will give an overview of statistical methods and applied models based on experiments carried out in FlexHouse, which is an experimental building in SYSLAB, Risø DTU. The models are of different complexity and can provide estimates of physical quantities such as UA...

  5. Double sigmoidal models describing the growth of coffee berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Jesus Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to verify if the growth pattern of coffee berries, considering fresh mass accumulation over time, is double sigmoid and to select the most suitable nonlinear model to describe such behavior. Data used consisted of fourteen longitudinal observations of average fresh mass of coffee berries obtained in an experiment with the cultivar Obatã IAC 1669-20. The fits provided by the Logistic and Gompertz models were compared in their single and double versions. Parameters were estimated using the least squares method using the Gauss-Newton algorithm implemented in the nls function of the R software. It can be concluded that the growth pattern of the coffee fruit, in fresh mass accumulation, is double sigmoid. The double Gompertz and double Logistic models were adequate to describe such a growth curve, with a superiority of the double Logistic model.

  6. A more robust Boolean model describing inhibitor binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoqian Steven XIE; Chao TANG

    2008-01-01

    From the first application of the Boolean model to the cell cycle regulation network of budding yeast, new regulative pathways have been discovered, par-ticularly in the G1/S transition circuit. This discovery called for finer modeling to study the essential biology, and the resulting outcomes are first introduced in the ar-ticle. A traditional Boolean network model set up for the new G1/S transition circuit shows that it cannot correctly simulate real biology unless the model parameters are fine tuned. The deficiency is caused by an overly coarse-grained description of the inhibitor binding process, which shall be overcome by a two-vector model proposed whose robustness is surveyed using random perturba-tions. Simulations show that the proposed two-vector model is much more robust in describing inhibitor binding processes within the Boolean framework.

  7. Galactic Rotation Described with Bulge+Disk Gravitational Models

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, C F

    2008-01-01

    Observations reveal that mature spiral galaxies consist of stars, gases and plasma approximately distributed in a thin disk of circular shape, usually with a central bulge. The rotation velocities quickly increase from the galactic center and then achieve a constant velocity from the core to the periphery. The basic dynamic behavior of a mature spiral galaxy, such as the Milky Way, is well described by simple models balancing Newtonian gravitational forces against the centrifugal forces associated with a rotating thin axisymmetric disk. In this research, we investigate the effects of adding central bulges to thin disk gravitational models. Even with the addition of substantial central bulges, all the critical essential features of our thin disk gravitational models are preserved. (1) Balancing Newtonian gravitational and centrifugal forces at every point within the disk yields computed radial mass distributions that describe the measured rotation velocity profiles of mature spiral galaxies successfully. (2) T...

  8. Expected IPS variations due to a disturbance described by a 3-D MHD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, S. J.; Dryer, M.; Han, S. M.; Wu, S. T.

    1988-01-01

    The variations of interplanetary scintillation due to a disturbance described by a three-dimensional, time-dependent, MHD model of the interplanetary medium are calculated. The resulting simulated IPS maps are compared with observations of real disturbances and it is found that there is some qualitative agreement. It is concluded that the MHD model with a more realistic choice of input conditions would probably provide a useful description of many interplanetary disturbances.

  9. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  10. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  11. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina

    2015-01-01

    —they are identifiable in the limit.We then move on to a particular learning method, which proceeds via restriction of a space of events within a learning-specific action model. This way of learning closely resembles the well-known update method from dynamic epistemic logic. We introduce several different learning......In dynamic epistemic logic, actions are described using action models. In this paper we introduce a framework for studying learnability of action models from observations. We present first results concerning propositional action models. First we check two basic learnability criteria: finite...... identifiability (conclusively inferring the appropriate action model in finite time) and identifiability in the limit (inconclusive convergence to the right action model). We show that deterministic actions are finitely identifiable, while non-deterministic actions require more learning power...

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Somitogenesis Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maschke-Dutz E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although recently the properties of a single somite cell oscillator have been intensively investigated, the system-level nature of the segmentation clock remains largely unknown. To elaborate qualitatively this question, we examine the possibility to transform a well-known time delay somite cell oscillator to dynamical system of differential equations allowing qualitative analysis.

  13. Knowledge epidemics and population dynamics models for describing idea diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of ideas is often closely connected to the creation and diffusion of knowledge and to the technological evolution of society. Because of this, knowledge creation, exchange and its subsequent transformation into innovations for improved welfare and economic growth is briefly described from a historical point of view. Next, three approaches are discussed for modeling the diffusion of ideas in the areas of science and technology, through (i) deterministic, (ii) stochastic, and (iii) statistical approaches. These are illustrated through their corresponding population dynamics and epidemic models relative to the spreading of ideas, knowledge and innovations. The deterministic dynamical models are considered to be appropriate for analyzing the evolution of large and small societal, scientific and technological systems when the influence of fluctuations is insignificant. Stochastic models are appropriate when the system of interest is small but when the fluctuations become significant for its evolution...

  14. Extended nonlinear feedback model for describing episodes of high inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Szybisz, M A; Szybisz, L.

    2016-01-01

    An extension of the nonlinear feedback (NLF) formalism to describe regimes of hyper- and high-inflation in economy is proposed in the present work. In the NLF model the consumer price index (CPI) exhibits a finite time singularity of the type $1/(t_c -t)^{(1- \\beta)/\\beta}$, with $\\beta>0$, predicting a blow up of the economy at a critical time $t_c$. However, this model fails in determining $t_c$ in the case of weak hyperinflation regimes like, e.g., that occurred in Israel. To overcome this...

  15. Extended nonlinear feedback model for describing episodes of high inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    An extension of the nonlinear feedback (NLF) formalism to describe regimes of hyper- and high-inflation in economy is proposed in the present work. In the NLF model the consumer price index (CPI) exhibits a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β, with β > 0, predicting a blow up of the economy at a critical time tc. However, this model fails in determining tc in the case of weak hyperinflation regimes like, e.g., that occurred in Israel. To overcome this trouble, the NLF model is extended by introducing a parameter γ, which multiplies all terms with past growth rate index (GRI). In this novel approach the solution for CPI is also analytic being proportional to the Gaussian hypergeometric function 2F1(1 / β , 1 / β , 1 + 1 / β ; z) , where z is a function of β, γ, and tc. For z → 1 this hypergeometric function diverges leading to a finite time singularity, from which a value of tc can be determined. This singularity is also present in GRI. It is shown that the interplay between parameters β and γ may produce phenomena of multiple equilibria. An analysis of the severe hyperinflation occurred in Hungary proves that the novel model is robust. When this model is used for examining data of Israel a reasonable tc is got. High-inflation regimes in Mexico and Iceland, which exhibit weaker inflations than that of Israel, are also successfully described.

  16. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmat S. Al-Salim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced mathematical model was used to capture the batch reactor characteristics of reacting compounds. The model was applied to batch reactor for the production of bio-diesel from palm and kapok oils. Results of the model were compared with experimental data in terms of conversion of transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel under unsteady state. A good agreement was obtained between our model predictions and the experimental data. Both experimental and modeling results showed that the conversion of triglycerides to methyl ester was affected by the process conditions. The transesterification process with temperature of about 70 oC, and methanol ratio to the triglyceride of about 5 times its stoichiometry, and the NAOH catalyst of wt 0.4%, appear to be acceptable process conditions for bio diesel process production from palm oil and kapok oil. The model can be applied for endothermic batch process. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 12 August 2009, Revised: 15 October 2009; Accepted: 18 October 2009][How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem, H. S. Al-Salim. (2009. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 37-42. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.2.28.37-42][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.2.28.37-42

  17. Describing pulsar wind nebulae with a simple leptonic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Joachim; Hoppe, Stefan; Domainko, Wilfried; Hofmann, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Egberts, Kathrin [Institut fuer Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, Cherenkov telescopes like e.g. H.E.S.S. have identified a large number of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources as Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The VHE-gamma-ray emission shows a rich diversity of spectral and spatial morphologies. Theoretical models can help to understand and interprete the observed source properties. A simple semi-analytical leptonic model describing VHE gamma-ray emission from PWNe is presented. It assumes diffusion with radiative cooling as the transport mechanism for electrons and their interaction with radiative and interstellar magnetic fields as the origin of electromagnetic radiation. In the framework of this model, spectral and spatial properties of the expected VHE gamma-ray emission from single PWNe may be estimated.

  18. Probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of migrating microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna L Schroeder

    Full Text Available In all but the most sterile environments bacteria will reside in fluid being transported through conduits and some of these will attach and grow as biofilms on the conduit walls. The concentration and diversity of bacteria in the fluid at the point of delivery will be a mix of those when it entered the conduit and those that have become entrained into the flow due to seeding from biofilms. Examples include fluids through conduits such as drinking water pipe networks, endotracheal tubes, catheters and ventilation systems. Here we present two probabilistic models to describe changes in the composition of bulk fluid microbial communities as they are transported through a conduit whilst exposed to biofilm communities. The first (discrete model simulates absolute numbers of individual cells, whereas the other (continuous model simulates the relative abundance of taxa in the bulk fluid. The discrete model is founded on a birth-death process whereby the community changes one individual at a time and the numbers of cells in the system can vary. The continuous model is a stochastic differential equation derived from the discrete model and can also accommodate changes in the carrying capacity of the bulk fluid. These models provide a novel Lagrangian framework to investigate and predict the dynamics of migrating microbial communities. In this paper we compare the two models, discuss their merits, possible applications and present simulation results in the context of drinking water distribution systems. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of stochastic dynamics on the composition of non-stationary microbial communities that are exposed to biofilms and provides a new avenue for modelling microbial dynamics in systems where fluids are being transported.

  19. Analysis of a mathematical model describing necrotic tumor growth

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a model describing the growth of necrotic tumors in different regimes of vascularisation. The tumor consists of a necrotic core of death cells and a surrounding nonnecrotic shell. The corresponding mathematical formulation is a moving boundary problem where both boundaries delimiting the nonnecrotic shell are allowed to evolve in time.We determine all radially symmetric stationary solutions of the problem and reduce the moving boundary problem into a nonlinear evolution. Parabolic theory provides us the perfect context in order to show local well-posed of the problem for small initial data.

  20. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  1. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmmed S. Ibrehem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced mathematical model was used to capture the batch reactor characteristics of reacting compounds. The model was applied to batch reactor for the production of bio-diesel from palm and kapok oils. Results of the model were compared with experimental data in terms of conversion of transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel under unsteady state. A good agreement was obtained between our model predictions and the experimental data. Both experimental and modeling results showed that the conversion of triglycerides to methyl ester was affected by the process conditions. The transesterification process with temperature of about 70 oC, and methanol ratio to the triglyceride of about 5 times its stoichiometry, and the NAOH catalyst of wt 0.4%, appear to be acceptable process conditions for bio diesel process production from palm oil and kapok oil. The model can be applied for endothermic batch process. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 12 August 2009, Revised: 15 October 2009; Accepted: 18 October 2009][How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem, H. S. Al-Salim. (2009. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 37-42.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.2.7109.37-42][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.2.7109.37-42 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7109 ] 

  2. Models for describing the thermal characteristics of building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    on the purpose of the modelling, existence of prior physical knowledge, the data and the available statistical tools. In this paper, a variety of models are outlined and compared, and a strong relationship among a large number of widely used linear and stationary stochastic models is mathematically demonstrated...

  3. A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Yde, Lars

    2014-01-01

    distribution in SSTs can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Despite extensive studies on the compression settling behaviour of activated sludge and the development of advanced settling velocity models for use in SST simulations, these models are not often used, due to the challenges...... associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM......(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full...

  4. Can sigma models describe finite temperature chiral transitions?

    CERN Document Server

    Kocic, Aleksandar; Aleksandar KOCIC; John KOGUT

    1995-01-01

    Large-N expansions and computer simulations indicate that the universality class of the finite temperature chiral symmetry restoration transition in the 3D Gross-Neveu model is mean field theory. This is a counterexample to the standard 'sigma model' scenario which predicts the 2D Ising model universality class. We trace the breakdown of the standard scenario (dimensional reduction and universality) to the absence of canonical scalar fields in the model. We point out that our results could be generic for theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, such as Quantum Chromodynamics.

  5. A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya S; Yde, Lars; Binning, Philip J; Rasmussen, Michael R; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2014-12-01

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids distribution in SSTs can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Despite extensive studies on the compression settling behaviour of activated sludge and the development of advanced settling velocity models for use in SST simulations, these models are not often used, due to the challenges associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full-scale measurements. Finally, it was shown that the representation of compression settling in the CFD model can significantly influence the prediction of sludge distribution in the SSTs under dry- and wet-weather flow conditions.

  6. Earthquake model describes traffic jams caused by imperfect driving styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Néda, Zoltán

    2012-11-01

    The wide modeling potential of the classical spring-block type system is illustrated by an interdisciplinary application. A simple one-dimensional spring-block chain with asymmetric spring forces is used to model idealized single-lane highway traffic and the emergence of phantom traffic jams. Based on the stop-time statistics of one car in the row, a proper order parameter is defined. By extensive computer simulations the parameter space of the model is explored, analyzed and interpreted. Existence of free and congested flow phases is confirmed and the transition between them is analyzed.

  7. Kinetic modeling can describe in vivo glycolysis in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Emma; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Encalada, Rusely; Olivos, Alfonso; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2007-09-01

    Glycolysis in the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica is characterized by the absence of cooperative modulation and the prevalence of pyrophosphate-dependent (over ATP-dependent) enzymes. To determine the flux-control distribution of glycolysis and understand its underlying control mechanisms, a kinetic model of the pathway was constructed by using the software gepasi. The model was based on the kinetic parameters determined in the purified recombinant enzymes, and the enzyme activities, and steady-state fluxes and metabolite concentrations determined in amoebal trophozoites. The model predicted, with a high degree of accuracy, the flux and metabolite concentrations found in trophozoites, but only when the pyrophosphate concentration was held constant; at variable pyrophosphate, the model was not able to completely account for the ATP production/consumption balance, indicating the importance of the pyrophosphate homeostasis for amoebal glycolysis. Control analysis by the model revealed that hexokinase exerted the highest flux control (73%), as a result of its low cellular activity and strong AMP inhibition. 3-Phosphoglycerate mutase also exhibited significant flux control (65%) whereas the other pathway enzymes showed little or no control. The control of the ATP concentration was also mainly exerted by ATP consuming processes and 3-phosphoglycerate mutase and hexokinase (in the producing block). The model also indicated that, in order to diminish the amoebal glycolytic flux by 50%, it was required to decrease hexokinase or 3-phosphoglycerate mutase by 24% and 55%, respectively, or by 18% for both enzymes. By contrast, to attain the same reduction in flux by inhibiting the pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes pyrophosphate-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase, they should be decreased > 70%. On the basis of metabolic control analysis, steps whose inhibition would have stronger negative effects on the energy metabolism of this parasite were identified

  8. A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Yde, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids distribut......Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids...... associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM......(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full...

  9. New model describes toppling of salt marsh banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-05-01

    Salt marshes are coastal habitats that store important nutrients and serve as shelter for many estuarial species. These habitats are threatened by rising seas and human expansion, so it has become increasingly important to improve models of how these habitats degrade.

  10. Simple Model for Describing and Estimating Wind Turbine Dynamic Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines operate with sudden change in pitch angle, rotor or wind speed. In such cases the wake behind the turbine, achieve steady state conditions only after a certain delay. This phenomenon is commonly called dynamic inflow. There are many models for dynamic inflow. The most accurate use a...

  11. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina

    2015-01-01

    identifiability (conclusively inferring the appropriate action model in finite time) and identifiability in the limit (inconclusive convergence to the right action model). We show that deterministic actions are finitely identifiable, while non-deterministic actions require more learning power......—they are identifiable in the limit.We then move on to a particular learning method, which proceeds via restriction of a space of events within a learning-specific action model. This way of learning closely resembles the well-known update method from dynamic epistemic logic. We introduce several different learning...

  12. Qualitative models of global warming amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milošević, U.; Bredeweg, B.; de Kleer, J.; Forbus, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest from ecological experts to create qualitative models of phenomena for which numerical information is sparse or missing. We present a number of successful models in the field of environmental science, namely, the domain of global warming. The motivation behind the effort is

  13. Qualitative models of global warming amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milošević, U.; Bredeweg, B.; de Kleer, J.; Forbus, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest from ecological experts to create qualitative models of phenomena for which numerical information is sparse or missing. We present a number of successful models in the field of environmental science, namely, the domain of global warming. The motivation behind the effort is

  14. Collective Philanthropy: Describing and Modeling the Ecology of Giving

    CERN Document Server

    Gottesman, William L; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2013-01-01

    Reflective of income and wealth distributions, philanthropic gifting appears to follow an approximate power-law size distribution as measured by the size of gifts received by individual institutions. We explore the ecology of gifting by analysing data sets of individual gifts for a diverse group of institutions dedicated to education, medicine, art, public support, and religion. We find that the detailed forms of gift-size distributions differ across but are relatively constant within charity categories. We construct a model for how a donor's income affects their giving preferences in different charity categories, offering a mechanistic explanation for variations in institutional gift-size distributions. We discuss how knowledge of gift-sized distributions may be used to assess an institution's gift-giving profile, to help set fundraising goals, and to design an institution-specific giving pyramid.

  15. A flowing plasma model to describe drift waves in a cylindrical helicon discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, L; Cormac, C S

    2011-01-01

    A two-fluid model developed originally to describe wave oscillations in the vacuum arc centrifuge, a cylindrical, rapidly rotating, low temperature and confined plasma column, is applied to interpret plasma oscillations in a RF generated linear magnetised plasma (WOMBAT), with similar density and field strength. Compared to typical centrifuge plasmas, WOMBAT plasmas have slower normalised rotation frequency, lower temperature and lower axial velocity. Despite these differences, the two-fluid model provides a consistent description of the WOMBAT plasma configuration and yields qualitative agreement between measured and predicted wave oscillation frequencies with axial field strength. In addition, the radial profile of the density perturbation predicted by this model is consistent with the data. Parameter scans show that the dispersion curve is sensitive to the axial field strength and the electron temperature, and the dependence of oscillation frequency with electron temperature matches the experiment. These r...

  16. A Qualitative Acceleration Model Based on Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester MARTINEZ-MARTIN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the way to autonomous service robots, spatial reasoning plays a main role since it properly deals with problems involving uncertainty. In particular, we are interested in knowing people's pose to avoid collisions. With that aim, in this paper, we present a qualitative acceleration model for robotic applications including representation, reasoning and a practical application.

  17. A Network Model to Describe the Terminal Differentiation of B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Akram; Mendoza, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Terminal differentiation of B cells is an essential process for the humoral immune response in vertebrates and is achieved by the concerted action of several transcription factors in response to antigen recognition and extracellular signals provided by T-helper cells. While there is a wealth of experimental data regarding the molecular and cellular signals involved in this process, there is no general consensus regarding the structure and dynamical properties of the underlying regulatory network controlling this process. We developed a dynamical model of the regulatory network controlling terminal differentiation of B cells. The structure of the network was inferred from experimental data available in the literature, and its dynamical behavior was analyzed by modeling the network both as a discrete and a continuous dynamical systems. The steady states of these models are consistent with the patterns of activation reported for the Naive, GC, Mem, and PC cell types. Moreover, the models are able to describe the patterns of differentiation from the precursor Naive to any of the GC, Mem, or PC cell types in response to a specific set of extracellular signals. We simulated all possible single loss- and gain-of-function mutants, corroborating the importance of Pax5, Bcl6, Bach2, Irf4, and Blimp1 as key regulators of B cell differentiation process. The model is able to represent the directional nature of terminal B cell differentiation and qualitatively describes key differentiation events from a precursor cell to terminally differentiated B cells. PMID:26751566

  18. Automated Qualitative Modeling of Dynamic Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    paths of states that match a qualitative history. DATMI differs from QSIM- CHECK in that it first constructs an envisionment of the model, a graph...containing all possible model states where an arc connects two states if one could be a successor of the other. Once it has constructed the envisionment ...DATMI is fairly efficient in finding paths through it that correspond to interpretations of the measurements. However, the number of envisionment

  19. Qualitative-Modeling-Based Silicon Neurons and Their Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Takashi; Sekikawa, Munehisa; Li, Jing; Nanami, Takuya; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The ionic conductance models of neuronal cells can finely reproduce a wide variety of complex neuronal activities. However, the complexity of these models has prompted the development of qualitative neuron models. They are described by differential equations with a reduced number of variables and their low-dimensional polynomials, which retain the core mathematical structures. Such simple models form the foundation of a bottom-up approach in computational and theoretical neuroscience. We proposed a qualitative-modeling-based approach for designing silicon neuron circuits, in which the mathematical structures in the polynomial-based qualitative models are reproduced by differential equations with silicon-native expressions. This approach can realize low-power-consuming circuits that can be configured to realize various classes of neuronal cells. In this article, our qualitative-modeling-based silicon neuron circuits for analog and digital implementations are quickly reviewed. One of our CMOS analog silicon neuron circuits can realize a variety of neuronal activities with a power consumption less than 72 nW. The square-wave bursting mode of this circuit is explained. Another circuit can realize Class I and II neuronal activities with about 3 nW. Our digital silicon neuron circuit can also realize these classes. An auto-associative memory realized on an all-to-all connected network of these silicon neurons is also reviewed, in which the neuron class plays important roles in its performance. PMID:27378842

  20. Building Qualitative Models of Thermodynamic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    two containers 61 53 Envisionment for simple flow with thermal properties 62 54 Envisionment for simple flow without thermal properties 63 55 A...pump and a path connecting two containers 64 56 Scenario input for a pump and a return path between two containers . . 64 57 Envisionment for the...Specifically, the domain model is written in the language of QPE[8], an envisioner for Qualitative Process theory . We assume a reading knowledge of QP theory

  1. An analytical model to describe the compression in turbomolecular pumps and roots blowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, G [Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum Bonner Str. 498, D - 50968 Cologne (Germany)], E-mail: gerhard.voss@oerlikon.com

    2008-05-01

    An analytical model is presented, useful in practice, for calculating and analysing the compression curves of classical turbomolecular pumps, wide range turbomolecular pumps and Roots blowers. It is demonstrated that the model, primarily proposed for classical turbomolecular pumps, can be applied to wide range turbomolecular pumps and Roots blowers as well. The model is based on an ordinary differential equation for the pressure as a function of position inside the pump. Solving the differential equation makes it possible both to calculate the compression curves for a finite gas throughput (Q > 0) and for zero gas throughput. A hypothesis is posed holding that the compression curve for zero gas throughput can be derived from a compression curve for a finite gas throughput, e.g., Q = 1 sccm in the case of turbomolecular pumps. In the case of Roots blowers a proposal is made how to describe the backleakage phenomenon quantitatively. For each type of vacuum pump mentioned above the comparison with experimental data shows that the model provides an excellent qualitative and quantitative reproduction of the observed phenomena in the whole relevant pressure range, i.e., perfect agreement over more than five pressure decades is achieved.

  2. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BOBWHITE QUAIL POPULATION MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先义; 朱德明

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the qualitative behavior of solutions of the bobwhite quail pop-ulation modelwhere 0 < a < 1 < a + b,p,c ∈ (0, ∞) and k is a nonnegative integer, is investigated.Some necessary and suficient as well as sufficient conditions for all solutions of the modelto oscillate and some sufficient conditions for all positive solutions of the model to benonoscillatory and the convergence of nonoscillatory solutions are derived. Furthermore,the permanence of every positive solution of the model is also showed. Many known resultsare improved and extended and some new results are obtained for G. Ladas' open problems.

  3. Quantitative versus qualitative modeling: a complementary approach in ecosystem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondavalli, C; Favilla, S; Bodini, A

    2009-02-01

    Natural disturbance or human perturbation act upon ecosystems by changing some dynamical parameters of one or more species. Foreseeing these modifications is necessary before embarking on an intervention: predictions may help to assess management options and define hypothesis for interventions. Models become valuable tools for studying and making predictions only when they capture types of interactions and their magnitude. Quantitative models are more precise and specific about a system, but require a large effort in model construction. Because of this very often ecological systems remain only partially specified and one possible approach to their description and analysis comes from qualitative modelling. Qualitative models yield predictions as directions of change in species abundance but in complex systems these predictions are often ambiguous, being the result of opposite actions exerted on the same species by way of multiple pathways of interactions. Again, to avoid such ambiguities one needs to know the intensity of all links in the system. One way to make link magnitude explicit in a way that can be used in qualitative analysis is described in this paper and takes advantage of another type of ecosystem representation: ecological flow networks. These flow diagrams contain the structure, the relative position and the connections between the components of a system, and the quantity of matter flowing along every connection. In this paper it is shown how these ecological flow networks can be used to produce a quantitative model similar to the qualitative counterpart. Analyzed through the apparatus of loop analysis this quantitative model yields predictions that are by no means ambiguous, solving in an elegant way the basic problem of qualitative analysis. The approach adopted in this work is still preliminary and we must be careful in its application.

  4. Application of a mathematical model to describe the effects of chlorpyrifos on Caenorhabditis elegans development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy A Boyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is being assessed as an alternative model organism as part of an interagency effort to develop better means to test potentially toxic substances. As part of this effort, assays that use the COPAS Biosort flow sorting technology to record optical measurements (time of flight (TOF and extinction (EXT of individual nematodes under various chemical exposure conditions are being developed. A mathematical model has been created that uses Biosort data to quantitatively and qualitatively describe C. elegans growth, and link changes in growth rates to biological events. Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide known to cause developmental delays and malformations in mammals, was used as a model toxicant to test the applicability of the growth model for in vivo toxicological testing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: L1 larval nematodes were exposed to a range of sub-lethal chlorpyrifos concentrations (0-75 microM and measured every 12 h. In the absence of toxicant, C. elegans matured from L1s to gravid adults by 60 h. A mathematical model was used to estimate nematode size distributions at various times. Mathematical modeling of the distributions allowed the number of measured nematodes and log(EXT and log(TOF growth rates to be estimated. The model revealed three distinct growth phases. The points at which estimated growth rates changed (change points were constant across the ten chlorpyrifos concentrations. Concentration response curves with respect to several model-estimated quantities (numbers of measured nematodes, mean log(TOF and log(EXT, growth rates, and time to reach change points showed a significant decrease in C. elegans growth with increasing chlorpyrifos concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Effects of chlorpyrifos on C. elegans growth and development were mathematically modeled. Statistical tests confirmed a significant concentration effect on several model endpoints. This confirmed that chlorpyrifos

  5. Describing interruptions, multi-tasking and task-switching in community pharmacy: a qualitative study in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Victoria M; Corlett, Sarah A; Rodgers, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence around interruptions, multi-tasking and task-switching in the community pharmacy setting. There is also evidence to suggest some of these practices may be associated with dispensing errors. Up to date, qualitative research on this subject is limited. To explore interruptions, multi-tasking and task-switching in the community setting; utilising an ethnographic approach to provide a detailed description of the circumstances surrounding such practices.Setting Community pharmacies in England, July-October 2011. An ethnographic approach was taken. Non participant, unstructured observations were utilised to make records of pharmacists' every activity. Case studies were formed by combining field notes with detailed information on pharmacists and their respective pharmacy businesses. Content analysis was undertaken both manually and electronically, using NVivo 10. Main outcome measure To determine the factors influencing interruptions, multitasking and task-switching in the community pharmacy setting. Response rate was 12 % (n = 11). Over fifteen days, a total of 123 h and 58 min of observations were recorded in 11 separate pharmacies of 11 individual pharmacists. The sample was evenly split by gender (female n = 6; male n = 5) and pharmacy ownership (independent n = 5; multiple n = 6). Employment statuses included employee pharmacists (n = 6), owners (n = 4) and a locum (n = 1). Average period of registration as a pharmacist was 19 years (range 5-39 years). Average prescription busyness of pharmacies ranged from 2600 to 24,000 items dispensed per month. All observed pharmacists' work was dominated by interruptions, task-switches, distractions and multi-tasking, often to manage a barrage of conflicting demands. These practices were observed to be part of a deep-rooted culture in the community setting. In particular, support staff regularly contributed to interruptions and distractions for pharmacists; pharmacists in turn continued to permit these

  6. Recruiting Transcultural Qualitative Research Participants: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Eide

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Working with diverse populations poses many challenges to the qualitative researcher who is a member of the dominant culture. Traditional methods of recruitment and selection (such as flyers and advertisements are often unproductive, leading to missed contributions from potential participants who were not recruited and researcher frustration. In this article, the authors explore recruitment issues related to the concept of personal knowing based on experiences with Aboriginal Hawai'ian and Micronesian populations, wherein knowing and being known are crucial to successful recruitment of participants. They present a conceptual model that incorporates key concepts of knowing the other, cultural context, and trust to guide other qualitative transcultural researchers. They also describe challenges, implications, and concrete suggestions for recruitment of participants.

  7. How Qualitative Methods Can be Used to Inform Model Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Samantha; Jowett, Susan; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Decision-analytic models play a key role in informing healthcare resource allocation decisions. However, there are ongoing concerns with the credibility of models. Modelling methods guidance can encourage good practice within model development, but its value is dependent on its ability to address the areas that modellers find most challenging. Further, it is important that modelling methods and related guidance are continually updated in light of any new approaches that could potentially enhance model credibility. The objective of this article was to highlight the ways in which qualitative methods have been used and recommended to inform decision-analytic model development and enhance modelling practices. With reference to the literature, the article discusses two key ways in which qualitative methods can be, and have been, applied. The first approach involves using qualitative methods to understand and inform general and future processes of model development, and the second, using qualitative techniques to directly inform the development of individual models. The literature suggests that qualitative methods can improve the validity and credibility of modelling processes by providing a means to understand existing modelling approaches that identifies where problems are occurring and further guidance is needed. It can also be applied within model development to facilitate the input of experts to structural development. We recommend that current and future model development would benefit from the greater integration of qualitative methods, specifically by studying 'real' modelling processes, and by developing recommendations around how qualitative methods can be adopted within everyday modelling practice.

  8. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF ANTIFERROMAGNETIC STRUCTURES DESCRIBED BY THE THREE-VERTEX ANTIFERROMAGNETIC POTTS MODEL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yarash K. Abuev; Albert B. Babaev; Pharkhat E. Esetov

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A computer simulation of the antiferromagnetic structures described by the three-vertex Potts model on a triangular lattice is performed, taking into account the antiferromagnetic exchange...

  9. The water supercooled regime as described by four common water models

    CERN Document Server

    Malaspina, David C; Pereyra, Rodolfo G; Szleifer, Igal; Carignano, Marcelo A

    2013-01-01

    The temperature scale of simple water models in general does not coincide with the natural one. Therefore, in order to make a meaningful evaluation of different water models a temperature rescaling is necessary. In this paper we introduce a rescaling using the melting temperature and the temperature corresponding to the maximum of the heat capacity to evaluate four common water models (TIP4P-Ew, TIP4P-2005, TIP5P-Ew and Six-Sites) in the supercooled regime. Although all the models show the same general qualitative behavior, the TIP5P-Ew appears as the best representation of the supercooled regime when the rescaled temperature is used. We also analyze, using thermodynamic arguments, the critical nucleus size for ice growth. Finally, we speculate on the possible reasons why atomistic models do not usually crystalize while the coarse grained mW model do crystallize.

  10. Review of reactive kinetic models describing reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes in soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    2013-01-01

    Reductive dechlorination is a major degradation pathway of chlorinated ethenes in anaerobic subsurface environments, and reactive kinetic models describing the degradation process are needed in fate and transport models of these contaminants. However, reductive dechlorination is a complex biologi...

  11. Native metastability in chalcogenide glasses described within configuration-coordinate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, M [Institute of Materials of Scientific Research Company ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv (Ukraine); Vakiv, M [Institute of Materials of Scientific Research Company ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv (Ukraine)

    2007-08-15

    It was created configuration-coordinate model for describing of native metastability in chalcogenide glasses. It was shown that potential should be at least triple-well. System of differential equations for describing transitions between the atomic states was made and solved within present configuration-coordinate model.

  12. Butler–Volmer–Monod model for describing bio-anode polarization curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.; Heijne, ter A.; Stein, N.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic model of the bio-anode was developed based on a simple representation of the underlying biochemical conversions as described by enzyme kinetics, and electron transfer reactions as described by the Butler–Volmer electron transfer kinetics. This Butler–Volmer–Monod model was well able to des

  13. Qualitative vs. quantitative software process simulation modelling: conversion and comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, He; Kitchenham, Barbara; Jeffery, Ross

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed Software Process Simulation Modeling (SPSM) research has increased in the past two decades. However, most of these models are quantitative, which require detailed understanding and accurate measurement. As the continuous work to our previous studies in qualitative modeling of software process, this paper aims to investigate the structure equivalence and model conversion between quantitative and qualitative process modeling, and to compare the characteristics and performance o...

  14. “I feel so stupid because I can’t give a proper answer…” How older adults describe chronic pain: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Amanda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 50% of older adults experience chronic pain. Poorly managed pain threatens independent functioning, limits social activities and detrimentally affects emotional wellbeing. Yet, chronic pain is not fully understood from older adults’ perspectives; subsequently, pain management in later life is not necessarily based on their priorities or needs. This paper reports a qualitative exploration of older adults’ accounts of living with chronic pain, focusing on how they describe pain, with a view to informing approaches to its assessment. Methods Cognitively intact men and women aged over sixty-five who lived in the community opted into the study through responding to advertisements in the media and via contacts with groups and organisations in North-East Scotland. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using a framework approach. Results Qualitative individual interviews and one group interview were undertaken with 23 older adults. Following analysis, the following main themes emerged: diversity in conceptualising pain using a simple numerical score; personalising the meaning of pain by way of stories, similes and metaphors; and, contextualising pain in relation to its impact on activities. Conclusions The importance of attending to individuals’ stories as a meaningful way of describing pain for older adults is highlighted, suggesting that a narrative approach, as recommended and researched in other areas of medicine, may usefully be applied in pain assessment for older adults. Along with the judicious use of numerical tools, this requires innovative methods to elicit verbal accounts, such as using similes and metaphors to help older adults describe and discuss their experience, and contextualising the effects of pain on activities that are important to them.

  15. A methodology for acquiring qualitative knowledge for probabilistic graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model developm......We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model...

  16. Endorsement of Models Describing Sexual Response of Men and Women with a Sexual Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Sand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Several models have been used to describe men's and women's sexual responses. These models have been conceptualized as linear or circular models. The circular models were proposed to describe women's sexual function best. AIM: This study aims to determine whether men and women thought...... that current theoretical models of sexual responses accurately reflected their own sexual experience and to what extent this was influenced by sexual dysfunction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a large, broadly sampled, nonclinical population, cohort of Danish men and women. The Female Sexual Function...... Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, and the International Index of Erectile Function were used to describe sexual function. Also, participants completed questionnaires with written descriptions of different sexual responses to describe their most experienced sexual response. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE...

  17. Mathematical and Statistical Models and Methods for Describing the Thermal Characteristics of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Bacher, Peder; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    2010-01-01

    , existence of prior physical knowledge, the data and the available statistical soft- ware tools. The importance of statistical model validation is discussed, and some simple tools for that purpose are demonstrated. This paper also briefly describes some of the most frequently used software tools for modelling......This paper describes a number of statistical methods and models for describing the thermal characteristics of buildings using frequent readings of heat consumption, ambient air temperature, and other available climate variables. For some of the methods frequent readings of the indoor air...

  18. Living with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification 3: a qualitative study describing the lives and illness of people diagnosed with a rare neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tomiko; Muraoka, Koko; Yamada, Megumi; Nishio, Yuri; Hozumi, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare, intractable disease with unknown etiology. IBGC3 is a familial genetic disease defined by genetic mutations in the major causative gene (SLC20A2). People with IBGC3 experience distress from the uncommon nature of their illness and uncertainty about treatment and prognoses. The present study aimed to describe the lives and illness of people with IBGC3. Participants were recruited from patients aged 20 years or older enrolled in a genetic study, who were diagnosed with IBGC3 and wanted to share their experiences. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants. Interviews were conducted between December 2012 and February 2014, and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative data analysis was performed to identify categories and subcategories. Efforts were made to ensure the credibility, transferability, dependability, conformability, and validity of the data. Six thematic categories, 17 subcategories, and 143 codes emerged. The six categories were: (1) Frustration and anxiety with progression of symptoms without a diagnosis; (2) Confusion about diagnosis with an unfamiliar disease; (3) Emotional distress caused by a genetic disease; (4) Passive attitude toward life, being extra careful; (5) Taking charge of life, becoming active and engaged; and (6) Requests for healthcare. The qualitative data analysis indicated a need for genetic counseling, access to disease information, establishment of peer and family support systems, mental health services, and improvement in early intervention and treatment for the disease.

  19. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-09-04

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach.

  20. A Meta-model Describing the Development Process of Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingkvist, Anna; Ericsson, Morgan

    This paper presents a meta-model to describe the development process of mobile learning initiatives. These initiatives are often small scale trials that are not integrated in the intended setting, but carried out outside of the setting. This results in sustainability issues, i.e., problems to integrate the results of the initiative as learning aids. In order to address the sustainability issues, and in turn help to understand the scaling process, a meta-model is introduced. This meta-model divides the development into four areas of concern, and the life cycle of any mobile learning initiative into four stages. The meta-model was developed by analyzing and describing how a podcasting initiative was developed, and is currently being evaluated as a tool to both describe and evaluate mobile learning initiatives. The meta-model was developed based on a mobile learning initiative, but the meta-model itself is extendible to other forms of technology-enhanced learning.

  1. WELL-POSEDNESS OF THE MODEL DESCRIBING A REPAIRABLE, STANDBY, HUMAN & MACHINE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geni Gupur

    2003-01-01

    By using the strong continuous semigroup theory of linear operators we prove the existence of a unique positive time-dependent solution of the model describing a repairable, standby, human & machine system.

  2. Exact Eigenstates for a Class of Model Describing Interactions Among Five Bosonic Modes with Multiphoton Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGWen-Xing; LIJia-Hua; LIWei-Bin; LUOJin-Ming; XIEXiao-Tao; WEIHua

    2004-01-01

    We present an efficient approach to studying the spectra and eigenstates for the model describing interactions among five bosonic modes without using the assumption of the Bethe ansatz. The exact analytical results of all the eigenstates and eigenvalues are in terms of a parameter A for a class of models describing five-mode multiphoton process. The parameter is determined by the roots of a polynomial and is solvable analytically or numerically.

  3. Accuracy Assessment for Cad Modeling of Freeform Surface Described by Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golba Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of comparative analysis of modeling accuracy the freeform surface constructed by using a variety of algorithms for surface modeling. Also determined the accuracy of mapping the theoretical freeform surface described by mathematical equation. To model surface objects used: SolidWorks 2012, CATIA v5 and Geomagic Studio 12. During the design process of CAD models were used: profile curves, fitting parametric surface and polygonal mesh. To assess the accuracy of the CAD models used Geomagic Qualify 12. On the basis of analyse defined the scope of application of each modeling techniques depending on the nature of the constructed object.

  4. Using logic model methods in systematic review synthesis: describing complex pathways in referral management interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan K; Blank, Lindsay; Woods, Helen Buckley; Payne, Nick; Rimmer, Melanie; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2014-05-10

    There is increasing interest in innovative methods to carry out systematic reviews of complex interventions. Theory-based approaches, such as logic models, have been suggested as a means of providing additional insights beyond that obtained via conventional review methods. This paper reports the use of an innovative method which combines systematic review processes with logic model techniques to synthesise a broad range of literature. The potential value of the model produced was explored with stakeholders. The review identified 295 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The papers consisted of 141 intervention studies and 154 non-intervention quantitative and qualitative articles. A logic model was systematically built from these studies. The model outlines interventions, short term outcomes, moderating and mediating factors and long term demand management outcomes and impacts. Interventions were grouped into typologies of practitioner education, process change, system change, and patient intervention. Short-term outcomes identified that may result from these interventions were changed physician or patient knowledge, beliefs or attitudes and also interventions related to changed doctor-patient interaction. A range of factors which may influence whether these outcomes lead to long term change were detailed. Demand management outcomes and intended impacts included content of referral, rate of referral, and doctor or patient satisfaction. The logic model details evidence and assumptions underpinning the complex pathway from interventions to demand management impact. The method offers a useful addition to systematic review methodologies. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004037.

  5. Bottom-up coarse-grained models that accurately describe the structure, pressure, and compressibility of molecular liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Nicholas J. H.; Noid, W. G., E-mail: wnoid@chem.psu.edu [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    The present work investigates the capability of bottom-up coarse-graining (CG) methods for accurately modeling both structural and thermodynamic properties of all-atom (AA) models for molecular liquids. In particular, we consider 1, 2, and 3-site CG models for heptane, as well as 1 and 3-site CG models for toluene. For each model, we employ the multiscale coarse-graining method to determine interaction potentials that optimally approximate the configuration dependence of the many-body potential of mean force (PMF). We employ a previously developed “pressure-matching” variational principle to determine a volume-dependent contribution to the potential, U{sub V}(V), that approximates the volume-dependence of the PMF. We demonstrate that the resulting CG models describe AA density fluctuations with qualitative, but not quantitative, accuracy. Accordingly, we develop a self-consistent approach for further optimizing U{sub V}, such that the CG models accurately reproduce the equilibrium density, compressibility, and average pressure of the AA models, although the CG models still significantly underestimate the atomic pressure fluctuations. Additionally, by comparing this array of models that accurately describe the structure and thermodynamic pressure of heptane and toluene at a range of different resolutions, we investigate the impact of bottom-up coarse-graining upon thermodynamic properties. In particular, we demonstrate that U{sub V} accounts for the reduced cohesion in the CG models. Finally, we observe that bottom-up coarse-graining introduces subtle correlations between the resolution, the cohesive energy density, and the “simplicity” of the model.

  6. A model based on soil structural aspects describing the fate of genetically modified bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der N.; Elsas, van J.D.; Heijnen, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    A computer simulation model was developed which describes growth and competition of bacteria in the soil environment. In the model, soil was assumed to contain millions of pores of a few different size classes. An introduced bacterial strain, e.g. a genetically modified micro-organism (GEMMO), was a

  7. Dynamic behaviour of reactive distillation tray columns described with a non-equilibrium cell model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baur, R.; Taylor, R.; Krishna, R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we develop a generic, dynamic, nonequilibrium (NEQ) cell model for reactive distillation (RD) tray columns. The features of our model are (1) the use of Maxwell–Stefan equations for describing mass transfer between fluid phases, (2) the reaction is assumed to take place in the liquid

  8. A model based on soil structural aspects describing the fate of genetically modified bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der N.; Elsas, van J.D.; Heijnen, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    A computer simulation model was developed which describes growth and competition of bacteria in the soil environment. In the model, soil was assumed to contain millions of pores of a few different size classes. An introduced bacterial strain, e.g. a genetically modified micro-organism (GEMMO), was a

  9. CLIC Detector Concepts as described in the CDR: Differences between the GEANT4 and Engineering Models

    CERN Document Server

    Elsener, K; Schlatter, D; Siegrist, N

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC_ILD and CLIC_SiD detector concepts as used for the CDR Vol. 2 in 2011 exist both in GEANT4 simulation models and in engineering layout drawings. At this early stage of a conceptual design, there are inevitably differences between these models, which are described in this note.

  10. Benchmarking of numerical models describing the dispersion of radionuclides in the Arctic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, E.M.; Harms, I. [Department of Statistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gurbutt, P. [MAFF, Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft (United Kingdom); Heling, R. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Osvath, I. [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, Monaco (France); Preller, R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center (United States); Sazykina, T. [SPA Typhoon, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Wada, A. [Department of Civil Engineering, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Nihon (Japan); Sjoeblom, K.L. [IAEA Waste Management Division, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-08-25

    As part of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a working group was created to model the dispersal and transfer of radionuclides released from radioactive waste disposed of in the Kara Sea. The objectives of this group are: (1) development of realistic and reliable assessment models for the dispersal of radioactive contaminants both within, and from, the Arctic ocean; and (2) evaluation of the contributions of different transfer mechanisms to contaminant dispersal and hence, ultimately, to the risks to human health and environment. With regard to the first objective, the modelling work has been directed towards assessment of model reliability and as one aspect of this, a benchmarking exercise has been carried out. This paper briefly describes the benchmark scenario, the models developed and used, and discusses some of the benchmarking results. The role of the exercise within the modelling programme of IASAP will be discussed and future work described.

  11. What is the "best" atomic charge model to describe through-space charge-transfer excitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Denis; Le Bahers, Tangui; Adamo, Carlo; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2012-04-28

    We investigate the efficiency of several partial atomic charge models (Mulliken, Hirshfeld, Bader, Natural, Merz-Kollman and ChelpG) for investigating the through-space charge-transfer in push-pull organic compounds with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory approaches. The results of these models are compared to benchmark values obtained by determining the difference of total densities between the ground and excited states. Both model push-pull oligomers and two classes of "real-life" organic dyes (indoline and diketopyrrolopyrrole) used as sensitisers in solar cell applications have been considered. Though the difference of dipole moments between the ground and excited states is reproduced by most approaches, no atomic charge model is fully satisfactory for reproducing the distance and amount of charge transferred that are provided by the density picture. Overall, the partitioning schemes fitting the electrostatic potential (e.g. Merz-Kollman) stand as the most consistent compromises in the framework of simulating through-space charge-transfer, whereas the other models tend to yield qualitatively inconsistent values.

  12. SDG and qualitative trend based model multiple scale validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dong; Xu, Xin; Yin, Jianjin; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Beike

    2017-09-01

    Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) is key technology of simulation and modelling. For the traditional model validation methods, the completeness is weak; it is carried out in one scale; it depends on human experience. The SDG (Signed Directed Graph) and qualitative trend based multiple scale validation is proposed. First the SDG model is built and qualitative trends are added to the model. And then complete testing scenarios are produced by positive inference. The multiple scale validation is carried out by comparing the testing scenarios with outputs of simulation model in different scales. Finally, the effectiveness is proved by carrying out validation for a reactor model.

  13. A consilience model to describe N2O production during biological N removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Smets, Barth F.

    2016-01-01

    (NO) and N2O dynamics have been proposed. Here, a first comprehensive model that considers all relevant NO and N2O production and consumption mechanisms is proposed. The model describes autotrophic NO production by ammonia oxidizing bacteria associated with ammonia oxidation and with nitrite reduction......Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, is produced during biological nitrogen conversion in wastewater treatment operations. Complex mechanisms underlie N2O production by autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms, which continue to be unravelled. Mathematical models that describe nitric oxide......, followed by NO reduction to N2O. It also considers NO and N2O as intermediates in heterotrophic denitrification in a 4-step model. Three biological NO and N2O production pathways are accounted for, improving the capabilities of existing models while not increasing their complexity. Abiotic contributions...

  14. AI/OR computational model for integrating qualitative and quantitative design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogino, Alice M.; Bradley, Stephen R.; Cagan, Jonathan; Jain, Pramod; Michelena, Nestor

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework for integrating qualitative and numerical computational methods for optimally-directed design is described. The theory is presented as a computational model and features of implementations are summarized where appropriate. To demonstrate the versatility of the methodology we focus on four seemingly disparate aspects of the design process and their interaction: (1) conceptual design, (2) qualitative optimal design, (3) design innovation, and (4) numerical global optimization.

  15. AI/OR computational model for integrating qualitative and quantitative design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogino, Alice M.; Bradley, Stephen R.; Cagan, Jonathan; Jain, Pramod; Michelena, Nestor

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework for integrating qualitative and numerical computational methods for optimally-directed design is described. The theory is presented as a computational model and features of implementations are summarized where appropriate. To demonstrate the versatility of the methodology we focus on four seemingly disparate aspects of the design process and their interaction: (1) conceptual design, (2) qualitative optimal design, (3) design innovation, and (4) numerical global optimization.

  16. A Model to Describe the Magnetomechanical Behavior of Martensite in Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaoyang Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A model to describe the constitutive behavior of magnetic shape memory alloy composed with pure martensite is proposed based on the analysis of variants reorientation. A hyperbolic tangent expression is given to describe the variants transition during magnetic and mechanical loading process. The main features of magnetic shape memory alloy, such as pseudoelastic and partially pseudoelastic behavior as well as minor hysteretic loops, can be successfully replicated with the proposed model. A good agreement is achieved between calculated results and experimental data for NiMnGa single crystal.

  17. Realistic f(T) model describing the de Sitter epoch of the dark energy dominated universe

    CERN Document Server

    Nassur, S B; Rodrigues, M E; Houndjo, M J S; Tossa, J

    2015-01-01

    We consider an exponential model within the so-called f(T) theory of gravity, where $T$ denotes the torsion scalar. We focus our work on a cosmological feature of such a model, checking whether it may describe the de Sitter stage of the current universe through the analysis of the redshift z. Our results shows that the model reproduces the de Sitter stage only for low-redshifts, where the perturbation function goes toward zero as the low values of the redshift are reached, whereas the effective parameter of equation of state goes to -1, which is the expected behavior for any model able to reproduce de Sitter stage.

  18. Attributes of clinical role models as described by senior veterinary students in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, Daniel N; Kyle, Greg J; Coleman, Glen T; Mills, Paul C

    2012-01-01

    Role models incite admiration and provide inspiration, contributing to learning as students aspire to emulate their example. The attributes of physician role models for medical trainees are well documented, but they remain largely unexplored in the context of veterinary medical training. The aim of the current study was to describe the attributes that final-year veterinary students (N=213) at the University of Queensland identified when reflecting on their clinical role models. Clinical role model descriptions provided by students were analyzed using concept-mapping software (Leximancer v. 2.25). The most frequent and highly connected concepts used by students when describing their role model(s) included clients, vet, and animal. Role models were described as good communicators who were skilled at managing relationships with clients, patients, and staff. They had exemplary knowledge, skills, and abilities, and they were methodical and conducted well-structured consultations. They were well respected and, in turn, demonstrated respect for clients, colleagues, staff, and students alike. They were also good teachers and able to tailor explanations to suit both clients and students. Findings from this study may serve to assist with faculty development and as a basis for further research in this area.

  19. A model to describe potential effects of chemotherapy on critical radiobiological treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, D.; Desco, M. M.; Antoranz, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Although chemo- and radiotherapy can annihilate tumors on their own. they are also used in coadjuvancy: improving local effects of radiotherapy using chemotherapy as a radiosensit.izer. The effects of radiotherapy are well described by current radiobiological models. The goal of this work is to describe a discrete radiotherapy model, that has been previously used describe high radiation dose response as well as unusual radio-responses of some types of tumors (e.g. prostate cancer), to obtain a model of chemo+radiotherapy that can describe how the outcome of their combination is a more efficient removal of the tumor. Our hypothesis is that, although both treatments haven different mechanisms, both affect similar key points of cell metabolism and regulation, that lead to cellular death. Hence, we will consider a discrete model where chemotherapy may affect a fraction of the same targets destroyed by radiotherapy. Although radiotherapy reaches all cells equally, chemotherapy diffuses through a tumor attaining lower concentration in its center and higher in its surface. With our simulations we study the enhanced effect of combined therapy treatment and how it depends on the tissue critical parameters (the parameters of the lion-extensive radiobiological model), the number of “targets” aimed at by chemotherapy, and the concentration and diffusion rate of the drug inside the tumor. The results show that an equivalent, cliemo-radio-dose can be computed that allows the prediction of the lower radiation dose that causes the same effect than a radio-only treatment.

  20. Development and Application of a Category System to Describe Pre-Service Science Teachers' Activities in the Process of Scientific Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Walzer, Christine; Hergert, Susann; Krüger, Dirk

    2017-09-01

    As part of their professional competencies, science teachers need an elaborate meta-modelling knowledge as well as modelling skills in order to guide and monitor modelling practices of their students. However, qualitative studies about (pre-service) science teachers' modelling practices are rare. This study provides a category system which is suitable to analyse and to describe pre-service science teachers' modelling activities and to infer modelling strategies. The category system was developed based on theoretical considerations and was inductively refined within the methodological frame of qualitative content analysis. For the inductive refinement, modelling practices of pre-service teachers (n = 4) have been video-taped and analysed. In this study, one case was selected to demonstrate the application of the category system to infer modelling strategies. The contribution of this study for science education research and science teacher education is discussed.

