WorldWideScience

Sample records for model protein lysozyme

  1. Effect of polyols on the conformational stability and biological activity of a model protein lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Somnath; Singh, Jagdish

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stabilizing action of polyols against various protein degradation mechanisms (eg, aggregation, deamidation, oxidation), using a model protein lysozyme. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to measure the thermodynamic parameters, mid point transition temperature and calorimetric enthalpy, in order to evaluate conformational stability. Enzyme activity assay was used to corroborate the DSC results. Mannitol, sucrose, lactose, glycerol, and propylene glycol were used as polyols to stabilize lysozyme against aggregation, deamidation, and oxidation. Mannitol was found to stabilize lysozyme against aggregation, sucrose against deamidation both at neutral pH and at acidic pH, and lactose against oxidation. Stabilizers that provided greater conformational stability of lysozyme against various degradation mechanisms also protected specific enzyme activity to a greater extent. It was concluded that DSC and bioassay could be valuable tools for screening stabilizers in protein formulations.

  2. Scientist prepare Lysozyme Protein Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Dan Carter and Charles Sisk center a Lysozyme Protein crystal grown aboard the USML-2 shuttle mission. Protein isolated from hen egg-white and functions as a bacteriostatic enzyme by degrading bacterial cell walls. First enzyme ever characterized by protein crystallography. It is used as an excellent model system for better understanding parameters involved in microgravity crystal growth experiments. The goal is to compare kinetic data from microgravity experiments with data from laboratory experiments to study the equilibrium.

  3. Effect of polyols on the conformational stability and biological activity of a model protein lysozyme

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Somnath; Singh, Jagdish

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stabilizing action of polyols against various protein degradation mechanisms (eg, aggregation, deamidation, oxidation), using a model protein lysozyme. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to measure the thermodynamic parameters, mid point transition temperature and calorimetric enthalpy, in order to evaluate conformational stability. Enzyme activity assay was used to corroborate the DSC results. Mannitol, sucrose, lactose, glycerol...

  4. Poly lactic acid based injectable delivery systems for controlled release of a model protein, lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tahami, Khaled; Meyer, Amanda; Singh, Jagdish

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the critical formulation parameters (i.e., polymer concentration, polymer molecular weight, and solvent nature) affecting the controlled delivery of a model protein, lysozyme, from injectable polymeric implants. The conformational stability and biological activity of the released lysozyme were also investigated. Three formulations containing 10%, 20%, and 30% (w/v) poly lactic acid (PLA) in triacetin were investigated. It was found that increasing polymer concentration in the formulations led to a lower burst effect and a slower release rate. Formulation with a high molecular weight polymer showed a greater burst effect as compared to those containing low molecular weight. Conformational stability and biological activity of released samples were studied by differential scanning calorimeter and enzyme activity assay, respectively. The released samples had significantly (P solution kept at same conditions). Increasing polymer concentration increased both the conformational stability and the biological activity of released lysozyme. In conclusion, phase sensitive polymer-based delivery systems were able to deliver a model protein, lysozyme, in a conformationally stable and biologically active form at a controlled rate over an extended period.

  5. Biotherapeutic protein formulation variables influence protein integrity and can promote post-translational modifications as shown using chicken egg white lysozyme as a model system

    OpenAIRE

    Gourbatsi, Evdoxia; Povey, Jane; Uddin, Shahid; Smales, C. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The effect of different formulations variables on protein integrity were investigated using lysozyme as a model protein for the development of biotherapeutic protein formulations for use in the clinic. Results Buffer composition/concentration was the key variable of formulation reagents investigated in determining lysozyme stability and authenticity independent of protein concentration whilst the storage temperature and time, not surprisingly, were also key variables. Tryptic pepti...

  6. Effect of temperature on the interaction of cisplatin with the model protein hen egg white lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Giarita; Pica, Andrea; Russo Krauss, Irene; Pane, Francesca; Amoresano, Angela; Merlino, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    The products of the reaction between cisplatin (CDDP) and the model protein hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) at 20, 37 and 55 °C in pure water were studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. X-ray structures were also solved for the adducts formed at 20 and 55 °C. Data demonstrate that high temperature facilitates the formation of CDDP-HEWL adducts, where Pt atoms bind ND1 atom of His15 or NE2 atom of His15 and NH1 atom of Arg14. Our study suggests that high human body temperature (fever) could increase the rate of drug binding to proteins thus enhancing possible toxic side effects related to CDDP administration.

  7. Biotherapeutic protein formulation variables influence protein integrity and can promote post-translational modifications as shown using chicken egg white lysozyme as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbatsi, Evdoxia; Povey, Jane; Uddin, Shahid; Smales, C Mark

    2016-04-01

    The effect of different formulations variables on protein integrity were investigated using lysozyme as a model protein for the development of biotherapeutic protein formulations for use in the clinic. Buffer composition/concentration was the key variable of formulation reagents investigated in determining lysozyme stability and authenticity independent of protein concentration whilst the storage temperature and time, not surprisingly, were also key variables. Tryptic peptide mapping of the protein showed that the modifications occurred when formulated under specific conditions but not others. A model peptide system was developed that reflected the same behavior under formulation conditions as intact lysozyme. Peptide models may mirror the stability of proteins, or regions of proteins, in the same formulations and be used to help develop a rapid screen of formulations for stabilisation of biotherapeutic proteins.

  8. Thermophysical properties of lysozyme (protein) solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaching; Yang, Wen-Jei

    1992-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of protein solutions composed of the lysozyme crystals with a 0.1 M sodium acetate and 5 percent NaCl solution as the buffer (pH = 4.0) are determined. The properties being measured include specific heat, thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, and surface tension. The protein concentrations are varied. Thermal diffusivity is calculated using the measured results. The purpose of the research is to measure thermophysical properties of lysozyme solutions which would serve as the data bank for controlling and modeling the crystal growth process on earth as well as in space.

  9. Role of the osmolyte taurine on the folding of a model protein, hen egg white lysozyme, under a crowding condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshito; Ohkuri, Takatoshi; Yoshitomi, Sachiko; Murakami, Shigeru; Ueda, Tadashi

    2015-05-01

    Taurine is one of the osmolytes that maintain the structure of proteins in cells exposed to denaturing environmental stressors. Recently, cryoelectron tomographic analysis of eukaryotic cells has revealed that their cytoplasms are crowded with proteins. Such crowding conditions would be expected to hinder the efficient folding of nascent polypeptide chains. Therefore, we examined the role of taurine on the folding of denatured and reduced lysozyme, as a model protein, under a crowding condition. The results confirmed that taurine had a better effect on protein folding than did β-alanine, which has a similar chemical structure, when the protein to be folded was present at submillimolar concentration. NMR analyses further revealed that under the crowding condition, taurine had more interactions than did β-alanine with the lysozyme molecule in both the folded and denatured states. We concluded that taurine improves the folding of the reduced lysozyme at submillimolar concentration to allow it to interact more favorably with the lysozyme molecule. Thus, the role of taurine, as an osmolyte in vivo, may be to assist in the efficient folding of proteins.

  10. Laser ablation of the lysozyme protein: a model system for soft materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schou, Jørgen; Matei, Andreea; Constantinescu, Catalin; Canulescu, Stela; Dinescu, Maria; Tabetah, Marshall; Zhigilei, Leonid; Amoruso, Salvatore; Wang, Xuan

    2011-01-01

    Lysozyme is a well-known protein which is used in food processing and is also an important constituent of human secretions such as sweat and saliva. It has a well-defined mass (14307 u) and can easily be detected by mass spectrometric methods such as MALDI (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization) in contrast to many other organic materials. Also the thermal properties, including the heat-induced decomposition behavior are comparatively well-known. For laser-irradiation at wavelengths abo...

  11. Laser ablation of the lysozyme protein: a model system for soft materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Matei, Andreea; Constantinescu, Catalin

    Lysozyme is a well-known protein which is used in food processing and is also an important constituent of human secretions such as sweat and saliva. It has a well-defined mass (14307 u) and can easily be detected by mass spectrometric methods such as MALDI (Matrix-assisted laser desorption...... ionization) in contrast to many other organic materials. Also the thermal properties, including the heat-induced decomposition behavior are comparatively well-known. For laser-irradiation at wavelengths above 310 nm, no photochemical processes occur initially, but the material is ejected via photothermal...... is expected in MAPLE, but is surprising in PLD, where a high degree of thermal fragmentation is typically required for generation of a sufficient amount of volatile decomposition products that drive the transfer of molecules to the film substrate. The experimental results will be discussed based...

  12. Folding Behaviors of Protein (Lysozyme) Confined in Polyelectrolyte Complex Micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Gen; Jiang, Yao-Wen; Chen, Zhan; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2016-04-19

    The folding/unfolding behavior of proteins (enzymes) in confined space is important for their properties and functions, but such a behavior remains largely unexplored. In this article, we reported our finding that lysozyme and a double hydrophilic block copolymer, methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)5K-block-poly(l-aspartic acid sodium salt)10 (mPEG(5K)-b-PLD10), can form a polyelectrolyte complex micelle with a particle size of ∼30 nm, as verified by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The unfolding and refolding behaviors of lysozyme molecules in the presence of the copolymer were studied by microcalorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Upon complex formation with mPEG(5K)-b-PLD10, lysozyme changed from its initial native state to a new partially unfolded state. Compared with its native state, this copolymer-complexed new folding state of lysozyme has different secondary and tertiary structures, a decreased thermostability, and significantly altered unfolding/refolding behaviors. It was found that the native lysozyme exhibited reversible unfolding and refolding upon heating and subsequent cooling, while lysozyme in the new folding state (complexed with the oppositely charged PLD segments of the polymer) could unfold upon heating but could not refold upon subsequent cooling. By employing the heating-cooling-reheating procedure, the prevention of complex formation between lysozyme and polymer due to the salt screening effect was observed, and the resulting uncomplexed lysozyme regained its proper unfolding and refolding abilities upon heating and subsequent cooling. Besides, we also pointed out the important role the length of the PLD segment played during the formation of micelles and the monodispersity of the formed micelles. Furthermore, the lysozyme-mPEG(5K)-b-PLD10 mixtures prepared in this work were all transparent, without the formation of large aggregates or precipitates in solution as frequently observed in other protein

  13. Pyroelectricity in globular protein lysozyme films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, A.; Noor, M. R.; Haq, E. U.; Silien, C.; Soulimane, T.; Tofail, S. A. M.

    2018-03-01

    Pyroelectricity is the ability of certain non-centrosymmetric materials to generate an electric charge in response to a change in temperature and finds use in a range of applications from burglar alarms to thermal imaging. Some biological materials also exhibit pyroelectricity but the examples of the effect are limited to fibrous proteins, polypeptides, and tissues and organs of animals and plants. Here, we report pyroelectricity in polycrystalline aggregate films of lysozyme, a globular protein.

  14. Electrostatic interactions in protein adsorption probed by comparing lysozyme and succinylated lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der M.; Norde, W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of electrostatic interactions on protein adsorption was studied by comparing the adsorption of lysozyme and succinylated lysozyme at silica surfaces. The succinylation affects the charge of the protein, but also the stability. Although changes in stability can have an influence on

  15. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics of oxidative stress: Identification of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) adducts of amino acids using lysozyme and bovine serum albumin as model proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslebagh, Roshanak; Pfeffer, Bruce A; Fliesler, Steven J; Darie, Costel C

    2016-10-01

    Modification of proteins by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a reactive by-product of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation, on specific amino acid residues is considered a biomarker for oxidative stress, as occurs in many metabolic, hereditary, and age-related diseases. HNE modification of amino acids can occur either via Michael addition or by formation of Schiff-base adducts. These modifications typically occur on cysteine (Cys), histidine (His), and/or lysine (Lys) residues, resulting in an increase of 156 Da (Michael addition) or 138 Da (Schiff-base adducts), respectively, in the mass of the residue. Here, we employed biochemical and mass spectrometry (MS) approaches to determine the MS "signatures" of HNE-modified amino acids, using lysozyme and BSA as model proteins. Using direct infusion of unmodified and HNE-modified lysozyme into an electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, we were able to detect up to seven HNE modifications per molecule of lysozyme. Using nanoLC-MS/MS, we found that, in addition to N-terminal amino acids, Cys, His, and Lys residues, HNE modification of arginine (Arg), threonine (Thr), tryptophan (Trp), and histidine (His) residues can also occur. These sensitive and specific methods can be applied to the study of oxidative stress to evaluate HNE modification of proteins in complex mixtures from cells and tissues under diseased versus normal conditions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Laser ablation of the protein lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Amoruso, Salvatore

    Lysozyme is a well-known protein, which is used in food processing because of its bactericidal properties. The mass (14307 amu) is in the range in which it easily can be monitored by mass spectrometric methods, for example by MALDI (Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization). We have recently...... to a substrate as intact molecules by the violent laser impact ( up to 50 mJ/pulse) has not yet been understood. One issue is that up to 150 ng/pulse is removed by the laser, and much of the material is ejected from the target in relatively large chunks. We have explored as well the excitation mechanics by laser...... impact. Samples of pressed lysozyme prepared in the same manner as in ns-experiments have been irradiated at 527 nm with >>300-fs pulses and at a similar fluence as in ns ablation. Even though the pulse energy was much smaller, there was a considerable ablation weight loss of lysozyme from each shot...

  17. Hydration of lysozyme: the protein-protein interface and the enthalpy-entropy compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Arnebrant, Thomas

    2010-03-16

    Water sorption isotherms of proteins are usually interpreted with such models as BET or GAB that imply the formation of multilayers at solid-gas interface. However, this approach is not applicable to globular proteins such as humid lysozyme where a solid-gas interface does not exist. Another popular approach is the D'Arcy-Watt model, where besides the formation of multilayers the heterogeneity of energies of sorption sites of proteins is taken into account. Here we present sorption calorimetric data on the hydration of lysozyme that confirms the existence of the heterogeneity. The magnitude of the heterogeneity is, however, lower than one can expect on the basis of the existence of a solid-gas interface. Moreover, the calorimetric data show a strong enthalpy-entropy compensation that leads to almost constant effective free energy of hydration in the activity range normally used for fitting the data to sorption models. This allows the use of the Langmuir equation for the fitting of the initial part of the sorption isotherm of lysozyme. Assuming the formation of a monolayer of water at the protein-protein interface, one can estimate the size of the lysozyme molecules from the sorption isotherm. The result of this estimation is in good agreement with the structural data on lysozyme, which supports the presented approach.

  18. Protein crystal growth - Growth kinetics for tetragonal lysozyme crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, M. L.; Snyder, R. S.; Naumann, R.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from theoretical and experimental studies of the growth rate of lysozyme as a function of diffusion in earth-gravity conditions. The investigations were carried out to form a comparison database for future studies of protein crystal growth in the microgravity environment of space. A diffusion-convection model is presented for predicting crystal growth rates in the presence of solutal concentration gradients. Techniques used to grow and monitor the growth of hen egg white lysozyme are detailed. The model calculations and experiment data are employed to discuss the effects of transport and interfacial kinetics in the growth of the crystals, which gradually diminished the free energy in the growth solution. Density gradient-driven convection, caused by presence of the gravity field, was a limiting factor in the growth rate.

  19. Complex coacervates of hyaluronic acid and lysozyme: effect on protein structure and physical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water, Jorrit J; Schack, Malthe M; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Maltesen, Morten J; van de Weert, Marco; Jorgensen, Lene

    2014-10-01

    Complex coacervates of hyaluronic acid and lysozyme, a model protein, were formed by ionic interaction using bulk mixing and were characterized in terms of binding stoichiometry and protein structure and stability. The complexes were formed at pH 7.2 at low ionic strength (6mM) and the binding stoichiometry was determined using solution depletion and isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding stoichiometry of lysozyme to hyaluronic acid (870 kDa) determined by solution depletion was found to be 225.9 ± 6.6 mol, or 0.1 bound lysozyme molecules per hyaluronic acid monomer. This corresponded well with that obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry of 0.09 bound lysozyme molecules per hyaluronic acid monomer. The complexation did not alter the secondary structure of lysozyme measured by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy overlap analysis and had no significant impact on the Tm of lysozyme determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Furthermore, the protein stability of lysozyme was found to be improved upon complexation during a 12-weeks storage study at room temperature, as shown by a significant increase in recovered protein when complexed (94 ± 2% and 102 ± 5% depending on the polymer-protein weight to weight ratio) compared to 89 ± 2% recovery for uncomplexed protein. This study shows the potential of hyaluronic acid to be used in combination with complex coacervation to increase the physical stability of pharmaceutical protein formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lysozymes and lysozyme-like proteins from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Michael; Girard, Pierre-Alain; Cousserans, François; Volkoff, Nathalie-Anne; Duvic, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Lysozyme is an important component of the insect non-specific immune response against bacteria that is characterized by its ability to break down bacterial cell-walls. By searching an EST database from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Negre et al., 2006), we identified five sequences encoding proteins of the lysozyme family. The deduced protein sequences corresponded to three classical c-type lysozymes Sf-Lys1, Sf-Lys2 and Sf-Lys3, and two lysozyme-like proteins, Sf-LLP1 and Sf-LLP2. Sf-Lys1 was purified from the hemolymph of Escherichia coli-challenged S. frugiperda larvae. The mature protein had a molecular mass of 13.975 Da with an isoelectric point of 8.77 and showed 98.3% and 96.7% identity with lysozymes from Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua, respectively. As the other insect lysozymes, Sf-Lys1 was active against gram positive bacteria such as Micrococcus luteus but also induced a slight permeabilization of the inner membrane of E. coli. Genes encoding these five Sf-Lys or Sf-LLPs were differentially up-regulated in three immune-competent tissues (hemocytes, fat body and gut) after challenges with non-pathogenic bacteria, E. coli and M. luteus, or entomopathogenic bacterium, Photorhabdus luminescens. Sf-Lys1 and Sf-Lys2 were mainly induced in fat body in the presence of E. coli or P. luminescens. Sf-Lys3, which had an acidic isoelectric point, was found to be the most up-regulated of all five Sf-Lys or Sf-LLPs in hemocytes and gut after challenge with P. luminescens. More molecular data are now available to investigate differences in physiological functions of these different members of the lysozyme superfamily.

  1. Modeling the growth rates of tetragonal lysozyme crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meirong; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc L.

    1995-11-01

    Although the faceted growth of tetragonal lysozyme crystals is known to occur by 2D nucleation and dislocation-led growth, the measured growth rates do not follow model predictions based on these mechanisms. One possible reason for this deviation is that these models ignore the highly aggregated state of lysozyme in supersaturated solutions. In this study a growth mechanism for tetragonal lysozyme crystals involving aggregation reactions leading to the formation of the growth unit, mass transport of the growth unit to the crystal interface and faceted crystal growth by growth unit addition, is proposed. The distribution of aggregates in lysozyme nutrient solutions were determined from the equilibrium aggregation reactions and comparisons were made with growth rates calculated from the model based on the proposed mechanism and the measured growth rate data. The results indicated than an octamer corresponding to the tetragonal crystal unit cell was the most likely growth unit for the process. Remarkably good fits were obtained with this model to the measured growth rate data for three sets of pH and salt concentrations, suggesting the validity of the proposed mechanism. The values of the kinetic coefficient for the step velocity was in the range for small molecule crystal growth and the heats of reaction compared well with that obtained from lysozyme solubility data. The results presented here suggest that the inorganic and protein crystal growth processes are quite similar in many ways. Lysozyme crystal growth differs primarily due to growth by an aggregate growth unit and in the effect of nutrient solution conditions on the protein aggregation process.

  2. SANS study of Lysozyme vs. BSA protein adsorption on silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2012-06-01

    Lysozyme (M.W. 14.7 kD) and BSA (M.W. 66.7 kD) are two most commonly studied model proteins in literature. Lysozyme (cationic) and BSA (anionic) are oppositely charged at pH 7 and their interaction with anionic silica nanoparticles has been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Measurements were carried out on fixed 1 wt% concentration of nanoparticles and varying concentration of protein in the range 0.5 to 2 wt%. It is found that both the proteins adsorb on the nanoparticles where strong interaction of lysozyme leads to the aggregation of nanoparticles but the system remains stable with BSA. Adsorption increases with protein concentration and has been found much larger for lysozyme.

  3. The direct piezoelectric effect in the globular protein lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, A.; Noor, M. R.; Sweeney, J.; Casey, V.; Kholkin, A. L.; Silien, C.; Gandhi, A. A.; Soulimane, T.; Tofail, S. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    Here, we present experimental evidence of the direct piezoelectric effect in the globular protein, lysozyme. Piezoelectric materials are employed in many actuating and sensing applications because they can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. Although originally studied in inorganic materials, several biological materials including amino acids and bone, also exhibit piezoelectricity. The exact mechanisms supporting biological piezoelectricity are not known, nor is it known whether biological piezoelectricity conforms strictly to the criteria of classical piezoelectricity. The observation of piezoelectricity in protein crystals presented here links biological piezoelectricity with the classical theory of piezoelectricity. We quantify the direct piezoelectric effect in monoclinic and tetragonal aggregate films of lysozyme using conventional techniques based on the Berlincourt Method. The largest piezoelectric effect measured in a crystalline aggregate film of lysozyme was approximately 6.5 pC N-1. These findings raise fundamental questions as to the possible physiological significance of piezoelectricity in lysozyme and the potential for technical applications.

  4. Towards absolute quantification of allergenic proteins in food--lysozyme in wine as a model system for metrologically traceable mass spectrometric methods and certified reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryar, Adam; Pritchard, Caroline; Burkitt, William; Walker, Michael; O'Connor, Gavin; Burns, Duncan Thorburn; Quaglia, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Current routine food allergen quantification methods, which are based on immunochemistry, offer high sensitivity but can suffer from issues of specificity and significant variability of results. MS approaches have been developed, but currently lack metrological traceability. A feasibility study on the application of metrologically traceable MS-based reference procedures was undertaken. A proof of concept involving proteolytic digestion and isotope dilution MS for quantification of protein allergens in a food matrix was undertaken using lysozyme in wine as a model system. A concentration of lysozyme in wine of 0.95 +/- 0.03 microg/g was calculated based on the concentrations of two peptides, confirming that this type of analysis is viable at allergenically meaningful concentrations. The challenges associated with this promising method were explored; these included peptide stability, chemical modification, enzymatic digestion, and sample cleanup. The method is suitable for the production of allergen in food certified reference materials, which together with the achieved understanding of the effects of sample preparation and of the matrix on the final results, will assist in addressing the bias of the techniques routinely used and improve measurement confidence. Confirmation of the feasibility of MS methods for absolute quantification of an allergenic protein in a food matrix with results traceable to the International System of Units is a step towards meaningful comparison of results for allergen proteins among laboratories. This approach will also underpin risk assessment and risk management of allergens in the food industry, and regulatory compliance of the use of thresholds or action levels when adopted.

  5. Structural Basis of Protein Oxidation Resistance: A Lysozyme Study

    OpenAIRE

    Girod, Marion; Enjalbert, Quentin; Brunet, Claire; Antoine, Rodolphe; Lemoine, Jérôme; Lukac, Iva; Radman, Miroslav; Krisko, Anita; Dugourd, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidative damage in proteins correlates with aging since it can cause irreversible and progressive degeneration of almost all cellular functions. Apparently, native protein structures have evolved intrinsic resistance to oxidation since perfectly folded proteins are, by large most robust. Here we explore the structural basis of protein resistance to radiation-induced oxidation using chicken egg white lysozyme in the native and misfolded form. We study the differential resistan...

  6. Lysozyme crystallization by vapor diffusion: characterization and modeling in the absence and presence of exogenous minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, W. L.; Rousseau, R. W.; Sambanis, A.

    1995-01-01

    A model accounting for water evaporation and crystal growth was synthesized to simulate protein concentration profiles in the crystallization wells of a vapor-diffusion apparatus. The model calculations were compared with experimental results obtained with chicken egg white lysozyme crystallized in the absence and presence of exogenous mineral particles. The model predicted the increase in protein concentration during water evaporation and the decrease during crystal growth. The effects of magnetite, galena and chalcopyrite on the time profile of dissolved lysozyme concentration appeared minimal, except for the occurrence of earlier nucleation in the presence of magnetite. Few of the lysozyme crystals formed were physically associated with these minerals. More protein crystals were associated with topaz, lepidolite and apophyllite, which exhibit a close match of their crystalline lattice to that of lysozyme.

  7. Beneficial effects of increased lysozyme levels in Alzheimer's disease modelled in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Linnea; Bergkvist, Liza; Nath, Sangeeta; Kielkopf, Claudia; Janefjord, Camilla; Helmfors, Linda; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Li, Hongyun; Nilsberth, Camilla; Garner, Brett; Brorsson, Ann-Christin; Kågedal, Katarina

    2016-10-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of immune genes that associate with higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) have led to an increased research interest on the involvement of the immune system in AD pathogenesis. A link between amyloid pathology and immune gene expression was suggested in a genome-wide gene expression study of transgenic amyloid mouse models. In this study, the gene expression of lysozyme, a major player in the innate immune system, was found to be increased in a comparable pattern as the amyloid pathology developed in transgenic mouse models of AD. A similar pattern was seen at protein levels of lysozyme in human AD brain and CSF, but this lysozyme pattern was not seen in a tau transgenic mouse model. Lysozyme was demonstrated to be beneficial for different Drosophila melanogaster models of AD. In flies that expressed Aβ 1-42 or AβPP together with BACE1 in the eyes, the rough eye phenotype indicative of toxicity was completely rescued by coexpression of lysozyme. In Drosophila flies bearing the Aβ 1-42 variant with the Arctic gene mutation, lysozyme increased the fly survival and decreased locomotor dysfunction dose dependently. An interaction between lysozyme and Aβ 1-42 in the Drosophila eye was discovered. We propose that the increased levels of lysozyme, seen in mouse models of AD and in human AD cases, were triggered by Aβ 1-42 and caused a beneficial effect by binding of lysozyme to toxic species of Aβ 1-42 , which prevented these from exerting their toxic effects. These results emphasize the possibility of lysozyme as biomarker and therapeutic target for AD. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Protein-Protein Interaction on Lysozyme Crystallization Revealed by Rotational Diffusion Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Nishimoto, Etsuko; Murase, Tadashi; Yamashita, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Intermolecular interactions between protein molecules diffusing in various environments underlie many biological processes as well as control protein crystallization, which is a crucial step in x-ray protein structure determinations. Protein interactions were investigated through protein rotational diffusion analysis. First, it was confirmed that tetragonal lysozyme crystals containing fluorescein-tagged lysozyme were successfully formed with the same morphology as that of native protein. Usi...

  9. Structural basis of protein oxidation resistance: a lysozyme study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Marion; Enjalbert, Quentin; Brunet, Claire; Antoine, Rodolphe; Lemoine, Jérôme; Lukac, Iva; Radman, Miroslav; Krisko, Anita; Dugourd, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidative damage in proteins correlates with aging since it can cause irreversible and progressive degeneration of almost all cellular functions. Apparently, native protein structures have evolved intrinsic resistance to oxidation since perfectly folded proteins are, by large most robust. Here we explore the structural basis of protein resistance to radiation-induced oxidation using chicken egg white lysozyme in the native and misfolded form. We study the differential resistance to oxidative damage of six different parts of native and misfolded lysozyme by a targeted tandem/mass spectrometry approach of its tryptic fragments. The decay of the amount of each lysozyme fragment with increasing radiation dose is found to be a two steps process, characterized by a double exponential evolution of their amounts: the first one can be largely attributed to oxidation of specific amino acids, while the second one corresponds to further degradation of the protein. By correlating these results to the structural parameters computed from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find the protein parts with increased root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) to be more susceptible to modifications. In addition, involvement of amino acid side-chains in hydrogen bonds has a protective effect against oxidation Increased exposure to solvent of individual amino acid side chains correlates with high susceptibility to oxidative and other modifications like side chain fragmentation. Generally, while none of the structural parameters alone can account for the fate of peptides during radiation, together they provide an insight into the relationship between protein structure and susceptibility to oxidation.

  10. Interaction of lysozyme protein with different sized silica nanoparticles and their resultant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Indresh, E-mail: iykumarindresh288@gmail.com; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-05-23

    The interaction of model protein-lysozyme with three different sized anionic silica nanoparticles has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The surface area and curvature of the nanoparticles change with size, which significantly influence their interaction with protein. The lysozyme adsorbs on the surface of the nanoparticles due to electrostatic attraction and leads to the phase transformation from one phase (clear) to two-phase (turbid) of the nanoparticle-protein system. The dominance of lysozyme induced short-range attraction over long-range electrostatic repulsion between nanoparticles is responsible for phase transformation and modeled by the two-Yukawa potential. The magnitude of the attractive interaction increases with the size of the nanoparticles as a result the phase transformation commences relatively at lower concentration of lysozyme. The structure of the nanoparticle-protein system in two-phase is characterized by the diffusion limited aggregate type of mass fractal morphology.

  11. Interaction of lysozyme protein with different sized silica nanoparticles and their resultant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of model protein-lysozyme with three different sized anionic silica nanoparticles has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The surface area and curvature of the nanoparticles change with size, which significantly influence their interaction with protein. The lysozyme adsorbs on the surface of the nanoparticles due to electrostatic attraction and leads to the phase transformation from one phase (clear) to two-phase (turbid) of the nanoparticle-protein system. The dominance of lysozyme induced short-range attraction over long-range electrostatic repulsion between nanoparticles is responsible for phase transformation and modeled by the two-Yukawa potential. The magnitude of the attractive interaction increases with the size of the nanoparticles as a result the phase transformation commences relatively at lower concentration of lysozyme. The structure of the nanoparticle-protein system in two-phase is characterized by the diffusion limited aggregate type of mass fractal morphology.

  12. Interaction of lysozyme protein with different sized silica nanoparticles and their resultant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of model protein-lysozyme with three different sized anionic silica nanoparticles has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The surface area and curvature of the nanoparticles change with size, which significantly influence their interaction with protein. The lysozyme adsorbs on the surface of the nanoparticles due to electrostatic attraction and leads to the phase transformation from one phase (clear) to two-phase (turbid) of the nanoparticle-protein system. The dominance of lysozyme induced short-range attraction over long-range electrostatic repulsion between nanoparticles is responsible for phase transformation and modeled by the two-Yukawa potential. The magnitude of the attractive interaction increases with the size of the nanoparticles as a result the phase transformation commences relatively at lower concentration of lysozyme. The structure of the nanoparticle-protein system in two-phase is characterized by the diffusion limited aggregate type of mass fractal morphology.

  13. Lysozyme-lysozyme self-interactions as assessed by the osmotic second virial coefficient: impact for physical protein stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Brun, Virginie; Friess, Wolfgang; Schultz-Fademrecht, Torsten; Muehlau, Silke; Garidel, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the presented study is to understand the physicochemical properties of proteins in aqueous solutions in order to identify solution conditions with reduced attractive protein-protein interactions, to avoid the formation of protein aggregates and to increase protein solubility. This is assessed by measuring the osmotic second virial coefficient (B(22)), a parameter of solution non-ideality, which is obtained using self-interaction chromatography. The model protein is lysozyme. The influence of various solution conditions on B(22) was investigated: protonation degree, ionic strength, pharmaceutical relevant excipients and combinations thereof. Under acidic solution conditions B(22) is positive, favoring protein repulsion. A similar trend is observed for the variation of the NaCl concentration, showing that with increasing the ionic strength protein attraction is more likely. B(22) decreases and becomes negative. Thus, solution conditions are obtained favoring attractive protein-protein interactions. The B(22) parameter also reflects, in general, the influence of the salts of the Hofmeister series with regard to their salting-in/salting-out effect. It is also shown that B(22) correlates with protein solubility as well as physical protein stability.

  14. The Effect of Protein Impurities on Lysozyme Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Russell A.; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    While bulk crystallization from impure solutions is used industrially as a purification step for a wide variety of materials, it is a technique that has rarely been used for proteins. Proteins have a reputation for being difficult to crystallize and high purity of the initial crystallization solution is considered paramount for success in the crystallization. Although little is written on the purifying capability of protein crystallization or of the effect of impurities on the various aspects of the crystallization process, recent published reports show that crystallization shows promise and feasibility as a purification technique for proteins. In order to further examine the issue of purity in macromolecule crystallization this study investigates the effect of the protein impurities, avidin, ovalbumin and conalbumin, at concentrations up to 50%, on the solubility, crystal face growth rates and crystal purity, of the protein lysozyme. Solubility was measured in batch experiments while a computer controlled video microscope system was used to measure the f {101} and {101} lysozyme crystal face growth rates. While little effect was observed on solubility and high crystal purity was obtained (>99.99%), the effect of the impurities on the face growth rates varied from no effect to a significant face specific effect leading to growth cessation, a phenomenon that is frequently observed in protein crystal growth. The results shed interesting light on the effect of protein impurities on protein crystal growth and strengthen the feasibility of using crystallization as a unit operation for protein purification.

  15. Structural basis of protein oxidation resistance: a lysozyme study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Girod

    Full Text Available Accumulation of oxidative damage in proteins correlates with aging since it can cause irreversible and progressive degeneration of almost all cellular functions. Apparently, native protein structures have evolved intrinsic resistance to oxidation since perfectly folded proteins are, by large most robust. Here we explore the structural basis of protein resistance to radiation-induced oxidation using chicken egg white lysozyme in the native and misfolded form. We study the differential resistance to oxidative damage of six different parts of native and misfolded lysozyme by a targeted tandem/mass spectrometry approach of its tryptic fragments. The decay of the amount of each lysozyme fragment with increasing radiation dose is found to be a two steps process, characterized by a double exponential evolution of their amounts: the first one can be largely attributed to oxidation of specific amino acids, while the second one corresponds to further degradation of the protein. By correlating these results to the structural parameters computed from molecular dynamics (MD simulations, we find the protein parts with increased root-mean-square deviation (RMSD to be more susceptible to modifications. In addition, involvement of amino acid side-chains in hydrogen bonds has a protective effect against oxidation Increased exposure to solvent of individual amino acid side chains correlates with high susceptibility to oxidative and other modifications like side chain fragmentation. Generally, while none of the structural parameters alone can account for the fate of peptides during radiation, together they provide an insight into the relationship between protein structure and susceptibility to oxidation.

  16. Protein-encapsulated gold cluster aggregates: the case of lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Ananya; Xavier, Paulrajpillai Lourdu; Chaudhari, Kamalesh; Goswami, N.; Pal, S. K.; Pradeep, T.

    2013-02-01

    We report the evolution and confinement of atomically precise and luminescent gold clusters in a small protein, lysozyme (Lyz) using detailed mass spectrometric (MS) and other spectroscopic investigations. A maximum of 12 Au0 species could be bound to a single Lyz molecule irrespective of the molar ratio of Lyz : Au3+ used for cluster growth. The cluster-encapsulated protein also forms aggregates similar to the parent protein. Time dependent studies reveal the emergence of free protein and the redistribution of detached Au atoms, at specific Lyz to Au3+ molar ratios, as a function of incubation time, proposing inter-protein metal ion transfer. The results are in agreement with the studies of inter-protein metal transfer during cluster growth in similar systems. We believe that this study provides new insights into the growth of clusters in smaller proteins.We report the evolution and confinement of atomically precise and luminescent gold clusters in a small protein, lysozyme (Lyz) using detailed mass spectrometric (MS) and other spectroscopic investigations. A maximum of 12 Au0 species could be bound to a single Lyz molecule irrespective of the molar ratio of Lyz : Au3+ used for cluster growth. The cluster-encapsulated protein also forms aggregates similar to the parent protein. Time dependent studies reveal the emergence of free protein and the redistribution of detached Au atoms, at specific Lyz to Au3+ molar ratios, as a function of incubation time, proposing inter-protein metal ion transfer. The results are in agreement with the studies of inter-protein metal transfer during cluster growth in similar systems. We believe that this study provides new insights into the growth of clusters in smaller proteins. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33180b

  17. Size-dependent interaction of silica nanoparticles with lysozyme and bovine serum albumin proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of three different sized (diameter 10, 18, and 28 nm) anionic silica nanoparticles with two model proteins—cationic lysozyme [molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kDa)] and anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) (MW 66.4 kDa) has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The adsorption behavior of proteins on the nanoparticles, measured by UV-vis spectroscopy, is found to be very different for lysozyme and BSA. Lysozyme adsorbs strongly on the nanoparticles and shows exponential behavior as a function of lysozyme concentration irrespective of the nanoparticle size. The total amount of adsorbed lysozyme, as governed by the surface-to-volume ratio, increases on lowering the size of the nanoparticles for a fixed volume fraction of the nanoparticles. On the other hand, BSA does not show any adsorption for all the different sizes of the nanoparticles. Despite having different interactions, both proteins induce similar phase behavior where the nanoparticle-protein system transforms from one phase (clear) to two phase (turbid) as a function of protein concentration. The phase behavior is modified towards the lower concentrations for both proteins with increasing the nanoparticle size. DLS suggests that the phase behavior arises as a result of the nanoparticles' aggregation on the addition of proteins. The size-dependent modifications in the interaction potential, responsible for the phase behavior, have been determined by SANS data as modeled using the two-Yukawa potential accounting for the repulsive and attractive interactions in the systems. The protein-induced interaction between the nanoparticles is found to be short-range attraction for lysozyme and long-range attraction for BSA. The magnitude of attractive interaction irrespective of protein type is enhanced with increase in the size of the nanoparticles. The total (attractive+repulsive) potential leading to two-phase formation is found to be

  18. Drug delivery to the kidneys and the bladder with the low molecular weight protein lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Robbert J.; Haas, Marijke; Moolenaar, Frits; de Zeeuw, Dick; Meijer, Dirk K.F.

    1998-01-01

    The low molecular weight protein (LMWP) lysozyme is a suitable drug carrier for renal drug targeting. When the tubular reabsorption of a can be prevented, the protein will be excreted in the urine. In this way, lysozyme (LZM) conjugates might also be used as carriers for targeting to the urinary

  19. Drug delivery to the kidneys and the bladder with the low molecular weight protein lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, RJ; Haas, M; Moolenaar, F; de Zeeuw, D; Meijer, DKF

    1998-01-01

    The low molecular weight protein (LMWP) lysozyme is a suitable drug carrier for renal drug targeting. When the tubular reabsorption of a LMWP can be prevented, the protein will be excreted in the urine. In this way lysozyme (LZM) conjugates might also be used as carriers for targeting to the urinary

  20. Genetically enhanced lysozyme evades a pathogen derived inhibitory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Sarah M; Fang, Yongliang; Guerrette, Jonathan C; Scanlon, Thomas C; Griswold, Karl E

    2015-04-17

    The accelerating spread of drug-resistant bacteria is creating demand for novel antibiotics. Bactericidal enzymes, such as human lysozyme (hLYZ), are interesting drug candidates due to their inherent catalytic nature and lack of susceptibility to the resistance mechanisms typically directed toward chemotherapeutics. However, natural antibacterial enzymes have their own limitations. For example, hLYZ is susceptible to pathogen derived inhibitory proteins, such as Escherichia coli Ivy. Here, we describe proof of concept studies demonstrating that hLYZ can be effectively redesigned to evade this potent lysozyme inhibitor. Large combinatorial libraries of hLYZ were analyzed using an innovative screening platform based on microbial coculture in hydrogel microdroplets. Isolated hLYZ variants were orders of magnitude less susceptible to E. coli Ivy yet retained high catalytic proficiency and inherent antibacterial activity. Interestingly, the engineered escape variants showed a disadvantageous increase in susceptibility to the related Ivy ortholog from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as an unrelated E. coli inhibitory protein, MliC. Thus, while we have achieved our original objective with respect to escaping E. coli Ivy, engineering hLYZ for broad-spectrum evasion of proteinaceous inhibitors will require consideration of the complex and varied determinants that underlie molecular recognition by these emerging virulence factors.

  1. Structural, Functional and Phylogenetic Analysis of Sperm Lysozyme-Like Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Shalini; Pradeep, Mangottil Ayyappan; Mohanty, Ashok K; Kaushik, Jai K

    2016-01-01

    Sperm lysozyme-like proteins belonging to c-type lysozyme family evolved in multiple forms. Lysozyme-like proteins, viz., LYZL2, LYZL3 or SLLP1, LYZL4, LYZL5 and LYZL6 are expressed in the testis of mammals. Not all members of LYZL family have been uniformly and unambiguously identified in the genome and proteome of mammals. Some studies suggested a role of SLLP1 and LYZL4 in fertilization; however, the function of other LYZL proteins is unknown. We identified all known forms of LYZL proteins in buffalo sperm by LC-MS/MS. Cloning and sequence analysis of the Lyzl cDNA showed 38-50% identity at amino acid level among the buffalo LYZL paralogs, complete conservation of eight cysteines and other signature sequences of c-type lysozyme family. Catalytic residues in SLLP1, LYZL4 and LYZL5 have undergone replacement. The substrate binding residues showed significant variation in LYZL proteins. Residues at sites 62, 101, 114 in LYZL4; 101 in SLLP1; 37, 62, and 101 in LYZL6 were more variable among diverse species. Sites 63 and 108 occupied by tryptophan were least tolerant to variation. Site 37 also showed lower tolerance to substitution in SLLP1, LYZL4 and LYZL5, but more variable in non-testicular lysozymes. Models of LYZL proteins were created by homology modeling and the substrate binding pockets were analyzed in term of binding energies and contacting residues of LYZL proteins with tri-N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)3 in the A-B-C and B-C-D binding mode. Except LYZL6, LYZL proteins did not show significant difference in binding energies in comparison to hen egg white lysozyme in the A-B-C mode. (NAG)3 binding energy in the B-C-D mode was higher by 1.3-2.2 kcal/mol than in A-B-C mode. Structural analysis indicated that (NAG)3 was involved in making more extensive interactions including hydrogen bonding with LYZL proteins in B-C-D mode than in A-B-C mode. Despite large sequence divergence among themselves and with respect to c-type lysozymes, substrate binding residues as

  2. Biophysical insights into the interaction of hen egg white lysozyme with therapeutic dye clofazimine: modulation of activity and SDS induced aggregation of model protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Zaidi, Nida; Alam, Parvez; Zaman, Masihuz; Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Nusrat, Saima; Jamal, Mohammad Sarwar; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2017-08-01

    The present study details the binding process of clofazimine to hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) using spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and molecular docking techniques. Clofazimine binds to the protein with binding constant (K b ) in the order of 1.57 × 10 4 at 298 K. Binding process is spontaneous and exothermic. Molecular docking results suggested the involvement of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions in the binding process. Bacterial cell lytic activity in the presence of clofazimine increased to more than 40% of the value obtained with HEWL only. Interaction of the drug with HEWL induced ordered secondary structure in the protein and molecular compaction. Clofazimine also effectively inhibited the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induced amyloid formation in HEWL and caused disaggregation of preformed fibrils, reinforcing the notion that there is involvement of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding in the binding process of clofazimine with HEWL and clofazimine destabilizes the mature fibrils. Further, TEM images confirmed that fibrillar species were absent in the samples where amyloid induction was performed in the presence of clofazimine. As clofazimine is a drug less explored for the inhibition of fibril formation of the proteins, this study reports the inhibition of SDS-induced amyloid formation of HEWL by clofazimine, which will help in the development of clofazimine-related molecules for the treatment of amyloidosis.

  3. Solid lipid particles for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs I - Elucidating the release mechanism of lysozyme during lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Zhang, L.; Yang, M

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of protein release from solid lipid particles was investigated by a new lipolysis model in a biorelevant medium containing both bile salts and phospholipids. Lysozyme, a model protein, was formulated into solid lipid particles using four different types of lipids, two triglycerides...... with different chain-length of fatty acyl groups i.e. trimyristin (TG14) and tristearin (TG18), and two lipid blends dominated by diglycerides and monoglycerides, respectively. The release of lysozyme from the solid lipid particles and the lipid hydrolysis process were assessed in the lipolysis model, while...... the change in particle surface during the lipolysis process was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The lysozyme release profiles from TG14 and TG18 as well as diglyceride particles correlated well with the release of free fatty acids from the lipid particles during the lipolysis and therefore...

  4. Electrostatic assembly of protein lysozyme on DNA visualized by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tao; Wei Gang; Li Zhuang

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to study the assembly of protein lysozyme on DNA molecule. Based on the electrostatic interaction, the positively charged lysozyme can easily bind onto the negatively charged DNA molecule surface. The protein molecules appear as globular objects on the DNA scaffold, which are distinguishable in the AFM images. At the same time, lysozyme molecules can be assembled onto DNA as dense or sporadic pattern by varying the protein concentration. This work may provide fundamental aspects for building protein nanostructures and studying of DNA-protein interaction

  5. C60@Lysozyme: direct observation by nuclear magnetic resonance of a 1:1 fullerene protein adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Arnesano, Fabio; Bonacchi, Sara; Bottoni, Andrea; Calò, Vincenza; Conte, Stefano; Falini, Giuseppe; Fermani, Simona; Losacco, Maurizio; Montalti, Marco; Natile, Giovanni; Prodi, Luca; Sparla, Francesca; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2014-02-25

    Integrating carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) with proteins to form hybrid functional assemblies is an innovative research area with great promise for medical, nanotechnology, and materials science. The comprehension of CNP-protein interactions requires the still-missing identification and characterization of the 'binding pocket' for the CNPs. Here, using Lysozyme and C60 as model systems and NMR chemical shift perturbation analysis, a protein-CNP binding pocket is identified unambiguously in solution and the effect of the binding, at the level of the single amino acid, is characterized by a variety of experimental and computational approaches. Lysozyme forms a stoichiometric 1:1 adduct with C60 that is dispersed monomolecularly in water. Lysozyme maintains its tridimensional structure upon interaction with C60 and only a few identified residues are perturbed. The C60 recognition is highly specific and localized in a well-defined pocket.

