WorldWideScience

Sample records for model publication paradigm

  1. THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PARADIGM DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    CHERVYAKOVA OLHA VOLODYMYRIVNA

    2017-01-01

    This article presents aspects of public administration paradigm of using disciplinary matrix, a public management model based on a feedback mechanism in the subject-subject interaction, which is the basis of theoretical and methodological establishment in public administration science (Public administration) in Ukraine.

  2. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  3. Pins and posters: paradigms for content publication on situated displays

    OpenAIRE

    José, Rui; Pinto, Helder; Siva, Bruno; Melro, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Public display systems are still far from being a communication medium that people can appropriate to serve diverse communication goals. Moving towards open displays will require new publication paradigms that can overcome the challenges of meaningful engagement and enable users to fully understand and control the entire publication process. In this paper, we report on the study of two novel and complimentary communication paradigms for public displays inspired by the metaphors of pin badges ...

  4. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3

  5. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2001-01-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3. Experiences from

  6. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3. Experiences from

  7. Pins and posters: Paradigms for content publication on situated displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Rui; Pinto, Hélder; Silva, Bruno; Melro, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Public-display systems are still far from being a medium for meeting people's diverse communication goals. Moving toward open displays will require publication paradigms that can overcome the challenges of meaningful engagement and enable users to fully understand and control the publication process. The metaphors of pins and posters have inspired two complementary paradigms for public displays. Researchers implemented these paradigms in the Instant Places system, which they deployed on 10 displays in diverse urban locations for six months. They collected user and system data regarding the users' practices. The findings improve the understanding of what might drive user-generated content in networks of urban displays. Such knowledge can inform the design of tools and procedures for situated publication in public displays.

  8. Sustainable Public Procurement : a new policy paradigm in France ?

    OpenAIRE

    Le Velly, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the “new paradigm” of sustainable public procurement in France, that is, its cognitive and normative frameworks. Firstly, the author shows that the newness of this paradigm has to do with the identification of sustainable procurement as a stake in its own right. Next, he shows that the good practices associated with sustainable procurement are also new (close relationships with suppliers, systematic thought about what is needed, innovative methods of co...

  9. Public Project Portfolio Optimization under a Participatory Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new democracy paradigm is emerging through participatory budgeting exercises, which can be defined as a public space in which the government and the society agree on how to adapt the priorities of the citizenship to the public policy agenda. Although these priorities have been identified and they are likely to be reflected in a ranking of public policy actions, there is still a challenge of solving a portfolio problem of public projects that should implement the agreed agenda. This work proposes two procedures for optimizing the portfolio of public actions with the information stemming from the citizen participatory exercise. The selection of the method depends on the information about preferences collected from the participatory group. When the information is sufficient, the method behaves as an instrument of legitimate democracy. The proposal performs very well in solving two real-size examples.

  10. The portrayal of natural environment in the evolution of the ecological public health paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Forkink, Annet; Weiner, Jocelyn

    2014-01-10

    This paper explores the conceptualization of the natural environment in an evolving ecological public health paradigm. The natural environment has long been recognized as essential to supporting life, health, and wellbeing. Our understanding of the relationship between the natural environment and health has steadily evolved from one of an undynamic environment to a more sophisticated understanding of ecological interactions.  This evolution is reflected in a number of ecological public health models which demonstrate the many external and overlapping determinants of human health. Six models are presented here to demonstrate this evolution, each model reflecting an increasingly ecological appreciation for the fundamental role of the natural environment in supporting human health. We conclude that after decades of public health's acceptance of the ecological paradigm, we are only now beginning to assemble knowledge of sophisticated ecological interdependencies and apply this knowledge to the conceptualization and study of the relationship between the natural environment and the determinants of human health.

  11. Critical evaluation of paradigms for modelling integrated supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, K.H.; Adhitya, A.; Srinivasan, R.; Lukszo, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary problems in process systems engineering often require model-based decision support tool. Among the various modelling paradigms, equation-based models and agent-based models are widely used to develop dynamic models of systems. Which is the most appropriate modelling paradigm for a

  12. The Thalassemia International Federation: a global public health paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidoforos S. Soteriades

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many international organizations are struggling today to coordinate limited economic and human resources in support of governments’ efforts to advance public health around the world. The United Nations and the World Health Organization, along with others play a pivotal role in this global effort. Furthermore, during the past few decades an increasingly higher percentage of global efforts on public health are carried out by specific health initiatives, international projects and non-governmental patient-oriented organizations. The Thalassemia International Federation (TIF is one such organization focusing on the control of thalassemia around the world. The current paper aims at presenting a comprehensive overview of the mission, goals, objectives and activities of this organization. Our ultimate goal is to highlight TIF’s public health paradigm and diffuse its success at an international levels for others to follow. TIF is devoted to disseminating information, knowledge, experience and best practices around the world to empower patients with thalassemia and their relatives, support health professionals providing care to such patients and promote national and international policies, which secure equal access to quality care for all patients with thalassemia.

  13. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecky, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doerr, Ted B [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Public facility restoration planning traditionally focused on response to natural disasters and hazardous materials accidental releases. These plans now need to integrate response to terrorist actions. Therefore, plans must address a wide range of potential vulnerabilities. Similar types of broad remediation planning are needed for restoration of waste and hazardous material handling areas and facilities. There are strong similarities in damage results and remediation activities between unintentional and terrorist actions; however, the uncertainties associated with terrorist actions result in a re-evaluation of approaches to planning. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in confined industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. Therefore, they arguably involve a superset of drivers, concerns and public agencies compared to other restoration efforts. This superset of conditions increases complexity of interactions, reduces our knowledge of the initial conditions, and even condenses the timeline for restoration response. Therefore, evaluations of alternative restoration management approaches developed for responding to terrorist actions provide useful knowledge for large, complex waste management projects. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the 'adaptive management' paradigm provides a constructive parallel operations paradigm for restoration of facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, multiple/simUltaneous public agency actions, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a facility and surrounding area

  14. Adaptive Management: A Paradigm for Remediation of Public Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecky, D.R.; Whicker, J.J.; Doerr, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Public facility restoration planning traditionally focused on response to natural disasters and hazardous materials accidental releases. These plans now need to integrate response to terrorist actions. Therefore, plans must address a wide range of potential vulnerabilities. Similar types of broad remediation planning are needed for restoration of waste and hazardous material handling areas and facilities. There are strong similarities in damage results and remediation activities between unintentional and terrorist actions; however, the uncertainties associated with terrorist actions result in a re-evaluation of approaches to planning. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in confined industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. Therefore, they arguably involve a superset of drivers, concerns and public agencies compared to other restoration efforts. This superset of conditions increases complexity of interactions, reduces our knowledge of the initial conditions, and even condenses the timeline for restoration response. Therefore, evaluations of alternative restoration management approaches developed for responding to terrorist actions provide useful knowledge for large, complex waste management projects. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the 'adaptive management' paradigm provides a constructive parallel operations paradigm for restoration of facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, multiple/simultaneous public agency actions, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a facility and surrounding area(s) after a

  15. The Support-Stress Paradigm and Faculty Research Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Yorem; Finaly-Neumann, Edith

    1990-01-01

    A study developed and tested a model that examines the relative powers of support and work stress indicators in explaining faculty research productivity. Empirical examination indicates the model is most influential in physics, least in education, and that different indicators are significant in determining publication in hard and soft sciences.…

  16. Industry 4.0 and the New Simulation Modelling Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodič Blaž

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the influence of Industry 4.0 on the development of the new simulation modelling paradigm, embodied by the Digital Twin concept, and examine the adoption of the new paradigm via a multiple case study involving real-life R&D cases involving academia and industry.

  17. Giorgio Agamben and the Abandonment Paradigm: A New Form of Student Diversion in Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Clifford P.; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a new paradigm to understand recent government policies that pose new barriers to student participation and divert students out of public higher education. We explain how the classic diversion paradigm, exemplified by Clark (1960) and Brint and Karabel (1989), is unable to account for this new form of student diversion. We…

  18. The Paradigms of Public Health Practice: Lessons for Disciplinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    of public health exist – the government (public) health services on the one hand and the other ... misunderstanding of the entire meaning, practices, relations and efficient running of these ... science and act of preventing disease, ... of physical, mental and social well-being and ..... medicine at the Cambridge Medical School.

  19. Developing a Behavioral Paradigm for the Performance of Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Melvin L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides and supports a definition of public relations as behavior with a mode explaining the difficulty of achieving each behavior and the cost to organizations when the behavior is not achieved. Draws from the literature on ethics, rhetorical theory, public relations management, case studies, and from observation and experience to support this…

  20. Mixing Paradigms for More Comprehensible Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael; Slaats, Tijs

    2013-01-01

    Petri nets efficiently model both data- and control-flow. Control-flow is either modeled explicitly as flow of a specific kind of data, or implicit based on the data-flow. Explicit modeling of control-flow is useful for well-known and highly structured processes, but may make modeling of abstract...

  1. The paradigm of Pseudodual Chiral Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachos, C.K.; Curtright, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    This is a synopsis and extension of Phys. Rev. D49 5408 (1994). The Pseudodual Chiral Model illustrates 2-dimensional field theories which possess an infinite number of conservation laws but also allow particle production, at variance with naive expectations-a folk theorem of integrable models. We monitor the symmetries of the pseudodual model, both local and nonlocal, as transmutations of the symmetries of the (very different) usual Chiral Model. We refine the conventional algorithm to more efficiently produce the nonlocal symmetries of the model. We further find the canonical transformation which connects the usual chiral model to its fully equivalent dual model, thus contradistinguishing the pseudodual theory

  2. Linear and Nonlinear Career Models: Metaphors, Paradigms, and Ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzanell, Patrice M.; Goldzwig, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the linear or bureaucratic career models (dominant in career research, metaphors, paradigms, and ideologies) which maintain career myths of flexibility and individualized routes to success in organizations incapable of offering such versatility. Describes nonlinear career models which offer suggestive metaphors for re-visioning careers…

  3. Teaching Chinese Students: Understanding Their Public Sector Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cynthia; Coleman, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the public sector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…

  4. 76 FR 13643 - FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: Title III-A New Paradigm for Importers; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Act: Title III--A New Paradigm for Importers; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... announcing a public meeting entitled ``FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: Title III--A New Paradigm for... provided. Request special accommodations due By March 22, 2011.... Patricia M. Kuntze, 301- to disability...

  5. Japan's Public Health Paradigm: Governmentality and the Containment of Harmful Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoy, Amy

    2017-01-01

    In this essay, I revisit the politics of social control in the context of contemporary public health discussions, touching on the management of obesity and chronic illness. Foucault's cautionary observations regarding the infiltration of normative social values into the terrain of healing offer a productive framework for considering the politics of public health in the industrialized world. I explore Japan's public health paradigm and its key features of bureaucratic reform and health interventions through screening, socialization, education, and aggressive lifestyle training, and I consider the close proximity between health and socio-cultural values in the management of chronic conditions in Japan.

  6. A paradigm analysis of ecological sustainability: The emerging polycentric climate change publics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminiau, Job B.

    Climate change poses significant complications to the development model employed by modern societies. Using paradigm analysis, the dissertation explains why, after 21 years, policy failure haunts the field: a key impediment is the unquestioned assumption that policy must adhere to an economic optimality principle. This results in policy models which fail to uphold sustainability, justice, and equality due to an emphasis on economic growth, technology, and technical and bureaucratic expertise. Unable to build consensus among low- and high-carbon economies, and searching for what one economist has called an oxymoron -- "sustainable growth" (Daly, 1997) -- the policy process has foundered with its only international convention (the Kyoto Protocol) having lost relevance. In the midst of this policy failure, the dissertation offers and defends the premise that alternative strategies have emerged which signal the prospect of a paradigm shift to ecological sustainability -- a paradigm in which social change takes places through commons-based management and community authorship in the form of network governance and where sustainability serves as governor of growth -- something unavailable in an optimality-guided world. Especially, a strategy of polycentricity is discussed in detail in order to elucidate the potential for a paradigm shift. This discussion is followed by an evaluation of two innovative concepts -- the Sustainable Energy Utility and the Solar City -- that might fit the polycentricity strategy and bring forth transformative change. The dissertation finds considerable potential rests in these two concepts and argues the critical importance of further development of innovative approaches to implement the ecological sustainability paradigm.

  7. The public perception of climate change in Taiwan and its paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Kuei Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the risk perceptions of climate change in Taiwan. It probes into the public's views toward governments' risk communication regarding climate change, citizens' participation in decision-making, and their trust in the capacity of governments toward risk governance, as well as their attitude towards corporate social responsibility. For analysis, we developed ten types of perceptions under three dimensions: namely the severity of climate change (Type 1), the development of sustainable society (Types 2, 3, 4 and 5), and the risk governance and communication (Types 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) to discuss whether the Taiwanese public's perception of climate change was prepared for a socially reflective paradigm shift. Regarding the three dimensions in the questionnaire design, although this study individually measured the public's risk perception, there was a high correlation between the variance analysis results among the three dimensions. This could systematically explain the potential change of the governance paradigm in Taiwanese society concerning structural transformation. - Highlights: • The public had critical view on the policy decision-making of climate change. • There is low public trust in the government's capacity to resist climate change. • The public requested more risk communication, transparency and participation. • The pursuit of an alternative sustainable economic society is highly expected. • People supported renewable energy by higher prices for carbon reduction

  8. On the Feasibility of a Unified Modelling and Programming Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the feasibility of a unified modelling and programming paradigm is discussed from the perspective of large scale system development and verification in collaborative development environments. We motivate the necessity to utilise multiple formalisms for development and verification....... It is illustrated by means of a case study from the railway domain, how this can be achieved, using concepts from the theory of institutions. This also enables the utilisation of verification tools in different formalisms, despite the fact that these tools are usually developed for one specific formal method....

  9. Public policy and employment of people with disabilities: exploring new paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Judith A; Burke, Jane

    2002-01-01

    A "sea change" in public attitudes, legislation, and political power at the end of the 20th century in the United States has helped set the stage in the early 21st century for the entry of people with disabilities into the labor force. Major pieces of federal legislation have altered national policy with the intention of maximizing the work force participation of people with disabilities. At the same time, a new theoretical paradigm of disability has emerged, which emphasizes community inclusion, accommodation, and protection of civil rights. This "New Paradigm" of disability can be applied in concert with rigorous behavioral science methodologies to shed light on the outcomes of recent federal policy changes regarding the labor force participation of people with disabilities. In so doing, social science can be used in more meaningful ways to understand both the intended and unintended consequences of federal policy. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Paradigms of knowledge management with systems modelling case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Krishna Nath

    2016-01-01

    This book has been written by studying the knowledge management implementation at POWERGRID India, one of the largest power distribution companies in the world. The patterns which have led to models, both hypothesized and data-enabled, have been provided. The book suggests ways and means to follow for knowledge management implementation, especially for organizations with multiple business verticals to follow. The book underlines that knowledge is both an entity and organizational asset which can be managed. A holistic view of knowledge management implementation has been provided. It also emphasizes the phenomenological importance of human resource parameters as compared to that of technological parameters. Various hypotheses have been tested to validate the significant models hypothesized. This work will prove useful to corporations, researchers, and independent professionals working to study or implement knowledge management paradigms.

  11. Urban green space qualities reframed toward a public value management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil C.; Kjøller, Christian Philip

    2016-01-01

    The change toward a public value management (PVM) paradigm in the public sector has challenged urban green space managers to rethink how they define and assess their services. In the Nordic countries, the challenge has resulted in the development of the Nordic Green Space Award (NSGA), as a new...... shared standard. This article reviews the NGSA scheme and its development. The development of the scheme embodies a methodology for how the question of ‘what makes for a good urban green space' collectively can be addressed within a particular regional context. The resulting scheme relies on ‘structure...... and general aspects', 'functionality and experience', and ‘management and organisation', as three principal themes and provides an easily manageable, unified and affordable approach to assessment of a variety of urban green spaces. Conceptually, the scheme resembles other comparable assessment schemes...

  12. Paradigms of public policies for licit and illicit drugs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Analice; Ribeiro, Marcelo; Tapia Aguilera, Amarílis; Rezende, Elton; Ogata Perrenoud, Luciane

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions that, over the last 3 decades, has been making increased efforts to develop effective public policies for controlling the use of both licit and illicit psychoactive substances. In the case of licit drugs, Brazil was a pioneer in following the guidance of the World Health Organization for tobacco control and has witnessed surprising results relating to reduction of smoking prevalence and correlated morbidity and mortality. Today, Brazil has a national structure for organizing, applying, and monitoring laws relating to tobacco. However, in the field of illicit drugs, with crack consumption as a paradigm, the situation is the opposite: its use has been increasing year by year and is being consumed at increasingly young ages and by all social classes. Thus, it is becoming an enormous challenge for public policies relating to prevention and treatment. In this context, the aim of this article is to present a review of the epidemiological data relating to tobacco and crack use in Brazil, with an analysis on the impact of public policies for controlling consumption over recent years. Despite the efforts made over the last 3 decades, Brazil still has a long way to go in order to construct a consistent and effective national drugs policy.

  13. A paradigm for modeling and computation of gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Liu, Chang

    2017-02-01

    modeling methods, such as DSMC, particle in cell, and smooth particle hydrodynamics, play a dominant role to incorporate the flow physics into the algorithm construction directly. It is fully legitimate to combine the modeling and computation together without going through the process of constructing PDEs. In other words, the CFD research is not only to obtain the numerical solution of governing equations but to model flow dynamics as well. This methodology leads to the unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) for flow simulation in all flow regimes. Based on UGKS, the boundary for the validation of the Navier-Stokes equations can be quantitatively evaluated. The combination of modeling and computation provides a paradigm for the description of multiscale transport process.

  14. Evolvable mathematical models: A new artificial Intelligence paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouchy, Paul

    We develop a novel Artificial Intelligence paradigm to generate autonomously artificial agents as mathematical models of behaviour. Agent/environment inputs are mapped to agent outputs via equation trees which are evolved in a manner similar to Symbolic Regression in Genetic Programming. Equations are comprised of only the four basic mathematical operators, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as input and output variables and constants. From these operations, equations can be constructed that approximate any analytic function. These Evolvable Mathematical Models (EMMs) are tested and compared to their Artificial Neural Network (ANN) counterparts on two benchmarking tasks: the double-pole balancing without velocity information benchmark and the challenging discrete Double-T Maze experiments with homing. The results from these experiments show that EMMs are capable of solving tasks typically solved by ANNs, and that they have the ability to produce agents that demonstrate learning behaviours. To further explore the capabilities of EMMs, as well as to investigate the evolutionary origins of communication, we develop NoiseWorld, an Artificial Life simulation in which interagent communication emerges and evolves from initially noncommunicating EMM-based agents. Agents develop the capability to transmit their x and y position information over a one-dimensional channel via a complex, dialogue-based communication scheme. These evolved communication schemes are analyzed and their evolutionary trajectories examined, yielding significant insight into the emergence and subsequent evolution of cooperative communication. Evolved agents from NoiseWorld are successfully transferred onto physical robots, demonstrating the transferability of EMM-based AIs from simulation into physical reality.

  15. Models for predicting the inflectional paradigm of Croatian words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šnajder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis is a prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks. For inflectionally rich languages such as Croatian, morphological analysis typically relies on a morphological lexicon, which lists the lemmas and their paradigms. However, a real-life morphological analyzer must also be able to handle properly the out-of-vocabulary words. We address the task of predicting the correct inflectional paradigm of unknown Croatian words. We frame this as a supervised machine learning problem: we train a classifier to predict whether a candidate lemma-paradigm pair is correct based on a number of string- and corpus-based features. The candidate lemma-paradigm pairs are generated using a handcrafted morphology grammar. Our aim is to examine the machine learning aspect of the problem: we test a comprehensive set of features and evaluate the classification accuracy using different feature subsets. We show that satisfactory classification accuracy (92% can be achieved with SVM using a combination of string- and corpus-based features. On a per word basis, the F1-score is 53% and accuracy is 70%, which outperforms a frequency-based baseline by a wide margin. We discuss a number of possible directions for future research.

  16. Two-Language, Two-Paradigm Introductory Computing Curriculum Model and its Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Zanev, Vladimir; Radenski, Atanas

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes difficulties with the introduction of object-oriented concepts in introductory computing education and then proposes a two-language, two-paradigm curriculum model that alleviates such difficulties. Our two-language, two-paradigm curriculum model begins with teaching imperative programming using Python programming language, continues with teaching object-oriented computing using Java, and concludes with teaching object-oriented data structures with Java.

  17. Modeling urban landscape: New paradigms and challenges in territorial representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla Aguilar de Santana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give a brief background on the production of urban space considering the social functions of the city, the needs of contemporary urban reforms and the need for tools that assist in decision making. This state of the art about the production space justifies the current studies on the development of geoprocessing tools, techniques and methodologies that attempt the needs of creating interpretive portraits of urban landscapes to facilitate dialogue between urban technical, administrators and community. In this sense, it is presented how GIS has been working within the context of urban planning and appointed the new challenges and paradigms of territorial representation.

  18. Paradigm shifts in disability and health: toward more ethical public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Raymaker, Dora M

    2013-12-01

    Disability is often considered a health outcome disproportionately experienced by minority groups. It is also possible to view people with disabilities as a minority group that itself experiences health disparities. Calls to reduce these disparities necessitate the inclusion of people with developmental disabilities in research, although resulting ethical issues can thwart scientific progress. Using disability rights principles can help address ethical challenges and promote safe, respectful public health research. Examples include applying human rights frameworks, providing accommodations, attending to power, countering legacies of deficits-based models of disability, and transforming access to science more broadly. Collectively, these strategies can encourage broader engagement in safe, respectful, inclusive public health research aimed at promoting the health and well-being of people with developmental disabilities.

  19. The Paradigm Shift: Leadership Challenges in the Public Sector Schools in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Zahida

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has established that school heads as leaders are vital to the successful implementation of educational reforms (Derek, 2009; Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008). Education system in Pakistan is going through a paradigm shift from teacher centered to learner centered classrooms using English as the instructional language. The…

  20. A burn center paradigm to fulfill deferred consent public disclosure and community consultation requirements for emergency care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Martha G; Falletta, Lynn; Andrews, David A; Reed, Michael D

    2012-09-01

    To fulfill Food and Drug Administration and Department of Health and Human Services emergency care research informed consent requirements, our burn center planned and executed a deferred consent strategy gaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval to proceed with the clinical study. These federal regulations dictate public disclosure and community consultation unique to acute care research. Our regional burn center developed and implemented a deferred consent public notification and community consultation paradigm appropriate for a burn study. Published accounts of deferred consent strategies focus on acute care resuscitation practices. We adapted those strategies to design and conduct a comprehensive public notification/community consultation plan to satisfy deferred consent requirements for burn center research. To implement a robust media campaign we engaged the hospital's public relations department, distributed media materials, recruited hospital staff for speaking engagements, enlisted community volunteers, and developed initiatives to inform "hard-to-reach" populations. The hospital's IRB determined we fulfilled our obligation to notify the defined community. Our communication strategy should provide a paradigm other burn centers may appropriate and adapt when planning and executing a deferred consent initiative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. A Surface Modeling Paradigm for Electromagnetic Applications in Aerospace Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, RM; Bokhari, SA; Sudhakar, V; Mahapatra, PR

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach has been developed to model the surfaces encountered in aerospace engineering for EM applications. The basis of this modeling is the quadric canonical shapes which are the coordinate surfaces of the Eisenhart Coordinate systems. The building blocks are visualized as sections of quadric cylinders and surfaces of revolution. These truncated quadrics can successfully model realistic aerospace structures which are termed a s hybrid quadrics, of which the satellite launch veh...

  2. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  3. A shifting paradigm: Teachers' beliefs and methods for fostering ecological literacy in two public charter schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Evan P.

    Ecological literacy is measured by a person's ability to understand the natural systems that make life on earth possible and how to live in accordance with those systems. The emergence of the pedagogies of place- and community-based education during the past two decades provides a possible avenue for fostering ecological literacy in schools. This thesis explores the following research questions: 1) How is ecological literacy fostered in two Alaskan public charter schools? 2) What are teachers' beliefs in these two schools about the way children and youth develop ecological literacy? 3) What are effective teaching methods and what are the challenges in engaging students in ecological literacy? Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six K--12 teachers in two public charter schools in Alaska in order to investigate these questions, and relevant examples of student work were collected for study as well. Qualitative data analysis revealed several emergent themes: the need for real-world connections to curriculum; the necessity of time spent outdoors at a young age; the long-term and holistic nature of ecological literacy development; and the importance of family and community role models in developing connections with the natural world. Based upon the research findings, several recommendations are made to support the efforts of teachers in these schools and elsewhere for fostering ecological literacy in children and youth.

  4. New paradigms for metabolic modeling of human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    review recent work on reconstruction of GEMs for human cell/tissue types and cancer, and the use of GEMs for identification of metabolic changes occurring in response to disease development. We further discuss how GEMs can be used for the development of efficient therapeutic strategies. Finally......, challenges in integration of cell/tissue models for simulation of whole body functions as well as integration of GEMs with other biological networks for generating complete cell/tissue models are presented.......Abnormalities in cellular functions are associated with the progression of human diseases, often resulting in metabolic reprogramming. GEnome-scale metabolic Models (GEMs) have enabled studying global metabolic reprogramming in connection with disease development in a systematic manner. Here we...

  5. [Understanding King's model on the paradigm of symbolic interactionism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Iliana Maria de Almeida; Oliveira, Marcos Venícios; de Oliveira, Marcos Venícius; Fernandes, Ana Fátima Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    It was aimed to reflect on King's Theory, according to the approach of Symbolic Interaccionism, and theory analyses model of Meleis. To reach the objective, we proceeded the reading of the three models as mentioned before, looking for the consistencies and discrepancies among the concepts and correlating them. The study allowed to conclude that the theories agree when elucidating the man as a being that reacts and search to understand the meaning of things to his/her circuit, drifting and judging their actions and the one of the other ones. It is important the subject of the meanings could be modified and they generate the elaboration of goals in common.

  6. The juggling paradigm: a novel social neuroscience approach to identify neuropsychophysiological markers of team mental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Edson; Bertollo, Maurizio; Robazza, Claudio; Comani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the mirror neuron system in the 1980s, little, if any, research has been devoted to the study of interactive motor tasks (Goldman, 2012). Scientists interested in the neuropsychophysiological markers of joint motor action have relied on observation paradigms and passive tasks rather than dynamic paradigms and interactive tasks (Konvalinka and Roepstorff, 2012). Within this research scenario, we introduce a novel research paradigm that uses cooperative juggling as a platform to capture peripheral (e.g., skin conductance, breathing and heart rates, electromyographic signals) and central neuropsychophysiological (e.g., functional connectivity within and between brains) markers underlying the notion of team mental models (TMM). We discuss the epistemological and theoretical grounds of a cooperative juggling paradigm, and propose testable hypotheses on neuropsychophysiological markers underlying TMM. Furthermore, we present key methodological concerns that may influence peripheral responses as well as single and hyperbrain network configurations during joint motor action. Preliminary findings of the paradigm are highlighted. We conclude by delineating avenues for future research.

  7. The juggling paradigm: a novel social neuroscience approach to identify neuropsychophysiological markers of team mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eFilho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the mirror neuron system in the 1990s, little, if any, research has been devoted to the study of interactive motor tasks (Goldman, 2012. Scientists interested in the neuropsychophysiological markers of joint motor action have relied on observation paradigms and passive tasks rather than dynamic paradigms and interactive tasks (Konvalinka and Roepstorff, 2012. Within this research scenario, we introduce a novel research paradigm that uses cooperative juggling as a platform to capture peripheral (e.g., skin conductance, breathing and heart rates, electromyographic signals and central neuropsychophysiological (e.g., functional connectivity within and between brains markers underlying the conceptual notion of team mental models (TMM. We discuss the epistemological and theoretical grounds of a cooperative juggling paradigm, and propose testable hypotheses on neuropsychophysiological markers underlying TMM. Furthermore, we present key methodological concerns that may influence peripheral responses as well as single and hyperbrain network configurations during joint motor action. Preliminary findings of the paradigm are highlighted. We conclude by delineating avenues for future research.

  8. The Model-Driven openETCS Paradigm for Secure, Safe and Certifiable Train Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peleska, Jan; Feuser, Johannes; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    -driven openETCS approach, a threat analysis is performed, identifying both safety and security hazards that may be common to all model-based development paradigms for safety-critical railway control systems, or specific to the openETCS approach. In the subsequent sections state-of-the-art methods suitable...

  9. An evaluation of the Cray T3D programming paradigms in atmospheric chemistry/transport models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Blom (Joke); C. Keßler (Carsten); J.G. Verwer (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we compare the different programming paradigms available on the Cray T3D for the implementation of a 3D prototype of an Atmospheric Chemistry/Transport Model. We discuss the amount of work needed to convert existing codes to the T3D and the portability of the resulting

  10. A review of different perspectives on uncertainty and risk and an alternative modeling paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, Sundeep; Reneke, James A.; Wiecek, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    The literature in economics, finance, operations research, engineering and in general mathematics is first reviewed on the subject of defining uncertainty and risk. The review goes back to 1901. Different perspectives on uncertainty and risk are examined and a new paradigm to model uncertainty and risk is proposed using relevant ideas from this study. This new paradigm is used to represent, aggregate and propagate uncertainty and interpret the resulting variability in a challenge problem developed by Oberkampf et al. [2004, Challenge problems: uncertainty in system response given uncertain parameters. Reliab Eng Syst Safety 2004; 85(1): 11-9]. The challenge problem is further extended into a decision problem that is treated within a multicriteria decision making framework to illustrate how the new paradigm yields optimal decisions under uncertainty. The accompanying risk is defined as the probability of an unsatisfactory system response quantified by a random function of the uncertainty

  11. Models of Public Service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2013-01-01

    This article extends the framework of Le Grand (2003, 2010) to encompass responsiveness, and the main argument is that the combination of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision potentially has serious implications for responsiveness across service areas. Although...... research on employee motivation thrives, especially in the public service motivation (PSM) literature, few studies have investigated user capacity empirically, and we know little about the combination of PSM, user capacity and models of service provision. Analyzing four central service areas (day care......, schools, hospitals, and universities), we find variations in both user capacity and PSM. Taking this variation as a point of departure we discuss what implications different combinations of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision may have for responsiveness....

  12. Paradigm Lost: Public Administration at Johns Hopkins University, 1884-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M. Curtis

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the history of public administration at Johns Hopkins University from the late 1800s when a curriculum was developed to educate public servants. Suggests that the program made notable contributions to progressivism but was eclipsed by scientific management; however, it has new relevance in the current climate. (Contains 46 references.)…

  13. Recommendations for Model Driven Paradigms for Integrated Approaches to Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    Human Cognitive Modeling in Cyber Security 13 4.1 Models of Human in the Cyber Detection Loop 14 4.2 Perception and Representation of the Cyber ...paradigm applied to cyber operations is likely to benefit traditional disciplines of cyber defense such as security , vulnerability analysis, intrusion...and simulation for full range of cyber specialties, not only for training and rehearsal. • Encourage participation of commercial companies , in NATO

  14. Will the Meikirch Model, a New Framework for Health, Induce a Paradigm Shift in Healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Johannes; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2017-03-06

    healthcare interact based on the model, mutual understanding of and adherence to treatments and preventive measures will improve. In healthcare, the Meikirch model also makes it plain that neither pay-for-performance nor value-based payment is an adequate response to improve person-centered healthcare. The Meikirch model is not only a unifying theoretical framework for health and disease but also a scaffold for the practice of medicine and public health. It is fully in line with the theory and practice of evidence-based medicine, person-centered healthcare, and integrative medicine. The model offers opportunities to self-motivate people to improve their health-supporting behavior, thereby making preventive approaches and overall healthcare more effective. We believe that the Meikirch model could induce a paradigm shift in healthcare. The healthcare community is hereby invited to acquaint themselves with this model and to consider its potential ramifications.

  15. Changing the paradigm: a radiation protection model for utilizing active systems in homeland defense applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertel, Nolan E.; Shannon, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The emerging threat from non-state actors and terrorist organizations openly asserting the use of weapons of mass destruction has led to an increased global emphasis on homeland defense and national security. The threat is real and thus many states are spending large amounts of resources to combat the problem. Issues such as unsecured radioactive sources, illicit movement of nuclear material, the use of radioactive sources in the medical and industrial sectors are just a few of the areas being examined. Countering these threats involves a major paradigm shift in the manner in which radiation is viewed. Radiation-based technologies are playing a key role in this emerging area from the development of new passive detection modalities to the use of active systems for detecting illicit materials. The screening of humans, baggage and cargo present overwhelming challenges. With these developments comes the concern from both governmental agencies and the public as to the safety of such systems. This paper will explore one such modality; the employment of radiation-based illicit material detection systems. The authors will present a review of the international (IAEA) and US regulatory and statutory documents as well as recommendations from scientific bodies such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. This review coupled with sound scientific data are used to develop a proposed framework for the future employment of active systems for homeland defense applications. Issues considered include the ability to effectively measure and/or predict dose, is the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept appropriate?, how much dose should be allowed relative to national security?, where does the linear-no-threshold hypothesis fit in? The authors use this analysis to develop a model which examines the trade-offs and cost-benefits in using the proposed systems. The major findings of

  16. Tensions between approach paradigms in public policies on drugs: an analysis of Brazilian legislation in 2000-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mirna Barros; Ramôa, Marise de Leão; Engstrom, Elyne; Ribeiro, José Mendes

    2017-05-01

    Brazilian public policy on drugs has been permeated by two diametrically opposing approaches: one focusing on prohibition and the other on non- prohibition. Similarly, there have been two opposing approaches to mental healthcare, one centered on hospitalization and the other psychosocial care and development. In the context of these different paradigms, this article presents an analysis of twenty-two documents sourced by the legislative rules over the last sixteen years. After the year 2000, a renewed focus by healthcare community on drugs was noticeable as was the immersion of a harm reducing approach. Following international trends, although there are still considerable divergencies between (a) psychosocial care and(b) residential care in the therapeutic communities there seems to be an alignment to anti- prohibition approaches.

  17. Early life stress paradigms in rodents: potential animal models of depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mathias V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Meijer, Onno C

    2011-03-01

    While human depressive illness is indeed uniquely human, many of its symptoms may be modeled in rodents. Based on human etiology, the assumption has been made that depression-like behavior in rats and mice can be modulated by some of the powerful early life programming effects that are known to occur after manipulations in the first weeks of life. Here we review the evidence that is available in literature for early life manipulation as risk factors for the development of depression-like symptoms such as anhedonia, passive coping strategies, and neuroendocrine changes. Early life paradigms that were evaluated include early handling, separation, and deprivation protocols, as well as enriched and impoverished environments. We have also included a small number of stress-related pharmacological models. We find that for most early life paradigms per se, the actual validity for depression is limited. A number of models have not been tested with respect to classical depression-like behaviors, while in many cases, the outcome of such experiments is variable and depends on strain and additional factors. Because programming effects confer vulnerability rather than disease, a number of paradigms hold promise for usefulness in depression research, in combination with the proper genetic background and adult life challenges.

  18. The paradigm shift to an “open” model in drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Au

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising cost of healthcare, the rising cost for drug development, the patent cliff for Big pharma, shorter patent protection, decrease reimbursement, and the recession have made it more difficult for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry to develop drugs. Due to the unsustainable amount of time and money in developing a drug that will have a significant return on investment (ROI it has become hard to sustain a robust pipeline. The industry is transforming its business model to meet these challenges. In essence a paradigm shift is occurring; the old “closed” model is giving way to a new “open” business model.

  19. JOURNALISTIC IDENTITY AND AUDIENCE PERCEPTIONS: Paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  20. Journalistic identity and audience perceptions: paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  1. Journalistic identity and audience perceptions: paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  2. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  3. Paradigms for Assessment of Organizational Climate in a Public Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Knupp Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the factors relevant to assessment of organizational climate of a Public Institute for Research in the area of C&T, with headquarters located in Vale do Paraiba Paulista considering their specific characteristics and the perception of its employers for the characteristics of this work environment. This is a quantitative, exploratory descriptive, taking the form of survey. The Institution research participant has 1.075 active employers and the sample used in data collection were 149 respondents in which a questionnaire was administered, whose data were statistically analyzed. It was found the stability of the instrument through Cronbach's Alpha Test, which indicated the reliability of the survey responses and the tests Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin – KMO and Bartlett’s Sphericity indicated that the factor analysis could be used in this mass data. The technique of factor analysis was applied and the results showed that 10 clusters of issues/indicators are suitable for this study. After analyzing the clusters were identified the following factors as relevant for climate study: Identity and Security, Autonomy, Achievement and Satisfaction with Work, Professional Development, Commitment and Teamwork, Leadership, Salary, Interaction, and Satisfaction with Institution Organizational Structure. This work reached its goal and its outcome encourages further studies on the subject, and provides subsidies for the development of a tool to search appropriate to the specific organizational climate of the institution concerned.

  4. Chronic subordinate colony housing paradigm: A mouse model to characterize the consequences of insufficient glucocorticoid signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik eLanggartner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic, in particular chronic psychosocial, stress is a burden of modern societies and known to be a risk factor for numerous somatic and affective disorders (in detail referenced below. However, based on the limited existence of appropriate, and clinically-relevant, animal models for studying the effects of chronic stress, the detailed behavioural, physiological, neuronal, and immunological mechanisms linking stress and such disorders are insufficiently understood. To date, most chronic stress studies in animals employ intermittent exposure to the same (homotypic or to different (heterotypic stressors of varying duration and intensity. Such models are only of limited value, since they do not adequately reflect the chronic, and continuous, situation that humans typically experience. Furthermore, application of different physical or psychological stimuli renders comparisons to the mainly psychosocial stressors faced by humans, as well as between the different stress studies almost impossible. In contrast, rodent models of chronic psychosocial stress represent situations more akin to those faced by humans and consequently seem to hold more clinical relevance. Our laboratory has developed a model in which mice are exposed to social stress for 19 continuous days, namely the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC paradigm, which bridges this gap. The main aim of the current review article is to provide a detailed summary of the behavioural, physiological, neuronal and immunological consequences of the CSC paradigm, and wherever possible relate the findings to other stress models and to those from human studies.

  5. Modelling iron mismanagement in neurodegenerative disease in vitro: paradigms, pitfalls, possibilities & practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sinead; McMahon, Jill M; FitzGerald, Una

    2017-11-01

    Although aberrant metabolism and deposition of iron has been associated with aging and neurodegeneration, the contribution of iron to neuropathology is unclear. Well-designed model systems that are suited to studying the putative pathological effect of iron are likely to be essential if such unresolved details are to be clarified. In this review, we have evaluated the utility and effectiveness of the reductionist in vitro platform to study the molecular mechanisms putatively underlying iron perturbations of neurodegenerative disease. The expression and function of iron metabolism proteins in glia and neurons and the extent to which this iron regulatory system is replicated in in vitro models has been comprehensively described, followed by an appraisal of the inherent suitability of different in vitro and ex vivo models that have been, or might be, used for iron loading. Next, we have identified and critiqued the relevant experimental parameters that have been used in in vitro iron loading experiments, including the choice of iron reagent, relevant iron loading concentrations and supplementation with serum or ascorbate, and propose optimal iron loading conditions. Finally, we have provided a synthesis of the differential iron accumulation and toxicity in glia and neurons from reported iron loading paradigms. In summary, this review has amalgamated the findings and paradigms of the published reports modelling iron loading in monocultures, discussed the limitations and discrepancies of such work to critically propose a robust, relevant and reliable model of iron loading to be used for future investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CALS and the Product State Model - Methodology and Supporting Schools and Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    incorporates relevant information about each stage of the production process.The paper will describe the research object, the model object and discuss a part of the methodology in developing a Product State Model. The project is primarily technological, however, organisational and human aspects......This paper address the preliminary considerations in a research project, initiated February 1997, regarding Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) which is a part of the activities in CALS Center Denmark. The CALS concept is presented focusing on the Product State Model (PSM). The PSM...... will be developed upon, will be discussed. Also, the parameters for evaluating the PSM will be considered. In establishing the theoretical body of knowledge with respect to CALS, an identification of schools and paradigms within the research area of applying information technology in a manufacturing environment...

  7. Modelos e concepções de inovação: a transição de paradigmas, a reforma da C&T brasileira e as concepções de gestores de uma instituição pública de pesquisa em saúde Innovation models and conceptions: transition of paradigm, the Brazilian S&T reform and conceptions of managers from a public health research institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Velloso Fernandez Conde

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as diversas acepções do termo "inovação" presentes na literatura, em documentos institucionais e referidas por gestores de C&T. A partir da revisão da literatura sobre inovação e modelos de análise da inovação analisaram-se as concepções de inovação coletadas junto a gestores da Fiocruz. Constatou-se que a complexidade dos processos de inovação, a dificuldade de identificação dos nexos causais entre Ciência, Tecnologia, Economia e Sociedade e a aceleração das mudanças do papel do conhecimento geraram uma grande proliferação de modelos de análise da inovação em oposição ao "modelo linear de inovação", caracterizando um período de transição paradigmática. A análise dos documentos institucionais e das concepções dos gestores indicou uma convergência com concepções e modelos de inovação adotados pelos países de economia avançada. Esses modelos estariam fundamentando uma reforma do setor de C&T brasileiro que pode ser caracterizada como uma política para a inovação tecnológica. Essa perspectiva reduz os objetivos das atividades de C&T a uma única questão: articular o empreendimento científico com a inovação industrial e a competitividade, o que introduz questões significativas para sua tradução na área da saúde pública.This article intends to identify and to discuss the meanings of the term innovation in specialized literature, in institutional documents and in a public health research institution managers' interpretations. A brief review of specialized literature was undertaken concerning innovation and models of analysis of innovation. This review was used as reference for the analysis of the meanings found in institutional documents of Science, Technology & Innovation from the Brazilian Ministry of the Science and Technology and in innovation conceptions from managers of Fiocruz. The complexity of the processes involved in innovation generation, the difficulty to identify

  8. Cutting Edge PBPK Models and Analyses: Providing the Basis for Future Modeling Efforts and Bridges to Emerging Toxicology Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane C. Caldwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK models are used for predictions of internal or target dose from environmental and pharmacologic chemical exposures. Their use in human risk assessment is dependent on the nature of databases (animal or human used to develop and test them, and includes extrapolations across species, experimental paradigms, and determination of variability of response within human populations. Integration of state-of-the science PBPK modeling with emerging computational toxicology models is critical for extrapolation between in vitro exposures, in vivo physiologic exposure, whole organism responses, and long-term health outcomes. This special issue contains papers that can provide the basis for future modeling efforts and provide bridges to emerging toxicology paradigms. In this overview paper, we present an overview of the field and introduction for these papers that includes discussions of model development, best practices, risk-assessment applications of PBPK models, and limitations and bridges of modeling approaches for future applications. Specifically, issues addressed include: (a increased understanding of human variability of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the population, (b exploration of mode of action hypotheses (MOA, (c application of biological modeling in the risk assessment of individual chemicals and chemical mixtures, and (d identification and discussion of uncertainties in the modeling process.

  9. Paradigm lost, paradigm found: The re-emergence of hormesis as a fundamental dose response model in the toxicological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, Edward J. [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu

    2005-12-15

    This paper provides an assessment of the toxicological basis of the hormetic dose-response relationship including issues relating to its reproducibility, frequency, and generalizability across biological models, endpoints measured and chemical class/physical stressors and implications for risk assessment. The quantitative features of the hormetic dose response are described and placed within toxicological context that considers study design, temporal assessment, mechanism, and experimental model/population heterogeneity. Particular emphasis is placed on an historical evaluation of why the field of toxicology rejected hormesis in favor of dose response models such as the threshold model for assessing non-carcinogens and linear no threshold (LNT) models for assessing carcinogens. The paper argues that such decisions were principally based on complex historical factors that emerged from the intense and protracted conflict between what is now called traditional medicine and homeopathy and the overly dominating influence of regulatory agencies on the toxicological intellectual agenda. Such regulatory agency influence emphasized hazard/risk assessment goals such as the derivation of no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) and the lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) which were derived principally from high dose studies using few doses, a feature which restricted perceptions and distorted judgments of several generations of toxicologists concerning the nature of the dose-response continuum. Such historical and technical blind spots lead the field of toxicology to not only reject an established dose-response model (hormesis), but also the model that was more common and fundamental than those that the field accepted. - The quantitative features of the hormetic dose/response are described and placed within the context of toxicology.