  1. Evaluation of mathematical models to describe growth of grazing young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jorge Fernandes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of different mathematical models to describe growth of grazing beef cattle. Data of 20 Nellore bulls with initial weight of 129±28.1 kg and final weight of 405±62.0 kg were used. The animals were randomly divided into four plots and placed on B. decumbens Stapf pastures. Three plots received concentrate supplement with different protein profiles and the fourth plot received only mineral supplement. Animals were weighed every 28 days to design growth curve of full body weight. Five mathematical models were evaluated to describe animal growth: Multiphase, Linear, Logarithmic, Gompertz and Logistic models. Assessment of adequacy of the models was performed by using coefficient of determination, simultaneous F-test for identity of parameters, concordance correlation coefficient, root of the mean square error of prediction and partition of the mean square error of prediction. The analysis of the pairwise mean square error of prediction and the delta Akaike's information criterion were used to compare the models for accuracy and precision. Evaluation of all the tested models showed that all of them were able to predict variability among animals. However, Gompertz, Logarithmic and Logistic models created individual predictions that were not satisfactory. Models differed from each other concerning accuracy and precision; the best were in the following order: Multiphase, Linear, Gompertz, Logarithmic and Logistic. The Multiphase model was more efficient than the others for description of grazing beef cattle growth.

  2. Describing, using 'recognition cones'. [parallel-series model with English-like computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhr, L.

    1973-01-01

    A parallel-serial 'recognition cone' model is examined, taking into account the model's ability to describe scenes of objects. An actual program is presented in an English-like language. The concept of a 'description' is discussed together with possible types of descriptive information. Questions regarding the level and the variety of detail are considered along with approaches for improving the serial representations of parallel systems.

  3. Anomalously large capacitance of an ionic liquid described by the restricted primitive model

    CERN Document Server

    Loth, M S; Shklovskii, B I

    2010-01-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to examine the simplest model of an ionic liquid, called the restricted primitive model, at a metal surface. We find that at moderately low temperatures the capacitance of the metal/ionic liquid interface is so large that the effective thickness of the electrostatic double-layer is smaller than the ion radius. We suggest a semi-quantitative theory to describe these results.

  4. A stochastic model of kinetochore–microtubule attachment accurately describes fission yeast chromosome segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Gay, Guillaume; Courtheoux, Thibault; Reyes, Céline; Tournier, Sylvie; Gachet, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    In fission yeast, erroneous attachments of spindle microtubules to kinetochores are frequent in early mitosis. Most are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving the protein kinase Aurora B, which destabilizes kinetochore microtubules (ktMTs) in the absence of tension between sister chromatids. In this paper, we describe a minimal mathematical model of fission yeast chromosome segregation based on the stochastic attachment and detachment of ktMTs. The model accurately reproduce...

  5. Muscle activation described with a differential equation model for large ensembles of locally coupled molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Sam

    2014-10-01

    Molecular motors, by turning chemical energy into mechanical work, are responsible for active cellular processes. Often groups of these motors work together to perform their biological role. Motors in an ensemble are coupled and exhibit complex emergent behavior. Although large motor ensembles can be modeled with partial differential equations (PDEs) by assuming that molecules function independently of their neighbors, this assumption is violated when motors are coupled locally. It is therefore unclear how to describe the ensemble behavior of the locally coupled motors responsible for biological processes such as calcium-dependent skeletal muscle activation. Here we develop a theory to describe locally coupled motor ensembles and apply the theory to skeletal muscle activation. The central idea is that a muscle filament can be divided into two phases: an active and an inactive phase. Dynamic changes in the relative size of these phases are described by a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). As the dynamics of the active phase are described by PDEs, muscle activation is governed by a set of coupled ODEs and PDEs, building on previous PDE models. With comparison to Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the theory captures the behavior of locally coupled ensembles. The theory also plausibly describes and predicts muscle experiments from molecular to whole muscle scales, suggesting that a micro- to macroscale muscle model is within reach.

  6. A model for describing the thermodynamics of multivalent host-guest interactions at interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huskens, Jurriaan; Mulder, A.; Auletta, T.; Nijhuis, C.A.; Ludden, M.J.W.; Reinhoudt, David

    2004-01-01

    A model has been described for interpreting the binding of multivalent molecules to interface-immobilized monovalent receptors through multiple, independent interactions. It is based on the concept of effective concentration, Ceff, which has been developed before for multivalent binding in solution

  7. A transient-network model describing the rheological behaviour of concentrated dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, H.; Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Mijnlieff, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    Attractive forces acting between particles in dispersions may cause a three-dimensional structure to be built up. A temporary-network model is postulated that describes the rheological behaviour of such systems. Chains of particles are assumed to be created and broken by thermal actions and by appli

  8. Development of a Pharmacokinetic Model to Describe the Complex Pharmacokinetics of Pazopanib in Cancer Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, H.; Erp, N. van; Bins, S.; Mathijssen, R.H.; Schellens, J.H.; Beijnen, J.H.; Steeghs, N.; Huitema, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pazopanib is a multi-targeted anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitor. This study was conducted to develop a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model describing the complex pharmacokinetics of pazopanib in cancer patients. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic data were available from 96

  9. Performance Evaluation of Models that Describe the Soil Water Retention Curve between Saturation and Oven Dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate eight closed-form unimodal analytical expressions that describe the soil-water retention curve over the complete range of soil water contents. To meet this objective, the eight models were compared in terms of their accuracy (root mean square error, RMSE), ...

  10. Robustness of a cross contamination model describing transfer of pathogens during grinding of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Sant’Ana, A. S.; Hansen, Solvej Katrine Holm

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a cross contamination model for its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes during grinding of varying sizes and numbers of pieces of meats in two grinder systems. Data from 19 trials were collected. Three evaluation approaches were...

  11. Robustness of a cross contamination model describing transfer of pathogens during grinding of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Sant’Ana, A. S.; Hansen, Solvej Katrine Holm

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a cross contamination model for its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes during grinding of varying sizes and numbers of pieces of meats in two grinder systems. Data from 19 trials were collected. Three evaluation approaches were...

  12. A transient-network model describing the rheological behaviour of concentrated dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, H.; Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Mijnlieff, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    Attractive forces acting between particles in dispersions may cause a three-dimensional structure to be built up. A temporary-network model is postulated that describes the rheological behaviour of such systems. Chains of particles are assumed to be created and broken by thermal actions and by appli

  13. Describing teacher-student interactions: a qualitative assessment of teacher implementation of the 7th grade keepin' it REAL substance use intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Shin, Youngju; Hecht, Michael L; Krieger, Janice L; Graham, John W

    2013-03-01

    Variations in the delivery of school-based substance use prevention curricula affect students' acquisition of the lesson content and program outcomes. Although adaptation is sometimes viewed as a lack of fidelity, it is unclear what types of variations actually occur in the classroom. This observational study investigated teacher and student behaviors during implementation of a middle school-based drug prevention curriculum in 25 schools across two Midwestern states. Trained observers coded videos of 276 lessons, reflecting a total of 31 predominantly Caucasian teachers (10 males and 21 females) in 73 different classes. Employing qualitative coding procedures, the study provides a working typology of implementation patterns based on varying levels of teacher control and student participation. These patterns are fairly consistent across lessons and across classes of students, suggesting a teacher-driven delivery model where teachers create a set of constraints within which students vary their engagement. Findings provide a descriptive basis grounded in observation of classroom implementation that can be used to test models of implementation fidelity and quality as well as impact training and other dissemination research.

  14. Describing Teacher–Student Interactions: A Qualitative Assessment of Teacher Implementation of the 7th Grade keepin’ it REAL Substance Use Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Shin, Young Ju; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Graham, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the delivery of school-based substance use prevention curricula affect students’ acquisition of the lesson content and program outcomes. Although adaptation is sometimes viewed as a lack of fidelity, it is unclear what types of variations actually occur in the classroom. This observational study investigated teacher and student behaviors during implementation of a middle school-based drug prevention curriculum in 25 schools across two Midwestern states. Trained observers coded videos of 276 lessons, reflecting a total of 31 predominantly Caucasian teachers (10 males and 21 females) in 73 different classes. Employing qualitative coding procedures, the study provides a working typology of implementation patterns based on varying levels of teacher control and student participation. These patterns are fairly consistent across lessons and across classes of students, suggesting a teacher-driven delivery model where teachers create a set of constraints within which students vary their engagement. Findings provide a descriptive basis grounded in observation of classroom implementation that can be used to test models of implementation fidelity and quality as well as impact training and other dissemination research. PMID:22739791

  15. Describing Growth Pattern of Bali Cows Using Non-linear Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafiz A.W

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the best fit non-linear regression model to describe the growth pattern of Bali cows. Estimates of asymptotic mature weight, rate of maturing and constant of integration were derived from Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Logistic models which were fitted to cross-sectional data of body weight taken from 74 Bali cows raised in MARDI Research Station Muadzam Shah Pahang. Coefficient of determination (R2 and residual mean squares (MSE were used to determine the best fit model in describing the growth pattern of Bali cows. Von Bertalanffy model was the best model among the four growth functions evaluated to determine the mature weight of Bali cattle as shown by the highest R2 and lowest MSE values (0.973 and 601.9, respectively, followed by Gompertz (0.972 and 621.2, respectively, Logistic (0.971 and 648.4, respectively and Brody (0.932 and 660.5, respectively models. The correlation between rate of maturing and mature weight was found to be negative in the range of -0.170 to -0.929 for all models, indicating that animals of heavier mature weight had lower rate of maturing. The use of non-linear model could summarize the weight-age relationship into several biologically interpreted parameters compared to the entire lifespan weight-age data points that are difficult and time consuming to interpret.

  16. Failure of semiclassical models to describe resistivity of nanometric, polycrystalline tungsten films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dooho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Korea Railroad Research Institute, 360-1 Woulam, Uiwang, Kyunggi 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Xuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Schelling, Patrick K. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Coffey, Kevin R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Barmak, Katayun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, 500 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-03-14

    The impact of electron scattering at surfaces and grain boundaries in nanometric polycrystalline tungsten (W) films was studied. A series of polycrystalline W films ranging in thickness from 10 to 310 nm and lateral grain size from 74 to 133 nm were prepared on thermally oxidized Si. The Fuchs-Sondheimer surface-scattering model and Mayadas-Shatzkes grain-boundary scattering model were employed for quantitative analyses. Predictions from the theoretical models were found to deviate systematically from the experimental data. Possible reasons for the failure of the theoretical models to describe the experimental data are explored. Finally, a discussion of the crucial features lacking from existing models is presented, along with possible avenues for improving the models to result in better agreement with experimental data.

  17. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  18. A Revised Multi-Fickian Moisture Transport Model To Describe Non-Fickian Effects In Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan; Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study and a refinement of the sorption rate model in a so-called multi-Fickian or multiphase model. This type of model describes the complex moisture transport system in wood, which consists of separate water vapor and bound-water diffusion interacting through sorption....... At high relative humidities, the effect of this complex moisture transport system becomes apparent, and since a single Fickian diffusion equation fails to model the behavior, it has been referred to as non-Fickian or anomalous behavior. At low relative humidities, slow bound-water transport and fast...... conditions for the model are discussed, since discrepancies from corresponding models of moisture transport in paper products have been found....

  19. A revised multi-Fickian moisture transport model to describe non-Fickian effects in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Damkilde, Lars; Svensson, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study and a refinement of the sorption rate model in a so-called multi-Fickian or multi-phase model. This type of model describes the complex moisture transport system in wood, which consists of separate water vapor and bound-water diffusion interacting through sorption....... At high relative humidities, the effect of this complex moisture transport system becomes apparent, and since a single Fickian diffusion equation fails to model the behavior, it has been referred to as non-Fickian or anomalous behavior. At low relative humidities, slow bound-water transport and fast...... conditions for the model are discussed, since discrepancies from corresponding models of moisture transport in paper products have been found. ©2007 by Walter de Gruyter....

  20. A qualitative model for temporal reasoning with incomplete information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffner, H. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-12-31

    We develop a qualitative framework for temporal reasoning with incomplete information that features a modeling language based on rules and a semantics based on infinitesimal probabilities. The framework relates logical and probabilistical models, and accommodates in a natural way features that have been found problematic in other models like non-determinism, action qualifications, parallel actions, and abduction to actions and fluents.

  1. Advances in Geoscience Modeling: Smart Modeling Frameworks, Self-Describing Models and the Role of Standardized Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade, model coupling frameworks like CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) and ESMF (Earth System Modeling Framework) have developed mechanisms that make it much easier for modelers to connect heterogeneous sets of process models in a plug-and-play manner to create composite "system models". These mechanisms greatly simplify code reuse, but must simultaneously satisfy many different design criteria. They must be able to mediate or compensate for differences between the process models, such as their different programming languages, computational grids, time-stepping schemes, variable names and variable units. However, they must achieve this interoperability in a way that: (1) is noninvasive, requiring only relatively small and isolated changes to the original source code, (2) does not significantly reduce performance, (3) is not time-consuming or confusing for a model developer to implement, (4) can very easily be updated to accommodate new versions of a given process model and (5) does not shift the burden of providing model interoperability to the model developers. In tackling these design challenges, model framework developers have learned that the best solution is to provide each model with a simple, standardized interface, i.e. a set of standardized functions that make the model: (1) fully-controllable by a caller (e.g. a model framework) and (2) self-describing with standardized metadata. Model control functions are separate functions that allow a caller to initialize the model, advance the model's state variables in time and finalize the model. Model description functions allow a caller to retrieve detailed information on the model's input and output variables, its computational grid and its timestepping scheme. If the caller is a modeling framework, it can use the self description functions to learn about each process model in a collection to be coupled and then automatically call framework service components (e.g. regridders

  2. A multi-scale model for describing cancer-therapeutic transport in the human lung

    OpenAIRE

    Erbertseder, Karin Maria

    2012-01-01

    This thesis proposes a multi-scale model for describing cancer-therapeutic transport in the human lung. The developed multi-scale model represents flow, transport and reaction processes: in the pulmonary macrocirculation on the organ scale, in the capillary bed around an alveolus, in the surrounding pulmonary tissue and in the tumor on the tissue scale, and in the tumor cell population and in the single cancer cells on the cells scale. The model concept is specialized for an alveolar cell car...

  3. Generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth model accurately describing the switching processes in pseudo-single ferromagnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimpoesu, Dorin, E-mail: cdorin@uaic.ro; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru [Department of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi 700506 (Romania)

    2013-12-14

    We propose a generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth (SW) type model to describe various experimentally observed angular dependencies of the switching field in non-single-domain magnetic particles. Because the nonuniform magnetic states are generally characterized by complicated spin configurations with no simple analytical description, we maintain the macrospin hypothesis and we phenomenologically include the effects of nonuniformities only in the anisotropy energy, preserving as much as possible the elegance of SW model, the concept of critical curve and its geometric interpretation. We compare the results obtained with our model with full micromagnetic simulations in order to evaluate the performance and limits of our approach.

  4. A fresh view of cosmological models describing very early Universe: general solution of the dynamical equations

    CERN Document Server

    Filippov, A T

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of any spherical cosmology with a scalar field (`scalaron') coupling to gravity is described by the nonlinear second-order differential equations for two metric functions and the scalaron depending on the `time' parameter. The equations depend on the scalaron potential and on arbitrary gauge function that describes time parameterizations. This dynamical system can be integrated for flat, isotropic models with very special potentials. But, somewhat unexpectedly, replacing the independent variable $t$ by one of the metric functions allows us to completely integrate the general spherical theory in any gauge and with arbitrary potentials. In this approach, inflationary solutions can be easily identified, explicitly derived, and compared to the standard approximate expressions. This approach is also applicable to intrinsically anisotropic models with a massive vector field (`vecton') as well as to some non-inflationary models.

  5. Core - Corona Model describes the Centrality Dependence of v_2/epsilon

    CERN Document Server

    Aichelin, J

    2010-01-01

    Event by event EPOS calculations in which the expansion of the system is described by {\\it ideal} hydrodynamics reproduce well the measured centrality dependence of $v_2/\\epsilon_{part}$, although it has been claimed that only viscous hydrodynamics can reproduce these data. This is due to the core - corona effect which manifests itself in the initial condition of the hydrodynamical expansion. The centrality dependence of $v_2/\\epsilon_{part}$ can be understood in the recently advanced core-corona model, a simple parameter free EPOS inspired model to describe the centrality dependence of different observables from SPS to RHIC energies. This model has already been successfully applied to understand the centrality dependence of multiplicities and of the average transverse momentum of identified particles.

  6. Describing the longitudinal course of major depression using Markov models: Data integration across three national surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Robert C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most epidemiological studies of major depression report period prevalence estimates. These are of limited utility in characterizing the longitudinal epidemiology of this condition. Markov models provide a methodological framework for increasing the utility of epidemiological data. Markov models relating incidence and recovery to major depression prevalence have been described in a series of prior papers. In this paper, the models are extended to describe the longitudinal course of the disorder. Methods Data from three national surveys conducted by the Canadian national statistical agency (Statistics Canada were used in this analysis. These data were integrated using a Markov model. Incidence, recurrence and recovery were represented as weekly transition probabilities. Model parameters were calibrated to the survey estimates. Results The population was divided into three categories: low, moderate and high recurrence groups. The size of each category was approximated using lifetime data from a study using the WHO Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI. Consistent with previous work, transition probabilities reflecting recovery were high in the initial weeks of the episodes, and declined by a fixed proportion with each passing week. Conclusion Markov models provide a framework for integrating psychiatric epidemiological data. Previous studies have illustrated the utility of Markov models for decomposing prevalence into its various determinants: incidence, recovery and mortality. This study extends the Markov approach by distinguishing several recurrence categories.

  7. A theoretical model to describe progressions and regressions for exercise rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Sam; Glasgow, Phil

    2014-08-01

    This article aims to describe a new theoretical model to simplify and aid visualisation of the clinical reasoning process involved in progressing a single exercise. Exercise prescription is a core skill for physiotherapists but is an area that is lacking in theoretical models to assist clinicians when designing exercise programs to aid rehabilitation from injury. Historical models of periodization and motor learning theories lack any visual aids to assist clinicians. The concept of the proposed model is that new stimuli can be added or exchanged with other stimuli, either intrinsic or extrinsic to the participant, in order to gradually progress an exercise whilst remaining safe and effective. The proposed model maintains the core skills of physiotherapists by assisting clinical reasoning skills, exercise prescription and goal setting. It is not limited to any one pathology or rehabilitation setting and can adapted by any level of skilled clinician.

  8. Fuzzy logic model to describe anesthetic effect and muscular influence on EEG Cerebral State Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brás, S; Gouveia, S; Ribeiro, L; Ferreira, D A; Antunes, L; Nunes, C S

    2013-06-01

    The well-known Cerebral State Index (CSI) quantifies depth of anesthesia and is traditionally modeled with Hill equation and propofol effect-site concentration (Ce). This work brings out two novelties: introduction of electromyogram (EMG) and use of fuzzy logic models with ANFIS optimized parameters. The data were collected from dogs (n=27) during routine surgery considering two propofol administration protocols: constant infusion (G1, n=14) and bolus (G2, n=13). The median modeling error of the fuzzy logic model with Ce and EMG was lower or similar than that of the Hill with Ce (p=0.012-G1, p=0.522-G2). Furthermore, there was no significant performance impact due to model structure alteration (p=0.288-G1, p=0.330-G2) and EMG introduction increased or maintained the performance (p=0.036-G1, p=0.798-G2). Therefore, the new model can achieve higher performance than Hill model, mostly due to EMG information and not due to changes in the model structure. In conclusion, the fuzzy models adequately describe CSI data with advantages over traditional Hill models.

  9. Numerical model describing optimization of fibres winding process on open and closed frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrů, M.; Mlýnek, J.; Martinec, T.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses a numerical model describing optimization of fibres winding process on open and closed frame. The quality production of said type of composite frame depends primarily on the correct winding of fibers on a polyurethane core. It is especially needed to ensure the correct angles of the fibers winding on the polyurethane core and the homogeneity of individual winding layers. The article describes mathematical model for use an industrial robot in filament winding and how to calculate the trajectory of the robot. When winding fibers on the polyurethane core which is fastened to the robot-end-effector so that during the winding process goes through a fibre-processing head on the basis of the suitably determined robot-end-effector trajectory. We use the described numerical model and matrix calculus to enumerate the trajectory of the robot-end-effector to determine the desired passage of the frame through the fibre-processing head. The calculation of the trajectory was programmed in the Delphi development environment. Relations of the numerical model are important for use a real solving of the passage of a polyurethane core through fibre-processing head.

  10. Group analysis of evolutionary integro-differential equations describing nonlinear waves: the general model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, Nail H [Department of Mathematics and Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology, SE-371 79 Karlskrona (Sweden); Meleshko, Sergey V [School of Mathematics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Rudenko, Oleg V, E-mail: nib@bth.se, E-mail: sergey@math.sut.ac.th, E-mail: rudenko@acs366.phys.msu.ru [Department of Physics, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-05

    The paper deals with an evolutionary integro-differential equation describing nonlinear waves. A particular choice of the kernel in the integral leads to well-known equations such as the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya equation, the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation and others. Since the solutions of these equations describe many physical phenomena, the analysis of the general model studied in this paper is important. One of the methods for obtaining solutions of differential equations is provided by the Lie group analysis. However, this method is not applicable to integro-differential equations. Therefore, we discuss new approaches developed in modern group analysis and apply them to the general model considered in this paper. Reduced equations and exact solutions are also presented.

  11. Why simple regression models work so well describing 'risk behaviors' in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, R.; R Fullilove

    1999-01-01

    The generalized anger created by individual experience of marginalization in the USA makes violent behavior frequent enough to become a 'typical' symbol, in the information-theoretic sense, for use in communicating along the damaged social networks of oppressed communities. Simple regression models relating violence and other risk behaviors to indices of relative deprivation emerge, after some mathematical development, as a natural consequence of this underlying dynamic, described elegantly b...

  12. Self-Organizing Two-Temperature Ising Model Describing Human Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ódor, Géza

    A two-temperature Ising-Schelling model is introduced and studied for describing human segregation. The self-organized Ising model with Glauber kinetics simulated by Müller et al. exhibits a phase transition between segregated and mixed phases mimicking the change of tolerance (local temperature) of individuals. The effect of external noise is considered here as a second temperature added to the decision of individuals who consider a change of accommodation. A numerical evidence is presented for a discontinuous phase transition of the magnetization.

  13. Can percolation model describe the evolution of mechanical properties of compacts of binary systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evesque, Pierre; Busignies, Virginie; Porion, Patrice; Leclerc, Bernard; Tchoreloff, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    In pharmaceutical field, the percolation theory is used to describe the change of tablet's properties with the relative density. It defines critical tablet densities from which the mechanical properties start to change. The exponent in the law is expected to be universal for a mechanical property and numerical values are proposed in the literature. In this work, the percolation model was applied to the tensile strength and the reduced modulus of elasticity of three compacted pharmaceutical excipients. This work showed that the exponent seems not universal and that the model must be used carefully.

  14. Mathematical model describing the thyroids-pituitary axis with distributed time delays in hormone transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamţu, Mihaela; Stoian, Dana; Navolan, Dan Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    In the present paper we provide a mathematical model that describe the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in autoimmune (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis. Since there is a spatial separation between thyroid and pituitary gland in the body, time is needed for transportation of thyrotropin and thyroxine between the glands. Thus, the distributed time delays are considered as both weak and Dirac kernels. The delayed model is analyzed regarding the stability and bifurcation behavior. The last part contains some numerical simulations to illustrate the effectiveness of our results and conclusions.

  15. Experimental verification of a model describing the intensity distribution from a single mode optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, Erik A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Puckett, Anthony D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D [UCSD

    2011-01-24

    The intensity distribution of a transmission from a single mode optical fiber is often approximated using a Gaussian-shaped curve. While this approximation is useful for some applications such as fiber alignment, it does not accurately describe transmission behavior off the axis of propagation. In this paper, another model is presented, which describes the intensity distribution of the transmission from a single mode optical fiber. A simple experimental setup is used to verify the model's accuracy, and agreement between model and experiment is established both on and off the axis of propagation. Displacement sensor designs based on the extrinsic optical lever architecture are presented. The behavior of the transmission off the axis of propagation dictates the performance of sensor architectures where large lateral offsets (25-1500 {micro}m) exist between transmitting and receiving fibers. The practical implications of modeling accuracy over this lateral offset region are discussed as they relate to the development of high-performance intensity modulated optical displacement sensors. In particular, the sensitivity, linearity, resolution, and displacement range of a sensor are functions of the relative positioning of the sensor's transmitting and receiving fibers. Sensor architectures with high combinations of sensitivity and displacement range are discussed. It is concluded that the utility of the accurate model is in its predicative capability and that this research could lead to an improved methodology for high-performance sensor design.

  16. Improving uncertainty estimation in urban hydrological modeling by statistically describing bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Del Giudice

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic models are useful tools for urban water management. Unfortunately, it is still challenging to obtain accurate results and plausible uncertainty estimates when using these models. In particular, with the currently applied statistical techniques, flow predictions are usually overconfident and biased. In this study, we present a flexible and relatively efficient methodology (i to obtain more reliable hydrological simulations in terms of coverage of validation data by the uncertainty bands and (ii to separate prediction uncertainty into its components. Our approach acknowledges that urban drainage predictions are biased. This is mostly due to input errors and structural deficits of the model. We address this issue by describing model bias in a Bayesian framework. The bias becomes an autoregressive term additional to white measurement noise, the only error type accounted for in traditional uncertainty analysis. To allow for bigger discrepancies during wet weather, we make the variance of bias dependent on the input (rainfall or/and output (runoff of the system. Specifically, we present a structured approach to select, among five variants, the optimal bias description for a given urban or natural case study. We tested the methodology in a small monitored stormwater system described with a parsimonious model. Our results clearly show that flow simulations are much more reliable when bias is accounted for than when it is neglected. Furthermore, our probabilistic predictions can discriminate between three uncertainty contributions: parametric uncertainty, bias, and measurement errors. In our case study, the best performing bias description is the output-dependent bias using a log-sinh transformation of data and model results. The limitations of the framework presented are some ambiguity due to the subjective choice of priors for bias parameters and its inability to address the causes of model discrepancies. Further research should focus on

  17. Qualitative analysis of causal cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Triginer, J

    1996-01-01

    The Einstein's field equations of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes filled with a dissipative fluid described by both the {\\em truncated} and {\\em non-truncated} causal transport equations are analyzed using techniques from dynamical systems theory. The equations of state, as well as the phase space, are different from those used in the recent literature. In the de Sitter expansion both the hydrodynamic approximation and the non-thermalizing condition can be fulfilled simultaneously. For \\Lambda=0 these expansions turn out to be stable provided a certain parameter of the fluid is lower than 1/2. The more general case \\Lambda>0 is studied in detail as well.

  18. The Transfer Function Model as a Tool to Study and Describe Space Weather Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Hayden S.; Mayr, Hans G.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Transfer Function Model (TFM) is a semi-analytical, linear model that is designed especially to describe thermospheric perturbations associated with magnetic storms and substorm. activity. It is a multi-constituent model (N2, O, He H, Ar) that accounts for wind induced diffusion, which significantly affects not only the composition and mass density but also the temperature and wind fields. Because the TFM adopts a semianalytic approach in which the geometry and temporal dependencies of the driving sources are removed through the use of height-integrated Green's functions, it provides physical insight into the essential properties of processes being considered, which are uncluttered by the accidental complexities that arise from particular source geometrie and time dependences. Extending from the ground to 700 km, the TFM eliminates spurious effects due to arbitrarily chosen boundary conditions. A database of transfer functions, computed only once, can be used to synthesize a wide range of spatial and temporal sources dependencies. The response synthesis can be performed quickly in real-time using only limited computing capabilities. These features make the TFM unique among global dynamical models. Given these desirable properties, a version of the TFM has been developed for personal computers (PC) using advanced platform-independent 3D visualization capabilities. We demonstrate the model capabilities with simulations for different auroral sources, including the response of ducted gravity waves modes that propagate around the globe. The thermospheric response is found to depend strongly on the spatial and temporal frequency spectra of the storm. Such varied behavior is difficult to describe in statistical empirical models. To improve the capability of space weather prediction, the TFM thus could be grafted naturally onto existing statistical models using data assimilation.

  19. The mathematical model that describes the periodic spouting of a geyser induced by boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    We have derived and modified the dynamical model of a geyser induced by gas inflow and regular or irregular spouting dynamics of geysers induced by gas inflow has been reproduced by the model. On the other hand, though we have derived the dynamical model of a geyser induced by boiling, periodic change between the spouting state and the pause state has not been adequately modeled by the model. In this connection, concerning a geyser induced by gas inflow we have proposed the model as described below. Because pressure in the spouting tube decreases obeying to the Bernoulli's theorem when the spouting state begins and water in the spouting tube begins to flow, inflow of groundwater into the spouting tube occurs. When the amount of this inflow reaches a certain amount, the spouting state transforms to the pause state. In this study, by applying this idea to the dynamical model of a geyser induced by boiling, the periodic change between the spouting state and the pause state could be reappeared. As a result, the whole picture of the spouting mechanism of a geyser induced by boiling became clear. This research results would give hints on engineering repair in order to prevent the weakening or the depletion of the geyser. And this study would be also useful for protection of geysers as tourism and environmental resources.

  20. Assessment of diffusion models to describe drying of roof tiles using generalized coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Vera S. O.; da Silva, Wilton Pereira; e Silva, Cleide M. D. P. S.; da Silva Júnior, Aluízio Freire; de Farias Aires, Juarez Everton; Rocha, Vicente P. T.

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to study the mass transient diffusion in solids with an arbitrary shape, highlighting boundary condition of the third kind. To this end, the numerical formalism to discretize the transient 3D diffusion equation written in generalized coordinates is presented. For the discretization, it was used the finite volume method with a fully implicit formulation. An application to drying of roof tiles has been done. Three models were used to describe the drying process: (1) the volume V and the effective mass diffusivity D are considered constant for the boundary condition of the first kind; (2) V and D are considered constant for the boundary condition of the third kind and (3) V and D are considered variable for the boundary condition of the third kind. For all models, the convective mass transfer coefficient h was considered constant. The analyses of the results obtained make it possible to affirm that the model 3 describes the drying process better than the other models.

  1. A bottom-up model to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season peaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, E.; Albisu, L.M.

    2015-07-01

    Peaches are consumed in Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Nowadays there are few areas in Europe that produce peaches with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), and the Calanda area is one of them. The aim of this work is to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season PDO Calanda peaches in the city of Zaragoza, Spain, by a bottom-up model. The bottom-up model proves greater amount of information than top-down models. In this approach it is estimated one utility function per consumer. Thus, it is not necessary to make assumptions about preference distributions and correlations across respondents. It was observed that preference distributions were neither normal nor independently distributed. If those preferences were estimated by top-down models, conclusions would be biased. This paper also explores a new way to describe preferences through individual utility functions. Results show that the largest behavioural group gathered origin sensitive consumers. Their utility increased if the peaches were produced in the Calanda area and, especially, when peaches had the PDO Calanda brand. In sequence, the second most valuable attribute for consumers was the price. Peach size and packaging were not so important on purchase choice decision. Nevertheless, it is advisable to avoid trading smallest size peaches (weighting around 160 g/fruit). Traders also have to be careful by using active packaging. It was found that a group of consumers disliked this kind of product, probably, because they perceived it as less natural. (Author)

  2. Development of a model describing virus removal process in an activated sludge basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.; Shiragami, N. Unno, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-20

    The virus removal process from the liquid phase in an activated sludge basin possibly consists of physicochemical processes, such as adsorption onto sludge flocs, biological processes such as microbial predating and inactivation by virucidal components excreted by microbes. To describe properly the virus behavior in an activated sludge basin, a simple model is proposed based on the experimental data obtained using a poliovirus type 1. A three-compartments model, which include the virus in the liquid phase and in the peripheral and inner regions of sludge flocs is employed. By using the model, the Virus removal process was successfully simulated to highlight the implication of its distribution in the activated sludge basin. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Homogeneous Diffusion Solid Model as a Realistic Approach to Describe Adsorption onto Materials with Different Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabio, E.; Zamora, F.; González-García, C. M.; Ledesma, B.; Álvarez-Murillo, A.; Román, S.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the adsorption kinetics of p-nitrophenol (PNP) onto several commercial activated carbons (ACs) with different textural and geometrical characteristics was studied. For this aim, a homogeneous diffusion solid model (HDSM) was used, which does take the adsorbent shape into account. The HDSM was solved by means of the finite element method (FEM) using the commercial software COMSOL. The different kinetic patterns observed in the experiments carried out can be described by the developed model, which shows that the sharp drop of adsorption rate observed in some samples is caused by the formation of a concentration wave. The model allows one to visualize the changes in concentration taking place in both liquid and solid phases, which enables us to link the kinetic behaviour with the main features of the carbon samples.

  4. Fitting mathematical models to describe the rheological behaviour of chocolate pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carla; Diogo, Filipa; Alves, M. Rui

    2016-06-01

    The flow behavior is of utmost importance for the chocolate industry. The objective of this work was to study two mathematical models, Casson and Windhab models that can be used to fit chocolate rheological data and evaluate which better infers or previews the rheological behaviour of different chocolate pastes. Rheological properties (viscosity, shear stress and shear rates) were obtained with a rotational viscometer equipped with a concentric cylinder. The chocolate samples were white chocolate and chocolate with varying percentages in cacao (55%, 70% and 83%). The results showed that the Windhab model was the best to describe the flow behaviour of all the studied samples with higher determination coefficients (r2 > 0.9).

  5. A simple model to describe intrinsic stellar noise for exoplanet detection around red giants

    CERN Document Server

    North, Thomas S H; Gilliland, Ronald L; Huber, Daniel; Campante, Tiago L; Handberg, Rasmus; Lund, Mikkel N; Veras, Dimitri; Kuszlewicz, James S; Farr, Will M

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the huge advances in exoplanet research provided by the NASA Kepler Mission, there remain only a small number of transit detections around evolved stars. Here we present a reformulation of the noise properties of red-giant stars, where the intrinsic stellar granulation, and the stellar oscillations described by asteroseismology play a key role. The new noise model is a significant improvement on the current Kepler results for evolved stars. Our noise model may be used to help understand planet detection thresholds for the ongoing K2 and upcoming TESS missions, and serve as a predictor of stellar noise for these missions. As an application of our noise model, we explore the minimum detectable planet radii for red giant stars, and find that Neptune sized planets should be detectable around low luminosity red giant branch stars.

  6. Exploring the use of fuzzy logic models to describe the relation between SBP and RR values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Sónia; Brás, Susana

    2012-01-01

    In this work, fuzzy logic based models are used to describe the relation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and tachogram (RR) values as a function of the SBP level. The applicability of these methods is tested using real data in Lying (L) and Standing (S) conditions and generated surrogate data. The results indicate that fuzzy models exhibit a similar performance in both conditions, and their performance is significantly higher with real data than with surrogate data. These results point out the potential of a fuzzy logic approach to model properly the relation between SBP and RR values. As a future work, it remains to assess the clinical impact of these findings and inherent repercussion on the estimation of time domain baroreflex sensitivity indices.

  7. Asymptotic behavior of nonlinear semigroup describing a model of selective cell growth regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arino, O; Kimmel, M

    1991-01-01

    A new scheme of regulation of cell population growth is considered, called the selective growth regulation. The principle is that cells are withdrawn from proliferation depending on their contents of certain biochemical species. The dynamics of the cell population structured by the contents of this species is described by the functional integral equation model, previously introduced by the authors. The solutions of the model equations generate a semigroup of nonlinear positive operators. The main problem solved in this paper concerns stability of the equilibria of the model. This requires stating and proving of an original abstract result on the spectral radius of a perturbation of a semigroup of positive linear operators. Biological applications are discussed.

  8. A simple model to describe intrinsic stellar noise for exoplanet detection around red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Thomas S. H.; Chaplin, William J.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Huber, Daniel; Campante, Tiago L.; Handberg, Rasmus; Lund, Mikkel N.; Veras, Dimitri; Kuszlewicz, James S.; Farr, Will M.

    2017-02-01

    In spite of the huge advances in exoplanet research provided by the NASA Kepler Mission, there remain only a small number of transit detections around evolved stars. Here, we present a reformulation of the noise properties of red-giant stars, where the intrinsic stellar granulation and the stellar oscillations described by asteroseismology play a key role. The new noise model is a significant improvement on the current Kepler results for evolved stars. Our noise model may be used to help understand planet detection thresholds for the ongoing K2 and upcoming TESSmissions, and serve as a predictor of stellar noise for these missions. As an application of our noise model, we explore the minimum detectable planet radii for red giant stars, and find that Neptune-sized planets should be detectable around low-luminosity red giant branch stars.

  9. Ordinal regression models to describe tourist satisfaction with Sintra's world heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriño, Helena

    2013-10-01

    In Tourism Research, ordinal regression models are becoming a very powerful tool in modelling the relationship between an ordinal response variable and a set of explanatory variables. In August and September 2010, we conducted a pioneering Tourist Survey in Sintra, Portugal. The data were obtained by face-to-face interviews at the entrances of the Palaces and Parks of Sintra. The work developed in this paper focus on two main points: tourists' perception of the entrance fees; overall level of satisfaction with this heritage site. For attaining these goals, ordinal regression models were developed. We concluded that tourist's nationality was the only significant variable to describe the perception of the admission fees. Also, Sintra's image among tourists depends not only on their nationality, but also on previous knowledge about Sintra's World Heritage status.

  10. A stochastic model of kinetochore-microtubule attachment accurately describes fission yeast chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Guillaume; Courtheoux, Thibault; Reyes, Céline; Tournier, Sylvie; Gachet, Yannick

    2012-03-19

    In fission yeast, erroneous attachments of spindle microtubules to kinetochores are frequent in early mitosis. Most are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving the protein kinase Aurora B, which destabilizes kinetochore microtubules (ktMTs) in the absence of tension between sister chromatids. In this paper, we describe a minimal mathematical model of fission yeast chromosome segregation based on the stochastic attachment and detachment of ktMTs. The model accurately reproduces the timing of correct chromosome biorientation and segregation seen in fission yeast. Prevention of attachment defects requires both appropriate kinetochore orientation and an Aurora B-like activity. The model also reproduces abnormal chromosome segregation behavior (caused by, for example, inhibition of Aurora B). It predicts that, in metaphase, merotelic attachment is prevented by a kinetochore orientation effect and corrected by an Aurora B-like activity, whereas in anaphase, it is corrected through unbalanced forces applied to the kinetochore. These unbalanced forces are sufficient to prevent aneuploidy.

  11. Development of a model and computer code to describe solar grade silicon production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, R. K.; Srivastava, R.

    1979-01-01

    Two computer codes were developed for describing flow reactors in which high purity, solar grade silicon is produced via reduction of gaseous silicon halides. The first is the CHEMPART code, an axisymmetric, marching code which treats two phase flows with models describing detailed gas-phase chemical kinetics, particle formation, and particle growth. It can be used to described flow reactors in which reactants, mix, react, and form a particulate phase. Detailed radial gas-phase composition, temperature, velocity, and particle size distribution profiles are computed. Also, deposition of heat, momentum, and mass (either particulate or vapor) on reactor walls is described. The second code is a modified version of the GENMIX boundary layer code which is used to compute rates of heat, momentum, and mass transfer to the reactor walls. This code lacks the detailed chemical kinetics and particle handling features of the CHEMPART code but has the virtue of running much more rapidly than CHEMPART, while treating the phenomena occurring in the boundary layer in more detail.

  12. Refinement of a discontinuity-free edge-diffraction model describing focused wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedukhin, Andrey G

    2010-03-01

    Two equivalent forms of a refined discontinuity-free edge-diffraction model describing the structure of a stationary focused wave field are presented that are valid in the framework of the scalar Debye integral representation for a diffracted rotationally symmetric converging spherical wave of a limited yet not-too-low angular opening. The first form describes the field as the sum of a direct quasi-spherical wave and a plurality of edge quasi-conical waves of different orders, the optimum discontinuity-free angular spectrum functions of all the waves being dependent on the polar angle only. According to the second form, the focused field is fully characterized by only three components--the same quasi-spherical wave and two edge quasi-conical waves of the zero and first order, of which the optimum discontinuity-free angular spectrum functions are dependent on both the polar angle and the polar radius counted from the geometrical focus.

  13. A Polydisperse Sphere Model Describing the Propagation of Light in Biological Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-Hua; LI Zhen-Hua; LAI Jian-Cheng; HE An-Zhi

    2007-01-01

    A polydisperse sphere model with the complex refractive index is employed to describe the propagation of light in biological tissue.The scattering coefficient,absorption coefficient and scattering phase function are calculated.At the same time,the inverse problem on retrieving the particles size distribution,imaginary part of the refractive index and number density of scatterers is investigated.The result shows that the retrieval scheme together with the Chahine algorithm is effective in dealing with such an inverse problem.IT is also clarified that a group of parameters including the scattering coefficient,absorption coefficient and phase function are associated with another group including the refractive index,particle size distribution and number density of scatterers,which is a problem described in two different ways and the anisotropy factor is not an independent variable,but is determined by the phase function.

  14. A Mulitivariate Statistical Model Describing the Compound Nature of Soil Moisture Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Colin; Widmann, Martin; Bevacqua, Emanuele; Maraun, Douglas; Van Loon, Anne; Vrac, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture in Europe acts to partition incoming energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes, thereby exerting a large influence on temperature variability. Soil moisture is predominantly controlled by precipitation and evapotranspiration. When these meteorological variables are accumulated over different timescales, their joint multivariate distribution and dependence structure can be used to provide information of soil moisture. We therefore consider soil moisture drought as a compound event of meteorological drought (deficits of precipitation) and heat waves, or more specifically, periods of high Potential Evapotraspiration (PET). We present here a statistical model of soil moisture based on Pair Copula Constructions (PCC) that can describe the dependence amongst soil moisture and its contributing meteorological variables. The model is designed in such a way that it can account for concurrences of meteorological drought and heat waves and describe the dependence between these conditions at a local level. The model is composed of four variables; daily soil moisture (h); a short term and a long term accumulated precipitation variable (Y1 and Y_2) that account for the propagation of meteorological drought to soil moisture drought; and accumulated PET (Y_3), calculated using the Penman Monteith equation, which can represent the effect of a heat wave on soil conditions. Copula are multivariate distribution functions that allow one to model the dependence structure of given variables separately from their marginal behaviour. PCCs then allow in theory for the formulation of a multivariate distribution of any dimension where the multivariate distribution is decomposed into a product of marginal probability density functions and two-dimensional copula, of which some are conditional. We apply PCC here in such a way that allows us to provide estimates of h and their uncertainty through conditioning on the Y in the form h=h|y_1,y_2,y_3 (1) Applying the model to various

  15. Development of a Pharmacokinetic Model to Describe the Complex Pharmacokinetics of Pazopanib in Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huixin; van Erp, Nielka; Bins, Sander; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Steeghs, Neeltje; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2017-03-01

    Pazopanib is a multi-targeted anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitor. This study was conducted to develop a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model describing the complex pharmacokinetics of pazopanib in cancer patients. Pharmacokinetic data were available from 96 patients from three clinical studies. A multi-compartment model including (i) a complex absorption profile, (ii) the potential non-linear dose-concentration relationship and (iii) the potential long-term decrease in exposure was developed. A two-compartment model best described pazopanib pharmacokinetics. The absorption phase was modelled by two first-order processes: 36 % (relative standard error [RSE] 34 %) of the administered dose was absorbed with a relatively fast rate (0.4 h(-1) [RSE 31 %]); after a lag time of 1.0 h (RSE 6 %), the remaining dose was absorbed at a slower rate (0.1 h(-1) [RSE 28 %]). The relative bioavailability (rF) at a dose of 200 mg was fixed to 1. With an increasing dose, the rF was strongly reduced, which was modelled with an E max (maximum effect) model (E max was fixed to 1, the dose at half of maximum effect was estimated as 480 mg [RSE 23 %]). Interestingly, the plasma exposure to pazopanib also decreased over time, modelled on rF with a maximum magnitude of 50 % (RSE 27 %) and a first-order decay constant of 0.15 day(-1) (RSE 43 %). The inter-patient and intra-patient variability on rF were estimated as 36 % (RSE 16 %) and 75 % (RSE 22 %), respectively. A popPK model for pazopanib was developed that illustrated the complex absorption process, the non-linear dose-concentration relationship, the high inter-patient and intra-patient variability, and the first-order decay of pazopanib concentration over time. The developed popPK model can be used in clinical practice to screen covariates and guide therapeutic drug monitoring.

  16. Qualitative model of a plasma photoelectric converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, N. A.; Flamant, G.

    2009-01-01

    A converter of focused optical radiation into electric current is considered on the basis of the photovoltaic effect in plasmas. The converter model is based on analysis of asymmetric spatial distributions of charge particle number density and ambipolar potential in the photoplasma produced by external optical radiation focused in a heat pipe filled with a mixture of alkali vapor and a heavy inert gas. Energy balance in the plasma photoelectric converter is analyzed. The conditions in which the external radiation energy is effectively absorbed in the converter are indicated. The plasma parameters for which the energy of absorbed optical radiation is mainly spent on sustaining the ambipolar field in the plasma are determined. It is shown that the plasma photoelectric converter makes it possible to attain a high conversion efficiency for focused solar radiation.

  17. On the well-posedness of a mathematical model describing water-mud interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider a mathematical model describing the two-phase interaction between water and mud in a water canal when the width of the canal is small compared to its depth. The mud is treated as a non-Netwonian fluid and the interface between the mud and fluid is allowed to move under the influence of gravity and surface tension. We reduce the mathematical formulation, for small boundary and initial data, to a fully nonlocal and nonlinear problem and prove its local well-posedness by using abstract parabolic theory.

  18. Modeling approaches to describe H2O and CO2 exchange in mare ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, A.; Novenko, E.; Volkova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The modern climatic conditions is strongly influenced by both internal variability of climatic system, and various external natural and anthropogenic factors (IPCC 2007). Significant increase of concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and especially the growth of atmospheric CO2 due to human activity are considered as the main factors that are responsible for global warming and climate changes. A significant part of anthropogenic CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere by land biota and especially by vegetation cover. However, it is still not completely clear what is the role of different land ecosystems and especially forests and mares in global cycles of H2O and CO2 and what is a sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate changes. Within the frameworks of this study the spatial and temporal variability of H2O and CO2 fluxes in different types of mare ecosystems of the forest-steppe zone in European part of Russia was described using modeling approaches and results of field measurements. For this modeling and experimental study the mare ecosystems of Tula region were selected. The Tula region is located mostly in the forest-steppe zone and it is unique area for such studies because almost all existed types of mare ecosystems of Northern Eurasia distinguished by a geomorphological position, water and mineral supply can be found there. Most mares in Tula region have a relatively small size and surrounded by very heterogeneous forests that make not possible an application of the classical measuring and modeling approaches e.g. an eddy covariance technique or one-dimensional H2O and CO2 exchange models for flux estimation in such sites. In our study to describe the radiation, sensible heat, H2O and CO2 exchange between such heterogeneous mare ecosystems and the atmosphere a three-dimensional model Forbog-3D and one-dimensional Mixfor-SVAT were applied. The main concept used in the Forbog-3D and Mixfor-SVAT models is an aggregated description of physical and

  19. Analytical Model to Describe the Thermal Behavior of a Heat Discharge System in Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Gómez V.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes an analytical model which describes the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in roof, when the surfaces that constitute it are not translucent. Such a model derives from a thermal balance carried out to a heat discharge system in roofs. To validate it, an experimental prototype that allows simulating the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in wall and roof was used, and the results were compared to those obtained with the proposed analytical model. It was found that the thermal behavior of the analytical model is similar to the thermal behavior of the experimental prototype; a worthless variation was detected among their respective outcome (The difference of temperatures can be caused by the heat transfer coefficient, of which no studies defining its behavior accurately have been found. Therefore, it can be considered that the proposed analytical model can be employed to simulate the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in roofs when the surfaces that constitute it are opaque.

  20. A spatio-temporal model to describe the spread of Salmonella within a laying flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, Pascal; Viet, Anne-France; Magal, Pierre; Beaumont, Catherine

    2010-12-21

    Salmonella is one of the major sources of toxi-infection in humans, most often because of consumption of poultry products. The main reason for this association is the presence in hen flocks of silent carriers, i.e. animals harboring Salmonella without expressing any visible symptoms. Many prophylactic means have been developed to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella carrier-state. While none allows a total reduction of the risk, synergy could result in a drastic reduction of it. Evaluating the risk by modeling would be very useful to estimate such gain in food safety. Here, we propose an individual-based model which describes the spatio-temporal spread of Salmonella within a laying flock and takes into account the host response to bacterial infection. The model includes the individual bacterial load and the animals' ability to reduce it thanks to the immune response, i.e. maximum bacterial dose that the animals may resist without long term carriage and, when carriers, length of bacterial clearance. For model validation, we simulated the Salmonella spread under published experimental conditions. There was a good agreement between simulated and observed published data. This model will thus allow studying the effects, on the spatiotemporal distribution of the bacteria, of both mean and variability of different elements of host response.

  1. The stay/switch model describes choice among magnitudes of reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonall, James S

    2008-06-01

    The stay/switch model is an alternative to the generalized matching law for describing choice in concurrent procedures. The purpose of the present experiment was to extend this model to choice among magnitudes of reinforcers. Rats were exposed to conditions in which the magnitude of reinforcers (number of food pellets) varied for staying at alternative 1, switching from alternative 1, staying at alternative 2 and switching from alternative 2. A changeover delay was not used. The results showed that the stay/switch model provided a good account of the data overall, and deviations from fits of the generalized matching law to response allocation data were in the direction predicted by the stay/switch model. In addition, comparisons among specific conditions suggested that varying the ratio of obtained reinforcers, as in the generalized matching law, was not necessary to change the response and time allocations. Other comparisons suggested that varying the ratio of obtained reinforcers was not sufficient to change response allocation. Taken together these results provide additional support for the stay/switch model of concurrent choice.

  2. Cosmological models described by a mixture of van der Waals fluid and dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, G M

    2003-01-01

    The Universe is modeled as a binary mixture whose constituents are described by a van der Waals fluid and by a dark energy density. The dark energy density is considered either as the quintessence or as the Chaplygin gas. The irreversible processes concerning the energy transfer between the van der Waals fluid and the gravitational field are taken into account. This model can simulate: (a) an inflationary period where the acceleration grows exponentially and the van der Waals fluid behaves like an inflaton; (b) an inflationary period where the acceleration is positive but it decreases and tends to zero whereas the energy density of the van der Waals fluid decays; (c) a decelerated period which corresponds to a matter dominated period with a non-negative pressure; and (d) a present accelerated period where the dark energy density outweighs the energy density of the van der Waals fluid.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of a biofilm model describing mixed growth of nitrite oxidisers in a CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornaros, M; Dokianakis, S N; Lyberatos, G

    2006-01-01

    A simple kinetic model has been developed for describing nitrite oxidation by autotrophic aerobic nitrifiers in a CSTR reactor, in which mixed (suspended and attached) growth conditions are prevailing. In this work, a critical dimensionless parameter is identified containing both biofilm characteristics and microbial kinetic parameters, as well as the specific (per volume) surface of the reactor configuration used. Evaluation of this dimensionless parameter can easily provide information on whether or not wall attachment is critical, and should be taken into account either in kinetic studies or in reactor design, when specific pollutants are to be removed from the waste influent stream. The effect of bulk dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the validity of this model is addressed and minimum non-limiting DO concentrations are proposed depending on the reactor configuration.

  4. Pinning Properties of Commercial Nb-Ti Wires Described by a 2-Components Model

    CERN Document Server

    Muzzi, L; Zignani, Chiarasole Fiamozzi; De Marzi, Gianluca; Muzzi, Luigi; Dominguez, Cesar Octavio; Bottura, Luca; Napolitano, Mathieu; Viola, Rosario; Affinito, Luigi; della Corte, Antonio; Le Naour, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    We report on the magnetic and transport characterization of different NbTi commercial strands, carried out at variable temperature and magnetic field. From the critical current densities extracted from transport measurements and magnetization cycles we were able to calculate the normalized bulk pinning forces. The curves show good temperature scaling throughout the explored temperature range, and the reduced pinning force can be described by a simple two-components model system. The extension of the 2-components description of the pinning force to an expression for the critical current density gives a very good agreement with experimental measurements over the whole explored B, T range. The model works for all investigated samples, which are different in size, Cu:nonCu ratios, filament diameters and layouts. These results suggest that pinning mechanisms in conventional NbTi strands should be revised, since Nb-Ti composition gradients and grain boundaries seems to play a not negligible role.