  6. Analysis of two lysozyme genes and antimicrobial functions of their recombinant proteins in Asian seabass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Hong Fu

    Full Text Available Lysozymes are important proteins of the innate immune system for the defense against bacterial infection. We cloned and analyzed chicken-type (c-type and goose-type (g-type lysozymes from Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer. The deduced amino acid sequence of the c-type lysozyme contained 144 residues and possessed typical structure residues, conserved catalytic residues (Glu(50 and Asp(67 and a "GSTDYGIFQINS" motif. The deduced g-type lysozyme contained 187 residues and possessed a goose egg white lysozyme (GEWL domain containing three conserved catalytic residues (Glu(71, Asp(84, Asp(95 essential for catalytic activity. Real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR revealed that the two lysozyme genes were constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues. The c-type lysozyme was most abundant in liver, while the g-type lysozyme was predominantly expressed in intestine and weakly expressed in muscle. The c-type and g-type transcripts were up-regulated in the kidney, spleen and liver in response to a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The up-regulation of the c-type lysozyme was much stronger than that of the g-type lysozyme in kidney and spleen. The recombinant proteins of the c-type and g-type lysozymes showed lytic activities against the bacterial pathogens Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae in a dosage-dependent manner. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the two lysozyme genes. There were significant associations of these polymorphisms with resistance to the big belly disease. These results suggest that the c- and g-type genes play an important role in resistance to bacterial pathogens in fish. The SNP markers in the two genes associated with the resistance to bacterial pathogens may facilitate the selection of Asian seabass resistant to bacterial diseases.

  7. Analysis of two lysozyme genes and antimicrobial functions of their recombinant proteins in Asian seabass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui Hong; Bai, Zhi Yi; Xia, Jun Hong; Liu, Feng; Liu, Peng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2013-01-01

    Lysozymes are important proteins of the innate immune system for the defense against bacterial infection. We cloned and analyzed chicken-type (c-type) and goose-type (g-type) lysozymes from Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). The deduced amino acid sequence of the c-type lysozyme contained 144 residues and possessed typical structure residues, conserved catalytic residues (Glu(50) and Asp(67)) and a "GSTDYGIFQINS" motif. The deduced g-type lysozyme contained 187 residues and possessed a goose egg white lysozyme (GEWL) domain containing three conserved catalytic residues (Glu(71), Asp(84), Asp(95)) essential for catalytic activity. Real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the two lysozyme genes were constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues. The c-type lysozyme was most abundant in liver, while the g-type lysozyme was predominantly expressed in intestine and weakly expressed in muscle. The c-type and g-type transcripts were up-regulated in the kidney, spleen and liver in response to a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The up-regulation of the c-type lysozyme was much stronger than that of the g-type lysozyme in kidney and spleen. The recombinant proteins of the c-type and g-type lysozymes showed lytic activities against the bacterial pathogens Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae in a dosage-dependent manner. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the two lysozyme genes. There were significant associations of these polymorphisms with resistance to the big belly disease. These results suggest that the c- and g-type genes play an important role in resistance to bacterial pathogens in fish. The SNP markers in the two genes associated with the resistance to bacterial pathogens may facilitate the selection of Asian seabass resistant to bacterial diseases.

  8. Analysis of Two Lysozyme Genes and Antimicrobial Functions of Their Recombinant Proteins in Asian Seabass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui Hong; Bai, Zhi Yi; Xia, Jun Hong; Liu, Feng; Liu, Peng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2013-01-01

    Lysozymes are important proteins of the innate immune system for the defense against bacterial infection. We cloned and analyzed chicken-type (c-type) and goose-type (g-type) lysozymes from Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). The deduced amino acid sequence of the c-type lysozyme contained 144 residues and possessed typical structure residues, conserved catalytic residues (Glu50 and Asp67) and a “GSTDYGIFQINS” motif. The deduced g-type lysozyme contained 187 residues and possessed a goose egg white lysozyme (GEWL) domain containing three conserved catalytic residues (Glu71, Asp84, Asp95) essential for catalytic activity. Real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the two lysozyme genes were constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues. The c-type lysozyme was most abundant in liver, while the g-type lysozyme was predominantly expressed in intestine and weakly expressed in muscle. The c-type and g-type transcripts were up-regulated in the kidney, spleen and liver in response to a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The up-regulation of the c-type lysozyme was much stronger than that of the g-type lysozyme in kidney and spleen. The recombinant proteins of the c-type and g-type lysozymes showed lytic activities against the bacterial pathogens Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae in a dosage-dependent manner. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the two lysozyme genes. There were significant associations of these polymorphisms with resistance to the big belly disease. These results suggest that the c- and g-type genes play an important role in resistance to bacterial pathogens in fish. The SNP markers in the two genes associated with the resistance to bacterial pathogens may facilitate the selection of Asian seabass resistant to bacterial diseases. PMID:24244553

  9. Disease-related amyloidogenic variants of human lysozyme trigger the unfolded protein response and disturb eye development in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumita, Janet R.; Helmfors, Linda; Williams, Jocy; Luheshi, Leila M.; Menzer, Linda; Dumoulin, Mireille; Lomas, David A.; Crowther, Damian C.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Brorsson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    We have created a Drosophila model of lysozyme amyloidosis to investigate the in vivo behavior of disease-associated variants. To achieve this objective, wild-type (WT) protein and the amyloidogenic variants F57I and D67H were expressed in Drosophila melanogaster using the UAS-gal4 system and both the ubiquitous and retinal expression drivers Act5C-gal4 and gmr-gal4. The nontransgenic w1118 Drosophila line was used as a control throughout. We utilized ELISA experiments to probe lysozyme protein levels, scanning electron microscopy for eye phenotype classification, and immunohistochemistry to detect the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation. We observed that expressing the destabilized F57I and D67H lysozymes triggers UPR activation, resulting in degradation of these variants, whereas the WT lysozyme is secreted into the fly hemolymph. Indeed, the level of WT was up to 17 times more abundant than the variant proteins. In addition, the F57I variant gave rise to a significant disruption of the eye development, and this correlated to pronounced UPR activation. These results support the concept that the onset of familial amyloid disease is linked to an inability of the UPR to degrade completely the amyloidogenic lysozymes prior to secretion, resulting in secretion of these destabilized variants, thereby leading to deposition and associated organ damage.—Kumita, J. R., Helmfors, L., Williams, J., Luheshi, L. M., Menzer, L., Dumoulin, M., Lomas, D. A., Crowther, D. C., Dobson, C. M., Brorsson, A.-C. Disease-related amyloidogenic variants of human lysozyme trigger the unfolded protein response and disturb eye development in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:21965601

  10. In Silico and Biochemical Characterization of Lysozyme-Like Proteins in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narmadha, Ganapathy; Yenugu, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogenesis and sperm maturation in the male reproductive tract is dictated by a variety of proteins secreted in the testis and epididymis. Though the proteome of these tissues is known, the functional role of many of these proteins remains uncharacterized. In this study, we characterize the rat Lysozyme-like (Lyzl) genes and proteins. In silico tools were used to predict the primary, secondary and tertiary structures. Reverse transcription PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting were used to determine the expression pattern. Lysozyme like enzyme activity was assessed by standard assays. Six rat Lyzl genes namely Lyzl1, Lyzl3, Lyzl4, Lyzl5, Lyzl6 and Lyzl7 were found to be highly conserved among the vertebrates with higher homology to mouse counterparts than with human counterparts. All the LYZL proteins contained the characteristic 4 disulfide bridges similar to c-type lysozyme. Only LYZL 1 and 6, conserved the active site amino acids of the lysozyme. Molecular modeling studies indicated that LYZL proteins exhibit strikingly similar three-dimensional structures among themselves. The secondary structure analysis of the recombinant LYZL proteins indicated the presence of α-helix, β-sheet and random coil with α-helix being the majority. Docking studies indicated the peptidoglycan binding nature of LYZL proteins. All the rat Lyzl mRNA transcripts (Lyzl1, Lyzl3, Lyzl4, Lyzl5, Lyzl6 and Lyzl7) are predominantly expressed in testes though some of them are expressed in tissues other than reproductive tract. Their expression was androgen independent. The rat LYZL proteins are localized in the germinal epithelium and on the spermatozoa. Recombinant LYZL1 and 6 possessed muramidase, isopeptidase and antibacterial activities. The mechanism of antibacterial action of LYZL1 and LYZL6 involved bacterial membrane damage and leakage of cellular contents. Only LYZL1 and 6 possess peptidoglycan binding ability, whereas LYZL3, LYZL4 and LYZL5 possess hyaluronan binding

  11. Hydrophobic interaction adsorption of hen egg white proteins albumin, conalbumin, and lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Edwin E Garcia; dos Reis Coimbra, Jane S; Minim, Luis A; Saraiva, Sérgio H; da Silva, César A Sodré

    2006-08-18

    Hydrophobic adsorption equilibrium data of the hen egg white proteins albumin, conalbumin, and lysozyme were obtained in batch systems, at 25 degrees C, using the Streamline Phenyl resin as adsorbent. The influence of three types of salt, NaCl, Na(2)SO(4), or (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and their concentration on the equilibrium data were evaluated. The salt Na(2)SO(4) showed the higher interaction with the studied proteins, thus favoring the adsorption of proteins by the adsorbent, even though each type of salt interacted in a distinct manner with each protein. The isotherm models of Langmuir, Langmuir exponential, and Chen and Sun were well fitted to the equilibrium data, with no significant difference being observed at the 5% level of significance. The mass transfer model applied simulated correctly adsorption kinetics of the proteins under the studied conditions.

  12. The antibacterial protein lysozyme identified as the termite egg recognition pheromone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsuura

    Full Text Available Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus 'termite-ball' and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP, which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence

  13. Impact of Microscale and Pilot-Scale Freeze-Drying on Protein Secondary Structures: Sucrose Formulations of Lysozyme and Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Björn-Hendrik; Leskinen, Jari T T; Molnár, Ferdinand; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2015-11-01

    Microscale (MS) freeze-drying offers rapid process cycles for early-stage formulation development. The effects of the MS approach on the secondary structures of two model proteins, lysozyme and catalase, were compared with pilot-scale (PS) vial freeze-drying. The secondary structures were assessed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Formulations were made with increasing sucrose-protein ratios. Freeze-drying protocols involved regular cooling without thermal treatment and annealing with MS and PS equipment, and cooling rate variations with the MS. Principal component analysis of smoothed second-derivative amide I spectra revealed sucrose-protein ratio-dependent shifts toward α-helical structures. Transferability of sucrose-protein formulations from MS to PS vial freeze-drying was evidenced at regular cooling rates. Local differences in protein secondary structures between the bottom and top of sucrose-catalase samples could be detected at the sucrose-catalase ratios of 1 and 2, this being related to the initial filling height and ice crystal morphology. Annealing revealed temperature, protein, formulation, and sample location-dependent effects influencing surface morphology at the top, or causing protein secondary structure perturbation at the bottom. With the MS approach, protein secondary structure differences at different cooling rates could be detected for sucrose-lysozyme samples at the sucrose-lysozyme ratio of 1. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Synergistic effect of temperature, protein and salt concentration on structures and interactions among lysozyme proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Sarathi; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Synergistic effect of temperature, protein and salt concentration on structures and interactions among lysozyme proteins in solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering technique. Scattering study shows that for a particular protein concentration, with increasing temperature, short-range attraction decreases but long-range repulsion becomes system specific. In absence of salt, lower value of attractive interaction is obtained, however, in presence of salt it becomes higher and decreases with increasing temperature. For specific condition, weak long range attraction and intermediate range repulsion exists. At higher temperature (90 °C), fractal structure develops and the corresponding fractal dimension depends upon the experimental conditions.

  15. The influence of a homologous protein impurity on lysozyme crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamidi, V.; Hanson, B. L.; Edmundson, A.; Skrzypczak-Jankun, E.; Schall, C.

    1999-08-01

    The effect of a structurally similar protein impurity, turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) egg-white lysozyme (TEWL) on crystallization of the host protein, hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) from chicken ( Gallus gallus) was studied under varying impurity and host solution concentrations. A change in morphology is observed when crystals of HEWL are grown in the presence of TEWL. As the relative amount of TEWL increases, HEWL crystals become more elongated in the [0 0 1] direction. Elongation is more pronounced in samples with lower initial concentrations of HEWL than in samples with higher initial concentrations. This behavior is consistent with that of impurities in small molecule crystal growth and with predictions based on the Kubota-Mullin model. The observed effect on the growth process can be attributed to the apparent inhibition in the [1 1 0] crystal growth direction of HEWL by TEWL since slowly growing faces become dominant faces in crystal growth. Incorporation of TEWL into HEWL crystals grown in a sitting drop batch method was measured using cation exchange chromatography. The results indicate that impurity incorporation is associated with increasing supersaturation. This conclusion is consistent with a kinetically controlled process of impurity incorporation. The observed impurity effects are most probably associated with the interchange of glutamine in position 41 of HEWL by histidine in TEWL.

  16. Inhibitory effects of lysozyme on endothelial protein C receptor shedding in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Yoon, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Han, Min-Su; Lee, Taeho; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-11-01

    Lysozyme protects us from the ever-present danger of bacterial infection and binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with high affinity. Beyond its role in the activation of protein C, the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) plays an important role in the cytoprotective pathway. EPCR can be shed from the cell surface, which is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). However, little is known about the effects of lysozyme on EPCR shedding. We investigated this issue by monitoring the effects of lysozyme on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-, interleukin (IL)-1β-, and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated EPCR shedding and underlying mechanism. Data demonstrate that lysozyme induced potent inhibition of PMA-, TNF-α-, IL-1β-, and CLP-induced EPCR shedding. Lysozyme also inhibited the expression and activity of PMA-induced TACE in endothelial cells. These results demonstrate the potential of lysozyme as an anti-EPCR shedding reagent against PMA-mediated and CLP-mediated EPCR shedding.

  17. Growth of gold nanoclusters and nanocrystals induced by lysozyme protein in thin film conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowal, Ashim Chandra; Kundu, Sarathi

    2016-08-01

    Structures and growth behavior of gold nanoclusters and nanocrystals have been explored on thin films of globular protein lysozyme by using UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A simple and one-step environment friendly method has been used to grow nanocrystals on protein surface from HAuCl4 solution. It has been found that if different interaction times are provided between lysozyme films and HAuCl4 solution, then initially formed tiny gold nanoclusters on protein surface transform into nanocrystals with the passage of time. XRD analysis shows the formation of faced-centered cubic lattice along (1 1 1) crystalline direction and AFM images confirm the presence of circular, rod-like, triangular and hexagonal crystal structures. Langmuir-like growth behavior has been identified for both the gold nanoclusters and nanocrystals formation induced by the lysozyme films, however, nanocrystal growth is relatively slower than nanocluster.

  18. High performance aptamer affinity chromatography for single-step selective extraction and screening of basic protein lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Zhao, Chao; Yin, Junfa; Wang, Hailin

    2012-08-15

    A DNA aptamer based high-performance affinity chromatography is developed for selective extraction and screening of a basic protein lysozyme. First, a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was synthesized in situ by thermally initiated radical polymerization, and then an anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer was covalently immobilized on the surface of the monolith through a 16-atom spacer arm. The target protein lysozyme but non-target proteins can be trapped by the immobilized anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer. In contrast, lysozyme cannot be trapped by the immobilized oligodeoxynucleotide that does not contain the sequence of the anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer. The study clearly demonstrates the trapping of lysozyme by the immobilized anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer is mainly due to specific recognition rather than simple electrostatic interaction of positively charged protein and the negatively charged DNA. The inter-day precision was determined as 0.8% for migration time and 4.2% for peak area, respectively. By the use of aptamer affinity monolith, a screening strategy is developed to selectively extract lysozyme from chicken egg white, showing the advantages of high efficiency, low cost and ease-of-operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth of gold nanoclusters and nanocrystals induced by lysozyme protein in thin film conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowal, Ashim Chandra; Kundu, Sarathi, E-mail: sarathi.kundu@gmail.com

    2016-08-22

    Highlights: • Gold nanoclusters and nanocrystals form on thin film of lysozyme protein. • Nanocrystals formation is possible from mM concentration of HAuCl{sub 4}. • Both nanoclusters and nanocrystals follow Langmuir-like growth on protein surface. • Growth rate of nanocrystal is slower than nanocluster. • On protein surface nanocrystals take triangular, hexagonal and disc as shape. - Abstract: Structures and growth behavior of gold nanoclusters and nanocrystals have been explored on thin films of globular protein lysozyme by using UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A simple and one-step environment friendly method has been used to grow nanocrystals on protein surface from HAuCl{sub 4} solution. It has been found that if different interaction times are provided between lysozyme films and HAuCl{sub 4} solution, then initially formed tiny gold nanoclusters on protein surface transform into nanocrystals with the passage of time. XRD analysis shows the formation of faced-centered cubic lattice along (1 1 1) crystalline direction and AFM images confirm the presence of circular, rod-like, triangular and hexagonal crystal structures. Langmuir-like growth behavior has been identified for both the gold nanoclusters and nanocrystals formation induced by the lysozyme films, however, nanocrystal growth is relatively slower than nanocluster.

  20. Growth of gold nanoclusters and nanocrystals induced by lysozyme protein in thin film conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowal, Ashim Chandra; Kundu, Sarathi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gold nanoclusters and nanocrystals form on thin film of lysozyme protein. • Nanocrystals formation is possible from mM concentration of HAuCl 4 . • Both nanoclusters and nanocrystals follow Langmuir-like growth on protein surface. • Growth rate of nanocrystal is slower than nanocluster. • On protein surface nanocrystals take triangular, hexagonal and disc as shape. - Abstract: Structures and growth behavior of gold nanoclusters and nanocrystals have been explored on thin films of globular protein lysozyme by using UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A simple and one-step environment friendly method has been used to grow nanocrystals on protein surface from HAuCl 4 solution. It has been found that if different interaction times are provided between lysozyme films and HAuCl 4 solution, then initially formed tiny gold nanoclusters on protein surface transform into nanocrystals with the passage of time. XRD analysis shows the formation of faced-centered cubic lattice along (1 1 1) crystalline direction and AFM images confirm the presence of circular, rod-like, triangular and hexagonal crystal structures. Langmuir-like growth behavior has been identified for both the gold nanoclusters and nanocrystals formation induced by the lysozyme films, however, nanocrystal growth is relatively slower than nanocluster.

  1. Identification of salivary proteins at oil–water interfaces stabilized by lysozyme and ß-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, E.; Vitorino, R.M.P.; Schipper, R.G.; Amado, F.M.L.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this research, we investigated the interaction occurring between oil-in-water emulsion droplets, stabilized by different emulsifiers, i.e. lysozyme and ß-lactoglobulin (ß-lg), and salivary proteins (SPs) with a molecular mass (Mr) above about 10 kDa. Different techniques, i.e. infrared

  2. Photochemical reactivity of the homologous proteins α-lactalbumin and lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.M.; Silva, E.

    1985-01-01

    The fluorescent behaviour and the photodynamic effect was studied in native and structurally modified lysozyme and α-lactalbumin. The Tyr residues in lysozyme and α-lactalbumin show different sensitivities to the photodynamic effect. The effect is zero in the case of Tyr from native lysozyme. In contrast, the Tyr residues in α-lactalbumin are susceptible to photooxidation, which indicates a greater degree of exposure to the solvent. The three His residues of α-lactalbumin have different degrees of exposure and show two different kinetics of photooxidation whereas the His residue of lysozyme is photooxidized with a single kinetic. Two photooxidation kinetics were obtained for the Trp residues of both native proteins, an indication that in both cases there are Trp residues that are differently exposed to the solvent. The wavelengths of maximum fluorescent emission of the Trp residues were different for the two proteins, an effect which can also be explained in terms of a difference in the environment of these residues. The modified form of these proteins emit at wavelengths longer than those of the native forms. When modified the proteins photooxidize with noticeably greater quantum yields. (orig.)

  3. Potentials and limitations of the low-molecular-weight protein lysozyme as a carrier for renal drug targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverdings, RFG; Haas, M; Greupink, AR; de Vries, PAM; Moolenaar, F; de Zeeuw, D; Meijer, DKF

    2001-01-01

    Selective targeting of drugs to the kidney may enable an increased renal effectiveness combined with a reduction of extrarenal toxicity. Intrarenal delivery to the proximal tubular cell can be achieved using low-molecular-weight proteins, such as lysozyme. Administration of high dosages of lysozyme,

  4. Repartitioning of NaCl and Protein Impurities in Lysozyme Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekilov, Peter G.; Monaco, Lisa A.; Thomas, Bill R.; Stojanoff, Vivian; Rosenberger, Franz

    1996-01-01

    Nonuniform precipitant and impurity incorporation in protein crystals can cause lattice strain and, thus, possibly decrease the X-ray diffraction resolution. To address this issue, a series of crystallization experiments were carried out, in which initial supersaturation, NaCl concentration, protein purity level and crystallized fraction were varied. Lysozyme and protein impurities, as well as sodium and chloride were independently determined in the initial solution, supernatant and crystals. The segregation coefficients for Na(+) and Cl(-) were found to be independent of supersaturation and NaCl concentration, and decreased with crystallized fraction/crystal size. Numerical evaluation of the extensive body of data, based on a nucleation-growth- repartitioning model, suggests a core of approx. 40 microns in which salt is incorporated in much greater concentrations than during later growth. Small crystals containing higher amounts of incorporated NaCl also had higher protein impurity contents. This suggests that the excess salt is associated with the protein impurities in the core. X-ray topography revealed strain fields in the center of the crystals comparable in size to the inferred core. The growth rates of crystals smaller than 30-40 pm in size were consistently 1.5-2 times lower than those of larger crystals, presumably due to higher chemical potentials in the core.

  5. Identification of salivary proteins at oil-water interfaces stabilized by lysozyme and beta-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silletti, Erika; Vitorino, Rui M P; Schipper, Raymond; Amado, Francisco M L; Vingerhoeds, Monique H

    2010-04-01

    In this research, we investigated the interaction occurring between oil-in-water emulsion droplets, stabilized by different emulsifiers, i.e. lysozyme and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg), and salivary proteins (SPs) with a molecular mass (M(r)) above about 10kDa. Different techniques, i.e. infrared spectroscopy, Western blotting, PAS staining and SDS-PAGE coupled to MS, were employed for this purpose. This study demonstrated the interaction between several salivary proteins and the emulsifiers at the oil-water interfaces. In particular, results show that the high M(r) mucin MUC5B was strongly bound to lysozyme stabilized emulsions, whereas beta-lg stabilized emulsions associated with MUC7 and, moderately, with MUC5B. Furthermore, we observed that salivary proteins in the range M(r) 10-100kDa associated differently with emulsion droplets. A large majority of SPs was found to interact with lysozyme stabilized emulsion droplets whilst in case of beta-lg stabilized emulsions, the SPs distribute more evenly between the fraction associated and non-associated with the droplets. A clear example is alpha-amylase (M(r) approximately 55kDa) which predominantly associates with lysozyme stabilized emulsion droplets, but not with beta-lg emulsion droplets. To conclude, our findings indicate that adsorption/association of salivary protein components onto the emulsion droplets is related to the type of emulsifying proteins at the oil-water interfaces and it is probably driven by the overall net charge at the droplet's oil-water interfaces, i.e. positive for lysozyme stabilized emulsions and negative for beta-lactoglobulin stabilized emulsion at neutral pH.

  6. Evolution of the mammalian lysozyme gene family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Lysozyme c (chicken-type lysozyme) has an important role in host defense, and has been extensively studied as a model in molecular biology, enzymology, protein chemistry, and crystallography. Traditionally, lysozyme c has been considered to be part of a small family that includes genes for two other proteins, lactalbumin, which is found only in mammals, and calcium-binding lysozyme, which is found in only a few species of birds and mammals. More recently, additional testes-expressed members of this family have been identified in human and mouse, suggesting that the mammalian lysozyme gene family is larger than previously known. Results Here we characterize the extent and diversity of the lysozyme gene family in the genomes of phylogenetically diverse mammals, and show that this family contains at least eight different genes that likely duplicated prior to the diversification of extant mammals. These duplicated genes have largely been maintained, both in intron-exon structure and in genomic context, throughout mammalian evolution. Conclusions The mammalian lysozyme gene family is much larger than previously appreciated and consists of at least eight distinct genes scattered around the genome. Since the lysozyme c and lactalbumin proteins have acquired very different functions during evolution, it is likely that many of the other members of the lysozyme-like family will also have diverse and unexpected biological properties. PMID:21676251

  7. Evolution of the mammalian lysozyme gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biegel Jason M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysozyme c (chicken-type lysozyme has an important role in host defense, and has been extensively studied as a model in molecular biology, enzymology, protein chemistry, and crystallography. Traditionally, lysozyme c has been considered to be part of a small family that includes genes for two other proteins, lactalbumin, which is found only in mammals, and calcium-binding lysozyme, which is found in only a few species of birds and mammals. More recently, additional testes-expressed members of this family have been identified in human and mouse, suggesting that the mammalian lysozyme gene family is larger than previously known. Results Here we characterize the extent and diversity of the lysozyme gene family in the genomes of phylogenetically diverse mammals, and show that this family contains at least eight different genes that likely duplicated prior to the diversification of extant mammals. These duplicated genes have largely been maintained, both in intron-exon structure and in genomic context, throughout mammalian evolution. Conclusions The mammalian lysozyme gene family is much larger than previously appreciated and consists of at least eight distinct genes scattered around the genome. Since the lysozyme c and lactalbumin proteins have acquired very different functions during evolution, it is likely that many of the other members of the lysozyme-like family will also have diverse and unexpected biological properties.

  8. Consuming transgenic goats' milk containing the antimicrobial protein lysozyme helps resolve diarrhea in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Garas Klobas, Lydia C; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2013-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is a significant problem in many developing countries and E. coli is a main causative agent of diarrhea in young children. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial protein highly expressed in human milk, but not ruminant milk, and is thought to help protect breastfeeding children against diarrheal diseases. We hypothesized that consumption of milk from transgenic goats which produce human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk would accelerate recovery from bacterial-induced diarrhea. Young pigs were used as a model for children and infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Once clinical signs of diarrhea developed, pigs were fed hLZ-milk or non-transgenic control goat milk three times a day for two days. Clinical observations and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed. Animals were euthanized and samples collected to assess differences in histology, cytokine expression and bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph node. Pigs consuming hLZ-milk recovered from clinical signs of infection faster than pigs consuming control milk, with significantly improved fecal consistency (p = 0.0190) and activity level (p = 0.0350). The CBC analysis showed circulating monocytes (p = 0.0413), neutrophils (p = 0.0219), and lymphocytes (p = 0.0222) returned faster to pre-infection proportions in hLZ-milk fed pigs, while control-fed pigs had significantly higher hematocrit (p = 0.027), indicating continuing dehydration. In the ileum, pigs fed hLZ-milk had significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 (p = 0.0271), longer intestinal villi (pmilk helped pigs recover from infection faster, making hLZ-milk an effective treatment of E. coli-induced diarrhea.

  9. Immunization against lysozyme-like proteins affect sperm function and fertility in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narmadha, Ganapathy; Yenugu, Suresh

    2016-11-01

    Proteins of the epididymal and testicular mileu contribute to sperm maturation and a vast majority of them remain uncharacterised. In this study, the role of three Lysozyme-like (LYZL) proteins, namely LYZL1, LYZL4 and LYZL6 in sperm function was assessed using in vitro neutralization and auto antibodies generation model. Rats immunized with LYZL1, LYZL4 and LYZL6 proteins had a litter size of 5.93, 8.47 and 2.10 respectively compared to 9.96 in the control rats. The litter size was further reduced to 4.53, 7.67 and 1.23 for the corresponding proteins in the second mating conducted 14 weeks after immunization. Epididymal and testicular fluids obtained from the immunized rats displayed a very high antibody titre against all the three proteins. Sperm count was significantly reduced in rats immunized with LYZL1 or LYZL6 and to a lower extent in LYZL4 group. Acrosome reaction associated calcium release was inhibited in spermatozoa obtained from LYZL1 or LYZL4 or LYZL6 immunized rats as well as in spermatozoa incubated with antiserum against the three proteins. Impairment in path velocity, progressive velocity and track speed were observed in spermatozoa obtained from LYZL6 immunized rats. Treatment of spermatozoa with LYZL6 recombinant protein did not potentiate calcium release and acrosome reaction. Results of this study indicate a role for LYZL proteins in sperm function and further studies are warranted to explore them as potential contraceptive agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protein-salt binding data from potentiometric titrations of lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engmann, J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1997-03-01

    An existing method for potentiometric titrations of proteins was improved, tested and applied to titrations of the enzyme hen-egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl at ionic strengths from 0.1 M to 2.0 M at 25 C. Information about the protein`s net charge dependence on pH and ionic strength were obtained and salt binding numbers for the system were calculated using a linkage concept. For the pH range 2.5--11.5, the net charge slightly but distinctly increases with increasing ionic strength between 0.1 M and 2.0 M. The differences are most distinct in the pH region below 5. Above pH 11.35, the net charge decreases with increasing ionic strength. Preliminary calculation of binding numbers from titration curves at 0.1 M and 1.0 M showed selective association of chloride anions and expulsion of potassium ions at low pH. Ion-binding numbers from this work will be used to evaluate thermodynamic properties and to correlate crystallization or precipitation phase-equilibrium data in terms of a model based on the integral-equation theory of fluids which is currently under development.

  11. Solid lipid particles for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs I--elucidating the release mechanism of lysozyme during lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, P C; Zhang, L; Yang, M; Nielsen, H Mørck; Müllertz, A; Mu, H

    2013-11-01

    The mechanism of protein release from solid lipid particles was investigated by a new lipolysis model in a biorelevant medium containing both bile salts and phospholipids. Lysozyme, a model protein, was formulated into solid lipid particles using four different types of lipids, two triglycerides with different chain-length of fatty acyl groups i.e. trimyristin (TG14) and tristearin (TG18), and two lipid blends dominated by diglycerides and monoglycerides, respectively. The release of lysozyme from the solid lipid particles and the lipid hydrolysis process were assessed in the lipolysis model, while the change in particle surface during the lipolysis process was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The lysozyme release profiles from TG14 and TG18 as well as diglyceride particles correlated well with the release of free fatty acids from the lipid particles during the lipolysis and therefore exhibited a lipase-mediated degradation-based release mechanism. The release of lysozyme from monoglyceride particles was independent on lipase degradation due to the instability of the lipid matrix in the lipolysis medium. In conclusion, the established lipolysis model is successfully used to elucidate the drug release mechanism from solid lipid particles and can potentially be used in rational selection of lipid excipients for oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein solubility modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Pulsed electric field (PEF)-induced aggregation between lysozyme, ovalbumin and ovotransferrin in multi-protein system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Ruijin; Yan, Wenxu

    2015-05-15

    The aggregation of multi-proteins is of great interest in food processing and a good understanding of the formation of aggregates during PEF processing is needed for the application of the process to pasteurize protein-based foods. The aggregates formation of a multi-protein system (containing ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme) was studied through turbidity, size exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE patterns for interaction studies and binding forces. Results from size exclusion chromatography indicated that there was no soluble aggregates formed during PEF processing. The existence of lysozyme was important to form insoluble aggregates in the chosen ovalbumin solution. The results of SDS-PAGE patterns indicated that lysozyme was prone to precipitate, and was relatively the higher component of aggregates. Citric acid could be effective in inhibiting lysozyme from interacting with other proteins during PEF processing. Blocking the free sulphydryl by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) did not affect aggregation inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of protein and phosphate buffer concentrations on thermal denaturation of lysozyme analyzed by isoconversional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X M; Tian, Y; Wang, Z Y; Liu, Y W; Wang, C X

    2016-07-03

    Thermal denaturation of lysozymes was studied as a function of protein concentration, phosphate buffer concentration, and scan rate using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which was then analyzed by the isoconversional method. The results showed that lysozyme thermal denaturation was only slightly affected by the protein concentration and scan rate. When the protein concentration and scan rate increased, the denaturation temperature (Tm) also increased accordingly. On the contrary, the Tm decreased with the increase of phosphate buffer concentration. The denaturation process of lysozymes was accelatated and the thermal stability was reduced with the increase of phosphate concentration. One part of degeneration process was not reversible where the aggregation occurred. The other part was reversible. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was computed by the isoconversional method. It decreased with the increase of the conversion ratio (α). The observed denaturation process could not be described by a simple reaction mechanism. It was not a process involving 2 standard reversible states, but a multi-step process. The new opportunities for investigating the kinetics process of protein denaturation can be supplied by this novel isoconversional method.

  15. Study of protein-protein interactions in under saturated and supersaturated lysozyme solutions in heavy water as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripon, C.; Legrand, L.; Rosenman, I.; Vidal, O.; Robert, M.C.; Boue, F.

    1996-01-01

    We have studied freshly prepared lysozyme solutions in heavy water for two NaCl concentrations as a function of temperature. Lysozyme solubilities in this solvent are determined by static light scattering. By small angle neutron scattering, we evidence that interactions between lysozyme molecules are characterized by a second virial coefficient A 2 whether the solution is under-saturated or supersaturated. From the variation of A 2 as a function of temperature we have evaluated the enthalpy corresponding to the interaction between lysozyme molecules. We show that the interactions between protein molecules are higher in heavy water than in light water. (authors). 13 refs., 3 figs

  16. Transition from monomeric phase to dynamic cluster phase in lysozyme protein solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Falus, Peter; Porcar, Lionel; Fratini, Emiliano; Chen, Wei-Ren; Faraone, Antonio; Hong, Kunlun; Baglioni, Piero

    2013-03-01

    Intermediate range order (IRO) has been recently observed in lysozyme solution that is caused by a combination of a short-range attraction and long-range repulsion. At very high concentration, there is observed cluster formation in lysozyme solutions that is one type of IRO structures. Here, we investigate the temperature effect on the dynamic cluster formation and identify the transition concentration from a monomeric protein phase to a cluster phase. The normalized short-time self-diffusion coefficient is not affected by changing attraction strength at the concentration of about 10% mass fraction, indicating that the system is still dominated by monomeric protein phase. However, at high concentrations, the average self-diffusion coefficient is sensitive to the change of short-range attraction strength, which is interpreted due to the growth of the size of dynamic clusters in solution. The transition concentration from dominating monomeric phase to dynamic cluster phase is estimated to be around 14 % mass fraction.

  17. Small-angle neutron scattering study of differences in phase behavior of silica nanoparticles in the presence of lysozyme and bovine serum albumin proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Indresh; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2014-03-01

    The differences in phase behavior of anionic silica nanoparticles (88 Å) in the presence of two globular proteins [cationic lysozyme (molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kD) and anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) (MW 66.4 kD)] have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. The measurements were carried out on a fixed concentration (1 wt %) of Ludox silica nanoparticles with varying concentrations of proteins (0-5 wt %) at pH = 7. It is found that, despite having different natures (opposite charges), both proteins can render to the same kind of aggregation of silica nanoparticles. However, the concentration regions over which the aggregation is observed are widely different for the two proteins. Lysozyme with very small amounts (e.g., 0.01 wt %) leads to the aggregation of silica nanoparticles. On the other hand, silica nanoparticles coexist with BSA as independent entities at low protein concentrations and turn to aggregates at high protein concentrations (>1 wt %). In the case of lysozyme, the charge neutralization by the protein on the nanoparticles gives rise to the protein-mediated aggregation of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticle aggregates coexist with unaggregated nanoparticles at low protein concentrations, whereas, they coexist with a free protein at higher protein concentrations. For BSA, the nonadsorbing nature of the protein produces the depletion force that causes the aggregation of the nanoparticles at higher protein concentrations. The evolution of the interaction is modeled by the two Yukawa potential, taking account of both attractive and repulsive terms of the interaction in these systems. The nanoparticle aggregation is found to be governed by the short-range attraction for lysozyme and the long-range attraction for BSA. The aggregates are characterized by the diffusion limited aggregate type of mass fractal morphology.

  18. Small-angle neutron scattering study of differences in phase behavior of silica nanoparticles in the presence of lysozyme and bovine serum albumin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Indresh; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V K; Kohlbrecher, J

    2014-03-01

    The differences in phase behavior of anionic silica nanoparticles (88 Å) in the presence of two globular proteins [cationic lysozyme (molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kD) and anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) (MW 66.4 kD)] have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. The measurements were carried out on a fixed concentration (1 wt %) of Ludox silica nanoparticles with varying concentrations of proteins (0-5 wt %) at pH = 7. It is found that, despite having different natures (opposite charges), both proteins can render to the same kind of aggregation of silica nanoparticles. However, the concentration regions over which the aggregation is observed are widely different for the two proteins. Lysozyme with very small amounts (e.g., 0.01 wt %) leads to the aggregation of silica nanoparticles. On the other hand, silica nanoparticles coexist with BSA as independent entities at low protein concentrations and turn to aggregates at high protein concentrations (>1 wt %). In the case of lysozyme, the charge neutralization by the protein on the nanoparticles gives rise to the protein-mediated aggregation of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticle aggregates coexist with unaggregated nanoparticles at low protein concentrations, whereas, they coexist with a free protein at higher protein concentrations. For BSA, the nonadsorbing nature of the protein produces the depletion force that causes the aggregation of the nanoparticles at higher protein concentrations. The evolution of the interaction is modeled by the two Yukawa potential, taking account of both attractive and repulsive terms of the interaction in these systems. The nanoparticle aggregation is found to be governed by the short-range attraction for lysozyme and the long-range attraction for BSA. The aggregates are characterized by the diffusion limited aggregate type of mass fractal morphology.

  19. Structure of the Neisseria Adhesin Complex Protein (ACP) and its role as a novel lysozyme inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, María Victoria; Awanye, Amaka Marian; Lian, Lu-Yun; Derrick, Jeremy P; Christodoulides, Myron

    2017-06-01

    Pathogenic and commensal Neisseria species produce an Adhesin Complex Protein, which was first characterised in Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) as a novel surface-exposed adhesin with vaccine potential. In the current study, the crystal structure of a recombinant (r)Nm-ACP Type I protein was determined to 1.4 Å resolution: the fold resembles an eight-stranded β-barrel, stabilized by a disulphide bond between the first (Cys38) and last (Cys121) β-strands. There are few main-chain hydrogen bonds linking β4-β5 and β8-β1, so the structure divides into two four-stranded anti-parallel β-sheets (β1-β4 and β5-β8). The computed surface electrostatic charge distribution showed that the β1-β4 sheet face is predominantly basic, whereas the β5-β8 sheet is apolar, apart from the loop between β4 and β5. Concentrations of rNm-ACP and rNeisseria gonorrhoeae-ACP proteins ≥0.25 μg/ml significantly inhibited by ~80-100% (Plysozyme (HL) over 24 h. Specificity was demonstrated by the ability of murine anti-Neisseria ACP sera to block ACP inhibition and restore HL activity. ACP expression conferred tolerance to HL activity, as demonstrated by significant 3-9 fold reductions (Plysozyme. In addition, wild-type Neisseria lactamica treated with purified ACP-specific rabbit IgG antibodies showed similar fold reductions in bacterial growth, compared with untreated bacteria (Pprotein family of lysozyme inhibitors. However, Neisseria ACP proteins show lysozyme recognition. These observations suggest that Neisseria ACP adopts a different mode of lysozyme inhibition and that the ability of ACP to inhibit lysozyme activity could be important for host colonization by both pathogenic and commensal Neisseria organisms. Thus, ACP represents a dual target for developing Neisseria vaccines and drugs to inhibit host-pathogen interactions.

  20. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1988-01-01

    in contact allergic patients exposed to nickel showed a dominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes throughout the study period, while mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils were detected at a much lower quantity and with a considerable delay. Further, we studied the kinetics of the leucocyte granule...... proteins: lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate fluid in a parallel test. A significant higher flux was found for all during the second day of allergen exposure compared to contact allergic patients without allergen challenge as well as normal volunteers....... The increased protein fluxes were not accompanied by an increased flux of polymorphonuclear granulocytes in the exudate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  1. Characterization of chemically modified chitosan microspheres as adsorbents using standard Proteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan microspheres with a mean size of 140 ± 119 µm were produced by the spray and coagulation methods. The microspheres were chemically modified using the following routes: a crosslinking with glutaraldehyde b crosslinking with epychlorohydrin and c acetylation. For investigation of their ability as adsorbents, the following standard proteins were chosen as adsorbates: bovine serum albumin - BSA (pI = 4.8 and MW = 66 kDa and lysozyme (pI = 11 and MW = 14 kDa. The adsorption experiments were performed using a static method. The adsorption media and equilibrium concentration of adsorbates were varied in the ranges of pH 4-11 and 0.07-0.70 mg.ml-1, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities (q m and the constant of the Langmuir model (Ks were shown to be dependent on charge interactions and on the kind of treatment performed on chitosan microspheres. The satisfactory fit of a kinetic model to the experimental data shows that the step that controls the adsorption kinetics is probably the initial adsorbate transport.

  2. Evaluation of lysozyme, complement C3, and total protein in different developmental stages of Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Razieh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, non–specific immune parameters in fertilized eggs, eyed embryos, larvae 10, 25, 50, 60, and 70 days post hatch (DPH, and female broodstock of Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamensky, were evaluated. The lysozyme activity, complement C3, and total protein levels were measured with the turbidimetric, immunoturbidimetric, and Bradford methods, respectively. The results showed that lysozyme levels decreased from levels noted in the fertilized eggs until the larvae were 10 days old. Subsequently, significant increases in lysozyme levels were observed until 70 DPH. An increasing trend of complement component C3 was noted from the levels in fertilized eggs to 10 DPH, following which it decreased significantly. Total protein levels differed significantly in early developmental stages of Caspian kutum. The higher values of complement component C3 than of lysozyme in the early life stages could be indicative of the former’s more fundamental role.

  3. Interaction of arginine, lysine, and guanidine with surface residues of lysozyme: implication to protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhawal; Shaikh, Abdul Rajjak

    2016-01-01

    Additives are widely used to suppress aggregation of therapeutic proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms of effect of additives to stabilize proteins are still unclear. To understand this, we herein perform molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in the presence of three commonly used additives: arginine, lysine, and guanidine. These additives have different effects on stability of proteins and have different structures with some similarities; arginine and lysine have aliphatic side chain, while arginine has a guanidinium group. We analyze atomic contact frequencies to study the interactions of the additives with individual residues of lysozyme. Contact coefficient, quantified from contact frequencies, is helpful in analyzing the interactions with the guanidine groups as well as aliphatic side chains of arginine and lysine. Strong preference for contacts to the additives (over water) is seen for the acidic followed by polar and the aromatic residues. Further analysis suggests that the hydration layer around the protein surface is depleted more in the presence of arginine, followed by lysine and guanidine. Molecular dynamics simulations also reveal that the internal dynamics of protein, as indicated by the lifetimes of the hydrogen bonds within the protein, changes depending on the additives. Particularly, we note that the side-chain hydrogen-bonding patterns within the protein differ with the additives, with several side-chain hydrogen bonds missing in the presence of guanidine. These results collectively indicate that the aliphatic chain of arginine and lysine plays a critical role in the stabilization of the protein.

  4. Diffusivities of lysozyme in aqueous MgCl2 solutions from dynamic light-scattering data:  Effect of protein and salt concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, J. J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanch, H. W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Prausnitz, J. M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-03-25

    Dynamic light-scattering (DLS) studies are reported for lysozyme in aqueous magnesium chloride solutions at ionic strengths 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 M for a temperature range 10–30 °C at pH 4.0. The diffusion coefficient of lysozyme was calculated as a function of protein concentration, salt concentration, temperature, and scattering angle. A Zimm-plot analysis provided the infinitely-dilute diffusion coefficient and the protein-concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient. The hydrodynamic radius of a lysozyme monomer was obtained from the Stokes–Einstein equation; it is 18.6 ± 1.0 Å. The difference (1.4 Å) between the hydrodynamic and the crystal-structure radius is attributed to binding of Mg2+ ions to the protein surface and subsequent water structuring. The effect of protein concentration on the diffusion coefficient indicates that attractive interactions increase as the temperature falls at fixed salt concentration. However, when plotted against ionic strength, attractive interactions exhibit a maximum at ionic strength 0.84 M, probably because Mg2+protein binding and water structuring become increasingly important as the concentration of magnesium ion rises. Finally, the present work suggests that inclusion of ion binding and water structuring at the protein surface in a pair-potential model is needed to achieve accurate predictions of protein-solution phase behavior.

  5. Synthesis of lysozyme-metallacarborane conjugates and the effect of boron cluster modification on protein structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Konrad; Goszczyński, Tomasz; Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J; Boratyński, Janusz

    2015-02-09

    Two complementary methods, "in solution" and "in solid state", for the synthesis of lysozyme modified with metallacarborane (cobalt bis(dicarbollide), Co(C2 B9 H11 )2 (2-) ) were developed. As metallacarborane donors, oxonium adducts of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) and 1,4-dioxane or tetrahydropyran were used. The physicochemical and biochemical properties of the obtained lysozyme-metallacarborane conjugates were studied for changes in secondary and tertiary structure, aggregation behavior, and biological activity. Only minor changes in primary, secondary, and tertiary protein structure were observed, caused by the single substitution of metallacarborane on lysozyme. However, the modification produced significant changes in lysozyme enzymatic activity and a tendency toward time- and temperature-dependent aggregation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Small-angle X-ray scattering study of conditions for the formation of growth units of protein crystals in lysozyme solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakova, Yu. A.; Ilina, K. B.; Konarev, P. V.; Kryukova, A. E.; Marchenkova, M. A.; Blagov, A. E.; Volkov, V. V.; Pisarevsky, Yu. V.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2017-05-01

    The structural composition of lysozyme solutions favorable for the formation of the tetragonal form of protein crystals was studied by synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering depending on the protein concentration and the temperature. Along with lysozyme monomers, dimers and octamers are found in crystallization solutions; the octamer content increases with an increase in the protein concentration.