  10. Paradigm lost, paradigm found: The re-emergence of hormesis as a fundamental dose response model in the toxicological sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the toxicological basis of the hormetic dose-response relationship including issues relating to its reproducibility, frequency, and generalizability across biological models, endpoints measured and chemical class/physical stressors and implications for risk assessment. The quantitative features of the hormetic dose response are described and placed within toxicological context that considers study design, temporal assessment, mechanism, and experimental model/population heterogeneity. Particular emphasis is placed on an historical evaluation of why the field of toxicology rejected hormesis in favor of dose response models such as the threshold model for assessing non-carcinogens and linear no threshold (LNT) models for assessing carcinogens. The paper argues that such decisions were principally based on complex historical factors that emerged from the intense and protracted conflict between what is now called traditional medicine and homeopathy and the overly dominating influence of regulatory agencies on the toxicological intellectual agenda. Such regulatory agency influence emphasized hazard/risk assessment goals such as the derivation of no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) and the lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) which were derived principally from high dose studies using few doses, a feature which restricted perceptions and distorted judgments of several generations of toxicologists concerning the nature of the dose-response continuum. Such historical and technical blind spots lead the field of toxicology to not only reject an established dose-response model (hormesis), but also the model that was more common and fundamental than those that the field accepted. - The quantitative features of the hormetic dose/response are described and placed within the context of toxicology

  11. Channel noise enhances signal detectability in a model of acoustic neuron through the stochastic resonance paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, M; Paffi, A; Maggio, F; De Angelis, A; Apollonio, F; d'Inzeo, G

    2009-01-01

    A number of experimental investigations have evidenced the extraordinary sensitivity of neuronal cells to weak input stimulations, including electromagnetic (EM) fields. Moreover, it has been shown that biological noise, due to random channels gating, acts as a tuning factor in neuronal processing, according to the stochastic resonant (SR) paradigm. In this work the attention is focused on noise arising from the stochastic gating of ionic channels in a model of Ranvier node of acoustic fibers. The small number of channels gives rise to a high noise level, which is able to cause a spike train generation even in the absence of stimulations. A SR behavior has been observed in the model for the detection of sinusoidal signals at frequencies typical of the speech.

  12. Computational electromagnetics and model-based inversion a modern paradigm for eddy-current nondestructive evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbagh, Harold A; Sabbagh, Elias H; Aldrin, John C; Knopp, Jeremy S

    2013-01-01

    Computational Electromagnetics and Model-Based Inversion: A Modern Paradigm for Eddy Current Nondestructive Evaluation describes the natural marriage of the computer to eddy-current NDE. Three distinct topics are emphasized in the book: (a) fundamental mathematical principles of volume-integral equations as a subset of computational electromagnetics, (b) mathematical algorithms applied to signal-processing and inverse scattering problems, and (c) applications of these two topics to problems in which real and model data are used. By showing how mathematics and the computer can solve problems more effectively than current analog practices, this book defines the modern technology of eddy-current NDE. This book will be useful to advanced students and practitioners in the fields of computational electromagnetics, electromagnetic inverse-scattering theory, nondestructive evaluation, materials evaluation and biomedical imaging. Users of eddy-current NDE technology in industries as varied as nuclear power, aerospace,...

  13. Probabilistic transport models for plasma transport in the presence of critical thresholds: Beyond the diffusive paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Milligen, B.Ph. van; Carreras, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    It is argued that the modeling of plasma transport in tokamaks may benefit greatly from extending the usual local paradigm to accommodate scale-free transport mechanisms. This can be done by combining Levy distributions and a nonlinear threshold condition within the continuous time random walk concept. The advantages of this nonlocal, nonlinear extension are illustrated by constructing a simple particle density transport model that, as a result of these ideas, spontaneously exhibits much of nondiffusive phenomenology routinely observed in tokamaks. The fluid limit of the system shows that the kind of equations that are appropriate to capture these dynamics are based on fractional differential operators. In them, effective diffusivities and pinch velocities are found that are dynamically set by the system in response to the specific characteristics of the fueling source and external perturbations. This fact suggests some dramatic consequences for the extrapolation of these transport properties to larger size systems

  14. A Theoretical Modeling of Digital World History: Premises, Paradigm, and Scientific Data Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital World History is a new expression of world history (or maybe "a new method for world history expression" and a paradigm of world history description, study, and application by virtual informatization and recovery. It is also a comprehensive systematic study through dynamic marks, integrated description, and retrieval of human society evolution and its causality dependant on the theory and methodology of digitization information. It aims at breaking the limitation of diachronic language attributed to the process of history cognition, summation, and recovery, addressing a possible scheme to fuse historical factors in relation to changing history, dynamically applying a multiplicity of results so that the discipline of world history can meet the needs of the information-equipped society of the 21st century. In this article, the author uses theoretical modelling methods, resulting in a blueprint of the quality issue, namely the Digital World History premise, and a paradigm for setting the foundation and scientific data strategy as a basis for its necessity.

  15. A New Paradigm for Diagnosing Contributions to Model Aerosol Forcing Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. L.; Feldman, D. R.; Freidenreich, S.; Paynter, D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Collins, W. D.; Pincus, R.

    2017-12-01

    A new paradigm in benchmark absorption-scattering radiative transfer is presented that enables both the globally averaged and spatially resolved testing of climate model radiation parameterizations in order to uncover persistent sources of biases in the aerosol instantaneous radiative effect (IRE). A proof of concept is demonstrated with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory AM4 and Community Earth System Model 1.2.2 climate models. Instead of prescribing atmospheric conditions and aerosols, as in prior intercomparisons, native snapshots of the atmospheric state and aerosol optical properties from the participating models are used as inputs to an accurate radiation solver to uncover model-relevant biases. These diagnostic results show that the models' aerosol IRE bias is of the same magnitude as the persistent range cited ( 1 W/m2) and also varies spatially and with intrinsic aerosol optical properties. The findings underscore the significance of native model error analysis and its dispositive ability to diagnose global biases, confirming its fundamental value for the Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project.

  16. Behaviour of a genetic mouse model of depression in the learned helplessness paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougarel, Laure; Guitton, Jérôme; Zimmer, Luc; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; El Yacoubi, Malika

    2011-06-01

    H/Rouen (displaying a helpless phenotype in the tail suspension test) mice exhibiting features of depressive disorders and NH/Rouen (displaying non-helpless phenotype) mice were previously created through behavioural screening and selective breeding. Learned helplessness (LH), in which footshock stress induces a coping deficit, models some aspects of depression in rodents, but so far, fewer LH studies have been performed in mice than in rats. To study H/Rouen and NH/Rouen in the LH paradigm. When CD1 mice were submitted to footshock with various training durations and shock intensities, the most suitable parameters to induce a behavioural deficit were 0.3 mA and four training sessions. A significantly longer latency to escape shocks was found in male H/Rouen mice compared to male NH/Rouen mice. On the other hand, once shocked, NH/Rouen mice showed more severe coping deficits than H/Rouen mice. In addition, a sub-chronic treatment with fluoxetine lacked efficacy in NH/Rouen mice, whereas it improved performances in H/Rouen mice. We also found that a shock reminder at day 8, subsequent to inescapable shocks, maintained helplessness for 20 days. Finally, female H/Rouen mice responded to chronic fluoxetine administration after 10 days of treatment, while a 20-day treatment was necessary to improve the behavioural deficit in H/Rouen male mice. H/Rouen and NH/Rouen lines displayed different despair-related behaviour in the LH paradigm. Fluoxetine had beneficial effects after sub-chronic or chronic but not acute treatment of H/Rouen mice, thus providing a pharmacological validation of the protocols.

  17. [New paradigm for soil and water conservation: a method based on watershed process modeling and scenario analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, A-Xing; Chen, La-Jiao; Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Ping; Liu, Jun-Zhi; Li, Run-Kui; Cai, Qiang-Guo

    2012-07-01

    With the increase of severe soil erosion problem, soil and water conservation has become an urgent concern for sustainable development. Small watershed experimental observation is the traditional paradigm for soil and water control. However, the establishment of experimental watershed usually takes long time, and has the limitations of poor repeatability and high cost. Moreover, the popularization of the results from the experimental watershed is limited for other areas due to the differences in watershed conditions. Therefore, it is not sufficient to completely rely on this old paradigm for soil and water loss control. Recently, scenario analysis based on watershed modeling has been introduced into watershed management, which can provide information about the effectiveness of different management practices based on the quantitative simulation of watershed processes. Because of its merits such as low cost, short period, and high repeatability, scenario analysis shows great potential in aiding the development of watershed management strategy. This paper elaborated a new paradigm using watershed modeling and scenario analysis for soil and water conservation, illustrated this new paradigm through two cases for practical watershed management, and explored the future development of this new soil and water conservation paradigm.

  18. Modeling the Error of the Medtronic Paradigm Veo Enlite Glucose Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Lyvia; Ramkissoon, Charrise M; Facchinetti, Andrea; Leal, Yenny; Vehi, Josep

    2017-06-12

    Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) are prone to inaccuracy due to time lags, sensor drift, calibration errors, and measurement noise. The aim of this study is to derive the model of the error of the second generation Medtronic Paradigm Veo Enlite (ENL) sensor and compare it with the Dexcom SEVEN PLUS (7P), G4 PLATINUM (G4P), and advanced G4 for Artificial Pancreas studies (G4AP) systems. An enhanced methodology to a previously employed technique was utilized to dissect the sensor error into several components. The dataset used included 37 inpatient sessions in 10 subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D), in which CGMs were worn in parallel and blood glucose (BG) samples were analyzed every 15 ± 5 min Calibration error and sensor drift of the ENL sensor was best described by a linear relationship related to the gain and offset. The mean time lag estimated by the model is 9.4 ± 6.5 min. The overall average mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of the ENL sensor was 11.68 ± 5.07% Calibration error had the highest contribution to total error in the ENL sensor. This was also reported in the 7P, G4P, and G4AP. The model of the ENL sensor error will be useful to test the in silico performance of CGM-based applications, i.e., the artificial pancreas, employing this kind of sensor.

  19. Paradigm shift in urban energy systems through distributed generation: Methods and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfren, Massimiliano; Caputo, Paola; Costa, Gaia

    2011-01-01

    The path towards energy sustainability is commonly referred to the incremental adoption of available technologies, practices and policies that may help to decrease the environmental impact of energy sector, while providing an adequate standard of energy services. The evaluation of trade-offs among technologies, practices and policies for the mitigation of environmental problems related to energy resources depletion requires a deep knowledge of the local and global effects of the proposed solutions. While attempting to calculate such effects for a large complex system like a city, an advanced multidisciplinary approach is needed to overcome difficulties in modeling correctly real phenomena while maintaining computational transparency, reliability, interoperability and efficiency across different levels of analysis. Further, a methodology that rationally integrates different computational models and techniques is necessary to enable collaborative research in the field of optimization of energy efficiency strategies and integration of renewable energy systems in urban areas. For these reasons, a selection of currently available models for distributed generation planning and design is presented and analyzed in the perspective of gathering their capabilities in an optimization framework to support a paradigm shift in urban energy systems. This framework embodies the main concepts of a local energy management system and adopts a multicriteria perspective to determine optimal solutions for providing energy services through distributed generation.

  20. Application of Absorption Modeling in Rational Design of Drug Product Under Quality-by-Design Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Mitra, Amitava

    2015-09-01

    Physiologically based absorption models can be an important tool in understanding product performance and hence implementation of Quality by Design (QbD) in drug product development. In this report, we show several case studies to demonstrate the potential application of absorption modeling in rational design of drug product under the QbD paradigm. The examples include application of absorption modeling—(1) prior to first-in-human studies to guide development of a formulation with minimal sensitivity to higher gastric pH and hence reduced interaction when co-administered with PPIs and/or H2RAs, (2) design of a controlled release formulation with optimal release rate to meet trough plasma concentrations and enable QD dosing, (3) understanding the impact of API particle size distribution on tablet bioavailability and guide formulation design in late-stage development, (4) assess impact of API phase change on product performance to guide specification setting, and (5) investigate the effect of dissolution rate changes on formulation bioperformance and enable appropriate specification setting. These case studies are meant to highlight the utility of physiologically based absorption modeling in gaining a thorough understanding of the product performance and the critical factors impacting performance to drive design of a robust drug product that would deliver the optimal benefit to the patients.

  1. A communication model to integrate the Request-Response and the Publish-Subscribe paradigms into ubiquitous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Domínguez, Carlos; Benghazi, Kawtar; Noguera, Manuel; Garrido, José Luis; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Ruiz-López, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    The Request-Response (RR) paradigm is widely used in ubiquitous systems to exchange information in a secure, reliable and timely manner. Nonetheless, there is also an emerging need for adopting the Publish-Subscribe (PubSub) paradigm in this kind of systems, due to the advantages that this paradigm offers in supporting mobility by means of asynchronous, non-blocking and one-to-many message distribution semantics for event notification. This paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of both the RR and PubSub paradigms to support communications in ubiquitous systems and proposes an abstract communication model in order to enable their seamless integration. Thus, developers will be focused on communication semantics and the required quality properties, rather than be concerned about specific communication mechanisms. The aim is to provide developers with abstractions intended to decrease the complexity of integrating different communication paradigms commonly needed in ubiquitous systems. The proposal has been applied to implement a middleware and a real home automation system to show its applicability and benefits.

  2. A Communication Model to Integrate the Request-Response and the Publish-Subscribe Paradigms into Ubiquitous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ruiz-López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Request-Response (RR paradigm is widely used in ubiquitous systems to exchange information in a secure, reliable and timely manner. Nonetheless, there is also an emerging need for adopting the Publish-Subscribe (PubSub paradigm in this kind of systems, due to the advantages that this paradigm offers in supporting mobility by means of asynchronous, non-blocking and one-to-many message distribution semantics for event notification. This paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of both the RR and PubSub paradigms to support communications in ubiquitous systems and proposes an abstract communication model in order to enable their seamless integration. Thus, developers will be focused on communication semantics and the required quality properties, rather than be concerned about specific communication mechanisms. The aim is to provide developers with abstractions intended to decrease the complexity of integrating different communication paradigms commonly needed in ubiquitous systems. The proposal has been applied to implement a middleware and a real home automation system to show its applicability and benefits.

  3. A Communication Model to Integrate the Request-Response and the Publish-Subscribe Paradigms into Ubiquitous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Domínguez, Carlos; Benghazi, Kawtar; Noguera, Manuel; Garrido, José Luis; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Ruiz-López, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    The Request-Response (RR) paradigm is widely used in ubiquitous systems to exchange information in a secure, reliable and timely manner. Nonetheless, there is also an emerging need for adopting the Publish-Subscribe (PubSub) paradigm in this kind of systems, due to the advantages that this paradigm offers in supporting mobility by means of asynchronous, non-blocking and one-to-many message distribution semantics for event notification. This paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of both the RR and PubSub paradigms to support communications in ubiquitous systems and proposes an abstract communication model in order to enable their seamless integration. Thus, developers will be focused on communication semantics and the required quality properties, rather than be concerned about specific communication mechanisms. The aim is to provide developers with abstractions intended to decrease the complexity of integrating different communication paradigms commonly needed in ubiquitous systems. The proposal has been applied to implement a middleware and a real home automation system to show its applicability and benefits. PMID:22969366

  4. Paradigm Change: Alternate Approaches to Constitutive and Necking Models for Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, Thomas B.; Yoon, Jeong Whan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work proposing paradigm changes for the currently popular approach to constitutive and failure modeling, focusing on the use of non-associated flow rules to enable greater flexibility to capture the anisotropic yield and flow behavior of metals using less complex functions than those needed under associated flow to achieve that same level of fidelity to experiment, and on the use of stress-based metrics to more reliably predict necking limits under complex conditions of non-linear forming. The paper discusses motivating factors and benefits in favor of both associated and non-associated flow models for metal forming, including experimental, theoretical, and practical aspects. This review is followed by a discussion of the topic of the forming limits, the limitations of strain analysis, the evidence in favor of stress analysis, the effects of curvature, bending/unbending cycles, triaxial stress conditions, and the motivation for the development of a new type of forming limit diagram based on the effective plastic strain or equivalent plastic work in combination with a directional parameter that accounts for the current stress condition.

  5. Explanatory models for homeopathy: from the vital force to the current paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisse, Silvia; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

    2016-08-01

    Facing claims for and against the scientific status of homeopathy, one is entitled to ask: is there a scientific model for homeopathy? In this study we reconstructed the model put forward by Hahnemann. The results showed that it was essentially based on the assumption of a 'vital force' exclusive to living beings. While the vital force was a basic element of 18th-century science, the existence of such a sui generis force of nature was refuted with the formulation of the law of the conservation of energy by mid-19th century. As a function of that fact for homeopathic theory, we discuss the history of the rise and demise of the theory of the vital force from the last quarter of the 18th century to 1830. Finally, we call the attention to the paradigm shift biology underwent starting at the end of the 19th century as the framework for contemporary views on the functioning of living beings and consequently, of the effects of pharmacological agents on them. Copyright © 2016 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Of Paradigms and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Matthijs, Matthias

    in the study of policy paradigms. To demonstrate the general applicability of our framework, the paper examines the evolution of British macroeconomic policy making since 1990. We show that various Prime Ministers and their Chancellors were able to reinterpret and redefine the dominant neoliberal understanding......? Despite the profound impact of Peter Hall’s approach to policy paradigms and social learning, there is a burgeoning consensus that transposing a rudimentary ‘Kuhnian’ understanding of paradigms into the context of public policy making leads to a notion of punctuated equilibrium style shifts as the only...

  7. A paradigm shift toward a consistent modeling framework to assess climate impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, E.; Paltsev, S.; Sokolov, A. P.; Fant, C.; Chen, H.; Gao, X.; Schlosser, C. A.; Scott, J. R.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Ejaz, Q.; Couzo, E. A.; Prinn, R. G.; Haigh, M.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of physical and economic impacts of future climate change are subject to substantial challenges. To enrich the currently popular approaches of assessing climate impacts by evaluating a damage function or by multi-model comparisons based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), we focus here on integrating impacts into a self-consistent coupled human and Earth system modeling framework that includes modules that represent multiple physical impacts. In a sample application we show that this framework is capable of investigating the physical impacts of climate change and socio-economic stressors. The projected climate impacts vary dramatically across the globe in a set of scenarios with global mean warming ranging between 2.4°C and 3.6°C above pre-industrial by 2100. Unabated emissions lead to substantial sea level rise, acidification that impacts the base of the oceanic food chain, air pollution that exceeds health standards by tenfold, water stress that impacts an additional 1 to 2 billion people globally and agricultural productivity that decreases substantially in many parts of the world. We compare the outcomes from these forward-looking scenarios against the common goal described by the target-driven scenario of 2°C, which results in much smaller impacts. It is challenging for large internationally coordinated exercises to respond quickly to new policy targets. We propose that a paradigm shift toward a self-consistent modeling framework to assess climate impacts is needed to produce information relevant to evolving global climate policy and mitigation strategies in a timely way.

  8. Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection: the Badger Model As a Paradigm for Understanding Tuberculosis in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn Gormley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis in animals is caused principally by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and the potential for transmission of infection to humans is often the fundamental driver for surveillance of disease in livestock and wild animals. However, with such a vast array of species susceptible to infection, it is often extremely difficult to gain a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of infection––a key component of the epidemiology in all affected species. This is important because the development of disease control strategies in animals is determined chiefly by an understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. The most revealing data from which to formulate theories on pathogenesis are that observed in susceptible hosts infected by natural transmission. These data are gathered from detailed studies of the distribution of gross and histological lesions, and the presence and distribution of infection as determined by highly sensitive bacteriology procedures. The information can also be used to establish the baseline for evaluating experimental model systems. The European badger (Meles meles is one of a very small number of wild animal hosts where detailed knowledge of the pathogenesis of M. bovis infection has been generated from observations in natural-infected animals. By drawing parallels from other animal species, an experimental badger infection model has also been established where infection of the lower respiratory tract mimics infection and the disease observed in natural-infected badgers. This has facilitated the development of diagnostic tests and testing of vaccines that have the potential to control the disease in badgers. In this review, we highlight the fundamental principles of how detailed knowledge of pathogenesis can be used to evaluate specific intervention strategies, and how the badger model may be a paradigm for understanding pathogenesis of tuberculosis in any affected wild animal species.

  9. Towards a paradigm shift in the modeling of soil organic carbon decomposition for earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yujie

    Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon pools and contain approximately 2200 Pg of carbon. Thus, the dynamics of soil carbon plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate system. Earth System Models are used to project future interactions between terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate. However, these models often predict a wide range of soil carbon responses and their formulations have lagged behind recent soil science advances, omitting key biogeochemical mechanisms. In contrast, recent mechanistically-based biogeochemical models that explicitly account for microbial biomass pools and enzyme kinetics that catalyze soil carbon decomposition produce notably different results and provide a closer match to recent observations. However, a systematic evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of the microbial models and how they differ from empirical, first-order formulations in soil decomposition models for soil organic carbon is still needed. This dissertation consists of a series of model sensitivity and uncertainty analyses and identifies dominant decomposition processes in determining soil organic carbon dynamics. Poorly constrained processes or parameters that require more experimental data integration are also identified. This dissertation also demonstrates the critical role of microbial life-history traits (e.g. microbial dormancy) in the modeling of microbial activity in soil organic matter decomposition models. Finally, this study surveys and synthesizes a number of recently published microbial models and provides suggestions for future microbial model developments.

  10. Illustrating a Model-Game-Model Paradigm for Using Human Wargames in Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    example, a risk -taking model with glorious objectives may give little weight to worst-case possibilities; a risk - averse model concerned primarily with... framing than with details. How can an analytic process that includes gaming contribute? Figure 1 uses the metaphor of learning a game such as chess when...strategies. We might then do some analysis and report tentative conclusions, including suggestions on how to frame mental models, but we would also want

  11. Homeostasis of exercise hyperpnea and optimal sensorimotor integration: the internal model paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Chi-Sang; Tin, Chung; Yu, Yunguo

    2007-10-15

    Homeostasis is a basic tenet of biomedicine and an open problem for many physiological control systems. Among them, none has been more extensively studied and intensely debated than the dilemma of exercise hyperpnea - a paradoxical homeostatic increase of respiratory ventilation that is geared to metabolic demands instead of the normal chemoreflex mechanism. Classical control theory has led to a plethora of "feedback/feedforward control" or "set point" hypotheses for homeostatic regulation, yet so far none of them has proved satisfactory in explaining exercise hyperpnea and its interactions with other respiratory inputs. Instead, the available evidence points to a far more sophisticated respiratory controller capable of integrating multiple afferent and efferent signals in adapting the ventilatory pattern toward optimality relative to conflicting homeostatic, energetic and other objectives. This optimality principle parsimoniously mimics exercise hyperpnea, chemoreflex and a host of characteristic respiratory responses to abnormal gas exchange or mechanical loading/unloading in health and in cardiopulmonary diseases - all without resorting to a feedforward "exercise stimulus". Rather, an emergent controller signal encoding the projected metabolic level is predicted by the principle as an exercise-induced 'mental percept' or 'internal model', presumably engendered by associative learning (operant conditioning or classical conditioning) which achieves optimality through continuous identification of, and adaptation to, the causal relationship between respiratory motor output and resultant chemical-mechanical afferent feedbacks. This internal model self-tuning adaptive control paradigm opens a new challenge and exciting opportunity for experimental and theoretical elucidations of the mechanisms of respiratory control - and of homeostatic regulation and sensorimotor integration in general.

  12. A modeling paradigm for interdisciplinary water resources modeling: Simple Script Wrappers (SSW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, David R.; Bulatewicz, Tom; Aistrup, Joseph A.; Andresen, Daniel; Bernard, Eric A.; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Peterson, Jeffrey M.; Staggenborg, Scott A.; Welch, Stephen M.

    2014-05-01

    Holistic understanding of a water resources system requires tools capable of model integration. This team has developed an adaptation of the OpenMI (Open Modelling Interface) that allows easy interactions across the data passed between models. Capabilities have been developed to allow programs written in common languages such as matlab, python and scilab to share their data with other programs and accept other program's data. We call this interface the Simple Script Wrapper (SSW). An implementation of SSW is shown that integrates groundwater, economic, and agricultural models in the High Plains region of Kansas. Output from these models illustrates the interdisciplinary discovery facilitated through use of SSW implemented models. Reference: Bulatewicz, T., A. Allen, J.M. Peterson, S. Staggenborg, S.M. Welch, and D.R. Steward, The Simple Script Wrapper for OpenMI: Enabling interdisciplinary modeling studies, Environmental Modelling & Software, 39, 283-294, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.07.006 http://code.google.com/p/simple-script-wrapper/

  13. 76 FR 365 - Exposure Modeling Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... classification for ecological risk assessments using aerial photography and GIS data. Dermal contact, movement... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0879; FRL-8860-5] Exposure Modeling Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: An Exposure Modeling...

  14. Applying Olap Model On Public Finance Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dorde Pavlovic; Branko Gledovic

    2011-01-01

    Budget control is derivate from one of the main functions of budget, that aims that the budget is control instrument of acquiring and pending of budget needs. OLAP model represents an instrument that finds its place in the budget planning process, executive phases of budget, accountancy, etc. There is a direct correlation between the OLAP model and public finance management process.

  15. Enhanced Publications: Data Models and Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Bardi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available “Enhanced publications” are commonly intended as digital publications that consist of a mandatory narrative part (the description of the research conducted plus related “parts”, such as datasets, other publications, images, tables, workflows, devices. The state-of-the-art on information systems for enhanced publications has today reached the point where some kind of common understanding is required, in order to provide the methodology and language for scientists to compare, analyse, or simply discuss the multitude of solutions in the field. In this paper, we thoroughly examined the literature with a two-fold aim: firstly, introducing the terminology required to describe and compare structural and semantic features of existing enhanced publication data models; secondly, proposing a classification of enhanced publication information systems based on their main functional goals.

  16. The Financial-Organizational Foundations of Assessment and Comparison of Scientific-Publication Activity of the Employees of Scientific Sphere in Terms of the Paradigm of the Public-Creative Patriotism of Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpinsky Borys A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at allocating both the specific features of financing the scientific sphere of Ukraine in the current period of transformation and the reform of sectors of the national economy, as well as the development of financial-organizational foundations of assessment and comparison of scientific-publication activity of the employees through conformity of the occupied position, proceeding from the paradigm of public-creative patriotism of nation. It has been proved that, in its fundamental essence, the paradigm of public-creative patriotism of nation is manifested and materialized through the physical participation of every citizen in formation of the own state, and is most fully implemented in the simultaneous interaction of individual dominants of such a patriotism: qualitative and quantitative (tax. A characteristic manifestation of such a patriotism in the scientific sphere is the increase of productivity of scholars on the basis of scientific-publication activity, which was for the first time suggested to be assessed on the basis of the Hirsch index for employees in view of the hold position with the relevant rating. The financial-organizational foundations of assessment and comparison of the public-creative patriotism of both the scientific and the teaching staff, allowing to increase potential of scientific sphere of the State in the context of basics of behavioral economics, have been substantiated.

  17. Modelling transparency: A research note on accepting a new paradigm in business reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Key points: - Measuring intangible assets constitutes an accounting perspective on voluntary disclosure - However, business reporting constitutes a strategy perspective on voluntary disclosure - ICAEW should move from an accounting to a strategy perspective and leave the intangible assets debate...... to that of the normative accounting paradigm because there exists an information dilemma in relation to new types of information...

  18. A model of public opinion management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patacconi, Andrea; Vikander, Nicholas Edward

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers often motivate their decisions using information collected by government agencies. While more information can help hold the government to account, it may also give policymakers an incentive to meddle with the work of bureaucrats. This paper develops a model of biased information...... information is always unbiased, may also not be socially optimal. A biased information-gathering process can benefit the government by helping it to shape public opinion. But it can also benefit the public, by curbing the government's tendency to implement its ex ante favored policy, thus mitigating...... the agency conflict between policymakers and the public....

  19. Nanotechnology convergence and modeling paradigm of sustainable energy system using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell as a benchmark example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Pil Seung; So, Dae Sup; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Jhon, Myung S.

    2012-01-01

    Developments in nanotechnology have led to innovative progress and converging technologies in engineering and science. These demand novel methodologies that enable efficient communications from the nanoscale all the way to decision-making criteria for actual production systems. In this paper, we discuss the convergence of nanotechnology and novel multi-scale modeling paradigms by using the fuel cell system as a benchmark example. This approach includes complex multi-phenomena at different time and length scales along with the introduction of an optimization framework for application-driven nanotechnology research trends. The modeling paradigm introduced here covers the novel holistic integration from atomistic/molecular phenomena to meso/continuum scales. System optimization is also discussed with respect to the reduced order parameters for a coarse-graining procedure in multi-scale model integration as well as system design. The development of a hierarchical multi-scale paradigm consolidates the theoretical analysis and enables large-scale decision-making of process level design, based on first-principles, and therefore promotes the convergence of nanotechnology to sustainable energy technologies.

  20. Nanotechnology convergence and modeling paradigm of sustainable energy system using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell as a benchmark example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Pil Seung; So, Dae Sup; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Jhon, Myung S., E-mail: mj3a@andrew.cmu.edu [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Developments in nanotechnology have led to innovative progress and converging technologies in engineering and science. These demand novel methodologies that enable efficient communications from the nanoscale all the way to decision-making criteria for actual production systems. In this paper, we discuss the convergence of nanotechnology and novel multi-scale modeling paradigms by using the fuel cell system as a benchmark example. This approach includes complex multi-phenomena at different time and length scales along with the introduction of an optimization framework for application-driven nanotechnology research trends. The modeling paradigm introduced here covers the novel holistic integration from atomistic/molecular phenomena to meso/continuum scales. System optimization is also discussed with respect to the reduced order parameters for a coarse-graining procedure in multi-scale model integration as well as system design. The development of a hierarchical multi-scale paradigm consolidates the theoretical analysis and enables large-scale decision-making of process level design, based on first-principles, and therefore promotes the convergence of nanotechnology to sustainable energy technologies.

  1. Hyperbrain features of team mental models within a juggling paradigm: a proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Research on cooperative behavior and the social brain exists, but little research has focused on real-time motor cooperative behavior and its neural correlates. In this proof of concept study, we explored the conceptual notion of shared and complementary mental models through EEG mapping of two brains performing a real-world interactive motor task of increasing difficulty. We used the recently introduced participative “juggling paradigm,” and collected neuro-physiological and psycho-social data. We were interested in analyzing the between-brains coupling during a dyadic juggling task, and in exploring the relationship between the motor task execution, the jugglers’skill level and the task difficulty. We also investigated how this relationship could be mirrored in the coupled functional organization of the interacting brains. Methods To capture the neural schemas underlying the notion of shared and complementary mental models, we examined the functional connectivity patterns and hyperbrain features of a juggling dyad involved in cooperative motor tasks of increasing difficulty. Jugglers’ cortical activity was measured using two synchronized 32-channel EEG systems during dyadic juggling performed with 3, 4, 5 and 6 balls. Individual and hyperbrain functional connections were quantified through coherence maps calculated across all electrode pairs in the theta and alpha bands (4–8 and 8–12 Hz. Graph metrics were used to typify the global topology and efficiency of the functional networks for the four difficulty levels in the theta and alpha bands. Results Results indicated that, as task difficulty increased, the cortical functional organization of the more skilled juggler became progressively more segregated in both frequency bands, with a small-world organization in the theta band during easier tasks, indicative of a flow-like state in line with the neural efficiency hypothesis. Conversely, more integrated functional patterns

  2. Systems contestability in electricity distribution networks. An analysis from the telecommunications models within the neoclassical economic paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickardt, Gustavo Alejandro; Pistonesi, Hector

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of contestability conditions in the market of electricity distribution, following the dominant economic paradigm (Neoclassical or Marginalist) and solidary to the commercialization segment, it doesn't exhibit satisfactory solutions at the present time. This asseveration, of general character, have special incumbency for those countries of Latin America that, from regulatory schemes, try to define a deregulated market for certain kind of user (denominated eligible). A eligible user is characterized by to have demands equal or higher than a preset threshold value of electric power/ energy. In this work, considering the models implemented in the telecommunications networks, the problem of allocation of distribution costs, as the first step toward a contestable offer in the retail energy service, is discussed to establishing access prices in the distribution networks (non contestable markets). The analysis is focalized to definition of two market segments: one regulated and other competitive. Their methodological and instrumentation difficulties, are presented, concluding in the necessity of an alternative paradigm.

  3. The Gap-Startle Paradigm for Tinnitus Screening in Animal Models: Limitations and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobarinas, Edward; Hayes, Sarah H.; Allman, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, Turner and colleagues (Behav Neurosci, 120:188–195) introduced the gap-startle paradigm as a high-throughput method for tinnitus screening in rats. Under this paradigm, gap detection ability was assessed by determining the level of inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex produced by a short silent gap inserted in an otherwise continuous background sound prior to a loud startling stimulus. Animals with tinnitus were expected to show impaired gap detection ability (i.e., lack of inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex) if the background sound containing the gap was qualitatively similar to the tinnitus pitch. Thus, for the gap-startle paradigm to be a valid tool to screen for tinnitus, a robust startle response from which to inhibit must be present. Because recent studies have demonstrated that the acoustic startle reflex could be dramatically reduced following noise exposure, we endeavored to 1) modify the gap-startle paradigm to be more resilient in the presence of hearing loss, and 2) evaluate whether a reduction in startle reactivity could confound the interpretation of gap prepulse inhibition and lead to errors in screening for tinnitus. In the first experiment, the traditional broadband noise (BBN) startle stimulus was replaced by a bandpass noise in which the sound energy was concentrated in the lower frequencies (5–10 kHz) in order to maintain audibility of the startle stimulus after unilateral high frequency noise exposure (16 kHz). However, rats still showed a 57% reduction in startle amplitude to the bandpass noise post-noise exposure. A follow-up experiment on a separate group of rats with transiently-induced conductive hearing loss revealed that startle reactivity was better preserved when the BBN startle stimulus was replaced by a rapid airpuff to the back of the rats neck. Furthermore, it was found that transient unilateral conductive hearing loss, which was not likely to induce tinnitus, caused an impairment in gap prepulse inhibition

  4. Internet of Things: a possible change in the distributed modeling and simulation architecture paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Mark; Lessmann, Kurt; Schillero, David

    2016-05-01

    The Data Distribution Service (DDS) was started by the Object Management Group (OMG) in 2004. Currently, DDS is one of the contenders to support the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Industrial IOT (IIoT). DDS has also been used as a distributed simulation architecture. Given the anticipated proliferation of IoT and II devices, along with the explosive growth of sensor technology, can we expect this to have an impact on the broader community of distributed simulation? If it does, what is the impact and which distributed simulation domains will be most affected? DDS shares many of the same goals and characteristics of distributed simulation such as the need to support scale and an emphasis on Quality of Service (QoS) that can be tailored to meet the end user's needs. In addition, DDS has some built-in features such as security that are not present in traditional distributed simulation protocols. If the IoT and II realize their potential application, we predict a large base of technology to be built around this distributed data paradigm, much of which could be directly beneficial to the distributed M&S community. In this paper we compare some of the perceived gaps and shortfalls of current distributed M&S technology to the emerging capabilities of DDS built around the IoT. Although some trial work has been conducted in this area, we propose a more focused examination of the potential of these new technologies and their applicability to current and future problems in distributed M&S. The Internet of Things (IoT) and its data communications mechanisms such as the Data Distribution System (DDS) share properties in common with distributed modeling and simulation (M&S) and its protocols such as the High Level Architecture (HLA) and the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA). This paper proposes a framework based on the sensor use case for how the two communities of practice (CoP) can benefit from one another and achieve greater capability in practical distributed

  5. Software verification, model validation, and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations. A paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work reviewed the current concept of nuclear waste disposal in stable, terrestrial geologic media with a system of natural and man-made multi-barriers. Various aspects of this concept and supporting research were examined with the emphasis on the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Several of the crucial issues and challenges facing the current concept were discussed. These include: The difficulties inherent in a concept that centres around lithologic studies; the unsatisfactory state of software quality assurance in the present computer simulation programs; and the lack of a standardized, comprehensive, and systematic procedure to carry out a rigorous process of model validation and assessment of simulation studies. An outline of such an approach was presented and some of the principles, tools and techniques for software verification were introduced and described. A case study involving an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment computer program is presented. A new paradigm to nuclear waste disposal was advocated to address the challenges facing the existing concept. The RRC (Regional Recharge Concept) was introduced and its many advantages were described and shown through a modelling exercise. (orig./HP)

  6. JOURNALISTIC IDENTITY AND AUDIENCE PERCEPTIONS: PARADIGM AND MODELS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN THE AFRICAN GREAT LAKES REGIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  7. Constructivist Approach in a Paradigm of Public School Teachers' Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada, the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Fuchyla, Olena; Ihnatiuk, Halyna

    2017-01-01

    The article dwells on professional development of public school teachers as an inevitable constituent of education systems in the 21st century. In such economically developed countries as Great Britain, Canada and the USA, the problem of preparing teachers to a difficult and responsible task of upbringing and educating future citizens always…

  8. Bridging FORTRAN to object oriented paradigm for HEP data modeling task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.

    1993-12-01

    Object oriented (OO) technology appears to offer tangible benefits to the high energy physics (HEP) community. Yet many physicists view this newest software development used with much reservation and reluctance. Facing the reality of having to support the existing physics applications, which are written in FORTRAN, the software engineers in the Computer Engineering Group of the Physics Research Division at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory have accepted the challenge of mixing an old language with the new technology. This paper describes the experience and the techniques devised to fit FORTRAN into the OO paradigm (OOP)

  9. Multiscale paradigms in integrated computational materials science and engineering materials theory, modeling, and simulation for predictive design

    CERN Document Server

    Runge, Keith; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge concepts, paradigms, and research highlights in the field of computational materials science and engineering, and provides a fresh, up-to-date perspective on solving present and future materials challenges. The chapters are written by not only pioneers in the fields of computational materials chemistry and materials science, but also experts in multi-scale modeling and simulation as applied to materials engineering. Pedagogical introductions to the different topics and continuity between the chapters are provided to ensure the appeal to a broad audience and to address the applicability of integrated computational materials science and engineering for solving real-world problems.

  10. A new model for understanding the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in siting waste facilities has been impeded by a too-limited understanding of what the public wants. National and statewide surveys sponsored by the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness and others on both high-level and low-level radioactive waste reveal a new, more comprehensive model for assessing public opinion. These surveys by independent research firms -- Market Strategies, Gordon S. Black, Tarrance, and Bruskin/Goldring -- have a margin of error of +3% for national polls and +4% for statewide polls. The old model assumes that because people fear radioactive waste, support for building waste facilities is politically risky. The new model shows that fear of radioactive waste is an important dynamic, but reaches a different conclusion about the public's sense of generational responsibility. Because people see waste as dangerous, most support the principle of transporting the waste to a permanent disposal facility instead of keeping the waste stored at many different sites. Most want to keep the uses of radioactive materials that produce waste -- including nuclear energy. They strongly believe that disposing of radioactive waste now instead of leaving it for future generations is the environmentally responsible thing to do

  11. Single-process versus multiple-strategy models of decision making: evidence from an information intrusion paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söllner, Anke; Bröder, Arndt; Glöckner, Andreas; Betsch, Tilmann

    2014-02-01

    When decision makers are confronted with different problems and situations, do they use a uniform mechanism as assumed by single-process models (SPMs) or do they choose adaptively from a set of available decision strategies as multiple-strategy models (MSMs) imply? Both frameworks of decision making have gathered a lot of support, but only rarely have they been contrasted with each other. Employing an information intrusion paradigm for multi-attribute decisions from givens, SPM and MSM predictions on information search, decision outcomes, attention, and confidence judgments were derived and tested against each other in two experiments. The results consistently support the SPM view: Participants seemingly using a "take-the-best" (TTB) strategy do not ignore TTB-irrelevant information as MSMs would predict, but adapt the amount of information searched, choose alternative choice options, and show varying confidence judgments contingent on the quality of the "irrelevant" information. The uniformity of these findings underlines the adequacy of the novel information intrusion paradigm and comprehensively promotes the notion of a uniform decision making mechanism as assumed by single-process models. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Models in Planning Urban Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The solving of complex problems in public transport requiresthe usage of models that are based on the estimate of demandin planning the transport routes. The intention is to predictwhat is going to happen in the future, if the proposed solutionsare implemented. In the majority of cases, the publictransport system is formed as a network and stored in the computermemory in order to start the evaluation process by specifYingthe number of trip origins and destinations in each zone.The trip distribution model which is used to calculate the numberof trips between each pair in the zone is based on the overalltravel frictions from zone to zone.

  13. The Very High Background Radiation Area in Ramsar, Iran: Public Health Risk or Signal for a Regulatory Paradigm Shift?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. Andrew [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Mortazavi, S.M. Javad [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Medical Physics Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Ramsar, a city on the Caspian Sea in northern Iran hosts the highest measured natural background radiation levels in the world. These are due to the local geology and hydrogeology and, in some places, deliver radiation doses far in excess of those recommended for radiation workers. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy/yr and the highest recorded doses are about 260 mGy/yr. These high radiation levels are due to the deposition of {sup 226}Ra in local rocks and, because these rocks are used in the construction of many local houses, interior radiation levels are often similar to those found outside. The presence of areas such as Ramsar raises an interesting public health policy question: Is it necessary to relocate the inhabitants to areas of lower natural background radiation levels in the interests of public health? According to the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, there is no doubt that relocating the population of Ramsar will result in a reduction in cancer incidence. Therefore, under any reasonable policy based on the LNT hypothesis, the public health is best served by relocating many of Ramsar's inhabitants to other areas along the Caspian Sea. At present, there is no reliable epidemiological data on cancer incidence among the inhabitants of Ramsar's high background radiation areas (HBRAs), but local physicians feel that local cancer incidence rates are lower than in neighboring cities. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that there is a statistically significant radio adaptation in the inhabitants of Ramsar. Interestingly, it seems that the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of the inhabitants of Ramsar is no higher than the control areas. This important finding suggests that the cancer rate in Ramsar should be no higher than in other comparable parts of Iran. In other HBRAs such as Yangjiang, China it has been reported that mortality from all cancers and those from

  14. The Very High Background Radiation Area in Ramsar, Iran: Public Health Risk or Signal for a Regulatory Paradigm Shift?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, P. Andrew; Mortazavi, S.M. Javad

    2001-01-01

    Ramsar, a city on the Caspian Sea in northern Iran hosts the highest measured natural background radiation levels in the world. These are due to the local geology and hydrogeology and, in some places, deliver radiation doses far in excess of those recommended for radiation workers. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy/yr and the highest recorded doses are about 260 mGy/yr. These high radiation levels are due to the deposition of 226 Ra in local rocks and, because these rocks are used in the construction of many local houses, interior radiation levels are often similar to those found outside. The presence of areas such as Ramsar raises an interesting public health policy question: Is it necessary to relocate the inhabitants to areas of lower natural background radiation levels in the interests of public health? According to the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, there is no doubt that relocating the population of Ramsar will result in a reduction in cancer incidence. Therefore, under any reasonable policy based on the LNT hypothesis, the public health is best served by relocating many of Ramsar's inhabitants to other areas along the Caspian Sea. At present, there is no reliable epidemiological data on cancer incidence among the inhabitants of Ramsar's high background radiation areas (HBRAs), but local physicians feel that local cancer incidence rates are lower than in neighboring cities. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that there is a statistically significant radio adaptation in the inhabitants of Ramsar. Interestingly, it seems that the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of the inhabitants of Ramsar is no higher than the control areas. This important finding suggests that the cancer rate in Ramsar should be no higher than in other comparable parts of Iran. In other HBRAs such as Yangjiang, China it has been reported that mortality from all cancers and those from leukemia, breast and

  15. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.

    2014-02-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.

  16. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin, M K; Yahya, Z; Jaapar, A; Harun, R

    2014-01-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations

  17. New Cosmic Center Universe Model Matches Eight of Big Bang's Major Predictions Without The F-L Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Gentry, R V

    2003-01-01

    Accompanying disproof of the F-L expansion paradigm eliminates the basis for expansion redshifts, which in turn eliminates the basis for the Cosmological Principle. The universe is not the same everywhere. Instead the spherical symmetry of the cosmos demanded by the Hubble redshift relation proves the universe is isotropic about a nearby universal Center. This is the foundation of the relatively new Cosmic Center Universe (CCU) model, which accounts for, explains, or predicts: (i) The Hubble redshift relation, (ii) a CBR redshift relation that fits all current CBR measurements, (iii) the recently discovered velocity dipole distribution of radiogalaxies, (iv) the well-known time dilation of SNeIa light curves, (v) the Sunyaev-Zeldovich thermal effect, (vi) Olber's paradox, (vii) SN dimming for z 1 an enhanced brightness that fits SN 1997ff measurements, (ix) the existence of extreme redshift (z > 10) objects which, when observed, will further distinguish it from the big bang. The CCU model also plausibly expl...

  18. Revised Starling equation and the glycocalyx model of transvascular fluid exchange: an improved paradigm for prescribing intravenous fluid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, T E; Woodcock, T M

    2012-03-01

    I.V. fluid therapy does not result in the extracellular volume distribution expected from Starling's original model of semi-permeable capillaries subject to hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients within the extracellular fluid. Fluid therapy to support the circulation relies on applying a physiological paradigm that better explains clinical and research observations. The revised Starling equation based on recent research considers the contributions of the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL), the endothelial basement membrane, and the extracellular matrix. The characteristics of capillaries in various tissues are reviewed and some clinical corollaries considered. The oncotic pressure difference across the EGL opposes, but does not reverse, the filtration rate (the 'no absorption' rule) and is an important feature of the revised paradigm and highlights the limitations of attempting to prevent or treat oedema by transfusing colloids. Filtered fluid returns to the circulation as lymph. The EGL excludes larger molecules and occupies a substantial volume of the intravascular space and therefore requires a new interpretation of dilution studies of blood volume and the speculation that protection or restoration of the EGL might be an important therapeutic goal. An explanation for the phenomenon of context sensitivity of fluid volume kinetics is offered, and the proposal that crystalloid resuscitation from low capillary pressures is rational. Any potential advantage of plasma or plasma substitutes over crystalloids for volume expansion only manifests itself at higher capillary pressures.