  5. Describing different brain computer interface systems through a unique model: a UML implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Lucia Rita; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Bianchi, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    All the protocols currently implemented in brain computer interface (BCI) experiments are characterized by different structural and temporal entities. Moreover, due to the lack of a unique descriptive model for BCI systems, there is not a standard way to define the structure and the timing of a BCI experimental session among different research groups and there is also great discordance on the meaning of the most common terms dealing with BCI, such as trial, run and session. The aim of this paper is to provide a unified modeling language (UML) implementation of BCI systems through a unique dynamic model which is able to describe the main protocols defined in the literature (P300, mu-rhythms, SCP, SSVEP, fMRI) and demonstrates to be reasonable and adjustable according to different requirements. This model includes a set of definitions of the typical entities encountered in a BCI, diagrams which explain the structural correlations among them and a detailed description of the timing of a trial. This last represents an innovation with respect to the models already proposed in the literature. The UML documentation and the possibility of adapting this model to the different BCI systems built to date, make it a basis for the implementation of new systems and a mean for the unification and dissemination of resources. The model with all the diagrams and definitions reported in the paper are the core of the body language framework, a free set of routines and tools for the implementation, optimization and delivery of cross-platform BCI systems.

  6. A genetic investigation of various growth models to describe growth of lambs of two contrasting breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, N R; Navajas, E A; Simm, G; Bünger, L

    2006-10-01

    This study compared the use of various models to describe growth in lambs of 2 contrasting breeds from birth to slaughter. Live BW records (n = 7559) from 240 Texel and 231 Scottish Blackface (SBF) lambs weighed at 2-wk intervals were modeled. Biologically relevant variables were estimated for each lamb from modified versions of the logistic, Gompertz, Richards, and exponential models, and from linear regression. In both breeds, all nonlinear models fitted the data well, with an average coefficient of determination (R2) of > 0.98. The linear model had a lower average R2 than any of the nonlinear models (growth patterns, but the Akaike's information criteria value (which weighs log-likelihood by number of parameters estimated) was similar to that of the Gompertz model. Variables A, B, C, and D were moderately to highly heritable in Texel lambs (h2 = 0.33 to 0.87), and genetic correlations between variables within-model ranged from -0.80 to 0.89, suggesting some flexibility to change the shape of the growth curve when selecting for different variables. In SBF lambs, only variables from the logistic and Gompertz models had moderate heritabilities (0.17 to 0.56), but with high genetic correlations between variables within each model ( 0.92). Selection on growth variables seems promising (in Texel more than SBF), but high genetic correlations between variables may restrict the possibilities to change the growth curve shape. A random regression model was also fitted to the data to allow predictions of growth rates at relevant time points. Heritabilities for growth rates differed markedly at various stages of growth and between the 2 breeds (Texel: 0.14 to 0.74; SBF: 0.07 to 0.34), with negative correlations between growth rate at 60 d of age and growth rate at finishing. Following these results, future studies should investigate genetic relationships between relevant growth curve variables and other important production traits, such as carcass composition and meat

  7. Introducing mixotrophy into a biogeochemical model describing an eutrophied coastal ecosystem: The Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyoot, Caroline; Lancelot, Christiane; Flynn, Kevin J.; Mitra, Aditee; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    Most biogeochemical/ecological models divide planktonic protists between phototrophs (phytoplankton) and heterotrophs (zooplankton). However, a large number of planktonic protists are able to combine several mechanisms of carbon and nutrient acquisition. Not representing these multiple mechanisms in biogeochemical/ecological models describing eutrophied coastal ecosystems can potentially lead to different conclusions regarding ecosystem functioning, especially regarding the success of harmful algae, which are often reported as mixotrophic. This modelling study investigates, for the first time, the implications for trophic dynamics of including 3 contrasting forms of mixotrophy, namely osmotrophy (using alkaline phosphatase activity, APA), non-constitutive mixotrophy (acquired phototrophy by microzooplankton) and also constitutive mixotrophy. The application is in the Southern North Sea, an ecosystem that faced, between 1985 and 2005, a significant increase in the nutrient supply N:P ratio (from 31 to 81 mole N:P). The comparison with a traditional model shows that, when the winter N:P ratio in the Southern North Sea is above 22 molN molP-1 (as occurred from mid-1990s), APA allows a 3 to 32% increase of annual gross primary production (GPP). In result of the higher GPP, the annual sedimentation increases as well as the bacterial production. By contrast, APA does not affect the export of matter to higher trophic levels because the increased GPP is mainly due to Phaeocystis colonies, which are not grazed by copepods. The effect of non-constitutive mixotrophy depends on light and affects the ecosystem functioning in terms of annual GPP, transfer to higher trophic levels, sedimentation, and nutrient remineralisation. Constitutive mixotrophy in nanoflagellates appears to have little influence on this ecosystem functioning. An important conclusion from this work is that different forms of mixotrophy have different impacts on system dynamics and it is thus important to

  8. A simple model describes large individual differences in simultaneous colour contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2009-09-01

    We report experimental evidence for substantial individual differences in the susceptibility to simultaneous colour contrast. Interestingly, we found that not only the general amount of colour induction varies across observers, but also the general shape of the curves describing asymmetric matching data. A simple model based on von Kries adaptation and crispening describes the data rather well when we regard its free parameters as observer specific. We argue that the von Kries component reflects the action of a temporal adaptation mechanism, while the crispening component describes the action of the instantaneous, purely spatial mechanism most appropriately labeled simultaneous colour contrast. An interesting consequence of this view is that traditional ideas about the general characteristics of simultaneous contrast must be considered as misleading. According to Kirschmann's 4th law, for instance, the simultaneous contrast effect should increase with increasing saturation of the surround, but crispening predicts the converse. Based on this reasoning, we offer a plausible explanation for the mixed evidence on the validity of Kirschmann's 4th law. We also argue that simultaneous contrast, the crispening effect, Meyer's effect and the gamut expansion effect are just different names for the same basic phenomenon.

  9. Improving uncertainty estimation in urban hydrological modeling by statistically describing bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Del Giudice

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic models are useful tools for urban water management. Unfortunately, it is still challenging to obtain accurate results and plausible uncertainty estimates when using these models. In particular, with the currently applied statistical techniques, flow predictions are usually overconfident and biased. In this study, we present a flexible and computationally efficient methodology (i to obtain more reliable hydrological simulations in terms of coverage of validation data by the uncertainty bands and (ii to separate prediction uncertainty into its components. Our approach acknowledges that urban drainage predictions are biased. This is mostly due to input errors and structural deficits of the model. We address this issue by describing model bias in a Bayesian framework. The bias becomes an autoregressive term additional to white measurement noise, the only error type accounted for in traditional uncertainty analysis in urban hydrology. To allow for bigger discrepancies during wet weather, we make the variance of bias dependent on the input (rainfall or/and output (runoff of the system. Specifically, we present a structured approach to select, among five variants, the optimal bias description for a given urban or natural case study. We tested the methodology in a small monitored stormwater system described by means of a parsimonious model. Our results clearly show that flow simulations are much more reliable when bias is accounted for than when it is neglected. Furthermore, our probabilistic predictions can discriminate between three uncertainty contributions: parametric uncertainty, bias (due to input and structural errors, and measurement errors. In our case study, the best performing bias description was the output-dependent bias using a log-sinh transformation of data and model results. The limitations of the framework presented are some ambiguity due to the subjective choice of priors for bias parameters and its inability to directly

  10. Evaluation of the quasi correlated tight-binding (QCTB) model for describing polyradical character in polycyclic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzanov, Anatoliy V.; Plasser, Felix; Das, Anita; Lischka, Hans

    2017-02-01

    We present a verification and significant algorithmic improvement of the quasi-correlation tight-binding (QCTB) scheme (a Hückel-Hubbard-type model mimicking electron correlation) for describing effectively unpaired electrons in the spirit of Head-Gordon's approach [M. Head-Gordon, Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 488 (2003)]. For comparison purposes, results based on the high-level ab initio multireference averaged quadratic coupled cluster method previously computed in our works are invoked. In doing so, typical polyaromatic hydrocarbons (polyacenes, periacenes, zethrenes, and the Clar goblet) are studied. The evaluation shows that the QCTB Hückel-like scheme extended for electron correlation effects provides a qualitatively and in several cases also quantitatively good picture of the unpairing electrons in formally closed-shell electronic systems. Additionally, fairly large nanographene systems of triangulene structure (C426) and a perforated nanoribbon (C8860) have been treated at QCTB level. Two analytical model problems in the framework of QCTB prove the ability of this approximation to give a correct description of natural orbital occupancy spectra. For the studied QCTB scheme, an efficient algorithm is elaborated, and large-scale calculations of radical characteristics for nanographene networks with thousands of carbon atoms are possible.

  11. Relevance and limitations of crowding, fractal, and polymer models to describe nuclear architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Sébastien; Lavelle, Christophe; Ranchon, Hubert; Carrivain, Pascal; Victor, Jean-Marc; Bancaud, Aurélien

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome architecture plays an essential role for all nuclear functions, and its physical description has attracted considerable interest over the last few years among the biophysics community. These researches at the frontiers of physics and biology have been stimulated by the demand for quantitative analysis of molecular biology experiments, which provide comprehensive data on chromosome folding, or of live cell imaging experiments that enable researchers to visualize selected chromosome loci in living or fixed cells. In this review our goal is to survey several nonmutually exclusive models that have emerged to describe the folding of DNA in the nucleus, the dynamics of proteins in the nucleoplasm, or the movements of chromosome loci. We focus on three classes of models, namely molecular crowding, fractal, and polymer models, draw comparisons, and discuss their merits and limitations in the context of chromosome structure and dynamics, or nuclear protein navigation in the nucleoplasm. Finally, we identify future challenges in the roadmap to a unified model of the nuclear environment.

  12. Species-free species distribution models describe macroecological properties of protected area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Among the greatest challenges facing the conservation of plants and animal species in protected areas are threats from a rapidly changing climate. An altered climate creates both challenges and opportunities for improving the management of protected areas in networks. Increasingly, quantitative tools like species distribution modeling are used to assess the performance of protected areas and predict potential responses to changing climates for groups of species, within a predictive framework. At larger geographic domains and scales, protected area network units have spatial geoclimatic properties that can be described in the gap analysis typically used to measure or aggregate the geographic distributions of species (stacked species distribution models, or S-SDM). We extend the use of species distribution modeling techniques in order to model the climate envelope (or “footprint”) of individual protected areas within a network of protected areas distributed across the 48 conterminous United States and managed by the US National Park System. In our approach we treat each protected area as the geographic range of a hypothetical endemic species, then use MaxEnt and 5 uncorrelated BioClim variables to model the geographic distribution of the climatic envelope associated with each protected area unit (modeling the geographic area of park units as the range of a species). We describe the individual and aggregated climate envelopes predicted by a large network of 163 protected areas and briefly illustrate how macroecological measures of geodiversity can be derived from our analysis of the landscape ecological context of protected areas. To estimate trajectories of change in the temporal distribution of climatic features within a protected area network, we projected the climate envelopes of protected areas in current conditions onto a dataset of predicted future climatic conditions. Our results suggest that the climate envelopes of some parks may be locally unique or

  13. Species-free species distribution models describe macroecological properties of protected area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason L; Fordyce, James A

    2017-01-01

    Among the greatest challenges facing the conservation of plants and animal species in protected areas are threats from a rapidly changing climate. An altered climate creates both challenges and opportunities for improving the management of protected areas in networks. Increasingly, quantitative tools like species distribution modeling are used to assess the performance of protected areas and predict potential responses to changing climates for groups of species, within a predictive framework. At larger geographic domains and scales, protected area network units have spatial geoclimatic properties that can be described in the gap analysis typically used to measure or aggregate the geographic distributions of species (stacked species distribution models, or S-SDM). We extend the use of species distribution modeling techniques in order to model the climate envelope (or "footprint") of individual protected areas within a network of protected areas distributed across the 48 conterminous United States and managed by the US National Park System. In our approach we treat each protected area as the geographic range of a hypothetical endemic species, then use MaxEnt and 5 uncorrelated BioClim variables to model the geographic distribution of the climatic envelope associated with each protected area unit (modeling the geographic area of park units as the range of a species). We describe the individual and aggregated climate envelopes predicted by a large network of 163 protected areas and briefly illustrate how macroecological measures of geodiversity can be derived from our analysis of the landscape ecological context of protected areas. To estimate trajectories of change in the temporal distribution of climatic features within a protected area network, we projected the climate envelopes of protected areas in current conditions onto a dataset of predicted future climatic conditions. Our results suggest that the climate envelopes of some parks may be locally unique or have

  14. Development of a Composite Non-Electrostatic Surface Complexation Model Describing Plutonium Sorption to Aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, B A; Kersting, A; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2008-10-28

    Due to their ubiquity in nature and chemical reactivity, aluminosilicate minerals play an important role in retarding actinide subsurface migration. However, very few studies have examined Pu interaction with clay minerals in sufficient detail to produce a credible mechanistic model of its behavior. In this work, Pu(IV) and Pu(V) interactions with silica, gibbsite (Aloxide), and Na-montmorillonite (smectite clay) were examined as a function of time and pH. Sorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) to gibbsite and silica increased with pH (4 to 10). The Pu(V) sorption edge shifted to lower pH values over time and approached that of Pu(IV). This behavior is apparently due to surface mediated reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV). Surface complexation constants describing Pu(IV)/Pu(V) sorption to aluminol and silanol groups were developed from the silica and gibbsite sorption experiments and applied to the montmorillonite dataset. The model provided an acceptable fit to the montmorillonite sorption data for Pu(V). In order to accurately predict Pu(IV) sorption to montmorillonite, the model required inclusion of ion exchange. The objective of this work is to measure the sorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) to silica, gibbsite, and smectite (montmorillonite). Aluminosilicate minerals are ubiquitous at the Nevada National Security Site and improving our understanding of Pu sorption to aluminosilicates (smectite clays in particular) is essential to the accurate prediction of Pu transport rates. These data will improve the mechanistic approach for modeling the hydrologic source term (HST) and provide sorption Kd parameters for use in CAU models. In both alluvium and tuff, aluminosilicates have been found to play a dominant role in the radionuclide retardation because their abundance is typically more than an order of magnitude greater than other potential sorbing minerals such as iron and manganese oxides (e.g. Vaniman et al., 1996). The sorption database used in recent HST models (Carle et al., 2006

  15. a New Model for Describing Evolution and Control of Disaster System Including Instantaneous and Continuous Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Kun; Li, Zhi; Sun, Yun-Feng

    A new model for describing the disaster system including instantaneous and continuous action synchronously has been developed. The model is composed of three primary parts, that is, the impact from its causative disaster events, stochastic noise of disaster node and self-healing function, and every part is modeled concretely in terms of their characteristics in practice. Some key parameters, namely link appearance probability, retardation coefficient, ultimate repair capacity of government, dynamical modes considering different disaster evolving chains, and the positions of link with the specific performance in disaster network system are involved. Combined with a case study, the proposed model is applied to a certain disaster evolution system, and the influence law of different parameters on disaster evolution process, in disaster networks with instantaneous-action and/or continuous-action, is presented and compared. The results indicate that the destructive impact in the networks by link in continuous action is far greater an order of magnitude than that in instantaneous action. If a link in continuous action emerges in the disaster network system, properties of the causative event for the link, link appearance probability and its position in the network all have a notable influence to the severity of the disaster network. In addition, some peculiar phenomena are also commendably observed in the disaster evolution process based on the model, such as the multipeaks emerging in the destroyed rate number curve for some crisis nodes caused by their various inducing paths together with the relevant retardation coefficients, the existence of the critical value for ultimate repair capacity to recover the disaster node, and so on.

  16. A spatial age-structured model for describing sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason M.; Wilberg, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The control of invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) presents large scale management challenges in the Laurentian Great Lakes. No modeling approach has been developed that describes spatial dynamics of lamprey populations. We developed and validated a spatial and age-structured model and applied it to a sea lamprey population in a large river in the Great Lakes basin. We considered 75 discrete spatial areas, included a stock-recruitment function, spatial recruitment patterns, natural mortality, chemical treatment mortality, and larval metamorphosis. Recruitment was variable, and an upstream shift in recruitment location was observed over time. From 1993–2011 recruitment, larval abundance, and the abundance of metamorphosing individuals decreased by 80, 84, and 86%, respectively. The model successfully identified areas of high larval abundance and showed that areas of low larval density contribute significantly to the population. Estimated treatment mortality was less than expected but had a large population-level impact. The results and general approach of this work have applications for sea lamprey control throughout the Great Lakes and for the restoration and conservation of native lamprey species globally.

  17. Reaction norm model to describe environmental sensitivity across first lactation in dairy cattle under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; El Faro, Lenira; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Ayres, Denise Rocha; Machado, Paulo Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Santana, Mário Luiz

    2015-10-01

    Reaction norm models have been widely used to study genotype by environment interaction (G × E) in animal breeding. The objective of this study was to describe environmental sensitivity across first lactation in Brazilian Holstein cows using a reaction norm approach. A total of 50,168 individual monthly test day (TD) milk yields (10 test days) from 7476 complete first lactations of Holstein cattle were analyzed. The statistical models for all traits (10 TDs and for 305-day milk yield) included the fixed effects of contemporary group, age of cow (linear and quadratic effects), and days in milk (linear effect), except for 305-day milk yield. A hierarchical reaction norm model (HRNM) based on the unknown covariate was used. The present study showed the presence of G × E in milk yield across first lactation of Holstein cows. The variation in the heritability estimates implies differences in the response to selection depending on the environment where the animals of this population are evaluated. In the average environment, the heritabilities for all traits were rather similar, in range from 0.02 to 0.63. The scaling effect of G × E predominated throughout most of lactation. Particularly during the first 2 months of lactation, G × E caused reranking of breeding values. It is therefore important to include the environmental sensitivity of animals according to the phase of lactation in the genetic evaluations of Holstein cattle in tropical environments.

  18. Two—Dimensional Mathematical Model and Numerical Simulation Describing the Melting Process of Cylindrical Basalt Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanQuanying; ShangDeku; 等

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to describe the melting process of cylindrical basalt particle bed in a crucible.The melting processes with respect to the factors of thermal boundary conditions and particle sizes of basalt were simulated by using the numerical method (FDM).The governing equations were discretized in tridiagonal matrix form and were solved by using the tridiagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA) as well as the alternative direction implicit(ADI) solver.The temperature distribution,the moving law of the two dimensional phase-change boundaries the thermal current distribution were given through the numerical simulation.The results provided a theoretical basis for deciding heating procedure,for evaluating power import and controlling furnace temperature and for predicting basalt melting states etc.In the experiment,an electrical furnace was designed based on the computations.It has been proved that the simulation results are reasonably coincident with the experimental data.

  19. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design Using Describing Function Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nassirharand, Amir

    2012-01-01

    A systematic computer-aided approach provides a versatile setting for the control engineer to overcome the complications of controller design for highly nonlinear systems. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design provides such an approach based on the use of describing functions. The text deals with a large class of nonlinear systems without restrictions on the system order, the number of inputs and/or outputs or the number, type or arrangement of nonlinear terms. The strongly software-oriented methods detailed facilitate fulfillment of tight performance requirements and help the designer to think in purely nonlinear terms, avoiding the expedient of linearization which can impose substantial and unrealistic model limitations and drive up the cost of the final product. Design procedures are presented in a step-by-step algorithmic format each step being a functional unit with outputs that drive the other steps. This procedure may be easily implemented on a digital computer with example problems from mecha...

  20. The exotic characteristics of centauro-I: a model to describe Centauro-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Akinori [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Shibuya, Edison H [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13081 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tamada, Masanobu [School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    In our previous paper on Centauro-I (Ohsawa et al 2004 Phys. Rev. D 70 074028), we showed that the shower cluster, found in the block I12 of the lower chamber, is produced in the target layer by a number of hadrons with appreciable lateral spread. These hadrons are accompanied by no (or one at most) {gamma}-ray(s) with energy above detection threshold, and produce no shower in the upper chamber but 28 visible C-jets (with the visible energy more than 2 TeV) in the target layer. These characteristics are quite exotic and unable to be described by a fluctuation of ordinary atmospheric families. In the present paper, we propose a model of strange quark matter (SQM) among the primary cosmic rays to describe the exotic features of the event. A large SQM droplet enters the atmosphere and fragments into a bundle of small strangelets in the atmosphere without emission of {gamma}-rays, and these small strangelets explode into nucleons in the upper chamber. The number of collisions in the upper chamber is estimated to be as small as 3-4 in contrast to 20-30 collisions in the target layer. We discuss the intensity of Centauro-I together with the exotic events observed by the balloon and satellite experiments, which were also ascribed to strange quark matter.

  1. Inclusion of models to describe severe accident conditions in the fuel simulation code DIONISIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Martín; Soba, Alejandro [Sección Códigos y Modelos, Gerencia Ciclo del Combustible Nuclear, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Daverio, Hernando [Gerencia Reactores y Centrales Nucleares, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Denis, Alicia [Sección Códigos y Modelos, Gerencia Ciclo del Combustible Nuclear, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-04-15

    The simulation of fuel rod behavior is a complex task that demands not only accurate models to describe the numerous phenomena occurring in the pellet, cladding and internal rod atmosphere but also an adequate interconnection between them. In the last years several models have been incorporated to the DIONISIO code with the purpose of increasing its precision and reliability. After the regrettable events at Fukushima, the need for codes capable of simulating nuclear fuels under accident conditions has come forth. Heat removal occurs in a quite different way than during normal operation and this fact determines a completely new set of conditions for the fuel materials. A detailed description of the different regimes the coolant may exhibit in such a wide variety of scenarios requires a thermal-hydraulic formulation not suitable to be included in a fuel performance code. Moreover, there exist a number of reliable and famous codes that perform this task. Nevertheless, and keeping in mind the purpose of building a code focused on the fuel behavior, a subroutine was developed for the DIONISIO code that performs a simplified analysis of the coolant in a PWR, restricted to the more representative situations and provides to the fuel simulation the boundary conditions necessary to reproduce accidental situations. In the present work this subroutine is described and the results of different comparisons with experimental data and with thermal-hydraulic codes are offered. It is verified that, in spite of its comparative simplicity, the predictions of this module of DIONISIO do not differ significantly from those of the specific, complex codes.

  2. Theoretical models for describing longitudinal bunch compression in the neutralized drift compression experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Sefkow

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ion drivers for warm dense matter and heavy ion fusion applications use intense charge bunches which must undergo transverse and longitudinal compression in order to meet the requisite high current densities and short pulse durations desired at the target. The neutralized drift compression experiment (NDCX at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is used to study the longitudinal neutralized drift compression of a space-charge-dominated ion beam, which occurs due to an imposed longitudinal velocity tilt and subsequent neutralization of the beam’s space charge by background plasma. Reduced theoretical models have been used in order to describe the realistic propagation of an intense charge bunch through the NDCX device. A warm-fluid model is presented as a tractable computational tool for investigating the nonideal effects associated with the experimental acceleration gap geometry and voltage waveform of the induction module, which acts as a means to pulse shape both the velocity and line density profiles. Self-similar drift compression solutions can be realized in order to transversely focus the entire charge bunch to the same focal plane in upcoming simultaneous transverse and longitudinal focusing experiments. A kinetic formalism based on the Vlasov equation has been employed in order to show that the peaks in the experimental current profiles are a result of the fact that only the central portion of the beam contributes effectively to the main compressed pulse. Significant portions of the charge bunch reside in the nonlinearly compressing part of the ion beam because of deviations between the experimental and ideal velocity tilts. Those regions form a pedestal of current around the central peak, thereby decreasing the amount of achievable longitudinal compression and increasing the pulse durations achieved at the focal plane. A hybrid fluid-Vlasov model which retains the advantages of both the fluid and kinetic approaches has been

  3. Using the ecology model to describe the impact of asthma on patterns of health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawn Barbara P

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma changes both the volume and patterns of healthcare of affected people. Most studies of asthma health care utilization have been done in selected insured populations or in a single site such as the emergency department. Asthma is an ambulatory sensitive care condition making it important to understand the relationship between care in all sites across the health service spectrum. Asthma is also more common in people with fewer economic resources making it important to include people across all types of insurance and no insurance categories. The ecology of medical care model may provide a useful framework to describe the use of health services in people with asthma compared to those without asthma and identify subgroups with apparent gaps in care. Methods This is a case-control study using the 1999 U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Cases are school-aged children (6 to 17 years and young adults (18 to 44 years with self-reported asthma. Controls are from the same age groups who have no self-reported asthma. Descriptive analyses and risk ratios are placed within the ecology of medical care model and used to describe and compare the healthcare contact of cases and controls across multiple settings. Results In 1999, the presence of asthma significantly increased the likelihood of an ambulatory care visit by 20 to 30% and more than doubled the likelihood of making one or more visits to the emergency department (ED. Yet, 18.8% of children and 14.5% of adults with asthma (over a million Americans had no ambulatory care visits for asthma. About one in 20 to 35 people with asthma (5.2% of children and 3.6% of adults were seen in the ED or hospital but had no prior or follow-up ambulatory care visits. These Americans were more likely to be uninsured, have no usual source of care and live in metropolitan areas. Conclusion The ecology model confirmed that having asthma changes the likelihood and pattern of care for Americans

  4. Introducing mixotrophy into a biogeochemical model describing an eutrophied coastal ecosystem: The Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyoot, Caroline; Lancelot, Christiane; Flynn, Kevin J.; Mitra, Aditee; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-09-01

    Most biogeochemical/ecological models divide planktonic protists between phototrophs (phytoplankton) and heterotrophs (zooplankton). However, a large number of planktonic protists are able to combine several mechanisms of carbon and nutrient acquisition. Not representing these multiple mechanisms in biogeochemical/ecological models describing eutrophied coastal ecosystems can potentially lead to different conclusions regarding ecosystem functioning, especially regarding the success of harmful algae, which are often reported as mixotrophic. This modelling study investigates the implications for trophic dynamics of including 3 contrasting forms of mixotrophy, namely osmotrophy (using alkaline phosphatase activity, APA), non-constitutive mixotrophy (acquired phototrophy by microzooplankton) and also constitutive mixotrophy. The application is in the Southern North Sea, an ecosystem that faced, between 1985 and 2005, a significant increase in the nutrient supply N:P ratio (from 31 to 81 mol N:P). The comparison with a traditional model shows that, when the winter N:P ratio in the Southern North Sea is above 22 molN molP-1 (as occurred from mid-1990s), APA allows a 3-32% increase of annual gross primary production (GPP). In result of the higher GPP, the annual sedimentation increases as well as the bacterial production. By contrast, APA does not affect the export of matter to higher trophic levels because the increased GPP is mainly due to Phaeocystis colonies, which are not grazed by copepods. Under high irradiance, non-constitutive mixotrophy appreciably increases annual GPP, transfer to higher trophic levels, sedimentation, and nutrient remineralisation. In this ecosystem, non-constitutive mixotrophy is also observed to have an indirect stimulating effect on diatoms. Constitutive mixotrophy in nanoflagellates appears to have little influence on this ecosystem functioning. An important conclusion from this work is that contrasting forms of mixotrophy have different

  5. Downscaling SSPs in the GBM Delta - Integrating Science, Modelling and Stakeholders Through Qualitative and Quantitative Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Andrew; Barbour, Emily; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Munsur Rahman, Md.; Hutton, Craig; Lazar, Attila

    2016-04-01

    A downscaled scenario development process was adopted in the context of a project seeking to understand relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The aim was to link the concerns and priorities of relevant stakeholders with the integrated biophysical and poverty models used in the project. A 2-stage process was used to facilitate the connection between stakeholders concerns and available modelling capacity: the first to qualitatively describe what the future might look like in 2050; the second to translate these qualitative descriptions into the quantitative form required by the numerical models. An extended, modified SSP approach was adopted, with stakeholders downscaling issues identified through interviews as being priorities for the southwest of Bangladesh. Detailed qualitative futures were produced, before modellable elements were quantified in conjunction with an expert stakeholder cadre. Stakeholder input, using the methods adopted here, allows the top-down focus of the RCPs to be aligned with the bottom-up approach needed to make the SSPs appropriate at the more local scale, and also facilitates the translation of qualitative narrative scenarios into a quantitative form that lends itself to incorporation of biophysical and socio-economic indicators. The presentation will describe the downscaling process in detail, and conclude with findings regarding the importance of stakeholder involvement (and logistical considerations), balancing model capacity with expectations and recommendations on SSP refinement at local levels.

  6. Downscaling SSPs in Bangladesh - Integrating Science, Modelling and Stakeholders Through Qualitative and Quantitative Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, A.; Barbour, E.; Salehin, M.; Hutton, C.; Lázár, A. N.; Nicholls, R. J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    A downscaled scenario development process was adopted in the context of a project seeking to understand relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The aim was to link the concerns and priorities of relevant stakeholders with the integrated biophysical and poverty models used in the project. A 2-stage process was used to facilitate the connection between stakeholders concerns and available modelling capacity: the first to qualitatively describe what the future might look like in 2050; the second to translate these qualitative descriptions into the quantitative form required by the numerical models. An extended, modified SSP approach was adopted, with stakeholders downscaling issues identified through interviews as being priorities for the southwest of Bangladesh. Detailed qualitative futures were produced, before modellable elements were quantified in conjunction with an expert stakeholder cadre. Stakeholder input, using the methods adopted here, allows the top-down focus of the RCPs to be aligned with the bottom-up approach needed to make the SSPs appropriate at the more local scale, and also facilitates the translation of qualitative narrative scenarios into a quantitative form that lends itself to incorporation of biophysical and socio-economic indicators. The presentation will describe the downscaling process in detail, and conclude with findings regarding the importance of stakeholder involvement (and logistical considerations), balancing model capacity with expectations and recommendations on SSP refinement at local levels.

  7. Can Ising model and/or QKPZ equation properly describe reactive-wetting interface dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efraim, Yael; Taitelbaum, Haim

    2009-09-01

    The reactive-wetting process, e.g. spreading of a liquid droplet on a reactive substrate is known as a complex, non-linear process with high sensitivity to minor fluctuations. The dynamics and geometry of the interface (triple line) between the materials is supposed to shed light on the main mechanisms of the process. We recently studied a room temperature reactive-wetting system of a small (˜ 150 μm) Hg droplet that spreads on a thin (˜ 4000 Å) Ag substrate. We calculated the kinetic roughening exponents (growth and roughness), as well as the persistence exponent of points on the advancing interface. In this paper we address the question whether there exists a well-defined model to describe the interface dynamics of this system, by performing two sets of numerical simulations. The first one is a simulation of an interface propagating according to the QKPZ equation, and the second one is a landscape of an Ising chain with ferromagnetic interactions in zero temperature. We show that none of these models gives a full description of the dynamics of the experimental reactivewetting system, but each one of them has certain common growth properties with it. We conjecture that this results from a microscopic behavior different from the macroscopic one. The microscopic mechanism, reflected by the persistence exponent, resembles the Ising behavior, while in the macroscopic scale, exemplified by the growth exponent, the dynamics looks more like the QKPZ dynamics.

  8. Stochastic lattice gas model describing the dynamics of the SIRS epidemic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, David R.; Tomé, Tânia

    2010-03-01

    We study a stochastic process describing the onset of spreading dynamics of an epidemic in a population composed of individuals of three classes: susceptible (S), infected (I), and recovered (R). The stochastic process is defined by local rules and involves the following cyclic process: S → I → R → S (SIRS). The open process S → I → R (SIR) is studied as a particular case of the SIRS process. The epidemic process is analyzed at different levels of description: by a stochastic lattice gas model and by a birth and death process. By means of Monte Carlo simulations and dynamical mean-field approximations we show that the SIRS stochastic lattice gas model exhibit a line of critical points separating the two phases: an absorbing phase where the lattice is completely full of S individuals and an active phase where S, I and R individuals coexist, which may or may not present population cycles. The critical line, that corresponds to the onset of epidemic spreading, is shown to belong in the directed percolation universality class. By considering the birth and death process we analyze the role of noise in stabilizing the oscillations.

  9. An estrogen receptor model to describe the regulation of prolactin synthesis by antiestrogens in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, M E; Gorski, J; Jordan, V C

    1983-04-25

    A hypothetical model of the ligand interaction with the estrogen receptor binding site has been developed to describe the structural features necessary to initiate or to inhibit prolactin synthesis in vitro. The biological potency of the binding ligands is directly related to their relative binding affinity (RBA) for the estrogen receptor. The relative potencies of antiestrogens to inhibit estradiol-stimulated prolactin synthesis was trans-monohydroxytamoxifen identical to cis-monohydroxytamoxifen identical to tamoxifen, consistent with their RBAs for uterine estrogen receptor. Similarly the relative potency of estrogens to stimulate prolactin synthesis was diethylstilbestrol identical to estradiol greater than ICI 77,949 greater than ICI 47,699 identical to zuclomiphene, consistent with their RBAs. The compound LY126412 (trioxifene without the aminoethoxy side chain) did not interact with the estrogen receptor at the concentrations tested (10(-8)--10(-6) M) or exhibit estrogenic or antiestrogenic properties using the prolactin synthesis assay. Overall, the ligand-receptor model stresses the structural requirement for high affinity binding and the critical positioning of the alkylamino-ethoxy side chain in space (in relation to the ligand-binding site on the estrogen receptor) to prevent prolactin synthesis.

  10. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF ANTIFERROMAGNETIC STRUCTURES DESCRIBED BY THE THREE-VERTEX ANTIFERROMAGNETIC POTTS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarash K. Abuev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives A computer simulation of the antiferromagnetic structures described by the three-vertex Potts model on a triangular lattice is performed, taking into account the antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the nearest J1 and second J2 neighbours. The main goal of the computer simulation was to elucidate the effects of ground state and areas of frustration on the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic structures described by the lowdimensional Potts model. Method The computer simulation is based on the Monte Carlo method. This method is implemented using the Metropolis algorithm in combination with the Wolff claster algorithm. The computer simulation was carried out for low-dimensional systems with periodic boundary conditions and linear dimensions L = 24124. Results On the basis of heat capacity and entropy analysis, phase transitions were observed in the considered model to possess exchange interaction parameters J1 <0 and J2 <0 in the variation intervals 0r<0.2 and 1.0

  11. Gamma distribution model describes maturational curves for delta wave amplitude, cortical metabolic rate and synaptic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, I; Thode, H C; Chugani, H T; March, J D

    1990-01-23

    We analyzed the available ontogenetic data (birth to 30 years of age) for: amplitude of delta EEG (DA) waves during sleep; cortical metabolic rate (CMR) measured with positron emission tomography; and synaptic density (SD) in frontal cortex. Each is at the adult level at birth, increases to about twice this level by 3 years of age, and then gradually falls back to the adult level over the next two decades. Statistical analyses revealed that individual gamma distribution models fit each data set as well as did the best ad hoc polynomial. A test of whether a single gamma distribution model could describe all three data sets gave good results for DA and CMR but the fit was unsatisfactory for SD. However, because so few data were available for SD, this test was not conclusive. We proposed the following model to account for these changes. First, cortical neurons are stimulated by birth to enter a proliferative state (PS) that creates many connections. Next, as a result of interactions in the PS, neurons are triggered into a transient organizational state (OS) in which they make enduring connections. The OS has a finite duration (minutes to years), and is characterized by high rates of information-processing and metabolism. Levels of CMR, SD and DA, therefore, are proportional to the number of neurons in the OS at any time. Thus, the cortex after birth duplicates, over a vastly greater time scale, the overproduction and regression of neural elements that occurs repeatedly in embryonic development. Finally, we discussed the implications of post-natal brain changes for normal and abnormal brain function. Mental disorders that have their onset after puberty (notably schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychoses) might be caused by errors in these late maturational processes. In addition to age of onset, this neurodevelopmental hypothesis might explain several other puzzling features of these subtle disorders.

  12. A Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of 8 Clear Sky Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneton, Eric

    2016-10-27

    We provide a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of 8 clear sky models used in Computer Graphics. We compare the models with each other as well as with measurements and with a reference model from the physics community. After a short summary of the physics of the problem, we present the measurements and the reference model, and how we "invert" it to get the model parameters. We then give an overview of each CG model, and detail its scope, its algorithmic complexity, and its results using the same parameters as in the reference model. We also compare the models with a perceptual study. Our quantitative results confirm that the less simplifications and approximations are used to solve the physical equations, the more accurate are the results. We conclude with a discussion of the advantages and drawbacks of each model, and how to further improve their accuracy.

  13. Automated Techniques for the Qualitative Analysis of Ecological Models: Continuous Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn van Coller

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The mathematics required for a detailed analysis of the behavior of a model can be formidable. In this paper, I demonstrate how various computer packages can aid qualitative analyses by implementing techniques from dynamical systems theory. Because computer software is used to obtain the results, the techniques can be used by nonmathematicians as well as mathematicians. In-depth analyses of complicated models that were previously very difficult to study can now be done. Because the paper is intended as an introduction to applying the techniques to ecological models, I have included an appendix describing some of the ideas and terminology. A second appendix shows how the techniques can be applied to a fairly simple predator-prey model and establishes the reliability of the computer software. The main body of the paper discusses a ratio-dependent model. The new techniques highlight some limitations of isocline analyses in this three-dimensional setting and show that the model is structurally unstable. Another appendix describes a larger model of a sheep-pasture-hyrax-lynx system. Dynamical systems techniques are compared with a traditional sensitivity analysis and are found to give more information. As a result, an incomplete relationship in the model is highlighted. I also discuss the resilience of these models to both parameter and population perturbations.

  14. Structure of a single model to describe plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a single modeling structure to describe both plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA, which is based on hypotheses mostly validated by experimental data. Decorporation efficacy of extracellular retention depends on the concentration ratio of DTPA vs. actinides and varies in each compartment according to the amount of biological ligands and their affinity for actinides. By contrast, because the relatively long residence time of DTPA after its cell internalization and the stability of actinide-DTPA complexes, intracellular decorporation efficacy is mainly controlled by a DTPA/actinide ratio, which is specific to each retention compartment. Although the affinity of DTPA is much lower for americium than for plutonium, a larger decorporation of americium can be obtained, which is explained by different biological ligands and/or their affinity for the actinide. Altogether, these results show that the relative contribution of intra vs. extracellular decorporation varies depending on the actinide, the chemical form of radionuclides, the galenic formulation of DTPA, and the treatment schedule.

  15. A population-based model to describe geometrical uncertainties in radiotherapy: applied to prostate cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, E.; Keijzer, M.; Storchi, P. R.; Hoogeman, M. S.; Bondar, L.; Mutanga, T. F.; de Boer, H. C. J.; Heemink, A. W.

    2011-02-01

    Local motions and deformations of organs between treatment fractions introduce geometrical uncertainties into radiotherapy. These uncertainties are generally taken into account in the treatment planning by enlarging the radiation target by a margin around the clinical target volume. However, a practical method to fully include these uncertainties is still lacking. This paper proposes a model based on the principal component analysis to describe the patient-specific local probability distributions of voxel motions so that the average values and variances of the dose distribution can be calculated and fully used later in inverse treatment planning. As usually only a very limited number of data for new patients is available; in this paper the analysis is extended to use population data. A basic assumption (which is justified retrospectively in this paper) is that general movements and deformations of a specific organ are similar despite variations in the shapes of the organ over the population. A proof of principle of the method for deformations of the prostate and the seminal vesicles is presented.

  16. A population-based model to describe geometrical uncertainties in radiotherapy: applied to prostate cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budiarto, E; Keijzer, M; Heemink, A W [Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics (DIAM), Technische Universiteit Delft, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Storchi, P R; Hoogeman, M S; Bondar, L; Mutanga, T F [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Centre. Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands); De Boer, H C J, E-mail: e.budiarto@tudelft.nl [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-21

    Local motions and deformations of organs between treatment fractions introduce geometrical uncertainties into radiotherapy. These uncertainties are generally taken into account in the treatment planning by enlarging the radiation target by a margin around the clinical target volume. However, a practical method to fully include these uncertainties is still lacking. This paper proposes a model based on the principal component analysis to describe the patient-specific local probability distributions of voxel motions so that the average values and variances of the dose distribution can be calculated and fully used later in inverse treatment planning. As usually only a very limited number of data for new patients is available; in this paper the analysis is extended to use population data. A basic assumption (which is justified retrospectively in this paper) is that general movements and deformations of a specific organ are similar despite variations in the shapes of the organ over the population. A proof of principle of the method for deformations of the prostate and the seminal vesicles is presented.

  17. ARCHITECTURES AND ALGORITHMS FOR COGNITIVE NETWORKS ENABLED BY QUALITATIVE MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balamuralidhar, P.

    2013-01-01

    the qualitative models in a cognitive engine. Further I use the methodology in multiple functional scenarios of cognitive networks including self- optimization and self- monitoring. In the case of self-optimization, I integrate principles from monotonicity analysis to evaluate and enhance qualitative models......Complexity of communication networks is ever increasing and getting complicated by their heterogeneity and dynamism. Traditional techniques are facing challenges in network performance management. Cognitive networking is an emerging paradigm to make networks more intelligent, thereby overcoming...... traditional limitations and potentially achieving better performance. The vision is that, networks should be able to monitor themselves, reason upon changes in self and environment, act towards the achievement of specific goals and learn from experience. The concept of a Cognitive Engine (CE) supporting...

  18. Qualitative response models: A survey of methodology and illustrative applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nojković Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces econometric modeling with discrete (categorical dependent variables. Such models, commonly referred to as qualitative response (QR models, have become a standard tool of microeconometric analysis. Microeconometric research represents empirical analysis of microdata, i.e. economic information about individuals, households and firms. Microeconometrics has been most widely adopted in various fields, such as labour economics, consumer behavior, or economy of transport. The latest research shows that this methodology can also be successfully transferred to macroeconomic context and applied to time series and panel data analysis in a wider scope. .

  19. Conceptual modeling of postmortem evaluation findings to describe dairy cow deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C S; Garry, F B; Hill, A E; Lombard, J E; Gould, D H

    2010-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality levels in the United States are excessive and increasing over time. To better define cause and effect and combat rising mortality, clearer definitions of the reasons that cows die need to be acquired through thorough necropsy-based postmortem evaluations. The current study focused on organizing information generated from postmortem evaluations into a monitoring system that is based on the fundamentals of conceptual modeling and that will potentially be translatable into on-farm relational databases. This observational study was conducted on 3 high-producing, commercial dairies in northern Colorado. Throughout the study period a thorough postmortem evaluation was performed by veterinarians on cows that died on each dairy. Postmortem data included necropsy findings, life-history features (e.g., birth date, lactation number, lactational and reproductive status), clinical history and treatments, and pertinent aspects of operational management that were subject to change and considered integral to the poor outcome. During this study, 174 postmortem evaluations were performed. Postmortem evaluation results were conceptually modeled to view each death within the context of the web of factors influencing the dairy and the cow. Categories were formulated describing mortality in terms of functional characteristics potentially amenable to easy performance evaluation, management oversight, and research. In total, 21 death categories with 7 category themes were created. Themes included specific disease processes with variable etiologies, failure of disease recognition or treatment, traumatic events, multifactorial failures linked to transition or negative energy balance issues, problems with feed management, miscellaneous events not amenable to prevention or treatment, and undetermined causes. Although postmortem evaluations provide the relevant information necessary for framing a cow's death, a restructuring of on-farm databases is needed to integrate this

  20. Describing high-dimensional dynamics with low-dimensional piecewise affine models: applications to renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a low-dimensional description for a high-dimensional system, which is a piecewise affine model whose state space is divided by permutations. We show that the proposed model tends to predict wind speeds and photovoltaic outputs for the time scales from seconds to 100 s better than by global affine models. In addition, computations using the piecewise affine model are much faster than those of usual nonlinear models such as radial basis function models.

  1. A statistical case against the use of the Langmuir model for describing P sorption data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorption of P to soils is often investigated through batch experiments where sorption models are fit to the resultant sorption curve by least-squares regression. One of the most commonly used sorption models is the Langmuir model, a model which was originally developed for the study of gas sorption ...

  2. An Abstraction Theory for Qualitative Models of Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, Richard; 10.4204/EPTCS.40.3

    2010-01-01

    Multi-valued network models are an important qualitative modelling approach used widely by the biological community. In this paper we consider developing an abstraction theory for multi-valued network models that allows the state space of a model to be reduced while preserving key properties of the model. This is important as it aids the analysis and comparison of multi-valued networks and in particular, helps address the well-known problem of state space explosion associated with such analysis. We also consider developing techniques for efficiently identifying abstractions and so provide a basis for the automation of this task. We illustrate the theory and techniques developed by investigating the identification of abstractions for two published MVN models of the lysis-lysogeny switch in the bacteriophage lambda.

  3. Structural model requirements to describe microbial inactivation during a mild heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerd, A H; Herremans, C H; Van Impe, J F

    2000-09-10

    The classical concept of D and z values, established for sterilisation processes, is unable to deal with the typical non-loglinear behaviour of survivor curves occurring during the mild heat treatment of sous vide or cook-chill food products. Structural model requirements are formulated, eliminating immediately some candidate model types. Promising modelling approaches are thoroughly analysed and, if applicable, adapted to the specific needs: two models developed by Casolari (1988), the inactivation model of Sapru et al. (1992), the model of Whiting (1993), the Baranyi and Roberts growth model (1994), the model of Chiruta et al. (1997), the model of Daughtry et al. (1997) and the model of Xiong et al. (1999). A range of experimental data of Bacillus cereus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sake are used to illustrate the different models' performances. Moreover, a novel modelling approach is developed, fulfilling all formulated structural model requirements, and based on a careful analysis of literature knowledge of the shoulder and tailing phenomenon. Although a thorough insight in the occurrence of shoulders and tails is still lacking from a biochemical point of view, this newly developed model incorporates the possibility of a straightforward interpretation within this framework.

  4. Review Of Applied Mathematical Models For Describing The Behaviour Of Aqueous Humor In Eye Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzierka M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, currently used methods for modeling the flow of the aqueous humor through eye structures are presented. Then a computational model based on rheological models of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is proposed. The proposed model may be used for modeling the flow of the aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork. The trabecular meshwork is modeled as an array of rectilinear parallel capillary tubes. The flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is considered. As a results of discussion mathematical equations of permeability of porous media and velocity of fluid flow through porous media have been received.

  5. The Atkinson-Shiffrin model is ill-defined and does not correctly describe the Murdock free recall data

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr Eugen

    2009-01-01

    The Atkinson-Shiffrin (1968) model, the de facto standard model of short term memory cited thousands of times, fits the characteristically bowed free recall curves from Murdock (1962) well. However, it is long overdue to note that it is not a theoretically convincing explanation and that it does not fit all of the experimental relationships in the Murdock data. To obtain a qualitatively correct fit of the bowing I show that four model concepts have to work together. “Long term memory” is ...

  6. Genetic parameters for various random regression models to describe the weight data of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, A.E.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Various random regression models have been advocated for the fitting of covariance structures. It was suggested that a spline model would fit better to weight data than a random regression model that utilizes orthogonal polynomials. The objective of this study was to investigate which kind of random

  7. Genetic parameters for different random regression models to describe weight data of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, A.E.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Various random regression models have been advocated for the fitting of covariance structures. It was suggested that a spline model would fit better to weight data than a random regression model that utilizes orthogonal polynomials. The objective of this study was to investigate which kind of random

  8. Presenting and describing the System Model for Evaluating International Market Attractiveness Using for Afghan Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHOLAMALI TABARSA

    2013-08-01

    The importance and need for systematically evaluating and selecting potential foreign markets has been stressed by many researchers, and several models for selecting international markets had been prescribed. But, current model do not pass the test of reality, because they are not adapted with exporter decision making process and they are not consider important aspect of reality. Then, in this paper, we introduce a comprehensive international market attractiveness model that has four steps: demand attractiveness, attainment attractiveness, adaptation attractiveness and competition attractiveness. At last, according to tested model, a systematic support model is developed and is expected to introduce a new approach for Afghan exporters based on the upcoming suggestions.

  9. An Identifiable State Model To Describe Light Intensity Influence on Microalgae Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, A; Perin, G; Sforza, E; Galvanin, F; Morosinotto, T; Bezzo, F

    2014-04-23

    Despite the high potential as feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals, the industrial cultivation of microalgae still exhibits many issues. Yield in microalgae cultivation systems is limited by the solar energy that can be harvested. The availability of reliable models representing key phenomena affecting algae growth may help designing and optimizing effective production systems at an industrial level. In this work the complex influence of different light regimes on seawater alga Nannochloropsis salina growth is represented by first principles models. Experimental data such as in vivo fluorescence measurements are employed to develop the model. The proposed model allows description of all growth curves and fluorescence data in a reliable way. The model structure is assessed and modified in order to guarantee the model identifiability and the estimation of its parametric set in a robust and reliable way.

  10. Using a Model to Describe Students' Inductive Reasoning in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadas, Maria C.; Castro, Encarnacion; Castro, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We present some aspects of a wider investigation (Canadas, 2007), whose main objective is to describe and characterize inductive reasoning used by Spanish students in years 9 and 10 when they work on problems that involved linear and quadratic sequences. Method: We produced a test composed of six problems with different…

  11. An Integrated Modeling Approach for Describing Fate and Transport of Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) in Estuarine Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Nguyen Viet, T.; Wang, X.; Chen, H.; Gin, K. Y. H.

    2014-12-01

    The fate and transport processes of emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems are complex, which are not only determined by their own properties but also influenced by the environmental setting, physical, chemical and biological processes. A 3D-emerging contaminant model has been developed based on Delft3D water quality model and coupled with a hydrodynamic model and a catchment-scale 1D- hydrological and hydraulic model to study the possible fate and transport mechanisms of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Marina Reservoir in Singapore. The main processes in the contaminant model include partitioning (among detritus, dissolved organic matter and phytoplankton), settling, resuspension and degradation. We used the integrated model to quantify the distribution of the total PFCs and two major components, namely perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the water, sediments and organisms in the reservoir. The model yielded good agreement with the field measurements when evaluated based on the datasets in 2009 and 2010 as well as recent observations in 2013 and 2014. Our results elucidate that the model can be a useful tool to characterize the occurrence, sources, sinks and trends of PFCs both in the water column and in the sediments in the reservoir. Thisapproach provides a better understanding of mechanisms that influence the fate and transport of emerging contaminants and lays down a framework for future experiments to further explore how the dominant environmental factors change towards mitigation of emerging contaminants in the reservoirs.

  12. Flexible and fixed mathematical models describing growth patterns of chukar partridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    In animal science, the nonlinear regression models for growth curve analysis ofgrowth patterns are separated into two groups called fixed and flexible according to their point of inflection. The aims of this study were to compare fixed and flexible growth functions and to determine the best fit model for the growth data of chukar partridges. With this aim, the growth data of partridges were modeled with widely used models, such as Gompertz, Logistic, Von Bertalanffy as well as the flexible functions, such as, Richards, Janoschek, Levakovich. So as to evaluate growth functions, the R2 (coefficient of determination), adjusted R2 (adjusted coefficient of determination), MSE (mean square error), AIC (Akaike's information criterion) and BIC (Bayesian information criterion) goodness of fit criteria were used. It has been determined that the best fit model from the point of chukar partridge growth data according to mentioned goodness of fit criteria is Janoschek function which has a flexible structure. The Janoschek model is not only important because it has a higher number of parameters with biological meaning than the other functions (the mature weight and initial weight parameters), but also because it was not previously used in the modeling of the chukar partridge growth.

  13. How happy is your web browsing? A probabilistic model to describe user satisfaction

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Anirban

    2009-01-01

    We all go through scores of web-pages everyday, in search of required information. At times we become satisfied with the content of some pages, at time we fail to. An objective framework that attempts to model the user satisfaction when he searches for some desired piece of information, is essential for Human-Computer-Interaction. In the present work, a simple probabilistic model is constructed to achieve precisely the same. This realistic yet strictly mathematical study proposes a marker, the 'satisfaction retentivity quotient', to model the complex realm of user psychology as he attempts to find required information and forgets some bits of it here and there, simultaneously.

  14. Calibration and validation of models describing the spatiotemporal evolution of congested traffic patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We propose a quantitative approach for calibrating and validating key features of traffic instabilities based on speed time series obtained from aggregated data of a series of neighboring stationary detectors. We apply the proposed criteria to historic traffic databases of several freeways in Germany containing about 400 occurrences of congestions thereby providing a reference for model calibration and quality assessment with respect to the spatiotemporal dynamics. First tests with microscopic and macroscopic models indicate that the criteria are both robust and discriminative, i.e., clearly distinguishes between models of higher and lower predictive power.