  7. Efficient secretion of human lysozyme fused to the Sh ble phleomycin resistance protein by the fungus Tolypocladium geodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M; Tiraby, G; Calmels, T; Parriche, M; Durand, H

    1992-07-01

    Tolypocladium geodes strain NC50 was transformed by different integrating vectors bearing both a synthetic gene encoding human lysozyme (HLz) and the Sh ble phleomycin resistance marker, either in separate expression cassettes or in transcriptional or translational fusion configurations. Clones derived from all vectors were able to secrete HLz. The highest productivities in shake flasks (up to 150 mg l-1 in 5 days) were obtained when HLz was fused at the C-terminal end of the Sh ble protein. The fusion protein is efficiently secreted and release of active lysozyme occurs by extracellular proteolytic cleavage in the junction peptide.

  8. Influence of core and maltose surface modification of PEIs on their interaction with plasma proteins-Human serum albumin and lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Dominika; Marcinkowska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara; Bryszewska, Maria; Štofik, Marcel; Herma, Regina; Duchnowicz, Piotr; Maly, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Regardless of the route of administration, some or all of a therapeutic agent will appear in the blood stream, where it can act on blood cells and other components of the plasma. Recently we have shown that poly(ethylene imines) (PEIs) which interact with plasma proteins are taken up into erythrocyte membranes. These observations led us to investigate the interactions between maltose functionalized hyperbranched PEIs (PEI-Mal) and plasma proteins. Two model proteins were chosen - human serum albumin (HSA) (albumins constitute ∼60% of all plasma proteins), and lysozyme. HSA is a negatively charged 66kDa protein at neutral pH, whereas lysozyme is a positively charged 14kDa protein. Fluorescence quenching and changes in the conformation of the amino acid tryptophan, diameter and zeta potential of proteins were investigated to evaluate the interaction of PEI-Mal with proteins. PEI-Mal interacts with both types of proteins. The strength of dendritic glycopolymer interactions was generally weak, especially with lysozyme. Greater changes were found with HSA, mainly triggered by hydrogen bonds and the electrostatic interaction properties of dendritic glycopolymers. Moreover, the structure and the size of PEI-Mal macromolecules affected these interactions; larger macromolecules with more sugar groups (95% maltose units) interacted more strongly with proteins than smaller ones with lower sugar modification (33% maltose units). Due to (i) the proven overall low toxicity of sugar-modified PEIs and, (ii) their ability to interact preferentially through hydrogen bonds with proteins of human plasma or possibly with other interesting protein targets, PEI-Mal is a good candidate for creating therapeutic nanoparticles in the fast developing field of nanomedicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. pH-dependent interaction and resultant structures of silica nanoparticles and lysozyme protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, Vinod K; Callow, P

    2014-02-18

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and UV-visible spectroscopy studies have been carried out to examine pH-dependent interactions and resultant structures of oppositely charged silica nanoparticles and lysozyme protein in aqueous solution. The measurements were carried out at fixed concentration (1 wt %) of three differently sized silica nanoparticles (8, 16, and 26 nm) over a wide concentration range of protein (0-10 wt %) at three different pH values (5, 7, and 9). The adsorption curve as obtained by UV-visible spectroscopy shows exponential behavior of protein adsorption on nanoparticles. The electrostatic interaction enhanced by the decrease in the pH between the nanoparticle and protein (isoelectric point ∼11.4) increases the adsorption coefficient on nanoparticles but decreases the overall amount protein adsorbed whereas the opposite behavior is observed with increasing nanoparticle size. The adsorption of protein leads to the protein-mediated aggregation of nanoparticles. These aggregates are found to be surface fractals at pH 5 and change to mass fractals with increasing pH and/or decreasing nanoparticle size. Two different concentration regimes of interaction of nanoparticles with protein have been observed: (i) unaggregated nanoparticles coexisting with aggregated nanoparticles at low protein concentrations and (ii) free protein coexisting with aggregated nanoparticles at higher protein concentrations. These concentration regimes are found to be strongly dependent on both the pH and nanoparticle size.

  10. High ionic liquid concentration-induced structural change of protein in aqueous solution: a case study of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekiyo, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Yamaguchi, Erika; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2012-09-13

    The structural change of chicken egg white lysozyme in aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([bmim][NO(3)]) solutions (0-24 M) has been investigated by optical spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) methods. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra and SAXS profiles indicated that the addition of up to 6 M of [bmim][NO(3)] induces unfolding of lysozyme resulting from disruption of the α-helix by the NO(3)(-) ion. On the other hand, even with the addition of more than 10 M of [bmim][NO(3)], lysozyme aggregation is inhibited and the protein adopts a partially globular state (the secondary structure is partially refolded while the tertiary structure is disrupted). Observation of the structural features of the aqueous [bmim][NO(3)] solution by Raman OD stretching spectra indicated that bulk-like water still remains at concentrations above 10 M and form an "aggregated water" (water pool) in the nanoheterogeneous structure consisting of a polar domain (the high charge-density region) and nonpolar areas (the alkyl-chain region) in the IL. At these concentrations (above 10 M), lysozyme is not sufficiently hydrated because of the reduced number of water molecules. Consequently lysozyme above 10 M assumes the partially globular state. We propose that the changes of the unique IL solution structure (nanoheterogeneous) between the lower and higher [bmim][NO(3)] concentrations strongly correlated to the differences in the protein stability of the present results.

  11. Variations of serum and mucus lysozyme activity and total protein content in the male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamensky 1901) during reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Zomorod; Heidari, Behrooz; Farzadfar, Fariba; Aghamaali, Mahmoudreza

    2014-03-01

    Serum and mucus lysozyme were measured in male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) under seasonal temperature, gonadal growth and reproductive migration. Significant difference with almost similar trend in serum and mucus lysozyme of the female Caspian kutum in sampling time and ovarian growth was observed. However, while there was no significant difference in serum lysozyme of the male specimen in sampling time and testicular growth, significant variations was observed in mucus lysozyme. In addition, there was significant difference in mucus total protein both for male and female specimens. The effectiveness ratio of factors on lysozyme variations followed in descending order by seasonal temperature (main factor), reproductive activity and migration with negligible effect and the lysozyme level was not significantly different in male and female Caspian kutum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metal-assisted and microwave accelerated-evaporative crystallization: Application to lysozyme protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauge-Lewis, Kevin

    In response to the growing need for new crystallization techniques that afford for rapid processing times along with control over crystal size and distribution, the Aslan Research Group has recently demonstrated the use of Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization MA-MAEC technique in conjunction with metal nanoparticles and nanostructures for the crystallization of amino acids and organic small molecules. In this study, we have employed the newly developed MA-MAEC technique to the accelerated crystallization of chicken egg-white lysozyme on circular crystallization platforms in order to demonstrate the proof-of-principle application of the method for protein crystallization. The circular crystallization platforms are constructed in-house from poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silver nanoparticle films (SNFs), indium tin oxide (ITO) and iron nano-columns. In this study, we prove the MA-MAEC method to be a more effective technique in the rapid crystallization of macromolecules in comparison to other conventional methods. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of the novel iCrystal system, which incorporates the use of continuous, low wattage heating to facilitate the rapid crystallization of the lysozyme while still retaining excellent crystal quality. With the incorporation of the iCrystal system, we observe crystallization times that are even shorter than those produced by the MA-MAEC technique using a conventional microwave oven in addition to significantly improved crystal quality.

  13. Protein Crystal Growth Under Forced Solution Flow: Experimental Setup and General Response of Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekilov, P. G.; Rosenberger, F.

    1998-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the effects of solution flow on the growth kinetics of the protein lysozyme. To this end, we have expanded our interferometry setup by a novel crystallization cell and solution recirculation system. This combination permits monitoring of interface morphology and kinetics with a depth resolution of 200 A at bulk flow rates of up to 2000 micron/s. Particular attention was paid to the prevention of protein denaturation that is often associated with the pumping of protein solutions. We found that at bulk flow rates it less than 250 microns/s the average growth rate and step velocity, R(sub avg) and upsilon(sub avg) increase with increasing it. This can be quantitatively understood in terms of the enhanced, convective solute supply to the interface. With high-purity solutions, it u greater than 250 microns/s lead to growth deceleration, and, at low supersaturations sigma, to growth cessation. When solutions containing approx. 1% of other protein impurities were used, growth deceleration occurred at any u greater than 0 and cessation in the low sigma experiments was reached at about half the it causing cessation with pure solution. The flow-induced changes in R(sub avg) and upsilon(sub avg) including growth cessation, were reversible and reproducible, independent of the direction of the u-changes and solution purity. Hence, we attribute the deceleration to the convection-enhanced supply of impurities to the interface, which at higher flow rates overpowers the effects of enhanced interfacial solute concentration. Most importantly, we found that convective transport leads to a significant reduction in kinetics fluctuations, in agreement with our earlier expectations for the lysozyme system. This supports our hypothesis that these long-term fluctuations represent an intrinsic response feature of the coupled bulk transport-interfacial kinetics system in the mixed growth control regime.

  14. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Jin

    Full Text Available Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed.We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects.Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5.Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  15. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qingwen; Chen, Hong; Wang, Xingxia; Zhao, Liandong; Xu, Qingchen; Wang, Huijuan; Li, Guanyu; Yang, Xiaofan; Ma, Hongming; Wu, Haoquan; Ji, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L) into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed. We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects. Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5. Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  16. The Effects of Thermal History on Nucleation of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystals, or Hot Protein and Cold Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael; Judge, Russell; Pusey, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Chicken egg white lysozyme has a well characterized thermally driven phase transition. Between pH 4.2 and 5.2, the transition temperature, as defined by the point where the tetragonal and orthorhombic solubilities are equal, is a function of the pH, salt (precipitant) type and concentration, and most likely of the buffer concentration as well. This phase transition can be carried out with protein solution alone, prior to addition of precipitant solution. Warming a lysozyme solution above the phase transition point, then cooling it back below this point, has been shown to affect the subsequent nucleation rate, as determined by the numbers and size of crystals formed, but not the growth rate for the tetragonal crystal form . We have now measured the kinetics of this process and investigated its reversibility. The transition effects are progressive with temperature, having a half time of about 1 hour at 37C at pH 4.8. After holding a lysozyme solution at 37C (prior to addition of precipitant) for 16 hours, then cooling it back to 4C no return to the pre-warmed nucleation kinetics are observed after at least 4 weeks. Orthorhombic lysozyme crystals apparently do not undergo the flow-induced growth cessation of tetragonal lysozyme crystals. Putting the protein in the orthorhombic form does not affect the averaged face growth kinetics, only nucleation, for tetragonal crystals. This differential behaviour may be exploited to elucidate how and where flow affects the lysozyme crystal growth process. The presentation will focus on the results of these and ongoing studies in this area.

  17. [Expression of human lysozyme-like protein 6 in the male reproductive system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Li, Wen-Shu; Yang, Zhi-Fang; Xu, Yi-Xin; Bao, Jian-Ying; Cao, Xiao-E; Zhou, Pei-Hua; Li, Kun; Yu, Long

    2016-07-01

    To study the expression of human lysozyme-like protein 6 (LYZL6) in the male reproductive system and its physiological role. The recombinant P. pastoris strain was cultured and induced with methanol to express LYZL6, followed by purification using chitin affinity chromatography. The bactericidal activity of the recombinant LYZL6 was observed by bilayer agar plate diffusion assay, and then the recombinant protein was used as an immunogen to generate polyclonal antibodies, whose specificity was examined by ELISA. The distribution of LYZL6 in the human tissue and semen was identified by Western blotting and the subcellular localization in the testis was investigated by immunohistochemistry. At pH 5.6, recombinant LYZL6 exhibited a high bacteriolytic activity against M. lysodeikticus. ELISA analysis showed that the anti-LYZL6 polyclonal antibodies could bind the recombinant protein with a high specificity. Western blot manifested the expression of LYZL6 in the testis and epididymis, higher in the former than in the latter. LYZL6 was also detected in the sperm protein extract, while protein bands were not observed in the seminal plasma. Immunodetection with a specific antiserum localized the LYZL6 protein in the late spermatocytes and round spermatids. LYZL6 has a higher bacteriolytic activity under low pH condition and is bound to spermatozoa after secreted in the testicular epithelia, suggesting that LYZL6 could act as a potential hydrolase for carbohydrates in zona pellucida penetration.

  18. Correlation of Conformational Changes and Protein Degradation with Loss of Lysozyme Activity Due to Chlorine Dioxide Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Beng Guat; Branning, Sharon Alyssa

    2017-06-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) is a potent oxidizing agent used for the treatment of drinking water and decontamination of facilities and equipment. The purpose of this research is to elucidate the manner in which ClO 2 destroys proteins by studying the effects of ClO 2 on lysozyme. The degree of enzyme activity lost can be correlated to the treatment time and levels of the ClO 2 used. Lysozyme activity was drastically reduced to 45.3% of original enzyme activity when exposed to 4.3 mM ClO 2 in the sample after 3 h. Almost all activities were lost in 3 h after exposure to higher ClO 2 concentrations of up to 16.8 and 21.9 mM. Changes in protein conformation and amount as a result of ClO 2 treatment were determined using the Raman spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. Raman shifts and the alteration of spectral features observed in the ClO 2 -treated lysozyme samples are associated with loss of the α-helix secondary structure, tertiary structure, and disulfide bond. Progressive degradation of the denatured lysozyme by increasing levels of chlorine dioxide was also observed in gel electrophoresis. Hence, ClO 2 can effectively cause protein denaturation and degradation resulting in loss of enzyme activity.

  19. Pulse radiolysis studies of intramolecular electron transfer in model peptides and proteins. 7. Trp -> TyrO radical transformation in hen egg-white lysozyme. Effects of pH, temperature, Trp62 oxidation and inhibitor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobrowski, K.; Holcman, J.; Poznanski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Intramolecular long-range electron transfer (LRET) in hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) accompanying Trp --> TyrO radical transformation was investigated in aqueous solution by pulse radiolysis as a function of pH (5.2-7.4) and temperature (283-328K). The reaction was induced by highly selective...

  20. Imaging transport phenomena during lysozyme protein crystal growth by the hanging drop technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethia Gupta, Anamika; Gupta, Rajive; Panigrahi, P. K.; Muralidhar, K.

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports the transport process that occurs during the growth of lysozyme protein crystals by the hanging drop technique. A rainbow schlieren technique has been employed for imaging changes in salt concentration. A one dimensional color filter is used to record the deflection of the light beam. An optical microscope and an X-ray crystallography unit are used to characterize the size, tetragonal shape and Bravais lattice constants of the grown crystals. A parametric study on the effect of drop composition, drop size, reservoir height and number of drops on the crystal size and quality is reported. Changes in refractive index are not large enough to create a meaningful schlieren image in the air gap between the drop and the reservoir. However, condensation of fresh water over the reservoir solution creates large changes in the concentration of NaCl, giving rise to clear color patterns in the schlieren images. These have been analyzed to obtain salt concentration profiles near the free surface of the reservoir solution as a function of time. The diffusion of fresh water into the reservoir solution at the early stages of crystal growth followed by the mass flux of salt from the bulk solution towards the free surface has been recorded. The overall crystal growth process can be classified into two regimes, as demarcated by the changes in slope of salt concentration within the reservoir. The salt concentration in the reservoir equilibrates at long times when the crystallization process is complete. Thus, transport processes in the reservoir emerge as the route to monitor protein crystal growth in the hanging drop configuration. Results show that crystal growth rate is faster for a higher lysozyme concentration, smaller drops, and larger reservoir heights.

  1. The interaction of the protein lysozyme with bacteria E. coli observed using nanodiamond labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevedentseva, Elena; Cheng, C-Y; Chung, P-H; Tu, J-S; Hsieh, Y-H; Cheng, C-L [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China)

    2007-08-08

    The application of a nanometre-sized diamond in Raman-detectable biolabelling is demonstrated in this study. The interaction of a lysozyme-nanodiamond complex with bacteria E. coli was observed via Raman mapping using the diamond Raman signal as the labelling marker. The results are compared with scanning electron microscope observations, and the adsorbed lysozyme's functionality is analysed. High antibacterial activity of lysozyme-nanodiamond complex was observed, equivalent to active lysozyme in solution. The results suggest that nanodiamond labelling can be effective and that it can be applied in ambient conditions without complicated sample pre-treatments.

  2. The interaction of the protein lysozyme with bacteria E. coli observed using nanodiamond labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevedentseva, Elena; Cheng, C-Y; Chung, P-H; Tu, J-S; Hsieh, Y-H; Cheng, C-L

    2007-01-01

    The application of a nanometre-sized diamond in Raman-detectable biolabelling is demonstrated in this study. The interaction of a lysozyme-nanodiamond complex with bacteria E. coli was observed via Raman mapping using the diamond Raman signal as the labelling marker. The results are compared with scanning electron microscope observations, and the adsorbed lysozyme's functionality is analysed. High antibacterial activity of lysozyme-nanodiamond complex was observed, equivalent to active lysozyme in solution. The results suggest that nanodiamond labelling can be effective and that it can be applied in ambient conditions without complicated sample pre-treatments

  3. Protein dynamics by neutron scattering: The protein dynamical transition and the fragile-to-strong dynamical crossover in hydrated lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magazù, Salvatore; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio; Vertessy, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The role played by the instrumental energy resolution in neutron scattering is presented. • The effect of natural bioprotectants on protein dynamics is shown. • A connection between the protein dynamical transition and the fragile-to-strong dynamical crossover is formulated. - Abstract: In this work Elastic Incoherent Neutron Scattering (EINS) results on lysozyme water mixtures in absence and in presence of bioprotectant systems are presented. The EINS data have been collected by using the IN13 and the IN10 spectrometers at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France) allowing to evaluate the temperature behaviour of the mean square displacement and of the relaxation time for the investigated systems. The obtained experimental findings together with theoretical calculations allow to put into evidence the role played by the spectrometer resolution and to clarify the connexion between the registered protein dynamical transition, the system relaxation time, and the instrumental energy resolution

  4. Salt effects on the picosecond dynamics of lysozyme hydration water investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and an insight into the Hofmeister series for protein stability and solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Katsuyoshi; Shiraki, Kentaro; Hattori, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    The addition of salts into protein aqueous solutions causes changes in protein solubility and stability, whose ability is known to be ordered in the Hofmeister series. We investigated the effects of Hofmeister salts on the picosecond dynamics of water around a lysozyme molecule using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The change in the absorption coefficient for 200 mg mL(-1) lysozyme aqueous solution by the addition of salts was found to depend on the salts used, whereas that for pure water was almost independent of salts. From the difference in the salt concentration dependence for various salts, it has been found that chaotropic anions make the dynamics of water around the lysozyme molecule slower, whereas kosmotropic anions make the dynamics faster. The ability of an anion to slow down the water dynamics was found to have the following order: SCN(-) > Cl(-) > H2PO4(-) > NO3(-) ≈ SO4(2-). This result indicates that the effects of anions on the dynamics of water around the lysozyme molecule are the opposite of those for bulk water. This finding agrees with a prediction from a molecular model proposed by Collins [K. D. Collins, Methods, 2004, 34, 300]. The results presented here are compared with the results from preferential interaction studies and the results from sum frequency generation spectroscopy. These discussions have led to the conclusion that the picosecond dynamics of protein hydration water strongly contributes to protein stability, whereas electrostatic interactions between protein molecules contribute to protein solubility.

  5. Interactions between L-arginine/L-arginine derivatives and lysozyme and implications to their inhibition effects on protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming-Tao; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    L-arginine (Arg), L-homoarginine (HArg), L-arginine ethylester (ArgEE), and L-arginine methylester (ArgME) were found effective in inhibiting protein aggregation, but the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Herein, stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and mass spectroscopy were used to investigate the folding kinetics of lysozyme and the interactions of the additives with lysozyme. It was found that the interactions of ArgME and ArgEE with lysozyme were similar to that of guanidine hydrochloride and were much stronger than those of Arg and HArg. The binding forces were all mainly hydrogen bonding and cation-π interaction from the guanidinium group, but their differences in molecular states led to the significantly different binding strengths. The additives formed molecular clusters in an increasing order of ArgEE, ArgME, HArg, and Arg. Arg and HArg mainly formed annular clusters with head-to-tail bonding, while ArgME and ArgEE formed linear clusters with guanidinium groups stacking. The interactions between the additives and lysozyme were positively related to the monomer contents. That is, the monomers were the primary species that participated in the direct interactions due to their intact guanidinium groups and small sizes, while the clusters performed as barriers to crowd out the protein-protein interactions for aggregation. Thus, it is concluded that the effects of Arg and its derivatives on protein aggregation stemmed from the direct interactions by the monomers and the crowding effects by the clusters. Interplay of the two effects led to the differences in their inhibition effects on protein aggregation. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Controlling the Release of Proteins from Therapeutic Nanofibers: The Effect of Fabrication Modalities on Biocompatibility and Antimicrobial Activity of Lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Salem; Planz, Viktoria; Windbergs, Maike

    2017-03-01

    Therapeutic application of pharmacologically active proteins requires advanced drug delivery systems for stabilizing their activity and preventing denaturation during storage and patient treatment. Depending on their clinical target, controlled drug release is often required to achieve the intended therapeutic effect. In this context, electrospun nanofibers gained considerable attention. However, even though immediate drug release from such fibers can easily be realized, fiber mat fabrication providing long-term controlled protein release still bares challenges.In this study, lysozyme was encapsulated in poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers followed by post-modification with MeOH, glutaraldehyde vapor, or UV light. Subsequently, a systematic investigation of the effect of these post-modification treatments on the physicochemical properties of the fibers and the stability and release kinetics of lysozyme was performed. MeOH treatment did not affect lysozyme release kinetics compared to untreated fibers, whereas glutaraldehyde vapor and UV light treatment prolonged the drug release. Infrared spectroscopy revealed cross-linking of the polymer by glutaraldehyde vapor, which reduced the lysozyme release from the fibers. Further, protein activity was significantly reduced for fibers treated with glutaraldehyde vapor and UV light. In addition, reduced viability was identified for cells in contact with glutaraldehyde vapor-treated fibers and, to a lesser extent, for UV light-treated fibers, whereas MeOH-treated fibers did not affect cell viability. These results elucidated the effects of fiber post-modification on the release kinetics, activity, and biocompatibility of protein drugs and can serve as guidance for rational development of nanomedicines for safe and effective therapeutic delivery of natural proteins. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Protein disulfide isomerase-P5, down-regulated in the final stage of boar epididymal sperm maturation, catalyzes disulfide formation to inhibit protein function in oxidative refolding of reduced denatured lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akama, Kuniko; Horikoshi, Tomoe; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Nakahata, Satoko; Akitsu, Aoi; Niwa, Nobuyoshi; Intoh, Atsushi; Kakui, Yasutaka; Sugaya, Michiko; Takei, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Noriaki; Sato, Takaya; Matsumoto, Rena; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kashiwabara, Shin-ichi; Baba, Tadashi; Nakamura, Megumi; Toda, Tosifusa

    2010-06-01

    In mammalian spermiogenesis, sperm mature during epididymal transit to get fertility. The pig sharing many physiological similarities with humans is considered a promising animal model in medicine. We examined the expression profiles of proteins from boar epididymal caput, corpus, and cauda sperm by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. Our results indicated that protein disulfide isomerase-P5 (PDI-P5) human homolog was down-regulated from the epididymal corpus to cauda sperm, in contrast to the constant expression of protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3) human homolog. To examine the functions of PDIA3 and PDI-P5, we cloned and sequenced cDNAs of pig PDIA3 and PDI-P5 protein precursors. Each recombinant pig mature PDIA3 and PDI-P5 expressed in Escherichia coli showed thiol-dependent disulfide reductase activities in insulin turbidity assay. Although PDIA3 showed chaperone activity to promote oxidative refolding of reduced denatured lysozyme, PDI-P5 exhibited anti-chaperone activity to inhibit oxidative refolding of lysozyme at an equimolar ratio. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis suggested that disulfide cross-linked and non-productively folded lysozyme was responsible for the anti-chaperone activity of PDI-P5. These results provide a molecular basis and insights into the physiological roles of PDIA3 and PDI-P5 in sperm maturation and fertilization. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Glycation of Lysozyme by Glycolaldehyde Provides New Mechanistic Insights in Diabetes-Related Protein Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Laura; Maya-Aguirre, Carlos Andrés; Pauwels, Kris; Vilanova, Bartolomé; Ortega-Castro, Joaquin; Frau, Juan; Donoso, Josefa; Adrover, Miquel

    2017-04-21

    Glycation occurs in vivo as a result of the nonenzymatic reaction of carbohydrates (and/or their autoxidation products) with proteins, DNA, or lipids. Protein glycation causes loss-of-function and, consequently, the development of diabetic-related diseases. Glycation also boosts protein aggregation, which can be directly related with the higher prevalence of aggregating diseases in diabetic people. However, the molecular mechanism connecting glycation with aggregation still remains unclear. Previously we described mechanistically how glycation of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) with ribose induced its aggregation. Here we address the question of whether the ribose-induced aggregation is a general process or it depends on the chemical nature of the glycating agent. Glycation of HEWL with glycolaldehyde occurs through two different scenarios depending on the HEWL concentration regime (both within the micromolar range). At low HEWL concentration, non-cross-linking fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are formed on Lys side chains, which do not change the protein structure but inhibit its enzymatic activity. These AGEs have little impact on HEWL surface hydrophobicity and, therefore, a negligible effect on its aggregation propensity. Upon increasing HEWL concentration, the glycation mechanism shifts toward the formation of intermolecular cross-links, which triggers a polymerization cascade involving the formation of insoluble spherical-like aggregates. These results notably differ with the aggregation-modulation mechanism of ribosylated HEWL directed by hydrophobic interactions. Additionally, their comparison constitutes the first experimental evidence showing that the mechanism underlying the aggregation of a glycated protein depends on the chemical nature of the glycating agent.

  9. Metal ions-binding T4 lysozyme as an intramolecular protein purification tag compatible with X-ray crystallography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouřa, Evžen; Bäumlová, Adriana; Chalupská, Dominika; Dubánková, Anna; Klíma, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2017), s. 1116-1123 ISSN 0961-8368 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-07058Y; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : phage T4 * lysozyme * endolysin * histidine tag * protein purification * crystal structure Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.523, year: 2016

  10. Crystallization and evaluation of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals for protein pH titration in the crystalline state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Wakari; Yagi, Daichi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Ohnishi, Yuki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    Hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5–8.0) and the quality of the crystals was characterized. Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined To observe the ionized status of the amino acid residues in proteins at different pH (protein pH titration in the crystalline state) by neutron diffraction, hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5–8.0). Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined. At pH < 4.5 the border between the metastable region and the nucleation region shifted to the left (lower precipitant concentration) in the phase diagram, and at pH > 4.5 the border shifted to the right (higher precipitant concentration). The qualities of these crystals were characterized using the Wilson plot method. The qualities of all crystals at different pH were more or less equivalent (B-factor values within 25–40). It is expected that neutron diffraction analysis of these crystals of different pH provides equivalent data in quality for discussions of protein pH titration in the crystalline state of hen egg-white lysozyme

  11. Lysozyme loading and release from Se doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Hao, Hang; Zhang, Shengmin

    2016-04-01

    Element-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA) based nanocomposites have become a promising therapeutic material for improving bone defect repair. Selenium substituted HA nanoparticles can both induce apoptosis of bone tumor cells and enhance osteointegration. However, the effect of selenite ions on the proteins in combination with the HA nanoparticles remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the influence of selenium doping concentration on the loading and release of lysozyme (LSM) as a model protein drug. The selenium substituted HA-LSM composites with different doping concentrations were synthesized and characterized. The subsequent delivery of lysozyme was studied in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). We found that selenium substituted HA-LSM composites with Se:P=10% showed the highest amount of lysozyme loading (41.7%), whereas the amount of lysozyme loaded in undoped HA nanoparticles was the lowest (34.1%). The doped selenium interacts with lysozyme molecules, which leads to the increase of β-sheet and unordered, and the decrease of self-association, α-helix and β-turns in protein structures. Moreover, selenium addition significantly slows the protein release from HA-LSM composites. The composites with Se:P=10% release lysozyme at the slightly slower rate among the samples with different Se doping concentrations. It also shows that the released lysozyme retains most of its enzymatic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene identification and recombinant protein of a lysozyme from freshwater mussel Cristaria plicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Hu, Baoqing; Wen, Chungen; Lin, Gang; Tao, Zhiying; Hu, Xiaojuan; Xie, Yanhai

    2013-05-01

    Lysozymes are important proteins to bivalve in the innate immune responses against bacterial infections, and provide nutrition as digestion enzymes. A new LYZ1 from the freshwater mussel Cristaria plicata was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and nested PCR method. The full-length cDNA sequence of CpLYZ1 was 763 bp. The cDNA contained a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 21 bp, a 3'- terminal UTR of 259 bp with a 29 bp poly(A) tail, a tailing signal (AATAAA) and the open reading frame of 483 bp. The CpLYZ1 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 160 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 17.8 kDa, and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.07. The comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with LYZs from other species showed that the enzyme belonged to i-type lysozyme. The mRNA transcript of CpLYZ1 could be detected in all the examined tissues with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas. The expression levels of CpLYZ1 in hemocytes, hepatopancreas and gill significantly increased after Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. The expression level of CpLYZ1 in hemocytes sharply decreased from 6 h to 24 h and significantly increased at 48 h, and was the highest level in hepatopancreas at 24 h, and was the maximum level in gill at 48 h. Furthermore, the recombinant CpLYZ1 was induced to be expressed as an inclusion body form by IPTG at 37 °C for 4 h, and then was purified by using the Ni(2+) affinity chromatography. The relative enzyme activity of the recombinant CpLYZ1 was influenced on pH and temperature. The optimal pH and temperature was 5.5 and 50 °C, respectively. Against Escherichia coli, A. hydrophila, Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the recombinant CpLYZ1 had bacteriolytic activity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Bio-templated CdSe quantum dots green synthesis in the functional protein, lysozyme, and biological activity investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qisui; Li, Song; Liu, Peng; Min, Xinmin

    2012-01-01

    Bifunctional fluorescence (CdSe Quantum Dots) – protein (Lysozyme) nanocomposites were synthesized at room temperature by a protein-directed, solution-phase, green-synthetic method. Fluorescence (FL) and absorption spectra showed that CdSe QDs were prepared successfully with Lyz. The average particle size and crystalline structure of QDs were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. With attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, it was confirmed that there is interaction between QDs and amide I, amide II groups in Lyz. FL polarization was measured and FL imaging was done to monitor whether QDs could be responsible for possible changes in the conformation and activity of Lyz. Interestingly, the results showed Lyz still retain the biological activity after formation of QDs, but the secondary structure of the Lyz was changed. And the advantage of this synthesis method is producing excellent fluorescent QDs with specifically biological function. -- Highlights: ► Lysozyme-directed green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots. ► Lysozyme still retain the biological activity after formation of CdSe. ► The method is the production of fluorescent QDs with highly specific and functions.

  14. Metal ions-binding T4 lysozyme as an intramolecular protein purification tag compatible with X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boura, Evzen; Baumlova, Adriana; Chalupska, Dominika; Dubankova, Anna; Klima, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Phage T4 lysozyme is a well folded and highly soluble protein that is widely used as an insertion tag to improve solubility and crystallization properties of poorly behaved recombinant proteins. It has been used in the fusion protein strategy to facilitate crystallization of various proteins including multiple G protein-coupled receptors, lipid kinases, or sterol binding proteins. Here, we present a structural and biochemical characterization of its novel, metal ions-binding mutant (mbT4L). We demonstrate that mbT4L can be used as a purification tag in the immobilized-metal affinity chromatography and that, in many respects, it is superior to the conventional hexahistidine tag. In addition, structural characterization of mbT4L suggests that mbT4L can be used as a purification tag compatible with X-ray crystallography. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  15. Kinetics of adsorption of lysozyme at the air-water interface and the role of protein charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perriman, A.W.; White, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption kinetics of hen egg white lysozyme at the air-water interface has been studied using specular neutron reflectometry. Experiments were performed at a number of pH values to examine the effect of charge on the rate of protein adsorption. Solutions of hen egg white lysozyme in air Contrast matched water at 1 mg/mL were made. These allow direct determination of the surface excess of protein. High repetition experiments, with short collection times, were used to accurately determine only the surface excess-derived from the product of the film thickness and the scattering length density of the layer. The kinetic traces at pH values where the protein is charged are well fitted by a first-order rate equation with two linear regions, where the change in the gradient occurs as the surface concentration reaches a steady state. This behaviour is characteristic of the transport and distortion of protein molecules, followed by rearrangement in the surface layer. The equilibrium concentration is a function of protein charge with steady state surface concentrations reaching 1.4 mg m -2 at pH 4 and 3 mg m -2 at pH 11. Protein charge is inversely related to the rate of adsorption. This dependency has been explored through thermodynamic analysis

  16. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, J A; Kraut, A; Bernstein, D I; Warrington, R; Bolin, T; Warren, C P; Bernstein, I L

    1993-02-01

    A 26-year-old man employed in a company which manufactured hen egg white derived lysozyme for use in the pharmaceutical industry was evaluated for occupational asthma. The worker began to experience immediate-onset asthmatic symptoms two months after starting to work with egg lysozyme powder. The work process involved the production of approximately 1,000 kg of purified dried lysozyme powder per week. Prick skin testing was positive to egg lysozyme (50 mg/ml) and other egg protein components, but negative to whole egg white and egg yolk reagents. Serum specific IgE to egg lysozyme was documented. Decrements in serial peak expiratory flow rates were associated with lysozyme exposure at work. A specific bronchoprovocation challenge to lysozyme powder was positive demonstrating an isolated immediate asthmatic response (48 percent decrease from baseline FEV1). This is the first reported case of lysozyme-induced asthma specifically caused by inhalational exposure to egg lysozyme.

  17. Thin films of protein (BSA, lysozyme) - Polyelectrolyte (PSS) complexes show larger red-shift in optical emissions irrespective of protein conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Hrishikesh; Kundu, Sarathi

    2017-09-01

    Protein-polyelectrolyte complexes (PPC) are prepared using globular proteins (BSA, lysozyme) and optically active polyelectrolyte poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) in aqueous solutions and as thin films on solid substrates to explore their structures and optical behaviors. Out-of-plane structures of PPC films having ≈15-60 nm thicknesses are investigated from X-ray reflectivity and their relatively smooth surface morphologies are obtained from atomic force microscopy. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy confirms that the conformation of BSA proteins inside the films of PSSB (PSS+BSA) is nearly same with pure BSA but for lysozyme inside PSSL (PSS+lysozyme) conformation modifies which is evidenced from the shifting of the amide-I band of each protein. However, irrespective of the conformation variation of proteins larger red-shifts of ≈30 nm in optical emissions are obtained from the thin films of PPC. Relatively enhance dissipation of energy thorough non-radiative transition of the fluorophore residues in the dry state is the most probable reason for such larger optical red-shifts.

  18. Pulsed laser deposition of the lysozyme protein: an unexpected “Inverse MAPLE” process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Matei, Andreea; Constantinescu, Catalin

    2012-01-01

    which is used in food processing and is also an important constituent of human secretions such as sweat and saliva. It has a well-defined mass (14307 u) and can easily be detected by mass spectrometric methods such as MALDI (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization) in contrast to many other organic...... materials. Also, the thermal properties of lysozyme, including the heat-induced decomposition behavior are comparatively well-known. The ablation of lysozyme from a dry pressed target in vacuum was measured by weight loss in nanosecond laser ablation at 355 with a fluence of 0.5 to 6 J/cm2. Films...

  19. Expression and prognostic significance of lysozyme in male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Carlos; Baltasar, Aniceto; Medrano, Justo; Vizoso, Francisco; Alonso, Lorena; Rodríguez, Juan C; González, Luis O; Fernández, María; Lamelas, María L; Sánchez, Luis M; García-Muñiz, José L

    2002-01-01

    Lysozyme, one of the major protein components of human milk that is also synthesized by a significant percentage of breast carcinomas, is associated with lesions that have a favorable outcome in female breast cancer. Here we evaluate the expression and prognostic value of lysozyme in male breast cancer (MBC). Lysozyme expression was examined by immunohistochemical methods in a series of 60 MBC tissue sections and in 15 patients with gynecomastia. Staining was quantified using the HSCORE (histological score) system, which considers both the intensity and the percentage of cells staining at each intensity. Prognostic value of lysozyme was retrospectively evaluated by multivariate analysis taking into account conventional prognostic factors. Lysozyme immunostaining was negative in all cases of gynecomastia. A total of 27 of 60 MBC sections (45%) stained positively for this protein, but there were clear differences among them with regard to the intensity and percentage of stained cells. Statistical analysis showed that lysozyme HSCORE values in relation to age, tumor size, nodal status, histological grade, estrogen receptor status, metastasis and histological type did not increase the statistical significance. Univariate analysis confirmed that both nodal involvement and lysozyme values were significant predictors of short-term relapse-free survival. Multivariate analysis, according to Cox's regression model, also showed that nodal status and lysozyme levels were significant independent indicators of short-term relapse-free survival. Tumor expression of lysozyme is associated with lesions that have an unfavorable outcome in male breast cancer. This milk protein may be a new prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer

  20. Fluorinated ionic liquids for protein drug delivery systems: Investigating their impact on the structure and function of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Márcia; Vieira, Nicole S M; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N; Araújo, João M M; Pereiro, Ana B; Archer, Margarida

    2017-06-30

    Since the approval of recombinant human insulin by FDA in 1982, more than 200 proteins are currently available for pharmaceutical use to treat a wide range of diseases. However, innovation is still required to develop effective approaches for drug delivery. Our aim is to investigate the potential use of fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs) as drug delivery systems (DDS) for therapeutic proteins. Some initial parameters need to be assessed before further studies can proceed. This work evaluates the impact of FILs on the stability, function, structure and aggregation state of lysozyme. Different techniques were used for this purpose, which included differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF), spectrophotometric assays, circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). Ionic liquids composed of cholinium-, imidazolium- or pyridinium- derivatives were combined with different anions and analysed at different concentrations in aqueous solutions (below and above the critical aggregation concentration, CAC). The results herein presented show that the addition of ionic liquids had no significant effect on the stability and hydrolytic activity of lysozyme. Moreover, a distinct behaviour was observed in DLS experiments for non-surfactant and surfactant ionic liquids, with the latter encapsulating the protein at concentrations above the CAC. These results encourage us to further study ionic liquids as promising tools for DDS of protein drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of 1,2-Azaborines and the Preparation of Their Protein Complexes with T4 Lysozyme Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyelee; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2017-03-25

    We describe a general synthesis of 1,2-azaborines using standard air-free techniques and protein complex preparation with T4 lysozyme mutants by vapor diffusion. Oxygen- and moisture-sensitive compounds are prepared and isolated under an inert atmosphere (N2) using either a vacuum gas manifold or a glove box. As an example of azaborine synthesis, we demonstrate the synthesis and purification of the volatile N-H-B-ethyl-1,2-azaborine by a five-step sequence involving distillation and column chromatography for the isolation of products. T4 lysozyme mutants L99A and L99A/M102Q are expressed with Escherichia coli RR1 strain. Standard protocols for chemical cell lysis followed by purification using carboxymethyl ion exchange column affords protein of sufficiently high purity for crystallization. Protein crystallization is performed in various concentrations of precipitant at different pH ranges using the hanging drop vapor diffusion method. Complex preparation with the small molecules is carried out by vapor diffusion method under an inert atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystal complex provides unambiguous structural evidence of binding interactions between the protein binding site and 1,2-azaborines.

  2. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N.; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

  3. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George S; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R; Adkins, Joshua N; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

  4. Lysozyme-Mediated Formation of Protein-Silica Nano-Composites for Biosensing Applications (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-05

    reagents Lysozyme (from hen egg white), tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis...Hydrochloric acid, acetone, bovine serum albumin (BSA, fract V, cold alcohol precipitated) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were all purchased from

  5. SpoVG Is a Conserved RNA-Binding Protein That Regulates Listeria monocytogenes Lysozyme Resistance, Virulence, and Swarming Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Thomas P; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2016-04-05

    In this study, we sought to characterize the targets of the abundant Listeria monocytogenes noncoding RNA Rli31, which is required for L. monocytogenes lysozyme resistance and pathogenesis. Whole-genome sequencing of lysozyme-resistant suppressor strains identified loss-of-expression mutations in the promoter of spoVG , and deletion of spoVG rescued lysozyme sensitivity and attenuation in vivo of the rli31 mutant. SpoVG was demonstrated to be an RNA-binding protein that interacted with Rli31 in vitro . The relationship between Rli31 and SpoVG is multifaceted, as both the spoVG -encoded protein and the spoVG 5′-untranslated region interacted with Rli31. In addition, we observed that spoVG -deficient bacteria were nonmotile in soft agar and suppressor mutations that restored swarming motility were identified in the gene encoding a major RNase in Gram-positive bacteria, RNase J1. Collectively, these findings suggest that SpoVG is similar to global posttranscriptional regulators, a class of RNA-binding proteins that interact with noncoding RNA, regulate genes in concert with RNases, and control pleiotropic aspects of bacterial physiology. spoVG is widely conserved among bacteria; however, the function of this gene has remained unclear since its initial characterization in 1977. Mutation of spoVG impacts various phenotypes in Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin resistance, capsule formation, and enzyme secretion in Staphylococcus aureus and also asymmetric cell division, hemolysin production, and sporulation in Bacillus subtilis . Here, we demonstrate that spoVG mutant strains of Listeria monocytogenes are hyper-lysozyme resistant, hypervirulent, nonmotile, and misregulate genes controlling carbon metabolism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SpoVG is an RNA-binding protein. These findings suggest that SpoVG has a role in L. monocytogenes , and perhaps in other bacteria, as a global gene regulator. Posttranscriptional gene regulators help bacteria adapt to

  6. Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Sensing of Lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Vasilescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein analysis and quantification are required daily by thousands of laboratories worldwide for activities ranging from protein characterization to clinical diagnostics. Multiple factors have to be considered when selecting the best detection and quantification assay, including the amount of protein available, its concentration, the presence of interfering molecules, as well as costs and rapidity. This is also the case for lysozyme, a 14.3-kDa protein ubiquitously present in many organisms, that has been identified with a variety of functions: antibacterial activity, a biomarker of several serious medical conditions, a potential allergen in foods or a model of amyloid-type protein aggregation. Since the design of the first lysozyme aptamer in 2001, lysozyme became one of the most intensively-investigated biological target analytes for the design of novel biosensing concepts, particularly with regards to electrochemical aptasensors. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of aptamer-based electrochemical sensing of lysozyme, with emphasis on sensing in serum and real samples.

  7. Protecting Gram-negative bacterial cell envelopes from human lysozyme: Interactions with Ivy inhibitor proteins from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihong; García-Díaz, Beatriz; Catacchio, Bruno; Chiancone, Emilia; Vogel, Hans J

    2015-11-01

    Lysozymes play an important role in host defense by degrading peptidoglycan in the cell envelopes of pathogenic bacteria. Several Gram-negative bacteria can evade this mechanism by producing periplasmic proteins that inhibit the enzymatic activity of lysozyme. The Escherichia coli inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme, Ivyc and its Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog, Ivyp1 have been shown to be potent inhibitors of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). Since human lysozyme (HL) plays an important role in the innate immune response, we have examined the binding of HL to Ivyc and Ivyp1. Our results show that Ivyp1 is a weaker inhibitor of HL than Ivyc even though they inhibit HEWL with similar potency. Calorimetry experiments confirm that Ivyp1 interacts more weakly with HL than HEWL. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies revealed that Ivyp1 in solution is a monomer and forms a 30kDa heterodimer with both HL and HEWL, while Ivyc is a homodimer that forms a tetramer with both enzymes. The interaction of Ivyp1 with HL was further characterized by NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments. In addition to the characteristic His-containing Ivy inhibitory loop that binds into the active site of lysozyme, an extended loop (P2) between the final two beta-strands also participates in forming protein-protein interactions. The P2 loop is not conserved in Ivyc and it constitutes a flexible region in Ivyp1 that becomes more rigid in the complex with HL. We conclude that differences in the electrostatic interactions at the binding interface between Ivy inhibitors and distinct lysozymes determine the strength of this interaction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein crowding in solution, frozen and freeze-dried states: small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering study of lysozyme/sorbitol/water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Susan; Khodadadi, Sheila; Clark, Nicholas; McAuley, Arnold; Cristiglio, Viviana; Theyencheri, Narayanan; Curtis, Joseph; Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2015-03-01

    For effective preservation, proteins are often stored as frozen solutions or in glassy states using a freeze-drying process. However, aggregation is often observed after freeze-thaw or reconstitution of freeze-dried powder and the stability of the protein is no longer assured. In this study, small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) have been used to investigate changes in protein-protein interaction distances of a model protein/cryoprotectant system of lysozyme/sorbitol/water, under representative pharmaceutical processing conditions. The results demonstrate the utility of SAXS and SANS methods to monitor protein crowding at different stages of freezing and drying. The SANS measurements of solution samples showed at least one protein interaction peak corresponding to an interaction distance of ~ 90 Å. In the frozen state, two protein interaction peaks were observed by SANS with corresponding interaction distances at 40 Å as well as 90 Å. On the other hand, both SAXS and SANS data for freeze-dried samples showed three peaks, suggesting interaction distances ranging from ~ 15 Å to 170 Å. Possible interpretations of these interaction peaks will be discussed, as well as the role of sorbitol as a cryoprotectant during the freezing and drying process.