  19. THINKING THE CITY, in the TIME of Uncertainty. On models and paradigms of the contemporary city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Brandão

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It’s obvious today that the city we knew has changed: grew far beyond its old limits, multiplied its centres, specialized some areas, expanded its influence with help from infrastructure networks. The rising of the information society, the changing in the economic and technologic paradigms, the globalization (as a process of spacial and temporal reorganization at a world level, reflected deeply in the functioning and demands made to the contemporary city. And if discourses about Space, continue to prevail in architectural and urban culture that we receive everyday, today’s architecture and city are strongly conditioned by different ways to “see” Time. More than temporal concepts schemes, the determinant for “space production” is the way how these temporal conceptions influence and determine the action the city project and its meaning. Analysing several examples of paradigmatic thinking, from recent theory on contemporary city, we’ll study statements and solutions for problems that rise from these new spatial and temporal transformations.

  20. Mass Communication, Public Communication, and Interpersonal Communication: A Global Model for International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    A participatory model of public relations proposed by Dean Kruckeberg and Kenneth Starck would seek not to serve a public but to build a sense of community. In this model the advocacy focus of the publicity model is dropped and there is a movement toward relationships rather than selling products and services. Leaving behind the journalistic…

  1. Agent-Based Modeling for Testing and Designing Novel Decentralized Command and Control System Paradigms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonabeau, Eric; Hunt, Carl W; Gaudiano, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a recent simulation modeling technique that consists of modeling a system from the bottom up, capturing the interactions taking place between the system's constituent units...

  2. Software verification, model validation and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations : a paradigm shift

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work (1) reviews the current concept ad~ internationally on the disposal of highlevel nuclear wastes; (2) discusses some of the major challenges facing this disposal technology; (3) presents an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment work as a case study; and (4) introduces a new paradigm within which to site an underground. disposal facility that offers many significant advantages over the existing concept.

    Chapter 1 explains the setup of the work and forms th...

  3. Is the time right for quantitative public health guidelines on sitting? A narrative review of sedentary behaviour research paradigms and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Ekelund, Ulf; Ding, Ding; Hamer, Mark; Bauman, Adrian E; Lee, I-Min

    2018-06-10

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has been proposed as an 'independent' risk factor for chronic disease risk, attracting much research and media attention. Many countries have included generic, non-quantitative reductions in SB in their public health guidelines and calls for quantitative SB targets are increasing. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate key evidence areas relating to the development of guidance on sitting for adults. We carried out a non-systematic narrative evidence synthesis across seven key areas: (1) definition of SB, (2) independence of sitting from physical activity, (3) use of television viewing as a proxy of sitting, (4) interpretation of SB evidence, (5) evidence on 'sedentary breaks', (6) evidence on objectively measured sedentary SB and mortality and (7) dose response of sitting and mortality/cardiovascular disease. Despite research progress, we still know little about the independent detrimental health effects of sitting, and the possibility that sitting is mostly the inverse of physical activity remains. Unresolved issues include an unclear definition, inconsistencies between mechanistic and epidemiological studies, over-reliance on surrogate outcomes, a very weak epidemiological evidence base to support the inclusion of 'sedentary breaks' in guidelines, reliance on self-reported sitting measures, and misinterpretation of data whereby methodologically inconsistent associations are claimed to be strong evidence. In conclusion, public health guidance requires a consistent evidence base but this is lacking for SB. The development of quantitative SB guidance, using an underdeveloped evidence base, is premature; any further recommendations for sedentary behaviour require development of the evidence base and refinement of the research paradigms used in the field. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  4. Public policy for children in Brazil – the process of implementation of a new model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Stumpf González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently happened the 25th anniversary of the approval of the Child and Adolescent Statute. Which goals are achieved? What changed? This work analyses the Brazilian case in implementation of a new paradigm of children rights and his impact in the definition of aconcrete agenda of public policies, doing an evaluation of the new model and the changes, with focus of the development of a agenda of policies in four subjects: creation of councils, attention for the young lawbreakers, exploitation of child labour and sexual violence against children. At the end are discussed motivation for partial success in implementation of the agenda and responsibilities of the institutional actors involved.

  5. Programming for the Public Good: Ensuring Public Value Through the Cooperative Extension Program Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Franz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective Cooperative Extension programs produce important private and public value for individuals, families, businesses, and communities. However, the public value of Extension programming often goes unmeasured and unarticulated. Extension needs to reclaim its role as a key provider of public value for Land-Grant Universities through strong educational programs driven by infusing public value into all elements of the Extension Program Development Model. This article describes Extension’s public value movement including organizational, professional, program, and scholarship development efforts to enhance public good effectiveness articulation. Lessons learned, implications, and next steps for Extension’s public value success through a strong program development model are also shared.

  6. Mathematical modeling of bone marrow--peripheral blood dynamics in the disease state based on current emerging paradigms, part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afenya, Evans K; Ouifki, Rachid; Camara, Baba I; Mundle, Suneel D

    2016-04-01

    Stemming from current emerging paradigms related to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, an existing mathematical model is expanded and used to study cell interaction dynamics in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The proposed mathematical model is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations with delay, to quantify the dynamics in abnormal hematopoiesis. The steady states of the model are analytically and numerically obtained. Some conditions for the local asymptotic stability of such states are investigated. Model analyses suggest that malignancy may be irreversible once it evolves from a nonmalignant state into a malignant one and no intervention takes place. This leads to the proposition that a great deal of emphasis be placed on cancer prevention. Nevertheless, should malignancy arise, treatment programs for its containment or curtailment may have to include a maximum and extensive level of effort to protect normal cells from eventual destruction. Further model analyses and simulations predict that in the untreated disease state, there is an evolution towards a situation in which malignant cells dominate the entire bone marrow - peripheral blood system. Arguments are then advanced regarding requirements for quantitatively understanding cancer stem cell behavior. Among the suggested requirements are, mathematical frameworks for describing the dynamics of cancer initiation and progression, the response to treatment, the evolution of resistance, and malignancy prevention dynamics within the bone marrow - peripheral blood architecture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Charlotte: Scientific Modeling and Simulation Under the Software as a Service Paradigm, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA spends considerable effort supporting the efforts of collaborating researchers. These researchers are interested in interacting with scientific models provided...

  8. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...

  9. The Strength-Based Counseling Model: A Paradigm Shift in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elsie J.

    2006-01-01

    Sometimes, it is difficult for a profession to move forward because its members interpret emerging conceptual models from the perspective of old frameworks. Each of the five reactants in this issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" interpreted the strength-based counseling model within their own self-adopted framework--Adlerian psychology, role…

  10. Pecan Research and Outreach in New Mexico: Logic Model Development and Change in Communication Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammis, Theodore W.; Shukla, Manoj K.; Mexal, John G.; Wang, Junming; Miller, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Universities develop strategic planning documents, and as part of that planning process, logic models are developed for specific programs within the university. This article examines the long-standing pecan program at New Mexico State University and the deficiencies and successes in the evolution of its logic model. The university's agricultural…

  11. Application of a New Hybrid RANS/LES Modeling Paradigm to Compressible Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Todd; Pederson, Clark; Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert

    2017-11-01

    It is well-known that traditional hybrid RANS/LES modeling approaches suffer from a number of deficiencies. These deficiencies often stem from overly simplistic blending strategies based on scalar measures of turbulence length scale and grid resolution and from use of isotropic subgrid models in LES regions. A recently developed hybrid modeling approach has shown promise in overcoming these deficiencies in incompressible flows [Haering, 2015]. In the approach, RANS/LES blending is accomplished using a hybridization parameter that is governed by an additional model transport equation and is driven to achieve equilibrium between the resolved and unresolved turbulence for the given grid. Further, the model uses an tensor eddy viscosity that is formulated to represent the effects of anisotropic grid resolution on subgrid quantities. In this work, this modeling approach is extended to compressible flows and implemented in the compressible flow solver SU2 (http://su2.stanford.edu/). We discuss both modeling and implementation challenges and show preliminary results for compressible flow test cases with smooth wall separation.

  12. A Model-based Analysis of Impulsivity Using a Slot-Machine Gambling Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saee ePaliwal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity plays a key role in decision-making under uncertainty. It is a significant contributor to problem and pathological gambling. Standard assessments of impulsivity by questionnaires, however, have various limitations, partly because impulsivity is a broad, multi-faceted concept. What remains unclear is which of these facets contribute to shaping gambling behavior. In the present study, we investigated impulsivity as expressed in a gambling setting by applying computational modeling to data from 47 healthy male volunteers who played a realistic, virtual slot-machine gambling task. Behaviorally, we found that impulsivity, as measured independently by the 11th revision of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11, correlated significantly with an aggregate read-out of the following gambling responses: bet increases, machines switches, casino switches and double-ups. Using model comparison, we compared a set of hierarchical Bayesian belief-updating models, i.e. the Hierarchical Gaussian Filter (HGF and Rescorla-Wagner reinforcement learning models, with regard to how well they explained different aspects of the behavioral data. We then examined the construct validity of our winning models with multiple regression, relating subject-specific model parameter estimates to the individual BIS-11 total scores. In the most predictive model (a three-level HGF, the two free parameters encoded uncertainty-dependent mechanisms of belief updates and significantly explained BIS-11 variance across subjects. Furthermore, in this model, decision noise was a function of trial-wise uncertainty about winning probability. Collectively, our results provide a proof of concept that hierarchical Bayesian models can characterize the decision-making mechanisms linked to impulsivity. These novel indices of gambling mechanisms unmasked during actual play may be useful for online prevention measures for at-risk players and future assessments of pathological gambling.

  13. New paradigm for simplified combustion modeling of energetic solids: Branched chain gas reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, M.Q.; Ward, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Son, S.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Two combustion models with simple but rational chemistry are compared: the classical high gas activation energy (E{sub g}/RT {much_gt} 1) Denison-Baum-Williams (DBW) model, and a new low gas activation energy (E{sub g}/RT {much_lt} 1) model recently proposed by Ward, Son, and Brewster (WSB). Both models make the same simplifying assumptions of constant properties, Lewis number unity, single-step, second order gas phase reaction, and single-step, zero order, high activation energy condensed phase decomposition. The only difference is in the gas reaction activation energy E{sub g} which is asymptotically large for DBW and vanishingly small for WSB. For realistic parameters the DBW model predicts a nearly constant temperature sensitivity {sigma}{sub p} and a pressure exponent n approaching 1. The WSB model predicts generally observed values of n = 0.7 to 0.9 and {sigma}{sub p}(T{sub o},P) with the generally observed variations with temperature (increasing) and pressure (decreasing). The WSB temperature profile also matches measured profiles better. Comparisons with experimental data are made using HMX as an illustrative example (for which WSB predictions for {sigma}{sub p}(T{sub o},P) are currently more accurate than even complex chemistry models). WSB has also shown good agreement with NC/NG double base propellant and HNF, suggesting that at the simplest level of combustion modeling, a vanishingly small gas activation energy is more realistic than an asymptotically large one. The authors conclude from this that the important (regression rate determining) gas reaction zone near the surface has more the character of chain branching than thermal decomposition.

  14. The development and modelling of devices and paradigms for transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Stefan M; Deng, Zhi-De

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive neurostimulation technique that can evoke action potentials and modulate neural circuits through induced electric fields. Biophysical models of magnetic stimulation have become a major driver for technological developments and the understanding of the mechanisms of magnetic neurostimulation and neuromodulation. Major technological developments involve stimulation coils with different spatial characteristics and pulse sources to control the pulse waveform. While early technological developments were the result of manual design and invention processes, there is a trend in both stimulation coil and pulse source design to mathematically optimize parameters with the help of computational models. To date, macroscopically highly realistic spatial models of the brain, as well as peripheral targets, and user-friendly software packages enable researchers and practitioners to simulate the treatment-specific and induced electric field distribution in the brains of individual subjects and patients. Neuron models further introduce the microscopic level of neural activation to understand the influence of activation dynamics in response to different pulse shapes. A number of models that were designed for online calibration to extract otherwise covert information and biomarkers from the neural system recently form a third branch of modelling.

  15. The development and modeling of devices and paradigms for transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Stefan M.; Deng, Zhi-De

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive neurostimulation technique that can evoke action potentials and modulate neural circuits through induced electric fields. Biophysical models of magnetic stimulation have become a major driver for technological developments and the understanding of the mechanisms of magnetic neurostimulation and neuromodulation. Major technological developments involve stimulation coils with different spatial characteristics and pulse sources to control the pulse waveform. While early technological developments were the result of manual design and invention processes, there is a trend in both stimulation coil and pulse source design to mathematically optimize parameters with the help of computational models. To date, macroscopically highly realistic spatial models of the brain as well as peripheral targets, and user-friendly software packages enable researchers and practitioners to simulate the treatment-specific and induced electric field distribution in the brains of individual subjects and patients. Neuron models further introduce the microscopic level of neural activation to understand the influence of activation dynamics in response to different pulse shapes. A number of models that were designed for online calibration to extract otherwise covert information and biomarkers from the neural system recently form a third branch of modeling. PMID:28443696

  16. Formation of a new social paradigm in the public administration of health care in Ukraine in the conditions of the reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgheni KULGHINSKI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the review of approaches for the creation of a new social paradigm in the health care system management based on the principles of humanism. The paradigms are based on responsible partnership and person-oriented approach. Major principles of the paradigm’s creation are given in details, as well as their expected impact on implementing reforms in the health care management of Ukraine.

  17. Expansion of the consultation-liaison psychiatry paradigm at a university medical center: integration of diversified clinical and funding models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, James A; Hilty, Donald M; Klein, Sally C; Koike, Alan K; Servis, Mark E; Hales, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    The perspective of the contemporary Consultation-Liason Service (CLS) psychiatrist is increasingly one of consultant to medical and surgical colleagues in models other than inpatient medical and surgical units. Simultaneously, the need for a clinically and educationally robust inpatient CLS persists despite funding pressures. The University of California, Davis Medical Center Department of Psychiatry has made use of creative organizational and financial models to accomplish the inpatient CLS clinical and educational missions in a fiscally responsible manner. In addition, the department has in recent years expanded the delivery of psychiatry consultation-liaison clinical and educational services to other models of care delivery, broadening the role and influence of the CLS. Several of the initiatives described in this paper parallel an overall evolution of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry in response to managed care influences and other systems pressures. This consultation-liaison paradigm expansion with diversified sources of funding support facilitates the development of consultation-liaison psychiatry along additional clinical, administrative, research, and educational dimensions. Other university medical centers may consider adaptation of some of the initiatives described here to their institutions.

  18. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  19. A Buffer Model Account of Behavioral and ERP Patterns in the Von Restorff Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri-Maria Kamp

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We combined a mechanistic model of episodic encoding with theories on the functional significance of two event-related potential (ERP components to develop an integrated account for the Von Restorff effect, which refers to the enhanced recall probability for an item that deviates in some feature from other items in its study list. The buffer model of Lehman and Malmberg (2009, 2013 can account for this effect such that items encountered during encoding enter an episodic buffer where they are actively rehearsed. When a deviant item is encountered, in order to re-allocate encoding resources towards this item the buffer is emptied from its prior content, a process labeled “compartmentalization”. Based on theories on their functional significance, the P300 component of the ERP may co-occur with this hypothesized compartmentalization process, while the frontal slow wave may index rehearsal. We derived predictions from this integrated model for output patterns in free recall, systematic variance in ERP components, as well as associations between the two types of measures in a dataset of 45 participants who studied and freely recalled lists of the Von Restorff type. Our major predictions were confirmed and the behavioral and physiological results were consistent with the predictions derived from the model. These findings demonstrate that constraining mechanistic models of episodic memory with brain activity patterns and generating predictions for relationships between brain activity and behavior can lead to novel insights into the relationship between the brain, the mind, and behavior.

  20. The impact of the paradigm shift in the pop industry business model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Seguí Moreno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present works is a synthesis of a final project for the Master’s Degree in Cultural Management. In the latest years, Internet has been the source of many changes in our society. The music industry has suffered a structural and irreversible change, which is reflected in the current vision of the business model held by music professionals. On the other hand, specialized magazines have become crucial as a filter for quality music, in a new scenario where musicians and consumers are in charge of establishing the guidelines to configure a new model.

  1. Semantic integration of scientific publications and research data: proposal of model of expanded publication for the area of nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Luana Farias

    2014-01-01

    This research takes place under the conditions of an arising scientific paradigm, known as e-Science or 4 th Scientific Paradigm. This new way of doing science is characterized by intensive use of computer networks, distributed digital repositories and by extraordinary generation of research data, which is a consequence of the heavy use of information and simulation technologies and advancing of scientific instrumentation. The information environment that is established as a result of these transformations significantly impacts the patterns of scientific communication, especially regarding to cooperative research, the sharing and reuse of information resources and ways to communicate and to disseminate research results. In order to create a context for their field of study, the thesis contributes to delineate new and renewed concepts for Information Science such as e-Science, curation of research data, complex digital objects, data repository, CRIS (Current Research Information System Model ) and others key infrastructures for the management of research and also of new conceptions of academic and scientific publications. The research is based on two assumptions: first raises the need for a model of scientific publication that would reflect the new standard for generating scientific knowledge characterized by data richness, and being able to integrate these data to publications; the second highlights that this can be performed according to the technological possibilities and standards arising from the Semantic Web. These two assumptions embody the formulation of the hypothesis raised by this thesis: a scientific publication can be enriched and be closer to new ways of generating knowledge, which characterizes contemporary science, if it is configured according to a model that links through semantic relations the research data and datasets to conventional publication. The method adopted was the deductive one, starting from general concepts of Information Science

  2. Peridynamic Theory as a New Paradigm for Multiscale Modeling of Sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdeljawad, Fadi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ford, Kurtis Ross [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Sintering is a component fabrication process in which powder is compacted by pressing or some other means and then held at elevated temperature for a period of hours. The powder grains bond with each other, leading to the formation of a solid component with much lower porosity, and therefore higher density and higher strength, than the original powder compact. In this project, we investigated a new way of computationally modeling sintering at the length scale of grains. The model uses a high-fidelity, three-dimensional representation with a few hundred nodes per grain. The numerical model solves the peridynamic equations, in which nonlocal forces allow representation of the attraction, adhesion, and mass diffusion between grains. The deformation of the grains is represented through a viscoelastic material model. The project successfully demonstrated the use of this method to reproduce experimentally observed features of material behavior in sintering, including densification, the evolution of microstructure, and the occurrence of random defects in the sintered solid.

  3. When standards become business models: Reinterpreting "failure" in the standardization paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkins, R.; Ballon, P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to explore the question: 'What is the relationship between standards and business models?' and illustrate the conceptual linkage with reference to developments in the mobile communications industry. Design/methodology/approach - A succinct overview of literature on

  4. Non parametric, self organizing, scalable modeling of spatiotemporal inputs: the sign language paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridakis, G; Karpouzis, K; Drosopoulos, A; Kollias, S

    2012-12-01

    Modeling and recognizing spatiotemporal, as opposed to static input, is a challenging task since it incorporates input dynamics as part of the problem. The vast majority of existing methods tackle the problem as an extension of the static counterpart, using dynamics, such as input derivatives, at feature level and adopting artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques originally designed for solving problems that do not specifically address the temporal aspect. The proposed approach deals with temporal and spatial aspects of the spatiotemporal domain in a discriminative as well as coupling manner. Self Organizing Maps (SOM) model the spatial aspect of the problem and Markov models its temporal counterpart. Incorporation of adjacency, both in training and classification, enhances the overall architecture with robustness and adaptability. The proposed scheme is validated both theoretically, through an error propagation study, and experimentally, on the recognition of individual signs, performed by different, native Greek Sign Language users. Results illustrate the architecture's superiority when compared to Hidden Markov Model techniques and variations both in terms of classification performance and computational cost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A mouse model of prenatal ethanol exposure using a voluntary drinking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Andrea M; Chynoweth, Julie; Tyler, Lani A; Caldwell, Kevin K

    2003-12-01

    The incidence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders is estimated to be as high as 1 in 100 births. Efforts to better understand the basis of prenatal ethanol-induced impairments in brain functioning, and the mechanisms by which ethanol produces these defects, will rely on the use of animal models of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). Using a saccharin-sweetened alcohol solution, we developed a free-choice, moderate alcohol access model of prenatal alcohol exposure. Stable drinking of a saccharin solution (0.066%) was established in female mice. Ethanol then was added to the saccharin in increasing concentrations (2%, 5%, 10% w/v) every 2 days. Water was always available, and mice consumed standard pellet chow. Control mice drank saccharin solution without ethanol. After a stable baseline of ethanol consumption (14 g/kg/day) was obtained, females were impregnated. Ethanol consumption continued throughout pregnancy and then was decreased to 0% in a step-wise fashion over a period of 6 days after pups were delivered. Characterization of the model included measurements of maternal drinking patterns, blood alcohol levels, food consumption, litter size, pup weight, pup retrieval times for the dams, and effects of FAE on performance in fear-conditioned learning and novelty exploration. Maternal food consumption, maternal care, and litter size and number were all found to be similar for the alcohol-exposed and saccharin control animals. FAE did not alter locomotor activity in an open field but did increase the time spent inspecting a novel object introduced into the open field. FAE mice displayed reduced contextual fear when trained using a delay fear conditioning procedure. The mouse model should be a useful tool in testing hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying the learning deficits present in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Moreover, a mouse prenatal ethanol model should increase the opportunity to use the power of genetically defined and genetically altered mouse

  6. An Operational Implementation of a CBRN Sensor-Driven Modeling Paradigm for Stochastic Event Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    operationnelle pour la reconstruction de sources, au systeme de model- isation urbaine multi echelle integre mis en oeuvre dans !’infrastructure informatique...or urbanLS, respectively. However, for the Bayesian inversion of concentration data to be practical , fast and efficient techniques are required for...sensitivity and/or uncertainty analysis methods that have been used to quantify and reduce them. In this paper , all the various error contributions to

  7. Representative Structural Element - A New Paradigm for Multi-Scale Structural Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-05

    9,10,11]. Prof. Yu was invited to give a seminar with the same title of this project at AFRL WPAFB (Nov. 4, 2013). The host is Dr. Steve Clay of...Aerospace System Directorate. Prof. Yu also had frequent interaction with Dr. Clay regarding damage modeling of composite laminates. He has kindly... viscosity parameter is adopted to yield close predictions of the specimen responses. The load rate and the specimen mass density are properly selected to

  8. Information Management Workflow and Tools Enabling Multiscale Modeling Within ICME Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Austin, Nic; Terentjev, Igor; Cebon, Dave; Marsden, Will

    2016-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on reducing the cost and time to market of new materials, the need for analytical tools that enable the virtual design and optimization of materials throughout their processing - internal structure - property - performance envelope, along with the capturing and storing of the associated material and model information across its lifecycle, has become critical. This need is also fueled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing; consistency, quality and traceability of data; product design; engineering analysis; as well as control of access to proprietary or sensitive information. Fortunately, material information management systems and physics-based multiscale modeling methods have kept pace with the growing user demands. Herein, recent efforts to establish workflow for and demonstrate a unique set of web application tools for linking NASA GRC's Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Granta MI database schema and NASA GRC's Integrated multiscale Micromechanics Analysis Code (ImMAC) software toolset are presented. The goal is to enable seamless coupling between both test data and simulation data, which is captured and tracked automatically within Granta MI®, with full model pedigree information. These tools, and this type of linkage, are foundational to realizing the full potential of ICME, in which materials processing, microstructure, properties, and performance are coupled to enable application-driven design and optimization of materials and structures.

  9. The Berk-Breizman Model as a Paradigm for Energetic Particle-driven Alfven Eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesur, M.

    2010-01-01

    The achievement of sustained nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasma relies on efficient confinement of alpha particles. Such particles can excite instabilities in the frequency range of Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs), which significantly degrade their confinement and threatens the vacuum vessel of future reactors. In the case of an isolated single resonance, the description of AE destabilization by high-energy ions is homothetic to the so-called Berk-Breizman (BB) problem. A semi-Lagrangian simulation code, COBBLES, is developed to solve the initial-value BB problem in both perturbative (δf) and self-consistent (full-f) approaches. Two collision models are considered, namely a Krook model, and a model that includes dynamical friction (drag) and velocity-space diffusion. The nonlinear behavior of instabilities in experimentally-relevant conditions is categorized into steady-state, periodic, chaotic, and frequency-sweeping (chirping) regimes, depending on external damping rate and collision frequency. The chaotic regime is shown to extend into a linearly stable region, and a mechanism that solves the paradox formed by the existence of such subcritical instabilities is proposed. Analytic and semi-empirical laws for nonlinear chirping characteristics, such as sweeping-rate, lifetime, and asymmetry, are developed and validated. Long-time simulations demonstrate the existence of a quasi-periodic chirping regime. Although the existence of such regime stands for both collision models, drag and diffusion are essential to reproduce the alternation between major chirping events and quiescent phases, which is observed in experiments. A new method for analyzing fundamental kinetic plasma parameters, such as linear drive and external damping rate, is developed. The method, which consists of fitting procedures between COBBLES simulations and quasi-periodic chirping AE experiments, does not require any internal diagnostics. This approach is applied to Toroidicity-induced AEs

  10. The Berk-Breizman Model as a Paradigm for Energetic Particle-driven Alfven Eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesur, M.

    2010-01-01

    The achievement of sustained nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasma relies on efficient confinement of alpha particles, which are high-energy ions produced by the fusion reaction. Such particles can excite instabilities in the frequency range of Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs), which significantly degrade their confinement and threatens the vacuum vessel of future reactors. In order to develop diagnostics and control schemes, a better understanding of linear and nonlinear features of resonant interactions between plasma waves and high-energy particles, which is the aim of this thesis, is required. In the case of an isolated single resonance, the description of AE destabilization by high-energy ions is homothetic to the so-called Berk-Breizman (BB) problem, which is an extension of the classic bump-on-tail electrostatic problem, including external damping to a thermal plasma, and collisions. A semi-Lagrangian simulation code, COBBLES, is developed to solve the initial-value BB problem in both perturbative (δ f) and self-consistent (full-f) approaches. Two collision models are considered, namely a Krook model, and a model that includes dynamical friction (drag) and velocity-space diffusion. The nonlinear behavior of instabilities in experimentally-relevant conditions is categorized into steady-state, periodic, chaotic, and frequency-sweeping (chirping) regimes, depending on external damping rate and collision frequency. The chaotic regime is shown to extend into a linearly stable region, and a mechanism that solves the paradox formed by the existence of such subcritical instabilities is proposed. Analytic and semi-empirical laws for nonlinear chirping characteristics, such as sweeping-rate, lifetime, and asymmetry, are developed and validated. Long-time simulations demonstrate the existence of a quasi-periodic chirping regime. Although the existence of such regime stands for both collision models, drag and diffusion are essential to reproduce the alternation between

  11. Cracking the Stoping Paradigm: Field and Modeling Constraints From the Sierra Nevada Batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignotta, G. S.; Paterson, S. R.; Okaya, D.

    2001-12-01

    The significance of stoping during pluton emplacement remains a controversial issue. This mechanism has fallen out of favor recently largely due to the apparent lack of stoped blocks preserved in plutons. Our field studies in plutons in a variety of tectonic settings clearly show evidence of stoping. This is not surprising since stoping should be favored when large thermal gradients exist at magma-host rock boundaries. Preservation of stoped blocks is uncommon however, since the rate at which blocks sink is much greater than the rate at which magmas crystallize (Paterson and Okaya, 1999). Thus, only during final crystallization when magmatic yield strength is high, should stoped blocks be trapped. The Mitchell Peak granodiorite, Sierra Nevada is a rare example of a pluton that preserves abundant stoped blocks, with the youngest intrusive phase preserving >25% stoped blocks, and locally, near the margins >50% of exposed surface area is stoped blocks. Thus stoping is an important process here, at least during the final stages of emplacement. This area is ideal to study the mechanisms of block formation and disintegration using both field and modeling techniques, because of abundant stoped blocks, excellent exposure, and nature of host rock. The host rock is a slightly older, coarse grained, granodioritic intrusion that preserves extremely weak to no magmatic fabric, and thus can be treated as a "homogeneous and isotropic" medium for the purposes of thermal-mechanical modeling. Detailed mapping indicates that preserved stoped blocks range in size from hundreds of m's to xenocrystic feldspars, and there is abundant evidence for mechanical disintegration of blocks. Thermal-mechanical models, using detailed maps from the Mitchell Peak area, further support field observations. Rates at which thermal stresses develop and exceed host rock tensile strength are extremely rapid (hours to days) compared to onset of crystal plastic flow and/or melting. The calculated pattern of

  12. CP violation in beauty decays the standard model paradigm of large effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bigi, Ikaros I.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Standard Model contains a natural source for CP asymmetries in weak decays, which is described by the KM mechanism. Beyond \\epsilon _K it generates only elusive manifestations of CP violation in {\\em light-}quark systems. On the other hand it naturally leads to large asymmetries in certain non-leptonic beauty decays. In particular when B^0-\\bar B^0 oscillations are involved, theoretical uncertainties in the hadronic matrix elements either drop out or can be controlled, and one predicts asymmetries well in excess of 10\\% with high parametric reliability. It is briefly described how the KM triangle can be determined experimentally and then subjected to sensitive consistency tests. Any failure would constitute indirect, but unequivocal evidence for the intervention of New Physics; some examples are sketched. Any outcome of a comprehensive program of CP studies in B decays -- short of technical failure -- will provide us with fundamental and unique insights into nature's design.

  13. METABO: a new paradigm towards diabetes disease management. An innovative business model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Alejandra; Colás, Javier; Fico, Giuseppe; Guillén, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Dealing with a chronic disease and, more specifically, with Diabetes Mellitus and other metabolic disorders, represents a great challenge for care givers, patients and the healthcare systems as their treatment requires continuous medical care and patient self management. The engagement of patients in the adoption of healthy lifestyles with a positive impact in the progression of their diseases is fundamental to avoid the appearance of chronic complications or co-morbidities. This paper presents the externalization of the health management of diabetic patients as an alternative to the current models of care for these patients that can help improve the quality of follow up and care delivery and contribute to the sustainability of the healthcare systems.

  14. Should the IDC-9 Trauma Mortality Prediction Model become the new paradigm for benchmarking trauma outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adil H; Villegas, Cassandra V; Saleem, Taimur; Efron, David T; Stevens, Kent A; Oyetunji, Tolulope A; Cornwell, Edward E; Bowman, Stephen; Haack, Sara; Baker, Susan P; Schneider, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    Optimum quantification of injury severity remains an imprecise science with a need for improvement. The accuracy of the criterion standard Injury Severity Score (ISS) worsens as a patient's injury severity increases, especially among patients with penetrating trauma. The objective of this study was to comprehensively compare the mortality prediction ability of three anatomic injury severity indices: the ISS, the New ISS (NISS), and the DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.-Trauma Mortality Prediction Model (TMPM-ICD-9), a recently developed contemporary injury assessment model. Retrospective analysis of patients in the National Trauma Data Bank from 2007 to 2008. The TMPM-ICD-9 values were computed and compared with the ISS and NISS for each patient using in-hospital mortality after trauma as the outcome measure. Discrimination and calibration were compared using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve. Subgroup analysis was performed to compare each score across varying ranges of injury severity and across different types of injury. A total of 533,898 patients were identified with a crude mortality rate of 4.7%. The ISS and NISS performed equally in the groups with minor (ISS, 1-8) and moderate (ISS, 9-15) injuries, regardless of the injury type. However, in the populations with severe (ISS, 16-24) and very severe (ISS, ≥ 25) injuries for all injury types, the NISS predicted mortality better than the ISS did. The TMPM-ICD-9 outperformed both the NISS and ISS almost consistently. The NISS and TMPM-ICD-9 are both superior predictors of mortality as compared with the ISS. The immediate adoption of NISS for evaluating trauma outcomes using trauma registry data is recommended. The TMPM-ICD-9 may be an even better measure of human injury, and its use in administrative or nonregistry data is suggested. Further research on its attributes is recommended because it has the potential to become the basis for benchmarking trauma outcomes

  15. Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation in Cartilage Repair: Graft Storage Paradigm, Translational Models, and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, William D.; Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L.; Görtz, Simon; Amiel, David; Sah, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of articular cartilage injury and disease has become an increasingly relevant part of orthopaedic care. Articular cartilage transplantation, in the form of osteochondral allografting, is one of the most established techniques for restoration of articular cartilage. Our research efforts over the last two decades have supported the transformation of this procedure from experimental “niche” status to a cornerstone of orthopaedic practice. In this Kappa Delta paper, we describe our translational and clinical science contributions to this transformation: (1) to enhance the ability of tissue banks to process and deliver viable tissue to surgeons and patients, (2) to improve the biological understanding of in vivo cartilage and bone remodeling following osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation in an animal model system, (3) to define effective surgical techniques and pitfalls, and (4) to identify and clarify clinical indications and outcomes. The combination of coordinated basic and clinical studies is part of our continuing comprehensive academic OCA transplant program. Taken together, the results have led to the current standards for OCA processing and storage prior to implantation and also novel observations and mechanisms of the biological and clinical behavior of OCA transplants in vivo. Thus, OCA transplantation is now a successful and increasingly available treatment for patients with disabling osteoarticular cartilage pathology. PMID:26234194

  16. Consumers’ evaluation of national new energy vehicle policy in China: An analysis based on a four paradigm model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenbo; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese government has issued numerous policies to promote the development and adoption of new energy vehicles (NEVs) to address the problem of excessive energy consumption and environmental pollution. In this study we divided these policies into seven categories: macroscopic, demonstration, subsidization, preferential tax, technical support, industry management, and infrastructure. Since consumers’ opinions affect the policy choices of government, based on questionnaire data we use a four paradigm model to analyze the consumers’ evaluation of each policy in terms of perceptions of importance and satisfaction. The results show that macroscopic policies are perceived to be of high importance and satisfaction, whereas for industry management policies they are perceived to be of low importance and satisfaction. The importance perceptions of preferential tax and demonstration policies are low, whereas perceptions of their satisfaction are high. Perceptions of the importance of subsidization, technical support, and infrastructure policies are high, whereas perceptions of their satisfaction are low. We find that the subsidization, technical support, and infrastructure policies need urgent improvement. Finally, we put forward several suggestions to improve the current policies and increase the consumers’ intention to adopt NEVs. - Highlights: • This study divided Chinese NEV-related policies into seven types. • This study analyzed consumers’ evaluation of NEV-related policies. • Consumers’ evaluations about NEV-related policies were diverse. • Subsidization, technical support, and infrastructure policies need improvement.

  17. Systems thinking: what business modeling can do for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Warren; Lyalin, David; Wingo, Phyllis A

    2005-01-01

    Today's public health programs are complex business systems with multiple levels of collaborating federal, state, and local entities. The use of proven systems engineering modeling techniques to analyze, align, and streamline public health operations is in the beginning stages. The authors review the initial business modeling efforts in immunization and cancer registries and present a case to broadly apply business modeling approaches to analyze and improve public health processes.

  18. The CNSE Public-Private Partnership Paradigm: A Driver for New York State and U.S. Educational, Research and Economic Excellence in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupoli, Edward M.

    2009-10-01

    The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) of the University at Albany-SUNY is the first college in the world dedicated to education, research, development, and deployment in the emerging disciplines of nanoscience, nanoengineering, nanobioscience, and nanoeconomics. Envisioned and developed as a bold and unique educational, technological and business paradigm, the CNSE model has produced outcomes that are both significant and unparalleled: preparation of a highly educated, highly skilled workforce that is critical to driving opportunity and growth at all levels; acceleration of nanoscale research and development that is vital to advancing the commercialization of cutting-edge technologies and applications; and, generation of unmatched high-tech investment and job creation that are serving to foster a positive economic and societal impact throughout New York State, while also enhancing national competitiveness in the global innovation economy of the 21^st century. In less than a decade of operation, CNSE has become a globally recognized entity. CNSE's Albany NanoTech Complex is the most advanced research enterprise of its kind at any university in the world: a 5 billion, 800,000-square-foot complex that continuously attracts corporate partners from around the world, offers students a one-of-a-kind academic experience, and educates society on the implications of advances in nanotechnology. CNSE's Albany NanoTech houses the only fully-integrated 300mm wafer, computer chip pilot prototyping and demonstration line within 80,000 square feet of Class 1 capable cleanrooms. More than 2,500 scientists, researchers, engineers, students, and faculty work on site at CNSE's Albany NanoTech, with a network of global corporate partners that includes more than 250 leading nanotechnology companies, such as IBM, AMD, GlobalFoundries, SEMATECH, Toshiba, ASML, Applied Materials, Tokyo Electron, Vistec Lithography and Atotech, among many others.

  19. A META-MODELLING SERVICE PARADIGM FOR CLOUD COMPUTING AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:Service integrators seek opportunities to align the way they manage resources in the service supply chain. Many business organisations can operate new, more flexible business processes that harness the value of a service approach from the customer’s perspective. As a relatively new concept, cloud computing and related technologies have rapidly gained momentum in the IT world. This article seeks to shed light on service supply chain issues associated with cloud computing by examining several interrelated questions: service supply chain architecture from a service perspective; the basic clouds of service supply chain; managerial insights into these clouds; and the commercial value of implementing cloud computing. In particular, to show how those services can be used, and involved in their utilisation processes, a hypothetical meta-modelling service of cloud computing is proposed. Moreover, the paper defines the managed cloud architecture for a service vendor or service integrator in the cloud computing infrastructure in the service supply chain: IT services, business services, business processes, which create atomic and composite software services that are used to perform business processes with business service choreographies.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Diensintegreeders is op soek na geleenthede om die bestuur van hulpbronne in die diensketting te belyn. Talle organisasies kan nuwe, meer buigsame besigheidprosesse, wat die waarde van ‘n diensaanslag uit die kliënt se oogpunt inspan, gebruik. As ‘n relatiewe nuwe konsep het wolkberekening en verwante tegnologie vinnig momentum gekry in die IT-wêreld. Die artikel poog om lig te werp op kwessies van die diensketting wat verband hou met wolkberekening deur verskeie verwante vrae te ondersoek: dienkettingargitektuur uit ‘n diensoogpunt; die basiese wolk van die diensketting; bestuursinsigte oor sodanige wolke; en die kommersiële waarde van die implementering van

  20. Performance Evaluation of Public Services: A Development of Public Services Quality Measurement and Customer Satisfaction Model on Three Cities in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Gayatri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization in Indonesia was meant to aid in the shifting of power from the central government to local governments, with the main aim to increase public services towards a more expeditious, efficient, flexible, and high quality of services, changing the paradigm from a ‘served bureaucracy’ towards a ‘bureaucracy that serves’. This research will evaluate: first, the perception of public service consumers towards the quality of public/government services, second, the perceived value received from public services, as well as third, the measurement of their satisfaction level resulting from the quality of services delivered by local governments at city level in the three areas of the Java Island. The research will use triangulation methods: qualitative research will be conducted using focus group discussions whereas quantitative research will be conducted using surveys.The findings are: first, the ten dimensions of service quality for the public sector -i.e. tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, credibility, competence, understanding customers, access, security, communication, and courtesy- were all proven to form the service quality construct in the public service quality. Moreover the proposed model that depicts the relationship between public service quality, perceived value and satisfaction was also confirmed; hence provide an evaluation tool for public services in city level.

  1. A Unique Publication Model that Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraga Blazer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal was once a new and unknown publication. Today we have more than 17,000 subscribers from 146 nations and territories. We published 39 scientific medical papers in 2017 out of 61 submitted manuscripts. We are now indexed by PubMed and Thompson Reuters Emerging Sources Citation Index, to name a few. Next year, the Journal is scheduled to receive an official impact factor from Thompson Reuters. We are not so unknown anymore. As a new Journal, most of the papers submitted were naturally reviews. However, the most important aspect for the promotion and advancement of medicine is publication of original research. To promote such efforts the editors of Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal established in 2017 the Maimonides Best Published Original Research Prize. This annual prize of $1,000 is to be awarded to the first author of the best original research paper published in the journal over the previous year. This prize is an added benefit to authors. Since asking for fees from authors who have few or no research funds or grants may preclude publication of their papers, our Journal has no subscription fees, no submission fees, and no publication fees. Equally noteworthy is that although published by Rambam Health Care Campus, the Journal is unaffiliated with any organization or society. A decision was also made when the Journal was established to seek no advertising—perhaps the most unusual feature of this publication. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal is donor-supported by those who share in our vision to ensure that anyone anywhere in the world can submit their scholarly work with no fear of commercial bias and no fees to impede publication.

  2. Negotiation as a Model for Teaching Public Relations Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Martha Dunagin; Perrigo, Eileen

    1998-01-01

    Shows that negotiation provides an effective model for teaching public relations professionalism. Describes how two professors in a public relations class used a negotiation model to teach students to simultaneously balance the two components of professionalism: ethical considerations and pragmatic, problem-solving measures. (SR)

  3. Consensus based Nuclear Public-Hearing system Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Wook; Cho, Young Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Ko, Hyun Seok; Kim, Suk Hoon; Kang, Chang Sun

    2006-01-01

    For public participation, Korea has a system of Public-Hearing in accordance with the law. Because of the absence of the detailed way for public opinion aggregation and for the reflection of the aggregated opinion, Korean Public-Hearing system is only a concept model. In this study, to share the right of decision making, which is an ultimate concept for public participation, components of decision making and the characteristics of each phase are analyzed. It could be said that the relative weight of attributes for assessment and comparison with alternatives are founded as a valuation factor of the decision making, which should be based on the social consensus

  4. Secular variation of the amount of nuclear information and its interpretation by a media-public interaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1998-01-01

    Time dependent characteristics of the amount of nuclear information fed by the Japanese press are explained by a nonlinear model with mutual interaction between the media and the public. In the secular variation of that amount since the early 1950s, there appears semicyclicly oscillating fine structure of that amount with a period of several months superposed on a background having a feature of slowly varying wave of information with a period of around ten years. A model is proposed such that an individual media determines its reportorial stance using the response of the public to the preceding information and the general tendency of the other media as measures of judgement. Since the structure of this model resembles to that of an evolving ecosystem, the paradigm shift in nuclear information can be interpreted by analogy with the succession of facies in an ecological system. Moreover, the slowly time-varying waves of information associated with the paradigm shift is found to be grasped as a resultant of prevalence phenomenon if the nuclear paradigm is regarded as a sort of prevalence. The oscillation of the amount of information in a short time scale, on the other hand, is found to appear as a result of the competition between the extent of reflection of the present amount of information to the next information and the extent of reflection of the reportorial state of the other media also to the next information under the existence of public response. Those characteristics regarding the amount of nuclear information are found to come out as necessary consequences of the society with mutual stimulation between the media and the public. (author)

  5. MODELLING OF FINANCIAL EFFECTIVENESS AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PROJECTS AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Aleksey Alekseevich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity of extension and development of tools for methodological evaluation of effectiveness of public-private partnership (PPP projects both individually and in comparison of effectiveness of various mechanisms of projects realization on the example of traditional public procurement. The author proposed an original technique of modelling cash flows of private and public partners when realizing the projects based on PPP and on public procurement. The model enables us promptly and with sufficient accuracy to reveal comparative advantages of project forms of PPP and public procurement, and also assess financial effectiveness of the PPP projects for each partner. The modelling is relatively straightforward and reliable. The model also enables us to evaluate public partner's expenses for availability, find the terms and thresholds for interest rates of financing attracted by the partners and for risk probabilities to ensure comparative advantage of PPP project. Proposed criteria of effectiveness are compared with methodological recommendations provided by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation. Subject: public and private organizations, financial institutions, development institutions and their theoretical and practical techniques for effectiveness evaluation of public-private partnership (PPP projects. Complexity of effectiveness evaluation and the lack of unified and accepted methodology are among the factors that limit the development of PPP in the Russian Federation nowadays. Research objectives: development of methodological methods for assessing financial efficiency of PPP projects by creating and justifying application of new principles and methods of modelling, and also criteria for effectiveness of PPP projects both individually and in comparison with the public procurement. Materials and methods: open database of ongoing PPP projects in the Russian Federation and abroad was used. The

  6. Predictive Modeling of a Paradigm Mechanical Cooling Tower Model: II. Optimal Best-Estimate Results with Reduced Predicted Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixian Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work uses the adjoint sensitivity model of the counter-flow cooling tower derived in the accompanying PART I to obtain the expressions and relative numerical rankings of the sensitivities, to all model parameters, of the following model responses: (i outlet air temperature; (ii outlet water temperature; (iii outlet water mass flow rate; and (iv air outlet relative humidity. These sensitivities are subsequently used within the “predictive modeling for coupled multi-physics systems” (PM_CMPS methodology to obtain explicit formulas for the predicted optimal nominal values for the model responses and parameters, along with reduced predicted standard deviations for the predicted model parameters and responses. These explicit formulas embody the assimilation of experimental data and the “calibration” of the model’s parameters. The results presented in this work demonstrate that the PM_CMPS methodology reduces the predicted standard deviations to values that are smaller than either the computed or the experimentally measured ones, even for responses (e.g., the outlet water flow rate for which no measurements are available. These improvements stem from the global characteristics of the PM_CMPS methodology, which combines all of the available information simultaneously in phase-space, as opposed to combining it sequentially, as in current data assimilation procedures.

  7. Modeling the diffusion of scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper illustrates that salient features of a panel of time series of annual citations can be captured by a Bass type diffusion model. We put forward an extended version of this diffusion model, where we consider the relation between key characteristics of the diffusion process and

  8. 76 FR 53454 - Exposure Modeling Public Meeting; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Exposure Modeling Public Meeting will be held for presentation and discussion of current issues related to... Exponential Concentration Decline with Application to Riparian-Aquatic Pesticide Ecotoxicity. 4. Pesticide...