  15. A flexible and qualitatively stable model for cell cycle dynamics including DNA damage effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Clark D; Johnson, Charles R; Zhou, Tong; Simpson, Dennis A; Kaufmann, William K

    2012-01-01

    This paper includes a conceptual framework for cell cycle modeling into which the experimenter can map observed data and evaluate mechanisms of cell cycle control. The basic model exhibits qualitative stability, meaning that regardless of magnitudes of system parameters its instances are guaranteed to be stable in the sense that all feasible trajectories converge to a certain trajectory. Qualitative stability can also be described by the signs of real parts of eigenvalues of the system matrix. On the biological side, the resulting model can be tuned to approximate experimental data pertaining to human fibroblast cell lines treated with ionizing radiation, with or without disabled DNA damage checkpoints. Together these properties validate a fundamental, first order systems view of cell dynamics. Classification Codes: 15A68.

  16. Calibration and validation of a model describing complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in a granular SBR system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    -up. RESULTS: A model was calibrated using a step-wise procedure customized for the specific needs of the system. The important steps in the procedure were initialization, steady-state and dynamic calibration, and validation. A fast and effective initialization approach was developed to approximate pseudo...... screening of the parameter space proposed by Sin et al. (2008) - to find the best fit of the model to dynamic data. Finally, the calibrated model was validated with an independent data set. CONCLUSION: The presented calibration procedure is the first customized procedure for this type of system...... and is expected to contribute to achieve a fast and effective model calibration, an important enabling tool for various biochemical engineering design, control and operation problems....

  17. A stochastic model for microtubule motors describes the in vivo cytoplasmic transport of human adenovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Gazzola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic transport of organelles, nucleic acids and proteins on microtubules is usually bidirectional with dynein and kinesin motors mediating the delivery of cargoes in the cytoplasm. Here we combine live cell microscopy, single virus tracking and trajectory segmentation to systematically identify the parameters of a stochastic computational model of cargo transport by molecular motors on microtubules. The model parameters are identified using an evolutionary optimization algorithm to minimize the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the in silico and the in vivo run length and velocity distributions of the viruses on microtubules. The present stochastic model suggests that bidirectional transport of human adenoviruses can be explained without explicit motor coordination. The model enables the prediction of the number of motors active on the viral cargo during microtubule-dependent motions as well as the number of motor binding sites, with the protein hexon as the binding site for the motors.

  18. A stochastic model for microtubule motors describes the in vivo cytoplasmic transport of human adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Burckhardt, Christoph J; Bayati, Basil; Engelke, Martin; Greber, Urs F; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2009-12-01

    Cytoplasmic transport of organelles, nucleic acids and proteins on microtubules is usually bidirectional with dynein and kinesin motors mediating the delivery of cargoes in the cytoplasm. Here we combine live cell microscopy, single virus tracking and trajectory segmentation to systematically identify the parameters of a stochastic computational model of cargo transport by molecular motors on microtubules. The model parameters are identified using an evolutionary optimization algorithm to minimize the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the in silico and the in vivo run length and velocity distributions of the viruses on microtubules. The present stochastic model suggests that bidirectional transport of human adenoviruses can be explained without explicit motor coordination. The model enables the prediction of the number of motors active on the viral cargo during microtubule-dependent motions as well as the number of motor binding sites, with the protein hexon as the binding site for the motors.

  19. A simple geometrical model describing shapes of soap films suspended on two rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Felix J.; Kilvington, Charles D.; Wildenberg, Rebekah L.; Camacho, Franco E.; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Walecki, Peter S.; Walecki, Eve S.

    2016-09-01

    We measured and analysed the stability of two types of soap films suspended on two rings using the simple conical frusta-based model, where we use common definition of conical frustum as a portion of a cone that lies between two parallel planes cutting it. Using frusta-based we reproduced very well-known results for catenoid surfaces with and without a central disk. We present for the first time a simple conical frusta based spreadsheet model of the soap surface. This very simple, elementary, geometrical model produces results surprisingly well matching the experimental data and known exact analytical solutions. The experiment and the spreadsheet model can be used as a powerful teaching tool for pre-calculus and geometry students.

  20. A linear canal-otolith interaction model to describe the human vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, B T; Demer, J L

    1999-08-01

    A control systems model of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) originally derived for yaw rotation about an eccentric axis (Crane et al. 1997) was applied to data collected during ambulation and dynamic posturography. The model incorporates a linear summation of an otolith response due to head translation scaled by target distance, adding to a semi-circular canal response that depends only on angular head rotation. The results of the model were compared with human experimental data by supplying head angular velocity as determined by magnetic search coil recording as the input for the canal branch of the model and supplying linear acceleration as determined by flux gate magnetometer measurements of otolith position. The model was fit to data by determining otolith weighting that enabled the model to best fit the data. We fit to the model experimental data from normal subjects who were: standing quietly, walking, running, or making active sinusoidal head movements. We also fit data obtained during dynamic posturography tasks of: standing on a platform sliding in a horizontal plane at 0.2 Hz, standing directly on a platform tilting at 0.1 Hz, and standing on the tilting platform buffered by a 5-cm thick foam rubber cushion. Each task was done with the subject attending a target approximately 500, 100, or 50 cm distant, both in light and darkness. The model accurately predicted the observed VOR response during each test. Greater otolith weighting was required for near targets for nearly all activities, consistent with weights for the otolith component found in previous studies employing imposed rotations. The only exceptions were for vertical axis motion during standing, sliding, and tilting when the platform was buffered with foam rubber. In the horizontal axis, the model always fit near target data better with a higher otolith component. Otolith weights were similar with the target visible and in darkness. The model predicts eye movement during both passive whole

  1. Describing the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma through the Friedberg-Lee model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Song; Li, Jia-Rong

    2010-10-01

    The Friedberg-Lee (FL) model is studied at finite temperature and density. The soliton solutions of the FL model in the deconfinement phase transition are solved and thoroughly discussed for certain boundary conditions. We indicate that the solitons before and after the deconfinement have different physical meanings: the soliton before deconfinement represents hadrons, while the soliton after the deconfinement represents the bound state of quarks which leads to a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma phase. The corresponding phase diagram is given.

  2. Mass Action Models Describing Extant Horizontal Transfer of Plasmids: Inferences and Parameter Sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Barth F.; Lardon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    of the outcomes to the various plasmid dynamic parameters. For our analysis, we developed a set of user-friendly MatLab® routines, which are deposited in the public domain. We hope that the availability of these routines will encourage the computationally untrained microbiologist to make use of these mathematical...... models. Finally, further permutations, as well as limitations of these mass action models in view of the structured complexity of most microbial systems are addressed....

  3. A Stochastic Markov Chain Model to Describe Lung Cancer Growth and Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Paul K.; Jeremy Mason; Kelly Bethel; Bazhenova, Lyudmila A.; Jorge Nieva; Peter Kuhn

    2012-01-01

    A stochastic Markov chain model for metastatic progression is developed for primary lung cancer based on a network construction of metastatic sites with dynamics modeled as an ensemble of random walkers on the network. We calculate a transition matrix, with entries (transition probabilities) interpreted as random variables, and use it to construct a circular bi-directional network of primary and metastatic locations based on postmortem tissue analysis of 3827 autopsies on untreated patients d...

  4. 'This little piranha': a qualitative analysis of the language used by health professionals and mothers to describe infant behaviour during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jenny; Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life offers the recommended best start in the life for a newborn baby. Yet, in Australia only a small number of babies receive breast milk exclusively for the first 6 months. Reasons for the introduction of formula milk are multi-factorial including access to appropriate support and the woman's experience of breastfeeding. The language and practices of health professionals can impact upon how a woman feels about breastfeeding and her breastfeeding body. One aspect of breastfeeding support that has had scarce attention in the literature is the language used by health professionals to describe the behaviour of the breastfeeding infant during the early establishment phase of breastfeeding. This paper reveals some of the ways in which midwives, lactation consultants and breastfeeding women describe the newborn baby during the first week after birth. The study was conducted at two maternity units in New South Wales. Interactions between midwives and breastfeeding women were observed and audio recorded on the post-natal ward and in women's homes, in the first week after birth. The transcribed data were analysed using discourse analysis searching for recurring words, themes and metaphors used in descriptions of the breastfeeding baby. Repeated negative references to infant personality and unfavourable interpretations of infant behaviour influenced how women perceived their infant. The findings revealed that positive language and interpretations of infant breastfeeding behaviour emerged from more relationship-based communication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Transport in semiconductor nanowire superlattices described by coupled quantum mechanical and kinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, M; Bonilla, L L; Carretero, M; Melnik, R V N; Prabhakar, S

    2013-08-21

    In this paper we develop a kinetic model for the analysis of semiconductor superlattices, accounting for quantum effects. The model consists of a Boltzmann-Poisson type system of equations with simplified Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collisions, obtained from the general time-dependent Schrödinger-Poisson model using Wigner functions. This system for superlattice transport is supplemented by the quantum mechanical part of the model based on the Ben-Daniel-Duke form of the Schrödinger equation for a cylindrical superlattice of finite radius. The resulting energy spectrum is used to characterize the Fermi-Dirac distribution that appears in the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision, thereby coupling the quantum mechanical and kinetic parts of the model. The kinetic model uses the dispersion relation obtained by the generalized Kronig-Penney method, and allows us to estimate radii of quantum wire superlattices that have the same miniband widths as in experiments. It also allows us to determine more accurately the time-dependent characteristics of superlattices, in particular their current density. Results, for several experimentally grown superlattices, are discussed in the context of self-sustained coherent oscillations of the current density which are important in an increasing range of current and potential applications.

  6. Presenting and Describing the System Model for Evaluating International Market Attractiveness Using for Afghan Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Ali Tabarsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature review in international market attractiveness evaluation and operational practice inAfghanistan demonstrate that there are two approaches in international market selection:expansion and systematic approach. In expansion approach, firms gradually enter lowgeographical and psychic distance markets. But, in systematic approach, by considering somefactors and models, firms systematically evaluate and select foreign market(s. Theimportance and need for systematically evaluating and selecting potential foreign markets hasbeen stressed by many researchers, and several models for selecting international markets hadbeen prescribed. But, current models do not pass the test of reality, because they are notadapted with exporters’ decision making process and they do not consider the importantaspects of reality. Then, in this paper, we introduce a comprehensive international marketattractiveness model that has four steps: demand attractiveness, attainment attractiveness,adaptation attractiveness, and competition attractiveness. At last, according to tested model, asystematic support model is developed and is expected to introduce a new approach forAfghan exporters based on the upcoming suggestions.

  7. Random regressions models to describe the genetic variation of milk yield over multiple parities in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tonhati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate (covariance functions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as the genetic parameters for milk yield over multiple parities, using random regressions models (RRM. Records of 4,757 complete lactations of Murrah breed buffaloes from 12 herds were analyzed. Ages at calving were between 2 and 11 years. The model included the additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects and the fixed effects of contemporary groups (herd, year and calving season and milking frequency (1 or 2. A cubic regression on Legendre orthogonal polynomials of ages was used to model the mean trend. The additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled by Legendre orthogonal polynomials. Residual variances were considered homogenous or heterogeneous, modeled through variance functions or step functions with 5, 7 or 10 classes. Results from Akaike’s and Schwarz’s Bayesian information criterion indicated that a RRM considering a third order polynomial for the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects and a step function with 5 classes for residual variances fitted best. Heritability estimates obtained by this model varied from 0.10 to 0.28. Genetic correlations were high between consecutive ages, but decreased when intervals between ages increased

  8. Experimental evidence that the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model best describes the evolution of leaf litter decomposability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Prinzing, Andreas; Dong, Ming; Cornwell, William K

    2014-09-01

    Leaf litter decomposability is an important effect trait for ecosystem functioning. However, it is unknown how this effect trait evolved through plant history as a leaf 'afterlife' integrator of the evolution of multiple underlying traits upon which adaptive selection must have acted. Did decomposability evolve in a Brownian fashion without any constraints? Was evolution rapid at first and then slowed? Or was there an underlying mean-reverting process that makes the evolution of extreme trait values unlikely? Here, we test the hypothesis that the evolution of decomposability has undergone certain mean-reverting forces due to strong constraints and trade-offs in the leaf traits that have afterlife effects on litter quality to decomposers. In order to test this, we examined the leaf litter decomposability and seven key leaf traits of 48 tree species in the temperate area of China and fitted them to three evolutionary models: Brownian motion model (BM), Early burst model (EB), and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model (OU). The OU model, which does not allow unlimited trait divergence through time, was the best fit model for leaf litter decomposability and all seven leaf traits. These results support the hypothesis that neither decomposability nor the underlying traits has been able to diverge toward progressively extreme values through evolutionary time. These results have reinforced our understanding of the relationships between leaf litter decomposability and leaf traits in an evolutionary perspective and may be a helpful step toward reconstructing deep-time carbon cycling based on taxonomic composition with more confidence.

  9. A Fibre-Reinforced Poroviscoelastic Model Accurately Describes the Biomechanical Behaviour of the Rat Achilles Tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuijerjans, Ashley; Matikainen, Marko K.; Julkunen, Petro; Eliasson, Pernilla; Aspenberg, Per; Isaksson, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational models of Achilles tendons can help understanding how healthy tendons are affected by repetitive loading and how the different tissue constituents contribute to the tendon’s biomechanical response. However, available models of Achilles tendon are limited in their description of the hierarchical multi-structural composition of the tissue. This study hypothesised that a poroviscoelastic fibre-reinforced model, previously successful in capturing cartilage biomechanical behaviour, can depict the biomechanical behaviour of the rat Achilles tendon found experimentally. Materials and Methods We developed a new material model of the Achilles tendon, which considers the tendon’s main constituents namely: water, proteoglycan matrix and collagen fibres. A hyperelastic formulation of the proteoglycan matrix enabled computations of large deformations of the tendon, and collagen fibres were modelled as viscoelastic. Specimen-specific finite element models were created of 9 rat Achilles tendons from an animal experiment and simulations were carried out following a repetitive tensile loading protocol. The material model parameters were calibrated against data from the rats by minimising the root mean squared error (RMS) between experimental force data and model output. Results and Conclusions All specimen models were successfully fitted to experimental data with high accuracy (RMS 0.42-1.02). Additional simulations predicted more compliant and soft tendon behaviour at reduced strain-rates compared to higher strain-rates that produce a stiff and brittle tendon response. Stress-relaxation simulations exhibited strain-dependent stress-relaxation behaviour where larger strains produced slower relaxation rates compared to smaller strain levels. Our simulations showed that the collagen fibres in the Achilles tendon are the main load-bearing component during tensile loading, where the orientation of the collagen fibres plays an important role for the tendon

  10. Neuronal spike timing adaptation described with a fractional leaky integrate-and-fire model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondimu Teka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The voltage trace of neuronal activities can follow multiple timescale dynamics that arise from correlated membrane conductances. Such processes can result in power-law behavior in which the membrane voltage cannot be characterized with a single time constant. The emergent effect of these membrane correlations is a non-Markovian process that can be modeled with a fractional derivative. A fractional derivative is a non-local process in which the value of the variable is determined by integrating a temporal weighted voltage trace, also called the memory trace. Here we developed and analyzed a fractional leaky integrate-and-fire model in which the exponent of the fractional derivative can vary from 0 to 1, with 1 representing the normal derivative. As the exponent of the fractional derivative decreases, the weights of the voltage trace increase. Thus, the value of the voltage is increasingly correlated with the trajectory of the voltage in the past. By varying only the fractional exponent, our model can reproduce upward and downward spike adaptations found experimentally in neocortical pyramidal cells and tectal neurons in vitro. The model also produces spikes with longer first-spike latency and high inter-spike variability with power-law distribution. We further analyze spike adaptation and the responses to noisy and oscillatory input. The fractional model generates reliable spike patterns in response to noisy input. Overall, the spiking activity of the fractional leaky integrate-and-fire model deviates from the spiking activity of the Markovian model and reflects the temporal accumulated intrinsic membrane dynamics that affect the response of the neuron to external stimulation.

  11. Investigation of nonlinear models to describe long-term egg production in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinc, Dogan; Karaman, Emre; Aksoy, Tulin; Firat, Mehmet Ziya

    2013-06-01

    In this study, long-term egg production was monitored in a Japanese quail flock, which had not undergone any genetic improvement, for 52 wk as of the age of sexual maturity. The study aimed to detect some traits with respect to egg production, to determine the cumulative hen-housed egg numbers, and to compare goodness of fit of different nonlinear models for the percentage of hen-day egg production. The mean age at first egg was 38.9 d and the age at 50% egg production was 45.3 d. The quail reached peak production at 15 wk of age (wk 9 of egg production period) when the percentage of hen-day egg production was found to be 94%. The cumulative hen-housed egg number for 52 wk as of the age of sexual maturity was 253.08. The monomolecular function, a nonsigmoid model, was used in the nonlinear regression analysis of the cumulative egg numbers. Parameters a, b, and c of the monomolecular model were estimated to be 461.70, 473.31, and 0.065, respectively. Gamma, McNally, Adams-Bell, and modified compartmental models, widely used in hens previously, were used in the nonlinear regression analysis of the percentages of hen-day egg production. The goodness of fit for these models was compared using the values of pseudo-R², Akaike's information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion. It was determined that all the models are adequate but that the Adams-Bell model displayed a slightly better fit for the percentage of hen-day egg production in Japanese quail than others.

  12. A model, describing the influence of water management alternatives on dike stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J. W. M.; Vastenburg, E.; Roelofsen, F. J.

    2015-11-01

    The awareness is rising that economic effects of Land Subsidence are high. Nevertheless, quantifying these economic losses is difficult and, as far as known, not yet done in a sophisticated way. Also, to be able to decide about future strategies, for example to avoid or decrease subsidence, it is necessary to know the financial consequences of measures and possible solutions. As a first step to quantify these economic effects, a MODFLOW-SCR (coupled MODFLOW-Settlements model) is coupled with the model DAM. Based on the local stratigraphy, the shape and composition of the existing dike or levee, the level of the surface water and the surface level, macro-stability of the dike is calculated and - if the dike does not meet the required stability - adaptions are proposed. The model enables to separate effects that are caused by sea-level rise and the effects of subsidence. Coupling the DAM model with an economic model to calculate costs of these adaptions is under construction.

  13. Comparing non-linear mathematical models to describe growth of different animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhony Tiago Teleken

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of five non-linear growth models, i.e. Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, Richards and von Bertalanffy in different animals. It also aimed to evaluate the influence of the shape parameter on the growth curve. To accomplish this task, published growth data of 14 different groups of animals were used and four goodness of fit statistics were adopted: coefficient of determination (R2, root mean square error (RMSE, Akaike information criterion (AIC and Bayesian information criterion (BIC. In general, the Richards growth equation provided better fits to experimental data than the other models. However, for some animals, different models exhibited better performance. It was obtained a possible interpretation for the shape parameter, in such a way that can provide useful insights to predict animal growth behavior.

  14. A Mathematic Model That Describes Modes of MdSGHV Transmission within House Fly Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste R. Vallejo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is proposed that one potential component by which the Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV infects individual flies is through cuticular damage. Breaks in the cuticle allow entry of the virus into the hemocoel causing the infection. Male flies typically have a higher rate of infection and a higher rate of cuticular damage than females. A model for the transmission of MdSGHV was formulated assuming several potential and recognized means of transmission. The model yields results that are in agreement with field data that measured the infection rate in house flies on dairy farms in Florida. The results from this model indicate that MdSGHV will be maintained at a stable rate within house fly populations and support the future use of MdSGHV as a birth control agent in house fly management.

  15. Describing the Neuron Axons Network of the Human Brain by Continuous Flow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizanidis, J.; Katsaloulis, P.; Verganelakis, D. A.; Provata, A.

    2014-12-01

    The multifractal spectrum Dq (Rényi dimensions) is used for the analysis and comparison between the Neuron Axons Network (NAN) of healthy and pathological human brains because it conveys information about the statistics in many scales, from the very rare to the most frequent network configurations. Comparison of the Fractional Anisotropy Magnetic Resonance Images between healthy and pathological brains is performed with and without noise reduction. Modelling the complex structure of the NAN in the human brain is undertaken using the dynamics of the Lorenz model in the chaotic regime. The Lorenz multifractal spectra capture well the human brain characteristics in the large negative q's which represent the rare network configurations. In order to achieve a closer approximation in the positive part of the spectrum (q > 0) two independent modifications are considered: a) redistribution of the dense parts of the Lorenz model's phase space into their neighbouring areas and b) inclusion of additive uniform noise in the Lorenz model. Both modifications, independently, drive the Lorenz spectrum closer to the human NAN one in the positive q region without destroying the already good correspondence of the negative spectra. The modelling process shows that the unmodified Lorenz model in its full chaotic regime has a phase space distribution with high fluctuations in its dense parts, while the fluctuations in the human brain NAN are smoother. The induced modifications (phase space redistribution or additive noise) moderate the fluctuations only in the positive part of the Lorenz spectrum leading to a faithful representation of the human brain axons network in all scales.

  16. [Application of Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling in describing the brucellosis infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Feng, Zi-jian; Li, Xiao-song

    2011-01-01

    Based on the number of brucellosis cases reported from the national infectious diseases reporting system in Inner Mongolia from 2000 to 2007, a model was developed. Theories of spatial statistics were used, together with knowledge on infectious disease epidemiology and the frame of Bayesian statistics, before the Bayesian spatio-temporal models were respectively set. The effects of space, time, space-time and the relative covariates were also considered. These models were applied to analyze the brucellosis distribution and time trend in Inner Mongolia during 2000-2007. The results of Bayesian spatio-temporal models was expressed by mapping of the disease and compared to the conventional statistical methods. Results showed that the Bayesian models, under consideration of space-time effect and the relative covariates (deviance information criterion, DIC=2388.000), seemed to be the best way to serve the purpose. The county-level spatial correlation of brucellosis epidemics was positive and quite strong in Inner Mongolia. However, the spatial correlation varied with time and the coefficients ranged from 0.968 to 0.973, having a weakening trend during 2000-2007. Types of region and number of stock (cattle and sheep) might be related to the brucellosis epidemics, and the effect on the number of cattle and sheep changed by year. Compared to conventional statistical methods, Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling could precisely estimate the incidence relative risk and was an important tool to analyze the epidemic distribution patterns of infectious diseases and to estimate the incidence relative risk.

  17. Hawking Radiation of a Kaluza-Klein Black Hole Described by Landauer Transport Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰小刚; 韦联福

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the Hawking radiation of a Kaluza-Klein black hole by using one-dimensional(1D),non-equilibrium,Landauer transport model.The derived Hawking radiation temperature is in consistence with that obtained by using the usual anomaly method.With the Landauer transport model,we calculate the entropy flow out of the Kaluza-Klein black hole and the relevant entropy production rate.How these quantities depending on the physical parameters of the black hole is also discussed.

  18. The Rotation of Io Described by the Poincaré Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyelles, Benoit

    2012-05-01

    We here study the rotation of the satellite of Jupiter Io, in considering core-mantle coupling. This satellite is particularly interesting because it experiences strong tidal dissipation inducing a very active surface. Moreover, the flow of the fluid inside its core is reputed to be unstable. We first elaborate 10 different models of the interior of Io, considering either a Fe or a FeS core, using measured values of the gravity coefficients J2 and C22, before studying their response to the 4-degrees of freedom Poincaré-Hough model. We then study the stability of the flow of the fluid. We show that these different models have a quite small influence on the longitudinal librations and the equilibrium obliquity, with amplitude of about 30 and 8 seconds of arc respectively, because of the relatively small inertia of the core. However, sulfur in the core can pump the tilt of the fluid constituting the core. Moreover, in all our models the flow in unstable with a growth time of about 1,000 years for a Fe core and 5,000 years for a FeS one.

  19. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. RESULTS: Water migration in cellular solid foods

  20. A pairwise maximum entropy model accurately describes resting-state human brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Hirose, Satoshi; Wada, Hiroyuki; Imai, Yoshio; Machida, Toru; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Konishi, Seiki; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The resting-state human brain networks underlie fundamental cognitive functions and consist of complex interactions among brain regions. However, the level of complexity of the resting-state networks has not been quantified, which has prevented comprehensive descriptions of the brain activity as an integrative system. Here, we address this issue by demonstrating that a pairwise maximum entropy model, which takes into account region-specific activity rates and pairwise interactions, can be robustly and accurately fitted to resting-state human brain activities obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, to validate the approximation of the resting-state networks by the pairwise maximum entropy model, we show that the functional interactions estimated by the pairwise maximum entropy model reflect anatomical connexions more accurately than the conventional functional connectivity method. These findings indicate that a relatively simple statistical model not only captures the structure of the resting-state networks but also provides a possible method to derive physiological information about various large-scale brain networks.

  1. An implicit three-dimensional model for describing the inelastic response of solids undergoing finite deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, K. R.; Srinivasa, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a new unified class of 3D nonlinear anisotropic finite deformation inelasticity model that (1) exhibits rate-independent or dependent hysteretic response (i.e., response wherein reversal of the external stimuli does not cause reversal of the path in state space) with or without yield surfaces. The hysteresis persists with quasistatic loading. (2) Encompasses a wide range of different types of inelasticity models (such as Mullins effect in rubber, rock and soil mechanics, traditional metal plasticity, hysteretic behavior of shape memory materials) into a simple unified framework that is relatively easy to implement in computational schemes and (3) does not require any a priori particular notion of plastic strain or yield function. The core idea behind the approach is the development of an system of implicit rate equations that allow for the continuity of the response but with different rates along different directions. The theory, which is in purely mechanical setting, subsumes and generalizes many commonly used approaches for hypoelasticity and rate-independent plasticity. We illustrate its capability by modeling the Mullins effect which is the inelastic behavior of certain rubbery materials. We are able to simulate the entire cyclic response without the use of additional internal variables, i.e., the entire response is modeled by using an implicit function of stress and strain measures and their rates.

  2. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. Results: Water migration in cellular solid foods invo

  3. Using a Structural Equation Model to Describe the Infusion of Civic Engagement in the Campus Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Meredith S.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses whether Tufts University's campus culture was successful at infusing civic-mindedness in all undergraduates. A structural equation model was developed, and findings revealed that the campus environment had a significant positive impact on civic values and beliefs and a positive indirect effect on civic engagement activities.…

  4. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. RESULTS: Water migration in cellular solid foods invo

  5. Benchmarking of numerical models describing the dispersion of radionuclides in the Arctic Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, E.M.; Gurbutt, P.; Harms, I.

    1997-01-01

    ) development of realistic and reliable assessment models for the dispersal of radioactive contaminants both within, and from, the Arctic ocean; and (2) evaluation of the contributions of different transfer mechanisms to contaminant dispersal and hence, ultimately, to the risks to human health and environment...

  6. Growth of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) in the Oosterschelde described by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Smaal, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model for cockles is presented and calibrated using detailed data on cockle growth and water quality in the Oosterschelde. Cockles in the intertidal areas of the Oosterschelde have an important function as a food source for wading birds and as such for the natural value

  7. An active oscillator model describes the statistics of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruth, Florian; Jülicher, Frank; Lindner, Benjamin

    2014-08-19

    Even in the absence of external stimulation, the cochleas of most humans emit very faint sounds below the threshold of hearing, sounds that are known as spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. They are a signature of the active amplification mechanism in the cochlea. Emissions occur at frequencies that are unique for an individual and change little over time. The statistics of a population of ears exhibit characteristic features such as a preferred relative frequency distance between emissions (interemission intervals). We propose a simplified cochlea model comprising an array of active nonlinear oscillators coupled both hydrodynamically and viscoelastically. The oscillators are subject to a weak spatial disorder that lends individuality to the simulated cochlea. Our model captures basic statistical features of the emissions: distributions of 1), emission frequencies; 2), number of emissions per ear; and 3), interemission intervals. In addition, the model reproduces systematic changes of the interemission intervals with frequency. We show that the mechanism for the preferred interemission interval in our model is the occurrence of synchronized clusters of oscillators.

  8. A mechanistic model to describe the spread of phocid distemper virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, A.A. de; Diekmann, O.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    1995-01-01

    1. The 1988 epizootic among seals in N.W. Europe led to the death of more than half of the population. Several researchers have fitted data from the epidemic with the Kermack and McKendrick model for disease spread. 2. We argue that for animals living in herds or colonies, like seals, the mutual con

  9. Exponential law as a more compatible model to describe orbits of planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saeedi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   According to the Titus-Bode law, orbits of planets in the solar system obey a geometric progression. Many investigations have been launched to improve this law. In this paper, we apply square and exponential models to planets of solar system, moons of planets, and some extra solar systems, and compare them with each other.

  10. A Method for Inducing Process Models from Qualitative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a method for inducing a theoretical model of a series of events that occur in an ongoing process. A data analysis method that transforms narrative data into event histories is explained, a spreadsheet display that compares event histories is described, and future research is suggested. (17 references) (LRW)

  11. Spin models inferred from patient data faithfully describe HIV fitness landscapes and enable rational vaccine design

    CERN Document Server

    Shekhar, Karthik; Ferguson, Andrew L; Barton, John P; Kardar, Mehran; Chakraborty, Arup K

    2013-01-01

    Mutational escape from vaccine induced immune responses has thwarted the development of a successful vaccine against AIDS, whose causative agent is HIV, a highly mutable virus. Knowing the virus' fitness as a function of its proteomic sequence can enable rational design of potent vaccines, as this information can focus vaccine induced immune responses to target mutational vulnerabilities of the virus. Spin models have been proposed as a means to infer intrinsic fitness landscapes of HIV proteins from patient-derived viral protein sequences. These sequences are the product of non-equilibrium viral evolution driven by patient-specific immune responses, and are subject to phylogenetic constraints. How can such sequence data allow inference of intrinsic fitness landscapes? We combined computer simulations and variational theory \\'{a} la Feynman to show that, in most circumstances, spin models inferred from patient-derived viral sequences reflect the correct rank order of the fitness of mutant viral strains. Our f...

  12. A benchmark simulation model to describe plant-wide phosphorus transformations in WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Ikumi, D.; Kazadi-Mbamba, C.

    It is more than 10 years since the publication of the BSM1 technical report (Copp, 2002). The main objective of BSM1 was to create a platform for benchmarking C and N removal strategies in activated sludge systems. The initial platform evolved into BSM1_LT and BSM2, which allowed for the evaluati...... to be addressed and presents the simulation results of the first software prototype....... of monitoring and plant-wide control strategies, respectively. In addition, researchers working within the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants developed other BSM related spin-off products, such as the dynamic influent generator, sensor/actuators/fault models......) pursue biological/chemical phosphorus removal. However, realistic descriptions of combined C, N and P removal, adds a major, but unavoidable degree of complexity in wastewater treatment process models. This paper identifies and discusses important issues that need to be addressed to upgrade the BSM2...

  13. Spin models inferred from patient-derived viral sequence data faithfully describe HIV fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Karthik; Ruberman, Claire F.; Ferguson, Andrew L.; Barton, John P.; Kardar, Mehran; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2013-12-01

    Mutational escape from vaccine-induced immune responses has thwarted the development of a successful vaccine against AIDS, whose causative agent is HIV, a highly mutable virus. Knowing the virus' fitness as a function of its proteomic sequence can enable rational design of potent vaccines, as this information can focus vaccine-induced immune responses to target mutational vulnerabilities of the virus. Spin models have been proposed as a means to infer intrinsic fitness landscapes of HIV proteins from patient-derived viral protein sequences. These sequences are the product of nonequilibrium viral evolution driven by patient-specific immune responses and are subject to phylogenetic constraints. How can such sequence data allow inference of intrinsic fitness landscapes? We combined computer simulations and variational theory á la Feynman to show that, in most circumstances, spin models inferred from patient-derived viral sequences reflect the correct rank order of the fitness of mutant viral strains. Our findings are relevant for diverse viruses.

  14. Arterial pulse pressure amplification described by means of a nonlinear wave model: characterization of human aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, M.; Cymberknop, L.; Armentano, R.; Pessana, F.; Wray, S.; Legnani, W.

    2016-04-01

    The representation of blood pressure pulse as a combination of solitons captures many of the phenomena observed during its propagation along the systemic circulation. The aim of this work is to analyze the applicability of a compartmental model for propagation regarding the pressure pulse amplification associated with arterial aging. The model was applied to blood pressure waveforms that were synthesized using solitons, and then validated by waveforms obtained from individuals from differentiated age groups. Morphological changes were verified in the blood pressure waveform as a consequence of the aging process (i.e. due to the increase in arterial stiffness). These changes are the result of both a nonlinear interaction and the phenomena present in the propagation of nonlinear mechanic waves.

  15. Describing the structure of a research literature: spatial diffusion modelling in geography

    OpenAIRE

    Gatrell, A C

    1984-01-01

    A description of the structure of research specialities requires the definition of a series of sets and relations. A set of papers concerned with spatial diffusion modelling is defined, and the structure of the citation relation defined on that set is explored. A detailed reading of the texts of the papers allows us to extract a series of 'terms' (concepts, techniques, and so on), and problems of structuring these in a hierarchical scheme are discussed. The relation of papers to terms is then...

  16. Scale-up model describing the impact of lubrication on tablet tensile strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Joseph; Moore, Francis

    2010-10-31

    Lubrication of 2:1 and 1:1 blends of microcrystalline cellulose and spray-dried lactose or dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) with 0.33% or 1% magnesium stearate, as model free-flowing pharmaceutical formulations, was performed in rotary drum blenders. Blender process parameters examined in this study included type (Bin, V, and Turbula), volume (0.75-Quart to 200-L), fraction of headspace in the blender after the blend is loaded (30-70%), speed (6-202 rpm), and time (up to 225 min). Based on analysis of the experimental data, the following model for the impact of the lubrication process on tablet tensile strength at 0.85 solid fraction, TS(SF=0.85), was obtained, TS(SF=0.85)=TS(SF=0.85,0) [βexp(-γ×V(1/3)×F(headspace)×r)+(1-β)], where V is blender volume, F(headspace) is the headspace fraction, r is the number of revolutions (i.e. speed × time), TS(SF=0.85,0) is the initial tensile strength of the blend, β is the sensitivity of the blend to lubrication, and γ is the lubrication rate constant of the formulation. This model can be used to maintain tensile strength during scale-up, by ensuring that (V(1/3)F(headspace)r)(1)=(V(1/3)F(headspace)r)(2). The model also suggests that formulations with DCP are less sensitive to lubrication and more slowly lubricated than formulations with spray-dried lactose (i.e. smaller β and γ values).

  17. Simulation Evidence for Nonlocal Interface Models: Two Correlation Lengths Describe Complete Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Lijun; Landau, D. P.; Binder, K.

    2011-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of (fluctuating) interfaces in Ising models confined between competing walls at temperatures above the wetting transition are presented and various correlation functions probing the interfacial fluctuation are computed. Evidence for the nonlocal interface Hamiltonian approach of A. O. Parry et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 086104 (2004)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.93.086104] is given. In particular, we show that two correlation lengths exist with different dependence on the distance D between the walls.

  18. Generating quantitative models describing the sequence specificity of biological processes with the stabilized matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Alessandro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many processes in molecular biology involve the recognition of short sequences of nucleic-or amino acids, such as the binding of immunogenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. From experimental data, a model of the sequence specificity of these processes can be constructed, such as a sequence motif, a scoring matrix or an artificial neural network. The purpose of these models is two-fold. First, they can provide a summary of experimental results, allowing for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in sequence recognition. Second, such models can be used to predict the experimental outcome for yet untested sequences. In the past we reported the development of a method to generate such models called the Stabilized Matrix Method (SMM. This method has been successfully applied to predicting peptide binding to MHC molecules, peptide transport by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP and proteasomal cleavage of protein sequences. Results Herein we report the implementation of the SMM algorithm as a publicly available software package. Specific features determining the type of problems the method is most appropriate for are discussed. Advantageous features of the package are: (1 the output generated is easy to interpret, (2 input and output are both quantitative, (3 specific computational strategies to handle experimental noise are built in, (4 the algorithm is designed to effectively handle bounded experimental data, (5 experimental data from randomized peptide libraries and conventional peptides can easily be combined, and (6 it is possible to incorporate pair interactions between positions of a sequence. Conclusion Making the SMM method publicly available enables bioinformaticians and experimental biologists to easily access it, to compare its performance to other prediction methods, and to extend it to other applications.

  19. Simulation evidence for nonlocal interface models: two correlation lengths describe complete wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Lijun; Landau, D P; Binder, K

    2011-06-10

    Monte Carlo simulations of (fluctuating) interfaces in Ising models confined between competing walls at temperatures above the wetting transition are presented and various correlation functions probing the interfacial fluctuation are computed. Evidence for the nonlocal interface Hamiltonian approach of A. O. Parry et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 086104 (2004)] is given. In particular, we show that two correlation lengths exist with different dependence on the distance D between the walls.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of Prussian blue analogs described by Heisenberg ternary alloy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Yusuf

    2015-11-01

    Within the framework of Monte Carlo simulation technique, we simulate magnetic behavior of Prussian blue analogs based on Heisenberg ternary alloy model. We present phase diagrams in various parameter spaces, and we compare some of our results with those based on Ising counterparts. We clarify the variations of transition temperature and compensation phenomenon with mixing ratio of magnetic ions, exchange interactions, and exchange anisotropy in the present ferro-ferrimagnetic Heisenberg system. According to our results, thermal variation of the total magnetization curves may exhibit N, L, P, Q, R type behaviors based on the Néel classification scheme.

  1. Excited Electronic States of Atoms described by the Model of Oscillations in a Chain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ries A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the numerical values of half-lifes of excited electronic states of the H, He and Li atom, as well as the Li + ion. By means of a fractal scaling model originally published by Müller in this journal, we interprete these half-lifes as proton resonance periods. On the logarithmic scale, the half-lifes were expressed by short continued fractions, where all numerators are Euler’s number. From this representation it was concluded that the half-lifes are heavily located in nodes or sub-nodes of the spectrum of proton resonance periods.

  2. A 3D model describing the initial structure of an artificial hydrological catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, T.; Schneider, A.; Buczko, U.; Gerke, H. H.

    2009-04-01

    The initial development stages of artificially constructed hydrologic catchments are characterized by the absence of vegetation, soil organic matter and soil horizons. This results in increased surface runoff and favors erosion processes that dominate the initial phase. Hydraulic conditions on artificial catchments thus are governed by rapidly changing surface structures as well as by the primary internal structural framework. Contemporary hydrological modeling does not consider any dynamic change of relevant structural features but rather assumes a stable, invariant landscape. The objective of this study was the digital visualization and quantitative description of the initial state and its early structural dynamics, exemplified for the small artificial hydrological catchment "Huehnerwasser" near Cottbus, Germany. Photogrammetric surveys of surface and internal structural units (clay basis liner) during the construction phase provided spatially and temporally resolved data for digital elevation models (DEM). Interpolated physical and chemical soil properties obtained at a borehole grid (e.g., texture) are used for the visualization of spatial distribution of relevant (hydraulic) parameters. The data are merged in a database and visualized in the 3D-GIS application GoCAD. The specific technological construction processes determines the internal structure of the artificial catchment. Resulting differences in bulk density and texture are supposed to have considerable impact on hydraulic properties. A structure generator program was implemented to reproduce the initial structure of the sediment layer as closely as possible. Results of the digital structure generation are checked with non-invasive geophysical measurements, on-site bore holes data and off-site 2D vertical spoil exploration. The accuracy of structure generator results will be compared with predictions of different interpolation methods. Thus, the structure model will serve as a basis for deriving the 3D

  3. SPATIAL MODELLING FOR DESCRIBING SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Bogunović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize the field-scale spatial variability and test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of penetration resistance (PR, bulk density (BD and gravimetric water content (GWC in the silty loam soil in Eastern Croatia. The measurements were made on a 25 x 25-m grid which created 40 individual grid cells. Soil properties were measured at the center of the grid cell deep 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. Results demonstrated that PR and GWC displayed strong spatial dependence at 0-10 cm BD, while there was moderate and weak spatial dependence of PR, BD and GWC at depth of 10-20 cm. Semi-variogram analysis suggests that future sampling intervals for investigated parameters can be increased to 35 m in order to reduce research costs. Additionally, interpolation models recorded similar root mean square values with high predictive accuracy. Results suggest that investigated properties do not have uniform interpolation method implying the need for spatial modelling in the evaluation of these soil properties in Eastern Croatia.

  4. Local equilibrium solutions in simple anisotropic cosmological models, as described by relativistic fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogin, Dmitry; Amund Amundsen, Per

    2016-10-01

    We test the physical relevance of the full and the truncated versions of the Israel–Stewart (IS) theory of irreversible thermodynamics in a cosmological setting. Using a dynamical systems method, we determine the asymptotic future of plane symmetric Bianchi type I spacetimes with a viscous mathematical fluid, keeping track of the magnitude of the relative dissipative fluxes, which determines the applicability of the IS theory. We consider the situations where the dissipative mechanisms of shear and bulk viscosity are involved separately and simultaneously. It is demonstrated that the only case in the given model when the fluid asymptotically approaches local thermal equilibrium, and the underlying assumptions of the IS theory are therefore not violated, is that of a dissipative fluid with vanishing bulk viscosity. The truncated IS equations for shear viscosity are found to produce solutions which manifest pathological dynamical features and, in addition, to be strongly sensitive to the choice of initial conditions. Since these features are observed already in the case of an oversimplified mathematical fluid model, we have no reason to assume that the truncation of the IS transport equations will produce relevant results for physically more realistic fluids. The possible role of bulk and shear viscosity in cosmological evolution is also discussed.

  5. Spin models inferred from patient-derived viral sequence data faithfully describe HIV fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Karthik; Ruberman, Claire F.; Ferguson, Andrew L.; Barton, John P.; Kardar, Mehran; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2017-01-01

    Mutational escape from vaccine-induced immune responses has thwarted the development of a successful vaccine against AIDS, whose causative agent is HIV, a highly mutable virus. Knowing the virus’ fitness as a function of its proteomic sequence can enable rational design of potent vaccines, as this information can focus vaccine-induced immune responses to target mutational vulnerabilities of the virus. Spin models have been proposed as a means to infer intrinsic fitness landscapes of HIV proteins from patient-derived viral protein sequences. These sequences are the product of nonequilibrium viral evolution driven by patient-specific immune responses and are subject to phylogenetic constraints. How can such sequence data allow inference of intrinsic fitness landscapes? We combined computer simulations and variational theory á la Feynman to show that, in most circumstances, spin models inferred from patient-derived viral sequences reflect the correct rank order of the fitness of mutant viral strains. Our findings are relevant for diverse viruses. PMID:24483484

  6. Application of a non-equilibrium reaction model for describing horizontal well performance in foamy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luigi, A.; Saputelli, B.; Carlas, M.; Canache, P.; Lopez, E. [DPVS Exploracion y Produccion (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    This study was designed to determine the activation energy ranges and frequency factor ranges in chemical reactions in heavy oils of the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela, in order to account for the kinetics of physical changes that occur in the morphology of gas-oil dispersion. A non-equilibrium reaction model was used to model foamy oil behaviour observed at SDZ-182 horizontal well in the Zuata field. Results showed that activation energy for the first reaction ranged from 0 to 0.01 BTU/lb-mol and frequency factor from 0.001 to 1000 l/day. For the second reaction the activation energy was 50x10{sub 3} BTU/lb-mol and the frequency factor 2.75x10{sub 1}2 l/day. The second reaction was highly sensitive to the modifications in activation energy and frequency factor. However, both the activation energy and frequency factor were independent of variations for the first reaction. In the case of the activation energy, the results showed that the high sensitivity of this parameter reflected the impact that temperature has on the representation of foamy oil behaviour. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Qualitative modeling of the dynamics of detonations with losses

    KAUST Repository

    Faria, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simplified model for the dynamics of one-dimensional detonations with generic losses. It consists of a single partial differential equation that reproduces, at a qualitative level, the essential properties of unsteady detonation waves, including pulsating and chaotic solutions. In particular, we investigate the effects of shock curvature and friction losses on detonation dynamics. To calculate steady-state solutions, a novel approach to solving the detonation eigenvalue problem is introduced that avoids the well-known numerical difficulties associated with the presence of a sonic point. By using unsteady numerical simulations of the simplified model, we also explore the nonlinear stability of steady-state or quasi-steady solutions. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  8. Loki, Io: New groundbased observations and a model describing the change from periodic overturn

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbun, J A; Rathbun, Julie A.; Spencer, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Loki Patera is the most powerful volcano in the solar system. We have obtained measurements of Loki's 3.5 micron brightness from NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and have witnessed a change from the periodic behavior previously noted. While Loki brightened by a factor of several every 540 days prior to 2001, from 2001 through 2004 Loki remained at a constant, medium brightness. We have constructed a quantitative model of Loki as a basaltic lava lake whose solidified crust overturns when it becomes buoyantly unstable. By altering the speed at which the overturn propagates across the patera, we can match our groundbased brightness data. In addition, we can match other data taken at other times and wavelengths. By slowing the propagation speed dramatically, we can match the observations from 2001-2004. This slowing may be due to a small change in volatile content in the magma.

  9. Local equilibrium solutions in simple anisotropic cosmological models, as described by relativistic fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shogin, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    We test the physical relevance of the full and truncated versions of the Israel-Stewart theory of irreversible thermodynamics in a cosmological setting. Using a dynamical systems method, we determine the asymptotic future of plane symmetric Bianchi type I spacetimes filled with a viscous {\\gamma}-fluid, keeping track of the magnitude of relative dissipative fluxes, which determines the applicability of the Israel-Stewart theory. We consider the situations when the dissipative mechanisms of shear and bulk viscosity are involved separately and simultaneously. Also, we apply two different temperature models in the full version of the theory in order to compare the results. We demonstrate that the only case when the fluid asymptotically approaches local equilibrium, and the underlying assumptions of the IS theory are therefore not violated, is that of a dissipative fluid with vanishing bulk viscosity. The truncated Israel-Stewart equations for shear viscosity are found to produce solutions which manifest patholog...

  10. Coupled gel spreading and diffusive transport models describing microbicidal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Claire; MacMillan, Kelsey; Ham, Anthony; Szeri, Andrew J; Katz, David F

    2016-10-02

    Gels are a drug delivery platform that is being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, that act topically against vaginal and rectal mucosal infection by sexually transmitted HIV. Despite success in one Phase IIb trial of a vaginal gel delivering tenofovir, problems of user adherence to designed gel application scheduling have compromised results in two other trials. The microbicides field is responding to this dilemma by expanding behavioral analysis of the determinants of adherence while simultaneously improving the pharmacological, biochemical, and biophysical analyses of the determinants of microbicide drug delivery. The intent is to combine results of these two complementary perspectives on microbicide performance and epidemiological success to create an improved product design paradigm. Central to both user sensory perceptions and preferences, key factors that underlie adherence, and to vaginal gel mucosal drug delivery, that underlies anti-HIV efficacy, are gel properties (e.g. rheology) and volume. The specific engineering problem to be solved here is to develop a model for how gel rheology and volume, interacting with loaded drug concentration, govern the transport of the microbicide drug tenofovir into the vaginal mucosa to its stromal layer. These are factors that can be controlled in microbicide gel design. The analysis here builds upon our current understanding of vaginal gel deployment and drug delivery, incorporating key features of the gel's environment, the vaginal canal, fluid production and subsequent gel dilution, and vaginal wall elasticity. These have not previously been included in the modeling of drug delivery. We consider the microbicide drug tenofovir, which is the drug most completely studied for gels: in vitro, in animal studies in vivo, and in human clinical trials with both vaginal or rectal gel application. Our goal is to contribute to improved biophysical and pharmacological understanding

  11. Hysteresis in DNA compaction by Dps is described by an Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtyurina, Natalia N; Dulin, David; Docter, Margreet W; Meyer, Anne S; Dekker, Nynke H; Abbondanzieri, Elio A

    2016-05-03

    In all organisms, DNA molecules are tightly compacted into a dynamic 3D nucleoprotein complex. In bacteria, this compaction is governed by the family of nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs). Under conditions of stress and starvation, an NAP called Dps (DNA-binding protein from starved cells) becomes highly up-regulated and can massively reorganize the bacterial chromosome. Although static structures of Dps-DNA complexes have been documented, little is known about the dynamics of their assembly. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy and magnetic-tweezers measurements to resolve the process of DNA compaction by Dps. Real-time in vitro studies demonstrated a highly cooperative process of Dps binding characterized by an abrupt collapse of the DNA extension, even under applied tension. Surprisingly, we also discovered a reproducible hysteresis in the process of compaction and decompaction of the Dps-DNA complex. This hysteresis is extremely stable over hour-long timescales despite the rapid binding and dissociation rates of Dps. A modified Ising model is successfully applied to fit these kinetic features. We find that long-lived hysteresis arises naturally as a consequence of protein cooperativity in large complexes and provides a useful mechanism for cells to adopt unique epigenetic states.

  12. Coupled gel spreading and diffusive transport models describing microbicidal drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Claire; MacMillan, Kelsey; Ham, Anthony S.; Szeri, Andrew J.; Katz, David F.

    2016-11-01

    Gels are a drug delivery platform being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, that act topically against infection by sexually transmitted HIV. Despite success in one Phase IIb trial of a vaginal gel delivering tenofovir, problems of user adherence to designed gel application regimen compromised results in two other trials. The microbicide field is responding to this issue by simultaneously analyzing behavioral determinants of adherence and pharmacological determinants of drug delivery. Central to both user adherence and mucosal drug delivery are gel properties (e.g. rheology) and applied volume. The specific problem to be solved here is to develop a model for how gel rheology and volume, interacting with loaded drug concentration, govern the transport of the microbicide drug tenofovir into the vaginal mucosa to its stromal layer. The analysis here builds upon our current understanding of vaginal gel deployment and drug delivery, incorporating key features of the gel's environment, fluid production and subsequent gel dilution, and vaginal wall elasticity. We consider the microbicide drug tenofovir as it is the most completely studied drug, in both in vitroand in vivostudies, for use in vaginal gel application. Our goal is to contribute to improved pharmacological understanding of gel functionality, providing a computational tool that can be used in future vaginal microbicide gel design.

  13. Universal free school breakfast: a qualitative model for breakfast behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eHarvey-Golding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the provision of school breakfast has increased significantly in the UK. However, research examining the effectiveness of school breakfast is still within relative stages of infancy, and findings to date have been rather mixed. Moreover, previous evaluations of school breakfast schemes have been predominantly quantitative in their methodologies. Presently there are few qualitative studies examining the subjective perceptions and experiences of stakeholders, and thereby an absence of knowledge regarding the sociocultural impacts of school breakfast. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beliefs, views and attitudes, and breakfast consumption behaviors, among key stakeholders, served by a council-wide universal free school breakfast initiative, within the North West of England, UK. A sample of children, parents and school staff were recruited from three primary schools, participating in the universal free school breakfast scheme, to partake in semi-structured interviews and small focus groups. A Grounded Theory analysis of the data collected identified a theoretical model of breakfast behaviors, underpinned by the subjective perceptions and experiences of these key stakeholders. The model comprises of three domains relating to breakfast behaviors, and the internal and external factors that are perceived to influence breakfast behaviors, among children, parents and school staff. Findings were validated using triangulation methods, member checks and inter-rater reliability measures. In presenting this theoretically grounded model for breakfast behaviors, this paper provides a unique qualitative insight into the breakfast consumption behaviors and barriers to breakfast consumption, within a socioeconomically deprived community, participating in a universal free school breakfast intervention program.

  14. Semimechanistic model describing gastric emptying and glucose absorption in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alskär, Oskar; Bagger, Jonatan I; Røge, Rikke M.

    2016-01-01

    and gastric emptying after tests with varying glucose doses. The developed model's performance was compared to empirical models. To develop our model, data from oral and intravenous glucose challenges in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy control subjects were used together with present knowledge......The integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model is a previously published semimechanistic model that describes plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose challenges. The aim of this work was to use knowledge of physiology to improve the IGI model's description of glucose absorption...