  9. Mass spectrometry-guided optimization and characterization of a biologically active transferrin-lysozyme model drug conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son N; Bobst, Cedric E; Kaltashov, Igor A

    2013-05-06

    Transferrin is a promising drug carrier that has the potential to deliver metals, small organic molecules and therapeutic proteins to cancer cells and/or across physiological barriers (such as the blood-brain barrier). Despite this promise, very few transferrin-based therapeutics have been developed and reached clinical trials. This modest success record can be explained by the complexity and heterogeneity of protein conjugation products, which also pose great challenges to their analytical characterization. In this work, we use lysozyme conjugated to transferrin as a model therapeutic that targets the central nervous system (where its bacteriostatic properties may be exploited to control infection) and develop analytical protocols based on electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to characterize its structure and interactions with therapeutic targets and physiological partners critical for its successful delivery. Mass spectrometry has already become an indispensable tool facilitating all stages of the protein drug development process, and this work demonstrates the enormous potential of this technique in facilitating the development of a range of therapeutically effective protein-drug conjugates.

  10. Theoretical model analysis of molecular orientations in liquid protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, some theoretical model functions have been used to explain the molecular behaviour of four different types of proteins; human haemoglobin, Insulin, egg-white lysozyme and β - globulin molecules in solution. The results of the computational fitting procedures showed that the dielectric dispersion of the protein ...

  11. Functional fusions of T4 lysozyme in the third intracellular loop of a G protein-coupled receptor identified by a random screening approach in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Elizabeth; Ding, Fa-Xiang; Naider, Fred; Dumont, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The insertion of a stable soluble protein into loops of transmembrane proteins has proved to be a successful approach for enhancing their stabilities and crystallization, and may also be useful in contexts where the inserted proteins can modulate or report on the activities of membrane proteins. While the use of T4 lysozyme to replace portions of the third intracellular loops of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has allowed determination of the structures of members of this important class of receptors, the creation of such fusion proteins generally leads to loss of signaling function of the resulting fusion protein, since the third intracellular loops of GPCRs play critical roles in their interactions with G proteins. We describe here a random screening approach allowing insertion of T4 lysozyme into diverse positions in the third loop of the yeast α-pheromone receptor, a GPCR encoded by the yeast STE2 gene. Insertions were accompanied by varying extents of deletion or duplication of the loop. A set of phenotypic screens allow detection of potentially rare variant receptors that are expressed, bind to agonist and are capable of signal transduction via activation of the cognate G protein. A large fraction of screened full-length receptor variants containing at least partial duplications of the loop on either side of the inserted T4 lysozyme retain the ability to activate the downstream signaling pathway in response to binding of ligand. However, we were unable to identify any receptors with truncated C-termini that retain significant signaling function in the presence of inserted T4 lysozyme. Our results establish the feasibility of creating functional receptors containing insertions of T4 lysozyme in their third intracellular loops.

  12. Backbone 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments for lysozyme from bacteriophage lambda

    OpenAIRE

    Di Paolo, Alexandre; Duval, Val?rie; Matagne, Andr?; Redfield, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Lysozyme from lambda bacteriophage (? lysozyme) is an 18 kDa globular protein displaying some of the structural features common to all lysozymes; in particular, ? lysozyme consists of two structural domains connected by a helix, and has its catalytic residues located at the interface between these two domains. An interesting feature of ? lysozyme, when compared to the well-characterised hen egg-white lysozyme, is its lack of disulfide bridges; this makes ? lysozyme an interesting system for s...

  13. Lysozyme contamination facilitates crystallization of a heterotrimeric cortactin–Arg–lysozyme complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weizhi; MacGrath, Stacey M.; Koleske, Anthony J.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2012-01-01

    An unusual case of trace amounts of a contaminating protein facilitating formation of a heterotrimeric protein complex. Crystallization of contaminating proteins is a frequently encountered problem for macromolecular crystallographers. In this study, an attempt was made to obtain a binary cocrystal structure of the SH3 domain of cortactin and a 17-residue peptide from the Arg nonreceptor tyrosine kinase encompassing a PxxPxxPxxP (PxxP1) motif. However, cocrystals could only be obtained in the presence of trace amounts of a contaminating protein. A structure solution obtained by molecular replacement followed by ARP/wARP automatic model building allowed a ‘sequence-by-crystallography’ approach to discover that the contaminating protein was lysozyme. This 1.65 Å resolution crystal structure determination of a 1:1:1 heterotrimeric complex of Arg, cortactin and lysozyme thus provides an unusual ‘caveat emptor’ warning of the dangers that underpurified proteins harbor for macromolecular crystallographers

  14. High-pressure protein crystallography of hen egg-white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nagae, Takayuki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was analyzed under pressures of up to 950 MPa. The high pressure modified the conformation of the molecule and induced a novel phase transition in the tetragonal crystal of HEWL. Crystal structures of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) determined under pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 950 MPa are presented. From 0.1 to 710 MPa, the molecular and internal cavity volumes are monotonically compressed. However, from 710 to 890 MPa the internal cavity volume remains almost constant. Moreover, as the pressure increases to 950 MPa, the tetragonal crystal of HEWL undergoes a phase transition from P4 3 2 1 2 to P4 3 . Under high pressure, the crystal structure of the enzyme undergoes several local and global changes accompanied by changes in hydration structure. For example, water molecules penetrate into an internal cavity neighbouring the active site and induce an alternate conformation of one of the catalytic residues, Glu35. These phenomena have not been detected by conventional X-ray crystal structure analysis and might play an important role in the catalytic activity of HEWL

  15. High-pressure protein crystallography of hen egg-white lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nagae, Takayuki [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Nobuhisa, E-mail: nobuhisa@nagoya-u.jp [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    The crystal structure of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was analyzed under pressures of up to 950 MPa. The high pressure modified the conformation of the molecule and induced a novel phase transition in the tetragonal crystal of HEWL. Crystal structures of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) determined under pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 950 MPa are presented. From 0.1 to 710 MPa, the molecular and internal cavity volumes are monotonically compressed. However, from 710 to 890 MPa the internal cavity volume remains almost constant. Moreover, as the pressure increases to 950 MPa, the tetragonal crystal of HEWL undergoes a phase transition from P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 to P4{sub 3}. Under high pressure, the crystal structure of the enzyme undergoes several local and global changes accompanied by changes in hydration structure. For example, water molecules penetrate into an internal cavity neighbouring the active site and induce an alternate conformation of one of the catalytic residues, Glu35. These phenomena have not been detected by conventional X-ray crystal structure analysis and might play an important role in the catalytic activity of HEWL.

  16. Pulsed laser deposition of lysozyme: the dependence on shot numbers and the angular distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, C.; Matei, A.; Schou, J.; Canulescu, S.; Dinescu, M.

    2013-12-01

    The ejection of molecules from a pressed solid target of lysozyme induced by laser ablation in the UV-regime at a wavelength of 355 nm was investigated. The ablation studies were carried out in vacuum at a laser fluence of 2 J/cm2 for which a significant fraction of proteins remains intact. This was verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) spectrometry of thin films deposited on silicon substrates. The deposition rate of lysozyme was found to decrease with the number of shots and was correlated with increasing thermal damage of the lysozyme. This was monitored by measurements of the optical reflectivity of dry lysozyme. The angular distribution of the mass deposition can be fitted well by Anisimov's hydrodynamic model. The total deposited yield over the entire hemisphere from direct laser ablation of lysozyme was estimated from this model and found to be three orders of magnitude less than the ablated mass.

  17. Study of ethanol-lysozyme interactions using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, M.S.; Mason, S.A.; McIntyre, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction has been used to observe the interactions between deuterated ethanol (CD3CD2OH) and lysozyme in triclinic crystals of hen egg white lysozyme soaked in 25% (v/v) ethanol solutions. A total of 6047 observed reflections to a resolution of 2 A were used, and 13 possible ethanol sites were identified. The three highest occupied sites are close to locations for bromoethanol found in an earlier study by Yonath et al. [Yonath, A., Podjarny, A., Honig, B., Traub, W., Sielecki, A., Herzberg, O., and Moult, J. (1978) Biophys. Struct. Mech. 4, 27-36]. Structure refinements including a model for the flat solvent lead to a final crystallographic agreement factor of 0.097. Comparison with earlier neutron studies on triclinic lysozyme showed that neither the molecular structure nor the thermal motions were affected significantly by the ethanol. A detailed analysis of the ethanol-lysozyme contacts showed 61% of these to be with hydrophobic sites, in agreement with the dominant hydrophobic nature of ethanol. This, together with the fact that the molecular structure of lysozyme is not perturbed, suggests a model for denaturation of lysozyme by alcohol, which proceeds via a dehydration of the protein at high alcohol concentration

  18. Electrolyte effect on the phase behavior of silica nanoparticles with lysozyme and bovine-serum-albumin proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of an electrolyte on the phase behavior of anionic silica nanoparticles with two globular proteins—cationic lysozyme [molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kDa] and anionic bovine serum albumin (MW 66.4 kDa). The results are compared with our earlier published work on similar systems without any electrolyte [I. Yadav, S. Kumar, V. K. Aswal, and J. Kohlbrecher, Phys. Rev. E 89, 032304 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.032304]. Both the nanoparticle-protein systems transform to two phase at lower concentration of protein in the presence of an electrolyte. The autocorrelation function in DLS suggests that the diffusion coefficient (D) of a nanoparticle-protein system decreases in approaching two phase with the increase in protein concentration. This variation in D can be attributed to increase in attractive interaction and/or overall increase in the size. Further, these two contributions (interaction and structure) are determined from the SANS data. The changes in the phase behavior of nanoparticle-protein systems in the presence of an electrolyte are explained in terms of modifications in both the repulsive and attractive components of interaction between nanoparticles. In a two-phase system individual silica nanoparticles coexist along with their fractal aggregates.

  19. Larger red-shift in optical emissions obtained from the thin films of globular proteins (BSA, lysozyme) - polyelectrolyte (PAA) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Hrishikesh; Kundu, Sarathi; Basu, Saibal

    2016-09-01

    Globular proteins (lysozyme and BSA) and polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylic acid) are used to form protein-polyelectrolyte complexes (PPC). Out-of-plane structures of ≈30-60 nm thick PPC films and their surface morphologies have been studied by using X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy, whereas optical behaviors of PPC and protein conformations have been studied by using UV-vis, photoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy respectively. Our study reveals that thin films of PPC show a larger red-shift of 23 and 16 nm in the optical emissions in comparison to that of pure protein whereas bulk PPC show a small blue-shift of ≈3 nm. A small amount of peak-shift is found to occur due to the heat treatment or concentration variation of the polyelectrolyte/protein in bulk solution but cannot produce such film thickness independent larger red-shift. Position of the emission peak remains nearly unchanged with the film thickness. Mechanism for such larger red-shift has been proposed.

  20. Pulse radiolysis studies of intramolecular electron transfer in model peptides and proteins. 7. Trp -> TyrO radical transformation in hen egg-white lysozyme. Effects of pH, temperature, Trp62 oxidation and inhibitor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobrowski, K.; Holcman, J.; Poznanski, J.

    1997-01-01

    by ozone had a pronounced effect on its temperature-dependence. Taken together these observations indicate that of the six tryptophans present in HEWL Trp62 contributes about 50% to the yield of the observed LRET. In the enzyme-inhibitor complex, HEWL(GlcNAc)(3), where Trp62 and Trp63 are completely...... oxidation of Trp with N-3(.) radicals under low concentration of the reactants but at a high HEWL/N-3(.) molar ratio, so that more than 99% of the oxidized protein molecules contained only a single tryptophyl radical. Synchronous decay of Trp(.) and build-up of TyrO(.) conformed satisfactorily to first......-order kinetics, indicating that LRET involved either one or more Trp(.)/Tyr redox pairs characterized by similar rate constants. The rate constant of LRET, k(5), increased monotonously with decreasing pH showing the following characteristics: (i) in the pH range 7.4-5.2 the plot of k(5) against pH was sigmoidal...

  1. A method for rapid liquid-solid phase solubility measurements using the protein lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc L.; Gernert, Kim

    1988-01-01

    Using hen's egg white lysozyme crystals as the test material, a simple system was developed for rapidly and unambiguously determining solubilities in (aqueous) solutions. The system is based upon a maximization of the solid surface area available for solute transfer to or from the solution, and a minimization of both the solution volume which must be equilibrated and the distance over which diffusive solute exchange occurs. This technique is further enhanced by using duplicate test systems which differ only in that one approaches equilibrium from an oversaturated solution, while the other from an undersaturated solution. Thus, the resulting data pair brackets the solubility value. In practical terms, the data points are found to usually be within 3 percent of each other, and individual solubility data points may usually be made at this resolution within 8-24 h depending upon the temperature change made since the previous determination.

  2. Crystal structures of hevamine, a plant defence protein with chitinase and lysozyme activity, and its complex with an inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A C; Kalk, K H; Beintema, J J; Dijkstra, B W

    1994-12-15

    Hevamine is a member of one of several families of plant chitinases and lysozymes that are important for plant defence against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The enzyme can hydrolyze the linear polysaccharide chains of chitin and peptidoglycan. A full understanding of the structure/function relationships of chitinases might facilitate the production of transgenic plants with increased resistance towards a wide range of pathogens. The crystal structure of hevamine has been determined to a resolution of 2.2 A, and refined to an R-factor of 0.169. The enzyme possesses a (beta alpha)8-barrel fold. An inhibitor binding study shows that the substrate-binding cleft is located at the carboxy-terminal end of the beta-barrel, near the conserved Glu127. Glu127 is in a position to act as the catalytic proton donor, but no residue that might stabilize a positively charged oxocarbonium ion intermediate was found. A likely mechanism of substrate hydrolysis is by direct attack of a water molecule on the C1 atom of the scissile bond, resulting in inversion of the configuration at C1. The structure of hevamine shows a completely new lysozyme/chitinase fold and represents a new class of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing (beta alpha)8-barrel enzymes. Because the residues conserved in the family to which hevamine belongs are important for maintaining the structure of the (beta alpha)8-barrel, all members of the family, including fungal, bacterial and insect chitinases, are likely to share this architecture. The crystal structure obtained provides a basis for protein engineering studies in this family of chitinases.

  3. Hydrophobic clustering in nonnative states of a protein: Interpretation of chemical shifts in NMR spectra of denatured states of lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.A.; Topping, K.D.; Woolfson, D.N.; Dobson, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical shifts of resonances of specific protons in the 1H NMR spectrum of thermally denatured hen lysozyme have been determined by exchange correlation with assigned native state resonances in 2D NOESY spectra obtained under conditions where the two states are interconverting. There are subtle but widespread deviations of the measured shifts from the values which would be anticipated for a random coil; in the case of side chain protons these are virtually all net upfield shifts and it is shown that this may be the averaged effect of interactions with aromatic rings in a partially collapsed denatured state. In a very few cases, notably that of two sequential tryptophan residues, it is possible to interpret these effects in terms of specific, local interresidue interactions. Generally, however, there is no correlation with either native state shift perturbations or with sequence proximity to aromatic groups. Diminution of most of the residual shift perturbations on reduction of the disulfide cross-links confirms that they are not simply effects of residues adjacent in the sequence. Similar effects of chemical denaturants, with the disulfides intact, demonstrate that the shift perturbations reflect an enhanced tendency to side chain clustering in the thermally denatured state. The temperature dependences of the shift perturbations suggest that this clustering is noncooperative and is driven by small, favorable enthalpy changes. While the extent of conformational averaging is clearly much greater than that observed for a homologous protein, alpha-lactalbumin, in its partially folded molten globule state, the results clearly show that thermally denatured lysozyme differs substantially from a random coil, principally in that it is partially hydrophobically collapsed

  4. Engineered regulation of lysozyme by the SH3-CB1 binding interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Elizabeth; Truong, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    The ability to design proteins with desired properties by using protein structural information will allow us to create high-value therapeutic and diagnostic products. Using the protein structures of lambda lysozyme and the SH3 domain of human Crk, we designed a synthetic protein switch that controls the activity of lysozyme by sterically hindering its active cleft through the binding of SH3 to its CB1 peptide-binding partner. First, several fusion protein designs with lysozyme and CB1 were modeled to determine the one with greatest steric effect in the presence of SH3. Next, the selected fusion protein was created and tested in vitro. In the absence of SH3, the lysozyme-CB1 fusion protein functioned normally. In the presence of SH3, the lysozyme activity was inhibited and with the addition of excess CB1 peptides to compete for SH3 binding, the lysozyme activity was restored. Lastly, this structure-based strategy can be used to engineer synthetic regulation by peptide-domain-binding interfaces into a variety of proteins.

  5. Improved lysozyme stability and release properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) implants prepared by hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalanbor, Zahra; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland

    2010-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of hot-melt extrusion (HME) for preparing implants based on protein/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) formulations with special emphasis on protein stability, burst release and release completeness. Model protein (lysozyme)-loaded PLGA implants were prepared with a screw extruder and a self-built syringe-die device as a rapid screening tool for HME formulation optimization. Lysozyme stability was determined using DSC, FTIR, HPLC and biological activity. The simultaneous effect of lysozyme and PEG loadings was investigated to obtain optimized formulations with high drug loading but low initial release. Lysozyme was recovered from implants with full biological activity after HME. The release from all implants reached the 100% value in 60-80 days with nearly complete enzymatic activity of the last fraction of released lysozyme. Pure PLGA implants with up to 20% lysozyme loading could be formulated without initial burst. The incorporation of PEG 400 reduced the initial burst at drug loadings in excess of 20%. A complete lysozyme recovery in active form with a burst-free and complete release from PLGA implants prepared by hot-melt extrusion was obtained. This is in contrast to many reported microparticulate lysozyme-PLGA systems and suggests the great potential of hot-melt extrusion for the preparation of protein-PLGA implants.

  6. Complex coacervation of lysozyme and heparin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Weert, Marco; Andersen, Mia Bendix; Frokjaer, Sven

    2004-01-01

    To characterize complex coacervates/flocculates of lysozyme and heparin in terms of binding stoichiometry and to determine the effect of complexation on protein structure and stability.......To characterize complex coacervates/flocculates of lysozyme and heparin in terms of binding stoichiometry and to determine the effect of complexation on protein structure and stability....

  7. Modeling the SHG activities of diverse protein crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haupert, Levi M.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The origins of the diversity in the SHG signal from protein crystals are investigated and potential protein-crystal coverage by SHG microscopy is assessed. A symmetry-additive ab initio model for second-harmonic generation (SHG) activity of protein crystals was applied to assess the likely protein-crystal coverage of SHG microscopy. Calculations were performed for 250 proteins in nine point-group symmetries: a total of 2250 crystals. The model suggests that the crystal symmetry and the limit of detection of the instrument are expected to be the strongest predictors of coverage of the factors considered, which also included secondary-structural content and protein size. Much of the diversity in SHG activity is expected to arise primarily from the variability in the intrinsic protein response as well as the orientation within the crystal lattice. Two or more orders-of-magnitude variation in intensity are expected even within protein crystals of the same symmetry. SHG measurements of tetragonal lysozyme crystals confirmed detection, from which a protein coverage of ∼84% was estimated based on the proportion of proteins calculated to produce SHG responses greater than that of tetragonal lysozyme. Good agreement was observed between the measured and calculated ratios of the SHG intensity from lysozyme in tetragonal and monoclinic lattices

  8. Investigation of factors affecting the stability of lysozyme spray dried from ethanol-water solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Shuying; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Mu, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    Formulation composition and processing conditions can be adjusted to enhance the structural integrity as well as the bioactivity of proteins in the spray drying process. In this study, lysozyme was chosen as a model pharmaceutical protein to study these aspects when spray drying from water......-ethanol mixtures. The effect of formulation additives (trehalose, Tween 20 and phosphate-buffered saline) and processing conditions (inlet temperature and storage time of lysozyme in the feed solution before the spray drying process) on the protein bioactivity was investigated. The results showed...... that the bioactivities of spray dried lysozyme with these additives were about 5-10% higher than that without additives. The bioactivity of the spray dried lysozyme was found to increase with a decrease in the inlet temperature from 130°C to 80°C, with similar findings when shortening the storage time of the feed...

  9. Mechanisms of hydrogen exchange in proteins from nuclear magnetic resonance studies of individual tryptophan indole NH hydrogens in lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedin, R.E.; Delepierre, M.; Dobson, C.M.; Poulsen, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    The individual rates of solvent exchange of the six tryptophan indole NH hydrogens of lysozyme in 2 H 2 O have been measured over a wide range of temperatures by using 1 H NMR. Two distinct mechanisms for exchange have been identified, one characterized by a high activation energy and the other by a much lower activation energy. The high-energy process has been shown to be associated directly with the cooperative thermal unfolding of the protein and is the dominant mechanism for exchange of the most slowly exchanging hydrogen even 15 0 C below the denaturation temperature. Rate constants and activation energies for the folding and unfolding reactions were obtained from the experimental exchange rates. At low temperatures, a lower activation energy mechanism is dominant for all hydrogens, and this can be associated with local fluctuations in the protein structure which allow access of solvent. The relative exchange rates and activation energies can only qualitatively be related to the different environments of the residues in the crystal structure. There is provisional evidence that a mechanism intermediate between these two extremes may be significant for some hydrogens under restricted conditions

  10. Comparison of the microbicidal and muramidase activities of mouse lysozyme M and P.

    OpenAIRE

    Markart, Philipp; Faust, Nicole; Graf, Thomas; Na, Cheng-Lun; Weaver, Timothy E; Akinbi, Henry T

    2004-01-01

    Lysozyme is one of the most abundant antimicrobial proteins in the airspaces of the lung. Mice express two lysozyme genes, lysozyme M and P, but only the M enzyme is detected in abundance in lung tissues. Disruption of the lysozyme M locus significantly increased bacterial burden and mortality following intratracheal infection with a Gram-negative bacterium. Unexpectedly, significant lysozyme enzyme activity (muramidase activity) was detected in the airspaces of uninfected lysozyme M-/- mice,...

  11. Effect of ethanol as a co-solvent on the aerosol performance and stability of spray-dried lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shuying; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Mu, Huiling; Hansen, Steen Honoré; van de Weert, Marco; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2016-11-20

    In the spray drying process, organic solvents can be added to facilitate drying, accommodate certain functional excipients, and modify the final particle characteristics. In this study, lysozyme was used as a model pharmaceutical protein to study the effect of ethanol as a co-solvent on the stability and aerosol performance of spray-dried protein. Lysozyme was dissolved in solutions with various ratios of ethanol and water, and subsequently spray-dried. A change from spherical particles into wrinkled and folded particles was observed upon increasing the ratio of ethanol in the feed. The aerosol performance of the spray-dried lysozyme from ethanol-water solution was improved compared to that from pure water. The conformation of lysozyme in the ethanol-water solution and spray dried powder was altered, but the native structure of lysozyme was restored upon reconstitution in water after the spray drying process. The enzymatic activities of the spray-dried lysozyme showed no significant impact of ethanol; however, the lysozyme enzymatic activity was ca. 25% lower compared to the starting material. In conclusion, the addition of ethanol as a co-solvent in the spray drying feed for lysozyme did not compromise the conformation of the protein after drying, while it improved the inhaled aerosol performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A new family of lysozyme inhibitors contributing to lysozyme tolerance in gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Callewaert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lysozymes are ancient and important components of the innate immune system of animals that hydrolyze peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer. Bacteria engaging in commensal or pathogenic interactions with an animal host have evolved various strategies to evade this bactericidal enzyme, one recently proposed strategy being the production of lysozyme inhibitors. We here report the discovery of a novel family of bacterial lysozyme inhibitors with widespread homologs in gram-negative bacteria. First, a lysozyme inhibitor was isolated by affinity chromatography from a periplasmic extract of Salmonella Enteritidis, identified by mass spectrometry and correspondingly designated as PliC (periplasmic lysozyme inhibitor of c-type lysozyme. A pliC knock-out mutant no longer produced lysozyme inhibitory activity and showed increased lysozyme sensitivity in the presence of the outer membrane permeabilizing protein lactoferrin. PliC lacks similarity with the previously described Escherichia coli lysozyme inhibitor Ivy, but is related to a group of proteins with a common conserved COG3895 domain, some of them predicted to be lipoproteins. No function has yet been assigned to these proteins, although they are widely spread among the Proteobacteria. We demonstrate that at least two representatives of this group, MliC (membrane bound lysozyme inhibitor of c-type lysozyme of E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also possess lysozyme inhibitory activity and confer increased lysozyme tolerance upon expression in E. coli. Interestingly, mliC of Salmonella Typhi was picked up earlier in a screen for genes induced during residence in macrophages, and knockout of mliC was shown to reduce macrophage survival of S. Typhi. Based on these observations, we suggest that the COG3895 domain is a common feature of a novel and widespread family of bacterial lysozyme inhibitors in gram-negative bacteria that may function as colonization or virulence factors in bacteria

  13. A New Family of Lysozyme Inhibitors Contributing to Lysozyme Tolerance in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Lien; Aertsen, Abram; Deckers, Daphne; Vanoirbeek, Kristof G. A.; Vanderkelen, Lise; Van Herreweghe, Joris M.; Masschalck, Barbara; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Robben, Johan; Michiels, Chris W.

    2008-01-01

    Lysozymes are ancient and important components of the innate immune system of animals that hydrolyze peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer. Bacteria engaging in commensal or pathogenic interactions with an animal host have evolved various strategies to evade this bactericidal enzyme, one recently proposed strategy being the production of lysozyme inhibitors. We here report the discovery of a novel family of bacterial lysozyme inhibitors with widespread homologs in gram-negative bacteria. First, a lysozyme inhibitor was isolated by affinity chromatography from a periplasmic extract of Salmonella Enteritidis, identified by mass spectrometry and correspondingly designated as PliC (periplasmic lysozyme inhibitor of c-type lysozyme). A pliC knock-out mutant no longer produced lysozyme inhibitory activity and showed increased lysozyme sensitivity in the presence of the outer membrane permeabilizing protein lactoferrin. PliC lacks similarity with the previously described Escherichia coli lysozyme inhibitor Ivy, but is related to a group of proteins with a common conserved COG3895 domain, some of them predicted to be lipoproteins. No function has yet been assigned to these proteins, although they are widely spread among the Proteobacteria. We demonstrate that at least two representatives of this group, MliC (membrane bound lysozyme inhibitor of c-type lysozyme) of E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also possess lysozyme inhibitory activity and confer increased lysozyme tolerance upon expression in E. coli. Interestingly, mliC of Salmonella Typhi was picked up earlier in a screen for genes induced during residence in macrophages, and knockout of mliC was shown to reduce macrophage survival of S. Typhi. Based on these observations, we suggest that the COG3895 domain is a common feature of a novel and widespread family of bacterial lysozyme inhibitors in gram-negative bacteria that may function as colonization or virulence factors in bacteria interacting with

  14. The synthesis of magnetic lysozyme-imprinted polymers by means of distillation-precipitation polymerization for selective protein enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiali; Zhang, Xihao; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-02-01

    A protein imprinting approach for the synthesis of core-shell structure nanoparticles with a magnetic core and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) shell was developed using a simple distillation-precipitation polymerization method. In this work, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were first synthesized through a solvothermal method and then were conveniently surface-modified with 3-(methacryloyloxy)propyltrimethoxylsilane as anchor molecules to donate vinyl groups. Next a high-density MIP shell was coated onto the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles by the copolymerization of functional monomer acrylamide (AAm), cross-linking agent N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), the initiator azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN), and protein in acetonitrile heated at reflux. The morphology, adsorption, and recognition properties of the magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and rebinding experiments. The resulting MIP showed a high adsorption capacity (104.8 mg g(-1)) and specific recognition (imprinting factor=7.6) to lysozyme (Lyz). The as-prepared Fe3O4@Lyz-MIP nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 320 nm were coated with an MIP shell that was 20 nm thick, which enabled Fe3O4@Lyz-MIP to easily reach adsorption equilibrium. The high magnetization saturation (40.35 emu g(-1)) endows the materials with the convenience of magnetic separation under an external magnetic field and allows them to be subsequently reused. Furthermore, Fe3O4@Lyz-MIP could selectively extract a target protein from real egg-white samples under an external magnetic field. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Binding of Lysozyme to Spherical Poly(styrenesulfonate Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andersson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyelectrolyte gels are useful as carriers of proteins and other biomacromolecules in, e.g., drug delivery. The rational design of such systems requires knowledge about how the binding and release are affected by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the components. To this end we have investigated the uptake of lysozyme by weakly crosslinked spherical poly(styrenesulfonate (PSS microgels and macrogels by means of micromanipulator assisted light microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS in an aqueous environment. The results show that the binding process is an order of magnitude slower than for cytochrome c and for lysozyme binding to sodium polyacrylate gels under the same conditions. This is attributed to the formation of very dense protein-rich shells in the outer layers of the microgels with low permeability to the protein. The shells in macrogels contain 60 wt % water and nearly charge stoichiometric amounts of lysozyme and PSS in the form of dense complexes of radius 8 nm comprising 30–60 lysozyme molecules. With support from kinetic modelling results we propose that the rate of protein binding and the relaxation rate of the microgel are controlled by the protein mass transport through the shell, which is strongly affected by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The mechanism explains, in turn, an observed dependence of the diffusion rate on the apparent degree of crosslinking of the networks.

  16. A novel antifungal protein with lysozyme-like activity from seeds of Clitoria ternatea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Ajesh; K, Sreejith

    2014-06-01

    An antifungal protein with a molecular mass of 14.3 kDa was isolated from the seeds of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) and designated as Ct protein. The antifungal protein was purified using different methods including ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 column. Ct protein formed a single colourless rod-shaped crystal by hanging drop method after 7 days of sample loading. The protein showed lytic activity against Micrococcus luteus and broad-spectrum, fungicidal activity, particularly against the most clinically relevant yeasts, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. It also exerted an inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in several mould species including Curvularia sp., Alternaria sp., Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp., and Sclerotium sp. The present study adds to the literature on novel seed proteins with antifungal activity.

  17. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Seliverstova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes, and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals.

  18. A nanobody binding to non-amyloidogenic regions of the protein human lysozyme enhances partial unfolding but inhibits amyloid fibril formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genst, Erwin; Chan, Pak-Ho; Pardon, Els; Hsu, Shang-Te D; Kumita, Janet R; Christodoulou, John; Menzer, Linda; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Robinson, Carol V; Muyldermans, Serge; Matagne, André; Wyns, Lode; Dobson, Christopher M; Dumoulin, Mireille

    2013-10-24

    We report the effects of the interaction of two camelid antibody fragments, generally called nanobodies, namely cAb-HuL5 and a stabilized and more aggregation-resistant variant cAb-HuL5G obtained by protein engineering, on the properties of two amyloidogenic variants of human lysozyme, I56T and D67H, whose deposition in vital organs including the liver, kidney, and spleen is associated with a familial non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis. Both NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that cAb-HuL5 binds to the α-domain, one of the two lobes of the native lysozyme structure. The binding of cAb-HuL5/cAb-HuL5G strongly inhibits fibril formation by the amyloidogenic variants; it does not, however, suppress the locally transient cooperative unfolding transitions, characteristic of these variants, in which the β-domain and the C-helix unfold and which represents key early intermediate species in the formation of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, unlike two other nanobodies previously described, cAb-HuL5/cAb-HuL5G does not inhibit fibril formation via the restoration of the global cooperativity of the native structure of the lysozyme variants to that characteristic of the wild-type protein. Instead, it inhibits a subsequent step in the assembly of the fibrils, involving the unfolding and structural reorganization of the α-domain. These results show that nanobodies can protect against the formation of pathogenic aggregates at different stages in the structural transition of a protein from the soluble native state into amyloid fibrils, illustrating their value as structural probes to study the molecular mechanisms of amyloid fibril formation. Combined with their amenability to protein engineering techniques to improve their stability and solubility, these findings support the suggestion that nanobodies can potentially be developed as therapeutics to combat protein misfolding diseases.

  19. Role of His101 in the Protein Folding/Unfolding of a Goose-Type Lysozyme from Ostrich (Struthio camelus) Egg White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonpatarakun, Chalermchai; Fukamizo, Tamo; Araki, Tomohiro; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2016-12-01

    To understand the role of His101 in protein structure stabilization of goose-type (G-type) lysozyme, we conducted thermal unfolding/refolding experiments using native G-type lysozyme from ostrich egg white (nOEL), the recombinant G-type lysozyme (rOEL), and the mutant lysozyme, in which His101 is mutated to alanine (H101A-OEL). Thermal stability on lytic activity and in-gel refolding experiments provided similar profiles for all three OELs. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to determine the secondary structure of three OELs as a function of temperature. Unfolding/refolding experiments (30-90 °C) monitored by CD spectroscopy revealed an unfolding transition at 65-67 °C and a complete refolding at almost the same temperature. Notably, a slightly lower thermal stability was observed for H101A-OEL, corresponding to the calculated difference in transition free energy of thermal unfolding (∆∆G m ) between rOEL and H101A-OEL of -0.63 kcal/mol. To assess the effects of H101A mutation on the electrostatic behavior, we examined the pH-activity profile of the three OELs. nOEL and rOEL exhibit bimodal relationship between pH and lytic activity showing optima at pH 3.0 and 7.0, while optima for H101A-OEL activity were pH 4.0 and 6.0. Electrostatic environment surrounding His101 was affected by the H101A mutation resulting in the slightly lower thermal stability.

  20. Critical Behavior at the L-L Phase Transition of Lysozyme Protein Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Laxson, Nicole; Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Recent efforts suggest the possibility that crystallization, and liquid-liquid (L-L) phase transitions and critical phenomena are characteristics universal to all macromolecular solutions. Of particular interest to protein crystallographers are the predictions of a critical slowing of crystal growth and subsequent formation of nascent crystals at the L-L phase boundary. Herein, the effects of the L-L phase transition on both crystal growth rates and microcrystal formation are experimentally determined. In general, it was determined that critical slowing down of protein crystal growth rates occurred, as predicted. The L-L phase transition, however, had a net negative influence in the formation of nascent protein crystals. Although crystal nucleation was not induced by the L-L phase transition, it is considered that the phase behavior of macromolecular solutions can be universally defined.

  1. Self-assembly dynamics for the transition of a globular aggregate to a fibril network of lysozyme proteins via a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Pandey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-organizing dynamics of lysozymes (an amyloid protein with 148 residues with different numbers of protein chains, Nc = 1,5,10, and 15 (concentration 0.004 – 0.063 is studied by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation with knowledge-based residue-residue interactions. The dynamics of an isolated lysozyme (Nc = 1 is ultra-slow (quasi-static at low temperatures and becomes diffusive asymptotically on raising the temperature. In contrast, the presence of interacting proteins leads to concentration induced protein diffusion at low temperatures and concentration-tempering sub-diffusion at high temperatures. Variation of the radius of gyration of the protein with temperature shows a systematic transition from a globular structure (at low T to a random coil (high T conformation when the proteins are isolated. The crossover from globular to random coil becomes sharper upon increasing the protein concentration (i.e. with Nc = 5,10, with larger Rg at higher temperatures and concentration; Rg becomes smaller on adding more protein chains (e.g. Nc = 15 a non-monotonic response to protein concentration. Analysis of the structure factor (S(q provides an estimate of the effective dimension (D ≥ 3, globular conformation at low temperature, and D ∼ 1.7, random coil, at high temperatures of the isolated protein. With many interacting proteins, the morphology of the self-assembly varies with scale, i.e. at the low temperature (T = 0.015, D ∼ 2.9 on the scale comparable to the radius of gyration of the protein, and D ∼ 2.3 at the large scale over the entire sample. The global network of fibrils appears at high temperature (T = 0.021 with D ∼ 1.7 (i.e. a random coil morphology at large scale involving tenuous distribution of micro-globules (at small scales.

  2. Enterococcus faecalis zinc-responsive proteins mediate bacterial defence against zinc overload, lysozyme and oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Abrantes, Marta; Kok, Jan; de Fatima Silva Lopes, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Two Enterococcus faecalis genes encoding the P-type ATPase EF1400 and the putative SapB protein EF0759 were previously shown to be strongly upregulated in the presence of high concentrations of zinc. In the present work, we showed that a Zn(2+)-responsive DNA-binding motif (zim) is present in the

  3. A systematic method for analysing the protein hydration structure of T4 lysozyme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kysilka, Jiří; Vondrášek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2013), s. 479-487 ISSN 0952-3499 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/0725; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11020 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0427 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : protein hydration structure * water * X-ray crystallography * cluster algorithm * interaction enthalpy Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2013

  4. Control of Electrostatic Interactions Between F-Actin And Genetically Modified Lysozyme in Aqueous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, L.K.; Xian, W.; Guaqueta, C.; Strohman, M.; Vrasich, C.R.; Luijten, E.; Wong, G.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim for deterministic control of the interactions between macroions in aqueous media has motivated widespread experimental and theoretical work. Although it has been well established that like-charged macromolecules can aggregate under the influence of oppositely charged condensing agents, the specific conditions for the stability of such aggregates can only be determined empirically. We examine these conditions, which involve an interplay of electrostatic and osmotic effects, by using a well defined model system composed of F-actin, an anionic rod-like polyelectrolyte, and lysozyme, a cationic globular protein with a charge that can be genetically modified. The structure and stability of actin-lysozyme complexes for different lysozyme charge mutants and salt concentrations are examined by using synchrotron x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. We provide evidence that supports a structural transition from columnar arrangements of F-actin held together by arrays of lysozyme at the threefold interstitial sites of the actin sublattice to marginally stable complexes in which lysozyme resides at twofold bridging sites between actin. The reduced stability arises from strongly reduced partitioning of salt between the complex and the surrounding solution. Changes in the stability of actin-lysozyme complexes are of biomedical interest because their formation has been reported to contribute to the persistence of airway infections in cystic fibrosis by sequestering antimicrobials such as lysozyme. We present x-ray microscopy results that argue for the existence of actin-lysozyme complexes in cystic fibrosis sputum and demonstrate that, for a wide range of salt conditions, charge-reduced lysozyme is not sequestered in ordered complexes while retaining its bacterial killing activity.

  5. Control of electrostatic interactions between F-actin and genetically modified lysozyme in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Lori K.; Xian, Wujing; Guaqueta, Camilo; Strohman, Michael J.; Vrasich, Chuck R.; Luijten, Erik; Wong, Gerard C.L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim for deterministic control of the interactions between macroions in aqueous media has motivated widespread experimental and theoretical work. Although it has been well established that like-charged macromolecules can aggregate under the influence of oppositely charged condensing agents, the specific conditions for the stability of such aggregates can only be determined empirically. We examine these conditions, which involve an interplay of electrostatic and osmotic effects, by using a well defined model system composed of F-actin, an anionic rod-like polyelectrolyte, and lysozyme, a cationic globular protein with a charge that can be genetically modified. The structure and stability of actin-lysozyme complexes for different lysozyme charge mutants and salt concentrations are examined by using synchrotron x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. We provide evidence that supports a structural transition from columnar arrangements of F-actin held together by arrays of lysozyme at the threefold interstitial sites of the actin sublattice to marginally stable complexes in which lysozyme resides at twofold bridging sites between actin. The reduced stability arises from strongly reduced partitioning of salt between the complex and the surrounding solution. Changes in the stability of actin-lysozyme complexes are of biomedical interest because their formation has been reported to contribute to the persistence of airway infections in cystic fibrosis by sequestering antimicrobials such as lysozyme. We present x-ray microscopy results that argue for the existence of actin-lysozyme complexes in cystic fibrosis sputum and demonstrate that, for a wide range of salt conditions, charge-reduced lysozyme is not sequestered in ordered complexes while retaining its bacterial killing activity.

  6. Crystal structures of hevamine, a plant defence protein with chitinase and lysozyme activity, and its complex with an inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Kalk, Kor H.; Beintema, Jaap J.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1994-01-01

    Background: Hevamine is a member of one of several families of plant chitinases and lysozymes that are important for plant defence against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The enzyme can hydrolyze the linear polysaccharide chains of chitin and peptidoglycan. A full understanding of the

  7. CRYSTAL-STRUCTURES OF HEVAMINE, A PLANT DEFENSE PROTEIN WITH CHITINASE AND LYSOZYME ACTIVITY, AND ITS COMPLEX WITH AN INHIBITOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSCHELTINGA, ACT; KALK, KH; BEINTEMA, JJ; DIJKSTRA, BW

    1994-01-01

    Background: Hevamine is a member of one of several families of plant chitinases and lysozymes that are important for plant defence against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The enzyme can hydrolyze the linear polysaccharide chains of chitin and peptidoglycan. A full understanding of the

  8. Larger red-shift in optical emissions obtained from the thin films of globular proteins (BSA, lysozyme) – polyelectrolyte (PAA) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, Hrishikesh [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India); Kundu, Sarathi, E-mail: sarathi.kundu@gmail.com [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India); Basu, Saibal [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-09-30

    Graphical abstract: Thin films of protein-polyelectrolyte complexes show larger red-shift in optical emission. - Highlights: • Globular proteins (lysozyme and BSA) and polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylic acid) are used to form protein-polyelectrolyte complexes (PPC). • Larger red-shift in optical emission is obtained from the thin films of PPC. • Red-shift is not obtained from the solution of PPC and pure protein thin films. • Larger red-shift from PPC films is due to the energy dissipation as non-radiative form through interactions with nearby atoms. • Red-shift in optical emission is independent on the thickness of the PPC film. - Abstract: Globular proteins (lysozyme and BSA) and polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylic acid) are used to form protein-polyelectrolyte complexes (PPC). Out-of-plane structures of ≈30–60 nm thick PPC films and their surface morphologies have been studied by using X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy, whereas optical behaviors of PPC and protein conformations have been studied by using UV–vis, photoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy respectively. Our study reveals that thin films of PPC show a larger red-shift of 23 and 16 nm in the optical emissions in comparison to that of pure protein whereas bulk PPC show a small blue-shift of ≈3 nm. A small amount of peak-shift is found to occur due to the heat treatment or concentration variation of the polyelectrolyte/protein in bulk solution but cannot produce such film thickness independent larger red-shift. Position of the emission peak remains nearly unchanged with the film thickness. Mechanism for such larger red-shift has been proposed.

  9. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Ashley J.; Hussain, Rohanah; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Siligardi, Giuliano; Yates, Edwin A.; Rudd, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zinc–heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. ► Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. ► Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn–heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled β-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased β-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 °C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn–heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

  10. Genomic organization and evolution of ruminant lysozyme c genes

    OpenAIRE

    IRWIN, David M

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant stomach lysozyme is a long established model of adaptive gene evolution. Evolution of stomach lysozyme function required changes in the site of expression of the lysozyme c gene and changes in the enzymatic properties of the enzyme. In ruminant mammals, these changes were associated with a change in the size of the lysozyme c gene family. The recent release of near complete genome sequences from several ruminant species allows a more complete examination of the evolution and diversif...

  11. Interactions of proteins in aqueous ammonium-sulfate solutions:Mixtures of lysozyme and ovalbumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Camille O.; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2001-11-10

    We present a three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation of a laboratory-scale rod-stabilized premixed turbulent V-flame. The simulations are performed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number model with detailed chemical kinetics and a mixture model for differential species diffusion. The algorithm is based on a second-order projection formulation and does not require an explicit sub grid model for turbulence or turbulence chemistry interaction. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to dynamically resolve the flame and turbulent structures. Here, we briefly discuss the numerical procedure and present detailed comparisons with experimental measurements showing that the computation is able to accurately capture the basic flame morphology and associated mean velocity field. Finally, we discuss key issues that arise in performing these types of simulations and the implications of these issues for using computation to form a bridge between turbulent flame experiments and basic combustion chemistry.

  12. Invertebrate lysozymes: Diversity and distribution, molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This review describes the current knowledge on i-type lysozymes, outlining their distribution, molecular mechanism and in vivo function taking the representative from Venerupis philippinarum (formerly Tapes japonica) (Vp-ilys) as a model. In addition, invertebrate g-type and ch-type (chalaropsis) lysozymes, which have ...

  13. Proton NMR measurements of bacteriophage T4 lysozyme aided by 15N isotopic labeling: structural and dynamic studies of larger proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, L.P.; Griffey, R.H.; Muchmore, D.C.; Nielson, C.P.; Redfield, A.G.; Dahlquist, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for resolution and assignment of single proton resonances in proteins of molecular mass up to at least 40 kDa is presented. This approach is based on 15 N (or 13 C) labeling of selected residues in a protein. The resonances from protons directly bonded to labeled atoms are detected in a two-dimensional 1H- 15 N (or 13 C) spectrum. The nuclear Overhauser effects from isotopically tagged protons are selectively observed in one-dimensional isotope-directed measurements. Using this approach, we have observed approximately 160 resonances from 15 N-bonded protons in the backbone and sidechains of uniformly 15 N-labeled T4 lysozyme (molecular mass = 18.7 kDa). Partial proton-deuterium exchange can be used to simplify the 1H- 15 N spectrum of this protein. These resonances are identified by amino acid class using selective incorporation of 15 N-labeled amino acids and are assigned to specific residues by mutational substitution, multiple 15 N and 13 C labeling, and isotope-directed nuclear Overhauser effect measurements. For example, using a phenyl[ 15 N]alanine-labeled lysozyme variant containing two consecutive phenylalanine residues in an alpha-helical region, we observe an isotope-directed nuclear Overhauser effect from the amide proton of Phe-66 to that of Phe-67

  14. Lysozyme Resistance in Streptococcus suis Is Highly Variable and Multifactorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J.; van Weeghel, Christian; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.; Smith, Hilde E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is an important infectious agent for pigs and occasionally for humans. The host innate immune system plays a key role in preventing and eliminating S. suis infections. One important constituent of the innate immune system is the protein lysozyme, which is present in a variety of body fluids and immune cells. Lysozyme acts as a peptidoglycan degrading enzyme causing bacterial lysis. Several pathogens have developed mechanisms to evade lysozyme-mediated killing. In the present study we compared the lysozyme sensitivity of various S. suis isolates and investigated the molecular basis of lysozyme resistance for this pathogen. Results The lysozyme minimal inhibitory concentrations of a wide panel of S. suis isolates varied between 0.3 to 10 mg/ml. By inactivating the oatA gene in a serotype 2 and a serotype 9 strain, we showed that OatA-mediated peptidoglycan modification partly contributes to lysozyme resistance. Furthermore, inactivation of the murMN operon provided evidence that additional peptidoglycan crosslinking is not involved in lysozyme resistance in S. suis. Besides a targeted approach, we also used an unbiased approach for identifying factors involved in lysozyme resistance. Based on whole genome comparisons of a lysozyme sensitive strain and selected lysozyme resistant derivatives, we detected several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were correlated with the lysozyme resistance trait. Two SNPs caused defects in protein expression of an autolysin and a capsule sugar transferase. Analysis of specific isogenic mutants, confirmed the involvement of autolysin activity and capsule structures in lysozyme resistance of S. suis. Conclusions This study shows that lysozyme resistance levels are highly variable among S. suis isolates and serotypes. Furthermore, the results show that lysozyme resistance in S. suis can involve different mechanisms including OatA-mediated peptidolycan modification, autolysin activity and capsule

  15. Influence of surface charge on lysozyme adsorption to ceria nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Binghui; Wu Peng; Yokel, Robert A.; Grulke, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms for forming protein coronas on nanomaterial surfaces is essential to designing drug delivery systems and designing and interpreting the results of nanomaterial toxicity tests. The study reports the adsorption behavior of a positively charged protein, lysozyme, on cerium dioxide (ceria) nanoparticles with three different surface charges. Adsorption isotherms were modeled with the Toth and Sips equations. Isotherm loading levels were compared to monolayer coverage estimate for ‘side-on’ and ‘end-on’ lysozyme orientations as well as random packing (jamming) and maximum packing limits. Evaluation of adsorption site energy distributions (generated using the model coefficients) suggested that the negatively charged ceria surface had a very broad site energy distribution and that its surface heterogeneity controls the adsorption process. By contrast, the adsorption of lysozyme on the positively charged nanoparticles appears to be influenced by lateral effects from adsorbed protein species. The results illustrate the importance of nanoparticle surface chemistry to protein adsorption. The modeling and site energy distribution evaluations may be useful for interpreting the formation of protein coronas on nanoparticles.