  9. Smart grids: A paradigm shift on energy generation and distribution with the emergence of a new energy management business model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Jesus Alvaro

    An energy and environmental crisis will emerge throughout the world if we continue with our current practices of generation and distribution of electricity. A possible solution to this problem is based on the Smart grid concept, which is heavily influenced by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Although the electricity industry is mostly regulated, there are global models used as roadmaps for Smart Grids' implementation focusing on technologies and the basic generation-distribution-transmission model. This project aims to further enhance a business model for a future global deployment. It takes into consideration the many factors interacting in this energy provision process, based on the diffusion of technologies and literature surveys on the available documents in the Internet as well as peer-reviewed publications. Tariffs and regulations, distributed energy generation, integration of service providers, consumers becoming producers, self-healing devices, and many other elements are shifting this industry into a major change towards liberalization and deregulation of this sector, which has been heavily protected by the government due to the importance of electricity for consumers. We propose an Energy Management Business Model composed by four basic elements: Supply Chain, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Stakeholders Response, and the resulting Green Efficient Energy (GEE). We support the developed model based on the literature survey, we support it with the diffusion analysis of these elements, and support the overall model with two surveys: one for peers and professionals, and other for experts in the field, based on the Smart Grid Carnegie Melon Maturity Model (CMU SEI SGMM). The contribution of this model is a simple path to follow for entities that want to achieve environmental friendly energy with the involvement of technology and all stakeholders.

  10. Unreliability effects in public transport modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Niels; Brands, Ties; de Romph, Erik; Aceves Flores, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, transport demand models do not explicitly evaluate the impacts of service reliability of transit. Service reliability of transit systems is adversely experienced by users, as it causes additional travel time and unsecure arrival times. Because of this, travellers are likely to perceive a

  11. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  12. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Lister

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  13. A public health decision support system model using reasoning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Maritza; González, Carolina; Blobel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Public health programs must be based on the real health needs of the population. However, the design of efficient and effective public health programs is subject to availability of information that can allow users to identify, at the right time, the health issues that require special attention. The objective of this paper is to propose a case-based reasoning model for the support of decision-making in public health. The model integrates a decision-making process and case-based reasoning, reusing past experiences for promptly identifying new population health priorities. A prototype implementation of the model was performed, deploying the case-based reasoning framework jColibri. The proposed model contributes to solve problems found today when designing public health programs in Colombia. Current programs are developed under uncertain environments, as the underlying analyses are carried out on the basis of outdated and unreliable data.

  14. Modeling Business Processes in Public Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repa, Vaclav

    During more than 10 years of its existence business process modeling became a regular part of organization management practice. It is mostly regarded. as a part of information system development or even as a way to implement some supporting technology (for instance workflow system). Although I do not agree with such reduction of the real meaning of a business process, it is necessary to admit that information technologies play an essential role in business processes (see [1] for more information), Consequently, an information system is inseparable from a business process itself because it is a cornerstone of the general basic infrastructure of a business. This fact impacts on all dimensions of business process management. One of these dimensions is the methodology that postulates that the information systems development provide the business process management with exact methods and tools for modeling business processes. Also the methodology underlying the approach presented in this paper has its roots in the information systems development methodology.

  15. An Analysis of Business Models in Public Service Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranerup, Agneta; Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Hedman, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Public Service Platforms (PSPs) are a new type of technology platform. They are based in the philosophy of New Public Management (NPM) and support public services for citizens in quasi-markets. This article increases our understanding of the business models behind these PSPs in terms of their Value......” that includes dialogues, user evaluations, long-term perspectives on choice, promotion of the ideal of choice, and self-promotion by public agencies. The article contributes to research with its empirical example of the digitalization of NPM and the underlying business logic of PSPs....

  16. What a public-relations-model regarding radioactive waste implicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki [CRC Research Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)]|[Energy Research Center Wakasa Bay, Fukui (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The behavior of public attitude to radioactive waste with time was investigated by using a mathematical model which was developed for estimating the extent of attitude change, being based on the assumption that the change of public attitude to a certain subject is caused by the information environment mainly formed by the newsmedia. Investigations were also made on the extent the public relations activity can contribute to the change of public opinion for the radioactive waste, and on the method of assortment and execution of various types of activity which brings the maximum change of attitude under a given condition of budget.

  17. Practical Implementation of Various Public Key Infrastructure Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Anatolievich Melnikov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a short comparative analysis of the contemporary models of public key infrastructure (PKI and the issues of the PKI models real implementation. The Russian model of PKI is presented. Differences between the North American and West Europe models of PKI and Russian model of PKI are described. The problems of creation and main directions of further development and improvement of the Russian PKI and its integration into the global trust environment are defined.

  18. New energy paradigm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The rise of oil prices, the difficulties in markets liberalization, and the poor results of competition have convinced many that a new energy paradigm is necessary. Taking the original definition of scientific paradigm, it doesn't seem that a practical solution could be found outside the present paradigm of energy policy, made of privatisation, liberalisation and competition [it

  19. Prioritizing public- private partnership models for public hospitals of iran based on performance indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamzadeh Nikjoo, Raana; Jabbari Beyrami, Hossein; Jannati, Ali; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP) models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals. In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study, systematic review and expert panel has been done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second step we prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicators by Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 and Expert Choice11 software's. In quality - effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections (100%), hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%), pure rate of hospital mortality (63%), patient satisfaction percentage (53%), in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatient waiting time (100%) and average outpatient waiting time (74%), and in financial - efficiency area, indicators including average length of stay (100%), bed occupation ratio (99%), specific income to total cost ratio (97%) have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the pri¬oritization of the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own, operate) and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance in¬dicator areas. This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different.

  20. Rethinking schools of public health: a strategic alliance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloughney, Brent W; Skinner, Harvey A

    2006-01-01

    Canada is in the midst of rejuvenation of public health organizations, mandates and infrastructure. Major planning exercises are underway regarding public health human resources, where academic institutions have a key role to play. To what extent could schools of public health be part of the solution? Many universities across Canada are considering or in the process of implementing MPH programs (some 17 programs planned and/or underway) and possible schools of public health. However, concerns are raised about critical mass, quality and standards. We encourage innovation and debate about ways to enhance collaborative and structural arrangements for education programs. A school of public health model might emerge from this, but so too might other models. Also, novel types of organizational structure need consideration. One example is a "strategic alliance" model that is broad-based, integrative and adaptive--building on the interdisciplinary focus needed for addressing public health concerns in the 21st century. From our perspective, the central question is: what (new) types of organizational structures and, equally important, collaborative networks will enable Canada to strengthen its public health workforce so that it may better address local and global challenges to public health?

  1. Conceptual Models of the Individual Public Service Provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Pedersen, Lene Holm; Bhatti, Yosef

    are used to gain insight on the motivation of public service providers; namely principal-agent theory, self-determination theory and public service motivation theory. We situate the theoretical discussions in the context of public service providers being transferred to private organizations......Individual public service providers’ motivation can be conceptualized as either extrinsic, autonomous or prosocial, and the question is how we can best theoretically understand this complexity without losing too much coherence and parsimony. Drawing on Allison’s approach (1969), three perspectives...... theoretical – to develop a coherent model of individual public service providers – but the empirical illustration also contributes to our understanding of motivation in the context of public sector outsourcing....

  2. A return to the Qur’ānic paradigm of development and integrated knowledge: The Ulū al-Albāb model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights that the secular and modernistic paradigm of development that lacks spiritual and ethical moorings is partly responsible for the 2009 global economic and financial crisis. Muslim policy-makers, intellectuals and scholars are duty-bound to promote the Tawḥīdic paradigm of holistic development and holistic knowledge. Closely related to the paradigm of development is the issue of the epistemology of autonomous human reason which denies the importance and validity of Divine revelation as a higher source of knowledge and wisdom. The Qur’ān projects the model of the Ulū al-Albāb, “people of sound reason” as intellectuals and scholars par excellence who combine the understanding of the Book of Nature with the Book of Revelation, and integrate human reason with Divine revelation. The paper ends by suggesting that Muslim countries develop institutions of learning or systems of education which integrates worldly knowledge with religious knowledge in a harmonious and symbiotic manner.

  3. Public health component in building information modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trufanov, A. I.; Rossodivita, A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Berestneva, O. G.; Marukhina, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    A building information modelling (BIM) conception has established itself as an effective and practical approach to plan, design, construct, and manage buildings and infrastructure. Analysis of the governance literature has shown that the BIM-developed tools do not take fully into account the growing demands from ecology and health fields. In this connection, it is possible to offer an optimal way of adapting such tools to the necessary consideration of the sanitary and hygienic specifications of materials used in construction industry. It is proposed to do it through the introduction of assessments that meet the requirements of national sanitary standards. This approach was demonstrated in the case study of Revit® program.

  4. The EFQM model on Danish public sector aspects of TQM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Madsen, Ole Nørgaard

    The applicability of the EFQM model (or the European Quality Award Model) to the public sector is to be discussed from three different angels referring to projects all funded by the Danish national government. First, as a recent part of the Aarhus Business School research project on quality...... as a guideline for implementing quality management at vocational colleges. This project is referring to the EFQM model as one of the approaches to be used. Thirdly, the EFQM Model is recommended by the Danish national government as the tool for assessing not only private companies business excellence, but public....... The final aim is to empower public institutions to compete with private companies for the Danish National Quality Award based upon the EFQM Model....

  5. Model and system learners, optimal process constructors and kinetic theory-based goal-oriented design: A new paradigm in materials and processes informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle; Duval, Jean Louis; Cueto, Elias; Chinesta, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    Traditionally, Simulation-Based Engineering Sciences (SBES) has relied on the use of static data inputs (model parameters, initial or boundary conditions, … obtained from adequate experiments) to perform simulations. A new paradigm in the field of Applied Sciences and Engineering has emerged in the last decade. Dynamic Data-Driven Application Systems [9, 10, 11, 12, 22] allow the linkage of simulation tools with measurement devices for real-time control of simulations and applications, entailing the ability to dynamically incorporate additional data into an executing application, and in reverse, the ability of an application to dynamically steer the measurement process. It is in that context that traditional "digital-twins" are giving raise to a new generation of goal-oriented data-driven application systems, also known as "hybrid-twins", embracing models based on physics and models exclusively based on data adequately collected and assimilated for filling the gap between usual model predictions and measurements. Within this framework new methodologies based on model learners, machine learning and kinetic goal-oriented design are defining a new paradigm in materials, processes and systems engineering.

  6. Criticism and Counter-Criticism of Public Management: Strategy Models

    OpenAIRE

    Luis C. Ortigueira

    2007-01-01

    Critical control is very important in scientific management. This paper presents models of critical and counter-critical public-management strategies, focusing on the types of criticism and counter-criticism manifested in parliamentary political debates. The paper includes: (i) a normative model showing how rational criticism can be carried out; (ii) a normative model for oral critical intervention; and (iii) a general motivational strategy model for criticisms and counter-criticisms. The pap...

  7. Moving beyond the age-depth model paradigm in deep-sea palaeoclimate archives: dual radiocarbon and stable isotope analysis on single foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Bryan C.; Metcalfe, Brett; Ninnemann, Ulysses S.; Wacker, Lukas

    2018-04-01

    Late-glacial palaeoclimate reconstructions from deep-sea sediment archives provide valuable insight into past rapid changes in ocean chemistry. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of the ocean floor with sufficiently high sediment accumulation rate (SAR) is suitable for such reconstructions using the long-standing age-depth model approach. We employ ultra-small radiocarbon (14C) dating on single microscopic foraminifera to demonstrate that the long-standing age-depth model method conceals large age uncertainties caused by post-depositional sediment mixing, meaning that existing studies may underestimate total geochronological error. We find that the age-depth distribution of our 14C-dated single foraminifera is in good agreement with existing bioturbation models only after one takes the possibility of Zoophycos burrowing into account. To overcome the problems associated with the age-depth paradigm, we use the first ever dual 14C and stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) analysis on single microscopic foraminifera to produce a palaeoclimate time series independent of the age-depth paradigm. This new state of the art essentially decouples single foraminifera from the age-depth paradigm to provide multiple floating, temporal snapshots of ocean chemistry, thus allowing for the successful extraction of temporally accurate palaeoclimate data from low-SAR deep-sea archives. This new method can address large geographical gaps in late-glacial benthic palaeoceanographic reconstructions by opening up vast areas of previously disregarded, low-SAR deep-sea archives to research, which will lead to an improved understanding of the global interaction between oceans and climate.

  8. Moving beyond the age–depth model paradigm in deep-sea palaeoclimate archives: dual radiocarbon and stable isotope analysis on single foraminifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Lougheed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Late-glacial palaeoclimate reconstructions from deep-sea sediment archives provide valuable insight into past rapid changes in ocean chemistry. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of the ocean floor with sufficiently high sediment accumulation rate (SAR is suitable for such reconstructions using the long-standing age–depth model approach. We employ ultra-small radiocarbon (14C dating on single microscopic foraminifera to demonstrate that the long-standing age–depth model method conceals large age uncertainties caused by post-depositional sediment mixing, meaning that existing studies may underestimate total geochronological error. We find that the age–depth distribution of our 14C-dated single foraminifera is in good agreement with existing bioturbation models only after one takes the possibility of Zoophycos burrowing into account. To overcome the problems associated with the age–depth paradigm, we use the first ever dual 14C and stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C analysis on single microscopic foraminifera to produce a palaeoclimate time series independent of the age–depth paradigm. This new state of the art essentially decouples single foraminifera from the age–depth paradigm to provide multiple floating, temporal snapshots of ocean chemistry, thus allowing for the successful extraction of temporally accurate palaeoclimate data from low-SAR deep-sea archives. This new method can address large geographical gaps in late-glacial benthic palaeoceanographic reconstructions by opening up vast areas of previously disregarded, low-SAR deep-sea archives to research, which will lead to an improved understanding of the global interaction between oceans and climate.

  9. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  10. CNN a paradigm for complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Leon O

    1998-01-01

    Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur

  11. Globalization and Europeanization. A Projection on a European Model of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The specialized studies and literature present moreover and insistently the connection between globalization and Europeanization, more precisely between globalization and a European model of integration, whose features aim to set up a global-type European society. The development of the European model of integration starts with economic elements, it reveals nowadays the Economic and Monetary Union and in perspective it will be structured within a sui generis system of transnational governance. The values of the European model of integration become fundamental values of a social process, with powerful economic and political determinations, aiming the multi-causal interference between individual, community and European construction. This process, remarked increasingly in the specialized literature, being assigned with the name of Europeanization, has got original, functional features in the spectrum of significations of the globalization paradigm. As essential global-type formula, within Europeanization, we shall find models with economic, political or social finality, integrating also a model of administration among the latter ones. When we say administration, we refer to its up dated and adequate contents to the new European developments. This assertion derives from a less economic modality to conceptualize the relationship between globalization and Europeanization, presenting Europeanization more as a political adaptation to globalization and even a political expression of globalization. In this context, the development of a system for European governance on several levels (local, regional, national, intergovernmental and supranational suggests its evolution towards globalization. In fact, the literature specific for Europeanization asserts the fact that the European model has also features with integrative nature related to the supranational and trans-governmental dimensions, as well as features with normative nature in view of harmonization

  12. Models of education in medicine, public health, and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patricia; Armstrong, Robert; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2014-09-12

    Discussion on global health in both the academic and the public domain has focused largely on research, capacity building, and service delivery. Although these efforts along with financial commitments from public and private partners have contributed to a broader appreciation and understanding of global health challenges, the reflection of global health in academic training has largely been lacking. However, integrative models are beginning to appear. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Public sector administration of ecological economics systems using mediated modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Belt, Marjan; Kenyan, Jennifer R; Krueger, Elizabeth; Maynard, Alison; Roy, Matthew Galen; Raphael, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In today's climate of government outsourcing and multiple stakeholder involvement in public sector management and service delivery, it is more important than ever to rethink and redesign the structure of how policy decisions are made, implemented, monitored, and adapted to new realities. The traditional command-and-control approach is now less effective because an increasing amount of responsibility to deliver public goods and services falls on networks of nongovernment agencies. Even though public administrators are seeking new decision-making models in an increasingly more complex environment, the public sector currently only sparsely utilizes Mediated Modeling (MM). There is growing evidence, however, that by employing MM and similar tools, public interest networks can be better equipped to deal with their long-term viability while maintaining the short-term needs of their clients. However, it may require a shift in organizational culture within and between organizations to achieve the desired results. This paper explores the successes and barriers to implementing MM and similar tools in the public sector and offers insights into utilizing them through a review of case studies and interdisciplinary literature. We aim to raise a broader interest in MM and similar tools among public sector administrators at various administrative levels. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on those cases operating at the interface of ecology and socio-economic systems.

  14. Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided. PMID:20195441

  15. Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is divided into three sections: (i an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations; (ii a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks; and (iii a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided.

  16. From primary care to public health: using Problem-based Learning and the ecological model to teach public health to first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Cora R; Wong, Candice C; Azzam, Amin

    2012-06-01

    We investigated whether a public health-oriented Problem-Based Learning case presented to first-year medical students conveyed 12 "Population Health Competencies for Medical Students," as recommended by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Regional Medicine-Public Health Education Centers. A public health-oriented Problem-Based Learning case guided by the ecological model paradigm was developed and implemented among two groups of 8 students at the University of California, Berkeley-UCSF Joint Medical Program, in the Fall of 2010. Using directed content analysis, student-generated written reports were coded for the presence of the 12 population health content areas. Students generated a total of 29 reports, of which 20 (69%) contained information relevant to at least one of the 12 population health competencies. Each of the 12 content areas was addressed by at least one report. As physicians-in-training prepare to confront the challenges of integrating prevention and population health with clinical practice, Problem-Based Learning is a promising tool to enhance medical students' engagement with public health.

  17. Prioritizing Public- Private Partnership Models for Public Hospitals of Iran Based on Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asghari Jaafarabadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals.Methods: In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative study, systematic review and expert panel hasbeen done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second stepwe prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicatorsby Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 andExpert Choice11 software’s.Results: In quality – effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections(100%, hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%, pure rate of hospital mortality (63%, patientsatisfaction percentage (53%, in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatientwaiting time (100% and average outpatient waiting time (74%, and in financial – efficiency area,indicators including average length of stay (100%, bed occupation ratio (99%, specific incometo total cost ratio (97% have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the prioritizationof the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own,operate and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance indicatorareas.Conclusion: This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different.

  18. [The Watson-Crick model of the DNA doublehelix. The history of the discovery and the role of the protein paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Rudolf

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning, the two fundamental papers by Watson and Crick published in 1953 are presented. Subsequently, the main phases of protein and nucleic acids research, starting in the middle of the 19th century, are shortly reviewed. It is outlined, how the 'protein-paradigm' was gradually developed and ultimately became widely accepted. It is then described how Caspersson in 1936 newly raised the question what the chemical nature of genes was: proteins or nucleic acids ? In the main part of this report six lines of research are reviewed, the results of which led to the demise of the 'protein paradigm', the creation of the Watson-Crick model of the DNA and the elaboration of the mechanism of DNA replication: (a) mutation experiments with UV and determination of the UV action spectrum, (b) determination of the chemical identity of the transforming agent in bacteria, (c) detailed chemical analysis of the DNA of different organisms, (d) molecular investigation of the infection of bacteria by bacteriophages, (e) X-ray analysis of DNA fibers, (f) model building and theoretical treatment of all data obtained. In this article, the factors promoting and inhibiting scientific progress in this field are described (and, above all, the relations between scientists with fixated concepts). The results from these lines of research led to the recognition of the decisive role of nucleic acids as the carriers of genetic information and, in this way, formally established the 'nucleic acid paradigm'. Finally the question is discussed why Watson and Crick found the right solution for the DNA structure (and not one of their competitors).

  19. The Next Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kastrup

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to perceive the world, we need more than just raw sensory input: a subliminal paradigm of thought is required to interpret raw sensory data and, thereby, create the objects and events we perceive around ourselves. As such, the world we see reflects our own unexamined, culture-bound assumptions and expectations, which explains why every generation in history has believed that it more or less understood the world. Today, we perceive a world of objects and events outside and independent of mind, which merely reflects our current paradigm of thought. Anomalies that contradict this paradigm have been accumulated by physicists over the past couple of decades, which will eventually force our culture to move to a new paradigm. Under this new paradigm, a form of universal mind will be viewed as nature’s sole fundamental entity. In this paper, I offer a sketch of what the new paradigm may look like.

  20. A historical review of the concept of labor support in technocratic, humanistic and holistic paradigms of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Tahereh Fathi; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2017-10-01

    In the past century, maternal support during childbirth has been changed according to the different approaches suggested by various health care paradigms. The aim of this review was to argue the maternity supportive care paradigms of the past century and to closely analyze each paradigm. This is a historical review, in which published articles were retrieved from databases including Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar. Sage Journals and Springer's publications were also searched due to the high citation rate of their articles. The keywords entered were "Labor support", "Normal delivery", "Birth attendance", "Supportive approaches", "Health care paradigms", and "Midwifery models of care". They were entered alone or in combinations using "AND". Also, Persian articles were searched in local databases including Irandoc, SID, IranMedex, and Magiran using the above-mentioned keywords in Persian. Sixty articles met inclusion criteria. The review revealed four main themes including the definitions of continuous labor support, the technocratic paradigm, the humanistic paradigm and the naturalistic paradigm as models of labor support. According to the evidence, labor support has changed from technocratic to humanistic and holistic approaches, which in turn, caused some changes in midwifery models of care used by midwives in the practice. Labor support based on the holistic approaches and the naturalistic paradigms could bring about remarkable outcomes, the most important being satisfied with the birth experience, increased mother's self-confidence, enhanced mother's ability in childbirth and better completion of the childbirth process.

  1. Core competency model for the family planning public health nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Caroline M; Roye, Carol; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2014-01-01

    A core competency model for family planning public health nurses has been developed, using a three stage Delphi Method with an expert panel of 40 family planning senior administrators, community/public health nursing faculty and seasoned family planning public health nurses. The initial survey was developed from the 2011 Title X Family Planning program priorities. The 32-item survey was distributed electronically via SurveyMonkey(®). Panelist attrition was low, and participation robust resulting in the final 28-item model, suggesting that the Delphi Method was a successful technique through which to achieve consensus. Competencies with at least 75% consensus were included in the model and those competencies were primarily related to education/counseling and administration of medications and contraceptives. The competencies identified have implications for education/training, certification and workplace performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  3. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Edmunds, W J; Lessler, J

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014). Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.E. Metcalf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014. Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges.

  5. Didaktiske paradigmer og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2014-01-01

    analysis of subject didactics by Sigmund Ongstad. The two positions offer fundamentally different insights into didactics. Nielsen’s position establishes didactics as a knowledge domain and Ongstad’s position points to the dynamics of subject didactics by analyzing communication as a basic aspect. Krogh...... this article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded...

  6. Public perceptions of self-harm: a test of an attribution model of public discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Emma; Townsend, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study applied Corrigan, Markowitz, Watson, Rowan, and Kubiak’s (2003) attribution model of public discrimination toward individuals with mental ill-health to explore public perceptions of self-harm—an underresearched topic, given the size and scale of the problem of self-harm.Participants (community-based adult sample, N=355, aged 18–67 years) were presented with 1 of 10, first-person, vignettes describing an episode of adolescent self-harm and comple...

  7. Systemic Model for Optimal Regulation in Public Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paper inscribes within those approaching the issue of public services from the interdisciplinary perspective. Public service development and imposing standards of efficiency and effectiveness, as well as for citizens’ satisfaction bring in front line the systemic modelling and establishing optimal policies for organisation and functioning of public services. The issue under discussion imposes an interface with powerful determinations of social nature. Consequently, the most adequate modelling might be that with a probabilistic and statistic nature. The fundamental idea of this paper, that obviously can be broadly developed, starts with assimilating the way of organisation and functioning of a public service with a waiting thread, to which some hypotheses are associated concerning the order of provision, performance measurement through costs or waiting time in the system etc. We emphasise the openness and dynamics of the public service system, as well as modelling by turning into account the statistic knowledge and researches, and we do not make detailed remarks on the cybernetic characteristics of this system. The optimal adjustment is achieved through analysis on the feedback and its comparison with the current standards or good practices.

  8. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: MODERNIZING THE CURRENT MODEL OF STATE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii V. Ohotskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the method of retrospective analysis the article deals with the process of forming the scientific fundamentals and the search by the international community of effective and adequate to the current stage of social development public administration system. The author attempts to analyze, in a number of cases in terms of models, features of public administration systems at different stages of historical development, drawing attention to reasons why the Soviet model of public administration did not manage to meet competition, did not provide the required social effect and as a natural result suffered a defeat in the global confrontation between the two social systems. Current models and theoretical concepts of public administration, especially the "new public administration", which became scientific basis for administrative reforms implemented in many countries, are the particular subject of scientific analysis. The author draws attention to major comprehensive characteristics of modern state public administration: making it impossible to absolutize principles of traditional hierarchy system of forced administration; globalization - gradual destruction of boundaries between national and international levels of administration, the growing role of supranational subjects of administration relations; informatization - increasing importance of information and communication technologies and of political networks: development of civil society, especially political parties and non-governmental organizations, growing public involvement in discussion and adoption of the most important administrative decisions; making the state policy more pluralistic and which will result in the formation of nonlinear - humanistic social consciousness as the intellectual basis of modern social governance. The author's position is that Russia is yet to solve the issue of choosing a public administration model that would be effective for further administrative

  9. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  10. “Top-down” vs. “Bottom-up”: A Dichotomy of Paradigms for the Legitimation of Public Power in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dellavalle Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Public power has been justified by resorting to two different kinds of legitimation: one coming from above, the other emerging from the governed. While legitimation “from above” implies that those who are vested with executive power are qualified in their function because of their allegedly higher competences, “bottom-up” legitimacy always presupposes that only citizens can properly decide on their destiny. After giving a brief account of how both legitimation strategies have developed in the history of political ideas, attention is focused on the theories regarding the legitimacy of public power in the European Union. Indeed, both strands of legitimation of public power are represented here with original proposals, according to the specificity of the supranational condition. But even more interesting is that the research into the characteristics of supranational integration has been one of the most significant fields in which the legitimation “from above” has reappeared in Western thought after a rather long period of marginality, now taking the shape of a technocratic justification. In the main section of the article, the reasons in favour of a democratic “bottom-up” legitimation of the European public power are analyzed first, then those which recur to the so-called “output legitimacy” – in other words to technocratic arguments. The last section of the contribution is dedicated to an overall assessment of the different positions.

  11. MANDATORY DETENTION OF PUBLIC POLICY IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF JEREMY BENTHAM PARADIGMS AND JOHN RAWLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antunes Rezende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thisworkistheobjectofstudygovernmentprogramofcompulsoryhospitalizationofdrug addictsdeployedinthestateofSãoPaulo.Thus,theobjectiveofthisresearchistoconducta comparativeanalysisofthethoughtsofJeremyBenthamandJohnRawlsastheconception ofjusticeincasesofcompulsoryhospitalization.Forthis,itwillusethehypothetical- deductivemethodbyanalyzingbooks,scientificarticles,nationallegislationandofficialdata toreachascientificallyvalidconclusion.Thus,thestudyoftheinitialhypothesisonthe perception of justice and injustice of public policies applied to chemical addicts.

  12. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  13. Passengers, Crowding and Complexity : Models for passenger oriented public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Bouman (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPassengers, Crowding and Complexity was written as part of the Complexity in Public Transport (ComPuTr) project funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This thesis studies in three parts how microscopic data can be used in models that have the potential

  14. Alternative Public Service Delivery Models in Health, Water and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The literature on public service delivery alternatives has to date been highly localized, sector specific and lacking in methodological consistency. This project seeks to analyze health, water and electricity delivery models in Africa, Asia and Latin America in order to identify and document successful alternatives to ...

  15. A telepsychiatry model to support psychiatric outreach in the public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A telepsychiatry model to support psychiatric outreach in the public sector in South Africa. J Chipps, S Ramlall, M Mars. Abstract. The access of rural Mental Health Care Users in South Africa to specialist psychiatrists and quality mental health care is currently sub-optimal. Health professionals and planners working in ...

  16. Designing Public Library Websites for Teens: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robin Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop a conceptual model for the design of public library websites for teens (TLWs) that would enable designers and librarians to create library websites that better suit teens' information needs and practices. It bridges a gap in the research literature between user interface design in human-computer…

  17. Consensus Based Nuclear Public-Hearing System Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young Wook Lee; Suk Hoon Kim; Young Ho Cho; Hyun Seok Ko; Dong Hoon Shin; Chang Sun Kang; Joo Hyun Moon

    2006-01-01

    Although the government admit the benefit of construction of a nuclear facility for national electric source, related policy could be developed and carried out only if the public, especially who have some stake on it, recognize the benefit and accept the policy. For public participation, Korea has a system of public-hearing in accordance with the law. Because of the absence of the detailed way for public opinion aggregation and for the reflection of the aggregated opinion, Korean public-hearing system is only a conceptual model. Therefore, some specific system for Korean Public-Hearing should be developed and applied. In this study, to share the right of decision making, which is an ultimate concept for public participation, decision making components and the characteristics of each phase are analyzed. The criteria weight for assessment and comparison with alternatives are founded as a valuation factor of the decision making components, which should be based on the social consensus. On these foundations, a system for aggregation and reflection of the public opinion was proposed. The system named 'CPDM' (Consensus based Participatory Decision Making) has three authority groups for decision making. At first, 'advisory experts group' play a role for the technical assessment and the serve utility value on the criteria for each alternatives. Next, 'participatory deliberation group' play a role for consensus building on the relative-importance (weight) between the criteria by feedback to promote degree of consensus. Lastly including gentlemen of the long robe, 'expert group for decision making' play a role to reflect the utility and weight and make a decision with agreement for performance of it. Also, in this study, a mathematical model for the quantification of the degree of consensus was conceptualized using Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator and fuzzy similarity theory, which is a comparison concept. Since this model enables influence of each

  18. Dynamic paradigm of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, Alfred M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced

  19. An Integrative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2005-01-01

    Through the application of life course theory to the study of sexual orientation, this paper specifies a new paradigm for research on human sexual orientation that seeks to reconcile divisions among biological, social science, and humanistic paradigms. Recognizing the historical, social, and cultural relativity of human development, this paradigm…

  20. Robustness of public choice models of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai UNGUREANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics modeling practice involves highly unrealistic assumptions. Since testing such models is not always an easy enterprise, researchers face the problem of determining whether a result is dependent (or not on the unrealistic details of the model. A solution for this problem is conducting robustness analysis. In its classical form, robustness analysis is a non-empirical method of confirmation – it raises our trust in a given result by implying it with from several different models. In this paper I argue that robustness analysis could be thought as a method of post-empirical failure. This form of robustness analysis involves assigning guilt for the empirical failure to a certain part of the model. Starting from this notion of robustness, I analyze a case of empirical failure from public choice theory or the economic approach of politics. Using the fundamental methodological principles of neoclassical economics, the first model of voting behavior implied that almost no one would vote. This was clearly an empirical failure. Public choice scholars faced the problem of either restraining the domain of their discipline or giving up to some of their neoclassical methodological features. The second solution was chosen and several different models of voting behavior were built. I will treat these models as a case for performing robustness analysis and I will determine which assumption from the original model is guilty for the empirical failure.

  1. Identification and location tasks rely on different mental processes: a diffusion model account of validity effects in spatial cueing paradigms with emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Roland; Lange, Jens; Germar, Markus

    2018-02-22

    Spatial cueing paradigms are popular tools to assess human attention to emotional stimuli, but different variants of these paradigms differ in what participants' primary task is. In one variant, participants indicate the location of the target (location task), whereas in the other they indicate the shape of the target (identification task). In the present paper we test the idea that although these two variants produce seemingly comparable cue validity effects on response times, they rest on different underlying processes. Across four studies (total N = 397; two in the supplement) using both variants and manipulating the motivational relevance of cue content, diffusion model analyses revealed that cue validity effects in location tasks are primarily driven by response biases, whereas the same effect rests on delay due to attention to the cue in identification tasks. Based on this, we predict and empirically support that a symmetrical distribution of valid and invalid cues would reduce cue validity effects in location tasks to a greater extent than in identification tasks. Across all variants of the task, we fail to replicate the effect of greater cue validity effects for arousing (vs. neutral) stimuli. We discuss the implications of these findings for best practice in spatial cueing research.

  2. It's time to re-think the radiation paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Several observers have noted a striking difference in views of the public and the scientific community regarding risks to health from exposures to low dose ionizing radiation. While the scientific community considers risks to be small, the public generally finds almost any degree of exposure unacceptable. For example, the siting of a repository for low level waste in the United States has been nearly impossible, in spite of reassurances of scientific authorities. Besides a variety of explanations such as the role of the media, grotesque movies and comics, and the thought of atomic weapons, there is another one, which has not received much attention; the scientific community itself in creating exaggerated risks of radiation, particularly to low doses of irradiation. This occurs as result of the use by the scientific community, of a risk paradigm that assumes a convenient but unproven absence of a threshold for radiation health effects. Two reasons for this paradigm are discussed: -the practice, common in science, of adopting a model, which through usage become an article of faith, to the exclusion of other competing models, and -the implicit influence of personal and community values in the construction and maintenance of those paradigms. (author). 12 refs

  3. Evolution of the radiological protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider as initial radiological protection paradigms those in vigour after the release of the atomic energy for pacific usages in 1955. In that occasion, only one paradigm was introduced, presently named dose limitation system. After arguing about the basis that raised the paradigm, we introduced the guidance, that is, the measurements to be implemented to comply with the paradigm. In that occasion, they were two, i.e., the radiation dose monitoring and the workplace classification. Afterwards, the reasons that caused the radiological protection paradigms changes in force until 1995 are discussed. The initial paradigm was modified introducing the justification and the optimization principles, adding that the radiological protection should be economical and effective. The guidance also increased to four: personal monitoring, workplace classification, reference level and workers classification. Afterwards, we give the main justifications for the present paradigms that besides the formers were added the dose constraints, the potential exposure and the annual risk limits. Due to these modifications, the workers classifications were eliminated from the guidance, but the potential exposure and the search for the dose constraints were added. Eventually, we discuss the tendencies for the next future and the main changes introduced by the ICRP in the Publication 103, 2007. (author)

  4. A Dynamic Linear Modeling Approach to Public Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftis, Matthew; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2017-01-01

    Theories of public policy change, despite their differences, converge on one point of strong agreement. The relationship between policy and its causes can and does change over time. This consensus yields numerous empirical implications, but our standard analytical tools are inadequate for testing...... them. As a result, the dynamic and transformative relationships predicted by policy theories have been left largely unexplored in time-series analysis of public policy. This paper introduces dynamic linear modeling (DLM) as a useful statistical tool for exploring time-varying relationships in public...... policy. The paper offers a detailed exposition of the DLM approach and illustrates its usefulness with a time series analysis of U.S. defense policy from 1957-2010. The results point the way for a new attention to dynamics in the policy process and the paper concludes with a discussion of how...

  5. Pathway to a paradigm: the linear nonthreshold dose-response model in historical context. The American Academy of Health Physics 1995 Radiology Centennial Hartman Oration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathren, R L

    1996-05-01

    This paper traces the evolution of the linear nonthreshold dose-response model and its acceptance as a paradigm in radiation protection practice and risk analysis. Deterministic effects such as skin burns and even deep tissue trauma were associated with excessive exposure to x rays shortly after their discovery, and carcinogenicity was observed as early as 1902. Still, it was not until 1925 that the first protective limits were suggested. For three decades these limits were based on the concept of a tolerance dose which, if not exceeded, would result in no demonstrable harm to the individual and implicitly assumed a threshold dose below which radiation effects would be absent. After World War II, largely because of genetic concerns related to atmospheric weapons testing, radiation protection dose limits were expressed in terms of a risk based maximum permissible dose which clearly implied no threshold. The 1927 discovery by Muller of x-ray induced genetic mutations in fruit flies, linear with dose and with no apparent threshold, was an important underpinning of the standards. The linear nonthreshold dose-response model was originally used to provide an upper limit estimate of the risk, with zero being the lower limit, of low level irradiation since the dose-response curve could not be determined at low dose levels. Evidence to the contrary such as hormesis and the classic studies of the radium dial painters notwithstanding, the linear nonthreshold model gained greater acceptance and in the centennial year of the discovery of x rays stands as a paradigm although serious questions are beginning to be raised regarding its general applicability. The work includes a brief digression describing the work of x-ray protection pioneer William Rollins and concludes with a recommendation for application of a de minimis dose level in radiation protection.

  6. Comparison of childbirth care models in public hospitals, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Sibylle Emilie; Silva, Kátia Silveira da; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos

    2014-04-01

    To compare collaborative and traditional childbirth care models. Cross-sectional study with 655 primiparous women in four public health system hospitals in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011 (333 women for the collaborative model and 322 for the traditional model, including those with induced or premature labor). Data were collected using interviews and medical records. The Chi-square test was used to compare the outcomes and multivariate logistic regression to determine the association between the model and the interventions used. Paid work and schooling showed significant differences in distribution between the models. Oxytocin (50.2% collaborative model and 65.5% traditional model; p relief (85.0% collaborative model and 78.9% traditional model; p = 0.042). The association between the collaborative model and the reduction in the use of oxytocin, artificial rupture of membranes and episiotomy remained after adjustment for confounding. The care model was not associated with complications in newborns or mothers neither with the use of spinal or epidural analgesia. The results suggest that collaborative model may reduce interventions performed in labor care with similar perinatal outcomes.

  7. Combining Modeling and Monitoring to Produce a New Paradigm of an Integrated Approach to Providing Long-Term Control of Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwell, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    Sir David King, Chief Science Advisor to the British government and Cambridge University Professor, stated in October 2005, "The scientific community is considerably more capable than it has been in the past to assist governments to avoid and reduce risk to their own populations. Prime ministers and presidents ignore the advice from the science community at the peril of their own populations." Some of these greater capabilities can be found in better monitoring techniques applied to better modeling methods. These modeling methods can be combined with the information derived from monitoring data in order to decrease the risk of population exposure to dangerous substances and to promote efficient control or cleanup of the contaminants. An introduction is presented of the types of problems that exist for long-term control of radionuclides at DOE sites. A breakdown of the distributions at specific sites is given, together with the associated difficulties. A paradigm for remediation showing the integration of monitoring with modeling is presented. It is based on a feedback system that allows for the monitoring to act as principal sensors in a control system. The resulting system can be optimized to improve performance. Optimizing monitoring automatically entails linking the monitoring with modeling. If monitoring designs were required to be more efficient, thus requiring optimization, then the monitoring automatically becomes linked to modeling. Records of decision could be written to accommodate revisions in monitoring as better modeling evolves. Currently the establishment of a very prescriptive monitoring program fails to have a mechanism for improving models and improving control of the contaminants. The technical pieces of the required paradigm are already available; they just need to be implemented and applied to solve the long-term control of the contaminants. An integration of the various parts of the system is presented. Each part is described, and examples are

  8. Credible baseline analysis for multi-model public policy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, S.C.; Gass, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The nature of public decision-making and resource allocation is such that many complex interactions can best be examined and understood by quantitative analysis. Most organizations do not possess the totality of models and needed analytical skills to perform detailed and systematic quantitative analysis. Hence, the need for coordinated, multi-organization studies that support public decision-making has grown in recent years. This trend is expected not only to continue, but to increase. This paper describes the authors' views on the process of multi-model analysis based on their participation in an analytical exercise, the ORNL/MITRE Study. One of the authors was the exercise coordinator. During the study, the authors were concerned with the issue of measuring and conveying credibility of the analysis. This work led them to identify several key determinants, described in this paper, that could be used to develop a rating of credibility.

  9. Assessing Models of Public Understanding In ELSI Outreach Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce V. Lewenstein, Ph.D.; Dominique Brossard, Ph.D.

    2006-03-01

    Advances in the science of genetics have implications for individuals and society, and have to be taken into account at the policy level. Studies of ethical, legal and social issues related to genomic research have therefore been integrated in the Human Genome Project (HGP) since the earliest days of the project. Since 1990, three to five percent of the HGP annual budget has been devoted to such studies, under the umbrella of the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) Programs of the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institute of Health, and of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE-ELSI budget has been used to fund a variety of projects that have aimed at ?promoting education and help guide the conduct of genetic research and the development of related medical and public policies? (HGP, 2003). As part of the educational component, a significant portion of DOE-ELSI funds have been dedicated to public outreach projects, with the underlying goal of promoting public awareness and ultimately public discussion of ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding availability of genetic information (Drell, 2002). The essential assumption behind these projects is that greater access to information will lead to more knowledge about ethical, legal and social issues, which in turn will lead to enhanced ability on the part of individuals and communities to deal with these issues when they encounter them. Over the same period of time, new concepts of ?public understanding of science? have emerged in the theoretical realm, moving from a ?deficit? or linear dissemination of popularization, to models stressing lay-knowledge, public engagement and public participation in science policy-making (Lewenstein, 2003). The present project uses the base of DOE-funded ELSI educational project to explore the ways that information about a new and emerging area of science that is intertwined with public

  10. Programming Language Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Felician ALECU

    2013-01-01

    This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  11. Melanoma screening: Informing public health policy with quantitative modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gilmore

    Full Text Available Australia and New Zealand share the highest incidence rates of melanoma worldwide. Despite the substantial increase in public and physician awareness of melanoma in Australia over the last 30 years-as a result of the introduction of publicly funded mass media campaigns that began in the early 1980s -mortality has steadily increased during this period. This increased mortality has led investigators to question the relative merits of primary versus secondary prevention; that is, sensible sun exposure practices versus early detection. Increased melanoma vigilance on the part of the public and among physicians has resulted in large increases in public health expenditure, primarily from screening costs and increased rates of office surgery. Has this attempt at secondary prevention been effective? Unfortunately epidemiologic studies addressing the causal relationship between the level of secondary prevention and mortality are prohibitively difficult to implement-it is currently unknown whether increased melanoma surveillance reduces mortality, and if so, whether such an approach is cost-effective. Here I address the issue of secondary prevention of melanoma with respect to incidence and mortality (and cost per life saved by developing a Markov model of melanoma epidemiology based on Australian incidence and mortality data. The advantages of developing a methodology that can determine constraint-based surveillance outcomes are twofold: first, it can address the issue of effectiveness; and second, it can quantify the trade-off between cost and utilisation of medical resources on one hand, and reduced morbidity and lives saved on the other. With respect to melanoma, implementing the model facilitates the quantitative determination of the relative effectiveness and trade-offs associated with different levels of secondary and tertiary prevention, both retrospectively and prospectively. For example, I show that the surveillance enhancement that began in

  12. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  13. Handbook on advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems paradigms and applications in forest landscape modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Favorskaya, Margarita N

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in remote-sensing and geographic information systems and applications. It is divided into four parts, focusing on Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Optical Measurements of Forests; Individual Tree Modelling; Landscape Scene Modelling; and Forest Eco-system Modelling. Given the scope of its coverage, the book offers a valuable resource for students, researchers, practitioners, and educators interested in remote sensing and geographic information systems and applications.

  14. THE INVESTMENT MODEL OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF PUBLIC OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reperger Šandor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible models of the construction and use of sports objects, especi- ally indoor facilities (sports centres, halls, swimming pools, shooting alleys and others is the cooperation of the public and private sector, by the investment model of PPP (Pu- blic-Private Partnership. PPP (Public-Private Partnership construction is the new form of securing civil works, already known in the developed countries, in which the job of planning, construc- tion, functioning and financing is done by the private sector – in the scope of a precisely elaborated cooperation with the state. The state engages the private sector for the administering of the civil works. By public adverstisements and contests they will find the investors who accept the administe- ring of certain public works by themselves or with the help of project partners with their own resources (with 60-85% of bank loans, secure the conditions for conducting certain services (by using the objects, halls, etc until the expiration of the agreed deadline. The essence of PPP construction is the fact that an investor from the private sec- tor, chosen through a contest, realizes the project using its own means. The object beco- mes the property of the investor and it secures the regular functioning of the object with exclusive rights. The income from the functioning belongs to the investor, in return the costs of the functioning of the object, the upkeep, as well as the costs of the personnel and public utilities are the responsibility of the investor. The public use of the object is realised by the means that the authorised ministry and the partner from the contest in an agreement of the realization and functioning of the object accurately define the time of maintenance and the duration of the services on the behalf of social interest. From the time specified in the agreement the investor doesn’t charge precisely defined users for general and specific services. As Sebia, with all its

  15. Examining Teacher Mental Models for the Implementation of a STEM-Focused Curriculum Paradigm in Engineering and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Janel M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of mental models in Idaho's Engineering and Technology Education teachers' in decision making when faced with major curriculum changes. Senge (1990) defined mental models as, "deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world…

  16. Circum-Mediterranean phylogeography of a bat coupled with past environmental niche modeling: A new paradigm for the recolonization of Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Raşit; Gürün, Kanat; Rebelo, Hugo; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Maracı, Öncü; Presetnik, Primoz; Benda, Petr; Hulva, Pavel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Hamidovic, Daniela; Fressel, Norma; Horáček, Ivan; Karataş, Ayşegül; Karataş, Ahmet; Allegrini, Benjamin; Georgiakakis, Panagiotis; Gazaryan, Suren; Nagy, Zoltan L; Abi-Said, Mounir; Lučan, Radek K; Bartonička, Tomáš; Nicolaou, Haris; Scaravelli, Dino; Karapandža, Branko; Uhrin, Marcel; Paunović, Milan; Juste, Javier

    2016-06-01

    The isolation of populations in the Iberian, Italian and Balkan peninsulas during the ice ages define four main paradigms that explain much of the known distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity in Europe. In this study we investigated the phylogeography of a wide-spread bat species, the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii around the Mediterranean basin and in the Caucasus. Environmental Niche Modeling (ENM) analysis was applied to predict both the current distribution of the species and its distribution during the last glacial maximum (LGM). The combination of genetics and ENM results suggest that the populations of M. schreibersii in Europe, the Caucasus and Anatolia went extinct during the LGM, and the refugium for the species was a relatively small area to the east of the Levantine Sea, corresponding to the Mediterranean coasts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and northeastern and northwestern Egypt. Subsequently the species first repopulated Anatolia, diversified there, and afterwards expanded into the Caucasus, continental Europe and North Africa after the end of the LGM. The fossil record in Iberia and the ENM results indicate continuous presence of Miniopterus in this peninsula that most probably was related to the Maghrebian lineage during the LGM, which did not persist afterwards. Using our results combined with similar findings in previous studies, we propose a new paradigm explaining the general distribution of genetic diversity in Europe involving the recolonization of the continent, with the main contribution from refugial populations in Anatolia and the Middle East. The study shows how genetics and ENM approaches can complement each other in providing a more detailed picture of intraspecific evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. GLOBAL PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP: AN ANALOGICAL REASONING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk KIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce a new strategic direction for the multinational pharmaceutical companies in terms of the access to essential, life-saving medicines. The multinational pharmaceutical companies have been severely criticized by their various stakeholders because of their business models, particularly because of the stringent patent protection on the pharmaceutical products. The multinational pharmaceutical companies should find a new strategic direction to balance their R&D-intensive, expensive business with the access to essential, lifesaving medicines since favorable public relations are critical for the multinational pharmaceutical companies to maintain their profitable business. This paper adopts an Analogical Reasoning Model (ARM to propose a new strategic direction for the multinational pharmaceutical companies in an effort to balance their expensive business with the enhanced social responsibility. In essence, the ARM helps the multinational pharmaceutical companies formulate viable strategies that can realize a win-win situation not only for their stakeholders but also for the pharmaceutical companies themselves. The ARM is constructed, analyzing the food and beverage industry as a source environment, and suggests a comprehensive, industry-wide, multi-stakeholder public-private partnership, led not by the public sector but by the multinational pharmaceutical companies.