  15. The firmness of stored tomatoes (cv. Tradiro). 1. Kinetic and near infrared models to describe firmness and moisture loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.; Boeriu, C.G.; Peter, F.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop practical applicable models capable to describe and to predict the temperature dependent firmness and moisture loss of tomatoes during storage. To gather the required information to develop these models batches of 20 tomatoes (cv. Tradiro), each harvested at

  16. A standardised graphic method for describing data privacy frameworks in primary care research using a flexible zone model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchinke, W.; Ohmann, C.; Verheij, R.A.; Veen, E.B. van; Arvanitis, T.N.; Taweel, A.; Delaney, B.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model describing core concepts and principles of data flow, data privacy and confidentiality, in a simple and flexible way, using concise process descriptions and a diagrammatic notation applied to research workflow processes. The model should help to generate robust data priva

  17. The firmness of stored tomatoes (cv. Tradiro). 1. Kinetic and near infrared models to describe firmness and moisture loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.; Boeriu, C.G.; Peter, F.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop practical applicable models capable to describe and to predict the temperature dependent firmness and moisture loss of tomatoes during storage. To gather the required information to develop these models batches of 20 tomatoes (cv. Tradiro), each harvested at t

  18. A comparison of macroscopic models describing the collective response of sedimenting rod-like particles in shear flows

    KAUST Repository

    Helzel, Christiane

    2016-07-22

    We consider a kinetic model, which describes the sedimentation of rod-like particles in dilute suspensions under the influence of gravity, presented in Helzel and Tzavaras (submitted for publication). Here we restrict our considerations to shear flow and consider a simplified situation, where the particle orientation is restricted to the plane spanned by the direction of shear and the direction of gravity. For this simplified kinetic model we carry out a linear stability analysis and we derive two different nonlinear macroscopic models which describe the formation of clusters of higher particle density. One of these macroscopic models is based on a diffusive scaling, the other one is based on a so-called quasi-dynamic approximation. Numerical computations, which compare the predictions of the macroscopic models with the kinetic model, complete our presentation.

  19. The Maudsley Model of Family-Based Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Evaluation of Parent-to-Parent Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Paul; Brown, Jac; Madden, Sloane

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the qualitative analysis of a randomized control trial that explores the use of parent-to-parent consultations as an augmentation to the Maudsley model of family-based treatment for anorexia. Twenty families were randomized into two groups, 10 receiving standard treatment and 10 receiving an additional parent-to-parent…

  20. The Maudsley Model of Family-Based Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Evaluation of Parent-to-Parent Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Paul; Brown, Jac; Madden, Sloane

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the qualitative analysis of a randomized control trial that explores the use of parent-to-parent consultations as an augmentation to the Maudsley model of family-based treatment for anorexia. Twenty families were randomized into two groups, 10 receiving standard treatment and 10 receiving an additional parent-to-parent…

  1. Performance of flash profile and napping with and without training for describing small sensory differences in a model wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Grønbeck, Marlene Schou; Di Monaco, Rosella

    2016-01-01

    generation step and limiting the number of attributes for ranking gave a similar sample space. The Napping method could best highlight qualitative sample differences, whereas the Flash Profile provided a more precise product mapping on quantitative differences between model wines.......Publication date: March 2016 Source:Food Quality and Preference, Volume 48, Part A Author(s): Jing Liu, Marlene Schou Grønbeck, Rossella Di Monaco, Davide Giacalone, Wender L.P. Bredie Rapid sensory methods are a convenient alternative to conventional descriptive analysis suitable for quickly...... to arrange samples on the sheet) or the product (familiarisation with the sensory properties of the wines) improved the outcome compared to the classical Napping protocol. The classical Flash Profile protocol and its modified version including a Napping with subsequent attributes generation as the word...

  2. Mathematical and computational modeling for describing the basic behavior of free radicals and antioxidants within epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The traditional methods of the biology, based on illustrative descriptions and linear logic explanations, are discussed. This work aims to improve this approach by introducing alternative tools to describe and represent complex biological systems. Two models were developed, one mathematical and another computational, both were made in order to study the biological process between free radicals and antioxidants. Each model was used to study the same process but in different scenarios. The math...

  3. Qualitative modeling of the decision-making process using electrooculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Ramtin Zargari; Sabzpoushan, S H

    2015-12-01

    A novel method based on electrooculography (EOG) has been introduced in this work to study the decision-making process. An experiment was designed and implemented wherein subjects were asked to choose between two items from the same category that were presented within a limited time. The EOG and voice signals of the subjects were recorded during the experiment. A calibration task was performed to map the EOG signals to their corresponding gaze positions on the screen by using an artificial neural network. To analyze the data, 16 parameters were extracted from the response time and EOG signals of the subjects. Evaluation and comparison of the parameters, together with subjects' choices, revealed functional information. On the basis of this information, subjects switched their eye gazes between items about three times on average. We also found, according to statistical hypothesis testing-that is, a t test, t(10) = 71.62, SE = 1.25, p < .0001-that the correspondence rate of a subjects' gaze at the moment of selection with the selected item was significant. Ultimately, on the basis of these results, we propose a qualitative choice model for the decision-making task.

  4. Direct construction of predictive models for describing growth Salmonella enteritidis in liquid eggs – a one-step approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new approach using a one-step approach to directly construct predictive models for describing the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in liquid egg white (LEW) and egg yolk (LEY). A five-strain cocktail of SE, induced to resist rifampicin at 100 mg/L, ...

  5. Comparison of various models to describe the charge-pH dependence of poly(acrylic acid)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lützenkirchen, J.; Male, van J.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Sjöberg, S.

    2011-01-01

    The charge of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in dilute aqueous solutions depends on pH and ionic strength. We report new experimental data and test various models to describe the deprotonation of PAA in three different NaCl concentrations. A simple surface complexation approach is found to be very success

  6. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of salmonella spp. and listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The cross contamination model (Møller et al. 2012) was evaluated to investigate its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef of varying sizes (50 – 324 g) and numbers of pieces to be ground (10 – 100), in two...

  7. Biological Effectiveness and Application of Heavy Ions in Radiation Therapy Described by a Physical and Biological Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kjeld J.; Hansen, Johnny W.

    is inadequately described by an RBE-factor, whereas the complete formulation of the probability of survival must be used, as survival depends on both radiation quality and dose. The theoretical model of track structure can be used in dose-effect calculations for neutron-, high-LET, and low-LET radiation applied...

  8. Bio-Logic Builder: A Non-Technical Tool for Building Dynamical, Qualitative Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helikar, Tomáš; Kowal, Bryan; Madrahimov, Alex; Shrestha, Manish; Pedersen, Jay; Limbu, Kahani; Thapa, Ishwor; Rowley, Thaine; Satalkar, Rahul; Kochi, Naomi; Konvalina, John; Rogers, Jim A.

    2012-01-01

    Computational modeling of biological processes is a promising tool in biomedical research. While a large part of its potential lies in the ability to integrate it with laboratory research, modeling currently generally requires a high degree of training in mathematics and/or computer science. To help address this issue, we have developed a web-based tool, Bio-Logic Builder, that enables laboratory scientists to define mathematical representations (based on a discrete formalism) of biological regulatory mechanisms in a modular and non-technical fashion. As part of the user interface, generalized “bio-logic” modules have been defined to provide users with the building blocks for many biological processes. To build/modify computational models, experimentalists provide purely qualitative information about a particular regulatory mechanisms as is generally found in the laboratory. The Bio-Logic Builder subsequently converts the provided information into a mathematical representation described with Boolean expressions/rules. We used this tool to build a number of dynamical models, including a 130-protein large-scale model of signal transduction with over 800 interactions, influenza A replication cycle with 127 species and 200+ interactions, and mammalian and budding yeast cell cycles. We also show that any and all qualitative regulatory mechanisms can be built using this tool. PMID:23082121

  9. Bio-logic builder: a non-technical tool for building dynamical, qualitative models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Helikar

    Full Text Available Computational modeling of biological processes is a promising tool in biomedical research. While a large part of its potential lies in the ability to integrate it with laboratory research, modeling currently generally requires a high degree of training in mathematics and/or computer science. To help address this issue, we have developed a web-based tool, Bio-Logic Builder, that enables laboratory scientists to define mathematical representations (based on a discrete formalism of biological regulatory mechanisms in a modular and non-technical fashion. As part of the user interface, generalized "bio-logic" modules have been defined to provide users with the building blocks for many biological processes. To build/modify computational models, experimentalists provide purely qualitative information about a particular regulatory mechanisms as is generally found in the laboratory. The Bio-Logic Builder subsequently converts the provided information into a mathematical representation described with Boolean expressions/rules. We used this tool to build a number of dynamical models, including a 130-protein large-scale model of signal transduction with over 800 interactions, influenza A replication cycle with 127 species and 200+ interactions, and mammalian and budding yeast cell cycles. We also show that any and all qualitative regulatory mechanisms can be built using this tool.

  10. Combining different functions to describe milk, fat, and protein yield in goats using Bayesian multiple-trait random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, H R; Silva, F F; Siqueira, O H G B D; Souza, N O; Junqueira, V S; Resende, M D V; Borquis, R R A; Rodrigues, M T

    2016-05-01

    We proposed multiple-trait random regression models (MTRRM) combining different functions to describe milk yield (MY) and fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentage in dairy goat genetic evaluation by using Bayesian inference. A total of 3,856 MY, FP, and PP test-day records, measured between 2000 and 2014, from 535 first lactations of Saanen and Alpine goats, including their cross, were used in this study. The initial analyses were performed using the following single-trait random regression models (STRRM): third- and fifth-order Legendre polynomials (Leg3 and Leg5), linear B-splines with 3 and 5 knots, the Ali and Schaeffer function (Ali), and Wilmink function. Heterogeneity of residual variances was modeled considering 3 classes. After the selection of the best STRRM to describe each trait on the basis of the deviance information criterion (DIC) and posterior model probabilities (PMP), the functions were combined to compose the MTRRM. All combined MTRRM presented lower DIC values and higher PMP, showing the superiority of these models when compared to other MTRRM based only on the same function assumed for all traits. Among the combined MTRRM, those considering Ali to describe MY and PP and Leg5 to describe FP (Ali_Leg5_Ali model) presented the best fit. From the Ali_Leg5_Ali model, heritability estimates over time for MY, FP. and PP ranged from 0.25 to 0.54, 0.27 to 0.48, and 0.35 to 0.51, respectively. Genetic correlation between MY and FP, MY and PP, and FP and PP ranged from -0.58 to 0.03, -0.46 to 0.12, and 0.37 to 0.64, respectively. We concluded that combining different functions under a MTRRM approach can be a plausible alternative for joint genetic evaluation of milk yield and milk constituents in goats.

  11. Mathematical and computational modeling for describing the basic behavior of free radicals and antioxidants within epithelial cells

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Alvaro Juan Ojeda

    2012-01-01

    The traditional methods of the biology, based on illustrative descriptions and linear logic explanations, are discussed. This work aims to improve this approach by introducing alternative tools to describe and represent complex biological systems. Two models were developed, one mathematical and another computational, both were made in order to study the biological process between free radicals and antioxidants. Each model was used to study the same process but in different scenarios. The mathematical model was used to study the biological process in an epithelial cells culture; this model was validated with the experimental data of Anne Hanneken's research group from the Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, published by the journal Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science in July 2006. The computational model was used to study the same process in an individual. The model was made using C++ programming language, supported by the network theory of aging.

  12. Protein folding pathways and state transitions described by classical equations of motion of an elastic network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth; Toon, Andrew J

    2010-12-01

    Protein topology defined by the matrix of residue contacts has proved to be a fruitful basis for the study of protein dynamics. The widely implemented coarse-grained elastic network model of backbone fluctuations has been used to describe crystallographic temperature factors, allosteric couplings, and some aspects of the folding pathway. In the present study, we develop a model of protein dynamics based on the classical equations of motion of a damped network model (DNM) that describes the folding path from a completely unfolded state to the native conformation through a single-well potential derived purely from the native conformation. The kinetic energy gained through the collapse of the protein chain is dissipated through a friction term in the equations of motion that models the water bath. This approach is completely general and sufficiently fast that it can be applied to large proteins. Folding pathways for various proteins of different classes are described and shown to correlate with experimental observations and molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Allosteric transitions between alternative protein structures are also modeled within the DNM through an asymmetric double-well potential.

  13. A Reactive-Transport Model Describing Methanogen Growth and Methane Production in Diffuse Flow Vents at Axial Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is an important mode of metabolism in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Diffuse vent fluids often show a depletion in hydrogen with a corresponding increase in methane relative to pure-mixing of end member fluid and seawater, and genomic surveys show an enrichment in genetic sequences associated with known methanogens. However, because we cannot directly sample the subseafloor habitat where these organisms are living, constraining the size and activity of these populations remains a challenge and limits our ability to quantify the role they play in vent biogeochemistry. Reactive-transport modeling may provide a useful tool for approaching this problem. Here we present a reactive-transport model describing methane production along the flow-path of hydrothermal fluid from its high temperature end-member to diffuse venting at the seafloor. The model is set up to reflect conditions at several diffuse vents in the Axial Seamount. The model describes the growth of the two dominant thermophilic methanogens, Methanothermococcus and Methanocaldococcus, observed at Axial seamount. Monod and Arrhenius constants for Methanothermococcus thermolithotrophicus and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii were obtained for the model using chemostat and bottle experiments at varying temperatures. The model is used to investigate the influence of different mixing regimes on the subseafloor populations of these methanogens. By varying the model flow path length and subseafloor cell concentrations, and fitting to observed hydrogen and methane concentrations in the venting fluid, the subseafloor biomass, fluid residence time, and methane production rate can be constrained.

  14. Probability of identification: a statistical model for the validation of qualitative botanical identification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBudde, Robert A; Harnly, James M

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative botanical identification method (BIM) is an analytical procedure that returns a binary result (1 = Identified, 0 = Not Identified). A BIM may be used by a buyer, manufacturer, or regulator to determine whether a botanical material being tested is the same as the target (desired) material, or whether it contains excessive nontarget (undesirable) material. The report describes the development and validation of studies for a BIM based on the proportion of replicates identified, or probability of identification (POI), as the basic observed statistic. The statistical procedures proposed for data analysis follow closely those of the probability of detection, and harmonize the statistical concepts and parameters between quantitative and qualitative method validation. Use of POI statistics also harmonizes statistical concepts for botanical, microbiological, toxin, and other analyte identification methods that produce binary results. The POI statistical model provides a tool for graphical representation of response curves for qualitative methods, reporting of descriptive statistics, and application of performance requirements. Single collaborator and multicollaborative study examples are given.

  15. A generalized adsorption-phase transition model to describe adsorption rates in flexible metal organic framework RPM3-Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela D; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Sircar, Sarmishtha; Malencia, Christopher; Wang, Hao; Li, Jing

    2016-03-14

    Flexible gate-opening metal organic frameworks (GO-MOFs) expand or contract to minimize the overall free energy of the system upon accommodation of an adsorbate. The thermodynamics of the GO process are well described by a number of models, but the kinetics of the process are relatively unexplored. A flexible GO-MOF, RPM3-Zn, exhibits a significant induction period for opening by N2 and Ar at low temperatures, both above and below the GO pressure. A similar induction period is not observed for H2 or O2 at comparable pressures and temperatures, suggesting the rate of opening is strongly influenced by the gas-surface interaction rather than an external stress. The induction period leads to severe mass transfer limitations for adsorption and over-prediction of the gate-opening pressure. After review of a number of existing adsorption rate models, we find that none adequately describe the experimental rate data and similar timescales for diffusion and opening invalidate prior reaction-diffusion models. Statistically, the rate data are best described by a compressed exponential function. The resulting fitted parameters exceed the expectations for adsorption but fall within those expected for phase transition. By treating adsorption as a phase transition, we generalize the Avrami theory of phase transition kinetics to describe adsorption in both rigid and flexible hosts. The generalized theory is consistent with observed experimental trends relating to induction period, temperature, pressure, and gas-substrate interaction.

  16. Environmental Consequences of Wildlife Tourism: The Use of Formalised Qualitative Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselý Štěpán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a simple qualitative model of environmental consequences of wildlife tourism. Qualitative models use just three values: Positive/Increasing, Zero/Constant and Negative/Decreasing. Such quantifiers of trends are the least information intensive. Qualitative models can be useful, since models of wildlife tourism include such variables as, for example, Biodiversity (BIO, Animals’ habituation to tourists (HAB or Plant composition change (PLA that are sometimes difficult or costly to quantify. Hence, a significant fraction of available information about wildlife tourism and its consequences is not of numerical nature, for example, if HAB is increasing then BIO is decreasing. Such equationless relations are studied in this paper. The model has 10 variables and 20 equationless pairwise interrelations among them. The model is solved and 15 solutions, that is, scenarios are obtained. All qualitative states, including the first and second qualitative derivatives with respect to time, of all variables are specified for each scenario.

  17. Development of a log-quadratic model to describe microbial inactivation, illustrated by thermal inactivation of Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, G; Chapman, B; Lovell, D

    2009-11-01

    In the commercial food industry, demonstration of microbiological safety and thermal process equivalence often involves a mathematical framework that assumes log-linear inactivation kinetics and invokes concepts of decimal reduction time (D(T)), z values, and accumulated lethality. However, many microbes, particularly spores, exhibit inactivation kinetics that are not log linear. This has led to alternative modeling approaches, such as the biphasic and Weibull models, that relax strong log-linear assumptions. Using a statistical framework, we developed a novel log-quadratic model, which approximates the biphasic and Weibull models and provides additional physiological interpretability. As a statistical linear model, the log-quadratic model is relatively simple to fit and straightforwardly provides confidence intervals for its fitted values. It allows a D(T)-like value to be derived, even from data that exhibit obvious "tailing." We also showed how existing models of non-log-linear microbial inactivation, such as the Weibull model, can fit into a statistical linear model framework that dramatically simplifies their solution. We applied the log-quadratic model to thermal inactivation data for the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum and evaluated its merits compared with those of popular previously described approaches. The log-quadratic model was used as the basis of a secondary model that can capture the dependence of microbial inactivation kinetics on temperature. This model, in turn, was linked to models of spore inactivation of Sapru et al. and Rodriguez et al. that posit different physiological states for spores within a population. We believe that the log-quadratic model provides a useful framework in which to test vitalistic and mechanistic hypotheses of inactivation by thermal and other processes.

  18. Development of a mathematical model describing hydrolysis and co-fermentation of C6 and C5 sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Gernaey, Krist; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    the degree of reliability. The mathematical model for the SSCF has been tested for a modified version of the process flowsheet proposed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The model can now be used to evaluate different process configurations for 2G bioethanol production using corn stover......Reliable production of biofuels and specifically bioethanol has attracted a significant amount of research recently. Within this context, this study deals with dynamic simulation of bioethanol production processes and in particular aims at developing a mathematical model for describing simultaneous...... saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of C6 and C5 sugars. Model construction has been carried out by combining existing mathematical models for enzymatic hydrolysis on the one hand and co-fermentation on the other hand. An inhibition of ethanol on cellulose conversion was introduced in order to increase...

  19. Thermodynamics of polymer nematics described with a worm-like chain model: particle-based simulations and SCF theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Cristina; Yiang, Ying; Kremer, Kurt; Chen, Jeff; Daoulas, Kostas

    Polymer liquid crystals, apart from traditional applications as high strength materials, are important for new technologies, e.g. Organic Electronics. Their studies often invoke mesoscale models, parameterized to reproduce thermodynamic properties of the real material. Such top-down strategies require advanced simulation techniques, predicting accurately the thermodynamics of mesoscale models as a function of characteristic features and parameters. Here a recently developed model describing nematic polymers as worm-like chains interacting with soft directional potentials is considered. We present a special thermodynamic integration scheme delivering free energies in particle-based Monte Carlo simulations of this model, avoiding thermodynamic singularities. Conformational and structural properties, as well as Helmholtz free energies are reported as a function of interaction strength. They are compared with state-of-art SCF calculations invoking a continuum analog of the same model, demonstrating the role of liquid-packing and fluctuations.

  20. DaMoScope and its internet graphics for the visual control of adjusting mathematical models describing experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, V. I.; Ezhela, V. V.; Kuyanov, Yu. V., E-mail: Yu.Kuyanov@gmail.com; Tkachenko, N. P. [Institute for High Energy Physics, National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, COMPAS Group (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The experience of using the dynamic atlas of the experimental data and mathematical models of their description in the problems of adjusting parametric models of observable values depending on kinematic variables is presented. The functional possibilities of an image of a large number of experimental data and the models describing them are shown by examples of data and models of observable values determined by the amplitudes of elastic scattering of hadrons. The Internet implementation of an interactive tool DaMoScope and its interface with the experimental data and codes of adjusted parametric models with the parameters of the best description of data are schematically shown. The DaMoScope codes are freely available.

  1. Large-eddy simulations of forced isotropic turbulence with viscoelastic fluids described by the FENE-P model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro O.; Pinho, Fernando T.; da Silva, Carlos B.

    2016-12-01

    A new subgrid-scale (SGS) model developed for large-eddy simulations (LES) of dilute polymer solutions, described by the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic constitutive equation closed with the Peterlin approximation, is presented. In this distortion similarity model (DSIM) the filtered conformation tensor evolution equation is based on the self-similarity of the polymer stretching terms, and on a global equilibrium of the trace of the conformation tensor, which is proportional to the elastic energy stored in the polymer molecules, while the SGS stresses are modelled with the classical Smagorinsky model. The DSIM closure is assessed in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of forced isotropic turbulence using classical a priori tests, and in a posteriori (LES) showing very good agreement with all the exact (filtered DNS) results. The DSIM model is simple to implement and computationally inexpensive and represents a major step forward in the numerical simulation of turbulent flows of Newtonian fluids with polymer additives.

  2. Sensitivity assessment, adjustment, and comparison of mathematical models describing the migration of pesticides in soil using lysimetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, E. V.; Kokoreva, A. A.; Gorbatov, V. S.; Umarova, A. B.; Kolupaeva, V. N.; Perevertin, K. A.

    2009-07-01

    The water block of physically founded models of different levels (chromatographic PEARL models and dual-porosity MACRO models) was parameterized using laboratory experimental data and tested using the results of studying the water regime of loamy soddy-podzolic soil in large lysimeters of the Experimental Soil Station of Moscow State University. The models were adapted using a stepwise approach, which involved the sequential assessment and adjustment of each submodel. The models unadjusted for the water block underestimated the lysimeter flow and overestimated the soil water content. The theoretical necessity of the model adjustment was explained by the different scales of the experimental objects (soil samples) and simulated phenomenon (soil profile). The adjustment of the models by selecting the most sensitive hydrophysical parameters of the soils (the approximation parameters of the soil water retention curve (SWRC)) gave good agreement between the predicted moisture profiles and their actual values. In distinction from the PEARL model, the MARCO model reliably described the migration of a pesticide through the soil profile, which confirmed the necessity of physically founded models accounting for the separation of preferential flows in the pore space for the prediction, analysis, optimization, and management of modern agricultural technologies.

  3. If Cell Mechanics Can Be Described by Elastic Modulus: Study of Different Models and Probes Used in Indentation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, Nataliia; Dokukin, Maxim; Kalaparthi, Vivekanand; Sokolov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Here we investigated the question whether cells, being highly heterogeneous objects, could be described with the elastic modulus (effective Young’s modulus) in a self-consistent way. We performed a comparative analysis of the elastic modulus derived from the indentation data obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM) on human cervical epithelial cells (both normal and cancerous). Both sharp (cone) and dull (2500-nm radius sphere) AFM probes were used. The indentation data were processed through different elastic models. The cell was approximated as a homogeneous elastic medium that had either 1), smooth hemispherical boundary (Hertz/Sneddon models) or 2), the boundary covered with a layer of glycocalyx and membrane protrusions (“brush” models). Consistency of these approximations was investigated. Specifically, we tested the independence of the elastic modulus of the indentation depth, which is assumed in these models. We demonstrated that only one model showed consistency in treating cells as a homogeneous elastic medium, namely, the brush model, when processing the indentation data collected with the dull AFM probe. The elastic modulus demonstrated strong depth dependence in all models: Hertz/Sneddon models (no brush taken into account), and when the brush model was applied to the data collected with sharp conical probes. We conclude that it is possible to describe the elastic properties of the cell body by means of an effective elastic modulus, used in a self-consistent way, when using the brush model to analyze data collected with a dull AFM probe. The nature of these results is discussed. PMID:25099796

  4. MARIKA - A model revision system using qualitative analysis of simulations. [of human orientation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Nicolas; Frainier, Richard; Colombano, Silvano; Hazelton, Lyman; Szolovits, Peter

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes portions of a novel system called MARIKA (Model Analysis and Revision of Implicit Key Assumptions) to automatically revise a model of the normal human orientation system. The revision is based on analysis of discrepancies between experimental results and computer simulations. The discrepancies are calculated from qualitative analysis of quantitative simulations. The experimental and simulated time series are first discretized in time segments. Each segment is then approximated by linear combinations of simple shapes. The domain theory and knowledge are represented as a constraint network. Incompatibilities detected during constraint propagation within the network yield both parameter and structural model alterations. Interestingly, MARIKA diagnosed a data set from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Vestibular Laboratory as abnormal though the data was tagged as normal. Published results from other laboratories confirmed the finding. These encouraging results could lead to a useful clinical vestibular tool and to a scientific discovery system for space vestibular adaptation.

  5. Impact of environmental factors in home rehabilitation--a qualitative study from the perspective of older persons using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to describe facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randström, Kerstin Björkman; Asplund, Kenneth; Svedlund, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore older people's experience of environmental factors that impact on their activity and participation in home rehabilitation. Older people aged between 68 and 93 years and receiving home rehabilitation were interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was performed on the interview text using the predetermined structure of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental domain. The text was linked to the closest ICF category. The results identified environmental facilitators and barriers that influenced activity and participation among older people receiving home rehabilitation. Approaches that provided a facilitative environment were access to assistive products and technologies, alterations to the physical environment, social support and relationships, and adjusted health and social care services. A qualitative study using ICF-listed environmental factors contributed a holistic view of facilitators and barriers in home rehabilitation for older people. Awareness of the importance of the impact of the social environment on activities and participation could improve home rehabilitation services for older people. The study represents an important step towards a holistic approach using the ICF, which aims to enable all health care professionals to describe, plan and evaluate rehabilitation services together with older people across the health and social care sectors.

  6. A novel computational modelling to describe the anisotropic, remodelling and reorientation behaviour of collagen fibrres in articular cartilage

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, S; Alves, J L

    2016-01-01

    In articular cartilage the orientation of collagen fibres is not uniform, varying mostly with the depth on the tissue. Besides, the biomechanical response of each layer of the articular cartilage differs from the neighbouring ones, evolving through thickness as a function of the distribution, density and orientation of the collagen fibres. Based on a finite element implementation, a new continuum formulation is proposed to describe the remodelling and reorientation of the collagen fibres under arbitrary mechanical loads: the cartilaginous tissue is modelled based on a hyperelastic formulation, being the ground isotropic matrix described by a neo-Hookean law and the fibrillar anisotropic part modelled by a new anisotropic formulation introduced for the first time in the present work, in which both reorientation and remodelling are taken into account. To characterize the orientation of fibres, a structure tensor is defined to represent the expected distribution and orientation of fibres around a reference direc...

  7. Properties of Three Pseudo-Spins in Ferroelectric or Ferro-Antiferroelectric Materials Described by a Transverse Ising Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wei; Veng-Cheong Lo

    2005-01-01

    Ferroelectric phase diagrams and the temperature dependence of polarization, dielectric properties of the three pseudo-spin in ferroelectric or ferro-antiferroelectric system described by a transverse Ising models are investigated on the basis of the effective-field theory with the differential operator technique. The effects of the transverse field and the coupling strength between the nearest-neighboring pseudo-spin on the physical properties are discussed in detail.

  8. Weight-HbA1c-insulin-glucose model for describing disease progression of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, S; Kjellsson, M C; Karlsson, M O; de Winter, W

    2016-01-01

    A previous semi-mechanistic model described changes in fasting serum insulin (FSI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) by modeling insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. It was later suggested that change in body weight could affect insulin sensitivity, which this study evaluated in a population model to describe the disease progression of T2DM. Nonlinear mixed effects modeling was performed on data from 181 obese patients with newly diagnosed T2DM managed with diet and exercise for 67 weeks. Baseline β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were 61% and 25% of normal, respectively. Management with diet and exercise (mean change in body weight = -4.1 kg) was associated with an increase of insulin sensitivity (30.1%) at the end of the study. Changes in insulin sensitivity were associated with a decrease of FPG (range, 7.8-7.3 mmol/L) and HbA1c (6.7-6.4%). Weight change as an effector on insulin sensitivity was successfully evaluated in a semi-mechanistic population model.

  9. Applications of abduction: hypothesis testing of neuroendocrinological qualitative compartmental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, T; Compton, P

    1997-06-01

    It is difficult to assess hypothetical models in poorly measured domains such as neuroendocrinology. Without a large library of observations to constrain inference, the execution of such incomplete models implies making assumptions. Mutually exclusive assumptions must be kept in separate worlds. We define a general abductive multiple-worlds engine that assesses such models by (i) generating the worlds and (ii) tests if these worlds contain known behaviour. World generation is constrained via the use of relevant envisionment. We describe QCM, a modeling language for compartmental models that can be processed by this inference engine. This tool has been used to find faults in theories published in international refereed journals; i.e. QCM can detect faults which are invisible to other methods. The generality and computational limits of this approach are discussed. In short, this approach is applicable to any representation that can be compiled into an and-or graph, provided the graphs are not too big or too intricate (fanout < 7).

  10. Population Dynamics P system (PDP) models: a standardized protocol for describing and applying novel bio-inspired computing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer, Maria Àngels; Margalida, Antoni; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J

    2013-01-01

    Today, the volume of data and knowledge of processes necessitates more complex models that integrate all available information. This handicap has been solved thanks to the technological advances in both software and hardware. Computational tools available today have allowed developing a new family of models, known as computational models. The description of these models is difficult as they can not be expressed analytically, and it is therefore necessary to create protocols that serve as guidelines for future users. The Population Dynamics P systems models (PDP) are a novel and effective computational tool to model complex problems, are characterized by the ability to work in parallel (simultaneously interrelating different processes), are modular and have a high computational efficiency. However, the difficulty of describing these models therefore requires a protocol to unify the presentation and the steps to follow. We use two case studies to demonstrate the use and implementation of these computational models for population dynamics and ecological process studies, discussing briefly their potential applicability to simulate complex ecosystem dynamics.

  11. Users' guide to system dynamics model describing Coho salmon survival in Olema Creek, Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Torregrosa, Alicia; Madej, Mary Ann; Reichmuth, Michael; Fong, Darren

    2014-01-01

    The system dynamics model described in this report is the result of a collaboration between U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and National Park Service (NPS) San Francisco Bay Area Network (SFAN) staff, whose goal was to develop a methodology to integrate inventory and monitoring data to better understand ecosystem dynamics and trends using salmon in Olema Creek, Marin County, California, as an example case. The SFAN began monitoring multiple life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Olema Creek during 2003 (Carlisle and others, 2013), building on previous monitoring of spawning fish and redds. They initiated water-quality and habitat monitoring, and had access to flow and weather data from other sources. This system dynamics model of the freshwater portion of the coho salmon life cycle in Olema Creek integrated 8 years of existing monitoring data, literature values, and expert opinion to investigate potential factors limiting survival and production, identify data gaps, and improve monitoring and restoration prescriptions. A system dynamics model is particularly effective when (1) data are insufficient in time series length and/or measured parameters for a statistical or mechanistic model, and (2) the model must be easily accessible by users who are not modelers. These characteristics helped us meet the following overarching goals for this model: Summarize and synthesize NPS monitoring data with data and information from other sources to describe factors and processes affecting freshwater survival of coho salmon in Olema Creek. Provide a model that can be easily manipulated to experiment with alternative values of model parameters and novel scenarios of environmental drivers. Although the model describes the ecological dynamics of Olema Creek, these dynamics are structurally similar to numerous other coastal streams along the California coast that also contain anadromous fish populations. The model developed for Olema can be used, at least as a

  12. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability. Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204

  13. Development of a population pharmacokinetic model to describe azithromycin whole-blood and plasma concentrations over time in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pene Dumitrescu, T; Anic-Milic, T; Oreskovic, K; Padovan, J; Brouwer, K L R; Zuo, P; Schmith, V D

    2013-07-01

    Azithromycin (AZI), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, accumulates in polymorphonuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The distribution of AZI in proinflammatory cells may be important to the anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies have described plasma AZI pharmacokinetics. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of AZI in whole blood (concentration in whole blood [Cb]) and plasma (concentration in plasma [Cp]) of healthy subjects. In this study, 12 subjects received AZI (500 mg once a day for 3 days). AZI Cb and Cp were quantified in serial samples collected up to 3 weeks after the last dose and analyzed using noncompartmental and compartmental methods. After the last dose, Cb was greater than Cp. Importantly, Cb, but not Cp, was quantifiable in all but one subject at 3 weeks. The blood area under the curve during a 24-h dosing interval (AUC24) was ∼2-fold greater than the plasma AUC24, but simulations suggested that Cb was not at steady state by day 3. Upon exploration of numerous models, an empirical 3-compartment model adequately described Cp and Cb, but Cp was somewhat underestimated. Intercompartmental clearance (CL; likely representing cells) was lower than apparent oral CL (18 versus 118 liters/h). Plasma, peripheral, and cell compartmental volumes were 439 liters, 2,980 liters, and 3,084 liters, respectively. Interindividual variability in CL was low (26.2%), while the volume of distribution variability was high (107%). This is the first report to describe AZI Cb in healthy subjects, the distribution parameters between Cp and Cb, and AZI retention in blood for up to 3 weeks following 3 daily doses. The model can be used to predict Cb from Cp for AZI under various dosing regimens. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01026064.).

  14. Probability of Detection (POD) as a statistical model for the validation of qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Paul; LaBudde, Robert A; Brunelle, Sharon L; Nelson, Maria T

    2011-01-01

    A statistical model is presented for use in validation of qualitative methods. This model, termed Probability of Detection (POD), harmonizes the statistical concepts and parameters between quantitative and qualitative method validation. POD characterizes method response with respect to concentration as a continuous variable. The POD model provides a tool for graphical representation of response curves for qualitative methods. In addition, the model allows comparisons between candidate and reference methods, and provides calculations of repeatability, reproducibility, and laboratory effects from collaborative study data. Single laboratory study and collaborative study examples are given.

  15. Baseline toxicity and ion-trapping models to describe the pH-dependence of bacterial toxicity of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Andreas; Bittermann, Kai; Klüver, Nils; Escher, Beate I

    2017-07-19

    In numerous studies on the toxicity of ionisable organic chemicals, it has been shown that the toxicity was typically higher, when larger fractions of the neutral species were present. This observation was explained in some cases by slower uptake of charged species. In other cases it was suggested that the neutral species has intrinsically higher toxicity than the charged species or is alone responsible for the toxicity. However, even permanently charged and organic chemicals with multiple acid and base functional groups and zwitterions are toxic. We set out to reconcile the divergent views and to compare the various existing models for describing the pH-dependence of toxicity with the goal to derive one model that is valid independent of the type and number of charges on the molecule. To achieve this goal we measured the cytotoxicity of 18 acidic, 15 basic and 9 multiprotic/zwitterionic pharmaceuticals at pH 5.5 to pH 9 with the bioluminescence inhibition test using Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox assay). This assay is useful for an evaluation of various models to describe pH-dependent toxicity because the majority of chemicals act as baseline toxicants in this 30 min cytotoxicity assay. Therefore baseline toxicity with constant membrane concentrations of the sum of all chemical species of approximately 200 mmol kglip(-1) served for the validation of the suitability of the various tested models. We confirmed that most tested pharmaceuticals acted as baseline toxicants in this assay at all examined pH values, when toxicity was modeled with a mixture model of concentration addition between the neutral species and all charged species. An ion trapping model, that assumes that the membrane permeability of charged species is kinetically limited, improved model predictions for some pharmaceuticals and pH values. However, neither unhindered uptake nor no uptake of the charged species were ideal models; the reality lies presumably between the two limiting cases with a slower

  16. A model describing Debaryomyces hansenii growth and substrate consumption during a smear soft cheese deacidification and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, M H; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Hélias, A; Corrieu, G

    2007-05-01

    A mechanistic model for Debaryomyces hansenii growth and substrate consumption, lactose conversion into lactate by lactic acid bacteria, as well as lactose and lactate transfer from the core toward the rind was established. The model described the first step (14 d) of the ripening of a smear soft cheese and included the effects of temperature and relative humidity of the ripening chamber on the kinetic parameters. Experimental data were collected from experiments carried out in an aseptic pilot scale ripening chamber under 9 different combinations of temperature (8, 12, and 16 degrees C) and relative humidity (85, 93, and 99%) according to a complete experimental design. The model considered the cheese as a system with 2 compartments (rind and core) and included 5 state evolution equations and 16 parameters. The model succeeded in predicting D. hansenii growth and lactose and lactate concentrations during the first step of ripening (curd deacidification) in core and rind. The nonlinear data-fitting method allowed the determination of tight confidence intervals for the model parameters. The residual standard error (RSE) between model predictions and experimental data was close to the experimental standard deviation between repeated experiments.

  17. Propagation of an ultimately short electromagnetic pulse in a nonlinear medium described by the fifth-order Duffing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maĭmistov, A. I.

    2003-02-01

    We discuss propagation of an ultimately short (single-cycle) pulse of an electromagnetic field in a medium whose dispersion and nonlinear properties can be described by the cubic-quintic Duffing model, i.e., by an oscillator with third-and fifth-order anharmonicity. A system of equations governing the evolution of a unidirectional electromagnetic wave is analyzed without using the approximation of slowly varying envelopes. Three types of solutions of this system describing stationary propagation of a pulse in such a medium are found. When the signs of the anharmonicity constants are different, then the amplitude of a steady-state pulse is limited, but its energy may grow on account of an increase in its duration. The characteristics of such a pulse, referred to as an electromagnetic domain, are discussed.

  18. Involving mental health service users in suicide-related research: a qualitative inquiry model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, David; Procter, Nicholas; Fassett, Denise; Handley, Christine

    2016-03-01

    To describe the research model developed and successfully deployed as part of a multi-method qualitative study investigating suicidal service-users' experiences of mental health nursing care. Quality mental health care is essential to limiting the occurrence and burden of suicide, however there is a lack of relevant research informing practice in this context. Research utilising first-person accounts of suicidality is of particular importance to expanding the existing evidence base. However, conducting ethical research to support this imperative is challenging. The model discussed here illustrates specific and more generally applicable principles for qualitative research regarding sensitive topics and involving potentially vulnerable service-users. Researching into mental health service users with first-person experience of suicidality requires stakeholder and institutional support, researcher competency, and participant recruitment, consent, confidentiality, support and protection. Research with service users into their experiences of sensitive issues such as suicidality can result in rich and valuable data, and may also provide positive experiences of collaboration and inclusivity. If challenges are not met, objectification and marginalisation of service-users may be reinforced, and limitations in the evidence base and service provision may be perpetuated.

  19. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; JIA Lai-Bing; YIN Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments.The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming.We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp(carassius auratus).A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well.With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force.Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  20. Thermal behavior of thin slab as described by the parabolic microscopic heat conduction model with variable thermal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Nimr, Moh' d A.; Naji, Malak; Al-Wardat, Salem A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, P.O. Box 3030 (Jordan)

    2004-02-01

    The thermal behavior of thin slab as described by the parabolic microscopic heat conduction model with variable thermal properties is investigated under two types of heating sources. These types are the unit step and the fluctuating harmonic heating sources. The considered thermal properties are the electron gas C{sub e} and the solid lattice C{sub L} total thermal capacities. It is found that the slab thermal behavior is more sensitive to the variation in C{sub e} as compared to the variation in C{sub L}. Assuming C{sub e} constant may cause an error of magnitude 19% while assuming C{sub L} constant causes an error of magnitude 5%. The sensitivity of the parabolic microscopic heat conduction model to the variation in C{sub e} is higher under the effect of a fluctuating heating source as compared to a unit step heating source. (authors)

  1. A simple model of universe describing the early inflation and the late accelerated expansion in a symmetric manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (IRSAMC), CNRS and UPS, Université de Toulouse (France)

    2013-07-23

    We construct a simple model of universe which 'unifies' vacuum energy and radiation on the one hand, and matter and dark energy on the other hand in the spirit of a generalized Chaplygin gas model. Specifically, the phases of early inflation and late accelerated expansion are described by a generalized equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} having a linear component p = αρc{sup 2} and a polytropic component p = kρ{sup 1+1/n}c{sup 2}. For α= 1/3, n= 1 and k=−4/(3ρ{sub P}), where ρ{sub P}= 5.1610{sup 99} g/m{sup 3} is the Planck density, this equation of state describes the transition between the vacuum energy era and the radiation era. For t≥ 0, the universe undergoes an inflationary expansion that brings it from the Planck size l{sub P}= 1.6210{sup −35} m to a size a{sub 1}= 2.6110{sup −6} m on a timescale of about 23.3 Planck times t{sub P}= 5.3910{sup −44} s (early inflation). When t > t{sub 1}= 23.3t{sub P}, the universe decelerates and enters in the radiation era. We interpret the transition from the vacuum energy era to the radiation era as a second order phase transition where the Planck constant ℏ plays the role of finite size effects (the standard Big Bang theory is recovered for ℏ= 0). For α= 0, n=−1 and k=−ρ{sub Λ}, where ρ{sub Λ}= 7.0210{sup −24} g/m{sup 3} is the cosmological density, the equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} describes the transition from a decelerating universe dominated by pressureless matter (baryonic and dark matter) to an accelerating universe dominated by dark energy (late inflation). This transition takes place at a size a{sub 2}= 0.204l{sub Λ}. corresponding to a time t{sub 2}= 0.203t{sub Λ} where l{sub Λ}= 4.38 10{sup 26} m is the cosmological length and t{sub Λ}= 1.46 10{sup 18} s the cosmological time. The present universe turns out to be just at the transition between these two periods (t{sub 0}∼t{sub 2}). Our model gives the same results as the standard

  2. Application of interleaving models to describe intrusive layers in the Deep Polar Water of the Arctic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurbas, Nataliya; Kuzmina, Natalia; Lyzhkov, Dmitry; Izvekova, Yulia N.

    2016-04-01

    Interleaving models of pure thermohaline and baroclinic frontal zones of finite width are applied to describe intrusions at the fronts found in the upper part of the Deep Polar Water, the Eurasian basin, under stable-stable thermohaline stratification. It is assumed that differential mixing is the main mechanism of the intrusion formation. Different parameterizations of differential mixing (Merrryfield, 2002; Kuzmina et al., 2011) are used in the models. Important parameters of interleaving such as the growth rate, vertical scale, and slope of the most unstable modes are calculated. It is found that the interleaving model of a pure thermohaline front can satisfactory describe the important parameters of intrusions observed at a thermohaline, very low baroclinicity front in the Eurasian basin, just in accordance to Merryfield (2002) findings. In the case of baroclinic front, satisfactory agreement over all the interleaving parameters is found between the model calculations and observations provided that the vertical momentum diffusivity significantly exceeds the corresponding mass diffusivity. Under specific (reasonable) constraints of the vertical momentum diffusivity, the most unstable mode has a vertical scale approximately two-three times smaller than the vertical scale of the observed intrusions. A thorough discussion of the results is presented. References Kuzmina N., Rudels B., Zhurbas V., Stipa T. On the structure and dynamical features of intrusive layering in the Eurasian Basin in the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 2011, 116, C00D11, doi:10.1029/2010JC006920. Merryfield W. J. Intrusions in Double-Diffusively Stable Arctic Waters: Evidence for Differential mixing? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 2002, 32, 1452-1439.

  3. Enhanced Dopamine Release by Dopamine Transport Inhibitors Described by a Restricted Diffusion Model and Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alexander F; Spivak, Charles E; Lupica, Carl R

    2016-06-15

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using carbon fiber electrodes is widely used to rapidly monitor changes in dopamine (DA) levels in vitro and in vivo. Current analytical approaches utilize parameters such as peak oxidation current amplitude and decay times to estimate release and uptake processes, respectively. However, peak amplitude changes are often observed with uptake inhibitors, thereby confounding the interpretation of these parameters. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that a simple five-parameter, two-compartment model mathematically describes DA signals as a balance of release (r/ke) and uptake (ku), summed with adsorption (kads and kdes) of DA to the carbon electrode surface. Using nonlinear regression, we demonstrate that our model precisely describes measured DA signals obtained in brain slice recordings. The parameters extracted from these curves were then validated using pharmacological manipulations that selectively alter vesicular release or DA transporter (DAT)-mediated uptake. Manipulation of DA release through altering the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio or adding tetrodotoxin reduced the release parameter with no effect on the uptake parameter. DAT inhibitors methylenedioxypyrovalerone, cocaine, and nomifensine significantly reduced uptake and increased vesicular DA release. In contrast, a low concentration of amphetamine reduced uptake but had no effect on DA release. Finally, the kappa opioid receptor agonist U50,488 significantly reduced vesicular DA release but had no effect on uptake. Together, these data demonstrate a novel analytical approach to distinguish the effects of manipulations on DA release or uptake that can be used to interpret FSCV data.

  4. Avoiding and identifying errors in health technology assessment models: qualitative study and methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, J; Tappenden, P; Rawdin, A; Johnson, M; Kaltenthaler, E; Paisley, S; Papaioannou, D; Shippam, A

    2010-05-01

    Health policy decisions must be relevant, evidence-based and transparent. Decision-analytic modelling supports this process but its role is reliant on its credibility. Errors in mathematical decision models or simulation exercises are unavoidable but little attention has been paid to processes in model development. Numerous error avoidance/identification strategies could be adopted but it is difficult to evaluate the merits of strategies for improving the credibility of models without first developing an understanding of error types and causes. The study aims to describe the current comprehension of errors in the HTA modelling community and generate a taxonomy of model errors. Four primary objectives are to: (1) describe the current understanding of errors in HTA modelling; (2) understand current processes applied by the technology assessment community for avoiding errors in development, debugging and critically appraising models for errors; (3) use HTA modellers' perceptions of model errors with the wider non-HTA literature to develop a taxonomy of model errors; and (4) explore potential methods and procedures to reduce the occurrence of errors in models. It also describes the model development process as perceived by practitioners working within the HTA community. A methodological review was undertaken using an iterative search methodology. Exploratory searches informed the scope of interviews; later searches focused on issues arising from the interviews. Searches were undertaken in February 2008 and January 2009. In-depth qualitative interviews were performed with 12 HTA modellers from academic and commercial modelling sectors. All qualitative data were analysed using the Framework approach. Descriptive and explanatory accounts were used to interrogate the data within and across themes and subthemes: organisation, roles and communication; the model development process; definition of error; types of model error; strategies for avoiding errors; strategies for

  5. A family of anisotropic super-dense star models using a space-time describing charged perfect fluid distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.

    2012-08-01

    A family of anisotropic fluid distributions is constructed using a space-time describing a family of charged perfect fluid distributions. The anisotropy parameter is taken to be twice the square of electric intensity used in the charged fluid distributions. As the anisotropy parameter (or the electric intensity) is zero at the centre and is monotonically increasing towards the pressure-free interface, we have utilized the anisotropic fluid distributions to create Boson-type neutron stars models which join smoothly to the Schwarzschild exterior metric. All the physical entities such as energy density, radial pressure, tangential pressure and velocity of sound are monotonically decreasing towards the surface. Different members of the above family are characterized by a positive integral number n. It is observed that the maximum mass (which is 5.8051 solar mass for n = 4) starts decreasing for n > 4. But this reaches a non-zero terminal value (2.8010 solar mass) as n tends to infinity.

  6. Gaze patterns reveal how texts are remembered: A mental model of what was described is favored over the text itself

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traub, Franziska; Johansson, Roger; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    Several studies have reported that spontaneous eye movements occur when visuospatial information is recalled from memory. Such gazes closely reflect the content and spatial relations from the original scene layout (e.g., Johansson et al., 2012). However, when someone has originally read a scene...... description, the memory of the physical layout of the text itself might compete with the memory of the spatial arrangement of the described scene. 
The present study was designed to address this fundamental issue by having participants read scene descriptions that were manipulated to be either congruent....... Recollection was performed orally while gazing at a blank screen. 
Results demonstrate that participant’s gaze patterns during recall more closely reflect the spatial layout of the scene than the physical locations of the text. We conclude that participants formed a mental model that represents the content...

  7. Enhanced dopamine release by dopamine transport inhibitors described by a restricted diffusion model and fast scan cyclic voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alexander F.; Spivak, Charles E.; Lupica, Carl R.

    2016-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using carbon fiber electrodes is widely used to rapidly monitor changes in dopamine (DA) levels in vitro and in vivo. Current analytical approaches utilize parameters such as peak oxidation current amplitude and decay times to estimate release and uptake processes, respectively. However, peak amplitude changes are often observed with uptake inhibitors, thereby confounding the interpretation of these parameters. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that a simple, 5 parameter, two compartment model mathematically describes DA signals as a balance of release (r/ke) and uptake (ku), summed with adsorption (kads and kdes) of DA to the carbon electrode surface. Using non-linear regression, we demonstrate that our model precisely describes measured DA signals obtained in brain slice recordings. The parameters extracted from these curves were then validated using pharmacological manipulations that selectively alter vesicular release or DA transporter (DAT)-mediated uptake. Manipulation of DA release through altered Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio or tetrodotoxin (TTX), reduced the release parameter with no effect on the uptake parameter. The DAT inhibitors methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), cocaine, and nomifensine significantly reduced uptake and increased vesicular DA release. In contrast, a low concentration of amphetamine reduced uptake but had no effect on DA release. Finally, the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist U50,488 significantly reduced vesicular DA release but had no effect on uptake. Together, these data demonstrate a novel analytical approach to distinguish the effects of manipulations on DA release or uptake that can be used to interpret FSCV data. PMID:27018734

  8. An Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Biochemical Model Learning Framework Using Evolutionary Strategy and Simulated Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zujian; Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2015-01-01

    Both qualitative and quantitative model learning frameworks for biochemical systems have been studied in computational systems biology. In this research, after introducing two forms of pre-defined component patterns to represent biochemical models, we propose an integrative qualitative and quantitative modelling framework for inferring biochemical systems. In the proposed framework, interactions between reactants in the candidate models for a target biochemical system are evolved and eventually identified by the application of a qualitative model learning approach with an evolution strategy. Kinetic rates of the models generated from qualitative model learning are then further optimised by employing a quantitative approach with simulated annealing. Experimental results indicate that our proposed integrative framework is feasible to learn the relationships between biochemical reactants qualitatively and to make the model replicate the behaviours of the target system by optimising the kinetic rates quantitatively. Moreover, potential reactants of a target biochemical system can be discovered by hypothesising complex reactants in the synthetic models. Based on the biochemical models learned from the proposed framework, biologists can further perform experimental study in wet laboratory. In this way, natural biochemical systems can be better understood.

  9. Application of inverse modeling technique to describe hydrogeochemical processes responsible to spatial distribution of groundwater quality along flowpath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjahyo NugrohoAdji

    2013-07-01

    The result shows that firstly, the aquifer within the research area can be grouped into several aquifer systems (i.e. denudational hill, colluvial plain, alluvial plain, and beach ridges from recharge to discharge which generally have potential groundwater resources in terms of the depth and fluctuation of groundwater table. Secondly, flownets analysis gives three flowpaths that are plausible to be modeled in order to describe their hydrogeochemical reactions. Thirdly, the Saturation Indices (SI analysis shows that there are a positive correlation between the mineral occurrence and composition and the value of SI from recharge to discharge. In addition, The Mass Balance Model indicates that dissolution and precipitation of aquifer minerals is dominantly change the chemical composition along flowpath and the rate of the mass transfer between two wells shows a discrepancy and be certain of the percentage of the nature of aquifer mineral. Lastly, there is an interesting characteristic of mass balance chemical reaction occurs which is the entire chemical reaction shows that the sum of smallest mineral fmmol/litre will firstly always totally be reacted.

  10. CONFIG - Adapting qualitative modeling and discrete event simulation for design of fault management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Basham, Bryan D.

    1989-01-01

    CONFIG is a modeling and simulation tool prototype for analyzing the normal and faulty qualitative behaviors of engineered systems. Qualitative modeling and discrete-event simulation have been adapted and integrated, to support early development, during system design, of software and procedures for management of failures, especially in diagnostic expert systems. Qualitative component models are defined in terms of normal and faulty modes and processes, which are defined by invocation statements and effect statements with time delays. System models are constructed graphically by using instances of components and relations from object-oriented hierarchical model libraries. Extension and reuse of CONFIG models and analysis capabilities in hybrid rule- and model-based expert fault-management support systems are discussed.