  16. Immunogenicity of Structurally Perturbed Hen Egg Lysozyme Adsorbed to Silicone Oil Microdroplets in Wild-Type and Transgenic Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Carly F; Soucie, Kaitlin R; Song, Jane S; Strauch, Pamela; Torres, Raul M; Carpenter, John F; Ragheb, Jack A; Randolph, Theodore W

    2017-06-01

    Silicone oil microdroplets may act as adjuvants, promoting unwanted immune responses against both foreign and self-proteins. Proteins often unfold upon adsorption to silicone oil microdroplets, but it is unclear how such unfolding might affect the immune response. In this study, we found that hen egg lysozyme (HEL) readily adsorbed to silicone oil microdroplets and perturbed the conformation of HEL. We compared the immune response to injections of HEL formulated in the presence and absence of silicone oil microdroplets in both wild-type mice and transgenic littermates that express a soluble form of HEL (sHEL), thus rendering them immunologically tolerant to this nominal self-antigen. Following 2 subcutaneous injections of a HEL formulation containing silicone oil microdroplets, wild-type mice exhibited a stronger IgG1 antibody response against HEL compared to the response in wild-type mice that administered an oil-free HEL formulation. However, when HEL was subcutaneously administered to sHEL-transgenic mice, immunological tolerance to sHEL was not broken in the presence of silicone oil microdroplets. Thus, although structural perturbations in proteins adsorbed to silicone oil microdroplets may augment the immune response, in the case of endogenously expressed proteins, such structural perturbations may not be sufficient to result in a breach of immunological tolerance. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Precipitation of lysozyme with sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate: Solubility and osmotic second virial coefficient data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Vélez, José Sebastián; Azzoni, Adriano Rodrigues; Pessoa Filho, Pedro de Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility of lysozyme in biodegradable salt solutions was investigated. • Studied biodegradable salts: sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate. • Sodium succinate and sodium tartrate are promising salting-out agents. • Osmotic second virial coefficient (B 22 ) of lysozyme was also investigated. • Values of B 22 indicate that crystallization may be achieved using these salts. - Abstract: Precipitation and crystallization are unit operations widely used to concentrate and purify proteins in biotechnology industry. In this work, the potential use of the biodegradable salts sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate to reduce the solubility of proteins is investigated. Lysozyme was studied as a model protein. The solubility of lysozyme in aqueous solutions of sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate was experimentally determined as a function of the ionic strength and pH at 298.2 K. All these salts induce the precipitation of lysozyme, being sodium succinate the most effective one to reduce the solubility of this protein. The osmotic second virial coefficient of lysozyme as a function of the ionic strength was also determined using self-interaction chromatography at 298.2 K and pH 8.5. The experimental data show that the value of the second virial coefficient is negative at the investigated conditions and lies mostly within or close to the crystallization slot, i.e., the range of values of this coefficient for which the formation of crystals is favored.

  18. A residue level protein-protein interaction model in electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueyu

    2014-03-01

    The osmotic second virial coefficients B2 are directly related to the solubility of protein molecules in electrolyte solutions and can be useful to narrow down the search parameter space of protein crystallization conditions. Using a residue level model of protein-protein interaction in electrolyte solutions B2 of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and lysozyme in various solution conditions such as salt concentration, pH and temperature are calculated using an extended Fast Multipole Methods in combination with the boundary element formulation. Overall, the calculated B2 are well correlated with the experimental observations for various solution conditions. In combination with our previous work on the binding affinity calculations of protein complexes it is demonstrated that our residue level model can be used as a reliable model to describe protein-protein interaction in solutions.

  19. Raman mapping of mannitol/lysozyme particles produced via spray drying and single droplet drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajander, Jari Pekka; Matero, Sanni; Sloth, Jakob; Wan, Feng; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet/particles was monitored using the DRYING KINETICS ANALYZER™ (DKA) with controllable drying conditions mimicking the spray-drying process to estimate the drying kinetics of the lysozyme/mannitol formulations. The mannitol polymorphism and the spatial distribution of lysozyme in the particles were examined using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis, whereas Raman analysis indicated that a mixture of α-mannitol and δ-mannitol was detected in the single particles from DKA. In addition Raman mapping indicated that the presence of lysozyme seemed to favor the appearance of α-mannitol in the particles from DKA evidenced by close proximity of lysozyme and mannitol in the particles. It suggested that the presence of lysozyme tend to induce metastable solid state forms upon the drying process.

  20. Effect of ethanol as a co-solvent on the aerosol performance and stability of spray-dried lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Shuying; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Mu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    In the spray drying process, organic solvents can be added to facilitate drying, accommodate certain functional excipients, and modify the final particle characteristics. In this study, lysozyme was used as a model pharmaceutical protein to study the effect of ethanol as a co-solvent on the stabi......In the spray drying process, organic solvents can be added to facilitate drying, accommodate certain functional excipients, and modify the final particle characteristics. In this study, lysozyme was used as a model pharmaceutical protein to study the effect of ethanol as a co......-solvent on the stability and aerosol performance of spray-dried protein. Lysozyme was dissolved in solutions with various ratios of ethanol and water, and subsequently spray-dried. A change from spherical particles into wrinkled and folded particles was observed upon increasing the ratio of ethanol in the feed....... The aerosol performance of the spray-dried lysozyme from ethanol-water solution was improved compared to that from pure water. The conformation of lysozyme in the ethanol-water solution and spray dried powder was altered, but the native structure of lysozyme was restored upon reconstitution in water after...

  1. Interaction mechanism between 4-aminoantipyrine and the enzyme lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Yue; Ji Fanying; Li Chao; Yu Zehua; Liu Rutao

    2011-01-01

    4-Aminoantipyrine (AAP) is scarcely administered as a kind of analgesic drug because of the side effect. The residue of AAP in the environment poses a potential threat to human health. To evaluate the toxicity of AAP at the protein level, the effects of AAP on lysozyme were investigated using spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. Addition of AAP effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme. Static quenching of lysozyme by AAP revealed the formation of complex. After the inner filter effect was eliminated, the number of binding sites, the binding constant and the thermodynamic parameters were measured, and indicated that AAP can spontaneously bind with lysozyme through hydrophobic interactions with one binding site. Molecular docking results revealed that AAP bound into the enzyme active site and interacted with the Trp 62 and Trp 63 residues of lysozyme, which illustrated that the lysozyme activity was inhibited by AAP, in accordance with the results of the lysozyme activity experiment. Furthermore, the binding of AAP can result in demonstrable change of the conformation of lysozyme. This work is helpful for clarifying the molecular toxic mechanism of AAP in vivo. - Highlights: → This work established the binding mode of AAP with lysozyme in molecular level. → Mechanism was explored by multiple spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. → AAP can inhibit lysozyme activity and induce conformational changes in lysozyme.

  2. Human lysozyme has fungicidal activity against nasal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charmaine M; Hooper, David N; Ooi, Eng H; Tan, Lor-Wai; Carney, A Simon

    2011-01-01

    The cationic antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is the most prevalent innate immune protein in nasal secretions but there is a paucity of research regarding its role in paranasal sinus disease. Lysozyme is generally regarded as an antibacterial agent; however, some data suggest activity toward yeast. This study was designed to determine if lysozyme displays fungicidal activity toward fungi commonly identified in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) or fungal sinusitis. Using a colony-forming unit assay the fungicidal activity of lysozyme (0, 0.5, 5, and 50 micromolar; 0- to 7-hour treatment) was tested against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, the yeast Candida albicans, and other fungi commonly identified in mucin of patients with CRS. Fungi cultured directly from the mucin of two CRS patients were also tested to determine if they were resistant to the fungicidal activity of lysozyme. The fungicidal effect of lysozyme was both concentration and time dependent. After 7-hour treatment lysozyme (5 micromolar) had >80% fungicidal activity against A. fumigatus, Penicillium sp., Acremonium sp., C. albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. The fungicidal activity of lysozyme toward Alternaria alternata could not be determined. Lysozyme was also fungicidal toward the clinical isolates A. fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus cultured from the mucin of CRS patients. Lysozyme displays fungicidal activity toward many fungi commonly identified in patients with CRS, as well as clinical fungi isolates cultured from the mucin of CRS patients. Additional studies are required to determine the regulation of lysozyme in CRS.

  3. A comparison of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant isoforms of thrombolytic and antibacterial protein--Destabilase-Lysozyme from medicinal leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdyumov, Alexey S; Manuvera, Valentin A; Baskova, Isolda P; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-11-21

    Destabilase-Lysozyme (mlDL) is a multifunctional i-type enzyme that has been found in the secretions from the salivary glands of medicinal leeches. mlDL has been shown to exhibit isopeptidase, muramidase and antibacterial activity. This enzyme attracts interest because it expresses thrombolytic activity through isopeptidolysis of the ε-(γ-Glu)-Lys bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains in stabilised fibrin. To date, three isoforms of mlDL have been identified. The enzymatic properties of pure mlDL isoforms have not yet been described because only destabilase complexes containing other proteins could be isolated from the salivary gland secretion and because low product yield from the generation of recombinant proteins has made comprehensive testing difficult. In the present study, we optimised the procedures related to the expression, isolation and purification of active mlDL isoforms (mlDL-Ds1, mlDL-Ds2, mlDL-Ds3) using an Escherichia coli expression system, and we detected and compared their muramidase, lytic, isopeptidase and antimicrobial activities. After optimisation, the product yield was 30 mg per litre of culture. The data obtained in our study led to the suggestion that the recombinant mlDL isoforms isolated from inclusion bodies form stable oligomeric complexes. Analyses of the tested activities revealed that all isoforms exhibited almost identical patterns of pH and ionic strength effects on the activities. We determined that mlDL-Ds1, 2, 3 possessed non-enzymatic antibacterial activity independent of their muramidase activity. For the first time, we demonstrated the fibrinolytic activity of the recombinant mlDL and showed that only intact proteins possessed this activity, suggesting their enzymatic nature. The recombinant Destabilase-Lysozyme isoforms obtained in our study may be considered potential thrombolytic agents that act through a mechanism different from that of common thrombolytics.

  4. Surface protein imprinted core-shell particles for high selective lysozyme recognition prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinran; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Jianxi; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-12-24

    A novel kind of lysozyme (Lys) surface imprinted core-shell particles was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) strategy. With controllable polymer shell chain length, such particles showed obviously improved selectivity for protein recognition. After the RAFT initial agent and template protein was absorbed on silica particles, the prepolymerization solution, with methacrylic acid and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate as the monomers, and N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) as the cross-linker, was mixed with the silica particles, and the polymerization was performed at 40 °C in aqueous phase through the oxidation-reduction initiation. Ater polymerization, with the template protein removal and destroying dithioester groups with hexylamine, the surface Lyz imprinted particles were obtained with controllable polymer chain length. The binding capacity of the Lys imprinted particles could reach 5.6 mg protein/g material, with the imprinting factor (IF) as 3.7, whereas the IF of the control material prepared without RAFT strategy was only 1.6. The absorption equilibrium could be achieved within 60 min. Moreover, Lys could be selectively recognized by the imprinted particles from both a four-proteins mixture and egg white sample. All these results demonstrated that these particles prepared by RAFT strategy are promising to achieve the protein recognition with high selectivity.

  5. The Protein Model Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, J?rgen; Battey, James N. D.; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D.; Berman, Helen M.; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploratio...

  6. Third party annotation gene data set of eutherian lysozyme genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Premzl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol annotated most comprehensive eutherian lysozyme gene data set. Among 209 potential coding sequences, the third party annotation gene data set of eutherian lysozyme genes included 116 complete coding sequences that first described seven major gene clusters. As one new framework of future experiments, the present integrated gene annotations, phylogenetic analysis and protein molecular evolution analysis proposed new classification and nomenclature of eutherian lysozyme genes.

  7. Colorectal adenomas produce lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C A

    2003-01-01

    Lysozyme is an innate non-immunologic antibacterial enzyme produced by the Paneth cells of the upper intestinal tract. Lysozyme is not normally secreted in the lower intestinal tract. Previous reports indicate, however, that lysozyme may be secreted by colorectal neoplasias. The aim was to audit lysozyme expression in colorectal diseases including neoplasias. For that purpose, sections were stained with lysozyme (Muramidase), Ki67 (MIB1) and CD 68. Intense lysozyme overexpression (+++) was compared among 177 colorectal tissues: 35 having normal mucosa, 20 regenerative mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 2 inflammatory polyps, 3 collagenous colitis, 2 melanosis coli, 21 hyperplastic polyps, 42 tubular adenomas, 9 serrated adenomas, 30 villous adenomas and 13 invasive carcinomas. Intense lysozyme overexpression (+++) was found in 9.5% of the hyperplastic polyps, in 97.6% of the tubular adenomas, in 88.9% of the serrated adenomas, in 93.3% of the villous adenomas, in 76.9% of the carcinomas, but in none of the other tissues investigated. Neoplastic colorectal cells may acquire the capacity to produce lysozyme. The presence of that enzyme may not be a haphazard, capricious event in mutated colorectal epithelial cells but part of a more elaborate molecular behavior, not necessarily antibacterial. Recently, it was demonstrated that patients having lysozyme-secreting breast carcinomas were associated with a favorable prognosis. Whether lysozyme expression has any bearing on the biological behavior of colorectal carcinomas remains to be elucidated. Lysozyme overexpression (+++) also occurred in 2 of the 21 hyperplastic polyps, suggesting that intense lysozyme production might herald a possible dysplastic evolution in some hyperplastic polyps.

  8. Hexafluoroisopropanol-induced catanionic-surfactants-based coacervate extraction for analysis of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Niu, Manli; Xiao, Yuxiu

    2017-02-01

    A coacervate extraction method, based on hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP)-induced catanionic surfactants and coupled with a back-extraction procedure, was developed for separation and purification of proteins, using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) as representative catanionic surfactants and lysozyme as a model protein. After the coacervate extraction and back extraction, the obtained lysozyme solutions were examined in terms of quantitative analysis by capillary electrophoresis, bacteriolytic activity, and circular dichroism (CD). The effects of several parameters including back-extraction solvent, HFIP content, total surfactant concentration, and SDS/DTAB molar ratio were investigated in detail on the extraction efficiency and activity of lysozyme. Under the optimized extraction conditions (66 mM KH 2 PO 4 buffer with pH 6.2 as back-extraction solvent, SDS/DTAB molar ratio = 1:1 mol/mol, total surfactant concentration = 30 mM, HIFP concentration = 8 % v/v), the extraction recovery was 89.8 % (±4.7, n = 3), limit of detection was 2.2 (±0.3, n = 3) μg mL -1 , and meanwhile nearly 65 % of native lysozyme activity was retained. In addition, the activity and CD assays showed that SDS/DTAB molar ratio had a significant influence on the activity and structure of lysozyme after extraction. The DTAB-rich extraction systems, in which the DTAB mole fraction was equal to or larger than 70 %, could keep the activity and structure of lysozyme almost in the native state. Graphical Abstract Procedure of HFIP-induced SDS/DTAB coacervate extraction and back extraction of lysozyme.

  9. Cloning, characterization, and production of a novel lysozyme by different expression hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Fu, Gang; Zhang, Dawei

    2014-10-01

    Lysozyme is a protein found in egg white, tears, saliva, and other secretions. As a marketable natural alternative to preservatives, lysozyme can act as a natural antibiotic. In this study, we have isolated Bacillus licheniformis TIB320 from soil, which contains a lysozyme gene with various features. We have cloned and expressed the lysozyme in E. coli. The antimicrobial activity of the lysozyme showed that it had a broad antimicrobial spectrum against several standard strains. The lysozyme could maintain efficient activities in a pH range between 3 and 9 and from 20°C to 60°C, respectively. The lysozyme was resistant to pepsin and trypsin to some extent at 40°C. Production of the lysozyme was optimized by using various expression strategies in B. subtilis WB800. The lysozyme from B. licheniformis TIB320 will be promising as a food or feed additive.

  10. The Effect of Complex Solvents on the Structure and Dynamics of Protein Solutions: the case of Lysozyme in Trehalose/Water Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K [ORNL; Carri, Gustavo A. [University of Akron

    2013-01-01

    We present a Molecular Dynamics simulation study of the effect of trehalose concentration on the structure and dynamics of individual proteins immersed in trehalose/water mixtures. Hen Egg White Lysozyme is used in this study and trehalose concentrations of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 100% by weight are explored. Surprisingly, we have found that changes in trehalose concentration do not change the global structural characteristics of the protein as measured by standard quantities like the mean square deviation, radius of gyration, solvent accessible surface area, inertia tensor and asphericity. Only in the limit of pure trehalose these metrics change significantly. Specifically, we found that the protein is compressed by 2% when immersed in pure trehalose. At the amino acid level there is noticeable rearrangement of the surface residues due to the change in polarity of the surrounding environment with the addition of trehalose. From a dynamic perspective, our computation of the Incoherent Intermediate Scattering Function shows that the protein slows down with increasing trehalose concentration; however, this slowdown is not monotonic. Finally, we also report in-depth results for the hydration layer around the protein including its structure, hydrogen- bonding characteristics and dynamic behavior at different length scales.

  11. The Antimicrobial Peptide Lysozyme Is Induced after Multiple Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Klüter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is an important factor of innate immunity and exerts high potential of antibacterial activity. In the present study we evaluated the lysozyme expression in serum of multiple injured patients and subsequently analyzed their possible sources and signaling pathways. Expression of lysozyme was examined in blood samples of multiple trauma patients from the day of trauma until 14 days after trauma by ELISA. To investigate major sources of lysozyme, its expression and regulation in serum samples, different blood cells, and tissue samples were analysed by ELISA and real-time PCR. Neutrophils and hepatocytes were stimulated with cytokines and supernatant of Staphylococcus aureus. The present study demonstrates the induction and release of lysozyme in serum of multiple injured patients. The highest lysozyme expression of all tested cells and tissues was detected in neutrophils. Stimulation with trauma-related factors such as interleukin-6 and S. aureus induced lysozyme expression. Liver tissue samples of patients without trauma show little lysozyme expression compared to neutrophils. After stimulation with bacterial fragments, lysozyme expression of hepatocytes is upregulated significantly. Toll-like receptor 2, a classic receptor of Gram-positive bacterial protein, was detected as a possible target for lysozyme induction.

  12. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C α RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Controlled Release of Lysozyme from Double-Walled Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide (PLGA Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul H. Ansary

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Double-walled microspheres based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA are potential delivery systems for reducing a very high initial burst release of encapsulated protein and peptide drugs. In this study, double-walled microspheres made of glucose core, hydroxyl-terminated poly(lactide-co-glycolide (Glu-PLGA, and carboxyl-terminated PLGA were fabricated using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil-in-water (w1/o/o/w2 emulsion solvent evaporation technique for the controlled release of a model protein, lysozyme. Microspheres size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, lysozyme in vitro release profiles, bioactivity, and structural integrity, were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images revealed that double-walled microspheres comprising of Glu-PLGA and PLGA with a mass ratio of 1:1 have a spherical shape and smooth surfaces. A statistically significant increase in the encapsulation efficiency (82.52% ± 3.28% was achieved when 1% (w/v polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and 2.5% (w/v trehalose were incorporated in the internal and external aqueous phase, respectively, during emulsification. Double-walled microspheres prepared together with excipients (PVA and trehalose showed a better control release of lysozyme. The released lysozyme was fully bioactive, and its structural integrity was slightly affected during microspheres fabrication and in vitro release studies. Therefore, double-walled microspheres made of Glu-PLGA and PLGA together with excipients (PVA and trehalose provide a controlled and sustained release for lysozyme.

  14. Identification and characterization of a novel phage-type like lysozyme from Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianfeng; Wang, Rui; Yang, Feng; Zhao, Liqiang; Qin, Yanjie; Zhang, Guofan; Yan, Xiwu

    2014-11-01

    A novel lysozyme gene (RpLysPh) with high similarity to the bacteriophage lysozymes was identified in Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. The full length cDNA of RpLysPh is 828bp and contains a 462bp open reading frame (ORF) that codes for a 154 amino acid protein. Multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed that the three residues essential for catalytic activity in phage-type lysozyme (Glu(20), Asp(29), and Thr(35)) are conserved in RpLysPh. The comparison of the 3D models of RpLysPh and Coxiella burnetii lysozyme also suggested that the active sites involved in the binding of substrate have similar conformations. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that RpLysPh shares a similar origin with the bacterial phage-type lysozyme group. The highest level of expression of RpLysPh was observed in hemocytes, followed by mantle. Induction of RpLysPh expression was observed in gills in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly(I:C)), and whole glucan particles (WGP) challenge. The recombinant protein of RpLysPh showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interaction of nano-TiO2 with lysozyme: insights into the enzyme toxicity of nanosized particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Liu, Xi-Wei; Ma, Yin-Sheng; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2010-03-01

    Nanomaterials have been used increasingly in industrial production and daily life, but their human exposure may cause health risks. The interactions of nanomaterial with functional biomolecules are often applied as a precondition for its cytotoxicity and organ toxicity where various proteins have been investigated in the past years. In the present study, nano-TiO(2) was selected as the representative of nanomaterials and lysozyme as a representative for enzymes. By investigating their interaction by various instrumentations, the objective is to identify the action sites and types, estimate the effect on the enzyme structure and activity, and reveal the toxicity mechanism of nanomaterial. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the interactions of nano-TiO(2) with lysozyme. The interaction of nano-TiO(2) particles with lysozyme has been studied in the analogous physiological media in detail by UV spectrometry, fluorophotometry, circular dichroism (CD), scanning electron microscope, zeta-potential, and laser particle size. The interaction accorded with the Langmuir isothermal adsorption and the saturation number of lysozyme is determined to be 580 per nano-TiO(2) particle (60 nm of size) with 4.7 x 10(6) M(-1) of the stability constant in the physiological media. The acidity and ion strength of the media obviously affected the binding of lysozyme. The warping and deformation of the lysozyme bridging were demonstrated by the conversion of its spatial structure from alpha-helix into a beta-sheet, measured by CD. In the presence of nano-TiO(2), the bacteriolysis activity of lysozyme was subjected to an obvious inhibition. The two-step binding model of lysozyme was proposed, in which lysozyme was adsorbed on nano-TiO(2) particle surface by electrostatic interaction and then the hydrogen bond (N-H...O and O-H...O) formed between nano-TiO(2) particle and polar side groups of lysozyme. The adsorption of lysozyme obeyed the Langmuir isothermal model. The

  16. Release of proteins via ion exchange from albumin-heparin microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Cremers, H.F.M.; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1992-01-01

    Albumin-heparin and albumin microspheres were prepared as ion exchange gels for the controlled release of positively charged polypeptides and proteins. The adsorption isotherms of chicken egg and human lysozyme, as model proteins, on microspheres were obtained. An adsorption isotherm of chicken egg lysozyme on albumin-heparin microspheres was linear until saturation was abruptly reached, The adsorption isotherms of human lysozyme at low and high ionic strength were typical of adsorption isoth...

  17. Variability of lysozyme and lactoferrin bioactive protein concentrations in equine milk in relation to LYZ and LTF gene polymorphisms and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Jakub; Wodas, Lukasz; Borowska, Alicja; Sadoch, Jan; Pawlak, Piotr; Puppel, Kamila; Kuczynska, Beata; Mackowski, Mariusz

    2017-05-01

    Equine milk is considered to be an interesting product for human nutrition, mainly owing to its low allergenicity and significant amounts of bioactive proteins, including lysozyme (LYZ) and lactoferrin (LTF). The present study assessed the effect of genetic factors on LYZ and LTF concentration variability in mare's milk. Significant effects of horse breed and lactation stage on milk LYZ and LTF contents were observed. The highest level of LTF and the lowest concentration of LYZ were recorded for the Polish Warmblood Horse breed. The highest amounts of both proteins were found for the earliest investigated time point of lactation (5th week). Altogether 13 (nine novel) polymorphisms were found in the 5'-flanking regions of both genes, but they showed no significant relationship with milk LYZ and LTF contents. Several associations were found between selected SNPs and the LYZ gene relative transcript level. While the present study indicated the existence of intra- and interbreed variability of LYZ and LTF contents in mare's milk, this variation is rather unrelated to the 5'-flanking variants of genes encoding both proteins. This study is a good introduction for broader investigations focused on the genetic background for variability of bioactive protein contents in mare's milk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Molecular characterization, gene structure and antibacterial activity of a g-type lysozyme from the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Trisolino, Pamela; Facchiano, Angelo; de Pascale, Donatella; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    In fish, the first line of defense is represented by the innate immune system and the lysozyme is one of the molecules involved in this mechanism of protection. Three types of lysozymes have been identified in metazoan, the c-type (chicken or conventional), the g-type (goose-type) and the i-type (invertebrate type). They are all involved in the hydrolysation of the bacterial cell wall. Our work has been focused on the molecular characterization, expression analysis by real-time PCR, both at basal condition and after in vivo challenges, and 3D structural studies on the g-type lysozyme from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Moreover, a recombinant sea bass lysozyme has been produced in Escherichia coli and used to investigate the activity of the enzyme at different pH and temperatures and to perform antibacterial assays against typical fish pathogens. The cloned sea bass cDNA for g-type lysozyme (accession number FN667957) consists of 742 bp and translates for a putative protein of 188 amino acids. The molecular weight is 20.251, 41Da with a theoretical pI of 8.53, two cysteine residues along the sequence and no putative signal peptide. These features of the enzyme are in agreement with the expected characteristics of a proper g-type lysozyme, except for the cysteine residues that in fish are quite variable in number. An alignment between known g-type lysozyme sequences evidences that the amino acid residues thought to be involved in the enzyme catalysis (Glu(71), Asp(84) and Asp(95) in sea bass) are quite well conserved between mammalian, avian and fish sequences. The sea bass g-type lysozyme gene is composed of four exons and three introns and this gene structure is more compact compared to other known fish lysozyme homologues. Modeling of 3D structure has been performed on the template structure of g-type lysozyme from Atlantic cod. The catalytic site appears well conserved when compared with known structures of fish g-type lysozymes (cod and salmon). The basal

  19. Study on nucleation kinetics of lysozyme crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jing J.; Wang, Xue Z.

    2017-07-01

    The nucleation kinetics of hen egg-white lysozyme crystallization was investigated using a hot stage cooling crystallizer and a microscope to monitor the solution crystallization process in real time. Images of crystals were continuously recorded under varied precipitant and protein concentrations. The nucleation rate was found to be higher at higher precipitant concentration, and increase monotonically with protein concentration if the precipitant concentration was held constant. Attempt was made to interpret the experimental data using classical nucleation theory. It was found that the model predictions are lower than the experimental values at low supersaturations but agree well with experimental data at high supersaturations. The trends in the experimental data suggest that two nucleation mechanisms might co-exist: heterogeneous nucleation seems to be the dominant at low supersaturation while at higher supersaturation homogeneous nucleation seems to play the major role.

  20. 1H NMR studies of human lysozyme: Spectral assignment and comparison with hen lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfield, C.; Dobson, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Complete main-chain (NH and αCH) 1 H NMR assignments are reported for the 130 residues of human lysozyme, along with extensive assignments for side-chain protons. Analysis of 2-D NOESY experiments shows that the regions of secondary structure for human lysozyme in solution are essentially identical with those found previously in a similar study of hen lysozyme and are in close accord with the structure of the protein reported previously from x-ray diffraction studies in the crystalline state. Comparison of the chemical shifts, spin-spin coupling constants, and hydrogen exchange behavior are also consistent with closely similar structures for the two proteins in solution. In a number of cases specific differences in the NMR parameters between hen and human lysozymes can be correlated with specific differences observed in the crystal structures

  1. Identification of chicken lysozyme g2 and its expression in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, C J; Townes, C L; Michailidis, G; Hirst, B H; Hall, J

    2004-11-01

    Lysozyme is an important component of the innate immune system, protecting the gastrointestinal tract from infection. The aim of the present study was to determine if lysozyme is expressed in the chicken ( Gallus gallus) intestine and to characterise the molecular forms expressed. Immunohistochemical staining localised lysozyme to epithelial cells of the villous epithelium along the length of the small intestine. There was no evidence for lysozyme expression in crypt epithelium and no evidence for Paneth cells. Immunoblots of chicken intestinal protein revealed three proteins: a 14-kDa band consistent with lysozyme c, and two additional bands of approximately 21 and 23 kDa, the latter consistent with lysozyme g. RT-PCR analyses confirmed that lysozyme c mRNA is expressed in 4-day, but not older chicken intestine and lysozyme g in 4- to 35-day chicken intestine. A novel chicken lysozyme g2 gene was identified by in silico analyses and mRNA for this lysozyme g2 was identified in the intestine from chickens of all ages. Chicken lysozyme g2 shows similarity with fish lysozyme g, including the absence of a signal peptide and cysteines involved in disulphide bond formation of the mammalian and bird lysozyme g proteins. Analyses using SecretomeP predict that chicken lysozyme g2 may be secreted by the non-classical secretory pathway. We conclude that lysozyme is expressed in the chicken small intestine by villous enterocytes. Lysozyme c, lysozyme g and g2 may fulfil complimentary roles in protecting the intestine.

  2. Effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on the structure and activity of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hong; Lai, Chia-Min; Lin, Kuen-Song; Wang, Steven S-S

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on the structure and activity of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) using CeO 2 and ZnO NPs. Our results showed that CeO 2 NPs triggered the transition of lysozyme secondary structure from α-helix to β-sheet. CeO 2 NPs also induced the hydrophobic region of lysozyme to become exposed to the solvent. In contrast, the secondary structure content and hydrophobic region of lysozyme were only slightly changed in the case of ZnO NPs. In addition, the activity of the lysozyme was observed to decrease upon adsorption on CeO 2 NPs, whereas the effect of ZnO NPs on activity was negligible. The glutaraldehyde crosslinking results indicated that the percentage of the dimeric form of lysozyme was greatly enhanced by the addition of both NPs. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity, degree of favorability of adsorption, and surface heterogeneity for CeO 2 NPs were found to be greater than those on ZnO NPs. Given that CeO 2 NPs exhibit a higher surface area/mass than ZnO NPs, the surface concentration of lysozyme on CeO 2 NPs was lower than that on ZnO NPs. This result suggested that more direct interactions were involved between CeO 2 NPs and lysozyme, thereby leading to a more significant effect. Moreover, higher surface curvatures may also cause destruction of lysozyme's structure and thus affect its activity. In addition, taking into account the surface properties and protein properties, the Toth adsorption model along with the generated site energy distribution was further used to exaplain the difference between the results (e.g., structure, stability, and activity) of lysozyme adsorption on CeO 2 and ZnO NPs. The results reported here may aid in better understanding the beneficial or harmful impacts of nanoparticles on the biological systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlates between Models of Virulence for Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Isolates of the Central Asian Lineage: a Case for Lysozyme Resistance Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Nicola; Clark, Simon O.; Hooper, Richard; Williams, Ann; Velji, Preya; Gonzalo, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    Virulence factors (VFs) contribute to the emergence of new human Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, are lineage dependent, and are relevant to the development of M. tuberculosis drugs/vaccines. VFs were sought within M. tuberculosis lineage 3, which has the Central Asian (CAS) spoligotype. Three isolates were selected from clusters previously identified as dominant in London, United Kingdom. Strain-associated virulence was studied in guinea pig, monocyte-derived macrophage, and lysozyme resistance assays. Whole-genome sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, and a literature review contributed to the identification of SNPs of interest. The animal model revealed borderline differences in strain-associated pathogenicity. Ex vivo, isolate C72 exhibited statistically significant differences in intracellular growth relative to C6 and C14. SNP candidates inducing lower fitness levels included 123 unique nonsynonymous SNPs, including three located in genes (lysX, caeA, and ponA2) previously identified as VFs in the laboratory-adapted reference strain H37Rv and shown to confer lysozyme resistance. C72 growth was most affected by lysozyme in vitro. A BLAST search revealed that all three SNPs of interest (C35F, P76Q, and P780R) also occurred in Tiruvallur, India, and in Uganda. Unlike C72, however, no single isolate identified through BLAST carried all three SNPs simultaneously. CAS isolates representative of three medium-sized human clusters demonstrated differential outcomes in models commonly used to estimate strain-associated virulence, supporting the idea that virulence varies within, not just across, M. tuberculosis lineages. Three VF SNPs of interest were identified in two additional locations worldwide, which suggested independent selection and supported a role for these SNPs in virulence. The relevance of lysozyme resistance to strain virulence remains to be established. PMID:25776753

  4. Crystallization of lysozyme from lysozyme - ovalbumin mixtures: Separation potential and crystal growth kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maosoongnern, Somchai; Flood, Chalongsri; Flood, Adrian E.; Ulrich, Joachim

    2017-07-01

    Lysozyme was successfully separated from mixtures of lysozyme and ovalbumin by crystallization. The purity of the lysozyme product is more than 98%, the remaining activity is greater than 97%, and the yields of the crystal products were greater than 80%. The experimental conditions used were varied to study the effect of the operating parameters on the growth kinetics of lysozyme crystal and the separation ability of the process. The growth rates of lysozyme are second order with respect to the relative supersaturation. Therefore the growth kinetics of the crystallization process is controlled by the surface integration mechanism. The calculated growth rate constants were 5.4×10-6 cm/h and 2.5×10-6 cm/h for the crystallization process at 20 °C and 10 °C, respectively. There is no significant effect of the ovalbumin impurity up to the concentration of 67.5% ovalbumin (based on total protein) on the growth kinetics of lysozyme. Changing the NaCl concentration from 4% to 3% had no effect on the growth kinetics of lysozyme, although this does change the solubility and therefore the yield. The calculated activation energy was 53.08 kJ/mol which supports the hypothesis that the crystallization process is controlled by the surface integration mechanism.

  5. Modeling growth of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 type strain vegetative cells in the apple juice with nisin and lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celenk Molva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of storage temperature on A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 cells (105 CFU/mL was examined during growth in reconstituted apple juice (pH 3.8, °Brix 11.3 containing nisin (0–100 IU/mL and lysozyme (0–100 mg/L. The growth curves were obtained at three temperatures of 27, 35 and 43 °C using absorbance data (OD600 nm. Based on the results, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of nisin were found as 10 IU/mL at all tested temperatures. On the other hand, increasing the temperature decreased the amount of lysozyme for growth inhibition. The MICs of lysozyme were found as 10, 2.5 and 1.25 mg/L at 27, 35 and 43 °C, respectively. At selected non-inhibitory doses, nisin (1.25–5 IU/mL and lysozyme (0.3–2.5 mg/L prolonged the lag time compared to the controls at the corresponding temperatures. In addition, there was a strong linear relationship between the lag time and lysozyme concentrations at 27 and 35 °C (R2 > 0.98. The results of this study demonstrated that both nisin and lysozyme could be used to inhibit the growth of A. acidoterrestris cells in the apple juice. The results also indicated that the growth parameters were variable depending on the storage temperature and the type of the antimicrobial agent used in the apple juice.

  6. Thermal Unfolding Process of Lysozyme on PEGylated Gold Nanoparticles Reveals Length-Dependent Effects of PEG Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chengxu; Wang, Mingzhe; Wang, Liming; Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Chen, Chunying

    2018-08-01

    Characterization of bio-nano interface is crucial for developing safer and more efficient nanoparticles in nanomedical application. PEGylation is commonly used in nanocarrier for drug delivery, as it confers nanoparticles good stability, stealth effect and better targeting specificity compared with those without PEGylation. However, the protein binding state on PEGylated AuNP is still limited known. In present work, we prepared 13 nm AuNPs and then PEGylated them with thiol PEG methoxy. Lysozyme is selected as a model protein and to investigate the interactions on protein-PEGylated/AuNP interface. The thermal unfolding processes of lysozyme in absence and presence of PEGylated AuNP were measured by synchrotron radiation based circular dichroism (SRCD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The results suggest that in terms of secondary structural changes, α helix content is decreased, while β sheet content is increased, and thus the adsorbed lysozyme may be present in PEG layer.

  7. Evaluation of oriented lysozyme immobilized with monoclonal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Satoka; Okada, Keigo; Shigyo, Ayako; Man, Naoki; Karen, Akiya

    2008-12-01

    The orientation of a lysozyme immobilized with a monoclonal antibody was evaluated based on determination of the uppermost surface structure using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Specific peaks of the oriented lysozyme immobilized with monoclonal anti-lysozyme antibody were obtained in comparison with reference samples, non-oriented immobilized lysozyme and immobilized anti-lysozyme antibody. All samples were freeze-dried before TOF-SIMS measurement, and then each sample was measured using TOF-SIMS with a bismuth cluster ion source. TOF-SIMS spectra were analyzed to select peaks specific to the oriented immobilized lysozyme as well as to identify their chemical formula and ensemble of amino acids. The possible chemical formulae of the lysozyme fragments were then investigated with an element matching program and a residue matching program. The results from TOF-SIMS spectra analysis were compared to the amino acid sequence of the lysozyme and its three-dimensional structure registered in the protein data bank. Finally, the fragment-ion-generating regions of the oriented immobilized lysozyme were determined based on the suggested residues and the three-dimensional structure.

  8. The effect of mineral substrates on the crystallization of lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, W. L.; Paxton, T. E.; Rousseau, R. W.; Sambanis, A.

    1998-05-01

    The effects of exogenous mineral substrates on the induction time for nucleation, and on the number, morphology and purity of protein crystals were investigated in a series of experiments using chicken egg-white lysozyme (CEWL) as a model protein. CEWL was crystallized using the vapor-diffusion technique in the absence of substrates (control) and in the presence of mineral substrates exhibiting various degrees of crystalline lattice match to CEWL (experiments). Results indicate that mineral substrates with a close lattice match to CEWL had a greater influence on the induction time for nucleation and crystal properties.

  9. Solvent freeze out crystallization of lysozyme from a lysozyme-ovalbumin mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Borbon, V.; Ulrich, J. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Zentrum fuer Ingenieurwissenschaft, Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, 06099 Halle Saale (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) crystallization conditions from an ovalbumin-lysozyme mixture were found by screening tests and further located in pseudo-phase diagrams. This information was used to set up the initial conditions for the solvent freeze out (SFO) process. The process uses the freezing of ice to create the supersaturation for the proteins to crystallize out of the solution. The crystallization of HEWL (15 mg/mL) out of a lysozyme-ovalbumin mixture (1.7 mg/mL) is carried out by SFO. Under the reported conditions, a crystallization yield of 69 % was obtained. A mean crystal size of 77.8 {mu}m was enhanced in a crystallization time of 15.1 h. The lysozyme nature of the crystals is proven by SDS PAGE and enzymatic activity tests. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Neutron scattering study on the interaction between polyethylene glycol and lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magazu, S.; Migliardo, F.; Barreca, D.; Bellocco, E.; Lagana, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, new opportunities at the interface of polymer chemistry and biology have been explored. It has been found that polyethylene glycol (PEG) has bioprotectant effects in interacting with protein molecules. In the present paper, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) findings on lysozyme/D 2 O and lysozyme/D 2 O/PEG solutions for temperature values of T=310 and 333 K are shown. We are able to characterise by SANS the dimensions of the protein in solution and emphasise the effects of PEG on lysozyme

  11. The Protein Model Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, Jürgen; Battey, James N D; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D; Berman, Helen M; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2009-03-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploration of the protein structure space. One of the challenges in using model information effectively has been to access all models available for a specific protein in heterogeneous formats at different sites using various incompatible accession code systems. Often, structure models for hundreds of proteins can be derived from a given experimentally determined structure, using a variety of established methods. This has been done by all of the PSI centers, and by various independent modeling groups. The goal of the Protein Model Portal (PMP) is to provide a single portal which gives access to the various models that can be leveraged from PSI targets and other experimental protein structures. A single interface allows all existing pre-computed models across these various sites to be queried simultaneously, and provides links to interactive services for template selection, target-template alignment, model building, and quality assessment. The current release of the portal consists of 7.6 million model structures provided by different partner resources (CSMP, JCSG, MCSG, NESG, NYSGXRC, JCMM, ModBase, SWISS-MODEL Repository). The PMP is available at http://www.proteinmodelportal.org and from the PSI Structural Genomics Knowledgebase.

  12. Fluorescence Studies of Lysozyme Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc L.; Smith, Lori

    1998-01-01

    Fluorescence is one of the most powerful tools available for the study of macromolecules. For example, fluorescence can be used to study self association through methods such as anisotropy (the rotational rate of the molecule in solution), quenching (the accessibility of a bound probe to the bulk solution), and resonance energy transfer (measurement of the distance between two species). Fluorescence can also be used to study the local environment of the probe molecules, and the changes in that environment which accompany crystal nucleation and growth. However fluorescent techniques have been very much underutilized in macromolecular growth studies. One major advantage is that the fluorescent species generally must be at low concentration, typically ca 10-5 to 10-6 M. Thus one can study a very wide range of solution conditions, ranging from very high to very low protein concentration, he latter of which are not readily accessible to scattering techniques. We have prepared a number of fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme (CEWL). Fluorescent probes have been attached to two different sites, ASP 101 and the N-terrninal amine, with a sought for use in different lines of study. Preliminary resonance energy transfer studies have been -carried out using pyrene acetic acid (Ex 340 mn, Em 376 nm) lysozyme as a donor and cascade blue (Ex 377 run, Em 423 nm) labeled lysozyme as an acceptor. The emission of both the pyrene and cascade blue probes was followed as a function of the salt protein concentrations. The data show an increase in cascade blue and a concomitant decrease in the pyrene fluorescence as either the salt or protein concentrations are increased, suggesting that the two species are approaching each other close enough for resonance energy transfer to occur. This data can be analyzed to measure the distance between the probe molecules and, knowing their locations on the protein molecule their distances from and orientations with respect to each

  13. MODELS OF PROTEIN FOLDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnati Ahluwalia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to explore the understanding of protein folding mechanism, various models have been proposed in the literature. Advances in recent experimental and computational techniques rationalized our understanding on some of the fundamental features of the protein folding pathways. The goal of this review is to revisit the various models and outline the essential aspects of the folding reaction.

  14. Lysozyme Photochemistry as a Function of Temperature. The Protective Effect of Nanoparticles on Lysozyme Photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Silva, Catarina; Petersen, Steffen B; Pinto Reis, Catarina; Rijo, Patrícia; Molpeceres, Jesús; Vorum, Henrik; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The presence of aromatic residues and their close spatial proximity to disulphide bridges makes hen egg white lysozyme labile to UV excitation. UVB induced photo-oxidation of tryptophan and tyrosine residues leads to photochemical products, such as, kynurenine, N-formylkynurenine and dityrosine and to the disruption of disulphide bridges in proteins. We here report that lysozyme UV induced photochemistry is modulated by temperature, excitation power, illumination time, excitation wavelength and by the presence of plasmonic quencher surfaces, such as gold, and by the presence of natural fluorescence quenchers, such as hyaluronic acid and oleic acid. We show evidence that the photo-oxidation effects triggered by 295 nm at 20°C are reversible and non-reversible at 10°C, 25°C and 30°C. This paper provides evidence that the 295 nm damage threshold of lysozyme lies between 0.1 μW and 0.3 μW. Protein conformational changes induced by temperature and UV light have been detected upon monitoring changes in the fluorescence emission spectra of lysozyme tryptophan residues and SYPRO® Orange. Lysozyme has been conjugated onto gold nanoparticles, coated with hyaluronic acid and oleic acid (HAOA). Steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies of free and conjugated lysozyme onto HAOA gold nanoparticles reveals that the presence of the polymer decreased the rate of the observed photochemical reactions and induced a preference for short fluorescence decay lifetimes. Size and surface charge of the HAOA gold nanoparticles have been determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements. TEM analysis of the particles confirms the presence of a gold core surrounded by a HAOA matrix. We conclude that HAOA gold nanoparticles may efficiently protect lysozyme from the photochemical effects of UVB light and this nanocarrier could be potentially applied to other proteins with clinical relevance. In addition, this study confirms that the temperature plays a

  15. Lysozyme crystal growth, as observed by small angle X-ray scattering, proceeds without crystallization intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finet, S.; Bonnete, F.; Frouin, J.; Provost, K.; Tardieu, A.