  18. HYBRID WAYS OF DOING: A MODEL FOR TEACHING PUBLIC SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Bendiner-Viani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an exploratory practice undertaken by the authors in a co-taught class to hybridize theory, research and practice. This experiment in critical transdisciplinary design education took the form of a “critical studio + practice-based seminar on public space”, two interlinked classes co-taught by landscape architect Elliott Maltby and environmental psychologist Gabrielle Bendiner-Viani at the Parsons, The New School for Design. This design process was grounded in the political and social context of the contested East River waterfront of New York City and valued both intensive study (using a range of social science and design methods and a partnership with a local community organization, engaging with the politics, issues and human needs of a complex site. The paper considers how we encouraged interdisciplinary collaboration and dialogue between teachers as well as between liberal arts and design students and developed strategies to overcome preconceived notions of traditional “studio” and “seminar” work. By exploring the challenges and adjustments made during the semester and the process of teaching this class, this paper addresses how we moved from a model of intertwining theory, research and practice, to a hybrid model of multiple ways of doing, a model particularly apt for teaching public space. Through examples developed for and during our course, the paper suggests practical ways of supporting this transdisciplinary hybrid model.

  19. Developing a Model for Assessing Public Culture Indicators at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Latifi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to develop a model for assessing public culture at universities and evaluating its indicators at public universities in Mashhad. The research follows an exploratory mixed approach. Research strategies in qualitative and quantitative sections are thematic networks analysis and descriptive- survey method, respectively. In the qualitative section, document analysis and semi-structured interviews with cultural experts are used as research tools. In this section, targeted sampling is carried out. In the quantitative section, a questionnaire which is developed based on the findings of the qualitative section is used as the research tool. Research population of the quantitative section consists of all the students who are admitted to public universities in Mashhad between 2009 and 2012. Sample size was calculated according to Cochran’s formula. Stratified sampling was used to select the sample. The results of the qualitative section led to the identification of 44 basic themes which are referred to as the micro indicators. These themes were clustered into similar groups. Then, 10 organizer themes were identified and recognized as macro indicators. In the next phase, importance factor of each indicator is determined according to the AHP method. The results of the qualitative assessment of indicators at public universities of Mashhad show that the overall cultural index declines during the years the student attends the university. Additionally, the highest correlation exists between national identity and revolutionary identity. The only negative correlations are observed between family and two indicators including social capital and cultural consumption. The results of the present study can be used to assess the state of public culture among university students and also be considered as a basis for assessing cultural planning.

  20. From public outrage to the burst of public violence: An epidemic-like model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Galam, Serge

    2014-12-01

    This study extends classical models of spreading epidemics to describe the phenomenon of contagious public outrage, which eventually leads to the spread of violence following a disclosure of some unpopular political decisions and/or activity. Accordingly, a mathematical model is proposed to simulate from the start, the internal dynamics by which an external event is turned into internal violence within a population. Five kinds of agents are considered: “Upset” (U), “Violent” (V), “Sensitive” (S), “Immune” (I), and “Relaxed” (R), leading to a set of ordinary differential equations, which in turn yield the dynamics of spreading of each type of agents among the population. The process is stopped with the deactivation of the associated issue. Conditions coinciding with a twofold spreading of public violence are singled out. The results shed new light to understand terror activity and provides some hint on how to curb the spreading of violence within population globally sensitive to specific world issues. Recent violent events in the world are discussed.

  1. New Paradigms for the Study of Ocular Alphaherpesvirus Infections: Insights into the Use of Non-Traditional Host Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Pennington

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocular herpesviruses, most notably human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HSV-1, canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CHV-1 and felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1, infect and cause severe disease that may lead to blindness. CHV-1 and FHV-1 have a pathogenesis and induce clinical disease in their hosts that is similar to HSV-1 ocular infections in humans, suggesting that infection of dogs and cats with CHV-1 and FHV-1, respectively, can be used as a comparative natural host model of herpesvirus-induced ocular disease. In this review, we discuss both strengths and limitations of the various available model systems to study ocular herpesvirus infection, with a focus on the use of these non-traditional virus-natural host models. Recent work has demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of experimental ocular herpesvirus infections in dogs and cats, and, therefore, these non-traditional models can provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of ocular herpesvirus infections.

  2. Predicting Barrett's Esophagus in Families: An Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Model Fitting Clinical Data to a Familial Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangqing; Elston, Robert C; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Falk, Gary W; Grady, William M; Faulx, Ashley; Mittal, Sumeet K; Canto, Marcia; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Wang, Jean S; Iyer, Prasad G; Abrams, Julian A; Tian, Ye D; Willis, Joseph E; Guda, Kishore; Markowitz, Sanford D; Chandar, Apoorva; Warfe, James M; Brock, Wendy; Chak, Amitabh

    2016-05-01

    Barrett's esophagus is often asymptomatic and only a small portion of Barrett's esophagus patients are currently diagnosed and under surveillance. Therefore, it is important to develop risk prediction models to identify high-risk individuals with Barrett's esophagus. Familial aggregation of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma, and the increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma for individuals with a family history, raise the necessity of including genetic factors in the prediction model. Methods to determine risk prediction models using both risk covariates and ascertained family data are not well developed. We developed a Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) risk prediction model from 787 singly ascertained Barrett's esophagus pedigrees and 92 multiplex Barrett's esophagus pedigrees, fitting a multivariate logistic model that incorporates family history and clinical risk factors. The eight risk factors, age, sex, education level, parental status, smoking, heartburn frequency, regurgitation frequency, and use of acid suppressant, were included in the model. The prediction accuracy was evaluated on the training dataset and an independent validation dataset of 643 multiplex Barrett's esophagus pedigrees. Our results indicate family information helps to predict Barrett's esophagus risk, and predicting in families improves both prediction calibration and discrimination accuracy. Our model can predict Barrett's esophagus risk for anyone with family members known to have, or not have, had Barrett's esophagus. It can predict risk for unrelated individuals without knowing any relatives' information. Our prediction model will shed light on effectively identifying high-risk individuals for Barrett's esophagus screening and surveillance, consequently allowing intervention at an early stage, and reducing mortality from esophageal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 727-35. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for

  3. Application of an object-oriented programming paradigm in three-dimensional computer modeling of mechanically active gastrointestinal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashev, P Z; Mintchev, M P; Bowes, K L

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel three-dimensional (3-D) object-oriented modeling approach incorporating knowledge of the anatomy, electrophysiology, and mechanics of externally stimulated excitable gastrointestinal (GI) tissues and emphasizing the "stimulus-response" principle of extracting the modeling parameters. The modeling method used clusters of class hierarchies representing GI tissues from three perspectives: 1) anatomical; 2) electrophysiological; and 3) mechanical. We elaborated on the first four phases of the object-oriented system development life-cycle: 1) analysis; 2) design; 3) implementation; and 4) testing. Generalized cylinders were used for the implementation of 3-D tissue objects modeling the cecum, the descending colon, and the colonic circular smooth muscle tissue. The model was tested using external neural electrical tissue excitation of the descending colon with virtual implanted electrodes and the stimulating current density distributions over the modeled surfaces were calculated. Finally, the tissue deformations invoked by electrical stimulation were estimated and represented by a mesh-surface visualization technique.

  4. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  5. Models of political public relations: Testing the situation in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jordi Xifra Triadú

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that political communication strategies are an application of marketing strategies to political field is today commonly shared by specialists. For them public relations is viewed like a set of techniques that serves political parties and other actors of the political scene, concentrated on media relations. This instrumental perspective is not in keeping with structural dimension of public relations in political activity and communication of his actors: political parties, pressure groups and political leaders. In this point of view, during managing periods of governance or opposition and during electoral campaigns, the most applied communication form by political parties is structured in accordance with the major public relations models: press agent model, public information model, two way asymmetrical model, and two way symmetrical model. This research prove hypothesis in Catalonia according the results of a quantitative survey focused on inside professionals who provide services for the seven main political parties in this Spanish Autonomous Community.RESUMEN:La idea de que las estrategias de comunicación política constituyen una aplicación de las estrategias del marketing al ámbito político es hoy comúnmente compartida por los analistas. Para éstos, las relaciones públicas son percibidas como un conjunto de técnicas al servicio de los partidos políticos y de otros actores de la escena política concentradas en las relaciones con la prensa. Esta perspectiva instrumental no concuerda con la dimensión estructural de las relaciones públicas en la actividad política y comunicativa de sus actores: partidos políticos, grupos de presión y líderes. Desde este punto de vista, tanto en los periodos de gestión u oposición como en los electorales, la forma comunicativa más aplicada por los partidos políticos se estructura de acuerdo con los modelos tradicionales de las relaciones públicas: agente de prensa, información p

  6. A New Paradigm For Modeling Fault Zone Inelasticity: A Multiscale Continuum Framework Incorporating Spontaneous Localization and Grain Fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanna, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The brittle portion of the crust contains structural features such as faults, jogs, joints, bends and cataclastic zones that span a wide range of length scales. These features may have a profound effect on earthquake nucleation, propagation and arrest. Incorporating these existing features in modeling and the ability to spontaneously generate new one in response to earthquake loading is crucial for predicting seismicity patterns, distribution of aftershocks and nucleation sites, earthquakes arrest mechanisms, and topological changes in the seismogenic zone structure. Here, we report on our efforts in modeling two important mechanisms contributing to the evolution of fault zone topology: (1) Grain comminution at the submeter scale, and (2) Secondary faulting/plasticity at the scale of few to hundreds of meters. We use the finite element software Abaqus to model the dynamic rupture. The constitutive response of the fault zone is modeled using the Shear Transformation Zone theory, a non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamic framework for modeling plastic deformation and localization in amorphous materials such as fault gouge. The gouge layer is modeled as 2D plane strain region with a finite thickness and heterogeenous distribution of porosity. By coupling the amorphous gouge with the surrounding elastic bulk, the model introduces a set of novel features that go beyond the state of the art. These include: (1) self-consistent rate dependent plasticity with a physically-motivated set of internal variables, (2) non-locality that alleviates mesh dependence of shear band formation, (3) spontaneous evolution of fault roughness and its strike which affects ground motion generation and the local stress fields, and (4) spontaneous evolution of grain size and fault zone fabric.

  7. Stomatal Conductance, Plant Hydraulics, and Multilayer Canopies: A New Paradigm for Earth System Models or Unnecessary Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture stress is a key regulator of canopy transpiration, the surface energy budget, and land-atmosphere coupling. Many land surface models used in Earth system models have an ad-hoc parameterization of soil moisture stress that decreases stomatal conductance with soil drying. Parameterization of soil moisture stress from more fundamental principles of plant hydrodynamics is a key research frontier for land surface models. While the biophysical and physiological foundations of such parameterizations are well-known, their best implementation in land surface models is less clear. Land surface models utilize a big-leaf canopy parameterization (or two big-leaves to represent the sunlit and shaded canopy) without vertical gradients in the canopy. However, there are strong biometeorological and physiological gradients in plant canopies. Are these gradients necessary to resolve? Here, I describe a vertically-resolved, multilayer canopy model that calculates leaf temperature and energy fluxes, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential at each level in the canopy. In this model, midday leaf water stress manifests in the upper canopy layers, which receive high amounts of solar radiation, have high leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic capacity, and have high stomatal conductance and transpiration rates (in the absence of leaf water stress). Lower levels in the canopy become water stressed in response to longer-term soil moisture drying. I examine the role of vertical gradients in the canopy microclimate (solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed), structure (leaf area density), and physiology (leaf nitrogen, photosynthetic capacity, stomatal conductance) in determining above canopy fluxes and gradients of transpiration and leaf water potential within the canopy.

  8. Winnicott's paradigm outlined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Loparic

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4 starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13 shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.

  9. Implications of Anomalous U(1) Symmetry in Unified Models the Flipped SU(5) x U(1) Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Rizos, J; Ellis, John

    2000-01-01

    A generic feature of string-derived models is the appearance of an anomalousAbelian U(1)_A symmetry which, among other properties, constrains the Yukawacouplings and distinguishes the three families from each other. In this paper,we discuss in a model-independent way the general constraints imposed by such aU(1)_A symmetry on fermion masses, R-violating couplings and proton-decayoperators in a generic flipped SU(5) x U(1)' model. We construct all possibleviable fermion mass textures and give various examples of effective low-energymodels which are distinguished from each other by their different predictionsfor B-, L- and R-violating effects. We pay particular attention to predictionsfor neutrino masses, in the light of the recent Super-Kamiokande data.

  10. Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH, an international expert in diet and nutrition, with posts as a Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health and as Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, presented "Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm".

  11. Exploring a post-traumatic stress disorder paradigm in Flinders sensitive line rats to model treatment-resistant depression I: bio-behavioural validation and response to imipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Sarel Jacobus; Harvey, Brian Herbert

    2017-08-01

    Co-morbid depression with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often treatment resistant. In developing a preclinical model of treatment-resistant depression (TRD), we combined animal models of depression and PTSD to produce an animal with more severe as well as treatment-resistant depressive-like behaviours. Male Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats, a genetic animal model of depression, were exposed to a stress re-stress model of PTSD [time-dependent sensitisation (TDS)] and compared with stress-naive controls. Seven days after TDS stress, depressive-like and coping behaviours as well as hippocampal and cortical noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) levels were analysed. Response to sub-chronic imipramine treatment (IMI; 10 mg/kg s.c.×7 days) was subsequently studied. FSL rats demonstrated bio-behavioural characteristics of depression. Exposure to TDS stress in FSL rats correlated negatively with weight gain, while demonstrating reduced swimming behaviour and increased immobility versus unstressed FSL rats. IMI significantly reversed depressive-like (immobility) behaviour and enhanced active coping behaviour (swimming and climbing) in FSL rats. The latter was significantly attenuated in FSL rats exposed to TDS versus unstressed FSL rats. IMI reversed reduced 5HIAA levels in unstressed FSL rats, whereas exposure to TDS negated this effect. Lowered NA levels in FSL rats were sustained after TDS with IMI significantly reversing this in the hippocampus. Combining a gene-X-environment model of depression with a PTSD paradigm produces exaggerated depressive-like symptoms that display an attenuated response to antidepressant treatment. This work confirms combining FSL rats with TDS exposure as a putative animal model of TRD.

  12. A reaction limited in vivo dissolution model for the study of drug absorption: Towards a new paradigm for the biopharmaceutic classification of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheras, Panos; Iliadis, Athanassios; Melagraki, Georgia

    2018-05-30

    The aim of this work is to develop a gastrointestinal (GI) drug absorption model based on a reaction limited model of dissolution and consider its impact on the biopharmaceutic classification of drugs. Estimates for the fraction of dose absorbed as a function of dose, solubility, reaction/dissolution rate constant and the stoichiometry of drug-GI fluids reaction/dissolution were derived by numerical solution of the model equations. The undissolved drug dose and the reaction/dissolution rate constant drive the dissolution rate and determine the extent of absorption when high-constant drug permeability throughout the gastrointestinal tract is assumed. Dose is an important element of drug-GI fluids reaction/dissolution while solubility exclusively acts as an upper limit for drug concentrations in the lumen. The 3D plots of fraction of dose absorbed as a function of dose and reaction/dissolution rate constant for highly soluble and low soluble drugs for different "stoichiometries" (0.7, 1.0, 2.0) of the drug-reaction/dissolution with the GI fluids revealed that high extent of absorption was found assuming high drug- reaction/dissolution rate constant and high drug solubility. The model equations were used to simulate in vivo supersaturation and precipitation phenomena. The model developed provides the theoretical basis for the interpretation of the extent of drug's absorption on the basis of the parameters associated with the drug-GI fluids reaction/dissolution. A new paradigm emerges for the biopharmaceutic classification of drugs, namely, a model independent biopharmaceutic classification scheme of four drug categories based on either the fulfillment or not of the current dissolution criteria and the high or low % drug metabolism. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Nanoethics, Science Communication, and a Fourth Model for Public Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a fourth model of public engagement with science, grounded in the principle of nurturing scientific agency through participatory bioethics. It argues that social media is an effective device through which to enable such engagement, as it has the capacity to empower users and transforms audiences into co-producers of knowledge, rather than consumers of content. Social media also fosters greater engagement with the political and legal implications of science, thus promoting the value of scientific citizenship. This argument is explored by considering the case of nanoscience and nanotechnology, as an exemplar for how emerging technologies may be handled by the scientific community and science policymakers.

  14. Soft Systems Methodology and Problem Framing: Development of an Environmental Problem Solving Model Respecting a New Emergent Reflexive Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Benoit; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Identifies the more representative problem-solving models in environmental education. Suggests the addition of a strategy for defining a problem situation using Soft Systems Methodology to environmental education activities explicitly designed for the development of critical thinking. Contains 45 references. (JRH)

  15. A Model for Screening Twice-Exceptional Students (Gifted with Learning Disabilities) within a Response to Intervention Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Coles, Jeremy Thomas; Miller, Kelli Caldwell; Hopkins, Michael B.; Hilton-Prillhart, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a model for screening for twice-exceptional status (i.e., gifted students who have a learning disability). Curriculum-based measures (Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness: Reading and Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness: Math) were administered to 1,242 third-grade students within a Response to…

  16. Three paradigms of horror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the individual psyche, in the split, deceived, or in some other way unreliable self which is, consciously or unconsciously, harmful to others, and ultimately to itself. Paradigm 2 deals with the “Fear of others”: the root of fear is outside and is concerned with other people and other creatures which have an urge to occupy a certain human microcosm. Paradigm 3 is concerned with the “Fear of the numinous”: the root of the fear is mostly situated on the outside; however its shape is amorphous, ambivalent and unknowable. The “monster” is faceless; it touches on primary forces of the divine/demonic, and as such is situated on the very border between inside/outside. All three paradigms, with their main approaches and constitutive elements, are modulated through two basic possible treatments: the conservative and the progressive (liberal, which affords a total of six basic variations of horror. Starting from definitions given by John Carpenter, Robin Wood and his own, the author analyzes representative examples from horror literature and film for each paradigm and its variation, with a special accent on the image of Otherness and its connection to the norm, its intrusion into the status quo, anthropocentrism and the presence or absence of a happy ending. The paper demonstrates the richness of connotative potential within the horror genre and provides a basis for its taxonomy.

  17. The Phase of Illness Paradigm: A Checklist Centric Model to Improve Patient Care in the Burn Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    high cognitive workload associated with information overload and miscommunication. • Multidisciplinary Rounds (MDR) in the Burn Intensive Care Unit...for the POIP using cognitive systems engineering methodologies and iteration. To validate the model, we will measure clinician perception of patient...communication, teamwork, cognitive work load, and provider quality of life before and after units implement the POIP. To assess the model’s effect, we

  18. A new paradigm for continuous alignment of business and IT: combining enterprise architecture modeling and enterprise ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hinkelmann, K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alignment of Business and IT: Combining Enterprise Architecture Modeling and Enterprise Ontology Knut Hinkelmann, School of Business, FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 4600 Olten, Switzerland and Department... initiatives, the architecture at the start of a development might not be appropriate anymore when the new business processes and information systems are rolled out. The grand challenge for today's enterprises, which we deal with in this research...

  19. Cognitive skills training in digital era: A paradigm shift in surgical education using the TaTME model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Joep; Keller, Deborah S

    2018-04-30

    Surgical competence is a complex, multifactorial process, requiring ample time and training. Optimal training is based on acquiring knowledge and psychomotor and cognitive skills. Practicing surgical skills is one of the most crucial tasks for both the novice surgeon learning new procedures and surgeons already in practice learning new techniques. Focus is placed on teaching traditional technical skills, but the importance of cognitive skills cannot be underestimated. Cognitive skills allow recognizing environmental cues to improve technical performance including situational awareness, mental readiness, risk assessment, anticipating problems, decision-making, adaptation, and flexibility, and may also accelerate the trainee's understanding of a procedure, formalize the steps being practiced, and reduce the overall training time to become technically proficient. The introduction and implementation of the transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) into practice may be the best demonstration of this new model of teaching and training, including pre-training, course attendance, and post-course guidance on technical and cognitive skills. To date, the TaTME framework has been the ideal model for structured training to ensure safe implementation. Further development of metrics to grade successful learning and assessment of long term outcomes with the new pathway will confirm the success of this training model. Copyright © 2018 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. All rights reserved.

  20. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly; Kim, Young Jin; Jardine, Philip M.; Watson, David B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M. partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M. species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing NE equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-NE kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions

  1. Translation of Contextual Control Model to chronic disease management: A paradigm to guide design of cognitive support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leecaster, Molly K; Weir, Charlene R; Drews, Frank A; Hellewell, James L; Bolton, Daniel; Jones, Makoto M; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2017-07-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) continue to be criticized for providing poor cognitive support. Defining cognitive support has lacked theoretical foundation. We developed a measurement model of cognitive support based on the Contextual Control Model (COCOM), which describes control characteristics of an "orderly" joint system and proposes 4 levels of control: scrambled, opportunistic, tactical, and strategic. 35 clinicians (5 centers) were interviewed pre and post outpatient clinical visits and audiotaped during the visit. Behaviors pertaining to hypertension management were systematically mapped to the COCOM control characteristics of: (1) time horizon, (2) uncertainty assessment, (3) consideration of multiple goals, (4) causal model described, and (5) explicitness of plan. Each encounter was classified for overall mode of control. Visits with deviation versus no deviation from hypertension goals were compared. Reviewer agreement was high. Control characteristics differed significantly between deviation groups (Wilcox rank sum p<.01). K-means cluster analysis of control characteristics, stratified by deviation were distinct, with higher goal deviations associated with more control characteristics. The COCOM control characteristics appear to be areas of potential yield for improved user-experience design. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly N; Kim, Young-Jin; Jardine, Philip M; Watson, David B

    2007-06-16

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing N(E) equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-N(E) kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

  3. Chronic subordinate colony housing paradigm: A mouse model for mechanisms of PTSD vulnerability, targeted prevention, and treatment-2016 Curt Richter Award Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Stefan O; Langgartner, Dominik; Foertsch, Sandra; Postolache, Teodor T; Brenner, Lisa A; Guendel, Harald; Lowry, Christopher A

    2016-12-01

    There is considerable individual variability in vulnerability for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); evidence suggests that this variability is related in part to genetic and environmental factors, including adverse early life experience. Interestingly, recent studies indicate that induction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be a common mechanism underlying gene and environment interactions that increase the risk for development of PTSD symptoms, and, therefore, may be a target for novel interventions for prevention or treatment of PTSD. Development of murine models with face, construct, and predictive validity would provide opportunities to investigate in detail complex genetic, environmental, endocrine, and immunologic factors that determine vulnerability to PTSD-like syndromes, and furthermore may provide mechanistic insight leading to development of novel interventions for both prevention and treatment of PTSD symptoms. Here we describe the potential use of the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC) paradigm in mice as an adequate animal model for development of a PTSD-like syndrome and describe recent studies that suggest novel interventions for the prevention and treatment of PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Three paradigms of horror

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the indivi...

  5. Predicting Public Bicycle Adoption Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Hazen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing programs provide a sustainable mode of urban transportation. Although cities across the globe have developed these systems for their citizens and visitors, usage rates are not as high as anticipated. This research uses the technology acceptance model as the basis to understand one’s intention to adopt bicycle sharing programs. Using survey data derived from 421 participants in Beijing, China, the proposed covariance-based structural equation model consisting of perceived quality, perceived convenience, and perceived value is found to predict 50.5% of the variance in adoption intention. The findings of this research contribute to theory and practice in the burgeoning literature on public bicycle systems and sustainable urban transportation by offering a theoretical lens through which to consider system adoption, and providing information to practitioners as to what factors might contribute most to adoption.

  6. Modeling Inhalational Tularemia: Deliberate Release and Public Health Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ian M.; Leach, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Two epidemic modeling studies of inhalational tularemia were identified in the published literature, both demonstrating the high number of potential casualties that could result from a deliberate aerosolized release of the causative agent in an urban setting. However, neither study analyzed the natural history of inhalational tularemia nor modeled the relative merits of different mitigation strategies. We first analyzed publicly available human/primate experimental data and reports of naturally acquired inhalational tularemia cases to better understand the epidemiology of the disease. We then simulated an aerosolized release of the causative agent, using airborne dispersion modeling to demonstrate the potential number of casualties and the extent of their spatial distribution. Finally, we developed a public health intervention model that compares 2 mitigation strategies: targeting antibiotics at symptomatic individuals with or without mass distribution of antibiotics to potentially infected individuals. An antibiotic stockpile that is sufficient to capture all areas where symptomatic individuals were infected is likely to save more lives than treating symptomatic individuals alone, providing antibiotics can be distributed rapidly and their uptake is high. However, with smaller stockpiles, a strategy of treating symptomatic individuals alone is likely to save many more lives than additional mass distribution of antibiotics to potentially infected individuals. The spatial distribution of symptomatic individuals is unlikely to coincide exactly with the path of the dispersion cloud if such individuals are infected near their work locations but then seek treatment close to their homes. The optimal mitigation strategy will depend critically on the size of the release relative to the stockpile level and the effectiveness of treatment relative to the speed at which antibiotics can be distributed. PMID:22044315

  7. Modelling health care processes for eliciting user requirements: a way to link a quality paradigm and clinical information system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staccini, P; Joubert, M; Quaranta, J F; Fieschi, D; Fieschi, M

    2001-12-01

    Healthcare institutions are looking at ways to increase their efficiency by reducing costs while providing care services with a high level of safety. Thus, hospital information systems have to support quality improvement objectives. The elicitation of the requirements has to meet users' needs in relation to both the quality (efficacy, safety) and the monitoring of all health care activities (traceability). Information analysts need methods to conceptualise clinical information systems that provide actors with individual benefits and guide behavioural changes. A methodology is proposed to elicit and structure users' requirements using a process-oriented analysis, and it is applied to the blood transfusion process. An object-oriented data model of a process has been defined in order to organise the data dictionary. Although some aspects of activity, such as 'where', 'what else', and 'why' are poorly represented by the data model alone, this method of requirement elicitation fits the dynamic of data input for the process to be traced. A hierarchical representation of hospital activities has to be found for the processes to be interrelated, and for their characteristics to be shared, in order to avoid data redundancy and to fit the gathering of data with the provision of care.

  8. Integrative Health Coach Training: A Model for Shifting the Paradigm Toward Patient-centricity and Meeting New National Prevention Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda L; Lake, Noelle H; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Perlman, Adam; Wroth, Shelley; Wolever, Ruth Q

    2013-05-01

    To describe the evolution, training, and results of an emerging allied health profession skilled in eliciting sustainable health-related behavior change and charged with improving patient engagement. Through techniques sourced from humanistic and positive psychology, solution-focused and mindfulness-based therapies, and leadership coaching, Integrative Health Coaching (IHC) provides a mechanism to empower patients through various stages of learning and change. IHC also provides a method for the creation and implementation of forward-focused personalized health plans. Clinical studies employing Duke University Integrative Medicine's model of IHC have demonstrated improvements in measures of diabetes and diabetes risk, weight management, and risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. By supporting and enabling individuals in making major lifestyle changes for the improvement of their health, IHC carries the potential to reduce rates and morbidity of chronic disease and impact myriad aspects of healthcare. As a model of educational and clinical innovation aimed at patient empowerment and lifestyle modification, IHC is aligned well with the tenets and goals of recently sanctioned federal healthcare reform, specifically the creation of the first National Prevention and Health Promotion Strategy. IHC may allow greater patient-centricity while targeting the lifestyle-related chronic disease that lies at the heart of the current healthcare crisis.

  9. Counterinsurgency and Strategic Public Health: Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    government’s 3 effectiveness and, thus, its control. Another insight into this dynamic can be seen through the eyes of Abraham Maslow , a prominent...humanistic psychologist. Maslow defines a hierarchy of needs which builds a person toward self-actualization. He postulates the most basic of human...because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person’s search for satisfaction.”(emphasis added) Maslow

  10. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  11. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  12. Design of pharmaceutical products to meet future patient needs requires modification of current development paradigms and business models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, S; Baeyens, J-P; Becker, R; Maio, M; Bresciani, M; Shreeves, T; Ecker, F; Gogol, M

    2014-06-01

    Drugs represent the most common intervention strategy for managing acute and chronic medical conditions. In light of demographic change and the increasing age of patients, the classic model of drug research and development by the pharmaceutical industry and drug prescription by physicians is reaching its limits. Different stakeholders, e.g. industry, regulatory authorities, health insurance systems, physicians etc., have at least partially differing interests regarding the process of healthcare provision. The primary responsibility for the correct handling of medication and adherence to treatment schedules lies with the recipient of a drug-based therapy, i.e. the patient. It is thus necessary to interactively involve elderly patients, as well as the other stakeholders, in the development of medication and medication application devices, and in clinical trials. This approach will provide the basis for developing a strategy that better meets patients' needs, thus resulting in improved adherence to treatment schedules and better therapeutic outcomes.

  13. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  14. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  15. Shifting the paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Katalin; Brozik, Anna; Kucsma, Nora

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticuloc...... paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria....

  16. Deconstructing Research: Paradigms Lost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, proponents of naturalistic and/or critical modes of inquiry advocating the use of ethnographic techniques for the narrative-based study of phenomena within pedagogical contexts have challenged the central methodological paradigm of educational research: that is, the tendency among its practitioners to adhere to quantitative…

  17. In Silico Theoretical Molecular Modeling for Alzheimer’s Disease: The Nicotine-Curcumin Paradigm in Neuroprotection and Neurotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya E. Choonara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aggregation of the amyloid-β-peptide (AβP into well-ordered fibrils has been considered as the key pathological marker of Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular attributes related to the specific binding interactions, covalently and non-covalently, of a library of compounds targeting of conformational scaffolds were computed employing static lattice atomistic simulations and array constructions. A combinatorial approach using isobolographic analysis was stochastically modeled employing Artificial Neural Networks and a Design of Experiments approach, namely an orthogonal Face-Centered Central Composite Design for small molecules, such as curcumin and glycosylated nornicotine exhibiting concentration-dependent behavior on modulating AβP aggregation and oligomerization. This work provides a mathematical and in silico approach that constitutes a new frontier in providing neuroscientists with a template for in vitro and in vivo experimentation. In future this could potentially allow neuroscientists to adopt this in silico approach for the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the neuroprotection and neurotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the neuroprotective entities identified in this study may also be valuable in this regard.

  18. Knowledge Transfer and Teaching Public Administration: The Academy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginnings of Public Administration in the US and its accompanying education in other parts of the world, government and policy have become more complex. The education in Public Administration created a professional pathway to public service. The addition of education to Public Administration came out of the Progressive Movement in the…

  19. [The Global Model of Public Mental Health and Recovery Mentors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-François; Auclair, Émilie

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to revisit the Global Model of Public Mental Health (GMPMH) in light of the 4th Civic Forum. Recovery mentors of the University of Recovery chaired this public event, which was held in East-end Montreal, Canada, in 2016. The University of Recovery is a concept of co-learning among its members.Methods Being able to refer to international conventions and human rights standards is a key component of a genuine global approach that is supportive of individuals and communities in their quest for recovery and full citizenship. The GMPMH was inspired by the ecological approach in public health and health promotion programs, while adding to that approach the recovery mentors, as agents of mental health policies and legislation transformation. The GMPMH integrates recovery- and citizenship-oriented practices through the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion of the World Health Organization. Indeed, here the GMPMH is said to be global in that the supranational and individual levels reinforce each other, taking turns with a) a set of legal rules and international conventions on human rights, including those of disabled persons, and b) the active involvement and agency of recovery mentors who can evoke these rules and conventions as part of a plea for the recognition of their personal and collective capacity for change; they acted as tracers of recovery trajectories during the Civic Forum. The GMPMH was first published in 2009, and revisited in 2013. While this latter revision was based on the 3rd Civic Forum, in this paper we use the same approach to revisit the GMPMH as underpinned by the findings and recommendations of the 4th Civic Forum, which discussed questions related to work and employment.Results Updating the GMPMH in light of the Civic Forum underlines the need for a more inclusive type of governance regarding policy and systems transformation. Local communities and persons in recovery can reach each other to promote change and

  20. Integrative Mental Health (IMH): paradigm, research, and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, James; Helgason, Chanel; Sarris, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the rapidly evolving paradigm of "Integrative Mental Health (IMH)." The paradigm of contemporary biomedical psychiatry and its contrast to non-allopathic systems of medicine is initially reviewed, followed by an exploration of the emerging paradigm of IMH, which aims to reconcile the bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model with evidence-based methods from traditional healing practices. IMH is rapidly transforming conventional understandings of mental illness and has significant positive implications for the day-to-day practice of mental health care. IMH incorporates mainstream interventions such as pharmacologic treatments, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions, as well as alternative therapies such as acupuncture, herbal and nutritional medicine, dietary modification, meditation, etc. Two recent international conferences in Europe and the United States show that interest in integrative mental health care is growing rapidly. In response, the International Network of Integrative Mental Health (INIMH: www.INIMH.org) was established in 2010 with the objective of creating an international network of clinicians, researchers, and public health advocates to advance a global agenda for research, education, and clinical practice of evidence-based integrative mental health care. The paper concludes with a discussion of emerging opportunities for research in IMH, and an exploration of potential clinical applications of integrative mental health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A paradigm shift in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling: rule of thumb for estimating free drug level in tissue compared with plasma to guide drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    fraction in plasma derived from a static in vitro environment might be biased to guide drug design (the old paradigm), and, hence, it is recommended to use a PBPK model to reproduce more accurately the in vivo condition in tissue (the new paradigm). This newly developed approach can be used to predict free drug concentration in diverse tissue compartments for small molecules in toxicology and pharmacology studies, which can be leveraged to optimize the pharmacokinetics drivers of tissue distribution based upon physicochemical and physiological input parameters in an attempt to optimize free drug level in tissue. Overall, this present study provides guidance on the application of plasma and tissue concentration information in PBPK/PD research in preclinical and clinical studies, which is in accordance with the recent literature. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Project management: a new service delivery paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In line with international trends in governance, the South African Government’s initial focus on the development of policy frameworks, structures and systems in order to give effect to the values and principles of the Constitution, shifted to the most critical issue, namely service delivery. The Government became increasingly aware that a significant expansion in the scope and quality of service provision was not possible with traditional delivery settings and approaches. There is growing evidence that there is a need for a significant departure from conventional approaches and that a leap into a new service delivery paradigm is necessary. Increasingly this new paradigm highlights the need to further develop the government’s project management skills and applications with a view to achieving improved delivery capability. In this article the focus will be placed on the changing service delivery paradigm – from an “old” traditional model through the transition to a “new” paradigm. This paradigm is shaped by international and national trends and events in government. The contribution and advantages of project management applications for effective governance are highlighted and the article concludes with an explanation of project management organisational arrangements necessary to support the new paradigm.

  3. Adaptive scenarios: a training model for today's public health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden-Holman, Tanya; Bedet, Jennifer; Walkner, Laurie; Abd-Hamid, Nor Hashidah

    2014-01-01

    With the current economic climate, money for training is scarce. In addition, time is a major barrier to participation in trainings. To meet the public health workforce's rising demand for training, while struggling with less time and fewer resources, the Upper Midwest Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center has developed a model of online training that provides the public health workforce with individually customized, needs-based training experiences. Adaptive scenarios are rooted in case-based reasoning, a learning approach that focuses on the specific knowledge needed to solve a problem. Proponents of case-based reasoning argue that learners benefit from being able to remember previous similar situations and reusing information and knowledge from that situation. Adaptive scenarios based on true-to-life job performance provide an opportunity to assess skills by presenting the user with choices to make in a problem-solving context. A team approach was used to develop the adaptive scenarios. Storylines were developed that incorporated situations aligning with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes outlined in the Public Health Preparedness and Response Core Competency Model. This article examines 2 adaptive scenarios: "Ready or Not? A Family Preparedness Scenario" and "Responding to a Crisis: Managing Emotions and Stress Scenario." The scenarios are available on Upper Midwest Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center's Learning Management System, the Training Source (http://training-source.org). Evaluation data indicate that users' experiences have been positive. Integrating the assessment and training elements of the scenarios so that the training experience is uniquely adaptive to each user is one of the most efficient ways to provide training. The opportunity to provide individualized, needs-based training without having to administer separate assessments has the potential to save time and resources. These adaptive scenarios continue to be

  4. Physics Bus: An Innovative Model for Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire

    The Physics Bus is about doing science for fun. It is an innovative model for science outreach whose mission is to awaken joy and excitement in physics for all ages and walks of life - especially those underserved by science enrichment. It is a mobile exhibition of upcycled appliances-reimagined by kids-that showcase captivating physics phenomena. Inside our spaceship-themed school bus, visitors will find: a microwave ionized-gas disco-party, fog rings that shoot from a wheelbarrow tire, a tv whose electron beam is controlled by a toy keyboard, and over 20 other themed exhibits. The Physics Bus serves a wide range of public in diverse locations from local neighborhoods, urban parks and rural schools, to cross-country destinations. Its approachable, friendly and relaxed environment allows for self-paced and self-directed interactions, providing a positive and engaging experience with science. We believe that this environment enriches lives and inspires people. In this presentation we will talk about the nuts and bolts that make this model work, how the project got started, and the resources that keep it going. We will talk about the advantages of being a grassroots and community-based organization, and how programs like this can best interface with universities. We will explain the benefits of focusing on direct interactions and why our model avoids ``teaching'' physics content with words. Situating our approach within a body of research on the value of informal science we will discuss our success in capturing and engaging our audience. By the end of this presentation we hope to broaden your perception of what makes a successful outreach program and encourage you to value and support alternative outreach models such as this one. In Collaboration with: Eva Luna, Cornell University; Erik Herman, Cornell University; Christopher Bell, Ithaca City School District.

  5. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  6. CHANGE OF ENERGY PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut PURICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We are at the beginning of a change of paradigm in the energy systems of the whole World. Both new resources being found and exploited and the new technologies for energy conversion, transport and distribution, along with the associated artificial intelligence systems, are starting to create new futures, with different living values, for the greatest machine created by men: the energy system. Some relevant elements are presented in the paper along with the position and the perspectives of Romania.

  7. A sustainable business model for public service organizations?

    OpenAIRE

    S.P. Osborne; Z. Radnor; I. Vidal; T. Kinder

    2014-01-01

    The current global economic recession presents significant challenges to public service organizations (PSOs) that deliver public services to local communities – irrespective of whether these organizations are situated in the public, private, or third sectors. Governments around the world have responded to this recession by a range of strategies intended to reduce public spending and generate growth. This is not the place to debate such strategies – this task has been undertaken...

  8. MDMA and the "ecstasy paradigm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, there has been a steady flow of research papers highlighting the dangers of MDMA and the implications for ecstasy users. After such a long time, it would be reasonable to expect that these dangers would be obvious due to the large number of ecstasy users. The available evidence does not indicate that there are millions of ecstasy users experiencing any problems linked to their ecstasy use. The "precautionary principle" suggests that, in the absence of knowing for certain, "experts" should argue that MDMA be avoided. However, this may have been taken too far, as the dire warnings do not seem to be reducing with the lack of epidemiological evidence of clinically relevant problems. The "ecstasy paradigm" is one way of articulating this situation, in that the needs of research funders and publication bias lead to a specific set of subcultural norms around what information is acceptable in the public domain. By digging a little deeper, it is easy to find problems with the evidence base that informs the public debate around MDMA. The key question is whether it is acceptable to maintain this status quo given the therapeutic potential of MDMA.

  9. Modularity beyond Perception: Evidence from the PRP Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Hagit; Cohen, Asher

    2010-01-01

    The Dimension Action (DA) model asserts that the visual system is modular, and that each task involves multiple-response mechanisms rather than a unitary-response selection mechanism. The model has been supported by evidence from single-task interference paradigms. We use the psychological refractory period paradigm and show that dual-task…

  10. A Comparison of Two Paradigms for Distributed Shared Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, W.G.; Kaashoek, M.F.; Bal, H.E.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Two paradigms for distributed shared memory on loosely‐coupled computing systems are compared: the shared data‐object model as used in Orca, a programming language specially designed for loosely‐coupled computing systems, and the shared virtual memory model. For both paradigms two systems are

  11. Information processing as a paradigm for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M; Kelso, Evan

    2015-01-03

    For decades, the dominant paradigm for studying decision making--the expected utility framework--has been burdened by an increasing number of empirical findings that question its validity as a model of human cognition and behavior. However, as Kuhn (1962) argued in his seminal discussion of paradigm shifts, an old paradigm cannot be abandoned until a new paradigm emerges to replace it. In this article, we argue that the recent shift in researcher attention toward basic cognitive processes that give rise to decision phenomena constitutes the beginning of that replacement paradigm. Models grounded in basic perceptual, attentional, memory, and aggregation processes have begun to proliferate. The development of this new approach closely aligns with Kuhn's notion of paradigm shift, suggesting that this is a particularly generative and revolutionary time to be studying decision science.

  12. Leading Public Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    at all levels have taken up a variety of approaches inspired by the field of design, often in response to growing pressures to innovate. But how these approaches influence public innovation – how they change the roles of public managers, how they help managers generate new ideas and solutions...... – and whether, as some have suggested, they might signal the rise of new governance models or paradigms – these issues have not, with perhaps a few exceptions, been rigorously explored. In this thesis, I explore these issues by examining the experiences of public managers who have pioneered the use of design...... approaches. More specifically, I confront three questions: • Characterizing design practice: Within public sector organizations, what does the application of design approaches entail? Why do public managers look to and commission design, and what tools, techniques, processes and methods are brought into play...

  13. Next generation paradigm for urban pluvial flood modelling, prediction, management and vulnerability reduction - Interaction between RainGain and Blue Green Dream projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovic, C.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of climate change and increasing urbanisation call for a new paradigm for efficient planning, management and retrofitting of urban developments to increase resilience to climate change and to maximize ecosystem services. Improved management of urban floods from all sources in required. Time scale for well documented fluvial and coastal floods allows for timely response but surface (pluvial) flooding caused by intense local storms had not been given appropriate attention, Pitt Review (UK). Urban surface floods predictions require fine scale data and model resolutions. They have to be tackled locally by combining central inputs (meteorological services) with the efforts of the local entities. Although significant breakthrough in modelling of pluvial flooding was made there is a need to further enhance short term prediction of both rainfall and surface flooding. These issues are dealt with in the EU Iterreg project Rain Gain (RG). Breakthrough in urban flood mitigation can only be achieved by combined effects of advanced planning design, construction and management of urban water (blue) assets in interaction with urban vegetated areas' (green) assets. Changes in design and operation of blue and green assets, currently operating as two separate systems, is urgently required. Gaps in knowledge and technology will be introduced by EIT's Climate-KIC Blue Green Dream (BGD) project. The RG and BGD projects provide synergy of the "decoupled" blue and green systems to enhance multiple benefits to: urban amenity, flood management, heat island, biodiversity, resilience to drought thus energy requirements, thus increased quality of urban life at lower costs. Urban pluvial flood management will address two priority areas: Short Term rainfall Forecast and Short term flood surface forecast. Spatial resolution of short term rainfall forecast below 0.5 km2 and lead time of a few hours are needed. Improvements are achievable by combining data sources of raingauge networks

  14. Application of Catastrophe Risk Modelling to Evacuation Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, G.

    2009-04-01

    catastrophe risk model, is required to explore the casualty implications of different possible hazard scenarios, to assess the proportion of an evacuated population who would owe their lives to an evacuation, and to estimate the economic loss associated with an unnecessary evacuation. This paper will review the developing methodology for applying catastrophe risk modelling to support public policy in evacuation decision-making, and provide illustrations from across the range of natural hazards. Evacuation during volcanic crises is a prime example, recognizing the improving forecasting skill of volcanologists, now able to account probabilistically for precursory seismological, geodetic, and geochemical monitoring data. This methodology will be shown to help civic authorities make sounder risk-informed decisions on the timing and population segmentation of evacuation from both volcanoes and calderas, such as Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, which are in densely populated urban regions.