  11. An extended model based on the modified Nernst-Planck equation for describing transdermal iontophoresis of weak electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanidis, Georgios; Luetolf, Peter

    2006-07-01

    An extended model for iontophoretic enhancement of transdermal drug permeation under constant voltage is described based on the previously modified Nernst-Planck equation, which included the effect of convective solvent flow. This model resulted in an analytical expression for the enhancement factor as a function of applied voltage, convective flow velocity due to electroosmosis, ratio of lipid to aqueous pathway passive permeability, and weighted average net ionic valence of the permeant in the aqueous epidermis domain. The shift of pH in the epidermis compared to bulk caused by the electrical double layer at the lipid-aqueous domain interface was evaluated using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This was solved numerically for representative surface charge densities and yielded pH differences between bulk and epidermal aqueous domain between 0.05 and 0.4 pH units. The developed model was used to analyze the experimental enhancement of an amphoteric weak electrolyte measured in vitro using human cadaver epidermis and a voltage of 250 mV at different pH values. Parameter values characterizing the involved factors were determined that yielded the experimental enhancement factors and passive permeability coefficients at all pH values. The model provided a very good agreement between experimental and calculated enhancement and passive permeability. The deduced parameters showed (i) that the pH shift in the aqueous permeation pathway had a notable effect on the ionic valence and the partitioning of the drug in this domain for a high surface charge density and depending on the pK(a) and pI of the drug in relation to the bulk pH; (ii) the magnitude and the direction of convective transport due to electroosmosis typically reflected the density and sign, respectively, of surface charge of the tissue and its effect on enhancement was substantial for bulk pH values differing from the pI of epidermal tissue; (iii) the aqueous pathway predominantly determined passive

  12. A discrete interaction model/quantum mechanical method to describe the interaction of metal nanoparticles and molecular absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Seth Michael; Jensen, Lasse

    2011-10-07

    A frequency-dependent quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method for the calculation of response properties of molecules adsorbed on metal nanoparticles is presented. This discrete interaction model/quantum mechanics (DIM/QM) method represents the nanoparticle atomistically, thus accounting for the local environment of the nanoparticle surface on the optical properties of the adsorbed molecule. Using the DIM/QM method, we investigate the coupling between the absorption of a silver nanoparticle and of a substituted naphthoquinone. This system is chosen since it shows strong coupling due to a molecular absorption peak that overlaps with the plasmon excitation in the metal nanoparticle. We show that there is a strong dependence not only on the distance of the molecule from the metal nanoparticle but also on its orientation relative to the nanoparticle. We find that when the transition dipole moment of an excitation is oriented towards the nanoparticle there is a significant increase in the molecular absorption as a result of coupling to the metal nanoparticle. In contrast, we find that the molecular absorption is decreased when the transition dipole moment is oriented parallel to the metal nanoparticle. The coupling between the molecule and the metal nanoparticle is found to be surprisingly long range and important on a length scale comparable to the size of the metal nanoparticle. A simple analytical model that describes the molecule and the metal nanoparticle as two interacting point objects is found to be in excellent agreement with the full DIM/QM calculations over the entire range studied. The results presented here are important for understanding plasmon-exciton hybridization, plasmon enhanced photochemistry, and single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

  13. A qualitative model structure sensitivity analysis method to support model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoey, S.; Seuntjens, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Nopens, I.

    2014-11-01

    The selection and identification of a suitable hydrological model structure is a more challenging task than fitting parameters of a fixed model structure to reproduce a measured hydrograph. The suitable model structure is highly dependent on various criteria, i.e. the modeling objective, the characteristics and the scale of the system under investigation and the available data. Flexible environments for model building are available, but need to be assisted by proper diagnostic tools for model structure selection. This paper introduces a qualitative method for model component sensitivity analysis. Traditionally, model sensitivity is evaluated for model parameters. In this paper, the concept is translated into an evaluation of model structure sensitivity. Similarly to the one-factor-at-a-time (OAT) methods for parameter sensitivity, this method varies the model structure components one at a time and evaluates the change in sensitivity towards the output variables. As such, the effect of model component variations can be evaluated towards different objective functions or output variables. The methodology is presented for a simple lumped hydrological model environment, introducing different possible model building variations. By comparing the effect of changes in model structure for different model objectives, model selection can be better evaluated. Based on the presented component sensitivity analysis of a case study, some suggestions with regard to model selection are formulated for the system under study: (1) a non-linear storage component is recommended, since it ensures more sensitive (identifiable) parameters for this component and less parameter interaction; (2) interflow is mainly important for the low flow criteria; (3) excess infiltration process is most influencing when focussing on the lower flows; (4) a more simple routing component is advisable; and (5) baseflow parameters have in general low sensitivity values, except for the low flow criteria.

  14. Mechanisms for improving mass transfer in food with ultrasound technology: Describing the phenomena in two model cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Ibarz, Albert; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate how ultrasound mechanisms (direct and indirect effects) improve the mass transfer phenomena in food processing, and which part of the process they are more effective in. Two model cases were evaluated: the hydration of sorghum grain (with two water activities) and the influx of a pigment into melon cylinders. Different treatments enabled us to evaluate and discriminate both direct (inertial flow and "sponge effect") and indirect effects (micro channel formation), alternating pre-treatments and treatments using an ultrasonic bath (20 kHz of frequency and 28 W/L of volumetric power) and a traditional water-bath. It was demonstrated that both the effects of ultrasound technology are more effective in food with higher water activity, the micro channels only forming in moist food. Moreover, micro channel formation could also be observed using agar gel cylinders, verifying the random formation of these due to cavitation. The direct effects were shown to be important in mass transfer enhancement not only in moist food, but also in dry food, this being improved by the micro channels formed and the porosity of the food. In conclusion, the improvement in mass transfer due to direct and indirect effects was firstly discriminated and described. It was proven that both phenomena are important for mass transfer in moist foods, while only the direct effects are important for dry foods. Based on these results, better processing using ultrasound technology can be obtained.

  15. Evaluating quantitative and qualitative models: an application for nationwide water erosion assessment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the candidacy of one qualitative response model and two quantitative models for a nationwide water erosion hazard assessment in Ethiopia. After a descriptive comparison of model characteristics the study conducts a statistical comparison to evaluate the explanatory power of the mode

  16. Evaluating quantitative and qualitative models: an application for nationwide water erosion assessment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the candidacy of one qualitative response model and two quantitative models for a nationwide water erosion hazard assessment in Ethiopia. After a descriptive comparison of model characteristics the study conducts a statistical comparison to evaluate the explanatory power of the mode

  17. Evaluating quantitative and qualitative models: an application for nationwide water erosion assessment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the candidacy of one qualitative response model and two quantitative models for a nationwide water erosion hazard assessment in Ethiopia. After a descriptive comparison of model characteristics the study conducts a statistical comparison to evaluate the explanatory power of the

  18. Qualitative mathematics for the social sciences mathematical models for research on cultural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In this book Lee Rudolph brings together international contributors who combine psychological and mathematical perspectives to analyse how qualitative mathematics can be used to create models of social and psychological processes. Bridging the gap between the fields with an imaginative and stimulating collection of contributed chapters, the volume updates the current research on the subject, which until now has been rather limited, focussing largely on the use of statistics. Qualitative Mathematics for the Social Sciences contains a variety of useful illustrative figures, in

  19. A plant wide aqueous phase chemistry model describing pH variations and ion speciation/pairing in wastewater treatment process models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, X.; Mbamba, C. Kazadi; Solon, K.;

    There is a growing interest within the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) modelling community to correctly describe physico-chemical processes after many years of mainly focusing on biokinetics (Batstone et al., 2012). Indeed, future modelling needs, such as a plant-wide phosphorus (P) description......, require a major, but unavoidable, additional degree of complexity when representing cationic/anionic behaviour in Activated Sludge (AS)/Anaerobic Digestion (AD) systems (Ikumi et al., 2014). In this paper, a plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations plus ion speciation......). Simulation results show pH predictions when describing Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d and 3 (Henze et al., 2000) comparing the performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) treatment plant configuration under...

  20. Co-Designing and Co-Teaching Graduate Qualitative Methods: An Innovative Ethnographic Workshop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordner, Alissa; Klein, Peter T.; Baiocchi, Gianpaolo

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative collaboration between graduate students and a faculty member to co-design and co-teach a graduate-level workshop-style qualitative methods course. The goal of co-designing and co-teaching the course was to involve advanced graduate students in all aspects of designing a syllabus and leading class discussions in…

  1. Co-Designing and Co-Teaching Graduate Qualitative Methods: An Innovative Ethnographic Workshop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordner, Alissa; Klein, Peter T.; Baiocchi, Gianpaolo

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative collaboration between graduate students and a faculty member to co-design and co-teach a graduate-level workshop-style qualitative methods course. The goal of co-designing and co-teaching the course was to involve advanced graduate students in all aspects of designing a syllabus and leading class discussions in…

  2. Random transitions described by the stochastic Smoluchowski-Poisson system and by the stochastic Keller-Segel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanis, P. H.; Delfini, L.

    2014-03-01

    We study random transitions between two metastable states that appear below a critical temperature in a one-dimensional self-gravitating Brownian gas with a modified Poisson equation experiencing a second order phase transition from a homogeneous phase to an inhomogeneous phase [P. H. Chavanis and L. Delfini, Phys. Rev. E 81, 051103 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.051103]. We numerically solve the N-body Langevin equations and the stochastic Smoluchowski-Poisson system, which takes fluctuations (finite N effects) into account. The system switches back and forth between the two metastable states (bistability) and the particles accumulate successively at the center or at the boundary of the domain. We explicitly show that these random transitions exhibit the phenomenology of the ordinary Kramers problem for a Brownian particle in a double-well potential. The distribution of the residence time is Poissonian and the average lifetime of a metastable state is given by the Arrhenius law; i.e., it is proportional to the exponential of the barrier of free energy ΔF divided by the energy of thermal excitation kBT. Since the free energy is proportional to the number of particles N for a system with long-range interactions, the lifetime of metastable states scales as eN and is considerable for N ≫1. As a result, in many applications, metastable states of systems with long-range interactions can be considered as stable states. However, for moderate values of N, or close to a critical point, the lifetime of the metastable states is reduced since the barrier of free energy decreases. In that case, the fluctuations become important and the mean field approximation is no more valid. This is the situation considered in this paper. By an appropriate change of notations, our results also apply to bacterial populations experiencing chemotaxis in biology. Their dynamics can be described by a stochastic Keller-Segel model that takes fluctuations into account and goes beyond the usual mean

  3. Geographic Expansion Strategic Model in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Yazdani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: For promotion of community health and improvement of the national and international position of Iran’s medical universities and HE centers, policymakers should consider the diverse factors that influence HE expansion in our developed model.

  4. Representing and managing uncertainty in qualitative ecological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttle, T.; Bredeweg, B.; Salles, P.; Neumann, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ecologists and decision makers need ways to understand systems, test ideas, and make predictions and explanations about systems. However, uncertainty about causes and effects of processes and parameter values is pervasive in models of ecological systems. Uncertainty associated with incomplete

  5. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  6. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  7. Goals and Values in School: A Model Developed for Describing, Evaluating and Changing the Social Climate of Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodi, Mara Westling

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity,…

  8. Linear mixed-effects models to describe individual tree crown width for China-fir in Fujian Province, southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hao

    Full Text Available A multiple linear model was developed for individual tree crown width of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 55 sample plots of pure China-fir plantation stands. An Ordinary Linear Least Squares (OLS regression was used to establish the crown width model. To adjust for correlations between observations from the same sample plots, we developed one level linear mixed-effects (LME models based on the multiple linear model, which take into account the random effects of plots. The best random effects combinations for the LME models were determined by the Akaike's information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion and the -2logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced by three residual variance functions: the power function, the exponential function and the constant plus power function. The spatial correlation was modeled by three correlation structures: the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1], and the compound symmetry structure (CS. Then, the LME model was compared to the multiple linear model using the absolute mean residual (AMR, the root mean square error (RMSE, and the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj-R2. For individual tree crown width models, the one level LME model showed the best performance. An independent dataset was used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating LME models.

  9. Equivalence between the equilibrium dispersive and the transport model in describing band broadening in analytical gradient liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Weiqiang; Di, Bin; Yue, Bangyi; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Shun; Zhang, Peipei

    2014-11-21

    It is shown that the transport (TR) model may be equivalent to the equilibrium dispersive (ED) model in analytical gradient liquid chromatography when the column efficiency is not small. This result is obtained by assuming that the gradient profile is not distorted, the injection is an impulse, and the apparent axial dispersion coefficient (Da) of the ED model or the lumped kinetic coefficient (kfL) of the TR model varies with mobile phase composition. According to this equivalence, the plate height equation derived from the TR model in our previous work (Eq. (91) in Hao et al., 2013) is also suited for the ED model. This conclusion is confirmed by comparing the equation with the results obtained by Gritti and Guiochon from the ED model (Gritti and Guiochon, 2012). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Qualitative Analysis for Rheodynamic Model of Cardiac Pressure Pulsations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-cong Liu; Bei-ye Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,we give a rigorous mathematical and complete parameter analysis for the rheodynamic model of cardiac and obtain the conditions and parameter region for global existence and uniqueness of limit cycle and the global bifurcation diagram of limit cycles.We also discuss the resonance phenomenons of the perturbed system.

  11. Development of a cloud microphysical model and parameterizations to describe the effect of CCN on warm cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kuba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available First, a hybrid cloud microphysical model was developed that incorporates both Lagrangian and Eulerian frameworks to study quantitatively the effect of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN on the precipitation of warm clouds. A parcel model and a grid model comprise the cloud model. The condensation growth of CCN in each parcel is estimated in a Lagrangian framework. Changes in cloud droplet size distribution arising from condensation and coalescence are calculated on grid points using a two-moment bin method in a semi-Lagrangian framework. Sedimentation and advection are estimated in the Eulerian framework between grid points. Results from the cloud model show that an increase in the number of CCN affects both the amount and the area of precipitation. Additionally, results from the hybrid microphysical model and Kessler's parameterization were compared. Second, new parameterizations were developed that estimate the number and size distribution of cloud droplets given the updraft velocity and the number of CCN. The parameterizations were derived from the results of numerous numerical experiments that used the cloud microphysical parcel model. The input information of CCN for these parameterizations is only several values of CCN spectrum (they are given by CCN counter for example. It is more convenient than conventional parameterizations those need values concerned with CCN spectrum, C and k in the equation of N=CSk, or, breadth, total number and median radius, for example. The new parameterizations' predictions of initial cloud droplet size distribution for the bin method were verified by using the aforesaid hybrid microphysical model. The newly developed parameterizations will save computing time, and can effectively approximate components of cloud microphysics in a non-hydrostatic cloud model. The parameterizations are useful not only in the bin method in the regional cloud-resolving model but also both for a two-moment bulk microphysical model and

  12. Unicriterion Model: A Qualitative Decision Making Method That Promotes Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Silvano Lobo Pimentel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Management decision making methods frequently adopt quantitativemodels of several criteria that bypass the question of whysome criteria are considered more important than others, whichmakes more difficult the task of delivering a transparent viewof preference structure priorities that might promote ethics andlearning and serve as a basis for future decisions. To tackle thisparticular shortcoming of usual methods, an alternative qualitativemethodology of aggregating preferences based on the rankingof criteria is proposed. Such an approach delivers a simpleand transparent model for the solution of each preference conflictfaced during the management decision making process. Themethod proceeds by breaking the decision problem into ‘two criteria– two alternatives’ scenarios, and translating the problem ofchoice between alternatives to a problem of choice between criteriawhenever appropriate. The unicriterion model method is illustratedby its application in a car purchase and a house purchasedecision problem.

  13. A model describing the flowering of single plants, and the heritability of flowering traits of Dimorphotheca pluvialis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, L.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Elberse, I.A.M.; Dolstra, O.

    1999-01-01

    In the development of new crops such as Dimorphoteca pluvialis (L.) Moench, improvement of flowering synchronisation is an important breeding objective. The flowering of single plants of Dimorphotheca pluvialis could be described by a logistic curve obtained by the regression of cumulative number of

  14. Evaluation of a new mathematical model to describe Clostridium perfringens growth during the cooling of cooked ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Decker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model previously developed to study microbial growth in food products under an isothermal environment was adapted to a time-varying temperature regime. The resulting model was applied to study the growth of Clostridium perfringens in meat products. This micro-organism is of particular relevance to public health and economy due to the loss of productivity caused by it. Results showed a similar performance of the model used compared to the Baranyi model under an isothermal situation and a slightly better performance under a non-isothermal temperature profile.

  15. Analytical model to describe the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in roofs; Modelo analitico que describe el comportamiento termico de un sistema de descarga de calor en techos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Gomez, V.H.; Contreras-Espinosa, J.J.; Gonzalez-Ortiz, G.; Morillon-Galvez, D.; Fernandez-Zayas, J.L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: vichugo@servidor.unam.mx; jjuancon2000@yahoo.com.mx; gilberto_gonzalez25@hotmail.com; damg@pumas.iingen.unam.mx; JFernandezZ@iingen.unam.mx

    2012-01-15

    The present study proposes an analytical model which describes the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in roof, when the surfaces that constitute it are not translucent. Such a model derives from a thermal balance carried out to a heat discharge system in roofs. To validate it, an experimental prototype that allows simulating the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in wall and roof was used, and the results were compared to those obtained with the proposed analytical model. It was found that the thermal behavior of the analytical model is similar to the thermal behavior of the experimental prototype; a worthless variation was detected among their respective outcome (The difference of temperatures can be caused by the heat transfer coefficient, of which no studies defining its behavior accurately have been found). Therefore, it can be considered that the proposed analytical model can be employed to simulate the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in roofs when the surfaces that constitute it are opaque. [Spanish] En el presente estudio se propone un modelo analitico que describe el comportamiento termico de un sistema de descarga de calor en techo, cuando las superficies que lo componen no son translucidos. Dicho modelo surge a partir de un balance termico realizado a un sistema de descarga de calor en techos. Para validarlo, se realizaron dos corridas experimentales en un prototipo que permite simular el comportamiento termico de un sistema de descarga de calor en techo y se compararon los resultados medidos con los calculados por el modelo analitico propuesto. Se encontro que, el comportamiento termico del modelo analitico es similar al comportamiento termico del prototipo experimental, se detecto una variacion despreciable entre los valores arrojados por ambos modelos (la diferencia de temperaturas puede estar ocasionada por la obtencion del coeficiente convectivo de transferencia de calor, del cual no se han encontrado estudios que

  16. Metabolite Kinetics: The Segregated Flow Model for Intestinal and Whole Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Describe Intestinal and Hepatic Glucuronidation of Morphine in Rats In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi Joy; Fan, Jianghong; Chen, Shu; Liu, Lutan; Sun, Huadong; Pang, K Sandy

    2016-07-01

    We used the intestinal segregated flow model (SFM) versus the traditional model (TM), nested within physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, to describe the biliary and urinary excretion of morphine 3β-glucuronide (MG) after intravenous and intraduodenal dosing of morphine in rats in vivo. The SFM model describes a partial (5%-30%) intestinal blood flow perfusing the transporter- and enzyme-rich enterocyte region, whereas the TM describes 100% flow perfusing the intestine as a whole. For the SFM, drugs entering from the circulation are expected to be metabolized to lesser extents by the intestine due to the segregated flow, reflecting the phenomenon of shunting and route-dependent intestinal metabolism. The poor permeability of MG crossing the liver or intestinal basolateral membranes mandates that most of MG that is excreted into bile is hepatically formed, whereas MG that is excreted into urine originates from both intestine and liver metabolism, since MG is effluxed back to blood. The ratio of MG amounts in urine/bile [Formula: see text] for intraduodenal/intravenous dosing is expected to exceed unity for the SFM but approximates unity for the TM. Compartmental analysis of morphine and MG data, without consideration of the permeability of MG and where MG is formed, suggests the ratio to be 1 and failed to describe the kinetics of MG. The observed intraduodenal/intravenous ratio of [Formula: see text] (2.55 at 4 hours) was better predicted by the SFM-PBPK (2.59 at 4 hours) and not the TM-PBPK (1.0), supporting the view that the SFM is superior for the description of intestinal-liver metabolism of morphine to MG. The SFM-PBPK model predicts an appreciable contribution of the intestine to first pass M metabolism.

  17. Development of a cloud microphysical model and parameterizations to describe the effect of CCN on warm cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kuba

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available First, a hybrid cloud microphysical model was developed that incorporates both Lagrangian and Eulerian frameworks to study quantitatively the effect of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN on the precipitation of warm clouds. A parcel model and a grid model comprise the cloud model. The condensation growth of CCN in each parcel is estimated in a Lagrangian framework. Changes in cloud droplet size distribution arising from condensation and coalescence are calculated on grid points using a two-moment bin method in a semi-Lagrangian framework. Sedimentation and advection are estimated in the Eulerian framework between grid points. Results from the cloud model show that an increase in the number of CCN affects both the amount and the location of precipitation. Additionally, results from the hybrid microphysical model and Kessler's parameterization were compared.

    Second, new parameterizations were developed that estimate the number and size distribution of cloud droplets given the updraft velocity and the number of CCN. The parameterizations were derived from the results of numerous numerical experiments that used the cloud microphysical parcel model. The input information of CCN for these parameterizations is only several values of CCN spectrum (they are given by CCN counter for example. It is more convenient than conventional parameterizations those need values concerned with CCN spectrum, C and k in the equation of N=CSk, or, breadth, total number and median radius, for example. The new parameterizations' predictions of initial cloud droplet size distribution for the bin method were verified by using the aforesaid hybrid microphysical model. The newly developed parameterizations will save computing time, and can effectively approximate components of cloud microphysics in a non-hydrostatic cloud model. The parameterizations are useful not only in the bin method in the regional cloud-resolving model but

  18. Competing species system as a qualitative model of radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendykier, Jacek; Bieniasiewicz, Marcin; Lipowski, Adam; Pawlak, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    To examine complex features of tumor dynamics we analyze a competing-species lattice model that takes into account the competition for nutrients or space as well as interaction with therapeutic factors such as drugs or radiation. Our model might be interpreted as a certain prey-predator system having three trophic layers: (i) the basal species that might be interpreted as nutrients; (ii) normal and tumor cells that consume nutrients, and (iii) therapeutic factors that might kill either nutrient, normal or tumor cells. Using a wide spectrum of parameters we examined survival of our species and tried to identify the corresponding dynamical regimes. It was found that the radiotherapy influences mainly the limit of starvation i.e. the value of an update probability where the tumor cells go extinct as a result of insufficient nutrient supply and competition with normal cells. The other limiting value of this probability, corresponding to the coexistence of the normal and tumor cells in abundance of nutrients, is almost not affected by radiotherapy. We have also found the coexistence of all species on the phase diagrams.

  19. An integrated qualitative and quantitative modeling framework for computer‐assisted HAZOP studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Laibin; Hu, Jinqiu

    2014-01-01

    and validated on a case study concerning a three‐phase separation process. The multilevel flow modeling (MFM) methodology is used to represent the plant goals and functions. First, means‐end analysis is used to identify and formulate the intention of the process design in terms of components, functions...... safety critical operations, its causes and consequences. The outcome is a qualitative hazard analysis of selected process deviations from normal operations and their consequences as input to a traditional HAZOP table. The list of unacceptable high risk deviations identified by the qualitative HAZOP...... analysis is used as input for rigorous analysis and evaluation by the quantitative analysis part of the framework. To this end, dynamic first‐principles modeling is used to simulate the system behavior and thereby complement the results of the qualitative analysis part. The practical framework for computer...

  20. Study of market model describing the contrary behaviors of informed and uninformed agents: Being minority and being majority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xia; Liao, Hao; Medo, Matus; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Yeung, Chi Ho

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we analyze the contrary behaviors of the informed investors and uniformed investors, and then construct a competition model with two groups of agents, namely agents who intend to stay in minority and those who intend to stay in majority. We find two kinds of competitions, inter- and intra-groups. The model shows periodic fluctuation feature. The average distribution of strategies illustrates a prominent central peak which is relevant to the peak-fat-tail character of price change distribution in stock markets. Furthermore, in the modified model the tolerance time parameter makes the agents diversified. Finally, we compare the strategies distribution with the price change distribution in real stock market, and we conclude that contrary behavior rules and tolerance time parameter are indeed valid in the description of market model.

  1. A REVIEW OF SOME EXISTING DRAG MODELS DESCRIBING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE SOLIDGASEOUS PHASES IN A CFB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paladi Lela Naga Ramesh,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the suitability of various drag models for predicting the hydrodynamics of the turbulent fluidization of FCC particles on the Fluent V6.2 platform. The drag models reviewed are Syamlal–O’Brien, Gidaspow, Arastoopour and Syamlal–O’Brien, . Comparison between experimental data and simulated results showed that the Syamlal–O’Brien, Arastoopour and Gidaspow models highly overestimated gas–solid momentum exchange and could not predict the formation of dense phase in the fluidized bed. The standard Syamlal–O’Brien drag model was then modified based on the minimum luidization condition. This has proved applicable for FCC particles in turbulent fluidization for the high dense phase, density solid-up phase and low density phases under fast fluidization conditions. This was finally proposed to calculate the gas–solid exchange coefficient in the turbulent fluidization of FCC particles and was validated by satisfactory agreement between prediction and experiment.

  2. Development of a Physiologically Based Computational Kidney Model to Describe the Renal Excretion of Hydrophilic Agents in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederalt, Christoph; Wendl, Thomas; Kuepfer, Lars; Claassen, Karina; Loosen, Roland; Willmann, Stefan; Lippert, Joerg; Schultze-Mosgau, Marcus; Winkler, Julia; Burghaus, Rolf; Bräutigam, Matthias; Pietsch, Hubertus; Lengsfeld, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    A physiologically based kidney model was developed to analyze the renal excretion and kidney exposure of hydrophilic agents, in particular contrast media, in rats. In order to study the influence of osmolality and viscosity changes, the model mechanistically represents urine concentration by water reabsorption in different segments of kidney tubules and viscosity dependent tubular fluid flow. The model was established using experimental data on the physiological steady state without administration of any contrast media or drugs. These data included the sodium and urea concentration gradient along the cortico-medullary axis, water reabsorption, urine flow, and sodium as well as urea urine concentrations for a normal hydration state. The model was evaluated by predicting the effects of mannitol and contrast media administration and comparing to experimental data on cortico-medullary concentration gradients, urine flow, urine viscosity, hydrostatic tubular pressures and single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Finally the model was used to analyze and compare typical examples of ionic and non-ionic monomeric as well as non-ionic dimeric contrast media with respect to their osmolality and viscosity. With the computational kidney model, urine flow depended mainly on osmolality, while osmolality and viscosity were important determinants for tubular hydrostatic pressure and kidney exposure. The low diuretic effect of dimeric contrast media in combination with their high intrinsic viscosity resulted in a high viscosity within the tubular fluid. In comparison to monomeric contrast media, this led to a higher increase in tubular pressure, to a reduction in glomerular filtration rate and tubular flow and to an increase in kidney exposure. The presented kidney model can be implemented into whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models and extended in order to simulate the renal excretion of lipophilic drugs which may also undergo active secretion and reabsorption

  3. The Qualitative and Numerical Analysis of the Cosmological Model Based on Phantom Scalar Field with Self

    CERN Document Server

    Ignat'ev, Yu G

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the cosmological model based on phantom scalar field on the ground of qualitative analysis of the system of the cosmological model's differential equations and show that as opposed to models with classical scalar field, such models have stable asymptotic solutions with constant value of the potential both in infinite past and infinite future. We also develop numerical models of the cosmological evolution models with phantom scalar field in this paper. {\\bf keywords}: cosmological model, phantom scalar field, quality analysis, asymptotic behavior, numerical simulation, numerical gravitation.\\\\ {\\bf PACS}: 04.20.Cv, 98.80.Cq, 96.50.S 52.27.Ny

  4. A hybrid stochastic-deterministic computational model accurately describes spatial dynamics and virus diffusion in HIV-1 growth competition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Taina; Gibson, Richard; Leitner, Thomas; Miller, Melanie A; Arts, Eric J; Somersalo, Erkki; Calvetti, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    We present a new hybrid stochastic-deterministic, spatially distributed computational model to simulate growth competition assays on a relatively immobile monolayer of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), commonly used for determining ex vivo fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The novel features of our approach include incorporation of viral diffusion through a deterministic diffusion model while simulating cellular dynamics via a stochastic Markov chain model. The model accounts for multiple infections of target cells, CD4-downregulation, and the delay between the infection of a cell and the production of new virus particles. The minimum threshold level of infection induced by a virus inoculum is determined via a series of dilution experiments, and is used to determine the probability of infection of a susceptible cell as a function of local virus density. We illustrate how this model can be used for estimating the distribution of cells infected by either a single virus type or two competing viruses. Our model captures experimentally observed variation in the fitness difference between two virus strains, and suggests a way to minimize variation and dual infection in experiments.

  5. Autobiography and Anorexia: A Qualitative Alternative to Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change Model

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Díaz; Natalia Solano Pinto; Irene Solbes

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose a qualitative approach to the study of the ways in which people face good and poor health issues. During the last 30 years, Prochaska and DiClemente's "trans-theoretical model" (1982, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1992) has gained relevance as a model to assess disposition for change in patients. We revise the features of the model and its common techniques to assess stages of change, underlining its methodological and conceptual problems. Particularly, we discuss the paradoxe...

  6. On Riccati equations describing impedance relations for forward and backward excitation in the one-dimensional cochlea model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaernbach, C; König, P; Schillen, T

    1987-02-01

    Recent experimental observations of otoacoustic emissions suggest the existence of spontaneous emitters of sound on the basilar membrane. These tend to send off waves not only in the normal direction of propagation. It is therefore significant to study the environmental conditions such an emitter finds inside the cochlea. The impedance relations seen by these emitters are described by the Riccati equation for an inhomogeneous transmission line. The results reported in this paper differ considerably for forward and backward excitation. This reflects the quite different behavior of the cochlea pertaining to waves traveling forward and backward. Because of reflections, backward waves cannot be treated with the Liouville-Green approximation.

  7. Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: qualitative features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Albert Einstein Center, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-07-16

    Because of physical processes ranging from microscopic particle collisions to macroscopic hydrodynamic fluctuations, any plasma in thermal equilibrium emits gravitational waves. For the largest wavelengths the emission rate is proportional to the shear viscosity of the plasma. In the Standard Model at T>160 GeV, the shear viscosity is dominated by the most weakly interacting particles, right-handed leptons, and is relatively large. We estimate the order of magnitude of the corresponding spectrum of gravitational waves. Even though at small frequencies (corresponding to the sub-Hz range relevant for planned observatories such as eLISA) this background is tiny compared with that from non-equilibrium sources, the total energy carried by the high-frequency part of the spectrum is non-negligible if the production continues for a long time. We suggest that this may constrain (weakly) the highest temperature of the radiation epoch. Observing the high-frequency part directly sets a very ambitious goal for future generations of GHz-range detectors.

  8. Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: Qualitative features

    CERN Document Server

    Ghiglieri, J

    2015-01-01

    Because of physical processes ranging from microscopic particle collisions to macroscopic hydrodynamic fluctuations, any plasma in thermal equilibrium emits gravitational waves. For the largest wavelengths the emission rate is proportional to the shear viscosity of the plasma. In the Standard Model at T > 160 GeV, the shear viscosity is dominated by the most weakly interacting particles, right-handed leptons, and is relatively large. We estimate the order of magnitude of the corresponding spectrum of gravitational waves. Even though at small frequencies (corresponding to the sub-Hz range relevant for planned observatories such as eLISA) this background is tiny compared with that from non-equilibrium sources, the total energy carried by the high-frequency part of the spectrum is non-negligible if the production continues for a long time. We suggest that this may constrain (weakly) the highest temperature of the radiation epoch. Observing the high-frequency part directly sets a very ambitious goal for future ge...

  9. Using Sepia melanin as a PD model to describe the binding characteristics of neuromelanin - A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Rhiannon L; Double, Kay L; Gerber, Jacobus P

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterised pathologically by a relatively selective death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. The vulnerability of these neurons appears to be linked to the pigment neuromelanin. However, as yet there is limited understanding behind the mechanisms of this disease process. Complications arise due to the difficulty in obtaining appreciable quantities of neuromelanin. Furthermore, an appropriate model for studying neuromelanin has not been identified. To date there has been many studies looking at the binding and chemical characteristics of neuromelanin. However, a range of different synthetic and organic melanins have been used as models and leading to many varied conclusions being drawn. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present Sepia melanin as the most appropriate study model for the binding characteristics of neuromelanin. Considerations included chemical structure, surface characteristics and structural features of both synthetic and organic melanins.

  10. A Physics-Based Crystallographic Modeling Framework for Describing the Thermal Creep Behavior of Fe-Cr Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, W.; Capolungo, L.; Patra, A.; Tomé, C. N.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a physics-based thermal creep model is developed based on the understanding of the microstructure in Fe-Cr alloys. This model is associated with a transition state theory-based framework that considers the distribution of internal stresses at sub-material point level. The thermally activated dislocation glide and climb mechanisms are coupled in the obstacle-bypass processes for both dislocation and precipitate-type barriers. A kinetic law is proposed to track the dislocation densities evolution in the subgrain interior and in the cell wall. The predicted results show that this model, embedded in the visco-plastic self-consistent framework, captures well the creep behaviors for primary and steady-state stages under various loading conditions. The roles of the mechanisms involved are also discussed.

  11. A physics-based crystallographic modeling framework for describing the thermal creep behavior of Fe-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Wei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capolungo, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Patra, Anirban [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    This Report addresses the Milestone M2MS-16LA0501032 of NEAMS Program (“Develop hardening model for FeCrAl cladding), with a deadline of 09/30/2016. Here we report a constitutive law for thermal creep of FeCrAl. This Report adds to and complements the one for Milestone M3MS-16LA0501034 (“Interface hardening models with MOOSE-BISON”), where we presented a hardening law for irradiated FeCrAl. The last component of our polycrystal-based constitutive behavior, namely, an irradiation creep model for FeCrAl, will be developed as part of the FY17 Milestones, and the three regimes will be coupled and interfaced with MOOSE-BISON.

  12. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Sant'Ana, A.S.; Hansen, Solvej Katrine Holm

    2016-01-01

    A cross contamination model was challenged and evaluated applying a new approach.•QMRA and Total Transfer Potential (TTP) were included.•Transfer estimates were not applicable for unlike processing.•The risk of disease may be reduced when using a stainless steel grinder.•Well-sharpened knife, and...

  13. A strategy for describing the biosphere at candidate sites for repositories of nuclear waste: linking ecosystem and landscape modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Lindborg, Regina; Löfgren, Anders; Söderbäck, Björn; Bradshaw, Clare; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2006-12-01

    To provide information necessary for a license application for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. has started site investigations at two sites in Sweden. In this paper, we present a strategy to integrate site-specific ecosystem data into spatially explicit models needed for safety assessment studies and the environmental impact assessment. The site-specific description of ecosystems is developed by building discipline-specific models from primary data and by identifying interactions and stocks and flows of matter among functional units at the sites. The conceptual model is a helpful initial tool for defining properties needed to quantify system processes, which may reveal new interfaces between disciplines, providing a variety of new opportunities to enhance the understanding of the linkages between ecosystem characteristics and the functional properties of landscapes. This type of integrated ecosystem-landscape characterization model has an important role in forming the implementation of a safety assessment for a deep repository.

  14. Teaching Qualitative Research for Human Services Students: A Three-Phase Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussinsky, Ruhama; Reshef, Arie; Yanay-Ventura, Galit; Yassour-Borochowitz, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…

  15. Measurements of boat motion in waves at Durban harbour for qualitative validation of motion model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosikare, OR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available in Waves at Durban Harbour for Qualitative Validation of Motion Model O.R. Mosikare1,2, N.J. Theron1, W. Van der Molen 1 University of Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 2Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Meiring Naude Rd, Brummeria, 0001...

  16. A Qualitative Study of Parental Modeling and Social Support for Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…

  17. How to Conduct a Qualitative Program Evaluation in the Light of Eisner’s Educational Connoisseurship and Criticism Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Yüksel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe quantitative methodologies have been traditionally employed in the educational research so far. However, as long as with the appreciation and widespread use of the qualitative methodologies in many disciplines, many different educational areas have started to be examined in terms of qualitative research aspects. Particularly, the qualitative evaluation of the education programs has received considerable interest and there have been recently some attempts to develop a qualitative methodology for evaluating educational programs based upon the tenets of program evaluation. The evaluators have underlined the benefits of qualitative methods to boost the information shared with decision-makers and policy makers. The most inclusive endeavour has been carried out by Eisner. Eisner’s program evaluation model presents the role of educational connoisseurship and criticism in educational evaluation in terms of qualitative evaluation. This study aims at examining how a qualitative program evaluation is conducted in relation with the Eisner’s evaluation model.

  18. How Mathematics Describes Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The circle of life is something we have all heard of from somewhere, but we don't usually try to calculate it. For some time we have been working on analyzing a predator-prey model to better understand how mathematics can describe life, in particular the interaction between two different species. The model we are analyzing is called the Holling-Tanner model, and it cannot be solved analytically. The Holling-Tanner model is a very common model in population dynamics because it is a simple descriptor of how predators and prey interact. The model is a system of two differential equations. The model is not specific to any particular set of species and so it can describe predator-prey species ranging from lions and zebras to white blood cells and infections. One thing all these systems have in common are critical points. A critical point is a value for both populations that keeps both populations constant. It is important because at this point the differential equations are equal to zero. For this model there are two critical points, a predator free critical point and a coexistence critical point. Most of the analysis we did is on the coexistence critical point because the predator free critical point is always unstable and frankly less interesting than the coexistence critical point. What we did is consider two regimes for the differential equations, large B and small B. B, A, and C are parameters in the differential equations that control the system where B measures how responsive the predators are to change in the population, A represents predation of the prey, and C represents the satiation point of the prey population. For the large B case we were able to approximate the system of differential equations by a single scalar equation. For the small B case we were able to predict the limit cycle. The limit cycle is a process of the predator and prey populations growing and shrinking periodically. This model has a limit cycle in the regime of small B, that we solved for

  19. Model for a Universe described by a non-minimally coupled scalar field and interacting dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, J B

    2006-01-01

    In this work it is investigated the evolution of a Universe where a scalar field, non-minimally coupled to space-time curvature, plays the role of quintessence and drives the Universe to a present accelerated expansion. A non-relativistic dark matter constituent that interacts directly with dark energy is also considered, where the dark matter particle mass is assumed to be proportional to the value of the scalar field. Two models for dark matter pressure are considered: the usual one, pressureless, and another that comes from a thermodynamic theory and relates the pressure with the coupling between the scalar field and the curvature scalar. Although the model has a strong dependence on the initial conditions, it is shown that the mixture consisted of dark components plus baryonic matter and radiation can reproduce the expected red-shift behavior of the deceleration parameter, density parameters and luminosity distance.

  20. Chemical reaction networks as a model to describe UVC- and radiolytically-induced reactions of simple compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Daniele; Merli, Daniele; Albini, Angelo; Zeffiro, Alberto; Serpone, Nick

    2012-05-01

    When a chemical system is submitted to high energy sources (UV, ionizing radiation, plasma sparks, etc.), as is expected to be the case of prebiotic chemistry studies, a plethora of reactive intermediates could form. If oxygen is present in excess, carbon dioxide and water are the major products. More interesting is the case of reducing conditions where synthetic pathways are also possible. This article examines the theoretical modeling of such systems with random-generated chemical networks. Four types of random-generated chemical networks were considered that originated from a combination of two connection topologies (viz., Poisson and scale-free) with reversible and irreversible chemical reactions. The results were analyzed taking into account the number of the most abundant products required for reaching 50% of the total number of moles of compounds at equilibrium, as this may be related to an actual problem of complex mixture analysis. The model accounts for multi-component reaction systems with no a priori knowledge of reacting species and the intermediates involved if system components are sufficiently interconnected. The approach taken is relevant to an earlier study on reactions that may have occurred in prebiotic systems where only a few compounds were detected. A validation of the model was attained on the basis of results of UVC and radiolytic reactions of prebiotic mixtures of low molecular weight compounds likely present on the primeval Earth.

  1. Modelling of turbulent hydrocarbon combustion. Test of different reactor concepts for describing the interactions between turbulence and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Kremer, H. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik, Bochum (Germany); Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-12-31

    The detailed modelling of turbulent reactive flows with CFD-codes is a major challenge in combustion science. One method of combining highly developed turbulence models and detailed chemistry in CFD-codes is the application of reactor based turbulence chemistry interaction models. In this work the influence of different reactor concepts on methane and NO{sub x} chemistry in turbulent reactive flows was investigated. Besides the classical reactor approaches, a plug flow reactor (PFR) and a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR), the Eddy-Dissipation Combustion Model (EDX) and the Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) were included. Based on a detailed reaction scheme and a simplified 2-step mechanism studies were performed in a simplified computational grid consisting of 5 cells. The investigations cover a temperature range from 1273 K to 1673 K and consider fuel-rich and fuel-lean gas mixtures as well as turbulent and highly turbulent flow conditions. All test cases investigated in this study showed a strong influence of the reactor residence time on the species conversion processes. Due to this characteristic strong deviations were found for the species trends resulting from the different reactor approaches. However, this influence was only concentrated on the `near burner region` and after 4-5 cells hardly any deviation and residence time dependence could be found. The importance of the residence time dependence increased when the species conversion was accelerated as it is the case for overstoichiometric combustion conditions and increased temperatures. The study focused furthermore on the fine structure in the EDC. Unlike the classical approach this part of the cell was modelled as a PFR instead of a PSR. For high temperature conditions there was hardly any difference between both reactor types. However, decreasing the temperature led to obvious deviations. Finally, the effect of the selective species transport between the cells on the conversion process was investigated

  2. Stochastic simulation tools and continuum models for describing two-dimensional collective cell spreading with universal growth functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wang; Penington, Catherine J.; McCue, Scott W.; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional collective cell migration assays are used to study cancer and tissue repair. These assays involve combined cell migration and cell proliferation processes, both of which are modulated by cell-to-cell crowding. Previous discrete models of collective cell migration assays involve a nearest-neighbour proliferation mechanism where crowding effects are incorporated by aborting potential proliferation events if the randomly chosen target site is occupied. There are two limitations of this traditional approach: (i) it seems unreasonable to abort a potential proliferation event based on the occupancy of a single, randomly chosen target site; and, (ii) the continuum limit description of this mechanism leads to the standard logistic growth function, but some experimental evidence suggests that cells do not always proliferate logistically. Motivated by these observations, we introduce a generalised proliferation mechanism which allows non-nearest neighbour proliferation events to take place over a template of r≥slant 1 concentric rings of lattice sites. Further, the decision to abort potential proliferation events is made using a crowding function, f(C), which accounts for the density of agents within a group of sites rather than dealing with the occupancy of a single randomly chosen site. Analysing the continuum limit description of the stochastic model shows that the standard logistic source term, λ C(1-C), where λ is the proliferation rate, is generalised to a universal growth function, λ C f(C). Comparing the solution of the continuum description with averaged simulation data indicates that the continuum model performs well for many choices of f(C) and r. For nonlinear f(C), the quality of the continuum-discrete match increases with r.

  3. A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Dao, Ngocanh

    2014-04-03

    Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte Carlo GOF test. Additionally, if the data comprise a single dataset, a popular version of the test plugs a parameter estimate in the hypothesized parametric model to generate data for theMonte Carlo GOF test. In this case, the test is invalid because the resulting empirical level does not reach the nominal level. In this article, we propose a method consisting of nested Monte Carlo simulations which has the following advantages: the bias of the resulting empirical level of the test is eliminated, hence the empirical levels can always reach the nominal level, and information about inhomogeneity of the data can be provided.We theoretically justify our testing procedure using Taylor expansions and demonstrate that it is correctly sized through various simulation studies. In our first data application, we discover, in agreement with Illian et al., that Phlebocarya filifolia plants near Perth, Australia, can follow a homogeneous Poisson clustered process that provides insight into the propagation mechanism of these plants. In our second data application, we find, in contrast to Diggle, that a pairwise interaction model provides a good fit to the micro-anatomy data of amacrine cells designed for analyzing the developmental growth of immature retina cells in rabbits. This article has supplementary material online. © 2013 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  4. Designing and Describing the Model of Competitive Advantage based on Organizational Intelligence in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirHoushang Nazarpouri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing knowledge assets, organizational intellectual capabilities and strategic concepts of these capabilities have been addressed as important elements of organizational survival and competitive advantages. In knowledge-based organizations (KBOs, knowledge is the main organizational asset, and organizational success depends on the ability of creation, obtaining, implementing and transferring the knowledge and intellectual assets. Thus, for taking benefit from the opportunities in dynamic environment and obtaining competitive advantage, organizations should manage knowledge and intellectual assets. Organizational intelligence (OI is about using intellectual abilities of organization for obtaining the mission and objectives in competitive environment. The purpose of this study is to determine factors influencing competitive advantage of KBOs based on OI. Statistical population of this study includes the faculties of universities in Lorestan. Based on factor analysis (FA, sample size has been estimated as 330 faculties. Findings imply that 66% and 61% of competitive advantage in KBOs have been described by structural intelligence factor and human intelligence factor, respectively. Also, knowledge strategies with 40% and 48% of R square coefficient have had the highest influence on structural and human intelligence.

  5. A discrete interaction model/quantum mechanical method for describing response properties of molecules adsorbed on metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Seth Michael; Jensen, Lasse

    2010-08-21

    A new polarizable quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method for the calculation of response properties of molecules adsorbed on metal nanoparticles is presented. This method, which we denote the discrete interaction model/quantum mechanics (DIM/QM) method, represents the nanoparticle atomistically which enables the modeling of the influence of the local environment of a nanoparticle surface on the optical properties of a molecule. Using DIM/QM, we investigate the excitation energies of rhodamine-6G (R6G) and crystal violet (CV) adsorbed on silver and gold nanoparticles of different quasispherical shapes and sizes. The metal nanoparticle is characterized by its static total polarizability, a reasonable approximation for frequencies far from the plasmon resonance. We observe that for both R6G and CV, the presence of the nanoparticle shifts the strongest excitation to the red approximately 40 nm and also increases the oscillator strength of that excitation. The shifts in excitation energies due to the nanoparticle surface are found to be comparable to those due to solvation. We find that these shifts decay quickly as the molecule is moved away from the surface. We also find that the wavelength shift is largest when the transition dipole moment is aligned with the edges of the nanoparticle surface where the electric field is expected to be the largest. These results show that the molecular excitations are sensitive to the local environment on the nanoparticle as well as the specific orientation of the molecule relative to the surface.

  6. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for describing anaerobic digestion of grass, maize, green weed silage, and industrial glycerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Piotr; Steinigeweg, Sven; Borchert, Axel; Uhlenhut, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste plays an important role for the development of sustainable energy supply based on renewable resources. For further process optimization of anaerobic digestion, biogas production with the commonly used substrates, grass, maize, and green weed silage, together with industrial glycerine, were analyzed by the Weender analysis/van Soest method, and a simulation study was performed, based on the International Water Association's (IWA) Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). The simplex algorithm was applied to optimize kinetic constants for disintegration and hydrolysis steps for all examined substrates. Consequently, new parameters were determined for each evaluated substrate, tested against experimental cumulative biogas production results, and assessed against ADM1 default values for disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic constants, where the ADM1 values for mesophilic high rate and ADM1 values for solids were used. Results of the optimization lead to a precise prediction of the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of complex substrates.

  7. A free-parameter theoretical model for describing the electron elastic scattering in water in the Geant4 toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, C. [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, 1 Boulevard Arago, Technopole 2000, 57078 Metz (France)], E-mail: champion@univ-metz.fr; Incerti, S. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, UMR 5797, Gradignan F-33175 (France); Universite de Bordeaux, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, UMR 5797, Gradignan F-33175 (France); Aouchiche, H.; Oubaziz, D. [Universite M. Mammeri, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Structure et Energetique, BP 17, Tizi-Ouzou 15000 (Algeria)

    2009-09-15

    The present work provides an accurate description of the elastic scattering process for low-energy electrons (10 eV-10 keV) in liquid water by means of a free-parameter quantum-mechanical treatment. The calculations are performed in the partial-wave formalism by means of a total interaction potential taking into account a static contribution as well as fine effects like exchange and polarization contributions. The obtained results in terms of singly differential and total cross sections exhibit relatively good agreement with available experimental data (in gaseous water). They have been incorporated into the Geant4 toolkit, which has been recently extended with physics processes for microdosimetry applications in liquid water down to the electronvolt scale. They offer an improved alternative to the semi-empirical and to the screened Rutherford models already available in this very low-energy extension.

  8. Assessment of Some Density Functional Theory Methods and Force Field Models in Describing Various Interaction Modes of Benzene Dimer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-wei Zhou; Igor Ying Zhang; Jian-ming Wu; An-an Wu; Xin Xu

    2011-01-01

    Benzene dimer (bz2) is the simplest prototype of the π-π interactions.Such interactions are ubiquitous in diverse areas of science and molecular engineering.In the present work,we have made assessment on some modern density functional methods including B97-D,BLYP-D3,M06-2X,XYG3,and force field models including CHARMM,AMBER,MM3,AMOEBA on six important interaction modes of bz2.Our results not only highlight the usefulness of these cost-effective methods,which can be used as economic substitutes of the expensive CCSD(T) for complex real-world systems,but also indicate their weakness in the description of the π-π interactions,which points to the future direction for further improvements.

  9. Time-dependent Induced Seismicity Rates Described with an Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence Model at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Totten, E. J.; Burgmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    To improve understanding of the link between injection/production activity and seismicity, we apply an Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model to an earthquake catalog from The Geysers geothermal field (GGF) between 2005-2015 using >140,000 events and Mc 0.8 . We partition the catalog along a northeast-southwest trending divide, which corresponds to regions of high and low levels of enhanced geothermal stimulation (EGS) across the field. The ETAS model is fit to the seismicity data using a 6-month sliding window with a 1-month time step to determine the background seismicity rate. We generate monthly time series of the time-dependent background seismicity rate in 1-km depth intervals from 0-5km. The average wellhead depth is 2-3 km and the background seismicity rates above this depth do not correlate well with field-wide injected masses over the time period of interest. The auto correlation results show a 12-month period for monthly time series proximal to the average wellhead depths (2-3km and 3-4km) for northwest GGF strongly correlates with field-wide fluid injection masses, with a four-month phase shift between the two depth intervals as fluid migrates deeper. This periodicity is not observed for the deeper depth interval of 4-5 km, where monthly background seismicity rates reduce to near zero. Cross-correlation analysis using the monthly time series for background seismicity rate and the field-wide injection, production and net injection (injection minus production) suggest that injection most directly modulates seismicity. Periodicity in the background seismicity is not observed as strongly in the time series for the southeast field. We suggest that the variation in background seismicity rate is a proxy for pore-pressure diffusion of injected fluids at depth. We deduce that the contrast between the background seismicity rates in the northwest and southeast GGF is a result of reduced EGS activity in the southeast region.

  10. Development of a model to describe organic films on aerosol particles and cloud droplets. Final report; Entwicklung eines Modells zur Beschreibung organischer Filme auf Aerosolteilchen und Wolkentropfen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forkel, R. (ed.); Seidl, W.