    1998-01-01

    A combination of small angle X-ray scattering and gel techniques was used to follow the kinetics of protein crystal growth as a function of time. Hen egg white lysozyme, at different protein concentrations, was used as a model system. A new sample holder was designed, in which supersaturation is induced in the presence of salt by decreasing the temperature. It had been shown previously that a decrease in temperature and/or an increase in crystallizing agent induces an increase in the attractive interactions present in the lysozyme solutions, the lysozyme remaining monomeric. In the present paper we show that similar behaviour is observed in NaCl when agarose gels are used. During crystal growth, special attention was paid to determine whether oligomers were formed as the protein in solution was incorporated in the newly formed crystals. From these first series of experiments, we did not find any indication of oligomer formation between monomer in solution and crystal. The results obtained are in agreement with the hypothesis that lysozyme crystals in NaCl grow by addition of monomeric particles. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of a Novel Lysozyme-Like 4 Gene in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narmadha, Ganapathy; Muneswararao, Katakam; Rajesh, Angireddy; Yenugu, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Lysozyme-like proteins (LYZLs) belong to the class of c-type lysozymes and are not well characterized in many species including the rat. In this study, using in silico and molecular biology techniques, we report the identification, cloning and characterization of rat Lyzl4 gene and also determine the expression pattern of Lyzl1, Lyzl3 and Lyzl6. The rat Lyzl genes were found to be distributed on three chromosomes and all of them retained the characteristic eight cysteine signature of c-type lysozyme. Homology modeling of rat LYZL4 indicated that its structure is similar to that of the mouse SLLP1. In the male reproductive tract of rat, Lyzl gene expression was confined to the testis. Lyzl1 and Lyzl4 were found to be expressed in tissues beyond the male reproductive tract, whereas Lyzl3 and Lyzl6 were not. Lyzl expression in the developing (10–60 day old) rats was androgen dependent in the testis. Immunodetection using antibodies against rat LYZL4 revealed the presence of LYZL4 protein in the germinal layer of the testes and on the sperm tail. Recombinant LYZL4 did not exhibit antibacterial, muramidase and isopeptidase activities characteristic to c-type lysozyme. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time we report the characterization of Lyzl genes in the rat. Results of our study indicate that rat LYZL proteins may have an important role in male reproductive tract function. PMID:22110709

  17. Production, crystallization and X-ray characterization of chemically glycosylated hen egg-white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Jaramillo, F. J.; Pérez-Banderas, F.; Hernández-Mateo, F.; Santoyo-González, F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of glycosylation post-purification has been demonstrated by introducing glucose into the model protein lysozyme via a novel reaction that is compatible with biological samples. The crystallization of glycoproteins is one of the challenges to be confronted by the crystallographic community in the frame of what is known as glycobiology. The state of the art for the crystallization of glycoproteins is not promising and removal of the carbohydrate chains is generally suggested since they are flexible and a source of heterogeneity. In this paper, the feasibility of introducing glucose into the model protein hen egg-white lysozyme via a post-purification glycosylation reaction that may turn any protein into a model glycoprotein whose carbohydrate fraction can be manipulated is demonstrated

  18. Concentration dependent switch in the kinetic pathway of lysozyme fibrillation: Spectroscopic and microscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran Kumar, E.; Prasad, Deepak Kumar; Prakash Prabhu, N.

    2017-08-01

    Formation of amyloid fibrils is found to be a general tendency of many proteins. Investigating the kinetic mechanisms and structural features of the intermediates and the final fibrillar state is essential to understand their role in amyloid diseases. Lysozyme, a notable model protein for amyloidogenic studies, readily formed fibrils in vitro at neutral pH in the presence of urea. It, however, showed two different kinetic pathways under varying urea concentrations when probed with thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence. In 2 M urea, lysozyme followed a nucleation-dependent fibril formation pathway which was not altered by varying the protein concentration from 2 mg/ml to 8 mg/ml. In 4 M urea, the protein exhibited concentration dependent change in the mechanism. At lower protein concentrations, lysozyme formed fibrils without any detectable nuclei (nucleation-independent polymerization pathway). When the concentration of the protein was increased above 3 mg/ml, the protein followed nucleation-dependent polymerization pathway as observed in the case of 2 M urea condition. This was further verified using microscopic images of the fibrils. The kinetic parameters such as lag time, elongation rate, and fibrillation half-time, which were derived from ThT fluorescence changes, showed linear dependency against the initial protein concentration suggested that under the nucleation-dependent pathway conditions, the protein followed primary-nucleation mechanism without any significant secondary nucleation events. The results also suggested that the differences in the initial protein conformation might alter the mechanism of fibrillation; however, at the higher protein concentrations lysozyme shifted to nucleation-dependent pathway.

  19. Lysozyme Uptake by Oxidized Starch Polymer Microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yuan; de Vries, Renko; Kleijn, Mieke; Slaghek, Ted; Timmermans, Johan; Stuart, Martien Cohen; Norde, Willem

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of determining suitable conditions for uptake and release of globular proteins on microgels, we studied the interaction between phosphated, highly cross-linked, negatively charged oxidized potato starch polymer (OPSP) microgel particles and lysozyme from hen eggs. Our microgel shows a

  20. Lysozyme uptake by oxidized starch polymer microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Vries, de R.J.; Kleijn, J.M.; Slaghek, T.M.; Timmermans, J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of determining suitable conditions for uptake and release of globular proteins on microgels, we studied the interaction between phosphated, highly cross-linked, negatively charged oxidized potato starch polymer (OPSP) microgel particles and lysozyme from hen eggs. Our microgel shows a

  1. Study of lysozyme mobility and binding free energy during adsorption on a graphene surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, C. Masato; Ma, Heng; Wei, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Understanding protein adsorption is a key to the development of biosensors and anti-biofouling materials. Hydration essentially controls the adsorption process on hydrophobic surfaces, but its effect is complicated by various factors. Here, we present an ideal model system to isolate hydration effects—lysozyme adsorption on a flat hydrophobic graphene surface. Our all-atom molecular dynamics and molecular-mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area computation study reveal that lysozyme on graphene displays much larger diffusivity than in bulk water. Protein's hydration free energy within the first hydration shell is dominated by the protein-water electrostatic interactions and acts as an energy barrier for protein adsorption. On the other hand, the surface tension, especially that from the hydrophobic graphene, can effectively weaken the barrier to promote adsorption

  2. Study of lysozyme mobility and binding free energy during adsorption on a graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, C. Masato [Flintridge Preparatory School, La Canada Flintridge, California 91011 (United States); Ma, Heng; Wei, Tao, E-mail: twei@lamar.edu [Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Understanding protein adsorption is a key to the development of biosensors and anti-biofouling materials. Hydration essentially controls the adsorption process on hydrophobic surfaces, but its effect is complicated by various factors. Here, we present an ideal model system to isolate hydration effects—lysozyme adsorption on a flat hydrophobic graphene surface. Our all-atom molecular dynamics and molecular-mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area computation study reveal that lysozyme on graphene displays much larger diffusivity than in bulk water. Protein's hydration free energy within the first hydration shell is dominated by the protein-water electrostatic interactions and acts as an energy barrier for protein adsorption. On the other hand, the surface tension, especially that from the hydrophobic graphene, can effectively weaken the barrier to promote adsorption.

  3. Investigation on the Interaction between Cyclophosphamide and Lysozyme in the Presence of Three Different Kind of Cyclodextrins: Determination of the Binding Mechanism by Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshidkhan Chamani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between cyclophosphamide (CYC and lysozyme (LYZ in the presence of different cyclodextrins (CDs were investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD, and molecular modeling techniques under imitated physiological conditions. The UV absorption results showed the formation of complexes between CYC and LYZ in the presence of different CDs. Fluorescence data show that CYC has a stronger quenching effect on LYZ, and the red shifts suggested that the microenvironment of Trp residues was changed and became more hydrophilic. The interaction of CYC with LYZ and quenching properties of the complexes caused strong static fluorescence quenching in binary and ternary systems. The binding affinities as well as the number of binding sites were obtained from interaction between CYC and LYZ in the presence of different CDs as binary and ternary systems by modified Stern-Volmer plots. The Resonance Light Scattering (RLS technique was utilized to investigate the effect of drug and CDs on conformational changes of LYZ as separate and simultaneous. The results suggested that the enhancement of RLS intensity was attributed to the formation of a complex between drug and protein in absence and presence of CDs. The effect of CYC and cyclodextrins on the conformation of LYZ was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the fluorescence quenching of LYZ originated from the Trp and Tyr residues, and demonstrated conformational changes of LYZ with the addition of CYC and CDs. The molecular distances between the donor (LYZ and acceptor (CYC and CDs in binary and ternary systems were estimated according to Forster’s theory and showed static quenching for protein with CYC in the presence of CDs. The CD spectra indicated that the binding of the CYC induced secondary structural changes in LYZ in binary and ternary systems. Molecular modeling suggested the binding sites of CYC in the ternary

  4. Design and creation of a Ca2+ binding site in human lysozyme to enhance structural stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroki, R; Taniyama, Y; Seko, C; Nakamura, H; Kikuchi, M; Ikehara, M

    1989-01-01

    A Ca2+ binding site like an EF-hand motif was designed and created in human lysozyme by replacing both Gln-86 and Ala-92 with aspartic acids by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant human lysozyme (D86/92-lysozyme) was expressed and secreted by yeast. One Ca2+ was found to bind one molecule of the purified protein with the binding constant 5.0 x 10(6) M-1. The enzymatic activity of holo-D86/92-lysozyme against glycol chitin at 40 degrees C was 2-fold higher than that of the native lysozyme. M...

  5. Analysis of lysozyme in cheese by immunocapture mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Becker, Cord-Michael; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2010-01-15

    The enzyme lysozyme is used as a preservative to prevent late blowing of ripened cheese, caused by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. Since the enzyme is extracted from hen egg white, lysozyme has to be declared on food product labels as a potential allergen. Here, a method is reported that combines immunocapture purification and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis for the detection of lysozyme in cheese samples. Cheese extracts were treated with magnetic particles coated with a monoclonal antibody directed against lysozyme. After immunocapture purification, lysozyme was detected by MALDI-TOF-MS. The limit of detection of the assay was about 5mg/kg lysozyme in cheese. The method reliably distinguished between cheese samples which had been produced with and without lysozyme. Thus, the novel assay allows the reliable, sensitive, and specific detection of lysozyme in a food matrix. The assay could be easily adapted to other target peptides and proteins in complex food matrices and, therefore, has a broad application potential, e.g. for the analysis of allergens. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive functional diversification of lysozyme in insectivorous bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; He, Guimei; Xu, Huihui; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-11-01

    The role of gene duplication in generating new genes and novel functions is well recognized and is exemplified by the digestion-related protein lysozyme. In ruminants, duplicated chicken-type lysozymes facilitate the degradation of symbiotic bacteria in the foregut. Chicken-type lysozyme has also been reported to show chitinase-like activity, yet no study has examined the molecular evolution of lysozymes in species that specialize on eating insects. Insectivorous bats number over 900 species, and lysozyme expression in the mouths of some of these species is associated with the ingestion of insect cuticle, suggesting a chitinase role. Here, we show that chicken-type lysozyme has undergone multiple duplication events in a major family of insect-eating bats (Vespertilionidae) and that new duplicates have undergone molecular adaptation. Examination of duplicates from two insectivorous bats-Pipistrellus abramus and Scotophilus kuhlii-indicated that the new copy was highly expressed in the tongue, whereas the other one was less tissue-specific. Functional assays applied to pipistrelle lysozymes confirmed that, of the two copies, the tongue duplicate was more efficient at breaking down glycol chitin, a chitin derivative. These results suggest that the evolution of lysozymes in vespertilionid bats has likely been driven in part by natural selection for insectivory. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Highly active fractions of the medicinal leech recombinant destabilase-lysozyme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeeva, Iu I; Antipova, N V; Baskova, I P; Zavalova, L L

    2014-01-01

    From the highly purified but lowly active recombinant protein Destabilas-Lysozyme (Dest-Lys) by use cation-exchange column TSK CM 3-SW chromatography, it was separated non-active fraction IV, contained 90% of protein. Fractions I, II and III, represented proteins with lysozyme and isopeptidase activities. Their lysozyme activity correlates with the activity of natural Des-Lys. The ratio of the activities in fractions I - III is such, that maximal lysozyme activity is concentrated in fraction III, isopeptidase - in fraction I. It is discussed the possibility of Dest-Lys different functions regulation is depended on the formation of protein complex forms.

  8. Isolation and purification of lysozyme from the hen egg white

    OpenAIRE

    DEKINA S.S.; ROMANOVSKA I.I.; OVSEPYAN A.M.; BODYUL M.G.; TOPTIKOV V.A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was the development of the method of lysozyme isolation from hen egg proteins. Lysozyme was isolated by differential heat denaturation of proteins with changing of the medium pH value, followed by neutralization, dialysis and additional purification by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Activity was determined by bacteriolytic method (with Micrococcus lysodeikticus 4698 as a substrate). The enzyme purity and molecular mass were determined using SDS-electrophoresis an...

  9. Dynamics of hydration in hen egg white lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpone, F; Ceccarelli, M; Marchi, M

    2001-08-10

    We investigate the hydration dynamics of a small globular protein, hen egg-white lysozyme. Extensive simulations (two trajectories of 9 ns each) were carried out to identify the time-scales and mechanism of water attachment to this protein. The location of the surface and integral water molecules in lysozyme was also investigated. Three peculiar temporal scales of the hydration dynamics can be discerned: two among these, with sub-nanosecond mean residence time, tau(w), are characteristic of surface hydration water; the slower time-scale (tau(w) approximately 2/3 ns) is associated with buried water molecules in hydrophilic pores and in superficial clefts. The computed tau(w) values in the two independent runs fall in a similar range and are consistent with each other, thus adding extra weight to our result. The tau(w) of surface water obtained from the two independent trajectories is 20 and 24 ps. In both simulations only three water molecules are bound to lysozyme for the entire length of the trajectories, in agreement with nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion estimates. Locations other than those identified in the protein crystal are found to be possible for these long-residing water molecules. The dynamics of the hydration water molecules observed in our simulations implies that each water molecule visits a multitude of residues during the lifetime of its bound with the protein. The number of residues seen by a single water molecule increases with the time-scale of its residence time and, on average, is equal to one only for the water molecules with shorter residence time. Thus, tau(w) values obtained from inelastic neutron scattering and based on jump-diffusion models are likely not to account for the contribution of water molecules with longer residence time. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in water/sugar solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerbret, A. [Department of Food Science, Cornell University, 101 Stocking Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Affouard, F. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: frederic.affouard@univ-lille1.fr; Bordat, P. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique et de Physico-Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5624, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France); Hedoux, A.; Guinet, Y.; Descamps, M. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2008-04-18

    Structural and dynamical properties of the solvent at the protein/solvent interface have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in trehalose, maltose and sucrose solutions. Results are discussed in the framework of the bioprotection phenomena. The analysis of the relative concentration of water oxygen atoms around lysozyme suggests that lysozyme is preferentially hydrated. When comparing the three sugars, trehalose is seen more excluded than maltose and sucrose. The preferential exclusion of sugars from the protein surface induces some differences in the behavior of trehalose and maltose, particularly at 50 and 60 wt% concentrations, that are not observed experimentally in binary sugar/mixtures. The dynamical slowing down of the solvent is suggested to mainly arise from the homogeneity of the water/sugar matrices controlled by the percolation of the sugar hydrogen bonds networks. Furthermore, lysozyme strongly increases relaxation times of solvent molecules at the protein/solvent interface.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in water/sugar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerbret, A.; Affouard, F.; Bordat, P.; Hedoux, A.; Guinet, Y.; Descamps, M.

    2008-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of the solvent at the protein/solvent interface have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in trehalose, maltose and sucrose solutions. Results are discussed in the framework of the bioprotection phenomena. The analysis of the relative concentration of water oxygen atoms around lysozyme suggests that lysozyme is preferentially hydrated. When comparing the three sugars, trehalose is seen more excluded than maltose and sucrose. The preferential exclusion of sugars from the protein surface induces some differences in the behavior of trehalose and maltose, particularly at 50 and 60 wt% concentrations, that are not observed experimentally in binary sugar/mixtures. The dynamical slowing down of the solvent is suggested to mainly arise from the homogeneity of the water/sugar matrices controlled by the percolation of the sugar hydrogen bonds networks. Furthermore, lysozyme strongly increases relaxation times of solvent molecules at the protein/solvent interface

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a lysozyme cDNA from the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyojung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Minsup; Cho, Saeyoull

    2014-09-01

    A full-length lysozyme cDNA from Gryllotalpa orientalis was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the lysozyme protein was 143 amino acids in length, with a calculated molecular mass of 15.84 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.74. Sequence motifs, together with alignment and phylogenetic results, confirmed that G. orientalis lysozyme belongs to the C (chicken)-type lysozyme family of proteins. The protein sequence of lysozyme from G. orientalis showed high identity to that of Drosophila melanogaster (51.7 %); however, in contrast to D. melanogaster lysozyme, G. orientalis lysozyme was immune inducible and expressed in a wide range of tissues. Expression of G. orientalis lysozyme mRNA was highest at 8 h post-infection and subsequently decreased with time after bacterial infection. We also expressed G. orientalis lysozyme protein in vitro using the pET expression system. Compared with the negative control, over-expressed G. orientalis lysozyme showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis by radial diffusion assay, with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 30.3 and 7.55 µM, respectively. These results indicate that G. orientalis lysozyme may have stronger antimicrobial activity than other lysozymes against a broad range of microorganisms.

  13. A new lysozyme from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and a possible evolutionary pathway for i-type lysozymes in bivalves from host defense to digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Lysozymes are enzymes that lyse bacterial cell walls, an activity widely used for host defense but also modified in some instances for digestion. The biochemical and evolutionary changes between these different functional forms has been well-studied in the c-type lysozymes of vertebrates, but less so in the i-type lysozymes prevalent in most invertebrate animals. Some bivalve molluscs possess both defensive and digestive lysozymes. Results We report a third lysozyme from the oyster Crassostrea virginica, cv-lysozyme 3. The chemical properties of cv-lysozyme 3 (including molecular weight, isoelectric point, basic amino acid residue number, and predicted protease cutting sites) suggest it represents a transitional form between lysozymes used for digestion and immunity. The cv-lysozyme 3 protein inhibited the growth of bacteria (consistent with a defensive function), but semi-quantitative RT-PCR suggested the gene was expressed mainly in digestive glands. Purified cv-lysozyme 3 expressed maximum muramidase activity within a range of pH (7.0 and 8.0) and ionic strength (I = 0.005-0.01) unfavorable for either cv-lysozyme 1 or cv-lysozyme 2 activities. The topology of a phylogenetic analysis of cv-lysozyme 3 cDNA (full length 663 bp, encoding an open reading frame of 187 amino acids) is also consistent with a transitional condition, as cv-lysozyme 3 falls at the base of a monophyletic clade of bivalve lysozymes identified from digestive glands. Rates of nonsynonymous substitution are significantly high at the base of this clade, consistent with an episode of positive selection associated with the functional transition from defense to digestion. Conclusion The pattern of molecular evolution accompanying the shift from defensive to digestive function in the i-type lysozymes of bivalves parallels those seen for c-type lysozymes in mammals and suggests that the lysozyme paralogs that enhance the range of physiological conditions for lysozyme activity may provide

  14. A new lysozyme from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and a possible evolutionary pathway for i-type lysozymes in bivalves from host defense to digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoh Naoki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysozymes are enzymes that lyse bacterial cell walls, an activity widely used for host defense but also modified in some instances for digestion. The biochemical and evolutionary changes between these different functional forms has been well-studied in the c-type lysozymes of vertebrates, but less so in the i-type lysozymes prevalent in most invertebrate animals. Some bivalve molluscs possess both defensive and digestive lysozymes. Results We report a third lysozyme from the oyster Crassostrea virginica, cv-lysozyme 3. The chemical properties of cv-lysozyme 3 (including molecular weight, isoelectric point, basic amino acid residue number, and predicted protease cutting sites suggest it represents a transitional form between lysozymes used for digestion and immunity. The cv-lysozyme 3 protein inhibited the growth of bacteria (consistent with a defensive function, but semi-quantitative RT-PCR suggested the gene was expressed mainly in digestive glands. Purified cv-lysozyme 3 expressed maximum muramidase activity within a range of pH (7.0 and 8.0 and ionic strength (I = 0.005-0.01 unfavorable for either cv-lysozyme 1 or cv-lysozyme 2 activities. The topology of a phylogenetic analysis of cv-lysozyme 3 cDNA (full length 663 bp, encoding an open reading frame of 187 amino acids is also consistent with a transitional condition, as cv-lysozyme 3 falls at the base of a monophyletic clade of bivalve lysozymes identified from digestive glands. Rates of nonsynonymous substitution are significantly high at the base of this clade, consistent with an episode of positive selection associated with the functional transition from defense to digestion. Conclusion The pattern of molecular evolution accompanying the shift from defensive to digestive function in the i-type lysozymes of bivalves parallels those seen for c-type lysozymes in mammals and suggests that the lysozyme paralogs that enhance the range of physiological conditions for

  15. [INTERACTION OF THE DYE CONGO RED WITH FIBRILS OF LYSOZYME, BETA2-MICROGLOBULIN AND TRANSTHYRETIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimonova, O I; Grudinina, N A; Egorov, V V; Polyakov, D S; Iljin, V V; Shavlovsky, M M

    2016-01-01

    By means of spectrophotometric assay we investigated interaction of the dye Congo red (CR) with fibrils of model proteins--hen egg white lysozyme, recombinant human beta2-microglobulin (b2M) and recombinant human transthyretin (TTR). The commercial dye sample was found to contain a significant amount of impurities. Methods for the dye purification are disclosed and CR molar extinction coefficient at 490 nm (ε490) was determined to be 3.3 x 10(4) M(-1) x cm(-1) at pH above 6.0. Formation of the CR-fibril complex results in changes in the dye visible absorption spectrum. According to the data on titration of fibril solutions with excess of the dye, CR binds to lysozyme fibrils at a ratio of about 5 molecules per protein monomer within fibril structure, to b2M fibrils--about 4 molecules per monomer, to TTR fibrils--about 4 molecules per subunit of the protein.

  16. Functional Characterization of a c-type Lysozyme from Indian Shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Viswanathan; Kamalakannan, Vijayan; Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparambu Saidumuhammed; Singh, Issac S Bright; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2014-06-01

    Lysozyme gene from Fenneropenaeus indicus was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The cDNA consists of 477 base pairs and encodes amino acid sequence of 159 residues. F. indicus lysozyme had high identity (98%) with Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and Fenneropenaeus chinensis and exhibits low to moderate identities with lysozymes of other invertebrates and vertebrates. This lysozyme is presumed to be chicken types as it possesses two catalytic and eight cysteine residues that are conserved across c-type lysozymes and a c-terminal extension, which is a characteristic of lysozymes from marine invertebrates. Further, the antimicrobial properties of the recombinant lysozyme from F. indicus were determined in comparison with recombinant hen egg white lysozyme. This exhibited high activity against a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and two fungal strains Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in turbidimetric assay. Distribution of lysozyme gene and protein in tissues of shrimps infected with white spot syndrome virus revealed that the high levels of lysozyme are correlated with low and high viral load in abdominal muscle and tail, respectively. In conclusion, lysozyme from F. indicus has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties, which once again emphasizes its role in shrimp innate immune response.

  17. Laser ablation dynamics and production of thin films of lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Matei, Andreea

    Lysozyme is a well-known protein, which is used in food processing because of its bacteriocidal properties. The mass (14307 u) is in the range, in which it easily can be controlled by mass spectrometric methods, for example by MALDI (Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation). We have recently......, there was a considerable ablation weight loss of lysozyme from each shot. This is the first time the ablation by fs-lasers of a protein has been recorded quantitatively. Films of lysozyme produced by fs-laser irradiation will be analysed by MALDI in order to explore if there also is a significant amount of intact...... these experiments at CNR-SPIN, Napoli, to explore the excitation mechanics by laser impact. Samples of pressed lysozyme prepared in the same manner as in DTU have been irradiated at 523 nm with 300-fs pulses and a fluence of the same order of magnitude as in DYU. Even though the pulse energy was much smaller...

  18. Laser ablation dynamics and production of thin films of lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Amoruso, S.

    Lysozyme is a well-known protein, which is used in food processing because of its bactericidal properties. The mass (14307 amu) is in the range in which it easily can be monitored by mass spectrometric methods, for example by MALDI (Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization). We have recently....... This is the first time the ablation by fs-lasers of a protein has been recorded quantitatively. Films of lysozyme produced by fs-laser irradiation were analyzed by MALDI and a significant number of intact molecules in the films with fs-laser deposition was found as well....... impact. Samples of pressed lysozyme prepared in the same manner as in ns-experiments have been irradiated at 527 nm with 300-fs pulses and at at similar fluence as in ns ablation. Even though the pulse energy was much smaller, there was a considerable ablation weight loss of lysozyme from each shot...

  19. RENAL SPECIFIC DELIVERY OF SULFAMETHOXAZOLE IN THE RAT BY COUPLING TO THE LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT PROTEIN LYSOZYME VIA AN ACID-SENSITIVE LINKER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRANSSEN, EJF; MOOLENAAR, F; DEZEEUW, D; MEIJER, DKF

    1992-01-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SM) was converted to a renal specific drug targeting preparation by coupling the drug to egg-white lysozyme via an acid-sensitive cis-aconityl linker (1:1). Due to this chemical manipulation SM was rapidly distributed to the kidney. Both in vitro and in vivo data indicate that SM

  20. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  1. Preparation of lysozyme molecularly imprinted polymers and purification of lysozyme from egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejiao; Dong, Shaohua; Bai, Quan

    2014-06-01

    Molecular imprinting as a promising and facile separation technique has received much attention because of its high selectivity for target molecules. In this study, lysozyme molecularly imprinted polymers (Lys-MIPs) were successfully prepared by the entrapment method with lysozyme as the template molecule, acrylamide as the functional monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide as the cross-linker. The removal of the template lysozyme from the molecularly imprinted polymers was investigated in detail by two methods. The synthesized Lys-MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared, and the adsorption capacity, selectivity and reproducibility of the Lys-MIPs were also evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity reached 94.8 mg/g, which is twice that of nonmolecularly imprinted polymers, and satisfactory selectivity and reproducibility were achieved. Using the Lys-MIP column, lysozyme could be separated completely from egg white, with purity close to 100% and mass recovery of 98.2%. This illustrated that the synthesized Lys-MIPs had high specific recognition and selectivity to the template lysozyme when they were applied to a mixture of protein standards and a real sample. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Production of lysozyme and lysozyme-superoxide dismutase dimers bound by a ditryptophan cross-link in carbonate radical-treated lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paviani, Verônica; Queiroz, Raphael F; Marques, Emerson F; Di Mascio, Paolo; Augusto, Ohara

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive investigation of the irreversible oxidations undergone by proteins in vitro and in vivo, the products formed from the oxidation of Trp residues remain incompletely understood. Recently, we characterized a ditryptophan cross-link produced by the recombination of hSOD1-tryptophanyl radicals generated from attack of the carbonate radical produced during the bicarbonate-dependent peroxidase activity of the enzyme. Here, we examine whether the ditryptophan cross-link is produced by the attack of the carbonate radical on proteins other than hSOD1. To this end, we treated hen egg white lysozyme with photolytically and enzymatically generated carbonate radical. The radical yields were estimated and the lysozyme modifications were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, western blot, enzymatic activity and MS/MS analysis. Lysozyme oxidation by both systems resulted in its inactivation and dimerization. Lysozyme treated with the photolytic system presented monomers oxidized to hydroxy-tryptophan at Trp(28) and Trp(123) and N-formylkynurenine at Trp(28), Trp(62) and Trp(123). Lysozyme treated with the enzymatic system rendered monomers oxidized to N-formylkynurenine at Trp(28). The dimers were characterized as lysozyme-Trp(28)-Trp(28)-lysozyme and lysozyme-Trp(28)-Trp(32)-hSOD1. The results further demonstrate that the carbonate radical is prone to causing biomolecule cross-linking and hence, may be a relevant player in pathological mechanisms. The possibility of exploring the formation of ditryptophan cross-links as a carbonate radical biomarker is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bactericidal activity of human lysozyme, muramidase-inactive lysozyme, and cationic polypeptides against Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus faecalis: inhibition by chitin oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, N J; Germaine, G R

    1985-01-01

    The basis of the bactericidal activity of human lysozyme against Streptococcus sanguis was studied. Experiments were designed to evaluate the role of lysozyme muramidase activity in its bactericidal potency. Inactivation of the muramidase activity of lysozyme was achieved by reduction of essential disulfides with dithiothreitol (DTT) or by incubation with the chitin oligosaccharides chitotriose and chitobiose. Muramidase-inactive lysozyme, prepared by reduction with DTT, was equal in bactericidal potency to native lysozyme. Solutions of native chicken egg white lysozyme and human lysozyme exhibited equal bactericidal potency yet differed ca. fourfold with respect to lytic (muramidase) activity. The above results suggested that the bactericidal activity of lysozyme is not dependent upon muramidase activity. Chitotriose and chitobiose were found to inhibit both lytic and bactericidal activities of lysozyme. The bactericidal activity of muramidase-inactive lysozyme (reduction with DTT) was also inhibited by chitotriose and chitobiose. Further investigations demonstrated that chitotriose and chitobiose were also potent inhibitors of the bactericidal activity of the cationic homopolypeptides poly-L-arginine and poly-D-lysine. These latter results suggested that the essential bactericidal property of lysozyme was its extreme cationic nature and that some bacterial endogenous activities, inhibitable by chitotriose and chitobiose, were essential for expression of the bactericidal activity of either native or muramidase-inactive lysozyme or of the cationic homopolypeptides. Experiments with Streptococcus faecalis whole cells, cell walls, and crude autolysin preparations implicated endogenous autolytic muramidases as the bacterial targets of chitotriose and chitobiose. The essentially identical responses of S. sanguis and S. faecalis to chitotriose in bactericidal assays with muramidase-inactive lysozyme and polylysine suggested that muramidase-like enzymes exist in S

  4. Third party annotation gene data set of eutherian lysozyme genes

    OpenAIRE

    Premzl, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol annotated most comprehensive eutherian lysozyme gene data set. Among 209 potential coding sequences, the third party annotation gene data set of eutherian lysozyme genes included 116 complete coding sequences that first described seven major gene clusters. As one new framework of future experiments, the present integrated gene annotations, phylogenetic analysis and protein molecular evolution analysis proposed new classification and nomencla...

  5. Influence of lysozyme complexation with purified Aldrich humic acid on lysozyme activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Tan, W.F.; Wang, M.X.; Liu, F.; Weng, L.P.; Norde, W.; Koopal, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    Humic acid is an important component of dissolved organic matter and in two previous papers it has been shown that purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) forms strong complexes with the oppositely charged protein lysozyme (LSZ). The complexation and aggregation of enzymes with humic acids may lead to

  6. Characterization of expression, activity and role in antibacterial immunity of Anopheles gambiae lysozyme c-1

    OpenAIRE

    Kajla, Mayur K.; Andreeva, Olga; Gilbreath, Thomas M.; Paskewitz, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    There are eight lysozyme genes in the Anopheles gambiae genome. Transcripts of one of these genes, LYSC-1, increased in Anopheles gambiae cell line 4a3B by 24 h after exposure to heat-killed Micrococcus luteus. Lysozyme activity was also identified in conditioned media from the cell line from which the protein was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and gel filtration. Mass spectrometric analysis of the purified protein showed 100% identity to lysozyme c-1. Purified lysozyme c-1 was te...

  7. Strong and Selective Adsorption of Lysozyme on Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Biosensing methods and devices using graphene oxide (GO) have recently been explored for detection and quantification of specific biomolecules from body fluid samples, such as saliva, milk, urine, and serum. For a practical diagnostics application, any sensing system must show an absence of nonselective detection of abundant proteins in the fluid matrix. Because lysozyme is an abundant protein in these body fluids (e.g., around 21.4 and 7 μg/mL of lysozyme is found in human milk and saliva from healthy individuals, and more than 15 or even 100 μg/mL in patients suffering from leukemia, renal disease, and sarcoidosis), it may interfere with detections and quantification if it has strong interaction with GO. Therefore, one fundamental question that needs to be addressed before any development of GO based diagnostics method is how GO interacts with lysozyme. In this study, GO has demonstrated a strong interaction with lysozyme. This interaction is so strong that we are able to subsequently eliminate and separate lysozyme from aqueous solution onto the surface of GO. Furthermore, the strong electrostatic interaction also renders the selective adsorption of lysozyme on GO from a mixture of binary and ternary proteins. This selectivity is confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), fluorescence spectroscopy, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. PMID:24684375

  8. Molecular characterization of a c-type lysozyme from the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amr A; Zhang, Long; Dorrah, Moataza A; Elmogy, Mohamed; Yousef, Hesham A; Bassal, Taha T M; Duvic, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    Lysozymes are bacteriolytic peptides that are implicated in the insect nonspecific innate immune responses. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding a c-type lysozyme from Schistocerca gregaria (SgLys) has been cloned and characterized from the fat body of immune-challenged 5(th) instar. The deduced mature lysozyme is 119 amino acid residues in length, has a calculated molecular mass of 13.4 kDa and an isoelectric point (Ip) of 9.2. SgLys showed high identities with other insect lysozymes, ranging from 41.5% to 93.3% by BLASTp search in NCBI. Eukaryotic in vitro expression of the SgLys ORF (rSgLys) with an apparent molecular mass of ∼16 kDa under SDS-PAGE is close to the calculated molecular weight of the full-length protein. rSgLys displayed growth inhibitory activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. 3D structure modeling of SgLys, based on comparison with that of silkworm lysozyme, and sequence comparison with the helix-loop-helix (α-hairpin) structure of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) were employed to interpret the antibacterial potencies. Phylogenetic alignments indicate that SgLys aligns well with insect c-type lysozymes that expressed principally in fat body and hemocytes and whose role has been defined as immune-related. Western blot analysis showed that SgLys expression was highest at 6-12 h post-bacterial challenge and subsequently decreased with time. Transcriptional profiles of SgLys were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. SgLys transcript was upregulated at the highest level in fat body, hemocytes, salivary gland, thoracic muscles, and epidermal tissue. It was expressed in all developmental stages from egg to adult. These data indicate that SgLys is a predominant acute-phase protein that is expressed and upregulated upon immune challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  10. Chronopotentiometric sensing of specific interactions between lysozyme and the DNA aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostatná, Veronika; Kasalová-Vargová, Veronika; Kékedy-Nagy, László; Černocká, Hana; Ferapontova, Elena E

    2017-04-01

    Specific DNA-protein interactions are vital for cellular life maintenance processes, such as transcriptional regulation, chromosome maintenance, replication and DNA repair, and their monitoring gives valuable information on molecular-level organization of those processes. Here, we propose a new method of label-free electrochemical sensing of sequence specific binding between the lysozyme protein and a single stranded DNA aptamer specific for lysozyme (DNA apta ) that exploits the constant current chronopotentiometric stripping (CPS) analysis at modified mercury electrodes. Specific lysozyme-DNA apta binding was distinguished from nonspecific lysozyme-DNA interactions at thioglycolic acid-modified mercury electrodes, but not at the dithiothreitol-modified or bare mercury electrodes. Stability of the surface-attached lysozyme-DNA apta layer depended on the stripping current (I str ) intensity, suggesting that the integrity of the layer critically depends on the time of its exposure to negative potentials. Stabilities of different lysozyme-DNA complexes at the negatively polarized electrode surface were tested, and it was shown that structural transitions of the specific lysozyme-DNA apta complexes occur in the I str ranges different from those observed for assemblies of lysozyme with DNA sequences capable of only nonspecific lysozyme-DNA interactions. Thus, the CPS allows distinct discrimination between specific and non-specific protein-DNA binding and provides valuable information on stability of the nucleic acid-protein interactions at the polarized interfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure-sweetness relationship in egg white lysozyme: role of lysine and arginine residues on the elicitation of lysozyme sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ide, Nobuyuki; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2005-10-01

    Lysozyme is one of the sweet-tasting proteins. To clarify the structure-sweetness relationship and the basicity-sweetness relationship in lysozyme, we have generated lysozyme mutants with Pichia systems. Alanine substitution of lysine residues demonstrated that two out of six lysine residues, Lys13 and Lys96, are required for lysozyme sweetness, while the remaining four lysine residues do not play a significant role in the perception of sweetness. Arginine substitution of lysine residues revealed that the basicity, but not the shape, of the side chain plays a significant role in sweetness. Single alanine substitutions of arginine residues showed that three arginine residues, Arg14, Arg21, and Arg73, play significant roles in lysozyme sweetness, whereas Arg45, Arg68, Arg125 and chemical modification by 1,2-cyclohexanedione did not affect sweetness. From investigation of the charge-specific mutations, we found that the basicity of a broad surface region formed by five positively charged residues, Lys13, Lys96, Arg14, Arg21, and Arg73, is required for lysozyme sweetness. Differences in the threshold values among sweet-tasting proteins might be caused by the broadness and/or the density of charged residues on the protein surface.

  12. Lysozyme amyloidosis – a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pleyer, Christopher; Flesche, Jan; Saeed, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme amyloidosis is an exceedingly rare hereditary autosomal dominant amyloidosis, which is characterized by the precipitation of lysozyme protein within the body, leading to multi-organ dysfunction. Herein, we present the case of a U.S. family affected by lysozyme amyloidosis. In particular, we report pericardial disease involvement leading to recurrent pericardial effusion, which to our knowledge has not been described yet. To our knowledge, we have also for the first time identified th...

  13. Destroying activity of magnetoferritin on lysozyme amyloid fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopcansky, Peter; Siposova, Katarina [Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Melnikova, Lucia, E-mail: melnikova@saske.sk [Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Bednarikova, Zuzana [Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Institute of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Safarik University, Kosice (Slovakia); Timko, Milan; Mitroova, Zuzana; Antosova, Andrea [Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Garamus, Vasil M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht: Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Street 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Petrenko, Viktor I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna, 141980 Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, Kyiv 01033 (Ukraine); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna, 141980 Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Gazova, Zuzana [Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Department of Medical and Clinical Biochemistry and LABMED, Tr. SNP 1, 040 11 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2015-03-01

    Presence of protein amyloid aggregates (oligomers, protofilaments, fibrils) is associated with many diseases as diabetes mellitus or Alzheimer's disease. The interaction between lysozyme amyloid fibrils and magnetoferritin loaded with different amount of iron atoms (168 or 532 atoms) has been investigated by small-angle X-rays scattering and thioflavin T fluorescence measurements. Results suggest that magnetoferritin caused an iron atom-concentration dependent reduction of lysozyme fibril size. - Highlights: • The interaction between lysozyme amyloid fibrils and magnetoferritin loaded with different amount of iron atoms (168 or 532 atoms) has been investigated by small-angle X-rays scattering and thioflavin T fluorescence measurements. • Results suggest that magnetoferritin caused an iron atom-concentration dependent reduction of lysozyme fibril size.

  14. Location of Bromide Ions in Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kap; Nadarajah, Arunan; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    Anions have been shown to play a dominant role in the crystallization of chicken egg white lysozyme from salt solutions. Previous studies employing X-ray crystallography had found one chloride ion binding site in the tetragonal crystal form of the protein and four nitrate ion binding sites in the monoclinic form. In this study the anion positions in the tetragonal form were determined from the difference Fourier map obtained from lysozyme crystal grown in bromide and chloride solutions. Five possible anion binding sites were found in this manner. Some of these sites were in pockets containing basic residues while others were near neutral, but polar, residues. The sole chloride ion binding site found in previous studies was confirmed, while four of these sites corresponded to four binding sites found for nitrate ions in monoclinic crystals. The study suggests that most of the anion binding sites in lysozyme remain unchanged, even when different anions and different crystal forms of lysozyme are employed.

  15. Generation of recombinant destabilase-lysozyme from medicinal leeches in three different expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuvera, Valentin A; Kurdyumov, Alexey S; Filonova, Kseniya A; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-12-01

    Destabilase-lysozyme (mlDL) is an enzyme secreted by the salivary gland cells of medicinal leeches. Destabilase-lysozyme possesses lysozyme and isopeptidase activities. We generated recombinant destabilase-lysozyme isoform 2 in three expression systems, i.e., in the bacteria Escherichia coli, in the yeast Pichia pastoris, and in the human cell line Expi293F. In E. coli, we generated both polypeptide in inclusion bodies that was later undergone to the refolding and soluble protein that had been fused with the chaperone SlyD. The chaperone was later cleaved by a specific TEV-protease. In cultures of the yeast P. pastoris and the human cell line Expi293F, the soluble form of destabilase-lysozyme was accumulated in the culture media. For the generated enzymes, we determined the lysozyme, isopeptidase and fibrinolytic activities and tested their general antimicrobial effects. The comparisons of the enzymes generated in the different expression systems revealed that all of the destabilase-lysozymes obtained in the soluble forms possessed equal levels of lysozyme, isopeptidase and fibrinolytic activities that exceeded several to ten times the levels of the same activities of the destabilase-lysozyme renaturated from the inclusion bodies. A similar pattern of the differences in the levels of the general antimicrobial effects was observed for the destabilase-lysozymes generated in the soluble form and as inclusion bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Amino acids and glycine ethyl ester as new crystallization reagents for lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, amino acids and amino-acid derivatives have been applied in various fields of protein chemistry. The potential use of amino acids and their derivatives as new precipitating agents is described. Several amino acids and their derivatives are prominent additives in the field of protein chemistry. This study reports the use of charged amino acids and glycine ethyl ester as precipitants in protein crystallization, using hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) as a model. A discussion of the crystallization of HEWL using these reagents as precipitating agents is given

  17. Role of lysozyme inhibitors in the virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkelen, Lise; Ons, Ellen; Van Herreweghe, Joris M; Callewaert, Lien; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Michiels, Chris W

    2012-01-01

    Lysozymes are key effectors of the animal innate immunity system that kill bacteria by hydrolyzing peptidoglycan, their major cell wall constituent. Recently, specific inhibitors of the three major lysozyme families occuring in the animal kingdom (c-, g- and i-type) have been discovered in Gram-negative bacteria, and it has been proposed that these may help bacteria to evade lysozyme mediated lysis during interaction with an animal host. Escherichia coli produces two inhibitors that are specific for c-type lysozyme (Ivy, Inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme; MliC, membrane bound lysozyme inhibitor of c-type lysozyme), and one specific for g-type lysozyme (PliG, periplasmic lysozyme inhibitor of g-type lysozyme). Here, we investigated the role of these lysozyme inhibitors in virulence of Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC) using a serum resistance test and a subcutaneous chicken infection model. Knock-out of mliC caused a strong reduction in serum resistance and in in vivo virulence that could be fully restored by genetic complementation, whereas ivy and pliG could be knocked out without effect on serum resistance and virulence. This is the first in vivo evidence for the involvement of lysozyme inhibitors in bacterial virulence. Remarkably, the virulence of a ivy mliC double knock-out strain was restored to almost wild-type level, and this strain also had a substantial residual periplasmic lysozyme inhibitory activity that was higher than that of the single knock-out strains. This suggests the existence of an additional periplasmic lysozyme inhibitor in this strain, and indicates a regulatory interaction in the expression of the different inhibitors.

  18. Role of lysozyme inhibitors in the virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Vanderkelen

    Full Text Available Lysozymes are key effectors of the animal innate immunity system that kill bacteria by hydrolyzing peptidoglycan, their major cell wall constituent. Recently, specific inhibitors of the three major lysozyme families occuring in the animal kingdom (c-, g- and i-type have been discovered in Gram-negative bacteria, and it has been proposed that these may help bacteria to evade lysozyme mediated lysis during interaction with an animal host. Escherichia coli produces two inhibitors that are specific for c-type lysozyme (Ivy, Inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme; MliC, membrane bound lysozyme inhibitor of c-type lysozyme, and one specific for g-type lysozyme (PliG, periplasmic lysozyme inhibitor of g-type lysozyme. Here, we investigated the role of these lysozyme inhibitors in virulence of Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC using a serum resistance test and a subcutaneous chicken infection model. Knock-out of mliC caused a strong reduction in serum resistance and in in vivo virulence that could be fully restored by genetic complementation, whereas ivy and pliG could be knocked out without effect on serum resistance and virulence. This is the first in vivo evidence for the involvement of lysozyme inhibitors in bacterial virulence. Remarkably, the virulence of a ivy mliC double knock-out strain was restored to almost wild-type level, and this strain also had a substantial residual periplasmic lysozyme inhibitory activity that was higher than that of the single knock-out strains. This suggests the existence of an additional periplasmic lysozyme inhibitor in this strain, and indicates a regulatory interaction in the expression of the different inhibitors.

  19. Preferential Interactions and the Effect of Protein PEGylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Stenstrup Holm

    Full Text Available PEGylation is a strategy used by the pharmaceutical industry to prolong systemic circulation of protein drugs, whereas formulation excipients are used for stabilization of proteins during storage. Here we investigate the role of PEGylation in protein stabilization by formulation excipients that preferentially interact with the protein.The model protein hen egg white lysozyme was doubly PEGylated on two lysines with 5 kDa linear PEGs (mPEG-succinimidyl valerate, MW 5000 and studied in the absence and presence of preferentially excluded sucrose and preferentially bound guanine hydrochloride. Structural characterization by far- and near-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy was supplemented by investigation of protein thermal stability with the use of differential scanning calorimetry, far and near-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that PEGylated lysozyme was stabilized by the preferentially excluded excipient and destabilized by the preferentially bound excipient in a similar manner as lysozyme. However, compared to lysozyme in all cases the melting transition was lower by up to a few degrees and the calorimetric melting enthalpy was decreased to half the value for PEGylated lysozyme. The ratio between calorimetric and van't Hoff enthalpy suggests that our PEGylated lysozyme is a dimer.The PEGylated model protein displayed similar stability responses to the addition of preferentially active excipients. This suggests that formulation principles using preferentially interacting excipients are similar for PEGylated and non-PEGylated proteins.