  15. Policy and Practice Model of Public-Private Partnership in Public Hospitals during the New Medical Reform Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju-Yang; Long, Ru-Yin; Yan, Hai; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Since the beginning of the new health care reform in 2009, the state has illustrated the top design and health care improvement strategy of "encouraging social capital to participate in the reform of public hospitals", in accordance with the program's general objective. All areas have been explored on this matter and the results obtained are very interesting, not to mention the acquisition of significant experience. At present, the existing business models in China are mainly the following: Rebuild-Operate-Transfer (ROT), franchise business model, Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model, mixed ownership model and business insurance model. This paper introduces a variety of alternative models, and provides a simple analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, for the reform of public hospitals, the government shares should go into franchise mode or mixed ownership, and all property rights should be transferred to the government to ensure the conservation and proliferation of state-owned assets.

  16. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  17. Project Management in Public Administration. TPM – Total Project Management Maturity Model. The Case of Slovenian Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana ŽURGA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present the importance of project management for the functioning of public administration, and its contribution to the realization of the developmental goals of the government. For this, integration of strategic management and project management is of vital importance. The methodology used is a combination of literature review, a case study of project management in public administration of the Republic of Slovenia, and development of a maturity model of project management in public administration, with its verifi cation on the case of Slovenia. The main contribution of the study is development of TPM – Total Project Management maturity model for public administration. Upon the TPM maturity model, project management in Slovene public administration is assessed and discussed. Out of fi ve maturity levels, the results for project management in Slovene public administration are: management of projects – level 2 (initiated, management of programs of projects – level 2 (initiated, management of portfolios of projects – level 3 (implemented, organizational support for project management – level 3 (implemented, HRM for project management – level 2 (initiated, and integration of project management and strategic management – level 3 (implemented. General fi ndings and recommendations in this respect are drawn, together with indicated areas for possible further research and investigation.

  18. The peopleware paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, C G

    1996-08-01

    Manufacturing managements and practitioners alike are at long last realizing that the heartbeat of competitive advantage springs from peopleware, not hardware and software. But despite this heightened awareness the problem persists even among manufacturing professionals--they may talk a good game about priortizing people and quality, but all too many have precious little idea of how to go about it with constancy of purpose. This article bridges the gap and addresses the key issues in adopting the powerful new peopleware paradigm that provides the positive motivational climate for the improvement-change journey toward world-class performance through teamwork, innovation, and continuous improvement.

  19. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  20. Mathematical Model of the Public Understanding of Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisniakov, V.; Prisniakova, L.

    The success in deployment of the space programs now in many respects depends on comprehension by the citizens of necessity of programs, from "space" erudition of country. Purposefulness and efficiency of the "space" teaching and educational activity depend on knowledge of relationships between separate variables of such process. The empirical methods of ``space'' well-information of the taxpayers should be supplemented by theoretical models permitting to demonstrate a ways of control by these processes. Authors on the basis of their experience of educational activity during 50- years of among the students of space-rocket profession obtain an equation of ``space" state of the society determining a degree of its knowledge about Space, about achievements in its development, about indispensable lines of investigations, rates of informatization of the population. It is supposed, that the change of the space information consists of two parts: (1) - from going of the information about practical achievements, about development special knowledge requiring of independent financing, and (2) from intensity of dissemination of the ``free" information of a general educational line going to the population through mass-media, book, in family, in educational institutions, as a part of obligatory knowledge of any man, etc. In proposed model the level space well-information of the population depends on intensity of dissemination in the society of the space information, and also from a volume of financing of space-rocket technology, from a part of population of the employment in the space-rocket programs, from a factor of education of the population in adherence to space problems, from welfare and mentality of the people, from a rate of unemployment and material inequality. Obtained in the report on these principles the equation of a space state of the society corresponds to catastrophe such as cusp, the analysis has shown which one ways of control of the public understanding of space

  1. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  2. Answer Set Programming and Other Computing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yunsong

    2013-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is one of the most prominent and successful knowledge representation paradigms. The success of ASP is due to its expressive non-monotonic modeling language and its efficient computational methods originating from building propositional satisfiability solvers. The wide adoption of ASP has motivated several extensions to…

  3. On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate...

  4. Operationalizing Social Justice Counseling: Paradigm to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice counseling, like all humanistic models, recognizes the dignity of each human being, affirms the right of all people to choose and work toward their own goals, and asserts the importance of service to community. The social justice paradigm brings a special emphasis on the role of the environment. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  5. Innovative organotypic in vitro models for safety assessment: aligning with regulatory requirements and understanding models of the heart, skin, and liver as paradigms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pridgeon, Chris S; Schlott, Constanze; Wong, Min Wei; Heringa, Minne B; Heckel, Tobias; Leedale, Joe; Launay, Laurence; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Przyborski, Stefan; Bearon, Rachel N; Wilkinson, Emma L; Ansari, Tahera; Greenman, John; Hendriks, Delilah F G; Gibbs, Sue; Sidaway, James; Sison-Young, Rowena L; Walker, Paul; Cross, Mike J; Park, B Kevin; Goldring, Chris E P

    2018-01-01

    The development of improved, innovative models for the detection of toxicity of drugs, chemicals, or chemicals in cosmetics is crucial to efficiently bring new products safely to market in a cost-effective and timely manner. In addition, improvement in models to detect toxicity may reduce the

  6. RISK ASSESSMENT MODELS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN THE ROAD SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gasilov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the main potential models of public-private partnership; it gives evaluation of risks for these models, considering their distribution between members of partnership. It offers the mechanism of making an optimal choice of a public-private partnership model for projects of transport system development.

  7. Academic Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco H C Felix

    2017-01-01

    Alternative modes of academic publication. What it is: Page for the dissemination of academic papers in alternative formats. Aimed at the diffusion of the idea of open publication, or open access publication, a branch of open science, a multidisciplinary movement that seeks to modify the paradigm of knowledge production that centralizes it and prevents its spreading. Historically, Western tradition has become firmly rooted in the free dissemination of knowledge among peers. However, the c...

  8. One sector models, indeterminacy, and productive public spending

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodyan, Sergey

    -, č. 293 (2006), s. 1-24 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : indeterminacy * absolute instability * productive public spending Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp293.pdf

  9. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  10. Systematic environmental monitoring model for decision in Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Cunha Cardoso Filho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Addresses the existing interdisciplinary between Information Science and public policies, and proposes to environmental monitoring tool as a relevant tool for improving the process of evaluating the effectiveness of these social policies and social programs, there included the legislative branch, through the collection, processing and provision of information allowing to identify the environmental changes and propose, consistently, the improvement of public policies that meet the demands of citizens.

  11. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  12. Exponential time paradigms through the polynomial time lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drucker, A.; Nederlof, J.; Santhanam, R.; Sankowski, P.; Zaroliagis, C.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general approach to modelling algorithmic paradigms for the exact solution of NP-hard problems. Our approach is based on polynomial time reductions to succinct versions of problems solvable in polynomial time. We use this viewpoint to explore and compare the power of paradigms such as

  13. The WIMP Paradigm: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The WIMP paradigm is the glue that joins together much of the high energy and cosmic frontiers. It postulates that most of the matter in the Universe is made of weakly-interacting massive particles, with implications for a broad range of experiments and observations. I will review the WIMP paradigm's underlying motivations, its current status in view of rapid experimental progress on several fronts, and recent theoretical variations on the WIMP paradigm theme.

  14. PARADIGM OF ACCOUNTING CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.

  15. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  16. A Scandinavian Public Transport Model? Reform Changes in Denmark, Sweden and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza; Næss, Petter

    2017-01-01

    Scandinavian public transport, especially aspects of how the Scandinavian countries (i.e., Sweden, Denmark, and Norway) have created governing structures for a cohesive public transport system, is often cited positively in international research. Scandinavia is often treated as a homogeneous unit...... in public transport research, which sometimes refers to the “Scandinavian model of public transport”. It is not uncommon for conclusions regarding Scandinavian countries to be based on analyses of just one country. Is there actually such a thing as a Scandinavian model of public transport? All around Europe...... the public transport sector is changing, taking public transport governance in various directions. This paper provides an overview of the changes and similarities in public transport governance in Scandinavian countries from the 1970s to 2012, discussing whether it is justifiable to speak of a Scandinavian...

  17. Innovative character of marketing paradigm of education governance

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Sytnychenko

    2014-01-01

    The most common methodological basis for creating marketing paradigm of public education management is the allocation of general forms of marketing to management activities. Immediate methodological basis for the formation of the said paradigm was synthesis of marketing concepts and management activities. Educational marketing is a cognitive foundation of values reorientation of all forms of regulation to meet the social and educational needs of the individual. In this sense, marketing manage...

  18. Enhancing the Macedonian Health System through Implementation of the Public-Private Partnership Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Iskra Belazelkoska Borizovska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research involves determination of the extent to which the public-private partnership model can contribute to the improvement and enhancement of the healthcare services in Macedonia. To achieve this purpose, the research embraces comprehension of the common advantages and disadvantages of this model, encompassed with a case study of the public-private partnership in the specialized-consultative health protection for the health activity-dialysis, together with other efforts to ensure high quality health protection. It also reflects the attitudes of the public authorities and private sector entities regarding the significance of the public-private partnership model, consideration of the advantages and disadvantages before entering public-private partnerships and the ways public-private partnerships affect the employees and employments. The study outlines planned and realised efforts to implement this model to ensure better and more efficient healthcare system. Generally, the results from the survey and the outlined case study present this model as good solution for many healthcare challenges, since public-private partnerships offer different services to the citizens that neither the public nor the private sector could separately achieve. The public-private partnership model leads to new employment opportunities according to the opinion of the public authorities, while the private sector entities consider that public-private partnerships increase the responsibility of the employees in such partnership in comparison to the public sector. The outlined case study is an example of successful public-private partnership model in the field of healthcare and can serve as motivation for further implementation of this model to ensure better, enhanced and modern health system.

  19. Public Outreach with NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B.

    2017-09-01

    NASA's Trek family of online portals is an exceptional collection of resources making it easy for students and the public to explore surfaces of planetary bodies using real data from real missions. Exotic landforms on other worlds and our plans to explore them provide inspiring context for science and technology lessons in classrooms, museums, and at home. These portals can be of great value to formal and informal educators, as well as to scientists working to share the excitement of the latest developments in planetary science, and can significantly enhance visibility and public engagement in missions of exploration.

  20. Sepsis is a preventable public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempker, Jordan A; Wang, Henry E; Martin, Greg S

    2018-05-06

    There is a paradigm shift happening for sepsis. Sepsis is no longer solely conceptualized as problem of individual patients treated in emergency departments and intensive care units but also as one that is addressed as public health issue with population- and systems-based solutions. We offer a conceptual framework for sepsis as a public health problem by adapting the traditional model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

  1. Radiation a new paradigm... Societal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Latency is associated with the time lag it takes for the health effects resulting from exposure to ionising radiation to show up. However, the term latency can also be applied to the time it takes for a policy to be implemented. This length of time has been suggested as broadly 40-year process. Given that radioactivity was identified and named in 1896, three paradigms are identified and examined from 1896 to 2016 and the criteria for a 4th paradigm suggested for the period 2017-2056. The review examines the changes that have taken place in scientific understanding and in public trust, a few key developments and the associated establishment of the related organisational infrastructure designed to collate and assess the evidence.

  2. Accounting for heterogeneity of public lands in hedonic property models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlotte Ham; Patricia A. Champ; John B. Loomis; Robin M. Reich

    2012-01-01

    Open space lands, national forests in particular, are usually treated as homogeneous entities in hedonic price studies. Failure to account for the heterogeneous nature of public open spaces may result in inappropriate inferences about the benefits of proximate location to such lands. In this study the hedonic price method is used to estimate the marginal values for...

  3. A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…

  4. A Public Commissioning Maturity Model for Construction Clients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, M.H.; Volker, L.; Eisma, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    Being a public organization with construction needs, whether they are housing, building or infrastructure related, implies close co-operation and interaction with the supply chain. Substantial research exists that focuses on project related aspects of commissioning and on the role of the

  5. Agricultural Economics and Qualitative Research: Incompatible Paradigms?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Bitsch

    2000-01-01

    The disciplinary paradigm of agricultural economics emphasizes rational behavior in a world constrained by scarce resources. The research practice focuses on the quantitative modeling of optimization behavior. These models, though, only offer limited support to practitioners in solving real-world problems. Qualitative research approaches contribute to this task, particularly with research in developing countries. Participatory action research was introduced in the seventies; case studies have...

  6. Facilitating Corporate Entrepreneurship in Public Sector Higher Education Institutions: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Nayyar Malik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a conceptual model of public sector corporate entrepreneurship for the state government higher education institutions. The proposed model is intended to depict the main antecedents that relate to corporate entrepreneurship within the public sector higher education institution  and the impact of corporate entrepreneurship on public sector HEI’s performance, as well as factors influencing its continuous performance.

  7. Modeling chemical systems using cellular automata a textbook and laboratory manual

    CERN Document Server

    Kier, Lemont B; Cheng, Chao-Kun

    2005-01-01

    There are few publications on Cellular Automata and certainly no direct competition Insight into a new modeling paradigm Novel approach to the use of in silico modeling to replace or supplement costly labs.

  8. A business model for a South African government public cloud platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available of public services is conducted. This paper designs a cloud business model that suits South Africa’s perspective. The idea is to model a government public cloud which does not interfere with the secured business functions of the government but find a...

  9. A Model for Collaborative Working to Facilitate Knowledge Mobilisation in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Karen Elizabeth; Wallace, Annie; Crosland, Ann

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a model for collaborative working to facilitate knowledge mobilisation in public health. The model has been developed by university researchers who worked collaboratively with public health commissioners and strategic partners to evaluate a portfolio of short-term funded interventions to inform re-commissioning. Within this…

  10. Opening Public Administration: Exploring Open Innovation Archetypes and Business Model Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Joseph; Finnegan, Patrick; Nilsson, Olof

    This work-in-progress paper presents an exploration of a network of Swedish municipal authorities. Within this network, we have observed a move from isolated innovation to leveraging inflows and outflows of knowledge in a manner characteristic of the open innovation paradigm. This paper presents a characterization of these knowledge exchanges using an existing framework of open innovation archetypes, as well as an initial description of the business model impacts of this innovation approach on the participant municipalities, and the enabling role of information technology. The paper concludes by drawing preliminary conclusions and outlining ongoing research.

  11. Public Dose Assessment Modeling from Skyshine by Proton Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwambinga, S. A. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, S. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the skyshine dose by proton accelerator (230 MeV) has been evaluated. The amount of dose by skyshine is related to some influence factors which are emission angle (Height wall), the thickness of ceiling and distance from source to receptor (Human body). Empirical formula is made by using MCNPX code results. It can easily calculate and assess dose from skyshine by proton accelerator. The skyshine doses are calculated with MCNPX code and DCFs in ICRP 116. Thereafter, we made empirical formula which can calculate dose easily and be compared with the results of MCNPX. The maximum exposure point by skyshine is about 5 ∼ 10 m from source. Therefore, the licensee who wants to operate the proton accelerator must keep the appropriate distance from accelerator and set the fence to restrict the approach by the public. And, exposure doses by accelerator depend on operating time and proton beam intensities. Eq. (6) suggested in this study is just considered for mono energy proton accelerator. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the dose calculation to diverse proton energies. Radiations like neutron and photon generated by high energy proton accelerators over 10 MeV, are important exposure sources to be monitored to radiation workers and the public members near the facility. At that case, one of the exposure pathways to the public who are located in near the facility is skyshine. Neutrons and photons can be scattered by the atmosphere near the facility and exposed to public as scattered dose. All of the facilities using high energy radiation and NDI (Non-Destructive Inspection) which is tested at open field, skyshine dose must be taken into consideration. Skyshine dose is not related to the wall thickness of radiation shielding directly.

  12. Performance management models for public health: Public Health Accreditation Board/Baldrige connections, alignment, and distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenflo, Grace G; Klater, David M; Mason, Marlene; Russo, Pamela; Rivera, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    The nationally known Malcolm Baldrige Award for Excellence ("Baldrige program") recognizes outstanding performance management and is specifically cited by the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) as a potential framework for PHAB's requisite performance management system. The authors developed a crosswalk that identifies alignments between the 2 programs and is a highlight of the Quest for Exceptional Performance tool that is intended to help health departments capitalize on the connections between the 2 programs. To provide deeper insight into the most robust connections between the 2 programs. The authors developed a crosswalk by listing the PHAB measures, identifying corresponding Baldrige areas to address, and assigning a rating regarding the strength of the alignment. Subsequently, they generated a matrix with numerical scores reflecting the strength of the PHAB-Baldrige alignments that were then analyzed for frequency and strength of alignment by PHAB domain and by Baldrige category. The tool developers and 3 public health leaders with experience in the Baldrige program contributed to both the design and the analyses. The measures used reflected both the frequency and strength of alignments. Of the 123 alignments identified in the crosswalk, 39 were rated as high, 40 as medium, and 44 as low. The strongest connections were in the areas of performance management, quality improvement, strategic planning, workforce development, assessment and analysis, and customer service. While the areas with the most frequent and strongest connections provide the most useful basis for health departments pursuing Baldrige recognition or using Baldrige criteria as a framework for performance management, all alignments could be considered for both purposes.

  13. Sudbury District Energy - a public/private partnership model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudhomme, H.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of public/private partnership as it relates to the Sudbury District Energy Project was discussed. When completed, it will be the first cogeneration-based district heating and cooling project involving private sector/public sector partnership in Canada. The equal partners include Toromont Energy and Sudbury Hydro. Sudbury Hydro is a community owned energy and communications utility. It was the first electric utility in Ontario to retail natural gas in the new competitive market place. The Sudbury District Energy Project began in 1996, when the utility began the development of a community district energy system in partnership with the City of Sudbury. At the time, the downtown district heating/cooling system supplied cold and hot water to Sudbury's Wellness Centre. In 1998, Toromont Energy accepted a 50/50 partnership arrangement between themselves and the public sector partners to form the Sudbury District Energy Corporation. Sudbury Hydro will benefit from the project because it will reduce their peak loads and it will also be an alternate source of revenue. It is expected that the project will displace 39,600 tons of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming

  14. A Framework for Developing the Structure of Public Health Economic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Hazel; Chilcott, James; Akehurst, Ronald; Burr, Jennifer; Kelly, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    A conceptual modeling framework is a methodology that assists modelers through the process of developing a model structure. Public health interventions tend to operate in dynamically complex systems. Modeling public health interventions requires broader considerations than clinical ones. Inappropriately simple models may lead to poor validity and credibility, resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. This article presents the first conceptual modeling framework for public health economic evaluation. The framework presented here was informed by literature reviews of the key challenges in public health economic modeling and existing conceptual modeling frameworks; qualitative research to understand the experiences of modelers when developing public health economic models; and piloting a draft version of the framework. The conceptual modeling framework comprises four key principles of good practice and a proposed methodology. The key principles are that 1) a systems approach to modeling should be taken; 2) a documented understanding of the problem is imperative before and alongside developing and justifying the model structure; 3) strong communication with stakeholders and members of the team throughout model development is essential; and 4) a systematic consideration of the determinants of health is central to identifying the key impacts of public health interventions. The methodology consists of four phases: phase A, aligning the framework with the decision-making process; phase B, identifying relevant stakeholders; phase C, understanding the problem; and phase D, developing and justifying the model structure. Key areas for further research involve evaluation of the framework in diverse case studies and the development of methods for modeling individual and social behavior. This approach could improve the quality of Public Health economic models, supporting efficient allocation of scarce resources. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics

  15. Identity and status of the Italian National Bioethics Committee: contrasting paradigms (1990-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvati, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    So far the activities of the Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica (CNB) have been subject to desultory and fragmentary analyses, stuck to the paradigm (in the way Kuhn means it) which claims the division between the issues of "frontier bioethics" and those of "everyday bioethics" (and between the respective types of communication). According to the above mentioned paradigm, bioethics should just deal with the problems coming from the application of technological progress to extreme cases (which imply a type of communication internal to the scientific communities), and only subordinately with other issues, even if of a more general interest and widespread public involvement. Nonetheless, in the last years another paradigm has come out and it is emphasizing the importance of the interaction between the two models of bioethics and of a type of external communication not just limited to the scientific communities in the strict sense of the word, but based on "open opinions ". The present notes are supposed to be an introduction to a historical comprehension of the CNB activity and of its impact, in the light of the rising of the new paradigm and of the Italian adherence to the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe.

  16. Ora et labora. Paradigmes du modèle monacal médiéval chez Chrétien de Troyes / Ora et labora. Paradigms of the Medieval Monastic Model in Chrétien de Troyes’s Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gradu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The medieval monachal model is marked out by the faith, by the power, by the morality. It is also shared between confidence and fear with regard to the power on the earth, but, certainly, all the clerks and the monks of the Middle Age know and assume the rule Redde Caesari quae sunt Cesaris and quae sunt Dei Deo. The medieval literature, the unfaithful mirror, is reflected in an incomplete and sometimes idealized way, the example of the hermit, but it constitutes in the essential source of its paradigm. I shall stop to Chrétien of Troyes and to its novels, they are the most glorious proof of the Renaissance of the 12th century.

  17. Paradigms of Interaction Between Culture and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bahrani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Political thought as a normative knowledge seeks a good society and the means for its realization. Accordingly, every intellectual paradigm introduces us a social and individual situation which is the best. This model, itself requires a dramatic change in the culture and flourishes it. In another words, there is a necessary relationship between the elements of political thought and the culture in every society. This relationship is twofold, so it is impossible to indicate whether which aspect is the first. So every paradigm feeds some special elements into the current culture of society, while there is it feedback. It is important that political thought goes in search of condition for cultural flourishing which is according whit the criteria of good society. This paper focuses on most important paradigm in political thought history and shows the trend in which indicates the relationships between political thought and culture. This trend looks at human beings as "citizen", then "the individual"; and in the modem era, paradigms of "critical modem", "postmodern", and "communitarian" has a key role in prospering the realm of culture.

  18. Toward an Afro-Centric indigenous HCI paradigm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current human–computer interaction (HCI) paradigms are deeply rooted in a Western epistemology that attests its partiality and bias of its embedded assumptions, values, definitions, techniques, and derived frameworks and models. Thus tensions...

  19. Model of Effective Management of Bulgarian Public Administration Managing EU Funds“

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The paper analyzes the possibilities of constructing a model for the effective management of the Bulgarian public administration responsible for managing the EU funds amid the global financial crisis by using McKinsey’s 7S model. The change of the management model of the public administration in charge of the absorption of EU funds in Bulgaria would increase the absorption rate of the funds while streamlining budgetary costs on the maintenance of the administration. The aim of the s...

  20. Semantic Modeling of Administrative Procedures from a Spanish Regional Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Hidalgo López

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Public Administrations have been providing systems for procedures and files electronic processing to ensure compliance with regulations and provide public services to citizens. Although each administration provides similar services to their citizens, these systems usually differ from the internal information management point of view since they usually come from different products and manufacturers. The common framework that regulations demand, and that Public Administrations must respect when processing electronic files, provides a unique opportunity for the development of intelligent agents in the field of administrative processes. However, for this development to be truly effective and applicable to the public sector, it is necessary to have a common representation model for these administrative processes. Although a lot of work has already been done in the development of public information reuse initiatives and common vocabularies standardization, this has not been carried out at the processes level. In this paper, we propose a semantic representation model of both processes models and processes for Public Administrations: the procedures and administrative files. The goal is to improve public administration open data initiatives and help to develop their sustainability policies, such as improving decision-making procedures and administrative management sustainability. As a case study, we modelled public administrative processes and files in collaboration with a Regional Public Administration in Spain, the Principality of Asturias, which enabled access to its information systems, helping the evaluation of our approach.

  1. PUBLIC RELATION BASED MODEL OF INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupka Naumovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The marketing communications industry and theory are facing rapid changes in accordance with global business and society fluctuations. Global and local market conditions are constantly varying and thus creating hardly predictable environment. The most implemented tool for marketing communications – advertising, is losing its power for effective communications; customers are becoming over-advertised and resistant to traditional advertising stimuli. Advertising, as one-way communication mass media tool is no longer effective as previously, hence can no longer fulfill the role of leading marketing mix tool. Therefore, the necessity for altering the structure of the traditional marketing communication mix elements, emphasizing the role of other elements but advertising, with more personalized and interactive functions. One method for improvement of marketing communication’s mix efficiency is by reallocation the leading role of advertising with public relations. The practice of public relations tools can ensure higher level of transparency in internal and external organizational communications and thus can certify more effective marketing communication. The theoretical research is supported with qualitative research of business segment by conducting a detailed interview for the marketing communication practice.

  2. Publish or perish, and pay--the new paradigm of open-access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzarnas, Stephanie; Tzarnas, Chris D

    2015-01-01

    The new open-access journal business model is changing the publication landscape and residents and junior faculty should be aware of these changes. A national survey of surgery program directors and residents was performed. Open-access journals have been growing over the past decade, and many traditional printed journals are also sponsoring open-access options (the hybrid model) for accepted articles. Authors need to be aware of the new publishing paradigm and potential costs involved in publishing their work. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. From Public International to International Public Law: Translating World Public Opinion into International Public Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Bogdandy, A.; Goldmann, M.; Venzke, I.

    This article argues that increasing demands in world public opinion for legitimate and effective international institutions require a paradigm shift in public international law. There is a part of public international law that should be better understood as international public law because it

  4. Random Access Memories: A New Paradigm for Target Detection in High Resolution Aerial Remote Sensing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhengxia; Shi, Zhenwei

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new paradigm for target detection in high resolution aerial remote sensing images under small target priors. Previous remote sensing target detection methods frame the detection as learning of detection model + inference of class-label and bounding-box coordinates. Instead, we formulate it from a Bayesian view that at inference stage, the detection model is adaptively updated to maximize its posterior that is determined by both training and observation. We call this paradigm "random access memories (RAM)." In this paradigm, "Memories" can be interpreted as any model distribution learned from training data and "random access" means accessing memories and randomly adjusting the model at detection phase to obtain better adaptivity to any unseen distribution of test data. By leveraging some latest detection techniques e.g., deep Convolutional Neural Networks and multi-scale anchors, experimental results on a public remote sensing target detection data set show our method outperforms several other state of the art methods. We also introduce a new data set "LEarning, VIsion and Remote sensing laboratory (LEVIR)", which is one order of magnitude larger than other data sets of this field. LEVIR consists of a large set of Google Earth images, with over 22 k images and 10 k independently labeled targets. RAM gives noticeable upgrade of accuracy (an mean average precision improvement of 1% ~ 4%) of our baseline detectors with acceptable computational overhead.

  5. An architecture model for communication of safety in public transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabalinejad, Mohammad; Horváth, Imre; Pernot, Jean-Paul; Rusák, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Safety in transportation is under the influence of the rising complexity, increasing demands for capacity and decreasing cost. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary environment of operation and altered safety regulations invite for a centralized (integrated) modelling/ communication approach. This

  6. Cleanliness Policy Implementation: Evaluating Retribution Model to Rise Public Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailiati, Surya; Hernimawati; Prihati; Chintia Utami, Bunga

    2018-05-01

    This research is based on the principal issues concerning the evaluation of cleanliness retribution policy which has not been optimally be able to improve the Local Revenue of Pekanbaru City and has not improved the cleanliness of Pekanbaru City. It was estimated to be caused by the performance of Garden and Sanitation Department are not in accordance with the requirement of society of Pekanbaru City. The research method used in this study is a mixed method with sequential exploratory strategy. The data collection used are observation, interview and documentation for qualitative research as well as questionnaires for quantitative research. The collected data were analyzed with interactive model of Miles and Huberman for qualitative research and multiple regression analysis for quantitative research. The research result indicated that the model of cleanliness policy implementation that can increase of PAD Pekanbaru City and be able to improve people’s satisfaction divided into two (2) which are the evaluation model and the society satisfaction model. The evaluation model influence by criteria/variable of effectiveness, efficiency, adequacy, equity, responsiveness, and appropriateness, while the society satisfaction model influence by variables of society satisfaction, intentions, goals, plans, programs, and appropriateness of cleanliness retribution collection policy.

  7. Are Nurse Leaders Prepared to Lead Across the Continuum of Care in the New Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, O Ed; Malin, Shelly

    2017-05-01

    The movement toward linking reimbursement with outcomes necessitates providing care across a continuum of settings, leading to the need for a new healthcare paradigm. Issues related to shifting to this new paradigm include disagreement about what this paradigm encompasses, the fragmentation of the healthcare system, and overreliance on the medical model as a framework for driving health policy decisions. We advocate for nurse leaders to guide the development of this new paradigm.

  8. Successful public-private partnerships: The NYPD shield model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadeo, Vincent; Iannone, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    This article will identify the challenges that post 9/11 law enforcement faces regarding privatepublic partnerships and describe in detail the NYPD Shield programme, created to combat those challenges. Recommendations made by the 911 Commission included the incorporation of the private sector into future homeland security strategies. One such strategy is NYPD Shield. This programme is a nationally recognized award-winning public-private partnership dedicated to providing counterterrorism training and information sharing with government agencies, non-government organizations, private businesses, and the community. Information is shared through several platforms that include a dedicated website, instruction of counterterrorism training curricula, e-mail alerts, intelligence assessments and the hosting of quarterly conferences. This article also details how the NYPD Shield is providing its successful template to other law enforcement agencies enabling them to initiate similar programmes in their respective jurisdictions, and in doing so joining a National Shield Network.

  9. Paradigms of modern radio-biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzins'kij, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    The basic paradigms of modern radio-biology are considered as models of pictures of essence of radio-biology problems and methods of their decision. It is marked on absolute heuristics of these ascending conceptual assertions and their assistance to subsequent development of experimental science. That has the concrete display in the decision of actual tasks of protection of people from action of ionizing radiation

  10. A MODEL OF ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH PUBLIC FINANCE: DYNAMICS AND ANALYTIC SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Antonio Carboni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the equilibrium dynamics of a growth model with public finance where two different allocations of public resources are considered. The model simultaneously determines the optimal shares of consumption, capital accumulation, taxes and composition of the two different public expenditures which maximize a representative household's lifetime utilities in a centralized economy. The analysis supplies a closed form solution. Moreover, with one restriction on the parameters ( we fully determine the solutions path for all variables of the model and determine the conditions for balanced growth.

  11. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ardianto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be an alternative choice of marketing practices.

  12. Models of evaluation of public joint-stock property management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakupova, N. M.; Levachkova, S.; Absalyamova, S. G.; Kvon, G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with the models of evaluation of performance of both the management company and the individual subsidiaries on the basis of a combination of elements and multi-parameter and target approaches. The article shows that due to the power of multi-dimensional and multi-directional indicators of financial and economic activity it is necessary to assess the degree of achievement of the objectives with the use of multivariate ordinal model as a set of indicators, ordered by growth so that the maintenance of this order on a long interval of time will ensure the effective functioning of the enterprise in the long term. It is shown that these models can be regarded as the monitoring tools of implementation of strategies and guide the justification effectiveness of implementation of management decisions.

  13. Strategic Factors in the Choice of a Model of Public Relations. Case Study: Seventh-day Adventist Church World Headquarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Holly M.

    A study tested a model of organizational variables that earlier research had identified as important in influencing what model(s) of public relations an organization selects. Models of public relations (as outlined by J. Grunig and Hunt in 1984) are defined as either press agentry, public information, two-way asymmetrical, or two-way symmetrical.…

  14. A Microeconomic Model of the Personnel Shortage in Public Rehabilitation Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jared C.; Millington, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a well-documented, growing shortage of rehabilitation counseling professionals in the public sector. Using microeconomics principles, a theoretical model is offered to account for the personnel shortage and propose potential solutions to recruit and retain rehabilitation counselors in the public sector. Suggestions for rehabilitation…

  15. Modelling public transport route choice with multiple access and egress modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Ties; de Romph, E.; Veitch, T.; Cook, J.

    2013-01-01

    The current traffic system faces well known problems like congestion, environmental impact and use of public space. Public transport (PT) is an important mode to alleviate these problems. To be able to assess the effects of policy measures properly, it is important to model the behaviour of the

  16. Modelling Public Transport Route Choice, with Multiple Access and Egress Modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, T.; De Romph, E.; Veitch, T.; Cook, J.

    2014-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is important, because the current traffic system faces well known problems like congestion, environmental impact and use of public space. To be able to assess the effects of policy measures properly, it is necessary to model the behavior of the (PT) traveler in a realistic way.

  17. Leadership, New Public Management and the Re-Modelling and Regulation of Teacher Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David; Gunter, Helen; Bragg, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the rapidly shifting relationship between teachers and the state and efforts to re-model teacher identities within the wider context of public sector modernization and the New Public Management. The construction and development of officially authorized and normative discursive practices relating to leadership and the…

  18. Training Public School Special Educators to Implement Two Functional Analysis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Neely, Leslie; Healy, Olive; Gregori, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of a training package to teach public school special educators to conduct functional analyses of challenging behavior. Six public school educators were divided into two cohorts of three and were taught two models of functional analysis of challenging behavior: traditional and…

  19. Black holes: the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole

  20. Alternative Public Service Delivery Models in Health, Water and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to analyze health, water and electricity delivery models in Africa, Asia and Latin America in order to identify and document successful alternatives to commercialization. Researchers will draw up a set of ... Documents. Environmental and water management law in post-apartheid South Africa. Documents.

  1. Alternative Public Service Delivery Models in Health, Water and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to analyze health, water and electricity delivery models in Africa, Asia and Latin America in order to identify and document successful alternatives to commercialization. ... Contradictions in municipal transformation from apartheid to democracy : the battle over local water privatization in South Africa.

  2. The University Model and Educational Change. SSEC Publication No. 130.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Richard B.

    In the sixties the crisis of the credibility and competence of schools resulted in the funding of programs to remedy school problems. The model for curriculum reform came from the university and, more particularly, from liberal arts departments having the capacity to improve curriculum content and teacher expertise. In a few instances attempts…

  3. Technical and economic analysis of a Smart Public Lighting model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti F.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on public lighting (PL and is based on data collected through the Lumière project (www.progettolumiere.enea.it (ENEA. We identified three intervention strategies that have been piloted in the town of Castelnuovo: 1 Line control 2 Remote point-to-point control 3 Smart (or Adaptive Lighting. The three solutions were compared according to their net present value (NPV and payback time (PBT and considering the energy saving and the security level. Overall, the third solution was found to be the best. The study was extended, given certain assumptions, to the municipalities in the Lumière Network and to Italy, and some very interesting results emerged. In conclusion, an adaptive control system would substantially increase Italy’s energy efficiency and would also significantly reduce municipalities’ expenditure. It would also represent a significant development in the field of PL as well as in transport, building management, security and the quality of services offered to citizens and tourists in general.

  4. Public participation and marginalized groups: the community development model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Eileen; Hogg, Christine

    1999-12-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop ways of reaching house-bound people and enabling them to give their views in planning and monitoring health and social care. STRATEGY: HealthLINK - a project based in a community health council - explored ways of involving older house-bound people in the London Borough of Camden, in planning and monitoring health and social care using community development techniques. RESULTS: HealthLINK set up an infrastructure to enable house-bound people to have access to information and to enable them to give their views. This resulted in access for health and local authorities to the views of house-bound older people and increased the self esteem and quality of life of those who became involved. CONCLUSIONS: Community development approaches that enable an infrastructure to be established may be an effective way of reaching marginalized communities. However, there are tensions in this approach between the different requirements for public involvement of statutory bodies and of users, and between representation of groups and listening to individual voices.

  5. 75 FR 2562 - Publication of Model Notices for Health Care Continuation Coverage Provided Pursuant to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Publication of Model Notices for... AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice of the..., contact the Department's Employee Benefits Security Administration's Benefits Advisors at 1-866-444-3272...

  6. Towards a government public cloud model: The case of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, PS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available the government to benefit from other cloud computing advantages. However, modelling a multidimensional social problem as complex as the public cloud for a national government requires time, knowledge and experience from a wide range of specialization disciplines...

  7. Behavioural Models for Route Choice of Passengers in Multimodal Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen

    in the estimation of route choice models of public transport users based upon observed choices. Public transport route choice models have not benefitted from the same technological enhancements as car models because of the necessity (i) to collect additional information concerning lines and transfers, and (ii...... modes, public transport modes, lines, transfers, egress modes) is large. This thesis proposes a doubly stochastic approach for generating alternative routes that are relevant to travellers, since the method allows accounting for both perceived costs of the network elements and heterogeneity......The subject of this thesis is behavioural models for route choice of passengers in multimodal public transport networks. While research in sustainable transport has dedicated much attention toward the determinants of choice between car and sustainable travel options, it has devoted less attention...

  8. A Ball Pool Model to Illustrate Higgs Physics to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organtini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    A simple model is presented to explain Higgs boson physics to the grand public. The model consists of a children's ball pool representing a Universe filled with a certain amount of the Higgs field. The model is suitable for usage as a hands-on tool in scientific exhibits and provides a clear explanation of almost all the aspects of the physics of…

  9. A flow paradigm in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li

    2018-04-01

    The success of hydrodynamics in high energy heavy-ion collisions leads to a flow paradigm, to understand the observed features of harmonic flow in terms of the medium collective expansion with respect to initial state geometrical properties. In this review, we present some essential ingredients in the flow paradigm, including the hydrodynamic modeling, the characterization of initial state geometry and the medium response relations. The extension of the flow paradigm to small colliding systems is also discussed. Supported by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

  10. Citizenship and Power in an Agent-based Model of Tax Compliance with Public Expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Pellizzari; Dino Rizzi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a model of tax compliance with heterogeneous agents who maximize their individual utility based on income and the conjectured level of per capita public expenditure. We formally include psychological drivers in this model. These drivers affect individual behavior, such as risk aversion, together with appreciation of public expenditure, expectations about peers� compliance and a natural inclination to comply, all of which we summarize in a quality termed �citizenship�....

  11. Marketing communications: Qualitative and quantitative paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Nikola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on key issues in relation to the choice of basic language of communication of marketing as a practical and academic field. Principally, marketing managers prefer descriptive way of expression, but they should use the advantages of language of numbers much more. By doing so, they will advance decision-making process - and the communication with finance and top management. In this regard, models offered by academic community could be helpful. This especially pertains to those positive or normative verbal approaches and models in which mathematics and statistical solutions have been embedded, as well as to those which emphasize financial criteria in decision-making. Concerning the process of creation and verification of scientific knowledge, the choice between languages of words and numbers is the part of much wider dimension, because it is inseparable from the decision on basic research orientation. Quantitative paradigm is more appropriate for hypotheses testing, while qualitative paradigm gives greater contribution in their generation. Competition factor could become the key driver of changes by which existing "parallel worlds" of main paradigms would be integrating, for the sake of disciplinary knowledge advancement.

  12. Model franchise agreements with public utilities. Musterkonzessionsvertraege mit Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menking, C. (Niedersaechsischer Staedte- und Gemeindebund, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, the Committee of Town and Community Administrations of Lower Saxonia established the task force 'Franchise Agreements'. This is a forum where town and community officials interested in energy issues cooperate. The idea was to improve conditions and participation possibilities for local administrations in contracts with their present utilities, and to draw up, and coordinate with the utilities, a franchise agreement creating possibilities for the communities, inter alia, in the sectors power supply concept, advising on energy conservation, energy generation. A model of a franchise agreement for the electricity sector is presented in its full wording. (orig./HSCH).

  13. "Open Access" Requires Clarification: Medical Journal Publication Models Evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-03-01

    While Arthroscopy journal is a traditional subscription model journal, our companion journal Arthroscopy Techniques is "open access." We used to believe open access simply meant online and free of charge. However, while open-access journals are free to readers, in 2017 authors must make a greater sacrifice in the form of an article-processing charge (APC). Again, while this does not apply to Arthroscopy, the APC will apply to Arthroscopy Techniques. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multimodal route choice models of public transport passengers in the Greater Copenhagen Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding route choice behavior is crucial to explain travelers’ preferences and to predict traffic flows under different scenarios. A growing body of literature has concentrated on public transport users without, however, concentrating on multimodal public transport networks because......,641 public transport users in the Greater Copenhagen Area.A two-stage approach consisting of choice set generation and route choice model estimation allowed uncovering the preferences of the users of this multimodal large-scale public transport network. The results illustrate the rates of substitution...... not only of the in-vehicle times for different public transport modes, but also of the other time components (e.g., access, walking, waiting, transfer) composing the door-to-door experience of using a multimodal public transport network, differentiating by trip length and purpose, and accounting...

  15. The public health nutrition intervention management bi-cycle: a model for training and practice improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roger; Margetts, Barrie

    2012-11-01

    The present paper describes a model for public health nutrition practice designed to facilitate practice improvement and provide a step-wise approach to assist with workforce development. The bi-cycle model for public health nutrition practice has been developed based on existing cyclical models for intervention management but modified to integrate discrete capacity-building practices. Education and practice settings. This model will have applications for educators and practitioners. Modifications to existing models have been informed by the authors' observations and experiences as practitioners and educators, and reflect a conceptual framework with applications in workforce development and practice improvement. From a workforce development and educational perspective, the model is designed to reflect adult learning principles, exposing students to experiential, problem-solving and practical learning experiences that reflect the realities of work as a public health nutritionist. In doing so, it assists the development of competency beyond knowing to knowing how, showing how and doing. This progression of learning from knowledge to performance is critical to effective competency development for effective practice. Public health nutrition practice is dynamic and varied, and models need to be adaptable and applicable to practice context to have utility. The paper serves to stimulate debate in the public health nutrition community, to encourage critical feedback about the validity, applicability and utility of this model in different practice contexts.

  16. New model for public participation at Sandia National Laboratories: What comes after environmental restoration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KEENER R, WILLIAM; BACA, STEPHEN S.; BACA, MAUREEN R.; STOTTS, AL; TOOPS, TAMI; WOLFF, THEODORE A.

    2000-01-01

    As the Sandia National Laboratories' Environmental Restoration (ER) project moves toward closure, the project's experiences--including a number of successes in the public participation arena--suggest it is time for a new, more interactive model for future government-citizen involvement. This model would strive to improve the quality of public interaction with the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia, by using subject-specific working groups and aiming for long-term trustful relationships with the community. It would make use of interactive techniques, fewer formal public forums, and a variety of polling and communication technologies to improve information gathering and exchange

  17. A CONSOLIDATED MODEL OF ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONS BETWEEN POLITICS AND MANAGEMENT WITHIN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Maria GEORGESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach which combines the theoretical, empirical andconceptual dimensions, the present study tries to offer a new workperspective on the assessment and modeling of the relation between themanagement of public organizations and the political environment. Thetheoretical research was centered on reviewing the literature on the relationbetween the management of public organizations and the politicalenvironment. The empirical research was materialized by modeling with theregression technique of several aspects integrated to the relations betweenthe management of human resources within public organizations in theeducation field and the external political environment.

  18. Innovative technological paradigm-based approach towards biofuel feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Li, Meihui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • DAS was developed through an innovative approach towards literature mining and technological paradigm theory. • A novel concept of biofuel feedstock development paradigm (BFDP) is proposed. • The biofuel production diffusion velocity model gives predictions for the future. • Soft path appears to be the driving force for the new paradigm shift. • An integrated biofuel production feedstock system is expected to play a significant role in a low-carbon sustainable future. - Abstract: Biofuels produced from renewable energy biomass are playing a more significant role because of the environmental problems resulting from the use of fossil fuels. However, a major problem with biofuel production is that despite the range of feedstock that can be used, raw material availability varies considerably. By combining a series of theories and methods, the research objective of this study is to determine the current developments and the future trends in biofuel feedstock. By combining technological paradigm theory with literature mining, it was found that biofuel feedstock production development followed a three-stage trajectory, which was in accordance with the traditional technological paradigm – the S-curve. This new curve can be divided into BFDP (biofuel feedstock development paradigm) competition, BFDP diffusion, and BFDP shift. The biofuel production diffusion velocity model showed that there has been constant growth from 2000, with the growth rate reaching a peak in 2008, after which time it began to drop. Biofuel production worldwide is expected to remain unchanged until 2030 when a paradigm shift is expected. This study also illustrates the results of our innovative procedure – a combination of the data analysis system and the technological paradigm theory – for the present biofuel feedstock soft path that will lead to this paradigm shift, with integrated biofuel production feedstock systems expected to be a significant new trend.

  19. Writing for Professional Publication: Three Road Signs for Writing Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In the first edition of Writing for Publication: An Organizational Paradigm (Buttery, 2010), I recommend a model for organizing theoretical articles. The process includes seven components: title, introduction, outline/advanced organizer, headings, transitions, summary and references. This article will focus on the writing process. The strands of…

  20. Viable business models for public utilities; Zukunftsfaehige Geschaeftsmodelle fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Andreas; Weiss, Claudia [Buelow und Consorten GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Small suppliers are faced with mounting pressures from an increasingly complex regulatory regime and a market that rewards size. Many have been able to adapt to the new framework conditions by successively optimizing existing activities. However, when change takes hold of all stages of the value chain it is no longer enough to merely modify one's previous strategies. It rather becomes necessary to review one's business model for its sustainability, take stock of the company's competencies and set priorities along the value chain. This is where a network-oriented focussing strategy can assist in ensuring efficient delivery of services in core areas while enabling the company to present itself on the market with a full range of services.