    2000-12-01

    Organic substances with polar groups are enriched on water surfaces and can form monomolecular surface films which can reduce the surface tension. A new model to describe surface films is presented, which describes in detail the film forming properties of fatty acids with up to 22 carbon atoms. The model is applied to measured concentrations of fatty acids (from the literature) in rain water and on aerosol particles and cloud droplets. An investigation of the sources of fatty acids has shown, that abrasion of the wax layer on leaves and needles is the main sources for surface film material in the western USA. Anthropogenic sources in urban areas are meat preparation and cigarette smoke. The agreement between model results and measurements when the model was applied to rain water confirms the original assumption that fatty acids are a main compound of surface films in rain water. For humid aerosol particles the application of the model on measured concentrations of fatty acids only showed strongly diluted films. Only for remote forest areas in western USA concentrated films were found, with the surface tension reduced by 20 to 30%. On cloud droplets the surface films is still more diluted than on aerosol particles. For all investigated cases the films was too much diluted to have an effect on the activation process of cloud droplets. (orig.) [German] Organische Substanzen mit polaren Gruppen reichern sich an der Wasseroberflaeche an und koennen monomolekulare Oberflaechenfilme bilden, die zu einer Verringerung der Oberflaechenspannung fuehren. Es wird ein neues Modell zur Beschreibung eines Oberflaechenfilms beschrieben, das detailliert die filmbildenden Eigenschaften der Fettsaeuren mit bis zu 22 Kohlenstoffatomen erfasst. Dieses Modell ist auf gemessene Konzentrationen von Fettsaeuren (Literaturdaten) in Regenwasser und auf atmosphaerischen Aerosolteilchen und Wolkentropfen angewandt worden. Eine Betrachtung der Quellen der Fettsaeuren zeigte, dass der Abrieb der

  11. A qualitative model of limiting factors for a salmon life cycle in the context of river rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noble, R.A.A.; Bredeweg, B.; Linnebank, F.; Salles, P.; Cowx, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative Reasoning modelling has been promoted as a tool for formalising, integrating and exploring conceptual knowledge in ecological systems, such as river rehabilitation, which draw different information from multiple domains. A qualitative model was developed in Garp3 to capture and formalise

  12. A CFBPN Artificial Neural Network Model for Educational Qualitative Data Analyses: Example of Students' Attitudes Based on Kellerts' Typologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorek, Nurettin; Ugulu, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks are suggested as a model that can be "trained" to yield qualitative results out of a huge amount of categorical data. It can be said that this is a new approach applied in educational qualitative data analysis. In this direction, a cascade-forward back-propagation neural network (CFBPN) model was…

  13. NASA space cancer risk model-2014: Uncertainties due to qualitative differences in biological effects of HZE particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis

    Uncertainties in estimating health risks from exposures to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) — comprised of protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei are an important limitation to long duration space travel. HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation leading to large uncertainties in predicting risks to humans. Our NASA Space Cancer Risk Model-2012 (NSCR-2012) for estimating lifetime cancer risks from space radiation included several new features compared to earlier models from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) used at NASA. New features of NSCR-2012 included the introduction of NASA defined radiation quality factors based on track structure concepts, a Bayesian analysis of the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF) and its uncertainty, and the use of a never-smoker population to represent astronauts. However, NSCR-2012 did not include estimates of the role of qualitative differences between HZE particles and low LET radiation. In this report we discuss evidence for non-targeted effects increasing cancer risks at space relevant HZE particle absorbed doses in tissue (Mars exploration will be described, and compared to those of our earlier NSCR-2012 model.

  14. Modeling the alcoholic fermentation of xylose by Pichia stipitis using a qualitative reasoning approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrin, F. (INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), Biometrics and Artificial Intelligence Station, 31 - Castanet-Tolosan (France)); Delgenes, J.P. (INRA, Biotechnological Lab. for Food Industry Environment, 11 - Narbonne (France)); Moletta, R. (INRA, Biotechnological Lab. for Food Industry Environment, 11 - Narbonne (France))

    1994-03-01

    Qualitative Reasoning is a set of Artificial Intelligence theories, methods, and techniques that provide an answer to modeling problems in domains in which one can have a clear notion of how a system is functioning without being able to express it as classical mathematical equations, and where is posed the problem of using jointly quantitative and qualitative data, as well as processing a big amount of complex knowledge. SIMAO ('a System to Interpret Measurements And Observations') is an attempt to deal with such problems. Although primarily devised for heterogeneous data interpretation in hydroecology, it was thought possible to use SIMAO in a wider context, like biotechnological processes. Starting from specific problems posed by a batch fermentation, the D-xylose conversion into ethanol by the yeast Pichia stipitis, this paper descibes how was built and used a SIMAO model aimed at predicting the fermentation issue from initial conditions, i.e. set-points values and substrate concentration. (orig.)

  15. Qualitative Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Equations of the Standard Cosmological Model: $\\Lambda\

    CERN Document Server

    Ignat'ev, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative analysis of the system of differential equations of the standard cosmological model it is shown that in the case of zero cosmological constant this system has a stable center corresponding to zero values of potential and its derivative at infinity. Thus, the cosmological model based on single massive classical scalar field in infinite future would give a flat Universe. The carried out numerical simulation of the dynamic system corresponding to the system of Einstein - Klein - Gordon equations showed that at great times of the evolution the invariant cosmological acceleration has an oscillating character and changes from $-2$ (braking), to $+1$ (acceleration). Average value of the cosmological acceleration is negative and is equal to $-1/2$. Oscillations of the cosmological acceleration happen on the background of rapidly falling Hubble constant. In the case of nonzero value of the cosmological constant depending on its value there are possible three various qualitative behavior typ...

  16. Business Scenario Evaluation Method Using Monte Carlo Simulation on Qualitative and Quantitative Hybrid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, Masaki; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Mitsukuni, Koshichiro; Komoda, Norihisa

    We propose a business scenario evaluation method using qualitative and quantitative hybrid model. In order to evaluate business factors with qualitative causal relations, we introduce statistical values based on propagation and combination of effects of business factors by Monte Carlo simulation. In propagating an effect, we divide a range of each factor by landmarks and decide an effect to a destination node based on the divided ranges. In combining effects, we decide an effect of each arc using contribution degree and sum all effects. Through applied results to practical models, it is confirmed that there are no differences between results obtained by quantitative relations and results obtained by the proposed method at the risk rate of 5%.

  17. Evaluation models and Brazilian health reform: a qualitative-participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Mercado-Martinez, Francisco Javier

    2010-06-01

    Throughout the last years, there has been a growing interest in ongoing assessment proposals in Latin America, which are more far-reaching and not traditional. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential of qualitative-participatory evaluation in view of the challenge of strengthening health reforms in the region, particularly those considered progressive, such as the Brazilian case. There is the need to assess health reforms in a rigorous and permanent way, especially the incongruity when using normative models to evaluate health systems based on principles of universality, comprehensiveness, humanization and democratic management. In addition to the demand for assessment instruments and strategies, the Brazilian health reform requires the adoption of evaluation proposals and practices that are founded on other paradigms, distinct from the hegemonic one, in the sphere of health assessment. It is recommended that emerging evaluative models be used, such as those with a qualitative-participatory approach.

  18. Qualitative Modelling of Quasi-homogeneous Effects in ERK and STAT Interaction Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valko Petrov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of qualitative analysis of author's model published in previous paper, the stability and temporal behaviour of quasi-homogeneous distributions of ERK-protein concentrations are analyzed in terms of corresponding reaction-diffusion problem. The stable quasi-homogeneous distributions are treated as a dynamical basis of pathway compartmentalization. It is also shown, that a crowding effect exists in the form of loss of pathway stability. An experimentally verifiable issue for possible existence of protein scaffolding mechanism is derived on the basis of its qualitative correspondence with the pattern formation and molecular crowding effects inherent to the considered model. Moreover, it is demonstrated, that the predicted ERK and STAT pathway instability can be interpreted as traveling wave propagation of molecular concentration drop and jump from the nucleus membrane to the cell one and vice versa.

  19. The explanatory models of depression and anxiety in primary care: a qualitative study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gracy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biggest barrier to treatment of common mental disorders in primary care settings is low recognition among health care providers. This study attempts to explore the explanatory models of common mental disorders (CMD with the goal of identifying how they could help in improving the recognition, leading to effective treatment in primary care. Results The paper describes findings of a cross sectional qualitative study nested within a large randomized controlled trial (the Manas trial. Semi structured interviews were conducted with 117 primary health care attendees (30 males and 87 females suffering from CMD. Main findings of the study are that somatic phenomena were by far the most frequent presenting problems; however, psychological phenomena were relatively easily elicited on probing. Somatic phenomena were located within a biopsychosocial framework, and a substantial proportion of informants used the psychological construct of ‘tension’ or ‘worry’ to label their illness, but did not consider themselves as suffering from a ‘mental disorder’. Very few gender differences were observed in the descriptions of symptoms but at the same time the pattern of adverse life events and social difficulties varied across gender. Conclusion Our study demonstrates how people present their illness through somatic complaints but clearly link their illness to their psychosocial world. However they do not associate their illness to a ‘mental disorder’ and this is an important phenomenon that needs to be recognized in management of CMD in primary settings. Our study also elicits important gender differences in the experience of CMD.

  20. Qualitative Analysis on a Reaction-Diffusion Prey Predator Model and the Corresponding Steady-States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qunyi BIE; Rui PENG

    2009-01-01

    The authors study a diffusive prey-predator model subject to the homogeneous Neumann boundary condition and give some qualitative descriptions of solutions to this reaction-diffusion system and its corresponding steady-state problem.The local and global stability of the positive constant steady-state are discussed,and then some results for nonexistence of positive non-constant steady-states are derived.

  1. A qualitative study of parental modeling and social support for physical activity in underserved adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10–14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6–10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed and coded by independent raters. Inter-rater reliabilities indicated adequate agreement [inter-rater reliability (r) = 0.84]. Th...

  2. A Computational Model of Human-Robot Spatial Interactions Based on a Qualitative Trajectory Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dondrup

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a probabilistic sequential model of Human-Robot Spatial Interaction (HRSI using a well-established Qualitative Trajectory Calculus (QTC to encode HRSI between a human and a mobile robot in a meaningful, tractable, and systematic manner. Our key contribution is to utilise QTC as a state descriptor and model HRSI as a probabilistic sequence of such states. Apart from the sole direction of movements of human and robot modelled by QTC, attributes of HRSI like proxemics and velocity profiles play vital roles for the modelling and generation of HRSI behaviour. In this paper, we particularly present how the concept of proxemics can be embedded in QTC to facilitate richer models. To facilitate reasoning on HRSI with qualitative representations, we show how we can combine the representational power of QTC with the concept of proxemics in a concise framework, enriching our probabilistic representation by implicitly modelling distances. We show the appropriateness of our sequential model of QTC by encoding different HRSI behaviours observed in two spatial interaction experiments. We classify these encounters, creating a comparative measurement, showing the representational capabilities of the model.

  3. The Development of a Qualitative Dynamic Attribute Value Model for Healthcare Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan- I Lee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Understanding customers has become an urgent topic for increasing competitiveness. The purpopse of  the study was to develop a qualitative dynamic attribute value model which provides insight into the customers' value for healthcare institute managers by conducting the initial open-ended questionnaire survey to select participants purposefully."nMethods: A total number of 427 questionnaires was conducted in two hospitals in Taiwan (one district hospital with 635 beds and one academic hospital with 2495 beds and 419 questionnaires were received in nine weeks. Then, apply qualitative in-depth interviews to explore customers' perspective of values for building a model of partial differential equations."nResults: This study concludes nine categories of value, including cost, equipment, physician background, physicain care, environment, timing arrangement, relationship, brand image and additional value, to construct objective network for customer value and qualitative dynamic attribute value model where the network shows the value process of loyalty development via its effect on customer satisfaction, customer relationship, customer loyalty and healthcare service."nConclusion: One set predicts the customer relationship based on comminent, including service quality, communication and em­pahty. As the same time, customer loyalty based on trust, involves buzz marketing, brand and image.  Customer value of the current instance is useful for traversing original customer attributes and identifing customers on different service share.

  4. The development of a qualitative dynamic attribute value model for healthcare institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan-I

    2010-01-01

    Understanding customers has become an urgent topic for increasing competitiveness. The purpopse of the study was to develop a qualitative dynamic attribute value model which provides insight into the customers' value for healthcare institute managers by conducting the initial open-ended questionnaire survey to select participants purposefully. A total number of 427 questionnaires was conducted in two hospitals in Taiwan (one district hospital with 635 beds and one academic hospital with 2495 beds) and 419 questionnaires were received in nine weeks. Then, apply qualitative in-depth interviews to explore customers' perspective of values for building a model of partial differential equations. This study concludes nine categories of value, including cost, equipment, physician background, physicain care, environment, timing arrangement, relationship, brand image and additional value, to construct objective network for customer value and qualitative dynamic attribute value model where the network shows the value process of loyalty development via its effect on customer satisfaction, customer relationship, customer loyalty and healthcare service. One set predicts the customer relationship based on comminent, including service quality, communication and empahty. As the same time, customer loyalty based on trust, involves buzz marketing, brand and image. Customer value of the current instance is useful for traversing original customer attributes and identifing customers on different service share.

  5. Model simulations for describing water transport in a landfill with bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI): model validation and scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Frank; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth

    2004-10-01

    In the present study the water movement in a bottom ash landfill from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) was investigated. The pore regime of such landfills consists of macropores (with diameter > 50 microm), which make up about two-thirds of the total porosity and micropores. The program MACRO, which describes flow through porous media and takes both macro- and micropore flows into account, was applied. The model was calibrated with a time series from the landfill Riet, near Winterthur in Switzerland. In the present study the model was recalibrated at a time series for 1 year. With this scenario the influence of an expected reduction or increase of the porosity on leachate behaviour of such landfills over a long time (> 100 years) was studied ('long-term behaviour'). It has been shown that reliable information about water percolation can only be provided by obtaining more information about the hydraulic structure of such landfills. In particular, the number of macropores and the porosity exert great influence on the water movement.

  6. Evaluation of different models to describe egg and pupal development of Xyleborus fornicatus Eichh. (Coleoptera:Scolytidae), the shot-hole borer of tea in Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAVINDRA SAMPATH WALGAMA; MYRON PHILLIP ZALUCKI

    2006-01-01

    Development data of eggs and pupae ofXyleborusfornicatus Eichh. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the shot-hole borer of tea in Sri Lanka, at constant temperatures were used to evaluate a linear and seven nonlinear models for insect development. Model evaluation was based on fit to data (residual sum of squares and coefficient of determination or coefficient of nonlinear regression), number of measurable parameters, the biological value of the fitted coefficients and accuracy in the estimation of thresholds. Of the nonlinear models, the Lactin model fitted experimental data well and along with the linear model, can be used to describe the temperature-dependent development of this species.

  7. A physiology-based model describing heterogeneity in glucose metabolism: the core of the Eindhoven Diabetes Education Simulator (E-DES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Anne H; Rozendaal, Yvonne J W; van Pul, Carola; Hilbers, Peter A J; Cottaar, Ward J; Haak, Harm R; van Riel, Natal A W

    2015-03-01

    Current diabetes education methods are costly, time-consuming, and do not actively engage the patient. Here, we describe the development and verification of the physiological model for healthy subjects that forms the basis of the Eindhoven Diabetes Education Simulator (E-DES). E-DES shall provide diabetes patients with an individualized virtual practice environment incorporating the main factors that influence glycemic control: food, exercise, and medication. The physiological model consists of 4 compartments for which the inflow and outflow of glucose and insulin are calculated using 6 nonlinear coupled differential equations and 14 parameters. These parameters are estimated on 12 sets of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data (226 healthy subjects) obtained from literature. The resulting parameter set is verified on 8 separate literature OGTT data sets (229 subjects). The model is considered verified if 95% of the glucose data points lie within an acceptance range of ±20% of the corresponding model value. All glucose data points of the verification data sets lie within the predefined acceptance range. Physiological processes represented in the model include insulin resistance and β-cell function. Adjusting the corresponding parameters allows to describe heterogeneity in the data and shows the capabilities of this model for individualization. We have verified the physiological model of the E-DES for healthy subjects. Heterogeneity of the data has successfully been modeled by adjusting the 4 parameters describing insulin resistance and β-cell function. Our model will form the basis of a simulator providing individualized education on glucose control.

  8. Performance of soil particle-size distribution models for describing deposited soils adjacent to constructed dams in the China Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pei; Shao, Ming-an; Horton, Robert

    2011-02-01

    Soil particle-size distributions (PSD) have been used to estimate soil hydraulic properties. Various parametric PSD models have been proposed to describe the soil PSD from sparse experimental data. It is important to determine which PSD model best represents specific soils. Fourteen PSD models were examined in order to determine the best model for representing the deposited soils adjacent to dams in the China Loess Plateau; these were: Skaggs (S-1, S-2, and S-3), fractal (FR), Jaky (J), Lima and Silva (LS), Morgan (M), Gompertz (G), logarithm (L), exponential (E), log-exponential (LE), Weibull (W), van Genuchten type (VG) as well as Fredlund (F) models. Four-hundred and eighty samples were obtained from soils deposited in the Liudaogou catchment. The coefficient of determination (R 2), the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), and the modified AIC (mAIC) were used. Based upon R 2 and AIC, the three- and four-parameter models were both good at describing the PSDs of deposited soils, and the LE, FR, and E models were the poorest. However, the mAIC in conjunction with R 2 and AIC results indicated that the W model was optimum for describing PSD of the deposited soils for emphasizing the effect of parameter number. This analysis was also helpful for finding out which model is the best one. Our results are applicable to the China Loess Plateau.

  9. A Qualitative Study of Domain Specific Languages for Model Driven Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qaiser Saleem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Model-Driven development, software system design is represented through models which are created using general purpose modeling languages e.g., UML. Later on system artifacts are automatically generated from these models. Model-Driven Security is a specialization of Model-Driven paradigm towards the domain of security, where security objectives are modeled along the system models and security infrastructures are directly generated from these models. Currently available general purpose modeling languages like UML do not have capability to model the security objectives along the system models. Over the past decade, many researchers are trying to address these limitations of the general purpose modeling languages and come up with several Domain Specific Modeling Languages for Model Driven Security. In this study, a comparative study is presented regarding the security Domain Specific Modeling Languages presented by the most prominent researchers for the development of secure system. A success criteria has been defined and these DSLs are critically analyzed based on it to obtain the qualitative results.

  10. A plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations and ion speciation/pairing in wastewater treatment process models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Solon, Kimberly;

    2015-01-01

    to increase the robustness of the solver making the system not so dependant of the initial conditions. Simulation results show pH predictions when describing Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d and 3 comparing the performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1......) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) treatment plant configuration under different anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic conditions. The same framework is implemented in the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) version of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) (WWTP3) as well, predicting pH values......There is a growing interest within the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) modelling community to correctly describe physico-chemical processes after many years of mainly focusing on biokinetics. Indeed, future modelling needs, such as a plant-wide phosphorus (P) description, require a major...

  11. Multiple methods for multiple futures: Integrating qualitative scenario planning and quantitative simulation modeling for natural resource decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Miller, Brian; Rowland, Erika; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2017-01-01

    Scenario planning helps managers incorporate climate change into their natural resource decision making through a structured “what-if” process of identifying key uncertainties and potential impacts and responses. Although qualitative scenarios, in which ecosystem responses to climate change are derived via expert opinion, often suffice for managers to begin addressing climate change in their planning, this approach may face limits in resolving the responses of complex systems to altered climate conditions. In addition, this approach may fall short of the scientific credibility managers often require to take actions that differ from current practice. Quantitative simulation modeling of ecosystem response to climate conditions and management actions can provide this credibility, but its utility is limited unless the modeling addresses the most impactful and management-relevant uncertainties and incorporates realistic management actions. We use a case study to compare and contrast management implications derived from qualitative scenario narratives and from scenarios supported by quantitative simulations. We then describe an analytical framework that refines the case study’s integrated approach in order to improve applicability of results to management decisions. The case study illustrates the value of an integrated approach for identifying counterintuitive system dynamics, refining understanding of complex relationships, clarifying the magnitude and timing of changes, identifying and checking the validity of assumptions about resource responses to climate, and refining management directions. Our proposed analytical framework retains qualitative scenario planning as a core element because its participatory approach builds understanding for both managers and scientists, lays the groundwork to focus quantitative simulations on key system dynamics, and clarifies the challenges that subsequent decision making must address.

  12. Learning Qualitative Differential Equation models: a survey of algorithms and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2010-03-01

    Over the last two decades, qualitative reasoning (QR) has become an important domain in Artificial Intelligence. QDE (Qualitative Differential Equation) model learning (QML), as a branch of QR, has also received an increasing amount of attention; many systems have been proposed to solve various significant problems in this field. QML has been applied to a wide range of fields, including physics, biology and medical science. In this paper, we first identify the scope of this review by distinguishing QML from other QML systems, and then review all the noteworthy QML systems within this scope. The applications of QML in several application domains are also introduced briefly. Finally, the future directions of QML are explored from different perspectives.

  13. Modelling Activities In Kinematics Understanding quantitative relations with the contribution of qualitative reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    In Greek traditional teaching a lot of significant concepts are introduced with a sequence that does not provide the students with all the necessary information required to comprehend. We consider that understanding concepts and the relations among them is greatly facilitated by the use of modelling tools, taking into account that the modelling process forces students to change their vague, imprecise ideas into explicit causal relationships. It is not uncommon to find students who are able to solve problems by using complicated relations without getting a qualitative and in-depth grip on them. Researchers have already shown that students often have a formal mathematical and physical knowledge without a qualitative understanding of basic concepts and relations." The aim of this communication is to present some of the results of our investigation into modelling activities related to kinematical concepts. For this purpose, we have used ModellingSpace, an environment that was especially designed to allow students from eleven to seventeen years old to express their ideas and gradually develop them. The ModellingSpace enables students to build their own models and offers the choice of observing directly simulations of real objects and/or all the other alternative forms of representations (tables of values, graphic representations and bar-charts). The students -in order to answer the questions- formulate hypotheses, they create models, they compare their hypotheses with the representations of their models and they modify or create other models when their hypotheses did not agree with the representations. In traditional ways of teaching, students are educated to utilize formulas as the most important strategy. Several times the students recall formulas in order to utilize them, without getting an in-depth understanding on them. Students commonly use the quantitative type of reasoning, since it is primarily used in teaching, although it may not be fully understood by them

  14. Qualitative models to predict impacts of human interventions in a wetland ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Loiselle

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The large shallow wetlands that dominate much of the South American continent are rich in biodiversity and complexity. Many of these undamaged ecosystems are presently being examined for their potential economic utility, putting pressure on local authorities and the conservation community to find ways of correctly utilising the available natural resources without compromising the ecosystem functioning and overall integrity. Contrary to many northern hemisphere ecosystems, there have been little long term ecological studies of these systems, leading to a lack of quantitative data on which to construct ecological or resource use models. As a result, decision makers, even well meaning ones, have difficulty in determining if particular economic activities can potentially cause significant damage to the ecosystem and how one should go about monitoring the impacts of such activities. While the direct impact of many activities is often known, the secondary indirect impacts are usually less clear and can depend on local ecological conditions.

    The use of qualitative models is a helpful tool to highlight potential feedback mechanisms and secondary effects of management action on ecosystem integrity. The harvesting of a single, apparently abundant, species can have indirect secondary effects on key trophic and abiotic compartments. In this paper, loop model analysis is used to qualitatively examine secondary effects of potential economic activities in a large wetland area in northeast Argentina, the Esteros del Ibera. Based on interaction with local actors together with observed ecological information, loop models were constructed to reflect relationships between biotic and abiotic compartments. A series of analyses were made to study the effect of different economic scenarios on key ecosystem compartments. Important impacts on key biotic compartments (phytoplankton, zooplankton, ichthyofauna, aquatic macrophytes and on the abiotic environment

  15. Factors Affecting Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors Based On the Precaution Adoption Process Model: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Afshin; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammah Hossein; Enjezab, Behnaz; Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2015-11-17

    One of the most preventable cancers in women is cervical cancer. Pap smear test is an effective screening program; however, it is not conducted very frequently. The aim of this study is explaining the determinants affecting women's participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model with a qualitative approach. This study was a qualitative approach using a Directed Content Analysis methodology which was conducted in 2014. Participants were 30 rural women who participated in this study voluntarily in sarvabad, Iran. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Women`s information and awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear is insufficient and most of them believed that they were not at risk; however, they perceived the severity of the disease. Some of them had no adequate understanding of the test benefits. They pointed to the lack of time, financial difficulties, fear of test result and lack of awareness as the main barriers against the Pap smear test; however, they did not say that they were not willing to do the test. Findings could help health policy makers to find the right area and purpose to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test.

  16. Qualitative breakdown of the noncrossing approximation for the symmetric one-channel Anderson impurity model at all temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposetti, C. N.; Manuel, L. O.; Roura-Bas, P.

    2016-08-01

    The Anderson impurity model is studied by means of the self-consistent hybridization expansions in its noncrossing (NCA) and one-crossing (OCA) approximations. We have found that for the one-channel spin-1 /2 particle-hole symmetric Anderson model, the NCA results are qualitatively wrong for any temperature, even when the approximation gives the exact threshold exponents of the ionic states. Actually, the NCA solution describes an overscreened Kondo effect, because it is the same as for the two-channel infinite-U single-level Anderson model. We explicitly show that the NCA is unable to distinguish between these two very different physical systems, independently of temperature. Using the impurity entropy as an example, we show that the low-temperature values of the NCA entropy for the symmetric case yield the limit Simp(T =0 ) →ln√{2 }, which corresponds to the zero temperature entropy of the overscreened Kondo model. Similar pathologies are predicted for any other thermodynamic property. On the other hand, we have found that the OCA approach lifts the artificial mapping between the models and restores correct properties of the ground state, for instance, a vanishing entropy at low enough temperatures Simp(T =0 ) →0 . Our results indicate that the very well known NCA should be used with caution close to the symmetric point of the Anderson model.

  17. Understanding communication between emergency and consulting physicians: a qualitative study that describes and defines the essential elements of the emergency department consultation-referral process for the junior learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa; Orlich, Donika; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    To define the important elements of an emergency department (ED) consultation request and to develop a simple model of the process. From March to September 2010, 61 physicians (21 emergency medicine [EM], 20 general surgery [GS], 20 internal medicine [IM]; 31 residents, 30 attending staff) were questioned about how junior learners should be taught about ED consultation. Two investigators independently reviewed focus group and interview transcripts using grounded theory to generate an index of themes until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, yielding an inventory of themes and subthemes. All transcripts were coded using this index of themes; 30% of transcripts were coded in duplicate to determine the agreement. A total of 245 themes and subthemes were identified. The agreement between reviewers was 77%. Important themes in the process were as follows: initial preparation and review of investigations by EM physician (overall endorsement 87% [range 70-100% in different groups]); identification of involved parties (patient and involved physicians) (100%); hypothesis of patient's diagnosis (75% [range 62-83%]) or question for the consulting physician (70% [range 55-95%]); urgency (100%) and stability (74% [range 62-80%]); questions from the consultant (100%); discussion/communication (98% [range 95-100%]); and feedback (98% [range 95-100%]). These components were reorganized into a simple framework (PIQUED). Each clinical specialty significantly contributed to the model (χ2  =  7.9; p value  =  0.019). Each group contributed uniquely to the final list of important elements (percent contributions: EM, 57%; GS, 41%; IM, 64%). We define important elements of an ED consultation with input from emergency and consulting physicians. We propose a model that organizes these elements into a simple framework (PIQUED) that may be valuable for junior learners.

  18. Multi-objective intelligent coordinating optimization blending system based on qualitative and quantitative synthetic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-lin; MA Jie; GUI Wei-hua; YANG Chun-hua; ZHANG Chuan-fu

    2006-01-01

    A multi-objective intelligent coordinating optimization strategy based on qualitative and quantitative synthetic model for Pb-Zn sintering blending process was proposed to obtain optimal mixture ratio. The mechanism and neural network quantitative models for predicting compositions and rule models for expert reasoning were constructed based on statistical data and empirical knowledge. An expert reasoning method based on these models were proposed to solve blending optimization problem, including multi-objective optimization for the first blending process and area optimization for the second blending process, and to determine optimal mixture ratio which will meet the requirement of intelligent coordination. The results show that the qualified rates of agglomerate Pb, Zn and S compositions are increased by 7.1%, 6.5% and 6.9%, respectively, and the fluctuation of sintering permeability is reduced by 7.0 %, which effectively stabilizes the agglomerate compositions and the permeability.

  19. Dynamical Model to Describe the Interactions between the Chemical Components in Environment of Photopolymerization of MMA by Dye/Amine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Magini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the model that explains the aspects of photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by dye/amine systems. This model is based on a simulation that uses differential equations. A similar model following the hypothesis presented here was used with success in a preliminary work, by Magini and Rodrigues (2005, to describe the cationic photopolymerization of THF in the presence of sensitizers/sulfonium salt systems. Using the same structure was possible to generate a straight correlation between experimental and theoretical results for this system, free radically initiated, opening an important theoretical understanding about the photopolymerization systems and their chemical relations during the reaction.

  20. A time-to-event pharmacodynamic model describing treatment response in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using days to positivity in automated liquid mycobacterial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigutsa, Emmanuel; Patel, Kashyap; Denti, Paolo; Visser, Marianne; Maartens, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; McIlleron, Helen; Karlsson, Mats O

    2013-02-01

    Days to positivity in automated liquid mycobacterial culture have been shown to correlate with mycobacterial load and have been proposed as a useful biomarker for treatment responses in tuberculosis. However, there is currently no quantitative method or model to analyze the change in days to positivity with time on treatment. The objectives of this study were to describe the decline in numbers of mycobacteria in sputum collected once weekly for 8 weeks from patients on treatment for tuberculosis using days to positivity in liquid culture. One hundred forty-four patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were recruited from a tuberculosis clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. A nonlinear mixed-effects repeated-time-to-event modeling approach was used to analyze the time-to-positivity data. A biexponential model described the decline in the estimated number of bacteria in patients' sputum samples, while a logistic model with a lag time described the growth of the bacteria in liquid culture. At baseline, the estimated number of rapidly killed bacteria is typically 41 times higher than that of those that are killed slowly. The time to kill half of the rapidly killed bacteria was about 1.8 days, while it was 39 days for slowly killed bacteria. Patients with lung cavitation had higher bacterial loads than patients without lung cavitation. The model successfully described the increase in days to positivity as treatment progressed, differentiating between bacteria that are killed rapidly and those that are killed slowly. Our model can be used to analyze similar data from studies testing new drug regimens.

  1. DEPENDENCE OF QUALITATIVE BEHAVIOR OF THE NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS ON THE IGNITION TEMPERATURE FOR A COMBUSTION MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ting Zhang; Lung-an Ying

    2005-01-01

    We study the dependence of qualitative behavior of the numerical solutions (obtained by a projective and upwind finite difference scheme) on the ignition temperature for a combustion model problem with general initial condition. Convergence to weak solution is proved under the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition. Some condition on the ignition temperature is given to guarantee the solution containing a strong detonation wave or a weak detonation wave. Finally, we give some numerical examples which show that a strong detonation wave can be transformed to a weak detonation wave under some well-chosen ignition temperature.

  2. Assessment and parameter identification of simplified models to describe the kinetics of semi-continuous biomethane production from anaerobic digestion of green and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owhondah, Raymond O; Walker, Mark; Ma, Lin; Nimmo, Bill; Ingham, Derek B; Poggio, Davide; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Biochemical reactions occurring during anaerobic digestion have been modelled using reaction kinetic equations such as first-order, Contois and Monod which are then combined to form mechanistic models. This work considers models which include between one and three biochemical reactions to investigate if the choice of the reaction rate equation, complexity of the model structure as well as the inclusion of inhibition plays a key role in the ability of the model to describe the methane production from the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of green waste (GW) and food waste (FW). A parameter estimation method was used to investigate the most important phenomena influencing the biogas production process. Experimental data were used to numerically estimate the model parameters and the quality of fit was quantified. Results obtained reveal that the model structure (i.e. number of reactions, inhibition) has a much stronger influence on the quality of fit compared with the choice of kinetic rate equations. In the case of GW there was only a marginal improvement when moving from a one to two reaction model, and none with inclusion of inhibition or three reactions. However, the behaviour of FW digestion was more complex and required either a two or three reaction model with inhibition functions for both ammonia and volatile fatty acids. Parameter values for the best fitting models are given for use by other authors.

  3. Describing galaxy weak lensing measurements from tenths to tens of Mpc and up to z~0.6 with a single model

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The clustering of galaxies and the matter distribution around them can be described using the halo model complemented with a realistic description of the way galaxies populate dark matter haloes. This has been used successfully to describe statistical properties of samples of galaxies at z<0.2. Without adjusting any model parameters, we compare the predicted weak lensing signal induced by Luminous Red Galaxies to measurements from SDSS DR7 on much larger scales (up to ~90 h_{70}^{-1} Mpc) and at higher redshift (z~0.4). We find excellent agreement, suggesting that the model captures the main properties of the galaxy-dark matter connection. To extend the comparison to lenses at even higher redshifts we complement the SDSS data with shape measurements from the deeper RCS2, resulting in precise lensing measurements for lenses up to z~0.6. These measurements are also well described using the same model. Considering solely these weak lensing measurements, we robustly assess that, up to z~0.6, the number of cent...

  4. Probabilistic models to describe the effect of NaNO2 in combination with NaCl on the growth inhibition of Lactobacillus in frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Gwak, Eunji; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Kim, Jin-Seok; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-12-01

    Probabilistic models were developed to describe the antimicrobial effect of NaNO2 (0-210 ppm) in combination with NaCl (0-1.75%) on Lactobacillus growth under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Growth (1) or no growth (0) was assessed every 24h as turbid or not turbid, respectively. The growth response data were analyzed by logistic regression to select significant variables (PLactobacillus growth inhibition, and these variables were used to generate a probabilistic model. The model was then validated with observed data from frankfurters (a model system). NaNO2 and NaCl inhibited (PLactobacillus growth at all temperatures under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the antimicrobial effect of NaNO2 increased as the NaCl concentration increased. Validation showed that the performance of the developed model was appropriate. These results indicate that the models developed in this study should be useful for describing the antimicrobial effect of NaNO2 in combination with NaCl on Lactobacillus.

  5. Describe Your Favorite Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Isaac; Dill, Vicky

    1993-01-01

    A third grader describes Ms. Gonzalez, his favorite teacher, who left to accept a more lucrative teaching assignment. Ms. Gonzalez' butterflies unit covered everything from songs about social butterflies to paintings of butterfly wings, anatomy studies, and student haiku poems and biographies. Students studied biology by growing popcorn plants…

  6. Qualitative model of the operating mechanism of the protective coating for low pressure Hg lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnochub, A V [DECO Ltd, PO Box 40, 141701 Dolgoprudnyi (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A I [LIT Technology Ltd, Krasnobogatyrskaya 44, 107076 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-04-07

    Interaction between the plasma and protective coating on the inner side of low pressure mercury lamp bulbs is considered. Under the assumption that the main way of decreasing the transmission of the bulb wall is the implantation of Hg ions within the fused quartz and formation of complexes [HgO] therein, a qualitative model of the attenuation mechanism is offered. The influence of the characteristics of a coating (thickness, close-packed structures, the lattice parameter, mass of atoms) on the transmission of the bulb walls is analysed. On the basis of the suggested model, estimates of the change in minimum transmission of bulb walls were made for lamps with and without protective coating. It is shown that in spite of approximations, the proposed model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Qualitative Behaviour of Solutions in Two Models of Thin Liquid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the thin-film model of a viscous flow which originates from lubrication approximation and has a full nonlinear curvature term, we prove existence of nonnegative weak solutions. Depending on initial data, we show algebraic or exponential dissipation of an energy functional which implies dissipation of the solution arc length that is a well known property for a Hele-Shaw flow. For the classical thin-film model with linearized curvature term, under some restrictions on parameter and gradient values, we also prove analytically the arc length dissipation property for positive solutions. We compare the numerical solutions for both models, with nonlinear and with linearized curvature terms. In regimes when solutions develop finite time singularities, we explain the difference in qualitative behaviour of solutions.

  8. A Simple Model for The Flattening of Galaxies Rotation Curves Due to Local Effects of the Universe Expansion as Described by the ELA metric

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P Castelo

    2010-01-01

    Are discussed possible generalizations for many body systems of the recently suggested Expanding Locally Anisotropic (ELA) metric ansatz which describes local point-like matter distributions in the expanding universe. Considering a series expansion of the functional parameter of this metric to second order in the gravitational field it is developed a simple lattice model for galaxies based in the thin exponential disk approximation. As an example it is modeled the large galaxy UGC2885 and it is shown that, by fitting the values of the metric parameters, the flattening of the galaxy rotation curve is fully described by the ELA metric. The framework presented here clearly allows to theoretically test new gravitational interactions maintaining compatibility with both local physics and cosmological universe expansion.

  9. A model framework to describe growth-linked biodegradation of trace-level pollutants in the presence of coincidental carbon substrates and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Helbling, Damian E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Smets, Barth F

    2014-11-18

    Pollutants such as pesticides and their degradation products occur ubiquitously in natural aquatic environments at trace concentrations (μg L(-1) and lower). Microbial biodegradation processes have long been known to contribute to the attenuation of pesticides in contaminated environments. However, challenges remain in developing engineered remediation strategies for pesticide-contaminated environments because the fundamental processes that regulate growth-linked biodegradation of pesticides in natural environments remain poorly understood. In this research, we developed a model framework to describe growth-linked biodegradation of pesticides at trace concentrations. We used experimental data reported in the literature or novel simulations to explore three fundamental kinetic processes in isolation. We then combine these kinetic processes into a unified model framework. The three kinetic processes described were: the growth-linked biodegradation of micropollutant at environmentally relevant concentrations; the effect of coincidental assimilable organic carbon substrates; and the effect of coincidental microbes that compete for assimilable organic carbon substrates. We used Monod kinetic models to describe substrate utilization and microbial growth rates for specific pesticide and degrader pairs. We then extended the model to include terms for utilization of assimilable organic carbon substrates by the specific degrader and coincidental microbes, growth on assimilable organic carbon substrates by the specific degrader and coincidental microbes, and endogenous metabolism. The proposed model framework enables interpretation and description of a range of experimental observations on micropollutant biodegradation. The model provides a useful tool to identify environmental conditions with respect to the occurrence of assimilable organic carbon and coincidental microbes that may result in enhanced or reduced micropollutant biodegradation.

  10. Simple Waveforms, Simply Described

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Since the first Lazarus Project calculations, it has been frequently noted that binary black hole merger waveforms are 'simple.' In this talk we examine some of the simple features of coalescence and merger waveforms from a variety of binary configurations. We suggest an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an implicit rotating source. This allows a coherent description, of both the inspiral waveforms, derivable from post-Newtonian(PN) calculations, and the numerically determined merger-ringdown. We focus particularly on similarities in the features of various Multipolar waveform components Generated by various systems. The late-time phase evolution of most L these waveform components are accurately described with a sinple analytic fit. We also discuss apparent relationships among phase and amplitude evolution. Taken together with PN information, the features we describe can provide an approximate analytic description full coalescence wavefoRms. complementary to other analytic waveforns approaches.

  11. Pharmacobezoars described and demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Serge-Emile

    2011-02-01

    A bezoar is a concretion of foreign material that forms and persists in the gastrointestinal tract. Bezoars are classified by their material origins. Phytobezoars contain plant material, trichobezoars contain hair, lactobezoars contain milk proteins, and pharmacobezoars contain pharmaceutical products. Tablets, suspensions, and even insoluble drug delivery vehicles can, on rare occasions, and sometimes under specific circumstances, form pharmacobezoars. The goal of this review is to catalog and examine all of the available reports in the English language medical literature that convincingly describe the formation and management of pharmacobezoars. Articles included in this review were identified by performing searches using the terms "bezoar," "pharmacobezoar," and "concretion" in the following databases: OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, and JSTOR. The complete MEDLINE and JSTOR holdings were included in the search without date ranges. The results were limited to English language publications. Articles that described nonmedication bezoars were not included in the review. Articles describing phytobezoars, food bezoars, fecal impactions, illicit drug packet ingestions, enteral feeding material bezoars, and hygroscopic diet aid bezoars were excluded. The bibliographic references within the articles already accumulated were then examined in order to gather additional pharmacobezoar cases. The cases are grouped by pharmaceutical agent that formed the bezoar, and groupings are arranged in alphabetical order. Discussions and conclusions specific to each pharmaceutical agent are included in that agent's subheading. Patterns and themes that emerged in the review of the assembled case reports are reviewed and presented in a more concise format. Pharmacobezoars form under a wide variety of circumstances and in a wide variety of patients. They are difficult to diagnose reliably. Rules for suspecting, diagnosing, and properly managing a pharmacobezoar are highly dependent on the

  12. A model to describe the mechanical behavior and the ductile failure of hydrided Zircaloy-4 fuel claddings between 25 °C and 480 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saux, M.; Besson, J.; Carassou, S.

    2015-11-01

    A model is proposed to describe the mechanical behavior and the ductile failure at 25, 350 and 480 °C of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes, as-received and hydrided up to 1200 wt. ppm (circumferential hydrides). The model is based on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model extended to account for plastic anisotropy and viscoplasticity. The model considers damage nucleation by both hydride cracking and debonding of the interface between the Laves phase precipitates and the matrix. The damage nucleation rate due to hydride cracking is directly deduced from quantitative microstructural observations. The other model parameters are identified from several experimental tests. Finite element simulations of axial tension, hoop tension, expansion due to compression and hoop plane strain tension experiments are performed to assess the model prediction capability. The calibrated model satisfactorily reproduces the effects of hydrogen and temperature on both the viscoplastic and the failure properties of the material. The results suggest that damage is anisotropic and influenced by the stress state for the non-hydrided or moderately hydrided material and becomes more isotropic for high hydrogen contents.

  13. Brandon mathematical model describing the effect of calcination and reduction parameters on specific surface area of UO{sub 2} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Nguyen Trong; Thuan, Le Ba [Institute for Technology of Radioactive and Rare Elements (ITRRE), 48 Lang Ha, Dong Da, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Van Khoai, Do [Micro-Emission Ltd., 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1211 (Japan); Lee, Jin-Young, E-mail: jinlee@kigam.re.kr [Convergence Research Center for Development of Mineral Resources (DMR), Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Jyothi, Rajesh Kumar, E-mail: rkumarphd@kigam.re.kr [Convergence Research Center for Development of Mineral Resources (DMR), Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder has been widely used to prepare fuel pellets for commercial light water nuclear reactors. Among typical characteristics of the powder, specific surface area (SSA) is one of the most important parameter that determines the sintering ability of UO{sub 2} powder. This paper built up a mathematical model describing the effect of the fabrication parameters on SSA of UO{sub 2} powders. To the best of our knowledge, the Brandon model is used for the first time to describe the relationship between the essential fabrication parameters [reduction temperature (T{sub R}), calcination temperature (T{sub C}), calcination time (t{sub C}) and reduction time (t{sub R})] and SSA of the obtained UO{sub 2} powder product. The proposed model was tested with Wilcoxon's rank sum test, showing a good agreement with the experimental parameters. The proposed model can be used to predict and control the SSA of UO{sub 2} powder.

  14. Modelling gait processes as a combination of sensory-motor and cognitive controls in an attempt to describe accidents on the level in occupational situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicre, Alexandrine; Leclercq, Sylvie; Gaudez, Clarisse; Gauthier, Gabriel M; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Bourdin, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    In occupational situations, accidents referred to as accidents on the level (AoLs) occur most of the time when locomotion control fails. This control is determined by the interactions between the operator and the environment, the task and the used tools. Hence, AoLs prevention requires developing ways to optimise these interactions. More fundamentally, AoLs prevention requires understanding locomotion control in situations where this control is at sake, that is in situations involving one or more AoLs factors. The purpose of this article is to propose a comprehensive model for the control of locomotion in occupational environments. This model featuring the operator, the task and the working space should be an appropriate tool to understand AoLs in the scope of their prevention. Firstly, we describe what occupational AoLs are. In a second part, we present a review of the theoretical and experimental knowledge related to the locomotion system through the various means developed by the Central Nervous System to cope with perturbations of the environment and/or particular constraints from the task. Finally, we propose a simplified systemic model presenting the various levels of control (sensory-motor to cognitive levels) describing locomotion in occupational situations, and we suggest experiments likely to produce the appropriate data to construct the final comprehensive model.

  15. Measurements and semi-empirical model describing the onset of powder formation as a function of process parameters in an RF silane hydrogen discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Donker, M. N.; Hamers, E. A. G.; Kroesen, G. M. W.

    2005-07-01

    The transition pressure above which powder formation takes place was experimentally determined in a parallel plate RF silane-hydrogen plasma as a function of the process parameters—power, temperature, gas flow and hydrogen dilution—using the dc-bias voltage as powder formation indicator. The resulting empirical scaling law describes in what conditions powders are formed and in what conditions the plasma is powder-free. Second, a semi-empirical model was developed that treats the nano-particle density in the plasma. This model was applied to analytically describe the transition pressure above which nano-particle coagulation takes place as a function of process parameters. The resulting modelled scaling law shows good correspondence with the experimentally found scaling law. Finally, a series of amorphous silicon films was deposited. The reflection-transmission spectra of the films were measured and modelled through Tauc-Lorentz formalism. The optical analysis shows that at around the plasma transition pressure there occurs also a transition in the properties of the deposited material.

  16. A plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations and ion speciation/pairing in wastewater treatment process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Solon, Kimberly; Vrecko, Darko; Tait, Stephan; Batstone, Damien J; Jeppsson, Ulf; Gernaey, Krist V

    2015-11-15

    There is a growing interest within the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) modelling community to correctly describe physico-chemical processes after many years of mainly focusing on biokinetics. Indeed, future modelling needs, such as a plant-wide phosphorus (P) description, require a major, but unavoidable, additional degree of complexity when representing cationic/anionic behaviour in Activated Sludge (AS)/Anaerobic Digestion (AD) systems. In this paper, a plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations plus ion speciation/pairing is presented and interfaced with industry standard models. The module accounts for extensive consideration of non-ideality, including ion activities instead of molar concentrations and complex ion pairing. The general equilibria are formulated as a set of Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs) instead of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) in order to reduce the overall stiffness of the system, thereby enhancing simulation speed. Additionally, a multi-dimensional version of the Newton-Raphson algorithm is applied to handle the existing multiple algebraic inter-dependencies. The latter is reinforced with the Simulated Annealing method to increase the robustness of the solver making the system not so dependent of the initial conditions. Simulation results show pH predictions when describing Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d and 3 comparing the performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) treatment plant configuration under different anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic conditions. The same framework is implemented in the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) version of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) (WWTP3) as well, predicting pH values at different cationic/anionic loads. In this way, the general applicability/flexibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated, by implementing the aqueous phase chemistry module in some

  17. Gaussian process modeling in conjunction with individual patient simulation modeling: a case study describing the calculation of cost-effectiveness ratios for the treatment of established osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M D; Oakley, J; Chilcott, J B

    2004-01-01

    Individual patient-level models can simulate more complex disease processes than cohort-based approaches. However, large numbers of patients need to be simulated to reduce 1st-order uncertainty, increasing the computational time required and often resulting in the inability to perform extensive sensitivity analyses. A solution, employing Gaussian process techniques, is presented using a case study, evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a sample of treatments for established osteoporosis. The Gaussian process model accurately formulated a statistical relationship between the inputs to the individual patient model and its outputs. This model reduced the time required for future runs from 150 min to virtually-instantaneous, allowing probabilistic sensitivity analyses-to be undertaken. This reduction in computational time was achieved with minimal loss in accuracy. The authors believe that this case study demonstrates the value of this technique in handling 1st- and 2nd-order uncertainty in the context of health economic modeling, particularly when more widely used techniques are computationally expensive or are unable to accurately model patient histories.

  18. Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Connie J.

    Connie J. Hvidsten September 2016 Education Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice This dissertation consists of three papers analyzing writings and interviews of experienced secondary science teachers during and after a two-year professional development (PD) program focused on model-based reasoning (MBR). MBR is an approach to science instruction that provides opportunities for students to use conceptual models to make sense of natural phenomena in ways that are similar to the use of models within the scientific community. The aim of this research is to better understand the learning and learning pathways teachers identified as valuable in supporting changes in their teaching practice. To accomplish this aim, the papers analyze the ways teachers 1) ascribe their learning to various aspects of the program, 2) describe what they learned, and 3) reflect on the impact the PD had on their teaching practice. Twenty-one secondary science teachers completed the Innovations in Science Instruction through Modeling (ISIM) program from 2007 through 2009. Commonalities in the written reflections and interview responses led to a set of generalizable findings related to the impacts and outcomes of the PD. The first of the three papers describes elements of the ISIM program that teachers associated with their own learning. One of the most frequently mentioned PD feature was being in the position of an adult learner. Embedding learning in instructional practice by collaboratively developing and revising lessons, and observing the lessons in one-another's classrooms provided a sense of professional community, accountability, and support teachers reported were necessary to overcome the challenges of implementing new pedagogical practices. Additionally, teachers described that opportunities to reflect on their learning and connect their

  19. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    , the knowledge generated from these studies cannot be easily generalized or transferred to other basins. Here, we present an approach to integrate the quantitative and qualitative methods to study water issues and capture the contextual knowledge of water management- by combining the NSSs framework and an area of artificial intelligence called qualitative reasoning. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin dispute as an example, we demonstrate how quantitative modeling and qualitative reasoning can be integrated to examine the impact of over abstraction of water from the river on the ecosystem and the role of governance in shaping the evolution of the ACF water dispute.

  20. WE-AB-BRA-02: Development of Biomechanical Models to Describe Dose-Volume Response to Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, M; Polan, D; Feng, M; Lawrence, T; Haken, R Ten; Brock, K [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that radiotherapy treatment for liver metastases causes marked liver hypertrophy in areas receiving low dose and atrophy/fibrosis in areas receiving high dose. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a biomechanical model-based dose-response model to describe these liver responses to SBRT. Methods: In this retrospective study, a biomechanical model-based deformable registration algorithm, Morfeus, was expanded to include dose-based boundary conditions. Liver and tumor volumes were contoured on the planning images and CT/MR images three months post-RT and converted to finite element models. A thermal expansion-based relationship correlating the delivered dose and volume response was generated from 22 patients previously treated. This coefficient, combined with the planned dose, was applied as an additional boundary condition to describe the volumetric response of the liver of an additional cohort of metastatic liver patients treated with SBRT. The accuracy of the model was evaluated based on overall volumetric liver comparisons and the target registration error (TRE) using the average deviations in positions of identified vascular bifurcations on each set of registered images, with a target accuracy of the 2.5mm isotropic dose grid (vector dimension 4.3mm). Results: The thermal expansion coefficient models the volumetric change of the liver to within 3%. The accuracy of Morfeus with dose-expansion boundary conditions a TRE of 5.7±2.8mm compared to 11.2±3.7mm using rigid registration and 8.9±0.28mm using Morfeus with only spatial boundary conditions. Conclusion: A biomechanical model has been developed to describe the volumetric and spatial response of the liver to SBRT. This work will enable the improvement of correlating functional imaging with delivered dose, the mapping of the delivered dose from one treatment onto the planning images for a subsequent treatment, and will further provide information to assist

  1. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Gönül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.”

  2. Describing contrast across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Sohaib Ali; Iqbal, Muhammad Zafar; Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin

    2017-06-01

    Due to its sensitive nature against illumination and noise distributions, contrast is not widely used for image description. On the contrary, the human perception of contrast along different spatial frequency bandwidths provides a powerful discriminator function that can be modeled in a robust manner against local illumination. Based upon this observation, a dense local contrast descriptor is proposed and its potential in different applications of computer vision is discussed. Extensive experiments reveal that this simple yet effective description performs well in comparison with state of the art image descriptors. We also show the importance of this description in multiresolution pansharpening framework.

  3. A new mathematical approach for qualitative modeling of the insulin-TOR-MAPK network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Frederik Nijhout

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a novel mathematical model of the insulin-TOR-MAPK signaling network that controls growth. Most data on the properties of the insulin and MAPK signaling networks are static and the responses to experimental interventions, such as knockouts, overexpression, and hormonal input are typically reported as scaled quantities. The modeling paradigm we develop here uses scaled variables and is ideally suited to simulate systems in which much of the available data are scaled. Our mathematical representation of signaling networks provides a way to reconcile theory and experiments, thus leading to a better understanding of the properties and function of these signaling networks. We test the performance of the model against a broad diversity of experimental data. The model correctly reproduces experimental insulin dose-response relationships. We study the interaction between insulin and MAPK signaling in the control of protein synthesis, and the interactions between amino acids, insulin and TOR signaling. We study the effects of variation in FOXO expression on protein synthesis and glucose transport capacity, and show that a FOXO knockout can partially rescue protein synthesis capacity of an insulin receptor knockout. We conclude that the modeling paradigm we develop provides a simple tool to investigate the qualitative properties of signaling networks.

  4. A model to describe the anisotropic viscoplastic mechanical behavior of fresh and irradiated Zircaloy-4 fuel claddings under RIA loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saux, M.; Besson, J.; Carassou, S.; Poussard, C.; Averty, X.