  20. Protein buffering in model systems and in whole human saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamanda

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and alpha-amylase, were shown to provide, in combination with hydrogencarbonate and di-hydrogenphosphate, almost identical buffer attributes as whole human resting saliva. It was further demonstrated that changes in the protein concentration as small as 0.1% may change the buffer value of a buffer solution up to 15 times. Additionally, it was shown that there was a protein concentration change in the same range (0.16% between saliva samples collected at the time periods of 13:00 and others collected at 9:00 am and 17:00. The mode of the protein expression changed between these samples corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the change of the buffer value at pH 6.7. Finally, SDS Page and Ruthenium II tris (bathophenantroline disulfonate staining unveiled a constant protein expression in all samples except for one 50 kDa protein band. As the change in the expression pattern of that 50 kDa protein band corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the buffer value at pH 6.7, it was reasonable to conclude that this 50 kDa protein band may contain the protein(s belonging to the protein buffer system of human saliva.

  1. Molecular structure, dynamics and hydration studies of soybean storage proteins and model systems by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakalis, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of high-resolution 13 C NMR for the characterization of soybean storage proteins was explored. The spectra of a commercial soy protein isolate as well as those of alkali-denatured 7S and 11S soybean globulins were well resolved and tentatively assigned. Relaxation measurements indicated fast motion for several side chains and the protein backbone. Protein fractions (11S and 7S) were also investigated at various states of molecular association. The large size of the multisubunit soybean storage proteins affected adversely both the resolution and the sensitivity of their 13 C NMR spectra. A comparison of 17 O and 2 H NMR relaxation rates of water in solutions of lysozyme (a model system) as a function of concentration, pH and magnetic field suggested that only 17 O monitors directly the hydration of lysozyme. Analysis of 17 O NMR lysozyme hydration data in terms of a two-state, fast-exchange, anisotropic model resulted in hydration parameters which are consistent with the protein's physico-chemical properties. The same model was applied to the calculation of the amount and mobility of bound water in soy protein dispersions by means of 17 O NMR relaxation measurements as a function of protein concentration. The protein concentration dependences of 1 H transverse NMR relaxation measurements at various pH and ionic strength values were fitted by a viral expansion. The interpretation of the data was based on the effects of protein aggregation, salt binding and protein group ionization on the NMR measurements. In all cases, relaxation rates showed a linear dependence on protein activity

  2. Separation of lysozyme using superparamagnetic carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Su, Yujie; Rao, Shengqi; Yang, Yanjun

    2011-08-01

    Functionalized Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-CTS) were developed and used as a novel magnetic absorbing carrier for the separation and purification of lysozyme from the aqueous solution and chicken egg white, respectively. The morphology of magnetic CM-CTS nanoparticles was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that the diameter of superparamagnetic carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4) (PEG+CM-CTS)) was about 15 nm, and could easily aggregate by a magnet when suspending in the aqueous solution. The adsorption capacity of lysozyme onto the superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) (PEG+CM-CTS) nanoparticles was determined by changing the medium pH, temperature, ionic strength and the concentration of lysozyme. The maximum adsorption loading reached 256.4 mg/g. Due to the small diameter, the adsorption equilibrium of lysozyme onto the nanoparticles reached very quickly within 20 min. The adsorption equilibrium of lysozyme onto the superparamagnetic nanoparticles fitted well with the Langmuir model. The nanoparticles were stable when subjected to six repeated adsorption-elution cycles. Separation and purification were monitored by determining the lysozyme activity using Micrococcus lysodeikticus as substrate. The lysozyme was purified from chicken egg white in a single step had higher purity, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Considering that the superparamagnetic nanoparticles possess the advantages of high efficiency, cost-effectiveness and excellent binding of a larger amount of lysozyme and easier separation from the reaction system, thus this type of superparamagnetic nanoparticles would bring advantages to the conventional separation techniques of lysozyme from chicken egg white. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ortho-methylated 3-hydroxypyridines hinder hen egg-white lysozyme fibrillogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Laura; Pauwels, Kris; Casasnovas, Rodrigo; Sanchis, Pilar; Vilanova, Bartolomé; Muñoz, Francisco; Donoso, Josefa; Adrover, Miquel

    2015-07-01

    Protein aggregation with the concomitant formation of amyloid fibrils is related to several neurodegenerative diseases, but also to non-neuropathic amyloidogenic diseases and non-neurophatic systemic amyloidosis. Lysozyme is the protein involved in the latter, and it is widely used as a model system to study the mechanisms underlying fibril formation and its inhibition. Several phenolic compounds have been reported as inhibitors of fibril formation. However, the anti-aggregating capacity of other heteroaromatic compounds has not been studied in any depth. We have screened the capacity of eleven different hydroxypyridines to affect the acid-induced fibrillization of hen lysozyme. Although most of the tested hydroxypyridines alter the fibrillation kinetics of HEWL, only 3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine, 3-hydroxy-6-methylpyridine and 3-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylpyridine completely abolish fibril formation. Different biophysical techniques and several theoretical approaches are combined to elucidate their mechanism of action. O-methylated 3-hydroxypyridines bind non-cooperatively to two distinct but amyloidogenic regions of monomeric lysozyme. This stabilises the protein structure, as evidenced by enhanced thermal stability, and results in the inhibition of the conformational transition that precedes fibril assembly. Our results point to o-methylated 3-hydroxypyridines as a promising molecular scaffold for the future development of novel fibrillization inhibitors.

  4. Partial molar volume of proteins studied by the three-dimensional reference interaction site model theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takashi; Kovalenko, Andriy; Hirata, Fumio

    2005-04-14

    The three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory is applied to the analysis of hydration effects on the partial molar volume of proteins. For the native structure of some proteins, the partial molar volume is decomposed into geometric and hydration contributions using the 3D-RISM theory combined with the geometric volume calculation. The hydration contributions are correlated with the surface properties of the protein. The thermal volume, which is the volume of voids around the protein induced by the thermal fluctuation of water molecules, is directly proportional to the accessible surface area of the protein. The interaction volume, which is the contribution of electrostatic interactions between the protein and water molecules, is apparently governed by the charged atomic groups on the protein surface. The polar atomic groups do not make any contribution to the interaction volume. The volume differences between low- and high-pressure structures of lysozyme are also analyzed by the present method.

  5. Modelling of proteins in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; May, S.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review describes some recent theories and simulations of mesoscopic and microscopic models of lipid membranes with embedded or attached proteins. We summarize results supporting our understanding of phenomena for which the activities of proteins in membranes are expected to be significantly...... oppositely charged lipid membranes, lipid-induced tilting of proteins embedded in lipid bilayers, protein-induced bilayer deformations, protein insertion and assembly, and lipid-controlled functioning of membrane proteins....

  6. Lysozymes in the animal kingdom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... variation exists in their catalytic mechanisms and the genomic organization of their genes. Regarding their biological role, the widely recognized function of lysozymes is their contribution to antibacterial defence but, additionally, some lysozymes (belonging to different types) are known to function as digestive enzymes.

  7. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF LYSOZYME FROM THE HEN EGG WHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the development of the method of lysozyme isolation from hen egg proteins. Lysozyme was isolated by differential heat denaturation of proteins with changing of the medium pH value, followed by neutralization, dialysis and additional purification by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Activity was determined by bacteriolytic method (with Micrococcus lysodeikticus 4698 as a substrate. The enzyme purity and molecular mass were determined using SDS-electrophoresis and massspectrometry. The method of lysozyme isolation from hen egg proteins with the enzyme yield of 3.2 ± 0.2% and bacteriolytic activity of 22 025 ± 1 500 U/mg is modified. According to electrophoresis data, the isolated enzyme is characterized by high degree of purity (~95–98% and is comparable with lysozyme of AppliChem company by main physical and chemical characteristics. The obtaining product is stored in a crystalline form at low temperature (–24 оC for 9 months. The proposed method allows obtaining active and stable lysozyme with high purity from hen egg protein in laboratory conditions for the usage in biotechnology.

  8. Parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations of lysozyme orientation on charged surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the parallel tempering Monte Carlo (PTMC) algorithm is applied to accurately and efficiently identify the global-minimum-energy orientation of a protein adsorbed on a surface in a single simulation. When applying the PTMC method to simulate lysozyme orientation on charged surfaces, it is found that lysozyme could easily be adsorbed on negatively charged surfaces with "side-on" and "back-on" orientations. When driven by dominant electrostatic interactions, lysozyme tends to be adsorbed on negatively charged surfaces with the side-on orientation for which the active site of lysozyme faces sideways. The side-on orientation agrees well with the experimental results where the adsorbed orientation of lysozyme is determined by electrostatic interactions. As the contribution from van der Waals interactions gradually dominates, the back-on orientation becomes the preferred one. For this orientation, the active site of lysozyme faces outward, which conforms to the experimental results where the orientation of adsorbed lysozyme is co-determined by electrostatic interactions and van der Waals interactions. It is also found that despite of its net positive charge, lysozyme could be adsorbed on positively charged surfaces with both "end-on" and back-on orientations owing to the nonuniform charge distribution over lysozyme surface and the screening effect from ions in solution. The PTMC simulation method provides a way to determine the preferred orientation of proteins on surfaces for biosensor and biomaterial applications.

  9. Engineering Escherichia coli for Soluble Expression and Single Step Purification of Active Human Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamppa, John W.; Tanyos, Sam A.; Griswold, Karl E.

    2012-01-01

    Genetically engineered variants of human lysozyme represent promising leads in the battle against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, but early stage development and testing of novel lysozyme variants is constrained by the lack of a robust, scalable and facile expression system. While wild type human lysozyme is reportedly produced at 50 – 80 kg per hectare of land in recombinant rice, this plant-based system is not readily scaled down to bench top production, and it is therefore not suitable for development and characterization of novel lysozyme variants. Here, we describe a novel and efficient expression system capable of producing folded, soluble and functional human lysozyme in E. coli cells. To achieve this goal, we simultaneously co-express multiple protein folding chaperones as well as harness the lysozyme inhibitory protein, Ivy. Our strategy exploits E. coli’s ease of culture, short doubling time, and facile genetics to yield upwards of 30 mg/L of soluble lysozyme in a bioreactor system, a 3000-fold improvement over prior efforts in E. coli. Additionally, molecular interactions between lysozyme and a his-tagged Ivy allows for one-step purification by IMAC chromatography, yielding as much as 21 mg/L of purified enzyme. We anticipate that our expression and purification platform will facilitate further development of engineered lysozymes having utility in disease treatment and other practical applications. PMID:23220215

  10. Engineering Escherichia coli for soluble expression and single step purification of active human lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamppa, John W; Tanyos, Sam A; Griswold, Karl E

    2013-03-10

    Genetically engineered variants of human lysozyme represent promising leads in the battle against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, but early stage development and testing of novel lysozyme variants is constrained by the lack of a robust, scalable and facile expression system. While wild type human lysozyme is reportedly produced at 50–80 kg per hectare of land in recombinant rice, this plant-based system is not readily scaled down to bench top production, and it is therefore not suitable for development and characterization of novel lysozyme variants. Here, we describe a novel and efficient expression system capable of producing folded, soluble and functional human lysozyme in Escherichia coli cells. To achieve this goal, we simultaneously co-express multiple protein folding chaperones as well as harness the lysozyme inhibitory protein, Ivy. Our strategy exploits E. coli's ease of culture, short doubling time, and facile genetics to yield upwards of 30 mg/l of soluble lysozyme in a bioreactor system, a 3000-fold improvement over prior efforts in E. coli. Additionally, molecular interactions between lysozyme and a his-tagged Ivy allows for one-step purification by IMAC, yielding as much as 21 mg/l of purified enzyme. We anticipate that our expression and purification platform will facilitate further development of engineered lysozymes having utility in disease treatment and other practical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Penetration and fusion of phospholipid vesicles by lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H.

    1989-01-01

    The lysozyme-induced fusion of phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylethanolamine vesicles as studied at a wide range of pH is found to correlate well with the binding of this protein to the vesicles. An identical 6000 molecular weight segment of lysozyme at the N-terminal region is found to be protected from tryptic digestion when initially incubated with vesicles at several pH values. Only this segment is labeled by dansyl chloride, which is partitioned into the bilayer. These results suggest the penetration of one segment of lysozyme into the bilayer. Photoactivated labeling of the membrane-penetrating segment of lysozyme with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-([ 125 I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([ 125 I]TID) and subsequent identification of the labeled residues by Edman degradation and gamma-ray counting indicate that four amino acids from the N-terminal are located outside the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. Although treatment of the membrane-embedded segment with aminopeptidase failed to cleave any amino acids from the N-terminal, it appears that a loop of lysozyme segment near the N-terminal penetrates into the bilayer at acidic pH. A helical wheel diagram shows that the labeling is done mainly on one surface of the alpha-helix. The penetration kinetics as studied by time-dependent [ 125 I]TID labeling coincide with the fusion kinetics, strongly suggesting that the penetration of the lysozyme segment into the vesicles is the cause of the fusion

  12. Effect of PEG molecular weight and PEGylation degree on the physical stability of PEGylated lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Josefine; Baumann, Pascal; Brunner, Carina; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2017-03-15

    During production, purification, formulation, and storage proteins for pharmaceutical or biotechnological applications face solution conditions that are unfavorable for their stability. Such harmful conditions include extreme pH changes, high ionic strengths or elevated temperatures. The characterization of the main influencing factors promoting undesired changes of protein conformation and aggregation, as well as the manipulation and selective control of protein stabilities are crucially important to biopharmaceutical research and process development. In this context PEGylation, i.e. the covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to proteins, represents a valuable strategy to improve the physico-chemical properties of proteins. In this work, the influence of PEG molecular weight and PEGylation degree on the physical stability of PEGylated lysozyme is investigated. Specifically, conformational and colloidal properties were studied by means of high-throughput melting point determination and automated generation of protein phase diagrams, respectively. Lysozyme from chicken egg-white as a model protein was randomly conjugated to 2kDa, 5kDa and 10kDa mPEG-aldehyde and resulting PEGamer species were purified by chromatographic separation. Besides protein stability assessment, residual enzyme activities were evaluated employing a Micrococcus lysodeikticus based activity assay. PEG molecules with lower molecular weights and lower PEGylation degrees resulted in higher residual activities. Changes in enzyme activities upon PEGylation have shown to result from a combination of steric hindrance and molecular flexibility. In contrast, higher PEG molecular weights and PEGylation degrees enhanced conformational and colloidal stability. By PEGylating lysozyme an increase of the protein solubility by more than 11-fold was achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Anti-sigma Factor RsiV Is a Bacterial Receptor for Lysozyme: Co-crystal Structure Determination and Demonstration That Binding of Lysozyme to RsiV Is Required for σV Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Hastie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available σ factors provide RNA polymerase with promoter specificity in bacteria. Some σ factors require activation in order to interact with RNA polymerase and transcribe target genes. The Extra-Cytoplasmic Function (ECF σ factor, σV, is encoded by several Gram-positive bacteria and is specifically activated by lysozyme. This activation requires the proteolytic destruction of the anti-σ factor RsiV via a process of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP. In many cases proteases that cleave at site-1 are thought to directly sense a signal and initiate the RIP process. We previously suggested binding of lysozyme to RsiV initiated the proteolytic destruction of RsiV and activation of σV. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the RsiV-lysozyme complex at 2.3 Å which revealed that RsiV and lysozyme make extensive contacts. We constructed RsiV mutants with altered abilities to bind lysozyme. We find that mutants that are unable to bind lysozyme block site-1 cleavage of RsiV and σV activation in response to lysozyme. Taken together these data demonstrate that RsiV is a receptor for lysozyme and binding of RsiV to lysozyme is required for σV activation. In addition, the co-structure revealed that RsiV binds to the lysozyme active site pocket. We provide evidence that in addition to acting as a sensor for the presence of lysozyme, RsiV also inhibits lysozyme activity. Thus we have demonstrated that RsiV is a protein with multiple functions. RsiV inhibits σV activity in the absence of lysozyme, RsiV binds lysozyme triggering σV activation and RsiV inhibits the enzymatic activity of lysozyme.

  14. The Anti-sigma Factor RsiV Is a Bacterial Receptor for Lysozyme: Co-crystal Structure Determination and Demonstration That Binding of Lysozyme to RsiV Is Required for σV Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Jessica L; Williams, Kyle B; Bohr, Lindsey L; Houtman, Jon C; Gakhar, Lokesh; Ellermeier, Craig D

    2016-09-01

    σ factors provide RNA polymerase with promoter specificity in bacteria. Some σ factors require activation in order to interact with RNA polymerase and transcribe target genes. The Extra-Cytoplasmic Function (ECF) σ factor, σV, is encoded by several Gram-positive bacteria and is specifically activated by lysozyme. This activation requires the proteolytic destruction of the anti-σ factor RsiV via a process of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). In many cases proteases that cleave at site-1 are thought to directly sense a signal and initiate the RIP process. We previously suggested binding of lysozyme to RsiV initiated the proteolytic destruction of RsiV and activation of σV. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the RsiV-lysozyme complex at 2.3 Å which revealed that RsiV and lysozyme make extensive contacts. We constructed RsiV mutants with altered abilities to bind lysozyme. We find that mutants that are unable to bind lysozyme block site-1 cleavage of RsiV and σV activation in response to lysozyme. Taken together these data demonstrate that RsiV is a receptor for lysozyme and binding of RsiV to lysozyme is required for σV activation. In addition, the co-structure revealed that RsiV binds to the lysozyme active site pocket. We provide evidence that in addition to acting as a sensor for the presence of lysozyme, RsiV also inhibits lysozyme activity. Thus we have demonstrated that RsiV is a protein with multiple functions. RsiV inhibits σV activity in the absence of lysozyme, RsiV binds lysozyme triggering σV activation and RsiV inhibits the enzymatic activity of lysozyme.

  15. Lysozyme association with circulating RNA, extracellular vesicles, and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abey, Sarah K; Yuana, Yuana; Joseph, Paule V; Kenea, Natnael D; Fourie, Nicolaas H; Sherwin, LeeAnne B; Gonye, Gregory E; Smyser, Paul A; Stempinski, Erin S; Boulineaux, Christina M; Weaver, Kristen R; Bleck, Christopher K E; Henderson, Wendy A

    2017-06-01

    Stress has demonstrated effects on inflammation though underlying cell-cell communication mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that circulating RNAs and extracellular vesicles (EVs) in patients with chronic stress contain signals with functional roles in cell repair. Blood transcriptome from patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome versus controls were compared to identify signaling pathways and effectors. Plasma EVs were isolated (size-exclusion chromatography) and characterized for effectors' presence (immunogold labelling-electron microscopy). Based on transcriptome pathways and EV-labelling, lysozyme's effects on cell migration were tested in human colon epithelial CRL-1790 cells and compared to the effects of CXCL12, a migration inducer (wound assay). The effect of lysozyme on immune-linked mRNA and protein levels in cells which survived following serum starvation and scratch wound were investigated (NanoString). Blood transcriptomes revealed pyridoxal 5'phosphate salvage, pyrimidine ribonucleotides salvage pathways, atherosclerosis, and cell movement signaling with membrane CD9 and extracellular lysozyme as effectors. Plasma EVs showed labelling with CD9, mucins, and lysozyme. This is the first identification of lysozyme on plasma EVs. In CRL-1790 cells, lysozyme induced migration and repaired scratch wound as well as CXCL12. Immune mRNA and protein expressions were altered in cells which survived following serum starvation and scratch wound, with or without lysozyme in serum-free media post-wounding: CD9, IL8, IL6 mRNAs and CD9, NT5E, PD-L1 proteins. Repair and inflammatory signals are identified in plasma EVs and circulating RNAs in chronic stress. Registered clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00824941. This study highlights the role of circulating RNAs and EVs in stress.

  16. Crystallization of Hevamine, an Enzyme with Lysozyme/Chitinase Activity from Hevea brasiliensis Latex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROZEBOOM, HJ; BUDIANI, A; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1990-01-01

    Hevamine, an enzyme with both lysozyme and chitinase activity, was isolated and purified from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) latex. The enzyme (molecular weight 29,000) is homologous to certain “pathogenesis-related” proteins from plants, but not to hen egg-white or phage T4 lysozyme. To

  17. Surface morphology of thin lysozyme films produced by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purice, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Pryds, Nini

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of the protein, lysozyme, have been deposited by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Frozen targets of 0.3-1.0 wt.% lysozyme dissolved in ultrapure water were irradiated by laser light at 355 mn with a fluence of 2 J/cm(2). The surface quality of the thin...

  18. Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

  19. Production of active lysozyme films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purice, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Kingshott, P.

    2007-01-01

    Thin lysozyme films have been produced in a dry environment by MAPLE (matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation) from a water ice matrix irradiated by laser light at 355 nm above the absorption threshold of the protein. A significant part of the lysozyme molecules are transferred to the film without...

  20. Enhanced activity of lysozyme-AgNP conjugate with synergic antibacterial effect without damaging the catalytic site of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Vinita; Gajalakshmi, Sekar; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-10-01

    The conjugation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with biomolecules such as oligosaccharides, DNA, proteins has attracted great attention of scientists recently. In this study, lysozyme-AgNP conjugates were evaluated for its synergic antimicrobial effect. AgNPs were synthesized and characterized using UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). AgNP (0-1 mM) was interacted with lysozyme for multi-spectrophotometric studies. Lysozyme was immobilized on AgNP at different ratios and the resulting nano-bio-conjugate was tested against Escherichia coli for potent synergic antibacterial effects. A surface plasmon peak at 420 nm confirmed the presence of AgNPs and spherical to oval-shaped AgNPs were observed by AFM. The particle size was calculated to be 25 nm by XRD analysis. The maximum immobilization efficiency (98%) was achieved at 0.01:1 ratio of enzyme:AgNP. UV-Visible and fluorescence spectral studies revealed the binding of AgNPs to lysozyme by the formation of ground-state complex and the binding parameters were calculated. Circular dichroism studies confirmed decrease by 11% in the α-helical and 29.32% in β-sheets of lysozyme upon AgNP interaction. FTIR spectra revealed the binding of AgNP through thiol (-SH) linkages of lysozyme. Our results showed that the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme-AgNP conjugate was enhanced up to 86% decrease in the cell growth. In summary, the immobilization of lysozyme on AgNP has yielded a nano-bio-conjugate with synergistic antibacterial properties.

  1. A bifunctional invertebrate-type lysozyme from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: genome organization, transcriptional profiling and biological activities of recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Jehee

    2013-10-01

    Lysozyme is an important enzyme in the innate immune system that plays a vital role in fighting microbial infections. In the current study, we identified, cloned, and characterized a gene that encodes an invertebrate-type lysozyme from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus (abLysI). The full-length cDNA of abLysI consisted of 545 bp with an open reading frame of 393 bp that encodes 131 amino acids. The theoretical molecular mass of mature abLysI was 12.3 kDa with an isoelectric point of 8.03. Conserved features in other homologs, such as catalytic sites for lytic activity (Glu(30) and Asp(41)), isopeptidase activity (His(107)), and ten cysteine residues were identified in abLysI. Genomic sequence analysis with respect to its cDNA showed that abLysI was organized into four exons interrupted by three introns. Several immune-related transcription factor binding sites were discovered in the putative promoter region. Homology and phylogeny analysis of abLysI depicted high identity and closer proximity, respectively, with an annelid i-type lysozyme from Hirudo medicinalis, and indicated that abLysI is a novel molluscan i-type lysozyme. Tissue-specific expressional studies revealed that abLysI is mainly transcribed in hepatopancreas followed by mantle. In addition, abLysI mRNA expression was induced following bacterial (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) challenges. Recombinantly expressed abLysI [(r)abLysI] demonstrated strong lytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus, isopeptidase activity, and antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, (r)abLysI showed optimum lytic activity at pH 4.0 and 60 °C, while exhibiting optimum isopeptidase activity at pH 7.0. Taken together, these results indicate that abLysI is potentially involved in immune responses of the disk abalone to protect it from invaders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lysozyme Catalyzes the Formation of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-03

    adsorption of anionic SDS molecules on nanopar- ticle surface. Consistent with its observed colloidal in- stability, the measured surface potential of Ag...ionic protein and, in a globular state, the protein would take on a new cationic and amphiphilic form. In this uniquely amphipathic state, the lysozyme

  3. Effect of molecular anisotropy on the nucleation of lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, J; Dijkstra, K; Haas, C; Leppert, J; Ohlenschlager, O

    2003-01-01

    The growth of protein crystals is preceded by an induction period during which the protein solution prepares itself for crystallization. We have measured the length of the induction period for lysozyme as a function of the temperature for a solution of 16.9 mg/mL at pH 4.5 with 5% NaCl as the

  4. Effects of Purification on the Crystallization of Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Felecia L.; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Van Der Woerd, Mark; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    We have additionally purified a commercial lysozyme preparation by cation exchange chromatography, followed by recrystallization. This material is 99.96% pure with respect to macromolecular impurities. At basic pH, the purified lysozyme gave only tetragonal crystals at 20 C. Protein used directly from the bottle, prepared by dialysis against distilled water, or which did not bind to the cation exchange column had considerably altered crystallization behavior. Lysozyme which did not bind to the cation exchange column was subsequently purified by size exclusion chromatography. This material gave predominately bundles of rod-shaped crystals with some small tetragonal crystals at lower pHs. The origin of the bundled rod habit was postulated to be a thermally dependent tetragonal- orthorhombic change in the protein structure. This was subsequently ruled out on the basis of crystallization behavior and growth rate experiments. This suggests that heterogeneous forms of lysozyme may be responsible. These results demonstrate three classes of impurities: (1) small molecules, which may be removed by dialysis; (2) macromolecules, which are removable by chromatographic techniques; and (3) heterogeneous forms of the protein, which can be removed in this case by cation exchange chromatography. Of these, heterogeneous forms of the lysozyme apparently have the greatest affect on its crystallization behavior.

  5. Edwardsiella tarda Ivy, a lysozyme inhibitor that blocks the lytic effect of lysozyme and facilitates host infection in a manner that is dependent on the conserved cysteine residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Bo-guang; Li, Jun; Sun, Li

    2013-10-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen with a broad host range that includes fish and humans. In this study, we examined the activity and function of the lysozyme inhibitor Ivy (named IvyEt) identified in the pathogenic E. tarda strain TX01. IvyEt possesses the Ivy signature motif CKPHDC in the form of (82)CQPHNC(87) and contains several highly conserved residues, including a tryptophan (W55). For the purpose of virulence analysis, an isogenic TX01 mutant, TXivy, was created. TXivy bears an in-frame deletion of the ivyEt gene. A live infection study in a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) model showed that, compared to TX01, TXivy exhibited attenuated overall virulence, reduced tissue dissemination and colonization capacity, an impaired ability to replicate in host macrophages, and decreased resistance against the bactericidal effect of host serum. To facilitate functional analysis, recombinant IvyEt (rIvy) and three mutant proteins, i.e., rIvyW55A, rIvyC82S, and rIvyH85D, which bear Ala, Ser, and Asp substitutions at W55, C82, and H85, respectively, were prepared. In vitro studies showed that rIvy, rIvyW55A, and rIvyH85D were able to block the lytic effect of lysozyme on a Gram-positive bacterium, whereas rIvyC82S could not do so. Likewise, rIvy, but not rIvyC82S, inhibited the serum-facilitated killing effect of lysozyme on E. tarda. In vivo analysis showed that rIvy, but not rIvyC82S, restored the lost pathogenicity of TXivy and enhanced the infectivity of TX01. Together these results indicate that IvyEt is a lysozyme inhibitor and a virulence factor that depends on the conserved C82 for biological activity.

  6. Lysozyme in water-acetonitrile mixtures: Preferential solvation at the inner edge of excess hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A.; Kuchierskaya, Alexandra A.

    2017-06-01

    Preferential solvation/hydration is an effective way for regulating the mechanism of the protein destabilization/stabilization. Organic solvent/water sorption and residual enzyme activity measurements were performed to monitor the preferential solvation/hydration of hen egg-white lysozyme at high and low water content in acetonitrile at 25 °C. The obtained results show that the protein destabilization/stabilization depends essentially on the initial hydration level of lysozyme and the water content in acetonitrile. There are three composition regimes for the dried lysozyme. At high water content, the lysozyme has a higher affinity for water than for acetonitrile. The residual enzyme activity values are close to 100%. At the intermediate water content, the dehydrated lysozyme has a higher affinity for acetonitrile than for water. A minimum on the residual enzyme activity curve was observed in this concentration range. At the lowest water content, the organic solvent molecules are preferentially excluded from the dried lysozyme, resulting in the preferential hydration. The residual catalytic activity is ˜80%, compared with that observed after incubation in pure water. Two distinct schemes are operative for the hydrated lysozyme. At high and intermediate water content, lysozyme is preferentially hydrated. However, in contrast to the dried protein, at the intermediate water content, the initially hydrated lysozyme has the increased preferential hydration parameters. At low water content, the preferential binding of the acetonitrile molecules to the initially hydrated lysozyme was detected. No residual enzyme activity was observed in the water-poor acetonitrile. Our data clearly show that the initial hydration level of the protein macromolecules is one of the key factors that govern the stability of the protein-water-organic solvent systems.

  7. MUCOADHESIVE GEL WITH IMMOBILIZED LYSOZYME: PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekina S. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of non-covalent immobilized lysozyme, as well as physico-chemical and biochemical properties of obtained mucoadhesive gel was the aim of the research. Lysozyme activity was determined by bacteriolytic method (Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells acetone powder was a substrate. Lysozyme immobilization was conducted by the method of entrapment in gel. Enzyme carrier interaction was studied by viscometric, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods. Mucoadhesive gel with immobilized lysozyme, possessing antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities, was prepared. Due to immobilization, protein-polymer complex with the original enzymatic activity was formed. The product is characterized by high mucoadhesive properties, quantitative retaining of protein and bacteriolytic activity, prolonged release of the enzyme, improved biochemical characteristics (extended pH-activity profile, stability in acidic medium and during storage for 2 years, and it is perspective for further studies. The proposed method for lysozyme immobilization in the carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt gel allows to obtain a stable, highly efficient product, with high adhesive properties for attachment to the mucous membranes, that is promising for use in biomedicine.

  8. Chemical denaturation of globular proteins at the air-water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perriman, A.; White, J.; Henderson, M.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray and neutron reflectometry has been used to probe the equilibrium surface structure of hen egg white lysozyme (lysozyme) and bovine β -lactoglobulin (β -lactoglobulin) under denaturing conditions at the air-water interface. This was achieved by performing experiments on 10 mg mL -1 protein solutions containing increasing concentrations of guanidinium hydrochloride For solutions containing no G.HCl, the surface structure of the proteins was represented by a two-layer model with total thicknesses of 48 Angstroms and 38 Angstroms for lysozyme and β -lactoglobulin, respectively. The total volume of a single protein molecule and the associated water molecules was determined to be approximately 45 (0.3) nm 3 for lysozyme, and 60 (0.3) nm 3 for β -lactoglobulin. The thickness dimensions and the total volumes compared favourably with the crystal dimensions of 45 x 30 x 30 Angstroms (40.5 nm 3 ), and 36 x 36 x 36 Angstroms (47 nm 3 ) for lysozyme and β -lactoglobulin, respectively. This comparison suggests that when no denaturant was present, the structures of lysozyme and β -lactoglobulin were near to their native conformations at the air-water The response to the presence of the chemical denaturant was different for each protein. The surface layer of β -lactoglobulin expanded at very low concentrations (0.2 mol dm -3 ) of G.HCl, where the lysozyme layer contracted. At higher concentrations, unfolding of both the proteins led to the formation of a third diffuse layer. In general, lysozyme appeared to be less responsive to the chemical denaturant, which is most likely a result of the higher disulfide content of lysozyme. A protocol allowing quantitative analysis of the contribution from the air-water interface to the chemical denaturation of a protein was developed. The protocol involved calculation of the Gibbs free energy of a protein at zero denaturant concentration, by using the change in the adsorbed layer thickness as an order parameter

  9. Wild-type hen egg white lysozyme aggregation in vitro can form self-seeding amyloid conformational variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Vishwanath; Prasanna, Nalla Lakshmi; Sharma, Neetu; Prasad, Archana; Patel, Basant K

    2016-12-01

    Misfolded β-sheet-rich protein aggregates termed amyloid, deposit in vivo leading to debilitating diseases such as Alzheimer's, prion and renal amyloidosis diseases etc. Strikingly, amyloid can induce conversion of their natively folded monomers into similarly aggregated conformation via 'seeding'. The specificity of seeding is well documented in vivo for prions, where prion-variants arising from conformationally altered amyloids of the same protein, faithfully seed monomers into amyloid displaying the original variant's conformation. Thus far, amyloid variant formation is reported only for a few non-prion proteins like Alzheimer's Aβ42-peptide and β-2 microglobulin, however, their conformational cross-seeding capabilities are unexplored. While mutant human lysozyme causes renal amyloidosis, the hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) has been extensively investigated in vitro as a model amyloid protein. Here we investigated if wild-type HEWL could form self-seeding amyloid variants to examine if variant formation is more wide-spread. We found that HEWL aggregates formed under quiescent versus agitated conditions, displayed different particle sizes, detergent stabilities & β-sheet content, and they only seeded monomeric HEWL under similar incubation conditions, but not under swapped incubation conditions thereby showing amyloid variant formation by HEWL analogous to prion variants. This may have implications to the amyloidosis caused by different mutants of human lysozyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological and Clinical Implications of Lysozyme Deposition on Soft Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omali, Negar Babaei; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Fadli, Zohra; Jones, Lyndon W

    2015-07-01

    Within a few minutes of wear, contact lenses become rapidly coated with a variety of tear film components, including proteins, lipids, and mucins. Tears have a rich and complex composition, allowing a wide range of interactions and competitive processes, with the first event observed at the interface between a contact lens and tear fluid being protein adsorption. Protein adsorption on hydrogel contact lenses is a complex process involving a variety of factors relating to both the protein in question and the lens material. Among tear proteins, lysozyme is a major protein that has both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory functions. Contact lens materials that have high ionicity and high water content have an increased affinity to accumulate lysozyme during wear, when compared with other soft lens materials, notably silicone hydrogel lenses. This review provides an overview of tear film proteins, with a specific focus on lysozyme, and examines various factors that influence protein deposition on contact lenses. In addition, the impact of lysozyme deposition on various ocular physiological responses and bacterial adhesion to lenses and the interaction of lysozyme with other tear proteins are reviewed. This comprehensive review suggests that deposition of lysozyme on contact lens materials may provide a number of beneficial effects during contact lens wear.

  11. Lysozyme Solubility and Conformation in Neat Ionic Liquids and Their Mixtures with Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, Stephen; Bermudez, Harry; Hoagland, David

    2016-06-13

    The room temperature solubility of a number of model proteins is assessed for a diverse set of neat ionic liquids (ILs). For two soluble protein-IL pairs, lysozyme in [C2MIM][EtSO4] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate) and in [C2,4,4,4P][Et2PO4] (tributyl(ethyl)phosphonium diethylphosphate), protein solubility and structure at various temperatures are probed by dynamic light scattering (assessing dissolved molecular size), turbidimetry (reflecting degree of solubility), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (uncovering helical secondary structure). As compared to aqueous environments, [C2,4,4,4P][Et2PO4] thermally stabilizes protein size and secondary structure while [C2MIM][EtSO4] does the opposite. Lysozyme denatured in [C2MIM][EtSO4] does not aggregate, presumably due to an absence of hydrophobic interactions, and the denaturation appears thermally reversible. Both ILs at room temperature are miscible with water in all proportions, but to create the corresponding ternary mixtures with protein, the order of mixing is important. Mixed to avoid additions of water to IL-dissolved protein, stable solutions are obtained with [C2MIM][EtSO4] at all solvent compositions. When water is added to IL-rich solutions, liquid-liquid demixing is noted.

  12. A calorimetric study of the interactions in the aqueous solutions of lysozyme in the presence of denaturing cosolvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronuovo, Giuseppina; Niccoli, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A thermodynamic method is reported to monitor the chemical denaturation of lysozyme. ► The enthalpic interaction coefficients are very useful parameters to gain information about the mechanism through which two hydrated molecules interact in solution. ► Hypotheses are proposed about the mechanism underlying the denaturation of lysozyme induced by high concentrations of urea or ethanol. - Abstract: A thermodynamic method is reported to monitor the chemical denaturation of lysozyme. Heats of dilution of the protein in concentrated aqueous solutions of urea or ethanol have been determined at 298.15 K by flow microcalorimetry. The pairwise enthalpic interaction coefficients of the protein in the different solvent media are derived. These parameters allow to gain information about the influence of the cosolvents on the interactions acting between two interacting hydrated molecules of lysozyme, hence on the denaturation process. At increasing urea concentration, up to about 6 mol kg −1 , the values of the interaction coefficients are large and negative and remain almost unaltered. The invariance of the coefficients underlines that, even in highly concentrated urea, the hydration shell of the protein is such to maintain essentially unaltered the native conformation. At higher urea concentrations, a sudden change in the sign of the coefficients monitors the variation in the interactions between two hydrated denatured protein molecules. The same trend is found when ethanol is the cosolvent. At increasing concentration of the cosolvent, coefficients are, at first, almost invariant. After that, denaturation occurs, detected as a jump toward much more negative values. The results obtained are rationalized on the basis of those previously found for small model molecules in concentrated solutions of urea or ethanol. The thermodynamic framework allows useful comments to be made on the possible mode of action of the two cosolvents on the stability of proteins

  13. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    OpenAIRE

    T. Janc; M. Kastelic; M. Bončina; V. Vlachy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, $T_{cloud}$, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer) and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer). We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above $I_{buffer} = 0.6$ mol dm$^{-3}$ does not affect the $T_{cloud}$ values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte b...

  14. Lysozyme Counteracts β-Lactam Antibiotics by Promoting the Emergence of L-Form Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yoshikazu; Mickiewicz, Katarzyna; Errington, Jeff

    2018-02-22

    β-lactam antibiotics inhibit bacterial cell wall assembly and, under classical microbiological culture conditions that are generally hypotonic, induce explosive cell death. Here, we show that under more physiological, osmoprotective conditions, for various Gram-positive bacteria, lysis is delayed or abolished, apparently because inhibition of class A penicillin-binding protein leads to a block in autolytic activity. Although these cells still then die by other mechanisms, exogenous lytic enzymes, such as lysozyme, can rescue viability by enabling the escape of cell wall-deficient "L-form" bacteria. This protective L-form conversion was also observed in macrophages and in an animal model, presumably due to the production of host lytic activities, including lysozyme. Our results demonstrate the potential for L-form switching in the host environment and highlight the unexpected effects of innate immune effectors, such as lysozyme, on antibiotic activity. Unlike previously described dormant persisters, L-forms can continue to proliferate in the presence of antibiotic. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reentrant condensation of lysozyme: Implications for studying dynamics of lysozyme in aqueous solutions of lithium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have outlined the use of eutectic solution of lithium chloride in water to study microscopic dynamics of lysozyme in an aqueous solvent that is remarkably similar to pure water in many respects, yet allows experiments over a wide temperature range without the solvent crystallization. The eutectic point in (H2O)R(LiCl) system corresponds to R 7.3, and it is of interest to investigate whether less concentrated aqueous solutions of LiCl could be employed in low-temperature studies of a solvated protein. We have investigated a range of concentrations of lysozyme and LiCl in aqueous solutions to identify systems that do not show phase separation and avoid solvent crystallization on cooling down. Compared to the lysozyme concentration in solution, the concentration of LiCl in the aqueous solvent plays the major role in determining systems suitable for low-temperature studies. We have observed interesting and rich phase behavior reminiscent of reentrant condensation of proteins.

  16. Spectrophotometric studies on the interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kalyan Sundar; Sahoo, Bijaya Ketan; Dasgupta, Swagata

    2008-02-01

    Various reported antibacterial activities of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol of green tea prompted us to study its binding with lysozyme. This has been investigated by fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and protein-ligand docking. The binding parameters were determined using a modified Stern-Volmer equation. The thermodynamic parameters are indicative of an initial hydrophobic association. The complex is, however, held together predominantly by van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. CD studies do not indicate any significant changes in the secondary structure of lysozyme. Docking studies revealed that specific interactions are observed with residues Trp 62 and Trp 63.

  17. Identification of some OH radical-induced products of lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, M.; Gajewski, E.; Simic, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    OH radical reactions with lysozyme in #betta#-irradiated N 2 O saturated aqueous solutions caused formation of allo-threonine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, o- and m-tyrosines, and 2- and 3-hydroxytyrosines. These identified radiolytic products were characterized by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their trimethylsilyl derivatives after HCl-hydrolysis of irradiated lysozyme. Their initial G-values were also determined using gas chromatography. The possible use of these radiolytic products as monitors of radiation-induced damage to proteins and the sites of attack are also discussed. (author)

  18. Lysozyme Catalyzes the Formation of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    molecules on nanopar- ticle surface. Consistent with its observed colloidal in- stability, the measured surface potential of AglysoSDS nanoparticles was...globular state, the protein would take on a new cationic and amphiphilic form. In this uniquely amphipathic state, the lysozyme coating on the particle

  19. Preferential interactions and the effect of protein PEGylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Louise Stenstrup; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Kasimova, Marina Robertovna

    2015-01-01

    excipients that preferentially interact with the protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The model protein hen egg white lysozyme was doubly PEGylated on two lysines with 5 kDa linear PEGs (mPEG-succinimidyl valerate, MW 5000) and studied in the absence and presence of preferentially excluded sucrose...... enthalpy was decreased to half the value for PEGylated lysozyme. The ratio between calorimetric and van't Hoff enthalpy suggests that our PEGylated lysozyme is a dimer. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The PEGylated model protein displayed similar stability responses to the addition of preferentially active......BACKGROUND: PEGylation is a strategy used by the pharmaceutical industry to prolong systemic circulation of protein drugs, whereas formulation excipients are used for stabilization of proteins during storage. Here we investigate the role of PEGylation in protein stabilization by formulation...

  20. Characterization of lysozyme films produced by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purice, Andreea; Schou, Jorgen; Kingshott, Peter; Pryds, Nini; Dinescu, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Thin lysozyme films of thickness up to more than 100 nm have been produced in a dry environment by MAPLE (matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation) from a water ice matrix. Analysis of the films demonstrates that a significant part of the lysozyme molecules is transferred to the substrate without decomposition and that the protein activity is preserved. The film deposition rate for 1 wt% lysozyme has a maximum at 2 J/cm 2 of about 1 ng/cm 2 per laser shot. During the film production the deposition rate is constant without any sign of depletion or accumulation effects in the water ice target or in the growing film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrate that the silicon substrate is completely covered by lysozyme films thicker than 100 nm. Deposition was also made from a target with pressed (100%) solid lysozyme, but the deposition was difficult to handle and with a much slower rate than that from a water ice matrix

  1. Laser ablation of lysozyme with UV, visible and infrared femto- and nanosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Matei, Andreea

    Lysozyme is an interesting molecule for laser ablation of organic materials, because the ablation has been comprehensively studied, it is a medium heavy molecule with a mass of 14305 Da, which can be detected by standard techniques, and because it is used as a bactericidal protein in the food...... industry. Lysozyme molecules do not absorb energy for wavelengths above 310 nm, but nevertheless there is a strong mass loss by ablation for laser irradiation in the visible regime. The total ablation yield of lysozyme at 355 nm and at 2 J/cm2 is about 155 µg/pulse, possibly one of the highest ablation...... yields ever measured. The mass loss is mainly caused by fragmentation of the lysozyme into simple gases, such as H2S, H2O and CO2 , which are rapidly pumped away in the vacuum chamber. We have investigated the mass loss by ablation of lysozyme in all regimes to see whether a similar mechanism governs...

  2. Modelling of proteins in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; May, S.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review describes some recent theories and simulations of mesoscopic and microscopic models of lipid membranes with embedded or attached proteins. We summarize results supporting our understanding of phenomena for which the activities of proteins in membranes are expected to be significantly...

  3. Combining structure and dynamics: non-denaturing high-pressure effect on lysozyme in solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ortore, Maria Grazia; Spinozzi, Francesco; Mariani, Paolo; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Barbosa, Leandro R. S.; Amenitsch, Heinz; Steinhart, Milos; Ollivier, Jacques; Russo, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and elastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering techniques were used to investigate the high-pressure-induced changes on interactions, the low-resolution structure and the dynamics of lysozyme in solution. SAXS data, analysed using a global-fit procedure based on a new approach for hydrated protein form factor description, indicate that lysozyme completely maintains its globular structure up to 1500 bar, but significant modifications in the protein–protein...