  1. Informing Public Perceptions About Climate Change: A 'Mental Models' Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-10-01

    As the specter of climate change looms on the horizon, people will face complex decisions about whether to support climate change policies and how to cope with climate change impacts on their lives. Without some grasp of the relevant science, they may find it hard to make informed decisions. Climate experts therefore face the ethical need to effectively communicate to non-expert audiences. Unfortunately, climate experts may inadvertently violate the maxims of effective communication, which require sharing communications that are truthful, brief, relevant, clear, and tested for effectiveness. Here, we discuss the 'mental models' approach towards developing communications, which aims to help experts to meet the maxims of effective communications, and to better inform the judgments and decisions of non-expert audiences.

  2. A knowledge-centered paradigm for operations and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, C.

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm premised on the reactor design basis and on its systems, structures, and components also governs nuclear power plant operations. This machine-centered paradigm emphasizes a functional and discipline-based division of responsibilities, which can create hierarchical 'silos' and 'stovepipes' inhibiting the development and lateral exchange of knowledge about safety-critical system interactions. A knowledge-centered paradigm instead encourages the timely development, analysis, and exchange of information about system conditions and their likely consequences. This new paradigm puts operational focus on the importance of operating experience, informative root cause analyses, effective corrective actions, and cross-discipline exchange and cooperation. Although the knowledge-centered paradigm is already central to three main strategies of risk reduction, it is less likely to be recognized as such in terms of priorities, resources, and training: configuration control, control room operations, and root cause analysis. To maintain the capacity for safe shutdown and to preserve public trust, the knowledge-centered paradigm places as high a priority on interactions of safety-critical knowledge as it does on interactions of safety-critical systems, structures, and components. (author)

  3. An Optimal Allocation Model of Public Transit Mode Proportion for the Low-Carbon Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transit has been widely recognized as a potential way to develop low-carbon transportation. In this paper, an optimal allocation model of public transit mode proportion (MPMP has been built to achieve the low-carbon public transit. Optimal ratios of passenger traffic for rail, bus, and taxi are derived by running the model using typical data. With different values of traffic demand, construction cost, travel time, and accessibilities, MPMP can generate corresponding optimal ratios, benefiting decision impacts analysis and decision makers. Instead of considering public transit as a united system, it is separated into units in this paper. And Shanghai is used to test model validity and practicality.

  4. The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) as a model paradigm for the management of adolescents with substance use disorders and co-occurring psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Susan H; Smith, Jane Ellen; Passetti, Lora L; Subramaniam, Geetha

    2014-01-01

    Integrated treatment for youth with substance use disorders (SUDs) and co-occurring psychiatric disorders is recommended; however, there are few studies that have evaluated integrated treatment approaches. This paper includes a brief review of cognitive-behavioral and family therapies, since they have been demonstrated to be effective treatments for the disorders that commonly co-occur with substance use. It also describes how an integrated treatment paradigm has been implemented using one Empirically Supported Treatment, the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA). There is existing research that supports the use of several A-CRA procedures to treat substance use and commonly co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In the absence of further research, it is reasonable in the interim to train clinicians in treatments that incorporate components that have been found to be effective for both substance use and commonly co-occurring psychiatric disorders. These treatments can then be adapted as needed based on an individual youth's set of problems. Further research is needed to test treatments for various combinations of SUDs and psychiatric disorders (i.e., depression, trauma-related problems, conduct disorder/behavior problems, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]).

  5. The Optimization of the Local Public Policies’ Development Process Through Modeling And Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora URSĂCESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The local public policies development in Romania represents an empirically realized measure, the strategic management practices in this domain not being based on a scientific instrument capable to anticipate and evaluate the results of implementing a local public policy in a logic of needs-policies-effects type. Beginning from this motivation, the purpose of the paper resides in the reconceptualization of the public policies process on functioning principles of the dynamic systems with inverse connection, by means of mathematical modeling and techniques simulation. Therefore, the research is oriented in the direction of developing an optimization method for the local public policies development process, using as instruments the mathematical modeling and the techniques simulation. The research’s main results are on the one side constituted by generating a new process concept of the local public policies, and on the other side by proposing the conceptual model of a complex software product which will permit the parameterized modeling in a virtual environment of these policies development process. The informatic product’s finality resides in modeling and simulating each local public policy type, taking into account the respective policy’s characteristics, but also the value of their appliance environment parameters in a certain moment.

  6. Evolution of paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the concepts and methods used for describing neutronics through the last thirty years is reviewed, with the important role attributed to computer technology and the capacity to perform more precise calculations and models; the various codes such as HETAIRE and APOLLO, used for the Boltzmann equation, are discussed, together with the calculation methods and theories that gain interest or those which were more or less discarded depending on the modelling capacities and nuclear industry choices. The role of experimentations is still essential for neutronics, in order to supply data when theory or data are limited or to validate models and codes. Trends are with structured and modular codes integrating all the know-how of a domain and with increased cooperation with other sectors such as thermohydraulics, thermomechanics, etc

  7. Youth, physical activity and leisure education: Need for a paradigm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The publication of the Surgeon General's Report (1996) on Physical Activity and Health by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommended a paradigm shift during the 21st Century from prescribing exercise for fitness, to promoting physical activity and leisure education as an active approach to good ...

  8. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  9. Public lakes, private lakeshore: Modeling protection of native aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221–279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners’ behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  10. The regrammation of paradigms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, Lars

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article surveys the development of voice and tense auxiliaries in Scandinavian with a focus on Danish. Voice is the first category (documented indirectly by Gothic) to show periphrastic forms in paradigmatic cooperation with inflectional forms; and these periphrastic forms are modeled...

  11. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  12. Una aproximación histórica al dominio intelectual de las relaciones públicas. Tensiones paradigmáticas en su construcción disciplinar / A historical approach to the intellectual domain of public relations. Paradigmatic tensions in their disciplinary construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se interesa por el desarrollo de las relaciones públicas como campo intelectual, propiciando un acercamiento de índole paradigmática a las propuestas teóricas y conceptuales predominantes en los últimos 35 años. Con tal fin, se ha indagado en artículos de publicaciones científicas y en libros de editoriales reconocidas que hayan sido editados entre 1980 y 2015, de modo tal de poner en evidencia las distintas visiones teóricas construidas en torno a la disciplina y establecer si es válido referir a la existencia de un paradigma dominante y enfoques alternativos. / This article focuses on the development of public relations as an intellectual field, promoting a paradigmatic approach to the prevailing theoretical and conceptual proposals in the past 35 years. To this end, it has explored journal articles and books from recognized editorials who have been published between 1980 and 2015, so as to highlight the different theoretical views built around discipline and establish whether it is valid to refer to the existence of a dominant paradigm and alternative approaches.

  13. 78 FR 56719 - Challenging Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...] Challenging Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Metabolic Diseases... announcing a public workshop entitled ``Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices... registration information on the AGA Web site. If you need special accommodations due to a disability, please...

  14. 78 FR 69694 - Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...] Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity and... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms... information on the AGA Web site. If you need special accommodations due to a disability, please contact...

  15. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Composite paradigms in medicine: analysing Gillies' claim of reclassification of disease without paradigm shift in the case of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Since the publication of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962, the notion of paradigms has shaped the way that philosophy views scientific discovery and how changes in what is regarded as empirical fact occur. This drew heavily on examples from the history of the natural sciences to support Kuhn's hypothesis. However, some argue that medicine is different from the natural sciences. Gillies has proposed another theory of how paradigms apply to medicine; that of composite paradigms. In doing so, Gillies uses the example of Helicobacter pylori and the shift from the excess-acid theory to the current bacterial-infection theory of gastric ulcers to illustrate these fundamental differences between medicine and the natural sciences. Upon analysis of Gillies' claim, it is evident that traditional Kuhnian paradigms are also composite and that the manner in which Gillies proposes disease is classified is insufficient in describing medicine. Furthermore, new local paradigms are demonstrably introduced and the change was accompanied by many of the markers of paradigmatic change including changes in worldview, resistance, incommensurability and the introduction of new questions that could not have existed under the previous paradigm. Whilst this change may not be on the scale of the Chemical revolution, it can still be considered paradigm shift. Thagard also proposes an alternate view of discovery using the case of H. pylori. This has much in common with Kuhnian paradigms but Thagard's theory offers further elucidation and refinement. This allows it to better characterise all of the associated features of discovery relevant in the case of H. pylori, thus provides a preferable tool for examination of this important recent discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using a Gravity Model to Predict Circulation in a Public Library System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottensmann, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development of a gravity model based upon principles of spatial interaction to predict the circulation of libraries in the Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library (Indiana). The model effectively predicted past circulation figures and was tested by predicting future library circulation, particularly for a new branch library.…

  18. Exploring Bioeconomy Growth through the Public Release of the Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, Emily K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC

    2017-08-02

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is an important tool for exploring vibrant future bioeconomy scenarios that leverage domestic resources. Developed by NREL and BETO, this model of the domestic biofuels supply chain has been used to explore success strategies for BETO's activities towards bioeconomy growth. The BSM offers a robust test bed for detailed exploration of effects of BETO activities within the complex context of resource availability; physical, technological, and economic constraints; behavior; and policy. The public release of the model in 2017 will allow broad engagement with the theme of the conference as model users can analyze bioeconomy growth, domestic biomass resource use, and associated effects. The BSM is a carefully validated, state-of-the-art, dynamic model of the biomass to biofuels supply chain. Using a system dynamics simulation modeling approach, the model tracks long-term deployment of biofuels given technology development and investment, considering land availability, the competing oil market, consumer demand, and government policies over time. Sample outputs include biofuels production, feedstock use, capital investment, incentives, and costs of feedstocks and fuels. BSM scenarios reveal technological, economic, and policy challenges, as well as opportunities for dynamic growth of the bioeconomy with strategic public and private investment at key points in the system. The model logic and results have been reviewed extensively, through collaborative analysis, expert reviews and external publications (https://www.zotero.org/groups/bsm_publications/).

  19. Measuring up to the Model: A Ranking of State Public Charter School Laws. Ninth Annual Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Todd; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

    2018-01-01

    This ninth edition of "Measuring up to the Model: A Ranking of State Charter School Laws" presents the latest activity in charter public school legislation across the country. For the second year in a row, the 2018 rankings measure each state's charter school law against the National Alliance's updated model charter school law, "New…

  20. Challenges Associated With Applying Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for Public Health Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models in chemical toxicology have grown steadily since their emergence in the 1980s. However, critical evaluation of PBPK models to support public health decision-making across federal agencies has t...

  1. Economic and Environmental Effects of Public Transport Subsidy Policies: a Spatial CGE Model of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays an important role in the environment. This study established a Spatial Computable General Equilibrium (SCGE model to examine the economic and environmental effects of public transport subsidy policies. The model includes firms, consumers, and traffic modules in one framework. Statistical data from Beijing were used in calibration to obtain benchmark equilibrium. Based on the equilibrium, simulations compared citywide social welfare, jobs-housing spatial population distribution, and environmental outputs under four subsidy policies: fare subsidy, cash grants, road expansion, and public transport speedup. Based on the results regarding the effects of public transport policies, conclusions can be drawn about which policies will have greater overall social influence and should therefore be used.

  2. Paradigmas Estratégicos de Gestão da Manufatura (PEGEMs: elementos-chave e modelo conceitual Strategic Manufacturing Management Paradigms (SMMPs: key elements and conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Godinho Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe um novo termo em Gestão da Produção: Paradigmas Estratégicos de Gestão da Manufatura (PEGEMs. Este novo conceito objetiva tratar de forma integrada e comparativa os paradigmas de gestão da manufatura surgidos ao longo do século XX. Para isto, além de sua conceituação, são identificados quatro elementos-chave comuns a todos os PEGEMs: direcionadores (condições do mercado que possibilitam ou requerem a implantação do PEGEM; objetivos de desempenho (os objetivos estratégicos da produção priorizados pelo PEGEM; princípios (as idéias que norteiam o PEGEM; e capacitadores (as ferramentas, tecnologias e métodos de cada PEGEM. As principais contribuições deste trabalho são: i apresentar um modelo conceitual que relacione os PEGEMs aos objetivos estratégicos da produção; e ii permitir comparações e análises dos paradigmas de manufatura, facilitando o estudo e aplicações práticas. O modelo proposto fornece um tratamento bastante pragmático das questões estratégicas no âmbito da Gestão da Produção.This paper proposes a new concept in Production Management: Strategic Manufacturing Management Paradigms (SMMPs. This new concept involves an integrated and comparative approach to the manufacturing management paradigms that emerged along the 20th century. To this end, four key elements that are common to all SMMPs are identified: guiders (market conditions that allow for or require SMMP implementation; performance goals (the strategic manufacturing goals prioritized by the SMMPs; principles (the basic ideas that guide the SMMPs; and enablers (the SMMPs' tools, technologies and methods. The main contributions of this paper are: i the presentation of a conceptual model that associates the SMMPs to strategic manufacturing goals; and ii to allow for comparisons and analyses of manufacturing paradigms, facilitating their study and practical application. The proposed model takes a highly pragmatic

  3. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations. PMID:24188173

  4. Scaling, Similarity, and the Fourth Paradigm for Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross

    2017-01-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm), and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modelling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing, describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses, describe boundary condition, state flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses, and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  5. Theories, models and frameworks used in capacity building interventions relevant to public health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Kim; Abdi, Samiya; DeCorby, Kara; Mensah, Gloria; Rempel, Benjamin; Manson, Heather

    2017-11-28

    There is limited research on capacity building interventions that include theoretical foundations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify underlying theories, models and frameworks used to support capacity building interventions relevant to public health practice. The aim is to inform and improve capacity building practices and services offered by public health organizations. Four search strategies were used: 1) electronic database searching; 2) reference lists of included papers; 3) key informant consultation; and 4) grey literature searching. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are outlined with included papers focusing on capacity building, learning plans, professional development plans in combination with tools, resources, processes, procedures, steps, model, framework, guideline, described in a public health or healthcare setting, or non-government, government, or community organizations as they relate to healthcare, and explicitly or implicitly mention a theory, model and/or framework that grounds the type of capacity building approach developed. Quality assessment were performed on all included articles. Data analysis included a process for synthesizing, analyzing and presenting descriptive summaries, categorizing theoretical foundations according to which theory, model and/or framework was used and whether or not the theory, model or framework was implied or explicitly identified. Nineteen articles were included in this review. A total of 28 theories, models and frameworks were identified. Of this number, two theories (Diffusion of Innovations and Transformational Learning), two models (Ecological and Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation) and one framework (Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning) were identified as the most frequently cited. This review identifies specific theories, models and frameworks to support capacity building interventions relevant to public health organizations. It provides public health practitioners

  6. Individual Travel Behavior Modeling of Public Transport Passenger Based on Graph Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Quan Liang; Jiancheng Weng; Wei Zhou; Selene Baez Santamaria; Jianming Ma; Jian Rong

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for mining the individual travel behavior regularity of different public transport passengers through constructing travel behavior graph based model. The individual travel behavior graph is developed to represent spatial positions, time distributions, and travel routes and further forecasts the public transport passenger’s behavior choice. The proposed travel behavior graph is composed of macronodes, arcs, and transfer probability. Each macronode corresponds...

  7. Possibilities of Prisons Functioning in Support of Public Private Partnership Model

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Krzysztof Zając; Alina Zając

    2008-01-01

    From the end of the third quarter of year 2000 the number of penal individuals crosses the number of places provided for them. Therefore building of many convict prisons is necessary. The problem is if the private enterprises should or can participate in. Publication portrays in small degree the current situation of prison management, the idea of PPP as well as advantages and disadvantages of building prisons in support of Public Private Partnership model.

  8. Possibilities of Prisons Functioning in Support of Public Private Partnership Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krzysztof Zając

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available From the end of the third quarter of year 2000 the number of penal individuals crosses the number of places provided for them. Therefore building of many convict prisons is necessary. The problem is if the private enterprises should or can participate in. Publication portrays in small degree the current situation of prison management, the idea of PPP as well as advantages and disadvantages of building prisons in support of Public Private Partnership model.

  9. Toward a Useful Model for Group Mentoring in Public Accounting Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Johnson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s public accounting firms face a number of challenges in relation to their most valuable resource and primary revenue generator, human capital. Expanding regulations, technology advances, increased competition and high turnover rates are just a few of the issues confronting public accounting leaders in today’s complex business environment. In recent years, some public accounting firms have attempted to combat low retention and high burnout rates with traditional one-to-one mentoring programs, with varying degrees of success. Many firms have found that they lack the resources necessary to successfully implement and maintain such programs. In other industries, organizations have used a group mentoring approach in attempt to remove potential barriers to mentoring success. Although the research regarding group mentoring shows promise for positive organizational outcomes, no cases could be found in the literature regarding its usage in a public accounting firm. Because of the unique challenges associated with public accounting firms, this paper attempts to answer two questions: (1Does group mentoring provide a viable alternative to traditional mentoring in a public accounting firm? (2 If so, what general model might be used for implementing such a program? In answering these questions, a review of the group mentoring literature is provided, along with a suggested model for the implementation of group mentoring in a public accounting firm.

  10. Analysis on the public acceptance of nuclear energy using structural equation model with latent variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Eal

    1996-02-01

    Comparison of the effect of education and public information on the public acceptance of nuclear energy is carried out. For the increase of public acceptance, the correct understanding on the nuclear energy via proper regular school education would be the first basis and the appropriate public information services by utility and unbiased mass media would be the second basis. Subjects that which is more effect in education or information and how much effective quantitatively to improve the public acceptance are derived. Structural Equation Model (SEM) with Latent Variables (LVs) in social science to public attitudes towards nuclear energy is developed. Questionnaire is conducted to respondents who took part in the program of visiting the nuclear power plant opened by OKAEA in 1995. As a result of the analysis, effect of education for correct awareness of nuclear energy is more sensitive to public acceptance than that of information. It is shown that the susceptibility in education factor in influence of radiation on human body and that in information factor persons consider nuclear power plant as an environmental polluter. It is concluded that radiation treatment should be a 'Hand on Experience' and general principle of nuclear power generation should be contained in the educational text book. Education and information should not been independently performed but been carried out simultaneously and mutually aided. It is shown that this modeling approach is useful to make the decision for the long-term nuclear energy policy transparent and successful

  11. Programming Language: Concepts and Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Lizama, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the concepts that govern around the programming languages and the paradigms of the programming and the influence in the development of the software. El artículo presenta los conceptos que rigen a los lenguajes de programación y los paradigmas de la programación y como estos influyen en el desarrollo del software.

  12. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration...

  13. Artificial life, the new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Paez, Jose Jesus

    1998-01-01

    A chronological synthesis of the most important facts is presented in the theoretical development and computational simulation that they have taken to the formation of a new paradigm that is known as artificial life; their characteristics and their main investigation lines are analyzed. Finally, a description of its work is made in the National University of Colombia

  14. Trinitarian Paradigm for Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derdziuk Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A dialogue as a social reality consists, first and foremost, in communication between those who realize that they are called to notice and to accept the other and to treat him or her with proper respect. Such a dialogue may be motivated either by the desire to share the good or by the willingness to avoid conflict. The aforementioned approaches are marked by distinctly different attitudes, which are not only rooted in two different methodologies and have two different aims, but they also encompass two diverse procedures. More importantly, engaging in dialogue may also be motivated by realizing one’s own mission in life, i.e. acting in harmony with the spiritual nature of the human being, who is a relational being. Upon realizing his or her likeness to the Triune God, i.e. the inseparable communion of the Divine Persons, a Christian discovers that the Holy Trinity constitutes the model and source for his or her own involvement in maintaining relationships with other people.

  15. Gossamer superconductivity, new paradigm?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hyekyung [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea); Haas, Stephan; Parker, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (United States); Maki, Kazumi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (United States); Max-Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Dora, Balazs [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1521 Budapest (Hungary); Virosztek, Attila [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1521 Budapest (Hungary); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2006-01-01

    We review our recent works on d-wave density wave (dDW) and gossamer superconductivity (i.e. d-wave superconductivity in the presence of dDW) in high-T{sub c} cuprates and CeCoIn{sub 5}. a) We show that both the giant Nernst effect and the angle dependent magnetoresistance (ADMR) in the pseudogap phases of the cuprates and CeCoIn{sub 5} are manifestations of dDW. b) The phase diagram of high-T{sub c} cuprates is understood in terms of mean field theory, which includes two order parameters {delta}{sub 1} and {delta}{sub 2}, where one order paremeter is from dDW and the other from d-wave superconductivity. c) In the optimally to the overdoped region we find the spatially periodic dDW, an analogue of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, becomes more stable. d) In the underdoped region where {delta}{sub 2}/{delta}{sub 1}<<1 the Uemera relation is obtained within the present model. We speculate that the gossamer superconductivity is at the heart of high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors, the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn{sub 5} and the organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} and (TMTSF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. New paradigms of Game Theory from globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Esquivel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Games Theory constitutes a model by means every player tries to predict what they will make the other players in reply to his own actions, and to optimize the result of the above mentioned actions in his benefit knowing that the others are thinking to about the same form. The development of the theory supposed a boom after the World War II, which happened of analyzing exclusively competitive behaviors to considering situations with competitive and cooperative characteristics. Nevertheless, the advance of the humanity and the disappearance of both geopolitical blocks have eliminated the balance of power and have produced the emergence of a world the most based on the exclusive conquest of the power. This has originated the model change and dilemmas, happening from the most cooperative models (Prisoner’s Dilemma or from the models of the Cold War (Dilemma of the Gallina up to reaching the dilemmas of the Leader or of the Hero. This change of paradigm owes to the extension of the globalization, which originates an immeasurable loss of economic, social, political power, of human rights, which they have affected negatively to the poor people. In this paper is studied the change of paradigm caused by the consequences of the globalization and the geopolitical transformations in a monopolar world, analyzing the consequences on the basis of the Theory of Games.

  17. Model and Empirical Study on Several Urban Public Transport Networks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yimin; Ding, Zhuo

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present the empirical investigation results on the urban public transport networks (PTNs) and propose a model to understand the results obtained. We investigate some urban public traffic networks in China, which are the urban public traffic networks of Beijing, Guangzhou, Wuhan and etc. The empirical results on the big cities show that the accumulative act-degree distributions of PTNs take neither power function forms, nor exponential function forms, but they are described by a shifted power function, and the accumulative act-degree distributions of PTNs in medium-sized or small cities follow the same law. In the end, we propose a model to show a possible evolutionary mechanism for the emergence of such network. The analytic results obtained from this model are in good agreement with the empirical results.

  18. An evaluation of systemic reforms of public hospitals: the Sanming model in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongqiao; Li, Ling; Li, Mingqiang; Yang, Chunyu; Hsiao, William

    2017-10-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been searching for effective strategies to reform their inefficient and wasteful public hospitals. Recently, China developed a model of systemic reforms called the Sanming model to address the inefficiency and waste at public hospitals. In this article, we explain and evaluate how the Sanming model reformed its 22 public hospitals in 2013 by simultaneously restructuring the hospital governance structure, altering the payment system to hospitals, and realigning physicians' incentives. By employing the difference-in-difference (DID) method and using the hospital-level data from 187 public hospitals in Fujian province, we find that the Sanming model has reduced medical costs significantly without measurably sacrificing clinical quality and productive efficiency. The systemic reform, on average, has reduced the medical care cost per outpatient visit and per inpatient admission by 6.1% (P-value = 0.0445) and 15.4% (P-value transformation of public hospitals, where the governance structure, payment system and physician compensation methods are aligned, are crucial to improving their performance; it holds critical lessons for China and other LMICs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2015-09-01

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.

  20. Tolerance of sexual harassment: a laboratory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara

    2009-12-01

    The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.

  1. Rethinking balance and impartiality in journalism? How the BBC attempted and failed to change the paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl-Jorgensen, Karin; Berry, Mike; Garcia-Blanco, Iñaki; Bennett, Lucy; Cable, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    This article reconsiders the concepts of balance and impartiality in journalism, in the context of a quantitative content analysis of sourcing patterns in BBC news programming on radio, television and online in 2007 and 2012. Impartiality is the cornerstone of principles of public service broadcasting at the BBC and other broadcasters modelled on it. However, the article suggests that in the case of the BBC, it is principally put into practice through juxtaposing the positions of the two main political parties - Conservative and Labour. On this basis, the article develops the idea of the 'paradigm of impartiality-as-balance.' This paradigm prevails despite the news organisation's commitment to representing a broader range of opinion. The paradigm of impartiality-as-balance means that only a narrow range of views and voices are heard on the most contentious and important issues. Further, it results in reporting that focuses on party-political conflict, to the detriment of a journalism which provides much-needed context.

  2. Open Innovation as Business Model Game-changer in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaur, Aakanksha; Osella, Michele; Ferro, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to tap into external knowledge sources through open innovation initiatives. Most public sector agencies are in the early stages of adoption of open innovation and are in the process of defining relevant issues. Once such issue concerns how open innovation...... be better aligned with open innovation strategies (in our case crowdsourcing). Our results indicate that in adopting a crowd-based open innovation strategy, the content, structure and governance dimensions of public sector business model need to be aligned accordingly. The content of the business model...

  3. A Generic Discrete-Event Simulation Model for Outpatient Clinics in a Large Public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waressara Weerawat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The orthopedic outpatient department (OPD ward in a large Thai public hospital is modeled using Discrete-Event Stochastic (DES simulation. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs are used to measure effects across various clinical operations during different shifts throughout the day. By considering various KPIs such as wait times to see doctors, percentage of patients who can see a doctor within a target time frame, and the time that the last patient completes their doctor consultation, bottlenecks are identified and resource-critical clinics can be prioritized. The simulation model quantifies the chronic, high patient congestion that is prevalent amongst Thai public hospitals with very high patient-to-doctor ratios. Our model can be applied across five different OPD wards by modifying the model parameters. Throughout this work, we show how DES models can be used as decision-support tools for hospital management.

  4. TOURISM, TRADE, EXTERNALITIES, AND PUBLIC GOODS IN A THREE-SECTOR GROWTH MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to introduce tourism, externalities, and public goods to a small-open growth with endogenous wealth and public goods supply. We develop the model on the basis of the Solow-Uzawa growth model, the neoclassical neoclassical growth theory with externalities, and ideas from tourism economics. The economy consists of three – service, industrial, and public - sectors. The production side is based on the traditional growth theories, while the household behavior is described by an alternative utility function proposed by Zhang. We introduce endogenous land distribution between housing and supply of services. The industrial and service sectors are perfectly competitive subject to the government’s taxation. The public sector is financially supported by the government. We introduce taxes not only on producers, but also on consumers’ incomes from wage, land, and interest of wealth, consumption of goods and services, and housing. We simulate the motion of the national economy and show the existence of a unique stable equilibrium. We carry out comparative dynamic analysis with regard to the rate of interest in the global market, the total productivity of the service sector, tax rate on the service sector, tax rate on consumption of services, human capital, the propensity to consume services, and the impact of public services on the productivity of the industrial sector. The comparative dynamic analysis provides some important insights into the complexity of open economies with endogenous wealth, public goods, and externalities.

  5. Demand estimation of bus as a public transport based on gravity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmael Noor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus as a public transport is a suitable service to meet the travel demand between any two zones. Baghdad faced with severe traffic problems along with the development in city size and economy. Passengers have to wait lots of time during commutation to work because of the serious traffic jams. In the last years, rate of car ownership has increased as income levels have gone up and cars have become a preferable mode of transport. Bus, as the only public mode of transport available, is suffering from inconvenience, slowness, and inflexibility. A big emphasis must be given to the public transport system because it introduces an active utilization of limited resources, energy and land. This study determines the demand of public routes for buses using boarding / alighting values to generate a model and assign these demand values to the bus network. Five public routes were selected to collect the required data. Ride check and Point check survey was conducted for each selected route. The results of this study were public demand assigned to the selected bus routes, dwell time, load factor and headway. It is observed that R1 and R3 have the heaviest travel demand; they need special study to improve bus performance and make better transit. The model developed with only limited data available to predict travel demand will assist transportation planners and related agencies in decision making.

  6. IDENTIFYING OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO SELECT SUITABLE DECISION MODELS FOR A PUBLIC SECTOR EPROCUREMENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Public sector procurement should be a transparent and fair process. Strict legal requirements are enforced on public sector procurement to make it a standardised process. To make fair decisions on selecting suppliers, a practical method which adheres to legal requirements is important. The research that is the base for this paper aimed at identifying a suitable Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method for the specific legal and functional needs of the Maldivian Public Sector. To identify such operational requirements, a set of focus group interviews were conducted in the Maldives with public officials responsible for procurement decision making. Based on the operational requirements identified through focus groups, criteria-based evaluation is done on published MCDA methods to identify the suitable methods for e-procurement decision making. This paper describes the identification of the operational requirements and the results of the evaluation to select suitable decision models for the Maldivian context.

  7. Evaluation of the channelized Hotelling observer with an internal-noise model in a train-test paradigm for cardiac SPECT defect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brankov, Jovan G

    2013-01-01

    The channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) has become a widely used approach for evaluating medical image quality, acting as a surrogate for human observers in early-stage research on assessment and optimization of imaging devices and algorithms. The CHO is typically used to measure lesion detectability. Its popularity stems from experiments showing that the CHO's detection performance can correlate well with that of human observers. In some cases, CHO performance overestimates human performance; to counteract this effect, an internal-noise model is introduced, which allows the CHO to be tuned to match human-observer performance. Typically, this tuning is achieved using example data obtained from human observers. We argue that this internal-noise tuning step is essentially a model training exercise; therefore, just as in supervised learning, it is essential to test the CHO with an internal-noise model on a set of data that is distinct from that used to tune (train) the model. Furthermore, we argue that, if the CHO is to provide useful insights about new imaging algorithms or devices, the test data should reflect such potential differences from the training data; it is not sufficient simply to use new noise realizations of the same imaging method. Motivated by these considerations, the novelty of this paper is the use of new model selection criteria to evaluate ten established internal-noise models, utilizing four different channel models, in a train-test approach. Though not the focus of the paper, a new internal-noise model is also proposed that outperformed the ten established models in the cases tested. The results, using cardiac perfusion SPECT data, show that the proposed train-test approach is necessary, as judged by the newly proposed model selection criteria, to avoid spurious conclusions. The results also demonstrate that, in some models, the optimal internal-noise parameter is very sensitive to the choice of training data; therefore, these models are prone

  8. Evaluation of the channelized Hotelling observer with an internal-noise model in a train-test paradigm for cardiac SPECT defect detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankov, Jovan G

    2013-10-21

    The channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) has become a widely used approach for evaluating medical image quality, acting as a surrogate for human observers in early-stage research on assessment and optimization of imaging devices and algorithms. The CHO is typically used to measure lesion detectability. Its popularity stems from experiments showing that the CHO's detection performance can correlate well with that of human observers. In some cases, CHO performance overestimates human performance; to counteract this effect, an internal-noise model is introduced, which allows the CHO to be tuned to match human-observer performance. Typically, this tuning is achieved using example data obtained from human observers. We argue that this internal-noise tuning step is essentially a model training exercise; therefore, just as in supervised learning, it is essential to test the CHO with an internal-noise model on a set of data that is distinct from that used to tune (train) the model. Furthermore, we argue that, if the CHO is to provide useful insights about new imaging algorithms or devices, the test data should reflect such potential differences from the training data; it is not sufficient simply to use new noise realizations of the same imaging method. Motivated by these considerations, the novelty of this paper is the use of new model selection criteria to evaluate ten established internal-noise models, utilizing four different channel models, in a train-test approach. Though not the focus of the paper, a new internal-noise model is also proposed that outperformed the ten established models in the cases tested. The results, using cardiac perfusion SPECT data, show that the proposed train-test approach is necessary, as judged by the newly proposed model selection criteria, to avoid spurious conclusions. The results also demonstrate that, in some models, the optimal internal-noise parameter is very sensitive to the choice of training data; therefore, these models are prone

  9. Development of the public attitude model toward nuclear power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Sung Choi; Sun, Ho Lee; Nam, Zin Cho; Byong, Whi Lee

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the structure of public attitude towards nuclear power plants in Korea. Special emphasis is given to the issues of public acceptance in relation to perceived benefits, perceived risk, judged safety, and safety satisfaction. The national survey data of 1995 by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is analyzed with a latent class model and logistic regression. The latent class model is used to construct benefit and risk factors. With these factors and safety-related variables, a public attitude model is developed by logistic regression which enables the relationships between national or local acceptance of nuclear power and explanatory variables to be quantified. The results show that the attitude structure is somewhat different by gender. Subjectively perceived risk is found to be the most influential factor for local acceptance. The odds of local acceptance with the best risk perception is about 16 times the odds with the worst perception for males and about 7.7 times for females. From the results of this analysis, it is clear that subjective satisfaction with nuclear safety is a more important factor for explaining public acceptance rather than judgment of it. These important findings should be reflected in the public acceptance improvement strategy for the nuclear power program

  10. A new paradigm of modern central banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Szunke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the modern monetary policy, which took place at the beginning of the twenty-first century, in response to the global financial crisis led to the transformation of the place and the role of central banks. The strategic aim of the central monetary institutions has become preventing financial instability. So far, central banks have defined financial stability as a public good, which took care independently of other monetary purposes (Pyka, 2010. Unconventional monetary policy resulted in changes the global central banking. The aim of the study is to identify a new paradigm of the role and place of the central bank in the financial system and its new responsibilities, aimed at countering financial instability.

  11. CORPORATE MODEL OF PUBLIC SECTOR OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY: TRENDS AND PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Makarenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the issues of development and functioning of corporate model of public sector of the Russian economy. Today Russia is fully influenced by consequences of entry into world economy. Privatization processes, on the one hand, and increase in intervention of the state in economy, on the other hand, changed composition and structure of the public sector of the Russian economy. Establishment of large state corporations and further increase in scales and directions of Russian government’s policy. These corporations acquired an extensive set of functions, large volumes of state property (federal budgetary funds, different production and financial assets, which ensured their activity in the long run. The state corporations carry out an important role in ensuring stable development of national economic systems for already several years, smoothing the so-called “failures” of the market, and create the necessary conditions for overcoming the crisis phenomena. The author presents the classification of economic sectors consisting of public, municipal and private sectors, studies the character and structure of public sector of the developed foreign countries. The carried-out comparative characteristic of main national models of public sector allowed to reveal the extent of state’s influence on the economy in the North American, Western European and Asian countries, as well as to define the main features of public sector in these countries. The concept and essence of the state corporation, as well as trends of their creation and development are also studied. The author proposes the corporate model of public sector of the Russian economy and defines its main characteristics. The analysis of the conducted research allowed to draw a conclusion on the need of further development of the state corporations and large national companies with the state participation.

  12. Language-learning disabilities: Paradigms for the nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, E H

    1991-01-01

    We are beginning a decade, during which many traditional paradigms in education, special education, and speech-language pathology will undergo change. Among paradigms considered promising for speech-language pathology in the schools are collaborative language intervention and strategy training for language and communication. This presentation introduces management models for developing a collaborative language intervention process, among them the Deming Management Method for Total Quality (TQ) (Deming 1986). Implementation models for language assessment and IEP planning and multicultural issues are also introduced (Damico and Nye 1990; Secord and Wiig in press). While attention to processes involved in developing and implementing collaborative language intervention is paramount, content should not be neglected. To this end, strategy training for language and communication is introduced as a viable paradigm. Macro- and micro-level process models for strategy training are featured and general issues are discussed (Ellis, Deshler, and Schumaker 1989; Swanson 1989; Wiig 1989).

  13. Policy paradigms, transnationalism, and domestic politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skogstad, Grace Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...

  14. Implantation of 3D-Printed Patient-Specific Aneurysm Models into Cadaveric Specimens: A New Training Paradigm to Allow for Improvements in Cerebrovascular Surgery and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnau Benet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the feasibility of implanting 3D-printed brain aneurysm model in human cadavers and to assess their utility in neurosurgical research, complex case management/planning, and operative training. Methods. Two 3D-printed aneurysm models, basilar apex and middle cerebral artery, were generated and implanted in four cadaveric specimens. The aneurysms were implanted at the same anatomical region as the modeled patient. Pterional and orbitozygomatic approaches were done on each specimen. The aneurysm implant, manipulation capabilities, and surgical clipping were evaluated. Results. The 3D aneurysm models were successfully implanted to the cadaveric specimens’ arterial circulation in all cases. The features of the neck in terms of flexibility and its relationship with other arterial branches allowed for the practice of surgical maneuvering characteristic to aneurysm clipping. Furthermore, the relationship of the aneurysm dome with the surrounding structures allowed for better understanding of the aneurysmal local mass effect. Noticeably, all of these observations were done in a realistic environment provided by our customized embalming model for neurosurgical simulation. Conclusion. 3D aneurysms models implanted in cadaveric specimens may represent an untapped training method for replicating clip technique; for practicing certain approaches to aneurysms specific to a particular patient; and for improving neurosurgical research.

  15. An Agent-Based Model for Optimization of Road Width and Public Transport Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Koryagin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An urban passenger transportation problem is studied. Municipal authorities and passengers are regarded as participants in the passenger transportation system. The municipal authorities have to optimise road width and public transport frequency. The road consists of a dedicated bus lane and lanes for passenger cars. The car travel time depends on the number of road lanes and passengers’ choice of travel mode. The passengers’ goal is to minimize total travel costs, including time value. The passengers try to find the optimal ratio between public transport and cars. The conflict between municipal authorities and the passengers is described as a game theoretic model. The existence of Nash equilibrium in the model is proved. The numerical example shows the influence of the value of time and intensity of passenger flow on the equilibrium road width and public transport frequency.

  16. Space evolution model and empirical analysis of an urban public transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yi; Shao, Feng-jing; Sun, Ren-cheng; Li, Shu-jing

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the space evolution of an urban public transport network, using empirical evidence and a simulation model validated on that data. Public transport patterns primarily depend on traffic spatial-distribution, demands of passengers and expected utility of investors. Evolution is an iterative process of satisfying the needs of passengers and investors based on a given traffic spatial-distribution. The temporal change of urban public transport network is evaluated both using topological measures and spatial ones. The simulation model is validated using empirical data from nine big cities in China. Statistical analyses on topological and spatial attributes suggest that an evolution network with traffic demands characterized by power-law numerical values which distribute in a mode of concentric circles tallies well with these nine cities.

  17. NEW MODEL OF QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION - UPGRADING THE COMMON ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK (CAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Macur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we developed new model of quality assessment in public administration. The Common Assessment Framework (CAF is frequently used in continental Europe for this purpose. Its use has many benefits, however we believe its assessment logic is not adequate for public administration. Upgraded version of CAF is conceptually different: instead of analytical and linear CAF we get the instrument that measures organisation as a network of complex processes. Original and upgraded assessment approaches are presented in the paper and compared in the case of self-assessment of selected public administration organisation. The two approaches produced different, sometimes contradictory results. The upgraded model proved to be logically more consistent and it produced higher interpretation capacity.

  18. A cellular automation model for the change of public attitude regarding nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1991-01-01

    A cellular automation model was constructed to investigate how public opinion on nuclear energy in Japan depends upon the information environment and personal communication between people. From simulation with this model, the following become clear; (i) society is a highly non-linear system with a self-organizing potential: (ii) in a society composed of one type of constituent member with homogeneous characteristics, the trend of public opinion is substantially changed only when the effort to ameliorate public acceptance over a long period of time, by means such as education, persuasion and advertisement, exceeds a certain threshold, and (iii) in the case when the amount of information on nuclear risk released from the newsmedia is reduced continuously from now on, the acceptability of nuclear energy is significantly improved so far as the extent of the reduction exceeds a certain threshold. (author)

  19. A cellular automation model for the change of public attitude regarding nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki (CRC Research Inst., Chiba (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    A cellular automation model was constructed to investigate how public opinion on nuclear energy in Japan depends upon the information environment and personal communication between people. From simulation with this model, the following become clear; (i) society is a highly non-linear system with a self-organizing potential: (ii) in a society composed of one type of constituent member with homogeneous characteristics, the trend of public opinion is substantially changed only when the effort to ameliorate public acceptance over a long period of time, by means such as education, persuasion and advertisement, exceeds a certain threshold, and (iii) in the case when the amount of information on nuclear risk released from the newsmedia is reduced continuously from now on, the acceptability of nuclear energy is significantly improved so far as the extent of the reduction exceeds a certain threshold. (author).

  20. [Toward a model of communications in public health in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Chapula, César A

    2005-12-01

    So far, there have been no bibliometric or scientometric studies that make it possible to examine, with quantitative, retrospective, and comprehensive criteria, the scientific output on public health in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Further, the weakness of the existing information systems makes it impossible to examine the relevance, quality, and impact of this scientific output, with a view to evaluating it in terms of societal needs and existing patterns of scientific communication. This article presents the results of a bibliographic analysis of the scientific output in the area of public health in Latin America and the Caribbean. The ultimate goal of the analysis is to build a model of scientific communication in this field, to help researchers, managers, and others working in the area of public health to make decisions and choose actions to take. We conducted a literature review in order to identify the distribution of publications on public health that were produced by LAC researchers and published in each of the LAC countries from 1980 through 2002. The review used the Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Saúde Pública (LILACS-SP) (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Public Health) bibliographic database. That database is operated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), which is in São Paulo, Brazil. We processed the LILACS-SP data using two software packages, Microsoft Excel and Bibexcel, to obtain indicators of the scientific output, the type of document, the language, the number of authors for each publication, the thematic content, and the participating institutions. For the 1980-2002 period, there were 97,605 publications registered, from a total of 37 LAC countries. For the analysis presented in this article, we limited the sample to the 8 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean that had at least 3,000 documents each registered in the LILACS-SP database over the 1980-2002 study

  1. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  2. Three Paradigms of Social Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Marc Daigneault

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Ideas,” which are defined as the normative and cognitive beliefs of actors, are fundamental to a full understanding of the welfare state and, in particular, of social assistance. However, policy ideas have been neglected in most typologies of social assistance regimes. Based on a selective review of the literature, this article proposes a brief but systematic analysis of policy paradigms in the field of social assistance. Three ideal types that emphasize the ideational dimension of social assistance are analyzed, namely, the entitlement, workfare, and activation paradigms. The value of the typology lies in its utility for characterizing the ideational orientation of social assistance regimes. Specifically, the typology provides a yardstick for measuring the ideas of policy actors with respect to social assistance and can facilitate the conduct of case studies, comparative research, and causal analyses on this policy sector.

  3. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing on...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  4. Storytelling, advertising and paradigm fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David

    2012-01-01

    'The art of storytelling in the modern age is fundamentally important. So, how we create stories for a screen-based culture is vitally important to master' (Hegarty, 2011, p.96-97). This paper explores the potential benefit of fusing aspects of creative writing with the curriculum of the BA Creative Advertising programme (BACAP) at Leeds College of Art (LCA) in order to address Sir John Hegarty's assertion. In particular it will focus on the characteristics of the 'classical paradigms' us...

  5. Mandarin functional MRI Language paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ci, He; van Graan, Andre; Gonz?lvez, Gloria; Thompson, Pamela; Hill, Andrea; Duncan, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to implement convenient, fast, and accurate Mandarin task paradigms for functional MRI, and to locate the Chinese language functional areas in frontal and temporal lobes. Materials and Methods Nineteen healthy Chinese volunteers participated in this study, which utilized a block design with four language tasks: auditory naming (AN), picture naming (PN), verbal fluency?character (VFC), and verbal fluency?letter (VFL). All functional images wer...

  6. A Formal Model of Corruption, Dishonesty and Selection into Public Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfort, Sebastian; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical studies have found that in high corruption countries, inherently more dishonest individuals are more likely to want to enter into public service, while the reverse is true in low corruption countries. In this note, we provide a simple formal model that rationalizes this empirical...

  7. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  8. Overcoming Barriers to Rural Children's Mental Health: An Interconnected Systems Public Health Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Brenda J.; Austen, Julie M.; Tobin, Renée M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Shelvin, Kristal H.; Wells, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A large, Midwestern county implemented a four-tiered public health model of children's mental health with an interconnected systems approach involving education, health care, juvenile justice and community mental health sectors. The community sought to promote protective factors in the lives of all youth, while improving the capacity,…

  9. Information Systems Success In Public Administration: Proposal For An Exploratory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyvison de Lima Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investments in Information Systems (IS have been significantly increasing and hence the relevance of the studies on the IS success is persistent. Delone and Mclean (2003 developed an IS successful model which is a benchmark for researches in the area, however, in the perspective of the public sector, studies are still rare. In this research it was sought to propose an exploratory model of successful IS in public administration, from the identification of each construct items of the Delone and McLean (2003 original model, through multiple case studies in three Municipalities and a Town Hall of the Southern Cone of Rondônia state, in Brazil. Based on the empirical research, it was found that the IS success factors in municipal public administration are close to those factors indicated in the reviewed literature, however, showing some particularities of the public sector. A model of successful factors and items of IS, from the confrontation between literature and empirical data, is presented in the end of this work.