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a unified phenomenological model to describe the anisotropic viscoplastic mechanical behavior of cold-worked stress relieved (CWSR) Zircaloy-4 fuel claddings submitted to reactivity initiated accident (RIA) loading conditions. The model relies on a multiplicative viscoplastic formulation and reproduces strain hardening, strain rate sensitivity and plastic anisotropy of the material. It includes temperature, fluence and irradiation conditions dependences within RIA typical ranges. Model parameters have been tuned using axial tensile, hoop tensile and closed-end internal pressurization tests results essentially obtained from the PROMETRA program, dedicated to the study of zirconium alloys under RIA loading conditions. Once calibrated, the model provides a reliable description of the mechanical behavior of the fresh and irradiated (fluence up to 10×1025 nm or burnup up to 64 GWd/tU) material within large temperature (from 20 °C up to 1100 °C) and strain rate ranges (from 3×10-4 s up to 5 s), representative of the RIA spectrum. Finally, the model is used for the finite element analysis of the hoop tensile tests performed within the PROMETRA program.

  5. Pushing the Frontier of Data-Oriented Geodynamic Modeling: from Qualitative to Quantitative to Predictive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Hu, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid accumulation of geophysical and geological data sets poses an increasing demand for the development of geodynamic models to better understand the evolution of the solid Earth. Consequently, the earlier qualitative physical models are no long satisfying. Recent efforts are focusing on more quantitative simulations and more efficient numerical algorithms. Among these, a particular line of research is on the implementation of data-oriented geodynamic modeling, with the purpose of building an observationally consistent and physically correct geodynamic framework. Such models could often catalyze new insights into the functioning mechanisms of the various aspects of plate tectonics, and their predictive nature could also guide future research in a deterministic fashion. Over the years, we have been working on constructing large-scale geodynamic models with both sequential and variational data assimilation techniques. These models act as a bridge between different observational records, and the superposition of the constraining power from different data sets help reveal unknown processes and mechanisms of the dynamics of the mantle and lithosphere. We simulate the post-Cretaceous subduction history in South America using a forward (sequential) approach. The model is constrained using past subduction history, seafloor age evolution, tectonic architecture of continents, and the present day geophysical observations. Our results quantify the various driving forces shaping the present South American flat slabs, which we found are all internally torn. The 3-D geometry of these torn slabs further explains the abnormal seismicity pattern and enigmatic volcanic history. An inverse (variational) model simulating the late Cenozoic western U.S. mantle dynamics with similar constraints reveals a different mechanism for the formation of Yellowstone-related volcanism from traditional understanding. Furthermore, important insights on the mantle density and viscosity structures

  6. The effect of Hydrobia ulvae and microphytobenthos on cohesive sediment dynamics on an intertidal mudflat described by means of numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumborg, Ulrik; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Pejrup, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Previous investigations have documented spatial and temporal variations in the erosion threshold, erosion rate, and suspended sediment settling characteristics on an intertidal mudflat in a microtidal coastal plain estuary in the Danish Wadden Sea. The differences seem to be very much controlled...... mudflat investigated. In contrast, biofilms may change net deposition by decreasing erosion, suspended sediment concentration and consequently the resulting settling flux of the suspended material. This study suggests that a numerical hydrodynamic model in combination with a fieldwork-based set......-up of a cohesive sediment transport model may be used to describe and explain net sediment dynamics in a shallow coastal plain estuary. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. A model framework to describe growth-linked biodegradation of trace-level pesticides in the presence of coincidental carbon substrates and microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Helbling, Damian E.; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.;

    2014-01-01

    Pollutants such as pesticides and their degradation products occur ubiquitously in natural aquatic environments at trace concentrations (μg L–1 and lower). Microbial biodegradation processes have long been known to contribute to the attenuation of pesticides in contaminated environments. However......, challenges remain in developing engineered remediation strategies for pesticide-contaminated environments because the fundamental processes that regulate growth-linked biodegradation of pesticides in natural environments remain poorly understood. In this research, we developed a model framework to describe...... growth-linked biodegradation of pesticides at trace concentrations. We used experimental data reported in the literature or novel simulations to explore three fundamental kinetic processes in isolation. We then combine these kinetic processes into a unified model framework. The three kinetic processes...

  8. A method to identify energy efficiency measures for factory systems based on qualitative modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Krones, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Manuela Krones develops a method that supports factory planners in generating energy-efficient planning solutions. The method provides qualitative description concepts for factory planning tasks and energy efficiency knowledge as well as an algorithm-based linkage between these measures and the respective planning tasks. Its application is guided by a procedure model which allows a general applicability in the manufacturing sector. The results contain energy efficiency measures that are suitable for a specific planning task and reveal the roles of various actors for the measures’ implementation. Contents Driving Concerns for and Barriers against Energy Efficiency Approaches to Increase Energy Efficiency in Factories Socio-Technical Description of Factory Planning Tasks Description of Energy Efficiency Measures Case Studies on Welding Processes and Logistics Systems Target Groups Lecturers and Students of Industrial Engineering, Production Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Practi...

  9. Varying total population enhances disease persistence: Qualitative analysis on a diffusive SIS epidemic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huicong; Peng, Rui; Wang, Feng-Bin

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs qualitative analysis on an SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion system with a linear source in spatially heterogeneous environment. The main feature of our model lies in that its total population number varies, compared to its counterpart proposed by Allen et al. [2]. The uniform bounds of solutions are derived, based on which, the threshold dynamics in terms of the basic reproduction number is established and the global stability of the unique endemic equilibrium is discussed when spatial environment is homogeneous. In particular, the asymptotic profile of endemic equilibria is determined if the diffusion rate of the susceptible or infected population is small or large. The theoretical results show that a varying total population can enhance persistence of infectious disease, and therefore the disease becomes more threatening and harder to control.

  10. Qualitative Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Equations of the Standard Cosmological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ignat'ev, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative theory of differential equations it is shown that dynamic system based on the system of Einstein - Klein - Gordon equations with regard to Friedman Universe has a stable center corresponding to zero values of scalar potential and its derivative at infinity. Thus, the cosmological model based on single massive classical scalar field in infinite future would give a flat Universe. The carried out numerical simulation of the dynamic system corresponding to the system of Einstein - Klein - Gordon equations showed that at great times of the evolution the invariant cosmological acceleration has a microscopic oscillating character ($T\\sim 2\\pi mt$), while macroscopic value of the cosmological acceleration varies from $+1$ at inflation stage after which if decreases fast to $-1/2$ (non-relativistic stage), and then slowly tends to $-1$ (ultrarelativistic stage).

  11. Non-Gaussian polymers described by alpha-stable chain statistics: Model, effective interactions in binary mixtures, and application to on-surface separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, M.; Góra, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The Gaussian chain model is the classical description of a polymeric chain, which provides analytical results regarding end-to-end distance, the distribution of segments around the mass center of a chain, coarse-grained interactions between two chains and effective interactions in binary mixtures. This hierarchy of results can be calculated thanks to the α stability of the Gaussian distribution. In this paper we show that it is possible to generalize the model of Gaussian chain to the entire class of α -stable distributions, obtaining the analogous hierarchy of results expressed by the analytical closed-form formulas in the Fourier space. This allows us to establish the α -stable chain model. We begin with reviewing the applications of Levy flights in the context of polymer sciences, which include: chains described by the heavy-tailed distributions of persistence length; polymers adsorbed to the surface; and the chains driven by a noise with power-law spatial correlations. Further, we derive the distribution of segments around the mass center of the α -stable chain and construct the coarse-grained interaction potential between two chains. These results are employed to discuss the model of binary mixture consisting of the α -stable chains. In what follows, we establish the spinodal decomposition condition generalized to the mixtures of the α -stable polymers. This condition is further applied to compare the on-surface phase separation of adsorbed polymers (which are known to be described with heavy-tailed statistics) with the phase separation condition in the bulk. Finally, we predict the four different scenarios of simultaneous mixing and demixing in the two- and three-dimensional systems.

  12. Model-based analysis for qualitative data: an application in Drosophila germline stem cell regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pargett

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovery in developmental biology is often driven by intuition that relies on the integration of multiple types of data such as fluorescent images, phenotypes, and the outcomes of biochemical assays. Mathematical modeling helps elucidate the biological mechanisms at play as the networks become increasingly large and complex. However, the available data is frequently under-utilized due to incompatibility with quantitative model tuning techniques. This is the case for stem cell regulation mechanisms explored in the Drosophila germarium through fluorescent immunohistochemistry. To enable better integration of biological data with modeling in this and similar situations, we have developed a general parameter estimation process to quantitatively optimize models with qualitative data. The process employs a modified version of the Optimal Scaling method from social and behavioral sciences, and multi-objective optimization to evaluate the trade-off between fitting different datasets (e.g. wild type vs. mutant. Using only published imaging data in the germarium, we first evaluated support for a published intracellular regulatory network by considering alternative connections of the same regulatory players. Simply screening networks against wild type data identified hundreds of feasible alternatives. Of these, five parsimonious variants were found and compared by multi-objective analysis including mutant data and dynamic constraints. With these data, the current model is supported over the alternatives, but support for a biochemically observed feedback element is weak (i.e. these data do not measure the feedback effect well. When also comparing new hypothetical models, the available data do not discriminate. To begin addressing the limitations in data, we performed a model-based experiment design and provide recommendations for experiments to refine model parameters and discriminate increasingly complex hypotheses.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the echolocation strategies of bats on the basis of mathematical modelling and laboratory experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikkyu Aihara

    Full Text Available Prey pursuit by an echolocating bat was studied theoretically and experimentally. First, a mathematical model was proposed to describe the flight dynamics of a bat and a single prey. In this model, the flight angle of the bat was affected by [Formula: see text] angles related to the flight path of the single moving prey, that is, the angle from the bat to the prey and the flight angle of the prey. Numerical simulation showed that the success rate of prey capture was high, when the bat mainly used the angle to the prey to minimize the distance to the prey, and also used the flight angle of the prey to minimize the difference in flight directions of itself and the prey. Second, parameters in the model were estimated according to experimental data obtained from video recordings taken while a Japanese horseshoe bat (Rhinolphus derrumequinum nippon pursued a moving moth (Goniocraspidum pryeri in a flight chamber. One of the estimated parameter values, which represents the ratio in the use of the [Formula: see text] angles, was consistent with the optimal value of the numerical simulation. This agreement between the numerical simulation and parameter estimation suggests that a bat chooses an effective flight path for successful prey capture by using the [Formula: see text] angles. Finally, the mathematical model was extended to include a bat and [Formula: see text] prey. Parameter estimation of the extended model based on laboratory experiments revealed the existence of bat's dynamical attention towards [Formula: see text] prey, that is, simultaneous pursuit of [Formula: see text] prey and selective pursuit of respective prey. Thus, our mathematical model contributes not only to quantitative analysis of effective foraging, but also to qualitative evaluation of a bat's dynamical flight strategy during multiple prey pursuit.

  14. Autobiography and Anorexia: A Qualitative Alternative to Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Díaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a qualitative approach to the study of the ways in which people face good and poor health issues. During the last 30 years, Prochaska and DiClemente's "trans-theoretical model" (1982, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1992 has gained relevance as a model to assess disposition for change in patients. We revise the features of the model and its common techniques to assess stages of change, underlining its methodological and conceptual problems. Particularly, we discuss the paradoxes set by "pre-contemplation" as a concept; the exogenous definition of human problems in terms of institutional and clinical criteria; and the ambiguity of the model, where the purpose of accompanying and orienting the patient contrasts with the imposition of problem definitions and solution strategies. We propose a narrative analysis of autobiographies of patients as an alternative that recasts their own notions of "change," "problem," and "vital trajectory." We illustrate this possibility with the analysis of an autobiographic interview with a woman who has a history of anorexia. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203209

  15. Empirical model based on Weibull distribution describing the destruction kinetics of natural microbiota in pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) puree during high-pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Snehasis; Rao, Pavuluri Srinivasa; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-10-15

    High pressure inactivation of natural microbiota viz. aerobic mesophiles (AM), psychrotrophs (PC), yeasts and molds (YM), total coliforms (TC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in pineapple puree was studied within the experimental domain of 0.1-600 MPa and 30-50 °C with a treatment time up to 20 min. A complete destruction of yeasts and molds was obtained at 500 MPa/50 °C/15 min; whereas no counts were detected for TC and LAB at 300 MPa/30 °C/15 min. A maximum of two log cycle reductions was obtained for YM during pulse pressurization at the severe process intensity of 600 MPa/50 °C/20 min. The Weibull model clearly described the non-linearity of the survival curves during the isobaric period. The tailing effect, as confirmed by the shape parameter (β) of the survival curve, was obtained in case of YM (β1) was observed for the other microbial groups. Analogous to thermal death kinetics, the activation energy (Ea, kJ·mol(-1)) and the activation volume (Va, mL·mol(-1)) values were computed further to describe the temperature and pressure dependencies of the scale parameter (δ, min), respectively. A higher δ value was obtained for each microbe at a lower temperature and it decreased with an increase in pressure. A secondary kinetic model was developed describing the inactivation rate (k, min(-1)) as a function of pressure (P, MPa) and temperature (T, K) including the dependencies of Ea and Va on P and T, respectively.

  16. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Goode, Jackie; Drabble, Sarah J; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-09

    Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In 'the peripheral' model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In 'the add-on' model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally 'the integral' model played out in two ways. In 'integral-in-theory' studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In 'integral-in-practice' studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research

  17. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.

  18. A qualitative assessment of a community antiretroviral therapy group model in Tete, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya Rasschaert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To improve retention on ART, Médecins Sans Frontières, the Ministry of Health and patients piloted a community-based antiretroviral distribution and adherence monitoring model through Community ART Groups (CAG in Tete, Mozambique. By December 2012, almost 6000 patients on ART had formed groups of whom 95.7% were retained in care. We conducted a qualitative study to evaluate the relevance, dynamic and impact of the CAG model on patients, their communities and the healthcare system. METHODS: Between October 2011 and May 2012, we conducted 16 focus group discussions and 24 in-depth interviews with the major stakeholders involved in the CAG model. Audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: Six key themes emerged from the data: 1 Barriers to access HIV care, 2 CAG functioning and actors involved, 3 Benefits for CAG members, 4 Impacts of CAG beyond the group members, 5 Setbacks, and 6 Acceptance and future expectations of the CAG model. The model provides cost and time savings, certainty of ART access and mutual peer support resulting in better adherence to treatment. Through the active role of patients, HIV information could be conveyed to the broader community, leading to an increased uptake of services and positive transformation of the identity of people living with HIV. Potential pitfalls included limited access to CAG for those most vulnerable to defaulting, some inequity to patients in individual ART care and a high dependency on counsellors. CONCLUSION: The CAG model resulted in active patient involvement and empowerment, and the creation of a supportive environment improving the ART retention. It also sparked a reorientation of healthcare services towards the community and strengthened community actions. Successful implementation and scalability requires (a the acceptance of patients as partners in health, (b adequate resources, and (c a well-functioning monitoring and

  19. A parametric model to describe neutron spectra around high-energy electron accelerators and its application in neutron spectrometry with Bonner Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Roberto; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Esposito, Adolfo

    2010-03-01

    Due to the increased interest of the scientific community in the applications of synchrotron light, there is an increasing demand of high-energy electron facilities, testified by the construction of several new facilities worldwide. The radiation protection around such facilities requires accurate experimental methods to determine the dose due to prompt radiation fields. Neutron fields, in particular, are the most complex to measure, because they extend in energy from thermal (10 -8 MeV) up to hundreds MeV and because the responses of dosemeters and survey meters usually have large energy dependence. The Bonner Spheres Spectrometer (BSS) is in practice the only instrument able to respond over the whole energy range of interest, and for this reason it is frequently used to derive neutron spectra and dosimetric quantities in accelerator workplaces. Nevertheless, complex unfolding algorithms are needed to derive the neutron spectra from the experimental BSS data. This paper presents a parametric model specially developed for the unfolding of the experimental data measured with BSS around high-energy electron accelerators. The work consists of the following stages: (1) Generation with the FLUKA code, of a set of neutron spectra representing the radiation environment around accelerators with different electron energies; (2) formulation of a parametric model able to describe these spectra, with particular attention to the high-energy component (>10 MeV), which may be responsible for a large part of the dose in workplaces; and (3) implementation of this model in an existing unfolding code.

  20. Qualitative Properties in a More General Delayed Hematopoietic Stem Cells Model*

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz-Alaoui M. A.; Yafia R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a more general model describing the dynamics of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) model with one delay. Its dynamics are studied in terms of local stability and Hopf bifurcation. We prove the existence of the possible steady state and their stability with respect to the time delay and without delay. We show that a sequence of Hopf bifurcations occur at the positive steady state as the delay crosses some critical values. We illustrate our results by some numerical ...

  1. Qualitative Aspects of the Solutions of a Mathematical Model for the Dynamic Analysis of the Reversible Chemical Reaction SO2(g)+1/2O2(g)<=>SO3(g) in a Catalytic Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Wilfredo, Angulo

    2014-01-01

    We present some qualitative aspects concerning the solution to the mathematical model describing the dynamical behavior of the reversible chemical reaction SO2(g)+1/2O2(g)SO3(g) carried out in a catalytic reactor used in the process of sulfuric acid production.

  2. Qualitative Aspects of the Solutions of a Mathematical Model for the Dynamic Analysis of the Reversible Chemical Reaction SO2(g)+1/2O2(g)<=>SO3(g) in a Catalytic Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfredo, Angulo; Joyne, Contreras

    2014-01-01

    We present some qualitative aspects concerning the solution to the mathematical model describing the dynamical behavior of the reversible chemical reaction SO2(g)+1/2O2(g)SO3(g) carried out in a catalytic reactor used in the process of sulfuric acid production.

  3. 堆肥体系中有机物动态模拟模型研究进展%Composting models describing the dynamics of organic substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张园; 耿春女

    2012-01-01

    堆肥作为生活垃圾处理的一项重要手段,以其无害化程度高、减量化效果明显,以及可以最大限度地实现生活垃圾处理资源化的特点,被越来越多的国家和地区广泛利用。该文的研究目的在于归纳描述堆肥动态变化的模型,分析模型中的关键环境参数,从而借助模型对堆肥过程的有机质动态变化获得更清晰的理解,并预测堆肥产品的质量。为此,文中概述了堆肥模型中环境参数的影响,并列举了目前几种实用的有机质模型。研究结果表明,大多数的堆肥模型一般都用于描述和预测干物质、温度、湿度、氧气和二氧化碳的动态变化过程。随着堆肥模型领域的发展,关于有机质的生化降解以及微生物的作用等方面的研究逐渐展开。%The urban waste composting as an important organic wastes treatment is widely used as for its special effects of high harmlessness, maximum recycling, and obvious quantity reduction. This paper reviews the models describing the composting dynamics, and analyses the key environmental parameters in the models to obtain a clearer understanding of the dynamics of organic fractions during composting, and to predict the final quality of compost products. The findings indicate that most of the composting models have described and predicted the dynamic changes of dry mass, temperature, moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide. With the development of com- posting modeling, the studies on the biodegradation of organic substrates and microbial activities have been focused on.

  4. Orthogonal Series Methods for Both Qualitative and Quantitative Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Peter

    1983-01-01

    We introduce and describe orthogonal series methods for estimating the density of qualitative, quantitative or mixed data. The techniques are completely nonparametric in character, and so may be used in situations where parametric models are difficult to construct. Just this situation arises in the context of mixed--both qualitative and quantitative--data, where there are few parametric models.

  5. Target-mediated disposition model describing the dynamics of IL12 and IFNγ after administration of a mifepristone-inducible adenoviral vector for IL-12 expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Guillen, Zinnia Patricia; Janda, Alvaro; Alzuguren, Pilar; Berraondo, Pedro; Hernandez-Alcoceba, Ruben; Troconiz, Iñaki F

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL12) is a cytokine with potential applications in the treatment of cancer given the potent immune response that it triggers, in part due to its ability to stimulate expression of interferon-γ (IFNγ). To avoid the toxicity associated with systemic exposure to IL12, a high-capacity adenoviral vector carrying a liver-specific, mifepristone-inducible IL12 expression system (HC-Ad/RUmIL12) has been developed. However, the maintenance of IL12 expression at therapeutic levels is compromised by the inhibitory effect of IFNγ on inducible systems. The aim of this work is to develop a semi-mechanistic model to characterize the relationship between IL12 and IFNγ in wild-type and knock-out mice for the IFNγ receptor treated with HC-Ad/RUmIL12 under different dosing regimens in order to better understand the key mechanisms controlling the system. Rapid binding was considered to account for target-mediated disposition exhibited by both cytokines (equilibrium dissociation constant were 18 and 2.28 pM for IL12 and IFNγ, respectively). The final model included: (1) IFNγ receptor turnover, (2) irreversible free cytokine elimination from the serum compartment, (3) internalization of the IL12 receptor complex, (4) IL12 expression upregulated by the co-administration of the adenoviral vector and mifepristone and downregulated by the IFNγ receptor, and (5) synthesis of IFNγ controlled by the relative increments in the bound IL12. In conclusion, a model simultaneously describing the kinetics of IL12 and IFNγ in the context of gene therapy was developed and validated with additional data. The model was applied to design an experimental dosing protocol intended to maintain sustained therapeutic IL12 levels.

  6. Selection mechanisms underlying high impact biomedical research--a qualitative analysis and causal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Zelko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although scientific innovation has been a long-standing topic of interest for historians, philosophers and cognitive scientists, few studies in biomedical research have examined from researchers' perspectives how high impact publications are developed and why they are consistently produced by a small group of researchers. Our objective was therefore to interview a group of researchers with a track record of high impact publications to explore what mechanism they believe contribute to the generation of high impact publications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Researchers were located in universities all over the globe and interviews were conducted by phone. All interviews were transcribed using standard qualitative methods. A Grounded Theory approach was used to code each transcript, later aggregating concept and categories into overarching explanation model. The model was then translated into a System Dynamics mathematical model to represent its structure and behavior. Five emerging themes were found in our study. First, researchers used heuristics or rules of thumb that came naturally to them. Second, these heuristics were reinforced by positive feedback from their peers and mentors. Third, good communication skills allowed researchers to provide feedback to their peers, thus closing a positive feedback loop. Fourth, researchers exhibited a number of psychological attributes such as curiosity or open-mindedness that constantly motivated them, even when faced with discouraging situations. Fifth, the system is dominated by randomness and serendipity and is far from a linear and predictable environment. Some researchers, however, took advantage of this randomness by incorporating mechanisms that would allow them to benefit from random findings. The aggregation of these themes into a policy model represented the overall expected behavior of publications and their impact achieved by high impact researchers. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed

  7. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  8. The establishment and external validation of NIR qualitative analysis model for waste polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Wen-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Liang; Tang, Shi-Jun; Li, Xue-Jiao; Wu, Hong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    A series of 354 polyester-cotton blend fabrics were studied by the near-infrared spectra (NIRS) technology, and a NIR qualitative analysis model for different spectral characteristics was established by partial least squares (PLS) method combined with qualitative identification coefficient. There were two types of spectrum for dying polyester-cotton blend fabrics: normal spectrum and slash spectrum. The slash spectrum loses its spectral characteristics, which are effected by the samples' dyes, pigments, matting agents and other chemical additives. It was in low recognition rate when the model was established by the total sample set, so the samples were divided into two types of sets: normal spectrum sample set and slash spectrum sample set, and two NIR qualitative analysis models were established respectively. After the of models were established the model's spectral region, pretreatment methods and factors were optimized based on the validation results, and the robustness and reliability of the model can be improved lately. The results showed that the model recognition rate was improved greatly when they were established respectively, the recognition rate reached up to 99% when the two models were verified by the internal validation. RC (relation coefficient of calibration) values of the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model were 0.991 and 0.991 respectively, RP (relation coefficient of prediction) values of them were 0.983 and 0.984 respectively, SEC (standard error of calibration) values of them were 0.887 and 0.453 respectively, SEP (standard error of prediction) values of them were 1.131 and 0.573 respectively. A series of 150 bounds samples reached used to verify the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model and the recognition rate reached up to 91.33% and 88.00% respectively. It showed that the NIR qualitative analysis model can be used for identification in the recycle site for the polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

  9. Preliminary clinical nursing leadership competency model: a qualitative study from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supamanee, Treeyaphan; Krairiksh, Marisa; Singhakhumfu, Laddawan; Turale, Sue

    2011-12-01

    This qualitative study explored the clinical nursing leadership competency perspectives of Thai nurses working in a university hospital. To collect data, in-depth interviews were undertaken with 23 nurse administrators, and focus groups were used with 31 registered nurses. Data were analyzed using content analysis, and theory development was guided by the Iceberg model. Nurses' clinical leadership competencies emerged, comprising hidden characteristics and surface characteristics. The hidden characteristics composed three elements: motive (respect from the nursing and healthcare team and being secure in life), self-concept (representing positive attitudes and values), and traits (personal qualities necessary for leadership). The surface characteristics comprised specific knowledge of nurse leaders about clinical leadership, management and nursing informatics, and clinical skills, such as coordination, effective communication, problem solving, and clinical decision-making. The study findings help nursing to gain greater knowledge of the essence of clinical nursing leadership competencies, a matter critical for theory development in leadership. This study's results later led to the instigation of a training program for registered nurse leaders at the study site, and the formation of a preliminary clinical nursing leadership competency model.

  10. Agrometeorological models for forecasting the qualitative attributes of "Valência" oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreto, Victor Brunini; Rolim, Glauco de Souza; Zacarin, Bruno Gustavo; Vanin, Ana Paula; de Souza, Leone Maia; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha

    2016-09-01

    Forecasting is the act of predicting unknown future events using available data. Estimating, in contrast, uses data to simulate an actual condition. Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges, and the state of São Paulo is the largest producer in Brazil. The "Valência" orange is among the most common cultivars in the state. We analyzed the influence of monthly meteorological variables during the growth cycle of Valência oranges grafted onto "Rangpur" lime rootstocks (VACR) for São Paulo, and developed monthly agrometeorological models for forecasting the qualitative attributes of VACR in mature orchard. For fruits per box for all months, the best accuracy was of 0.84 % and the minimum forecast range of 4 months. For the relation between °brix and juice acidity (RATIO) the best accuracy was of 0.69 % and the minimum forecast range of 5 months. Minimum, mean and maximum air temperatures, and relative evapotranspiration were the most important variables in the models.

  11. The Reflective Model of Intercultural Competency: A Multidimensional, Qualitative Approach to Study Abroad Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracy Rundstrom

    2009-01-01

    Judging from the recent surge in research on outcomes assessment, many study abroad offices rely on quantitative surveys and measures to collect student outcomes data. This paper presents a multidimensional, qualitative approach to data collection. This approach makes qualitative data easy to collect and encourages students to reflect and…

  12. Qualitative mathematical models to support ecosystem-based management of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Rothlisberg, Peter C; Loneragan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    A major decline in the catch of the banana prawn [shrimp], Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) merguiensis, occurred over a six-year period in the Weipa region of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Three main hypotheses have been developed to explain this decline: (1) prawn recruitment collapsed due to overfishing; (2) recruitment collapsed due to a change in the prawn's environment; and (3) adult banana prawns were still present, but fishers could no longer effectively find or catch them. Qualitative mathematical models were used to link population biology, environmental factors, and fishery dynamics to evaluate the alternative hypotheses. This modeling approach provides the means to rapidly integrate knowledge across disciplines and consider alternative hypotheses about how the structure and function of an ecosystem affects its dynamics. Alternative models were constructed to address the different hypotheses and also to encompass a diversity of opinion about the underlying dynamics of the system. Key findings from these analyses are that: instability in the system can arise when discarded fishery bycatch supports relatively high predation pressure; system stability can be enhanced by management of fishing effort or stock catchability; catch per unit effort is not necessarily a reliable indicator of stock abundance; a change in early-season rainfall should affect all stages in the banana prawn's life cycle; and a reduced catch in the Weipa region can create and reinforce a shift in fishing effort away from Weipa. Results from the models informed an approach to test the hypotheses (i.e., an experimental fishing program), and promoted understanding of the system among researchers, management agencies, and industry. The analytical tools developed in this work to address stages of a prawn life cycle and fishery dynamics are generally applicable to any exploited natural. resource.

  13. Effects of land use systems on soil erosion in a sloping Mediterranean watershed in Cyprus: From qualitative assessments to quantitative models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuma, Hakan; Bruggeman, Adriana; Camera, Corrado; Zoumides, Christos

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, water catchment sediment yield as a result of water erosion is difficult to model. Applicability of quantitative, process-based soil erosion models at a catchment scale is often problematic due to large data requirements and difficulty of describing all erosion and sediment transport processes. On the other hand, qualitative models require less data and include almost all evident erosion processes, which make them especially suited for watershed erosion assessments. The objective of this study is to compare water erosion estimates of the quantitative PESERA model with qualitative assessments obtained by WOCAT mapping methodology. The PESERA model simulates soil loss based on land cover, soil, climate and vegetation data, while the WOCAT methodology is based on expert observations per land use systems. This study is conducted in the Peristerona Watershed in Cyprus. The study area is 106.4 km2 and has a mean local slope higher than 40% for the mountainous upstream area and less than 8% for plain. Sixteen different land cover types with varying intensity of agriculture were distinguished during the WOCAT field assessment. WOCAT methodology ranked the land cover "complex cultivation" as the most degraded (degree: evident signs of water erosion, extent: 50% of the area, rate: moderately increasing in time),"agriculture, significant area natural vegetation" as less degraded (degree: evident signs of water erosion, extent: 30% of the area, rate: decreasing slowly in time) and "forests" the least degraded (some signs of water erosion, extent 5% of the area, rate: decreasing slowly in time). The classified WOCAT units will be compared with the erosion estimates obtained by the PESERA model. This study provides a linkage between qualitative soil erosion methods with quantitative models and helps to translate the outcomes of the former into latter.

  14. Qualitative research strategies in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Connie J.; Koch, Lynn C.; Rumrill Jr, Phillip D.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the qualitative research methods that social scientists use to explore human phenomena. The authors describe the philosophical and historical foundations of qualitative research, coupled with illustrations of specific qualitative designs. Applications of qualitative methods in the contemporary rehabilitation literature are also presented.

  15. Qualitative studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qualitative Studies (QS) aims to become a central forum for discussions of qualitative research in psychology, education, communication, cultural studies, health sciences and social sciences in general...

  16. Qualitative Contrast between Knowledge-Limited Mixed-State and Variable-Resources Models of Visual Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Donkin, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to provide a qualitative contrast between knowledge-limited versions of mixed-state and variable-resources (VR) models of visual change detection. The key data pattern is that observers often respond "same" on big-change trials, while simultaneously being able to discriminate between same and small-change…

  17. Life Story of Chinese College Students with Perfectionism Personality: A Qualitative Study Based on a Life Story Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Min; Zi, Fei

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript aims to explore and delineate the common characteristics of college students with perfectionism, to promote an in-depth understanding of dynamic personality development of perfectionists from the views of life story model proposed by McAdams (1985). The researchers adopted a narrative qualitative research method. The life stories…

  18. Research on the method of fuzzy qualitative modeling for AUV%自主式水下机器人模糊定性建模方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭钧; 宋炜胥; 褚振忠

    2013-01-01

    针对自主式水下机器人难以建立精确动力学数学模型的问题,提出了一种基于模糊定性仿真理论的运动建模方法.根据状态转换中系统变量的变化方向,给出了模糊定性状态转换类型的细化分类方法.对于系统变量定量信息定性化过程中的采样时间确定问题,研究了基于系统变量模糊定性状态的自适应采样时间选取方法.文中建立了“海狸”号实验样机的模糊定性模型.水池实验表明,所提方法能够准确描述水下机器人在不同运动状态下的模糊定性行为.%The examination of a dynamic modeling method for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) based on a fuzzy qualitative simulation theory was proposed as a research study. The difficulty indicated in previous studies reveal the problem of building an accurate dynamic model for an AUV. The research study also explored the experiments conducted on the classification of the fuzzy qualitative state transformation type according to gradient direction of system variables in a state transformation. However, in an effort to determine the sampling time in the qualitative process of quantitative information of system variables, an adaptive sampling time selection method based on the fuzzy qualitative state of system variables is researched. The fuzzy qualitative model of "BEAVE" experimental prototype was established and implemented along with the proposed experiment method. The results validate the proposed method can accurately describe fuzzy qualitative behavior for AUV different motions.

  19. The Application of Various Nonlinear Models to Describe Academic Growth Trajectories: An Empirical Analysis Using Four-Wave Longitudinal Achievement Data from a Large Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tacksoo

    2012-01-01

    This study introduced various nonlinear growth models, including the quadratic conventional polynomial model, the fractional polynomial model, the Sigmoid model, the growth model with negative exponential functions, the multidimensional scaling technique, and the unstructured growth curve model. It investigated which growth models effectively…

  20. The Application of Various Nonlinear Models to Describe Academic Growth Trajectories: An Empirical Analysis Using Four-Wave Longitudinal Achievement Data from a Large Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tacksoo

    2012-01-01

    This study introduced various nonlinear growth models, including the quadratic conventional polynomial model, the fractional polynomial model, the Sigmoid model, the growth model with negative exponential functions, the multidimensional scaling technique, and the unstructured growth curve model. It investigated which growth models effectively…

  1. Overview of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are a robust tool for chaplaincy research questions. Similar to much of chaplaincy clinical care, qualitative research generally works with written texts, often transcriptions of individual interviews or focus group conversations and seeks to understand the meaning of experience in a study sample. This article describes three common methodologies: ethnography, grounded theory, and phenomenology. Issues to consider relating to the study sample, design, and analysis are discussed. Enhancing the validity of the data, as well reliability and ethical issues in qualitative research are described. Qualitative research is an accessible way for chaplains to contribute new knowledge about the sacred dimension of people's lived experience.

  2. Oxygen distribution in tumors: A qualitative analysis and modeling study providing a novel Monte Carlo approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerlöf, Jakob H., E-mail: Jakob@radfys.gu.se [Department of Radiation Physics, Göteborg University, Göteborg 41345 (Sweden); Kindblom, Jon [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg 41345 (Sweden); Bernhardt, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, Göteborg University, Göteborg 41345, Sweden and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg 41345 (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    truncated in the lower end, due to anoxia, but smaller tumors showed undisturbed oxygen distributions. The six different models with correlated parameters generated three classes of oxygen distributions. The first was a hypothetical, negative covariance between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (VPO-C scenario); the second was a hypothetical positive covariance between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (VPO+C scenario); and the third was the hypothesis of no correlation between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (UP scenario). The VPO-C scenario produced a distinctly different oxygen distribution than the two other scenarios. The shape of the VPO-C scenario was similar to that of the nonvariable DOC model, and the larger the tumor, the greater the similarity between the two models. For all simulations, the mean oxygen tension decreased and the hypoxic fraction increased with tumor size. The absorbed dose required for definitive tumor control was highest for the VPO+C scenario, followed by the UP and VPO-C scenarios. Conclusions: A novel MC algorithm was presented which simulated oxygen distributions and radiation response for various biological parameter values. The analysis showed that the VPO-C scenario generated a clearly different oxygen distribution from the VPO+C scenario; the former exhibited a lower hypoxic fraction and higher radiosensitivity. In future studies, this modeling approach might be valuable for qualitative analyses of factors that affect oxygen distribution as well as analyses of specific experimental and clinical situations.

  3. Business Models, Vaccination Services, and Public Health Relationships of Retail Clinics: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Bayo C; Fisher, Allison Kennedy; Shoemaker, Sarah J; Pozniak, Alyssa; Stokley, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of retail clinics (RCs), literature is limited in terms of how these facilities offer preventive services, particularly vaccination services. The purpose of this study was to obtain an in-depth understanding of the RC business model pertaining to vaccine offerings, profitability, and decision making. From March to June 2009, we conducted 15 interviews with key individuals from three types of organizations: 12 representatives of RC corporations, 2 representatives of retail hosts (i.e., stores in which the RCs are located), and 1 representative of an industry association. We analyzed interview transcripts qualitatively. Our results indicate that consumer demand and profitability were the main drivers in offering vaccinations. RCs in this sample primarily offered vaccinations to adults and adolescents, and they were not well integrated with local public health and immunization registries. Our findings demonstrate the potential for stronger linkages with public health in these settings. The findings also may help inform future research to increase patient access to vaccination services at RCs.

  4. Experienced Practitioners’ Beliefs Utilized to Create a Successful Massage Therapist Conceptual Model: a Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Anne B.; Munk, Niki

    2017-01-01

    Background The massage therapy profession in the United States has grown exponentially, with 35% of the profession’s practitioners in practice for three years or less. Investigating personal and social factors with regard to the massage therapy profession could help to identify constructs needed to be successful in the field. Purpose This data-gathering exercise explores massage therapists’ perceptions on what makes a successful massage therapist that will provide guidance for future research. Success is defined as supporting oneself and practice solely through massage therapy and related, revenue-generating field activity. Participants and Setting Ten successful massage therapy practitioners from around the United States who have a minimum of five years of experience. Research Design Semistructured qualitative interviews were used in an analytic induction framework; index cards with preidentified concepts printed on them were utilized to enhance conversation. An iterative process of interview coding and analysis was used to determine themes and subthemes. Results Based on the participants input, the categories in which therapists needed to be successful were organized into four main themes: effectively establish therapeutic relationships, develop massage therapy business acumen, seek valuable learning environments and opportunities, and cultivate strong social ties and networks. The four themes operate within specific contexts (e.g., regulation and licensing requirements in the therapists’ state), which may also influence the success of the massage therapist. Conclusions The model needs to be tested to explore which constructs explain variability in success and attrition rate. Limitations and future research implications are discussed. PMID:28690704

  5. Designing a Qualitative Model of Doping Phenomenon Effect on Sport Marketing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Manouchehri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There a number of factors effecting consumers' purchase behavior. It is believed that celebrities can effect selling positively by transferring their popular image to the endorsed product. But, it is heard lots about excommunicate behaviors in the sport world today. Disclosure of the recent doping affairs relating to Lance Armstrong's seven wins in Tour De France is just one among many spectacular and also negative cases. The main aim of the present paper was to explore the effect of doping phenomenon on sport marketing. Depth interviews data were analyzed in three phases: open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. 297 open codes were achieved by 18 interviews. Grouping axial codes in each case and comparing, all gained codes can be divided in five groups: brand image (athlete and endorsed product brands images, moral reasoning (moral coupling, moral decoupling, and moral rationalization, consumer behavioral consequences (word of mouth, purchasing intention, and brand loyalty, attitude change (attitudes change toward athlete and brand, and moral emotions (moral evaluation, contempt, anger, disgust, and sympathy. The proposed qualitative model for the effect of doping phenomenon on sport marketing in Iran illustrated that moral emotions and product brand image affected by the doped athlete brand image and it resulted in attitudes change toward endorser athlete and endorsed brand and negative consumer behavioral consequences, however, moral reasoning strategies emerged by cognitive dissonance might protect consumers behavior from negative effects.

  6. Spiraling between qualitative and quantitative data on women's health behaviors: a double helix model for mixed methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendlinger, Sheryl; Cwikel, Julie

    2008-02-01

    A double helix spiral model is presented which demonstrates how to combine qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry in an interactive fashion over time. Using findings on women's health behaviors (e.g., menstruation, breast-feeding, coping strategies), we show how qualitative and quantitative methods highlight the theory of knowledge acquisition in women's health decisions. A rich data set of 48 semistructured, in-depth ethnographic interviews with mother-daughter dyads from six ethnic groups (Israeli, European, North African, Former Soviet Union [FSU], American/Canadian, and Ethiopian), plus seven focus groups, provided the qualitative sources for analysis. This data set formed the basis of research questions used in a quantitative telephone survey of 302 Israeli women from the ages of 25 to 42 from four ethnic groups. We employed multiple cycles of data analysis from both data sets to produce a more detailed and multidimensional picture of women's health behavior decisions through a spiraling process.

  7. Single impurity Anderson model versus density functional theory for describing Ce L3 x-ray absorption spectra of CeFe2: resolution of a recent controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, A; Kvashnina, K O; Glatzel, P; Parlebas, J C; Schmerber, G

    2012-01-20

    We resolved a recent controversy on the structure of the Ce L(3) x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of CeFe(2); i.e., which of the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) and the first-principles band calculations based on the density-functional theory (DFT) describes more appropriately the Ce 4f states and their contribution to the Ce L(3) XAS? For this purpose, we examined the core-hole effect in Ce L(3) XAS as an application of our new method taking advantage of resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy. Our result clearly shows that the Ce L(3) XAS structure is caused by the mixed valence 4f character revealed by the core-hole potential effect as indicated by SIAM, but denies the possibility that the L(3) XAS structure is caused by the 5d band structure with a very small core-hole effect as predicted by band calculations based on DFT. © 2012 American Physical Society

  8. Qualitative properties and hopf bifurcation in haematopoietic disease model with chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafia R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a model describing the dynamics of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC disease with chemotherapy. The model is given by a system of three ordinary differential equations with discrete delay. Its dynamics are studied in term of local stability of the possible steady states for the case without drug intervention term. We prove the existence of periodic oscillations for each case when the delay passes trough a critical values. In the end, we illustrate our results by some numerical simulations.

  9. Qualitative evaluation of adherence therapy in Parkinson’s disease: a multidirectional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daley DJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available David James Daley,1,2 Katherine Helen O’Leary Deane,3 Richard John Gray,4 Rebekah Hill,3 Phyo Kyaw Myint5 1Norwich Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, 2Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 3School of Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK; 4Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 5Epidemiology Group, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Institute of Applied Health Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK Background: Medication can control the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Despite this, non-adherence with medication is prevalent in PD. Treatments for improving adherence with medication have been investigated in many chronic conditions, including PD. However, few researchers have evaluated their interventions qualitatively. We investigated the acceptability and potential mechanism of action of adherence therapy (AT in PD patients and their spouse/carers who received the intervention as part of a randomized controlled trial. Methods: Sixteen participants (ten patients and six spouses/carers who had recently completed the trial were purposely selected in order to cover a range of ages and disease severity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the participants’ homes. Data were transcribed and analyzed using a thematic approach. A second researcher, naïve to PD and AT, analyzed the data independently to limit bias. Results: The trial showed that AT significantly improved both medication adherence and quality of life in people with PD. Specifically, patients who received AT reported improvements in mobility, activities of daily living, emotional wellbeing, cognition, communication, and body discomfort. General beliefs about medication also significantly improved in those who received AT compared with controls. In the current qualitative evaluation, a

  10. Derivation of reliable empirical models describing lead transfer from metal-polluted soils to radish (Raphanus sativa L.): Determining factors and soil criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Song, Jing; Cheng, Yinwen; Christie, Peter; Long, Jian; Liu, Lingfei

    2017-09-10

    Reliable models describing Pb transfer from soils to food crops are useful in the improvement of soil protection guidelines. This study provides mechanistic insights from in-situ soil solution measurement on the Pb uptake in the root tissues (RF) of radish, grown in 25 representative Pb-contaminated agricultural soils. Lead speciation and regression analysis indicate that >88.6% of the variation in RF Pb is attributable to free Pb(2+) activity (aPb(2+)) in the soil solution, which is predominantly controlled by pH and DOC. Higher DOC would increase the total dissolved Pb (CSol-Pb) in the soil solution but reduce the bioavailability of Pb to radish. CSol-Pb performs poorly in predicting RF Pb unless pH and DOC are included. However, 0.01M CaCl2 extractable Pb (CCC-Pb) alone can satisfactorily predict RF Pb, attributable to the fact that CCC-Pb is consistent with aPb(2+). CCC-Pb can be predicted using CSol-Pb and pH. Total soil Pb (CT-Pb), or 0.43M HNO3 extractable Pb (CNA-Pb) has a strong, non-linear correlation with CSol-Pb or CCC-Pb and it is therefore not surprising that CT-Pb or CNA-Pb, together with pH and CEC, can also satisfactorily predict RF Pb. Derived models are effective in identification of soils where RF Pb exceeds the food quality standard (FQS). Soil Pb criteria based on CT-Pb, CNA-Pb and CCC-Pb are derived by inverse use of empirical models. The derived Pb criterion (target value) based on CCC-Pb is 0.02mgkg(-1) and the stricter criterion (safe value) is 0.01mgkg(-1), which allows a 5% probability for RF Pb to exceed FQS. Safe values based on CT-Pb and CNA-Pb ranged from 26 to 1036mgkg(-1) and 9 to 745mgkg(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. QSTR modeling for qualitative and quantitative toxicity predictions of diverse chemical pesticides in honey bee for regulatory purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita; Mohan, Dinesh

    2014-09-15

    Pesticides are designed toxic chemicals for specific purposes and can harm nontarget species as well. The honey bee is considered a nontarget test species for toxicity evaluation of chemicals. Global QSTR (quantitative structure-toxicity relationship) models were established for qualitative and quantitative toxicity prediction of pesticides in honey bee (Apis mellifera) based on the experimental toxicity data of 237 structurally diverse pesticides. Structural diversity of the chemical pesticides and nonlinear dependence in the toxicity data were evaluated using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) QSTR models were constructed for classification (two and four categories) and function optimization problems using the toxicity end point in honey bees. The predictive power of the QSTR models was tested through rigorous validation performed using the internal and external procedures employing a wide series of statistical checks. In complete data, the PNN-QSTR model rendered a classification accuracy of 96.62% (two-category) and 95.57% (four-category), while the GRNN-QSTR model yielded a correlation (R(2)) of 0.841 between the measured and predicted toxicity values with a mean squared error (MSE) of 0.22. The results suggest the appropriateness of the developed QSTR models for reliably predicting qualitative and quantitative toxicities of pesticides in honey bee. Both the PNN and GRNN based QSTR models constructed here can be useful tools in predicting the qualitative and quantitative toxicities of the new chemical pesticides for regulatory purposes.

  12. Using simple models to describe the kinetics of growth, glucose consumption, and monoclonal antibody formation in naive and infliximab producer CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Meza, Julián; Araíz-Hernández, Diana; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi Maribel; López-Pacheco, Felipe; Rocha-Pizaña, María Del Refugio; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2016-08-01

    Despite their practical and commercial relevance, there are few reports on the kinetics of growth and production of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-the most frequently used host for the industrial production of therapeutic proteins. We characterize the kinetics of cell growth, substrate consumption, and product formation in naive and monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing recombinant CHO cells. Culture experiments were performed in 125 mL shake flasks on commercial culture medium (CD Opti CHO™ Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) diluted to different glucose concentrations (1.2-4.8 g/L). The time evolution of cell, glucose, lactic acid concentration and monoclonal antibody concentrations was monitored on a daily basis for mAb-producing cultures and their naive counterparts. The time series were differentiated to calculate the corresponding kinetic rates (rx = d[X]/dt; rs = d[S]/dt; rp = d[mAb]/dt). Results showed that these cell lines could be modeled by Monod-like kinetics if a threshold substrate concentration value of [S]t = 0.58 g/L (for recombinant cells) and [S]t = 0.96 g/L (for naïve cells), below which growth is not observed, was considered. A set of values for μmax, and Ks was determined for naive and recombinant cell cultures cultured at 33 and 37 °C. The yield coefficient (Yx/s) was observed to be a function of substrate concentration, with values in the range of 0.27-1.08 × 10(7) cell/mL and 0.72-2.79 × 10(6) cells/mL for naive and recombinant cultures, respectively. The kinetics of mAb production can be described by a Luedeking-Piret model (d[mAb]/dt = αd[X]/dt + β[X]) with values of α = 7.65 × 10(-7) µg/cell and β = 7.68 × 10(-8) µg/cell/h for cultures conducted in batch-agitated flasks and batch and instrumented bioreactors operated in batch and fed-batch mode.

  13. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  14. Disease management projects and the Chronic Care Model in action: baseline qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Bethany Hipple; Adams, Samantha A; Nieboer, Anna P; Bal, Roland

    2012-05-11

    Disease management programs, especially those based on the Chronic Care Model (CCM), are increasingly common in The Netherlands. While disease management programs have been well-researched quantitatively and economically, less qualitative research has been done. The overall aim of the study is to explore how disease management programs are implemented within primary care settings in The Netherlands; this paper focuses on the early development and implementation stages of five disease management programs in the primary care setting, based on interviews with project leadership teams. Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted at the five selected sites with sixteen professionals interviewed; all project directors and managers were interviewed. The interviews focused on each project's chosen chronic illness (diabetes, eating disorders, COPD, multi-morbidity, CVRM) and project plan, barriers to development and implementation, the project leaders' action and reactions, as well as their roles and responsibilities, and disease management strategies. Analysis was inductive and interpretive, based on the content of the interviews. After analysis, the results of this research on disease management programs and the Chronic Care Model are viewed from a traveling technology framework. This analysis uncovered four themes that can be mapped to disease management and the Chronic Care Model: (1) changing the health care system, (2) patient-centered care, (3) technological systems and barriers, and (4) integrating projects into the larger system. Project leaders discussed the paths, both direct and indirect, for transforming the health care system to one that addresses chronic illness. Patient-centered care was highlighted as needed and a paradigm shift for many. Challenges with technological systems were pervasive. Project leaders managed the expenses of a traveling technology, including the social, financial, and administration involved. At the sites, project leaders served

  15. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with i...... things; it is about interaction and it is about construction. If we are not able to understand and describe how people interact and construct, we can not develop any theory of economics or understand human dynamics that is scientific.......This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...

  16. Prediction of qualitative parameters of slab steel ingot using numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tkadlečková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the verification of casting and solidification of heavy slab ingot weighing 40 t from tool steel by means of numerical modelling with use of a finite element method. The pre-processing, processing and post-processing phases of numerical modelling are outlined. Also, the problems with determination of the thermodynamic properties of materials and with determination of the heat transfer between the individual parts of the casting system are discussed. The final porosity, macrosegregation and the risk of cracks were predicted. The results allowed us to use the slab ingot instead of the conventional heavy steel ingot and to improve the ratio, the chamfer and the external shape of the wall of the new design of the slab ingot.

  17. Managing depression in people with multimorbidity: a qualitative evaluation of an integrated collaborative care model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Sarah E; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Adeyemi, Isabel; Coupe, Nia; Coventry, Peter A

    2015-03-05

    Patients with comorbid depression and physical health problems have poorer outcomes compared with those with single long term conditions (LTCs), or multiple LTCs without depression. Primary care has traditionally struggled to provide integrated care for this group. Collaborative care can reduce depression in people with LTCs but evidence is largely based on trials conducted in the United States that adopted separate treat to target protocols for physical and mental health. Little is known about whether collaborative care that integrates depression care within the management of LTCs is implementable in UK primary care, and acceptable to patients and health care professionals. Nested interview study within the COINCIDE trial of collaborative care for patients with depression and diabetes/CHD (ISRCTN80309252). The study was conducted in primary care practices in North West England. Professionals delivering the interventions (nurses, GPs and psychological well-being practitioners) and patients in the intervention arm were invited to participate in semi-structured qualitative interviews. Based on combined thematic analysis of 59 transcripts, we identified two major themes: 1) Integration: patients and professionals valued collaborative ways of working because it enhanced co-ordination of mental and physical health care and provided a sense that patients' health was being more holistically managed. 2) Division: patients and professionals articulated a preference for therapeutic and spatial separation between mental and physical health. Patients especially valued a separate space outside of their LTC clinic to discuss their emotional health problems. The COINCIDE care model, that sought to integrate depression care within the context of LTC management, achieved service level integration but not therapeutic integration. Patients preferred a protected space to discuss mental health issues, and professionals maintained barriers around physical and mental health expertise

  18. Qualitative Analysis of Bifurcating Solutions in the Lengyel-Epstein Model%RESEARCH ANNOUNCEMENTS Qualitative Analysis of Bifurcating Solutions in the Lengyel-Epstein Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娜; 吴建华

    2008-01-01

    @@ One of the most fundamental problems in theoretical biology is to explain the mechanisms by which patterns and forms are created in the living world. In his seminal paper "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis",Turing showed that a system of coupled reaction-diffusion equations can be used to describe patterns and forms in biological systems.

  19. Modeling Virtual Healthcare Systems: Methods for Qualitative Case Analysis and Sociometry of Institutional Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Séror, Ann

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a strategy for the qualitative analysis of virtual institutional infrastructures serving complex healthcare systems. Methodologies considered include case analysis, grounded theory, and sociometry. The discussion is illustrated with references to case analyses of diverse healthcare systems. Particular attention is focused on ideological values expressed in market dynamics and system control structures.

  20. Modeling virtual healthcare systems: methods for qualitative case analysis and sociometry of institutional infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séror, Ann

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a strategy for the qualitative analysis of virtual institutional infrastructures serving complex healthcare systems. Methodologies considered include case analysis, grounded theory, and sociometry. The discussion is illustrated with references to case analyses of diverse healthcare systems. Particular attention is focused on ideological values expressed in market dynamics and system control structures.