  10. A Model Library in Tehran, Iran: The Hosseinieh Ershad Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hary, Nicoletta Mattioli

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Hosseinieh Ershad Public Library, a model library established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution that contains a predominant religious collection. Reviews the library's historical background, current cataloging system, collections and their circulation, services to blind patrons and children, funding and staff. Photographs of the…

  11. Smart City Research : Contextual Conditions, Governance Models, and Public Value Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert J.; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon; Bolívar, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    There are three issues that are crucial to advancing our academic understanding of smart cities: (1) contextual conditions, (2) governance models, and (3) the assessment of public value. A brief review of recent literature and the analysis of the included papers provide support for the assumption

  12. e-Science Paradigm for Astroparticle Physics at KISTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihyeon Cho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI has been studying the e-Science paradigm. With its successful application to particle physics, we consider the application of the paradigm to astroparticle physics. The Standard Model of particle physics is still not considered perfect even though the Higgs boson has recently been discovered. Astrophysical evidence shows that dark matter exists in the universe, hinting at new physics beyond the Standard Model. Therefore, there are efforts to search for dark matter candidates using direct detection, indirect detection, and collider detection. There are also efforts to build theoretical models for dark matter. Current astroparticle physics involves big investments in theories and computing along with experiments. The complexity of such an area of research is explained within the framework of the e-Science paradigm. The idea of the e-Science paradigm is to unify experiment, theory, and computing. The purpose is to study astroparticle physics anytime and anywhere. In this paper, an example of the application of the paradigm to astrophysics is presented.

  13. Exploring public bus service quality in South Africa: A structural equation modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ayanda M. Vilakazi; Krishna K. Govender

    2014-01-01

    This study, which is a deviation from the usual practice of using SERVQUAL or an adaptedversion thereof, uses McKnight, Pagano and Paaswell’s (1986) service quality dimensions,namely reliability; extent of service; comfort; safety; and affordability (RECSA) and structuralequation modelling to determine commuters’ perception of public bus service quality in amajor city in South Africa. The RECSA model was adapted and fitted to the data collectedfrom a convenience sample of bus commuters in Joh...

  14. Bayesian evidence and predictivity of the inflationary paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Lagos, Macarena; Magueijo, João [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Allison, Rupert, E-mail: g.gubitosi@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: m.lagos13@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: j.magueijo@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: rupert.allison@astro.ox.ac.uk [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider the issue of paradigm evaluation by applying Bayes' theorem along the following nested hierarchy of progressively more complex structures: i) parameter estimation (within a model), ii) model selection and comparison (within a paradigm), iii) paradigm evaluation. In such a hierarchy the Bayesian evidence works both as the posterior's normalization at a given level and as the likelihood function at the next level up. Whilst raising no objections to the standard application of the procedure at the two lowest levels, we argue that it should receive a considerable modification when evaluating paradigms, when testability and fitting data are equally important. By considering toy models we illustrate how models and paradigms that are difficult to falsify are always favoured by the Bayes factor. We argue that the evidence for a paradigm should not only be high for a given dataset, but exceptional with respect to what it would have been, had the data been different. With this motivation we propose a measure which we term predictivity , as well as a prior to be incorporated into the Bayesian framework, penalising unpredictivity as much as not fitting data. We apply this measure to inflation seen as a whole, and to a scenario where a specific inflationary model is hypothetically deemed as the only one viable as a result of information alien to cosmology (e.g. Solar System gravity experiments, or particle physics input). We conclude that cosmic inflation is currently hard to falsify, but that this could change were external/additional information to cosmology to select one of its many models. We also compare this state of affairs to bimetric varying speed of light cosmology.

  15. Designing a Model for Trauma System Management Using Public Health Approach: The Case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Panahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability around the world. Injuries are responsible for about six million deaths annually, of which ninety percent occur in developing countries. In Iran, injuries are the most common cause of death among age groups below fifty. Trauma system development is a systematic and comprehensive approach to injury prevention and treatment whose effectiveness has been proved. The present study aims at designing a trauma system management model as the first step toward trauma system establishment in Iran. In this qualitative research, a conceptual framework was developed based on the public health approach and three well-known trauma system models. We used Benchmarks, Indicators and Scoring (BIS to analyze the current situation of Iran trauma care system. Then the trauma system management was designed using the policy development phase of public health approach The trauma system management model, validated by a panel of experts, describes lead agency, trauma system plan, policy-making councils, and data-based control according to the four main functions of management: leading, planning, organizing and controlling. This model may be implemented in two phases: the exclusive phase, focusing on resource integration and the inclusive phase, which concentrates on system development. The model could facilitate the development of trauma system in Iran through pilot studies as the assurance phase of public health approach. Furthermore, the model can provide a practical framework for trauma system management at the international level.

  16. Tuberculosis as a three-act play: A new paradigm for the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Lack of access to human tissues with untreated tuberculosis (TB) has forced generations of researchers to use animal models and to adopt a paradigm that granulomas are the characteristic lesion of both primary and post primary TB. An extended search of studies of human lung tissues failed to find any reports that support this paradigm. We found scores of publications from gross pathology in 1804 through high resolution CT scans in 2015 that identify obstructive lobular pneumonia, not granulomas, as the characteristic lesion of developing post-primary TB. This paper reviews this literature together with other relevant observations to formulate a new paradigm of TB with three distinct stages: a three-act play. First, primary TB, a war of attrition, begins with infection that spreads via lymphatics and blood stream before inducing systemic immunity that contains and controls the organisms within granulomas. Second, post-primary TB, a sneak attack, develops during latent TB as an asymptomatic obstructive lobular pneumonia in persons with effective systemic immunity. It is a paucibacillary process with no granulomas that spreads via bronchi and accumulates mycobacterial antigens and host lipids for 1-2 years before suddenly undergoing caseous necrosis. Third, the fallout, is responsible for nearly all clinical post primary disease. It begins with caseous necrotic pneumonia that is either retained to become the focus of fibrocaseous disease or is coughed out to leave a cavity. This three-stage paradigm suggests testable hypotheses and plausible answers to long standing questions of immunity to TB. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual Travel Behavior Modeling of Public Transport Passenger Based on Graph Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for mining the individual travel behavior regularity of different public transport passengers through constructing travel behavior graph based model. The individual travel behavior graph is developed to represent spatial positions, time distributions, and travel routes and further forecasts the public transport passenger’s behavior choice. The proposed travel behavior graph is composed of macronodes, arcs, and transfer probability. Each macronode corresponds to a travel association map and represents a travel behavior. A travel association map also contains its own nodes. The nodes of a travel association map are created when the processed travel chain data shows significant change. Thus, each node of three layers represents a significant change of spatial travel positions, travel time, and routes, respectively. Since a travel association map represents a travel behavior, the graph can be considered a sequence of travel behaviors. Through integrating travel association map and calculating the probabilities of the arcs, it is possible to construct a unique travel behavior graph for each passenger. The data used in this study are multimode data matched by certain rules based on the data of public transport smart card transactions and network features. The case study results show that graph based method to model the individual travel behavior of public transport passengers is effective and feasible. Travel behavior graphs support customized public transport travel characteristics analysis and demand prediction.

  18. Modelling Investment Attractiveness of a Public Joint Stock Company as the Basis of Managerial Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brukhovetskaya Natalia E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses factors of influence upon investment attractiveness of a public joint stock company, which are factors by the sphere of origin. The article identifies the degree and direction of influence of the factors by the sphere of origin upon investment attractiveness of a public joint stock company; factors are divided into two groups, which could be regulated directly by society and which cannot be regulated. It justifies the necessity of modelling investment attractiveness of a public joint stock company under influence of the factors with the aim of managerial decision making of two groups of stakeholders: owners and managers, shareholders and investors. It conducts modelling of investment attractiveness of a public joint stock company using the decision tree method. It develops a decision matrix, on the basis of which the owners, managers, shareholders and investors can make decisions regarding directions of increase of investment attractiveness of a public joint stock company and expediency of initial or further investing into society development.

  19. Fingerprints of primordial universe paradigms as features in density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xingang

    2011-01-01

    Experimentally distinguishing different primordial universe paradigms that lead to the Big Bang model is an outstanding challenge in modern cosmology and astrophysics. We show that a generic type of signals that exist in primordial universe models can be used for such purpose. These signals are induced by tiny oscillations of massive fields and manifest as features in primordial density perturbations. They are capable of recording the time-dependence of the scale factor of the primordial universe, and therefore provide direct evidence for specific paradigm. These signals present special opportunities and challenges for experiments and data analyses.

  20. Is hunger important to model in fMRI visual food-cue reactivity paradigms in adults with obesity and how should this be done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Shao-Hua; Kahathuduwa, Chanaka N; Stearns, Macy B; Davis, Tyler; Binks, Martin

    2018-01-01

    We considered 1) influence of self-reported hunger in behavioral and fMRI food-cue reactivity (fMRI-FCR) 2) optimal methods to model this. Adults (N = 32; 19-60 years; F = 21; BMI 30-39.9 kg/m 2 ) participated in an fMRI-FCR task that required rating 240 images of food and matched objects for 'appeal'. Hunger, satiety, thirst, fullness and emptiness were measured pre- and post-scan (visual analogue scales). Hunger, satiety, fullness and emptiness were combined to form a latent factor (appetite). Post-vs. pre-scores were compared using paired t-tests. In mixed-effects models, appeal/fMRI-FCR responses were regressed on image (i.e. food/objects), with random intercepts and slopes of image for functional runs nested within subjects. Each of hunger, satiety, thirst, fullness, emptiness and appetite were added as covariates in 4 forms (separate models): 1) change; 2) post- and pre-mean; 3) pre-; 4) change and pre-. Satiety decreased (Δ = -13.39, p = 0.001) and thirst increased (Δ = 11.78, p = 0.006) during the scan. Changes in other constructs were not significant (p's > 0.05). Including covariates did not influence food vs. object contrast of appeal ratings/fMRI-FCR. Significant image X covariate interactions were observed in some fMRI models. However, including these constructs did not improve the overall model fit. While some subjective, self-reported hunger, satiety and related constructs may be moderating fMRI-FCR, these constructs do not appear to be salient influences on appeal/fMRI-FCR in people with obesity undergoing fMRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  2. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  3. Integrating the behavioral and neural dynamics of response selection in a dual-task paradigm: a dynamic neural field model of Dux et al. (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Aaron T; Wifall, Tim; Hazeltine, Eliot; Spencer, John P

    2014-02-01

    People are typically slower when executing two tasks than when only performing a single task. These dual-task costs are initially robust but are reduced with practice. Dux et al. (2009) explored the neural basis of dual-task costs and learning using fMRI. Inferior frontal junction (IFJ) showed a larger hemodynamic response on dual-task trials compared with single-task trial early in learning. As dual-task costs were eliminated, dual-task hemodynamics in IFJ reduced to single-task levels. Dux and colleagues concluded that the reduction of dual-task costs is accomplished through increased efficiency of information processing in IFJ. We present a dynamic field theory of response selection that addresses two questions regarding these results. First, what mechanism leads to the reduction of dual-task costs and associated changes in hemodynamics? We show that a simple Hebbian learning mechanism is able to capture the quantitative details of learning at both the behavioral and neural levels. Second, is efficiency isolated to cognitive control areas such as IFJ, or is it also evident in sensory motor areas? To investigate this, we restrict Hebbian learning to different parts of the neural model. None of the restricted learning models showed the same reductions in dual-task costs as the unrestricted learning model, suggesting that efficiency is distributed across cognitive control and sensory motor processing systems.

  4. Beyond attributions: Understanding public stigma of mental illness with the common sense model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Chong, Eddie S K; Wong, Celia C Y

    2014-03-01

    The present study applied the common sense model (i.e., cause, controllability, timeline, consequences, and illness coherence) to understand public attitudes toward mental illness and help-seeking intention and to examine the mediating role of perceived controllability between causal attributions with public attitudes and help seeking. Based on a randomized household sample of 941 Chinese community adults in Hong Kong, results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that people who endorsed cultural lay beliefs tended to perceive the course of mental illness as less controllable, whereas those with psychosocial attributions see its course as more controllable. The more people perceived the course of mental illness as less controllable, more chronic, and incomprehensible, the lower was their acceptance and the greater was mental illness stigma. Furthermore, those who perceived mental illness with dire consequences were more likely to feel greater stigma and social distance. Conversely, when people were more accepting, they were more likely to seek help for psychological services and felt a shorter social distance. The common sense model provides a multidimensional framework in understanding public's mental illness perceptions and stigma. Not only should biopsychosocial determinants of mental illness be advocated to the public, cultural myths toward mental illness must be debunked.

  5. Mediating objects: scientific and public functions of models in nineteenth-century biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the scientific and public functions of two- and three-dimensional models in the context of three episodes from nineteenth-century biology. I argue that these models incorporate both data and theory by presenting theoretical assumptions in the light of concrete data or organizing data through theoretical assumptions. Despite their diverse roles in scientific practice, they all can be characterized as mediators between data and theory. Furthermore, I argue that these different mediating functions often reflect their different audiences that included specialized scientists, students, and the general public. In this sense, models in nineteenth-century biology can be understood as mediators between theory, data, and their diverse audiences.

  6. Maximum likelihood estimation and EM algorithm of Copas-like selection model for publication bias correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing; Chen, Yong; Piao, Jin

    2017-07-01

    Publication bias occurs when the published research results are systematically unrepresentative of the population of studies that have been conducted, and is a potential threat to meaningful meta-analysis. The Copas selection model provides a flexible framework for correcting estimates and offers considerable insight into the publication bias. However, maximizing the observed likelihood under the Copas selection model is challenging because the observed data contain very little information on the latent variable. In this article, we study a Copas-like selection model and propose an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for estimation based on the full likelihood. Empirical simulation studies show that the EM algorithm and its associated inferential procedure performs well and avoids the non-convergence problem when maximizing the observed likelihood. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Accuracy, Authenticity, Fidelity: Aesthetic Realism, the "Deficit Model," and the Public Understanding of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    Argument "Deficit model" designates an outlook on the public understanding and communication of science that emphasizes scientific illiteracy and the need to educate the public. Though criticized, it is still widespread, especially among scientists. Its persistence is due not only to factors ranging from scientists' training to policy design, but also to the continuance of realism as an aesthetic criterion. This article examines the link between realism and the deficit model through discussions of neurology and psychiatry in fiction film, as well as through debates about historical movies and the cinematic adaptation of literature. It shows that different values and criteria tend to dominate the realist stance in different domains: accuracy for movies concerning neurology and psychiatry, authenticity for the historical film, and fidelity for adaptations of literature. Finally, contrary to the deficit model, it argues that the cinema is better characterized by a surplus of meaning than by informational shortcomings.

  8. Interoperability and models for exchange of data between information systems in public administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavev, Victor

    2016-12-01

    The types of software applications used by public administrations can be divided in three main groups: document management systems, record management systems and business process systems. Each one of them generates outputs that can be used as input data to the others. This is the main reason that requires exchange of data between these three groups and well defined models that should be followed. There are also many other reasons that will be discussed in the paper. Interoperability is a key aspect when those models are implemented, especially when there are different manufactures of systems in the area of software applications used by public authorities. The report includes examples of implementation of models for exchange of data between software systems deployed in one of the biggest administration in Bulgaria.

  9. Modeling Nearly Spherical Pure-bulge Galaxies with a Stellar Mass-to-light Ratio Gradient under the ΛCDM and MOND Paradigms. I. Methodology, Dynamical Stellar Mass, and Fundamental Mass Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun; Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2018-06-01

    We carry out spherical Jeans modeling of nearly round pure-bulge galaxies selected from the ATLAS3D sample. Our modeling allows for gradients in the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M ⋆/L) through analytic prescriptions parameterized with a “gradient strength” K introduced to accommodate any viable gradient. We use a generalized Osipkov–Merritt model for the velocity dispersion (VD) anisotropy. We produce Monte Carlo sets of models based on the stellar VD profiles under both the ΛCDM and MOND paradigms. Here, we describe the galaxy data, the empirical inputs, and the modeling procedures of obtaining the Monte Carlo sets. We then present the projected dynamical stellar mass, {M}\\star {{e}}, within the effective radius R e, and the fundamental mass plane (FMP) as a function of K. We find the scaling of the K-dependent mass with respect to the ATLAS3D reported mass as: {log}}10[{M}\\star {{e}}(K)/{M}\\star {{e}}{{A}3{{D}}}]=a\\prime +b\\prime K with a‧ = ‑0.019 ± 0.012 and b‧ = ‑0.18 ± 0.02 (ΛCDM), or a‧ = ‑0.023 ± 0.014 and b‧ = ‑0.23 ± 0.03 (MOND), for 0 ≤ K expectation and only the zero-point scales with K. The median value of K for the ATLAS3D galaxies is ={0.53}-0.04+0.05. We perform a similar analysis of the much larger SDSS DR7 spectroscopic sample. In this case, only the VD within a single aperture is available, so we impose the additional requirement that the VD slope be similar to that in the ATLAS3D galaxies. Our analysis of the SDSS galaxies suggests a positive correlation of K with stellar mass.

  10. Connecting traditional sciences with the OLAP and data mining paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergachi, Aziz A.

    2003-03-01

    The paradigms of OLAP, multidimensional modeling and data mining have first emerged in the areas of market analysis and finance to address various needs of people working in these areas. Does this mean that they are useful and applicable in these areas only? Or, can they also be applicable in the other more traditional areas of science and engineering? What characterize the systems for which these paradigms are suitable? What are the goals of these paradigms? How do they relate to the traditional body of knowledge that has been developed throughout the centuries in the areas of mathematics, statistics, systems science and engineering? Where, how and to what extent can we leverage the conventional wisdom that has been accumulated in the aforementioned disciplines to develop a foundational basis for the above paradigms? The goal of this paper is to address these questions at the foundational level. We argue that the paradigms of OLAP, multidimensional modeling and data mining can also be applied successfully to complex engineering systems, such as membrane-based water/wastewater treatment plants, for example. We develop mathematically-based axiomatic definition of the concepts of 'dimension,' 'dimension level,' 'dimension hierarchy' and 'measure' using set theory and equivalence relations.

  11. An improved public goods game model with reputation effect on the spatial lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Tianwei; Ding, Shuai; Fan, Wenjuan; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The reputation effect is added into the spatial public goods game model. • The individual utility is calculated as a combination of payoff and reputation. • The individual reputation will be adaptively modified as the system evolves. • The larger the reputation factor, the higher the cooperation level. - Abstract: How to model the evolution of cooperation within the population is an important and interdisciplinary issue across the academia. In this paper, we propose an improved public goods game model with reputation effect on spatial lattices to investigate the evolution of cooperation regarding the allocation of public resources. In our model, we modify the individual utility or fitness as a product of the present payoff and reputation-related power function, and strategy update adopts a Fermi-like probability function during the game evolution. Meanwhile, for an interaction between a pair of partners, the reputation of a cooperative agent will be accrued beyond two units, but the defective player will decrease his reputation by one unit. Extensive Monte Carlo numerical simulations indicate the introduction of reputation will foster the formation of cooperative clusters, and greatly enhance the level of public cooperation on the spatial lattices. The larger reputation factor leads to the higher cooperation level since the reputation effect will be enormously embedded into the utility evaluation under this scenario. The current results are vastly beneficial to understand the persistence and emergence of cooperation among many natural, social and synthetic systems, and also provide some useful suggestions to devise the feasible social governance measures and modes for the public resources or affairs.

  12. French gas industry in transition: breach in the public service model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2001-08-01

    France is generally viewed as the European country that most vigorously resists the pressure to liberalize its national gas markets. The moderate reform which has resulted from the transcription of the European gas directive was voted in 2002 after much delay. The main reason is the robustness of the French public service-model which has shaped the gas industry organisation in the same way as most of the network industries. To explain the institutional stability of the French gas industry, this document analyses its institutional trajectory shaped by the public service model and its strong institutional path dependency, marked by the resistance to change. The central hypothesis of the analysis is that, as long as this model demonstrates economic and social efficiency in the development of gas supply in relation to public services obligation and in the control of the import dependence risk in the gas sector, no reform can be brought about by endogenous factors. The analysis of the French gas industry transition consists of four sections. After a survey of its historical development, the author presents its organisation and regulation under the public service model and its performances in terms of social and economic efficiency. In the third section, the minimalist reform for transcribing the European Directive in the French law is presented, in order to identify its potential effects in terms of competition development and public service erosion. Finally, in the fourth section, the industrial policy option to preserve the existence of a French mono-energy company and its consequences in terms of strategic adaptation are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts with public activity and individual reachability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Qing; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Shu-Min; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts is vital both for understanding the spread of airborne pathogens and word-of-mouth spreading of information. Although many efforts have been devoted to model these temporal networks, there are still two important social features, public activity and individual reachability, have been ignored in these models. Here we present a simple model that captures these two features and other typical properties of empirical face-to-face contact networks. The model describes agents which are characterized by an attractiveness to slow down the motion of nearby people, have event-triggered active probability and perform an activity-dependent biased random walk in a square box with periodic boundary. The model quantitatively reproduces two empirical temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts which are testified by their network properties and the epidemic spread dynamics on them.

  14. Evaluating the influence of motor control on selective attention through a stochastic model: the paradigm of motor control dysfunction in cerebellar patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneri, Giacomo; Federico, Antonio; Rufa, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Attention allows us to selectively process the vast amount of information with which we are confronted, prioritizing some aspects of information and ignoring others by focusing on a certain location or aspect of the visual scene. Selective attention is guided by two cognitive mechanisms: saliency of the image (bottom up) and endogenous mechanisms (top down). These two mechanisms interact to direct attention and plan eye movements; then, the movement profile is sent to the motor system, which must constantly update the command needed to produce the desired eye movement. A new approach is described here to study how the eye motor control could influence this selection mechanism in clinical behavior: two groups of patients (SCA2 and late onset cerebellar ataxia LOCA) with well-known problems of motor control were studied; patients performed a cognitively demanding task; the results were compared to a stochastic model based on Monte Carlo simulations and a group of healthy subjects. The analytical procedure evaluated some energy functions for understanding the process. The implemented model suggested that patients performed an optimal visual search, reducing intrinsic noise sources. Our findings theorize a strict correlation between the "optimal motor system" and the "optimal stimulus encoders."

  15. Evaluating the Influence of Motor Control on Selective Attention through a Stochastic Model: The Paradigm of Motor Control Dysfunction in Cerebellar Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Veneri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention allows us to selectively process the vast amount of information with which we are confronted, prioritizing some aspects of information and ignoring others by focusing on a certain location or aspect of the visual scene. Selective attention is guided by two cognitive mechanisms: saliency of the image (bottom up and endogenous mechanisms (top down. These two mechanisms interact to direct attention and plan eye movements; then, the movement profile is sent to the motor system, which must constantly update the command needed to produce the desired eye movement. A new approach is described here to study how the eye motor control could influence this selection mechanism in clinical behavior: two groups of patients (SCA2 and late onset cerebellar ataxia LOCA with well-known problems of motor control were studied; patients performed a cognitively demanding task; the results were compared to a stochastic model based on Monte Carlo simulations and a group of healthy subjects. The analytical procedure evaluated some energy functions for understanding the process. The implemented model suggested that patients performed an optimal visual search, reducing intrinsic noise sources. Our findings theorize a strict correlation between the “optimal motor system” and the “optimal stimulus encoders.”

  16. A Bayesian Additive Model for Understanding Public Transport Usage in Special Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Borysov, Stanislav S.; Ribeiro, Bernardete

    2017-01-01

    Public special events, like sports games, concerts and festivals are well known to create disruptions in transportation systems, often catching the operators by surprise. Although these are usually planned well in advance, their impact is difficult to predict, even when organisers...... additive model with Gaussian process components that combines smart card records from public transport with context information about events that is continuously mined from the Web. We develop an efficient approximate inference algorithm using expectation propagation, which allows us to predict the total...... number of public transportation trips to the special event areas, thereby contributing to a more adaptive transportation system. Furthermore, for multiple concurrent event scenarios, the proposed algorithm is able to disaggregate gross trip counts into their most likely components related to specific...

  17. The role of tourism public-private partnerships in regional development: a conceptual model proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Franco

    Full Text Available Tourism is characterized as being a sector that stands out as one of the business activities with the greatest potential for worldwide expansion, and as an engine for economic growth. If at the national level, the appeal of tourism is significant, on the local level this sector presents itself as an essential tool in regional development, as a means to avoid regional desertification and stagnation, stimulating the potential of more undeveloped regions. In such a competitive sector as tourism, companies should develop synergies and achieve competitive advantage. In this context, public-private partnerships play an important role in regional development. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical context that combines different concepts and elements to explain and understand the public-private partnership phenomenon in tourism. A conceptual model of the role of public-private partnerships will be proposed in order to contribute to successful regional development.

  18. Integrational Models and Forms of Inter-State Public-Private Partnership: Aspects of Financial Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA KULAI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article we examined the main models and forms of public-private partnership, their role in the socio-economic development and deepening of financial convergence of countries-participants of the partnership. The attention was paid to decentralization of inter-state forms of public-private partnership as the basis of cross-border and transnational partnership. The scientific research, described in this publication, have found their practical application in the realization of the project within Euro-region “Bug”. This project has founded a joined Ukrainian – Polish institution of labor migration administration and also of granting necessary permissions for realization activities within Ukraine.

  19. Analysing improvements to on-street public transport systems: a mesoscopic model approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Kornerup Jensen, Jonas; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    and other advanced public transport systems (APTS), the attractiveness of such systems depends heavily on their implementation. In the early planning stage it is advantageous to deploy simple and transparent models to evaluate possible ways of implementation. For this purpose, the present study develops...... headway time regularity and running time variability, i.e. taking into account waiting time and in-vehicle time. The approach was applied on a case study by assessing the effects of implementing segregated infrastructure and APTS elements, individually and in combination. The results showed...... that the reliability of on-street public transport operations mainly depends on APTS elements, and especially holding strategies, whereas pure infrastructure improvements induced travel time reductions. The results further suggested that synergy effects can be obtained by planning on-street public transport coherently...

  20. Technological Innovation and Beyond: Exploring Public Value of University Inventions Based on Contingent Effectiveness Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Evita; Li-Ying, Jason; Faria, Lourenco

    2017-01-01

    University inventions are traditionally seen as significant input into development of new technologies and innovations in the market as they generate growth and regional development. (REF) Yet, these inventions developed into new technologies can simultaneously create public values such as those...... that are related with sustainability goals. In this paper, we apply the Contingent Effectiveness Model by Bozeman et.al. (2015) as a framework to consider the effectiveness of technology transfer from university to industry via licensing, and examine what values derive during the commercialization process...... of university inventions. We define four main values: technological, economic, social and environmental, and place the latter two under the concept of public value. The aim of this paper is to expand the understanding of public value and incorporate it into technology transfer literature. We assign...

  1. BioQ: tracing experimental origins in public genomic databases using a novel data provenance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Scott F; Quan, Jiaxi; Jones, Peter L

    2012-04-15

    Public genomic databases, which are often used to guide genetic studies of human disease, are now being applied to genomic medicine through in silico integrative genomics. These databases, however, often lack tools for systematically determining the experimental origins of the data. We introduce a new data provenance model that we have implemented in a public web application, BioQ, for assessing the reliability of the data by systematically tracing its experimental origins to the original subjects and biologics. BioQ allows investigators to both visualize data provenance as well as explore individual elements of experimental process flow using precise tools for detailed data exploration and documentation. It includes a number of human genetic variation databases such as the HapMap and 1000 Genomes projects. BioQ is freely available to the public at http://bioq.saclab.net.

  2. Decoding the agenda: An analytical model for manifest and latent knowledge of the public agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Andréu Abela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show a model of analysis based on the hypothesis of the agenda-setting but with a clear longitudinal, multidimensional and multiparadigmatic component. Design/methodology: The theory of the media agenda (agenda setting is one of the most applied communication theories in diversity of social science fields for studying the direct and cumulative effects of the media on the audiences. Decoding the agenda is a methodological model derived from this theory that strives to obtain a comprehensive knowledge of the effects of the messages broadcasted by the media on the public opinion. Our methodological and multidimensional model, as a difference to other multi-method and triangular models, exchanges and analyzes quantitative and qualitative data in a comprehensive way. Contribution and results: In this article are presented the results of diverse pieces of research on the influence of the media in the analysis of social issues. Possible areas of application of the model in the economic sphere are indicated, especially in market and business studies. Research limitations: The topics of study, for a good application of the model in its whole temporal and dimensional breadth, require building good secondary quantitative and qualitative data bases. Practical implications: The results provided by the studies in which the model has been applied improve over time the knowledge of the influence of the media on the social, economic and political agendas. Social implications: Better understanding of the agenda setting of social issues in the public opinion. Added value: The implementation of the agenda decoder model improves the knowledge of the cumulative influence of the issues raised by the media on the public opinion.

  3. The Public Finances, the Utility of the Taxpayer and the Public Services – towards a New Connecting Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Ioan Bolos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Public finances from everywhere have followed along the centuries, as it was natural, some periods when they had to accommodate to the needs resulted from the economic and social life. Their mission was not at all a simple one. To conceive the taxes and rates (dues system, to ensure a performing and an efficient budgetary process, to finance some categories of public expenses, to ensure a fiscal decentralization which would not lead to severe interferences within the public field are only a few of the problems of major importance that they had to deal with. And also the challenges that have come upon public finances are not to be neglected. We may bring to mind here the opposed interests of the taxpayer, interested in obtaining a higher level of goods and public services and of the public authorities who, trying to satisfy the needs of taxpayers, have obtained almost all the time a quite high level of taxes and rates (dues. The purpose of this paper is, though, the setting up of these apparently opposed interests in an equation. We have also tried to” measure” the dependence degree of the utility felt by the taxpayer, as a consequence of the growth with one unit of the quantity of public services performed by the authorities.

  4. Paradigm for new scientific technology; Shinkagaku gijutsu paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y [National Chemical Lab. for Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-05

    This paper reviews the current status from the standpoint of chemical engineers facing the coming of the 21st century, and surveys the paradigm for new scientific technologies. The criticism is mixed with unique opinions everywhere, such as `departure of students from scientific and engineering faculties is none other than the result of a market principle`, `national burden of trillions of yens should not be spent only under a justice of advancement of the science`, and `the global civilization itself has no other way but to change from the conventional expansive development type of the western country style to the internal development type of the oriental country style`. Values that define the paradigm for new scientific technologies may include such keywords as saturation in technology, baseless expansion of research projects, criticism on science, market principle, and centering human being. It should be looked at seriously that profit from research and development should exceed the cast invested therein in the future, and scientific technologies that serve truly the society should be aimed at. These efforts will result in one of the large pillars that support the future in which creation of new functions is aimed at as a result of structuring the new systems. Trying to overcome the environmental problems is one of them.

  5. An Instrumental Paradigm for Ubiquitous Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2008-01-01

    will require comprehensive experimental user centred development. Originality/Value -- This research offers a new way of thinking interaction, suited for the dynamism of modern computing. Take away message -- Through a strong foundation in activity theory and ecological psychology a new paradigm for ubiquitous...... shortcomings of some of the restrictive assumptions contemporary graphical user interfaces are built upon. Research approach -- Based on activity theory and ecological psychology a conceptual model for ubiquitous interaction is proposed and iteratively challenged and developed through actual implementation....... Findings/Design -- The project will ultimately shed light on how an understanding of interaction form activity theory and ecological psychology maps to an implementation of a new conceptual model for interaction with technology. Research limitations/Implications -- Implementation of an actual system...

  6. FluTE, a publicly available stochastic influenza epidemic simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis L Chao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical and computer models of epidemics have contributed to our understanding of the spread of infectious disease and the measures needed to contain or mitigate them. To help prepare for future influenza seasonal epidemics or pandemics, we developed a new stochastic model of the spread of influenza across a large population. Individuals in this model have realistic social contact networks, and transmission and infections are based on the current state of knowledge of the natural history of influenza. The model has been calibrated so that outcomes are consistent with the 1957/1958 Asian A(H2N2 and 2009 pandemic A(H1N1 influenza viruses. We present examples of how this model can be used to study the dynamics of influenza epidemics in the United States and simulate how to mitigate or delay them using pharmaceutical interventions and social distancing measures. Computer simulation models play an essential role in informing public policy and evaluating pandemic preparedness plans. We have made the source code of this model publicly available to encourage its use and further development.

  7. FluTE, a publicly available stochastic influenza epidemic simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Obenchain, Valerie J; Longini, Ira M

    2010-01-29

    Mathematical and computer models of epidemics have contributed to our understanding of the spread of infectious disease and the measures needed to contain or mitigate them. To help prepare for future influenza seasonal epidemics or pandemics, we developed a new stochastic model of the spread of influenza across a large population. Individuals in this model have realistic social contact networks, and transmission and infections are based on the current state of knowledge of the natural history of influenza. The model has been calibrated so that outcomes are consistent with the 1957/1958 Asian A(H2N2) and 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza viruses. We present examples of how this model can be used to study the dynamics of influenza epidemics in the United States and simulate how to mitigate or delay them using pharmaceutical interventions and social distancing measures. Computer simulation models play an essential role in informing public policy and evaluating pandemic preparedness plans. We have made the source code of this model publicly available to encourage its use and further development.

  8. Imaging deductive reasoning and the new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaksford, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great expansion of research into human reasoning at all of Marr’s explanatory levels. There is a tendency for this work to progress within a level largely ignoring the others which can lead to slippage between levels (Chater et al., 2003). It is argued that recent brain imaging research on deductive reasoning—implementational level—has largely ignored the new paradigm in reasoning—computational level (Over, 2009). Consequently, recent imaging results are reviewed with the focus on how they relate to the new paradigm. The imaging results are drawn primarily from a recent meta-analysis by Prado et al. (2011) but further imaging results are also reviewed where relevant. Three main observations are made. First, the main function of the core brain region identified is most likely elaborative, defeasible reasoning not deductive reasoning. Second, the subtraction methodology and the meta-analytic approach may remove all traces of content specific System 1 processes thought to underpin much human reasoning. Third, interpreting the function of the brain regions activated by a task depends on theories of the function that a task engages. When there are multiple interpretations of that function, interpreting what an active brain region is doing is not clear cut. It is concluded that there is a need to more tightly connect brain activation to function, which could be achieved using formalized computational level models and a parametric variation approach. PMID:25774130

  9. Tourism development and the degrowth paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriotis Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to look at alternatives to the classic models of development by exploring the paradigm of degrowth in a tourism context. Degrowth touted as an alternative to mainstream paradigms of development, aims to ensure a high quality of life for people in a society where work, production and consumption are reduced. As a weapon to the problems accrued by capitalism, degrowth reorients the current unsustainable and inequitable path through the transition to a smaller economy with less production and consumption. By arguing that natural limits to growth of many destinations have already been surpassed and their carrying capacity levels have been reached, degrowth proposes the abandonment of growth which promotes nothing other than a quest for profits on part of the owners of capital and results in disastrous implications for the environment and the humanity. As a philosophical concept and movement, degrowth is revolutionary and anticapitalist directed to sustainable change which results from an interest in locality and place, small and medium-sized enterprises, employment generation and reduction in working hours, ecology and quality of life, decommodification of tourism activity, carbon reduction in transport, changed pattern of production and consumption, and high priority in the travel experience.

  10. Modelling Associations between Public Understanding, Engagement and Forest Conditions in the Inland Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartter, Joel; Stevens, Forrest R.; Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Congalton, Russell G.; Ducey, Mark J.; Oester, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Opinions about public lands and the actions of private non-industrial forest owners in the western United States play important roles in forested landscape management as both public and private forests face increasing risks from large wildfires, pests and disease. This work presents the responses from two surveys, a random-sample telephone survey of more than 1500 residents and a mail survey targeting owners of parcels with 10 or more acres of forest. These surveys were conducted in three counties (Wallowa, Union, and Baker) in northeast Oregon, USA. We analyze these survey data using structural equation models in order to assess how individual characteristics and understanding of forest management issues affect perceptions about forest conditions and risks associated with declining forest health on public lands. We test whether forest understanding is informed by background, beliefs, and experiences, and whether as an intervening variable it is associated with views about forest conditions on publicly managed forests. Individual background characteristics such as age, gender and county of residence have significant direct or indirect effects on our measurement of understanding. Controlling for background factors, we found that forest owners with higher self-assessed understanding, and more education about forest management, tend to hold more pessimistic views about forest conditions. Based on our results we argue that self-assessed understanding, interest in learning, and willingness to engage in extension activities together have leverage to affect perceptions about the risks posed by declining forest conditions on public lands, influence land owner actions, and affect support for public policies. These results also have broader implications for management of forested landscapes on public and private lands amidst changing demographics in rural communities across the Inland Northwest where migration may significantly alter the composition of forest owner goals

  11. Modelling associations between public understanding, engagement and forest conditions in the Inland Northwest, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Hartter

    Full Text Available Opinions about public lands and the actions of private non-industrial forest owners in the western United States play important roles in forested landscape management as both public and private forests face increasing risks from large wildfires, pests and disease. This work presents the responses from two surveys, a random-sample telephone survey of more than 1500 residents and a mail survey targeting owners of parcels with 10 or more acres of forest. These surveys were conducted in three counties (Wallowa, Union, and Baker in northeast Oregon, USA. We analyze these survey data using structural equation models in order to assess how individual characteristics and understanding of forest management issues affect perceptions about forest conditions and risks associated with declining forest health on public lands. We test whether forest understanding is informed by background, beliefs, and experiences, and whether as an intervening variable it is associated with views about forest conditions on publicly managed forests. Individual background characteristics such as age, gender and county of residence have significant direct or indirect effects on our measurement of understanding. Controlling for background factors, we found that forest owners with higher self-assessed understanding, and more education about forest management, tend to hold more pessimistic views about forest conditions. Based on our results we argue that self-assessed understanding, interest in learning, and willingness to engage in extension activities together have leverage to affect perceptions about the risks posed by declining forest conditions on public lands, influence land owner actions, and affect support for public policies. These results also have broader implications for management of forested landscapes on public and private lands amidst changing demographics in rural communities across the Inland Northwest where migration may significantly alter the composition of

  12. Public Communication Model for Practical Countermeasure on Climate Change Risk: On the Subject of Establishing Public Sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, SeongKyung

    2010-09-15

    Risk problems occurred by climate change distinguishes itself from other problems in its nature and influence. It is reasonable for ordinary citizens are unable to realize the climate change problems, and great gap exists between potential disaster and perception of the public as a result. These problems must be solved via democratic procedures and processes. Raising probability concerning governance of climate change risks is possible by balance and harmony of political will, apposite policy, and public supports by participation. This research proposes for establishment of realistic public sphere which is a precondition for countermeasure.

  13. Model-Based Policymaking: A Framework to Promote Ethical “Good Practice” in Mathematical Modeling for Public Health Policymaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lisa A.; McKendrick, Iain J.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models are increasingly relied upon as decision support tools, which estimate risks and generate recommendations to underpin public health policies. However, there are no formal agreements about what constitutes professional competencies or duties in mathematical modeling for public health. In this article, we propose a framework to evaluate whether mathematical models that assess human and animal disease risks and control strategies meet standards consistent with ethical “good practice” and are thus “fit for purpose” as evidence in support of policy. This framework is derived from principles of biomedical ethics: independence, transparency (autonomy), beneficence/non-maleficence, and justice. We identify ethical risks associated with model development and implementation and consider the extent to which scientists are accountable for the translation and communication of model results to policymakers so that the strengths and weaknesses of the scientific evidence base and any socioeconomic and ethical impacts of biased or uncertain predictions are clearly understood. We propose principles to operationalize a framework for ethically sound model development and risk communication between scientists and policymakers. These include the creation of science–policy partnerships to mutually define policy questions and communicate results; development of harmonized international standards for model development; and data stewardship and improvement of the traceability and transparency of models via a searchable archive of policy-relevant models. Finally, we suggest that bespoke ethical advisory groups, with relevant expertise and access to these resources, would be beneficial as a bridge between science and policy, advising modelers of potential ethical risks and providing overview of the translation of modeling advice into policy. PMID:28424768

  14. A model to establish the monetary value of the man-sievert for public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Eeckhoudt, L.; Godfroid, P.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of cost-benefit analysis for the optimisation of radiation protection relies on the adoption of a monetary value of the man-sievert. From the economic point of view, the monetary value of the man-sievert can be seen as a function reflecting the individual and collective preferences associated with the level of exposures and the specificity of the exposure situations. It must thus integrate several dimensions: one dimension, which is independent of the exposure situation, is related to the potential health effects associated with the level of exposure; other dimensions are related to social and equity consideration, reflecting the characteristics of exposure situation: distribution of individual exposures, individual and social risk perception,... In the case of occupational exposure, CEPN has developed a model to define the monetary values of the man-sievert according to the level of individual exposure. This model has been used by some European nuclear utilities for setting their own values to be used in the process of radiological protection optimisation for workers. The question arising now concerns the establishment of this value for public exposure. For this purpose, we have considered one of the main differences between public and worker exposures: i.e. the existence of compensation systems for the radiation induced health effects if they occur for the workers. In the case of public exposure, such systems do not exist, mainly due to the absence of a permanent individual monitoring of exposures and to the low level of individual exposure. A theoretical model was developed to evaluate the willingness to pay to reduce the probability of occurrence of a radiation induced health effects (i.e. to reduce the level of exposure). It shows that, because of the absence of a compensation system for the public, this willingness to pay should be higher when the probability is reduced for the public than for the workers. The result of the numerical

  15. Escritura publicitaria de transición: entre la visigótica y la carolina. El paradigma burgalés = Publicity Script in Transition: Between the Visigothic and the Carolingian. The Burgos Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García Morilla

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A nadie se escapa que la escritura–ordinaria y publicitaria- ha sido un fenómeno vivo cuyo proceso evolutivo estuvo sujeto a una serie de circunstancias que según unas determinadas características espacio-temporales presenta unas particularidades muy concretas. En líneas generales, el siglo XII ha sido considerado como el del triunfo definitivo de la escritura carolina publicitaria en la Península Ibérica y así lo confirman los numerosos corpora trabajados hasta el momento y los estudios del profesor García Lobo; una de las grandes autoridades en la material. Sin embargo, en las líneas que se suceden pretendemos analizar el momento de cambio entre las escrituras visigótica y carolina en la provincia de Burgos por presentar unas particularidades muy concretas, especialmente en lo que a cronología y dispersión geográfica se refiere. No menos importante será observar qué signos y elementos gráficos fueron los que presentaron mayor reticencia a desaparecer. El punto de partida necesario es admitir que existió durante todo el siglo XII una convivencia entre los sistemas escriturarios visigótico y carolino. Esta realidad dejó, además, un curioso sistema de mezclas donde encontramos inscripciones visigóticas con indicios de elementos carolinos, inscripciones con escritura mixta e inscripciones carolinas con reminiscencias carolinas además de epígrafes con escritura puro de ambos sistemas. Veremos en qué consisten esos cambios y dentro de que tradición contextual se producen. It is widely accepted that the creation of both ordinary and publicity script is a dynamic phenomenon whose evolutionary process was subject to a series of circumstances in which certain spatial-temporal characteristics produced concrete traits. In general, the twelfth century was considered as the defining moment of the Carolingian publicity script in the Iberian Peninsula as confirmed in the numerous corpora studied by García Lobo, one of the eminent

  16. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...... be called ‘distributed creativity’. Drawing on related literature on distributed cognition (Hutchins, 2000), I will consider here the three inter-related ways in which creative action is distributed: across people, across people and objects, and across time. This particular understanding of creativity...

  17. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  18. Public Health Models for Preventing Child Maltreatment: Applications From the Field of Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie; Lonne, Bob; Higgins, Daryl

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary approaches to child protection are dominated by individualized forensically focused interventions that provide limited scope for more holistic preventative responses to children at risk and the provision of support to struggling families and communities. However, in many jurisdictions, it is frequently shown, often through public inquiries and program reviews, that investigatory and removal approaches are failing in critically important ways, particularly regarding reducing the inequities that underpin neglect and abuse. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for a public health model for the protection of children, although there is often a lack of clarity as to what exactly this should entail. Yet, there are opportunities to learn from public health approaches successfully used in the field of injury prevention. Specifically, we advocate for the use of Haddon's Matrix, which provides a detailed theoretical and practical framework for the application of a comprehensive and integrated public health model to guide intervention program design and responses to child protection risk factors. A broad overview of the application of Haddon's Matrix's principles and methods is provided with examples of program and intervention design. It is argued that this framework provides the range of interventions necessary to address the complex social and structural factors contributing to inequity and the maltreatment of children. It also provides the foundation for a holistic and integrated system of prevention and intervention to contribute to system-level change and address child maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  20. Paradigm shifts and the interplay between state, business and civil sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, Sara; Santos, Fernando P.; Santos, Francisco C.; Blass, Vered; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Portugali, Juval

    2016-12-01

    The recent rise of the civil sector as a main player of socio-political actions, next to public and private sectors, has largely increased the complexity underlying the interplay between different sectors of our society. From urban planning to global governance, analysis of these complex interactions requires new mathematical and computational approaches. Here, we develop a novel framework, grounded on evolutionary game theory, to envisage situations in which each of these sectors is confronted with the dilemma of deciding between maintaining a status quo scenario or shifting towards a new paradigm. We consider multisector conflicts regarding environmentally friendly policies as an example of application, but the framework developed here has a considerably broader scope. We show that the public sector is crucial in initiating the shift, and determine explicitly under which conditions the civil sector-reflecting the emergent reality of civil society organizations playing an active role in modern societies-may influence the decision-making processes accruing to other sectors, while fostering new routes towards a paradigm shift of the society as a whole. Our results are shown to be robust to a wide variety of assumptions and model parametrizations.