  4. An RNA aptamer possessing a novel monovalent cation-mediated fold inhibits lysozyme catalysis by inhibiting the binding of long natural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padlan, Camille S; Malashkevich, Vladimir N; Almo, Steve C; Levy, Matthew; Brenowitz, Michael; Girvin, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    RNA aptamers are being developed as inhibitors of macromolecular and cellular function, diagnostic tools, and potential therapeutics. Our understanding of the physical nature of this emerging class of nucleic acid-protein complexes is limited; few atomic resolution structures have been reported for aptamers bound to their protein target. Guided by chemical mapping, we systematically minimized an RNA aptamer (Lys1) selected against hen egg white lysozyme. The resultant 59-nucleotide compact aptamer (Lys1.2minE) retains nanomolar binding affinity and the ability to inhibit lysozyme's catalytic activity. Our 2.0-Å crystal structure of the aptamer-protein complex reveals a helical stem stabilizing two loops to form a protein binding platform that binds lysozyme distal to the catalytic cleft. This structure along with complementary solution analyses illuminate a novel protein-nucleic acid interface; (1) only 410 Å(2) of solvent accessible surface are buried by aptamer binding; (2) an unusually small fraction (∼18%) of the RNA-protein interaction is electrostatic, consistent with the limited protein phosphate backbone contacts observed in the structure; (3) a single Na(+) stabilizes the loops that constitute the protein-binding platform, and consistent with this observation, Lys1.2minE-lysozyme complex formation takes up rather than displaces cations at low ionic strength; (4) Lys1.2minE inhibits catalysis of large cell wall substrates but not catalysis of small model substrates; and (5) the helical stem of Lys1.2minE can be shortened to four base pairs (Lys1.2minF) without compromising binding affinity, yielding a 45-nucleotide aptamer whose structure may be an adaptable protein binding platform.

  5. Selectivity and localization of lysozyme uptake in contemporary hydrogel contact lens materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynen, Miriam; Babaei Omali, Negar; Fadli, Zohra; Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Jones, Lyndon

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the early and selective uptake of lysozyme and the location of deposited lysozyme on contemporary hydrogel contact lens (CL) materials after exposure to an artificial tear solution (ATS) for 16 h. Seven different hydrogel CL materials [polymacon, omafilcon A, nelfilcon A, nesofilcon A, ocufilcon B, etafilcon A (Acuvue Moist), and etafilcon A (Acuvue Define)] were incubated in an ATS for various times. Total protein deposition was determined using a modified Bradford technique. Lysozyme, lactoferrin, and albumin deposition on CLs were determined using 125 I-radiolabeling method. A confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) technique was utilized to map the location of lysozyme uptake in an asymmetric environment. All lens materials had significant amounts of lysozyme after 1 min of exposure to ATS. After 16 h of incubation, higher levels of total protein deposited on the two etafilcon A-based lenses (Moist and Define), followed by ocufilcon B and both were significantly higher than all other CLs tested (p = 0.0001). The two etafilcon A materials (Moist and Define) also deposited the highest amounts of lysozyme (514.8 ± 28.4 and 527.1 ± 14.7 μg/lens respectively) when compared to other test CLs (p = 0.0001). The CLSM technique revealed that the non-ionic CLs tended to have symmetric distribution of lysozyme throughout the lens materials, while the ionic CLs had an asymmetric distribution, with the highest concentration of lysozyme on and near the exposed surface. The quantity and nature of proteins deposited on CLs varies, depending upon the chemical composition of the material. Among the various lenses tested, etafilcon A deposited the highest amount of total protein, most of it represented by lysozyme, which was largely located near the surface of the lens.

  6. Chemical denaturation of globular proteins at the air/water interface: an x-ray and neutron reflectometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perriman, A.W.; Henderson, M.J.; White, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: X-ray and neutron reflectometry has been used to probe the equilibrium surface structure of hen egg white lysozyme (lysozyme) and bovine β -lactoglobulin (β -lactoglobulin) under denaturing conditions at the air-water interface. This was achieved by performing experiments on 10 mg mL -1 protein solutions containing increasing concentrations of the chemical denaturant guanidinium hydrochloride (G.HCl). For solutions containing no G.HCl, the surface structure of the proteins was represented by a two-layer model with total thicknesses of 48 Angstroms and 38 Angstroms for lysozyme and β -lactoglobulin, respectively. The total volume of a single protein molecule and the associated water molecules was evaluated to be approximately 45 (0.3) nm 3 for lysozyme, and 60 (0.3) nm 3 for β-lactoglobulin. The thickness dimensions and the total volumes compared favourably with the crystal dimensions of 45 x 30 x 30 Angstroms (40.5 nm 3 ),1 and 36 x 36 x 36 Angstroms (47 nm 3 ) 2 for lysozyme and β -lactoglobulin, respectively. This comparison suggests that when no denaturant was present, the structures of lysozyme and β -lactoglobulin were near to their native conformations at the air-water interface. The response to the presence of the chemical denaturant was different for each protein. The surface layer of β-lactoglobulin expanded at very low concentrations (0.2 mol dm -3 ) of G.HCl. In contrast, the lysozyme layer contracted. At higher concentrations, unfolding of both the proteins led to the formation of a third diffuse layer. In general, lysozyme appeared to be less responsive to the chemical denaturant, which is most likely a result of the higher disulfide content of lysozyme. A protocol allowing quantitative thermodynamic analysis of the contribution from the air-water interface to the chemical denaturation of a protein was developed

  7. Neutron crystallography of hen egg-white lysozyme at pH4.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujiwara, Satoru; Niimura, Nobuo; Yonezawa, Yasushige

    2001-01-01

    In order to elucidate protein stability and function, it is important to know states of protonation of each amino acid in the protein under different pH. To answer this problem, we have been studying the neutron protein crystallography of hen egg-white (HEW) lysozyme under different pH. Neutron diffraction experiments of single crystals of HEW lysozyme at pH4.9 were carried out with BIX-II at JAERI. The state of protonation of active site in the HEW lysozyme was investigated; there was a hydrogen (deuterium) atom bound to carboxylate oxygen atom of Glu 35 and no hydrogen (deuterium) atom bound to that of Asp 52. The results agreed with the proposed catalytic mechanism of active site in the HEW lysozyme. (author)

  8. Evaluation of immobilized-lysozyme by means of TOF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Keigo; Aoyagi, Satoka; Dohi, Makoto; Kato, Nobuhiko; Kudo, Masahiro; Tozu, Miyako; Miyayama, Takuya; Sanada, Noriaki

    2008-12-01

    Evaluation of immobilized-proteins on bio-devices is important for the development of sophisticated devices. Lysozyme molecules immobilized on substrates were evaluated by means of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Two types of the lysozyme-immobilized samples were prepared by controlling the binding parts, i.e., the amino groups or carboxyl groups, of the protein. The TOF-SIMS spectra of each sample were analyzed with mutual information to select fragment ions specific to each sample. According to the results, differences between the samples being immobilized in the different ways are suggested, and the surface structure of the lysozyme molecule immobilized at amino groups is determined based on three-dimensional structure of lysozyme in the Protein Data Bank.

  9. Immunological response in egg-sensitive adults challenged with cheese containing or not containing lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Filippo; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Fiorentini, Lucia; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedett; De Cristofaro, Maria Laura; Piva, Gianfranco; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2012-12-01

    Lysozyme is an enzyme that hydrolyzes bacterial peptidoglicans. For this reason, it is used in cheese manufacturing in order to prevent a defect of long-ripened hard cheese called "late blowing" due to the outgrowth of spores of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium butyricum. Moreover, germination of Listeria monocytogenes spores into vegetative cells is also sensitive to lysozyme. The enzyme can be an allergenic molecule, and for this reason there are concerns about its use in food industry. The immunological and clinical response of consumption of lysozyme-containing cheese has been evaluated in 25 egg-sensitive subjects with or without lysozyme sensitization. A total of 25 egg-sensitive subjects were enrolled in this study. All the subjects were already treated for egg-sensitization and presented a positive skin prick test. All the subjects had a body mass index ≤ 25 kg/m(2) and were in the age range of 20-50 years. Each subject was studied twice and received randomly 30 g of Grana Padano (containing lysozyme) or TrentinGrana cheese (lysozyme-free) of two different aging periods: 16 or 24 months. A washout period of 1 week between each cheese intake was adopted. Blood samples were taken in fasting conditions and 1 hour after cheese intake and IgA, total IgE, and lysozyme-, ovomucoid-, and ovalbumin-specific IgE were measured. No adverse reactions were observed in both groups of patients after cheese samples were given. Lysozyme did not determine any variation of specific IgE compared with basal level. In lysozyme-sensitive patients a significant relationship between IgA and lysozyme-specific IgE was observed when lysozyme-containing cheese was given, confirming that lysozyme can pass the gut barrier. Neither adverse events nor immunological responses were observed after ingestion of cheese containing lysozyme. However, the immunological properties of peptides deriving from cheese protein hydrolysis need to be clarified, as does the effect of lysozyme on

  10. Removal of model proteins by means of low-pressure inductively coupled plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylian, O; Rauscher, H; Gilliland, D; Bretagnol, F; Rossi, F [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Via E Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: francois.rossi@jrc.it

    2008-05-07

    Surgical instruments are intended to come into direct contact with the patients' tissues and thus interact with their first immune defence system. Therefore they have to be cleaned, sterilized and decontaminated, in order to prevent any kind of infections and inflammations or to exclude the possibility of transmission of diseases. From this perspective, the removal of protein residues from their surfaces constitutes new challenges, since certain proteins exhibit high resistance to commonly used sterilization and decontamination techniques and hence are difficult to remove without inducing major damages to the object treated. Therefore new approaches must be developed for that purpose and the application of non-equilibrium plasma discharges represents an interesting option. The possibility to effectively remove model proteins (bovine serum albumin, lysozyme and ubiquitin) from surfaces of different materials (Si wafer, glass, polystyrene and gold) by means of inductively coupled plasma discharges sustained in different argon containing mixtures is demonstrated and discussed in this paper.

  11. Removal of model proteins by means of low-pressure inductively coupled plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylián, O.; Rauscher, H.; Gilliland, D.; Brétagnol, F.; Rossi, F.

    2008-05-01

    Surgical instruments are intended to come into direct contact with the patients' tissues and thus interact with their first immune defence system. Therefore they have to be cleaned, sterilized and decontaminated, in order to prevent any kind of infections and inflammations or to exclude the possibility of transmission of diseases. From this perspective, the removal of protein residues from their surfaces constitutes new challenges, since certain proteins exhibit high resistance to commonly used sterilization and decontamination techniques and hence are difficult to remove without inducing major damages to the object treated. Therefore new approaches must be developed for that purpose and the application of non-equilibrium plasma discharges represents an interesting option. The possibility to effectively remove model proteins (bovine serum albumin, lysozyme and ubiquitin) from surfaces of different materials (Si wafer, glass, polystyrene and gold) by means of inductively coupled plasma discharges sustained in different argon containing mixtures is demonstrated and discussed in this paper.

  12. Study of the non-covalent interactions of ginsenosides and lysozyme using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun; Fu, Qiang; Cui, Meng; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2015-11-15

    Ginsenosides are an important class of natural products extracted from ginseng that possess various important biological activities. Studies of interactions of ginsenosides with proteins are essential for comprehensive understanding of the biological activities of ginsenosides. In this study, the interactions of ginsenosides with lysozyme were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Both protopanaxadiol-type and protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides were chosen to explore the interactions of ginsenosides towards lysozyme near the physiological conditions by direct ESI-MS, respectively. Comparative experiments were conducted to confirm the interactions were specific. In addition, the dissociation constants of ginsenoside-lysozyme complexes were determined by a ESI-MS titration strategy. The results showed ginsenosides bound to lysozyme at the stoichiometries of 1:1 and 2:1. The association constants of ginsenosides to lysozyme were in the order of Re>Rd>Rf>Rg2 >Rg3 . According to their structures, the binding affinities associated with the type of aglycone and the type and the number of sugar moieties linked on the aglycone. It has been demonstrated that ESI-MS is a powerful tool to probe the non-covalent interactions between lysozyme and ginsenosides. These results provide insights into the interaction of ginsenosides with lysozyme at the molecular level. The developed strategy could be applied to determine the interactions of proteins with other natural products. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Photoinduced fibrils formation of chicken egg white lysozyme under native conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin-Bing; Cao, Yi; Pan, Hai; Qin, Meng; Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Xiong, Xiang; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Recent findings showed that transiently accessing structurally native-like yet energetically higher conformational states is sufficient to trigger the formation of protein fibrils. Typically, these conformational states are made available through changing solvent conditions or introducing mutations. Here we show a novel way to initialize fibril formation for Chicken egg white lysozyme (CEWL) under native conditions via controlled UV illumination. Through a cassette of tryptophan-based photochemistry, the two terminal disulfide bonds in CEWL can be selectively reduced. The reduced CEWL is then converted to conformational states with the C-terminal fragment floppy upon thermal fluctuation. These states serve as precursors for the fibrillar aggregation. Intriguingly, the CEWL fibrils are stabilized by intermolecular disulfide bonds instead of noncovalent β-sheet structures, distinct from the amyloid-like lysozyme fibrils reported before. Based on the experimental evidences and all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, we proposed a "runaway domain-swapping" model for the structure of the CEWL fibrils, in which each CEWL molecule swaps the C-terminal fragment into the complementary position of the adjacent molecule along the fibrils. We anticipate that this fibrillation mechanism can be extended to many other disulfide-containing proteins. Our study stands for the first example of formation of protein fibrils under native conditions upon UV illumination and poses the potential danger of low UV dose to organisms at the protein level. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Automated protein structure modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Comparative protein structure modeling is a computational approach to build three-dimensional structural models for proteins using experimental structures of related protein family members as templates. Regular blind assessments of modeling accuracy have demonstrated that comparative protein structure modeling is currently the most reliable technique to model protein structures. Homology models are often sufficiently accurate to substitute for experimental structures in a wide variety of applications. Since the usefulness of a model for specific application is determined by its accuracy, model quality estimation is an essential component of protein structure prediction. Comparative protein modeling has become a routine approach in many areas of life science research since fully automated modeling systems allow also nonexperts to build reliable models. In this chapter, we describe practical approaches for automated protein structure modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal.

  15. Automated Protein Structure Modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Comparative protein structure modeling is a computational approach to build three-dimensional structural models for proteins using experimental structures of related protein family members as templates. Regular blind assessments of modeling accuracy have demonstrated that comparative protein structure modeling is currently the most reliable technique to model protein structures. Homology models are often sufficiently accurate to substitute for experimental structures in a wide variety of appl...

  16. Complex coacervates of hyaluronic acid and lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Water, Jorrit J.; Schack, Malthe M.; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    stoichiometry was determined using solution depletion and isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding stoichiometry of lysozyme to hyaluronic acid (870 kDa) determined by solution depletion was found to be 225.9 ± 6.6 mol, or 0.1 bound lysozyme molecules per hyaluronic acid monomer. This corresponded well...... with that obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry of 0.09 bound lysozyme molecules per hyaluronic acid monomer. The complexation did not alter the secondary structure of lysozyme measured by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy overlap analysis and had no significant impact on the Tm of lysozyme determined...

  17. Does Warming a Lysozyme Solution Cook Ones Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc; Burke, Michael; Judge, Russell

    2000-01-01

    Chicken egg white lysozyme has a well characterized thermally driven phase transition. Between pH 4.0 and 5.2, the transition temperature, as defined by the point where the tetragonal and orthorhombic solubility are equal, is a function of the pH, salt (precipitant) type and concentration, and most likely of the buffer concentration as well. This phase transition can be carried out with protein solution alone, prior to the initiation of the crystallization process. We have now measured the kinetics of this process and investigated its reversibility. An aliquot of a stock protein solution is held at a given temperature, and at periodic intervals used to set up batch crystallization experiments. The batch solutions were incubated at 20 C until macroscopic crystals were obtained, at which point the number of crystals in each well were counted. The transition effects increased with temperature, slowly falling off at 30 C with a half time (time to approx. 1/2 the t = 0 number of crystals) of approx. 5 hours, and an estimated half time of approx. 0.5 hours at 43 C. Further, the process was not reversible by simple cooling. After holding a lysozyme solution at 37 C (prior to addition of precipitant) for 16 hours, then cooling and holding it at 4 C, no return to the pre-warmed nucleation kinetics are observed after at least 4 weeks. Thus every thermal excursion above the phase transition point results in a further decrease in the nucleation rate of that solution, the extent being a function of the time and temperature. Orthorhombic lysozyme crystals apparently do not undergo the flow-induced growth cessation of tetragonal lysozyme crystals. We have previously shown that putting the protein in the orthorhombic form does not affect the averaged face growth kinetics, only nucleation, for tetragonal crystals. We may be able to use this differential behavior to elucidate how flow affects tile lysozyme crystal growth process.

  18. Sweetness characterization of recombinant human lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Mami; Nakajima, Kana; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Udaka, Shigezo; Maehashi, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Lysozyme, a bacteriolytic enzyme, is widely distributed in nature and is a component of the innate immune system. It is established that chicken egg lysozyme elicits sweetness. However, the sweetness of human milk lysozyme, which is vital for combating microbial infections of the gastrointestinal tract of breast-fed infants, has not been characterized. This study aimed to assess the elicitation of sweetness using recombinant mammalian lysozymes expressed in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant human lysozyme (h-LZ) and other mammalian lysozymes of mouse, dog, cat and bovine milk elicited similar sweetness as determined using a sensory test, whereas bovine stomach lysozyme (bs-LZ) did not. Assays of cell cultures showed that h-LZ activated the human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3, whereas bs-LZ did not. Point mutations confirmed that the sweetness of h-LZ was independent of enzyme activity and substrate-binding sites, although acidic amino acid residues of bs-LZ played a significant role in diminishing sweetness. Therefore, we conclude that elicitation of sweetness is a ubiquitous function among all lysozymes including mammalian lysozymes. These findings may provide novel insights into the biological implications of T1R2/T1R3-activation by mammalian lysozyme in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. However, the function of lysozyme within species lacking the functional sweet taste receptor gene, such as cat, is currently unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Controlled protein delivery from electrospun non-wovens: novel combination of protein crystals and a biodegradable release matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Sebastian; Li, Linhao; Meinel, Lorenz; Germershaus, Oliver

    2014-07-07

    Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) is an excellent polymer for electrospinning and matrix-controlled drug delivery combining optimal processability and good biocompatibility. Electrospinning of proteins has been shown to be challenging via the use of organic solvents, frequently resulting in protein unfolding or aggregation. Encapsulation of protein crystals represents an attractive but largely unexplored alternative to established protein encapsulation techniques because of increased thermodynamic stability and improved solvent resistance of the crystalline state. We herein explore the electrospinning of protein crystal suspensions and establish basic design principles for this novel type of protein delivery system. PCL was deployed as a matrix, and lysozyme was used as a crystallizing model protein. By rational combination of lysozyme crystals 0.7 or 2.1 μm in diameter and a PCL fiber diameter between 1.6 and 10 μm, release within the first 24 h could be varied between approximately 10 and 100%. Lysozyme loading of PCL microfibers between 0.5 and 5% was achieved without affecting processability. While relative release was unaffected by loading percentage, the amount of lysozyme released could be tailored. PCL was blended with poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) to further modify the release rate. Under optimized conditions, an almost constant lysozyme release over 11 weeks was achieved.

  20. Compare and contrast the effects of surfactants (PluronicF-127 and CremophorEL) and sugars (β-cyclodextrin and inulin) on properties of spray dried and crystallised lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Ahmad, Rita Rochdy; Elkordy, Amal Ali; Chaw, Cheng Shu; Moore, Adrian

    2013-07-16

    The stabilisation of proteins using different excipients in dried forms for possible therapeutic use is extensively studied. However, the effects of excipients on proteins in crystallised forms are sparsely documented. Therefore, the influences of PluronicF-127 and CremophorEL (as surfactants) and β-cyclodextrin and inulin (as sugars) on stability and biological activity of lysozyme, a model protein, in spray dried and crystallised forms were investigated. Spray dried and crystallised lysozyme were prepared in absence and presence of the mentioned excipients in a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The protein formulations were characterised in both solution state (using biological assay, particle size analysis and protein concentration determination) and solid state (employing yield determination, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for secondary structure analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for thermal study). Also, protein samples were assayed for their biological activities after exposing to storage stability study for 20 weeks in solid states at 24 °C/76% relative humidity (RH) and in aqueous states at 24 °C. The results showed that lysozyme crystals with CremophorEL, PluronicF-127, β-cyclodextrin and inulin maintained protein thermal stability (as indicated by DSC) to greater extent compared with spray dried protein formulations. Also, PluronicF-127 was competent to recover 100% lysozyme from crystallisation protein solutions (as confirmed by yield determination); this surfactant was able to prevent aggregate formation within spray dried lysozyme (as demonstrated by particle size analysis). The presence of PluronicF-127, β-cyclodextrin and inulin preserved the protein biological activity in freshly prepared spray dried and crystallised samples. PluronicF-127 was competent to protect lysozyme in both spray dried and crystallised forms after storage. PluronicF-127 has proved to be a

  1. Activity of lysozyme on Lactobacillus hilgardii strains isolated from Port wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Rita; Vilas-Boas, Eduardo; Campos, Francisco M; Hogg, Tim; Couto, José António

    2015-08-01

    This work evaluated the effect of lysozyme on lactobacilli isolated from Port wine. Bacterial growth experiments were conducted in MRS/TJ medium and inactivation studies were performed in phosphate buffer (KH2PO4), distilled water and wine supplemented with different concentrations of lysozyme. The response of bacteria to lysozyme was found to be highly strain dependent. Some strains of Lactobacillus hilgardii together with Lactobacillus collinoides and Lactobacillus fructivorans were found to be resistant to concentrations of lysozyme as high as 2000 mg/L. It was observed that among the L. hilgardii taxon the resistant strains possess an S-layer coat. Apparently, the strains of L. collinoides and L. fructivorans studied are also S-layer producers as suggested by the total protein profile obtained by SDS-PAGE. Thus, the hypothetical protective role of the S-layer against the action of lysozyme was investigated. From the various treatments used to remove the protein from the surface of the cells, the one employing LiCl (5 M) was the most effective. LiCl pre-treated cells exposed to lysozyme (2000 mg/L) in KH2PO4 buffer maintained its resistance. However, when cells were suspended in distilled water an increased sensitivity to lysozyme was observed. Moreover, it was found that the addition of ethanol (20% v/v) to the suspension medium (distilled water) triggered a strong inactivation effect especially on cells previously treated with LiCl (reduction of >6 CFU log cycles). The results suggest that the S-layer exerts a protective effect against lysozyme and that the cell suspension medium influences the bacteriolysis efficiency. It was also noted that ethanol enhances the inactivation effect of lysozyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Proposed Model for Protein Crystal Nucleation and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    How does one take a molecule, strongly asymmetric in both shape and charge distribution, and assemble it into a crystal? We propose a model for the nucleation and crystal growth process for tetragonal lysozyme, based upon fluorescence, light, neutron, and X-ray scattering data, size exclusion chromatography experiments, dialysis kinetics, AFM, and modeling of growth rate data, from this and other laboratories. The first species formed is postulated to be a 'head to side' dimer. Through repeating associations involving the same intermolecular interactions this grows to a 4(sub 3) helix structure, that in turn serves as the basic unit for nucleation and subsequent crystal growth. High salt attenuates surface charges while promoting hydrophobic interactions. Symmetry facilitates subsequent helix-helix self-association. Assembly stability is enhanced when a four helix structure is obtained, with each bound to two neighbors. Only two unique interactions are required. The first are those for helix formation, where the dominant interaction is the intermolecular bridging anion. The second is the anti-parallel side-by-side helix-helix interaction, guided by alternating pairs of symmetry related salt bridges along each side. At this stage all eight unique positions of the P4(sub3)2(sub 1),2(sub 1) unit cell are filled. The process is one of a) attenuating the most strongly interacting groups, such that b) the molecules begin to self-associate in defined patterns, so that c) symmetry is obtained, which d) propagates as a growing crystal. Simple and conceptually obvious in hindsight, this tells much about what we are empirically doing when we crystallize macromolecules. By adjusting the growth parameters we are empirically balancing the intermolecular interactions, preferentially attenuating the dominant strong (for lysozyme the charged groups) while strengthening the lesser strong (hydrophobic) interactions. In the general case for proteins the lack of a singularly defined

  3. Observance of polymorphic behaviour during dissolution of insulin and lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bernardo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Although protein crystallization is a unit operation with potentially high separation factors, it has not been widely used in industry. Protein crystallization studies and practices have hitherto been largely limited to crystallography protocols. Knowledge of the behaviour of protein in solution would help to overcome empiric limitations in protein crystallisation. Thus, dissolution of porcine insulin and hen egg white lysozyme was studied and an unusual variation in solute concentration, with a concentration peak for short dissolution times, was verified. Polymorphic behaviour of protein in solution was observed, which altered physical properties such as solubility.

  4. Influence of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide on amyloid fibrillogenesis in lysozyme: Evidence from photophysical and imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2018-02-01

    Many proteins can abnormally fold to form pathological amyloid deposits/aggregates that are responsible for various degenerative disorders called amyloidosis. Here we have examined the anti-amyloidogenic potency of an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, using lysozyme as a model system. Thioflavin T fluorescence assay demonstrated that the ionic liquid suppressed the formation of lysozyme fibrils significantly. This observation was further confirmed by the Congo red assay. Fluorescence microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence studies, nile red fluorescence assay, ANS binding assay and circular dichroism studies also testified diminishing of the fibrillogenesis in the presence of ionic liquid. Formation of amyloid fibrils was also characterized by α to β conformational transition. From far-UV circular dichroism studies it was observed that the β-sheet content of the lysozyme samples decreased in the presence of the ionic liquid which in turn implied that fibrillogenesis was supressed by the ionic liquid. Atomic force microscopy imaging unequivocally established that the ionic liquid attenuated fibrillogenesis in lysozyme. These results may be useful for the development of more effective therapeutics for amyloidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigating the effects of erythrosine B on amyloid fibril formation derived from lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Tien; Chen, Yi-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Tse; How, Su-Chun; Cheng, Yu-Hong; Hsueh, Shu-Shun; Liu, Hwai-Shen; Lin, Ta-Hsien; Wu, Josephine W; Wang, Steven S-S

    2017-05-01

    Formation of amyloid fibrils has been associated with at least 30 different protein aggregation diseases. The 129-residue polypeptide hen lysozyme, which is structurally homologous to human lysozyme, has been demonstrated to exhibit amyloid fibril-forming propensity in vitro. This study is aimed at exploring the influence of erythrosine B on the in vitro amyloid fibril formation of hen lysozyme at pH 2.0 and 55°C using ThT binding assay, transmission electron microscopy, far-UV circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid fluorescence spectroscopy, and synchronous fluorescence study. We found that lysozyme fibrillogenesis was dose-dependently suppressed by erythrosine B. In addition, our far-UV CD and ANS fluorescence data showed that, as compared with the untreated lysozyme control, the α-to-ß transition and exposure of hydrophobic clusters in lysozyme were reduced upon treatment with erythrosine B. Moreover, it could be inferred that the binding of erythrosine B occurred in the vicinity of the tryptophan residues. Finally, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were further employed to gain some insights into the possible binding site(s) and interactions between lysozyme and erythrosine B. We believe the results obtained here may contribute to the development of potential strategies/approaches for the suppression of amyloid fibrillogenesis, which is implicated in amyloid pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction and inhibitory influence of the azo dye carmoisine on lysozyme amyloid fibrillogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2017-07-25

    The binding of the common food colorant carmoisine and its inhibitory effect on amyloid fibrillation in lysozyme have been investigated. Since humans are increasingly exposed to various food colorants like carmoisine, such studies are highly relevant. In the presence of lysozyme, the carmoisine absorption spectrum exhibited hypochromic changes. The intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme was also quenched on interaction. Time-resolved fluorescence results suggested that the binding mechanism involved ground state complexation. The binding was predominantly dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. The molecular distance between the donor (lysozyme) and the acceptor (carmoisine), calculated from FRET theory, was found to be 3.37 nm, indicating that carmoisine binds close to Trp-62/63 residues in the β-domain of the protein. Information on alterations in the microenvironment surrounding the Trp-residues was also obtained from synchronous fluorescence data. Carmoisine binding induced significant loss in the alpha helical organization of lysozyme. The binding, nevertheless, did not influence the thermal stability of lysozyme significantly. The binding reaction was exothermic and driven by large negative enthalpy and small but favourable entropic contributions. Thioflavin T assay, far-UV circular dichroism studies and AFM imaging profiles testified that carmoisine had a significant inhibitory effect on amyloid fibrillogenesis in lysozyme. Carmoisine also had a definitive defibrillating effect on existing fibrils. The results may provide new insights for designing new small molecule inhibitors for amyloid related diseases.

  7. Influence of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide on the activity and conformation of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yitong; Ming, Zhu; Cao, Yuye; Feng, Shicheng; Yang, Hua; Chen, Lingyun; Yang, Sheng-Tao

    2017-06-01

    The dramatically different bio-effects of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) have been widely observed in diverse biological systems, which determine the applications and toxicity of graphene materials. To elucidate the mechanism at molecular level, it is urgent to investigate the enzyme-graphene interaction and its consequences. In this study, we comparatively studied the influence of GO and reduced GO (RGO) on the activity and conformation of lysozyme to provide better understandings of their different bio-effects. Both GO and RGO adsorbed large quantities of lysozyme after incubation. GO inhibited lysozyme activity seriously, while RGO nearly had no influence on the enzyme activity. The different inhibitions of enzyme activity could be explained by the lysozyme conformational changes, where GO induced more changes to the protein conformation according to UV-vis absorbance, far-UV circular dichroism spectra, intrinsic fluorescence quenching, and infrared spectra. Based on the spectroscopic changes of lysozyme, GO induced the loss of secondary structure and exposed the active site of lysozyme more to the aqueous environment. In addition, neither GO nor RGO induced the fibrillation of lysozyme after 12d incubation. The results collectively indicated that the oxidation degree significantly impacted the enzyme-graphene interaction. The implications to the designs of enzyme-graphene system for bio-related applications and the toxicological effects of graphene materials are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tracking lysozyme unfolding during salt-induced precipitation with hydrogen exchange and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, S A; Sherman, N E; Fernandez, E J

    We utilized electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HX) to detect unfolding of hen egg white lysozyme during salt-induced precipitation. Deuterated lysozyme was dissolved in protonated buffer at pH 2.16 and precipitated with ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and potassium thiocyanate. ESI-MS was used to detect mass differences in lysozyme due to the loss of deuterons for solvent protons, providing insight on the conformational history of the protein during the labeling experiment. Precipitation with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride did not unfold lysozyme, consistent with the known stabilizing effects of kosmotropic salts. Potassium thiocyanate, an aggressive chaotrope, was an effective precipitant at 0.2 M, but also disrupted lysozyme structure and caused the formation of precipitate fractions that did not readily redissolve into aqueous solution without the use of a chemical denaturant. Precipitation with 1.0 M thiocyanate resulted in faster rates of unfolding and larger amounts of the insoluble precipitate. The unfolding kinetics were biphasic, exhibiting a slow phase after a few hours that presumably reflected a smaller propensity for lysozyme to unfold in the precipitated state. Bimodal mass distributions in the ESI-MS spectra for the thiocyanate precipitates indicate two states for lysozyme in this system, a native and a molten globule-like partially unfolded state. ESI-MS analysis of the insoluble precipitates indicated that they consisted primarily of protein molecules that had unfolded. Investigation of the HX behavior of lysozyme in a KSCN solution at low protein concentrations confirmed the destabilizing effect of the salt on the protein structure, even when there was almost no solid phase present. The HX/ESI-MS results provide insight into the mechanism combining precipitation and denaturation for such a system, both in terms of obtaining quantitative kinetic and stability information and the

  9. Characterization of Bioactive Recombinant Human Lysozyme Expressed in Milk of Cloned Transgenic Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Jianwu; Tang, Bo; Liu, Yufang; Guo, Chengdong; Yang, Penghua; Yu, Tian; Li, Rong; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study,...

  10. Laser ablation of lysozyme with UV, visible and infrared femto- and nanosecond pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Matei, Andreea; Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Constantinescu, Catalin; Amoruso, S.; Wang, X.; Bruzzese, R.; Dinescu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lysozyme is an interesting molecule for laser ablation of organic materials, because the ablation has been comprehensively studied, it is a medium heavy molecule with a mass of 14305 Da, which can be detected by standard techniques, and because it is used as a bactericidal protein in the food industry. Lysozyme molecules do not absorb energy for wavelengths above 310 nm, but nevertheless there is a strong mass loss by ablation for laser irradiation in the visible regime. The total ablation yi...

  11. Pluronic-lysozyme conjugates as anti-adhesive and antibacterial bifunctional polymers for surface coating

    OpenAIRE

    Muszanska, Agnieszka K.; Busscher, Henk J.; Herrmann, Andreas; van der Mei, Henny C.; Norde, Willem

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of polymer protein conjugates composed of a synthetic triblock copolymer with a central polypropylene oxide (PPO) block and two terminal polyethylene oxide (PEO) segments, Pluronic F-127, and the antibacterial enzyme lysozyme attached to the telechelic groups of the PEO chains. Covalent conjugation of lysozyme proceeded via reductive amination of aldehyde functionalized PEO blocks (CHO-Pluronic) and the amine groups of the lysine resid...

  12. Locations of Bromide Ions in Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kap; Nadarajah, Arunan; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    Anions have been shown to play a dominant role in the crystallization of chicken egg-white lysozyme from salt solutions. Previous studies employing X-ray crystallography have found one chloride ion binding site in the tetragonal crystal form of the protein and four nitrate ion binding sites in the monoclinic form. In this study the anion positions in the tetragonal form were determined from the difference Fourier map obtained from lysozyme crystals grown in bromide and chloride solutions. Five possible anion-binding sites were found in this manner. Some of these sites were in pockets containing basic residues while others were near neutral, but polar, residues. The sole chloride ion binding site found in previous studies was confirmed, while four further sites were found which corresponded to the four binding sites found for nitrate ions in monoclinic crystals. The study suggests that most of the anion-binding sites in lysozyme remain unchanged even when different anions and different crystal forms of lysozyme are employed.

  13. A Lysozyme with Antifungal Activity from Pithecellobium dulce Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploypat Niyomploy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein of an apparent molecular mass of 14.4 kDa with antifungal activity was isolated from the seeds of Pithecellobium dulce using extraction with 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH=8.0, precipitation with 80 % ammonium sulfate, and bioassay purification via Resource Q anion exchange chromatography and Superdex 200 gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein was putatively identified by tandem mass spectrometry with Mascot database searching, with the partial amino acid sequences showing a high degree of similarity to chicken egg white lysozyme. This putative plant lysozyme expressed antifungal activity with a rather high thermal stability of up to 80 °C for 15 min (at pH=8.0. It exerted an antifungal action towards Macrophomina phaseolina but displayed no antifungal activity against two other isolates, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora and Fusarium avenaceum.

  14. Preliminary Work in Obtaining Site-Directed Mutants of Hen Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Leonard D.

    1996-01-01

    Protein crystal growth studies are recognized as a critical endeavor in the field of molecular biotechnology. The scientific applications of this field include the understanding of how enzymes function and the accumulation of accurate information of atomic structures, a key factor in the process of rational drug design. NASA has committed substantial investment and resources to the field of protein crystal growth and has conducted many microgravity protein crystal growth experiments aboard shuttle flights. Crystals grown in space tend to be larger, denser and have a more perfect habit and geometry. These improved properties gained in the microgravity environment of space result largely from the reduction of solutal convection, and the elimination of sedimentation at the growing crystal surface. Shuttle experiments have yielded many large, high quality crystals that are suitable for high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Examples of biologically important macromolecules which have been successfully crystallized during shuttle missions include: lysozyme, isocitrate lyase, gamma-interferon, insulin, human serum albumin and canavalin. Numerous other examples are also available. In addition to obtaining high quality crystals, investigators are also interested in learning the mechanisms by which the growth events take place. Crystallization experiments indicate that for the enzyme HEWL, measured growth rates do not follow mathematical models for 2D nucleation and dislocation-led growth of tetragonal protein crystals. As has been suggested by the laboratory of Marc L. Pusey, a possible explanation for the disagreement between observation and data is that HEWL tetraconal crystals form by aggregated units of lysozyme in supersaturated solutions. Surface measurement data was shown to fit very well with a model using an octamer unit cell as the growth unit. According to this model, the aggregation pathway and subsequent crystal growth is described by: monomer dimer

  15. [ACID-BASE MODULATION OF LYSOZYME ACTIVITY IN MEDIUM FOR CULTIVATION OF ENTEROBACTERIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andryuschenko, S V; Perunova, N B

    2015-01-01

    Determination of modulating effect of acid-base state of medium for cultivation of enterobacteria on activity of C-type lysozyme. Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain for protein expression, Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 model strain, Escherichia coli No. 242 strain, isolated from intestine biotope; 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, one of those contained plasmid homologue of periplasmatic lysozyme inhibitor gene pliC; 1 typical Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028 strain and a Micrococcus luteus ATCC 15307 strain as a control--served as material for the study. The bacteria were cultivated for 24 hours in 2 ml of liquid medium LB at 37 degrees C, 250 rpm. Determination of antilysozyme activity (ALA) was carried out by a photonepehlometrical method according to O.V. Bukharin et al. (1999) with alterations. All the studied microorganisms, including Micrococcus luteus, at the specified conditions 24 hours after cultivation were established to change the pH of the liquid nutrient medium LB from the initial value of 6.6 ± 0.1 to 8.2 ± 0.2 units. ALA determination in the cultivation medium without buffer correction was accompanied by a decline of lysozyme activity at an order of magnitude. The effect was absent during ALA measurement by a standard technique. The local shift of acid-base state of biotope under the conditions of buffer system insufficiency results in a reversible alteration of antimicrobial activity of muramidase, that among other non-specific factors of the environment determines the background of interactions on the level of associative symbiosis. This aspect should be taken into consideration during development of models, that are close to real conditions of microsymbiocenotical interactions.

  16. Terahertz absorption of lysozyme in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2017-08-01

    Absorption of radiation by solution is described by its frequency-dependent dielectric function and can be viewed as a specific application of the dielectric theory of solutions. For ideal solutions, the dielectric boundary-value problem separates the polar response into the polarization of the void in the liquid, created by the solute, and the response of the solute dipole. In the case of a protein as a solute, protein nuclear dynamics do not project on significant fluctuations of the dipole moment in the terahertz domain of frequencies and the protein dipole can be viewed as dynamically frozen. Absorption of radiation then reflects the interfacial polarization. Here we apply an analytical theory and computer simulations to absorption of radiation by an ideal solution of lysozyme. Comparison with the experiment shows that Maxwell electrostatics fails to describe the polarization of the protein-water interface and the "Lorentz void," which does not anticipate polarization of the interface by the external field (no surface charges), better represents the data. An analytical theory for the slope of the solution absorption against the volume fraction of the solute is formulated in terms of the cavity field response function. It is calculated from molecular dynamics simulations in good agreement with the experiment. The protein hydration shell emerges as a separate sub-ensemble, which, collectively, is not described by the standard electrostatics of dielectrics.

  17. Label-Free Aptasensor for Lysozyme Detection Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisia Ortiz-Aguayo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research develops a label-free aptamer biosensor (aptasensor based on graphite-epoxy composite electrodes (GECs for the detection of lysozyme protein using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS technique. The chosen immobilization technique was based on covalent bonding using carbodiimide chemistry; for this purpose, carboxylic moieties were first generated on the graphite by electrochemical grafting. The detection was performed using [Fe(CN6]3−/[Fe(CN6]4− as redox probe. After recording the frequency response, values were fitted to its electric model using the principle of equivalent circuits. The aptasensor showed a linear response up to 5 µM for lysozyme and a limit of detection of 1.67 µM. The sensitivity of the established method was 0.090 µM−1 in relative charge transfer resistance values. The interference response by main proteins, such as bovine serum albumin and cytochrome c, has been also characterized. To finally verify the performance of the developed aptasensor, it was applied to wine analysis.

  18. Characterization of bioactive recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of cloned transgenic cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we just focus on four transgenic cattle which were natural lactation. The expression level of the recombinant lysozyme was up to 25.96 mg/L, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Purified recombinant human lysozyme showed the same physicochemical properties, such as molecular mass and bacterial lysis, as its natural counterpart. Moreover, both recombinant and natural lysozyme had similar conditions for reactivity as well as for pH and temperature stability during in vitro simulations. The gross composition of transgenic and non-transgenic milk, including levels of lactose, total protein, total fat, and total solids were not found significant differences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, our study not only describes transgenic cattle whose milk offers the similar nutritional benefits as human milk but also reports techniques that could be further refined for production of active human lysozyme on a large scale.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a c-type lysozyme from the nurse shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds Vaughan, Nichole; Smith, Sylvia L

    2013-12-01

    Lysozyme is a ubiquitous antibacterial enzyme that occurs in numerous invertebrate and vertebrate species. Three forms have been described c-type, g-type and i-type which differ in primary structure. Shark lysozyme has not been characterized; here we report on the isolation and characterization of lysozyme from unstimulated shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) leukocytes and provide amino acid sequence data across the highly conserved active site of the molecule identifying it to be a c-type lysozyme. A leukocyte lysate was applied either (a) to the first of two sequential DE-52 cellulose columns or alternatively, (b) to a DEAE-Sepharose column. Lysozyme activity in lysate and active fractions was identified by zones of lysis of Micrococcus lysodeikticus cell walls on lysoplates and zones of growth inhibition in agar diffusion assays using Planococcus citreus as the target organism. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a 14 kDa protein which was identified as lysozyme by mass spectroscopic analysis of peptides, reactivity against anti-HEWL antibodies on a Western blot, hydrolysis of M. lysodeikticus cell walls, and inhibition of growth of P. citreus on AU-gel blots in which the area of growth inhibition correlated to a 14 kDa protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of bioactive recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of cloned transgenic cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Jianwu; Tang, Bo; Liu, Yufang; Guo, Chengdong; Yang, Penghua; Yu, Tian; Li, Rong; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2011-03-16

    There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we just focus on four transgenic cattle which were natural lactation. The expression level of the recombinant lysozyme was up to 25.96 mg/L, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Purified recombinant human lysozyme showed the same physicochemical properties, such as molecular mass and bacterial lysis, as its natural counterpart. Moreover, both recombinant and natural lysozyme had similar conditions for reactivity as well as for pH and temperature stability during in vitro simulations. The gross composition of transgenic and non-transgenic milk, including levels of lactose, total protein, total fat, and total solids were not found significant differences. Thus, our study not only describes transgenic cattle whose milk offers the similar nutritional benefits as human milk but also reports techniques that could be further refined for production of active human lysozyme on a large scale.

  1. Amphiphilic copolymers reduce aggregation of unfolded lysozyme more effectively than polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jaemin; Mustafi, Devkumar; Poellmann, Michael J.; Lee, Raphael C.

    2017-02-01

    Certain amphiphilic block copolymers are known to prevent aggregation of unfolded proteins. To better understand the mechanism of this effect, the optical properties of heat-denatured and dithiothreitol reduced lysozyme were evaluated with respect to controls using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and circular dichroism (CD) measurements. Then, the effects of adding Polyethylene Glycol (8000 Da), the triblock surfactant Poloxamer 188 (P188), and the tetrablock copolymer Tetronic 1107 (T1107) to the lysozyme solution were compared. Overall, T1107 was found to be more effective than P188 in inhibiting aggregation, while PEG exhibited no efficacy. TEM imaging of heat-denatured and reduced lysozymes revealed spherical aggregates with on average 250-450 nm diameter. Using CD, more soluble lysozyme was recovered with T1107 than P188 with β-sheet secondary structure. The greater effectiveness of the larger T1107 in preventing aggregation of unfolded lysozyme than the smaller P188 and PEG points to steric hindrance at play; signifying the importance of size match between the hydrophobic region of denatured protein and that of amphiphilic copolymers. Thus, our results corroborate that certain multi-block copolymers are effective in preventing heat-induced aggregation of reduced lysozymes and future studies warrant more detailed focus on specific applications of these copolymers.

  2. Relationship of Salivary Lactoferrin and Lysozyme Concentrations with Early Childhood Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Masoumeh; Sattari, Mandana; Kooshki, Fahimeh; Fotuhi, Faezeh; Modarresi, Neda; Khalili Sadrabad, Zahra; Shadkar, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Lysozyme and lactoferrin are salivary proteins which play an important role in innate defense mechanisms against bacteria. This study investigated the association of salivary lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations with early childhood caries (ECC). Materials and methods. This study was carried out on 42 healthy children (age range, 36 to 71 months), of whom 21 were caries free (CF) and 21 had ECC. Disposable needle-less syringes were used to collect unstimulated saliva from buccal and labial vestibules. Fifteen children who had ECC were treated completely and their saliva was collected in the same way for the second time, three months after treatment. Lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations were measured and recorded by the ELISA method. The intergroup comparisons were carried out using chi-square, Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon signed ranked test. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results. The mean concentration of lysozyme was significantly higher in CF group compared with that of ECC group (P = 0.04). Although the mean concentration of lactoferrin in ECC group was higher in comparison with ECC group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). After dental treatment, the mean concentrations of lysozyme and lactoferrin did not change in comparison with their concentrations before treatment. Conclusion. ECC may have a relationship with lower concentrations of unstimulated salivary lactoferrin and lysozyme and reduced amounts of these two salivary proteins may be a risk factor for dental caries in children. PMID:26236438

  3. A two level hierarchical model of protein retention in ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Paloni, Matteo; Guelat, Bertrand; Morbidelli, Massimo; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2015-09-11

    Predicting protein retention in ion exchange chromatography (IEX) from first principles is a fascinating perspective. In this work a two level hierarchical modeling strategy is proposed in order to calculate protein retention factors. Model predictions are tested against experimental data measured for Lysozyme and Chymotrypsinogen A in IEX columns as a function of ionic strength and pH. At the highest level of accuracy Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit water are used to determine the interaction free energy between each of the two proteins and the IEX stationary phase for a reference pH and ionic strength. At a lower level of accuracy a linear response model based on an implicit treatment of solvation and adopting a static protein structure is used to calculate interaction free energies for the full range of pHs and ionic strengths considered. A scaling coefficient, determined comparing MD and implicit solvent simulations, is then introduced in order to correct the linear response model for errors induced by the adoption of a static protein structure. The calculated free energies are then used to compute protein retention factors, which can be directly compared with experimental data. The possibility to introduce a third level of accuracy is explored testing the predictions of a semiempirical model. A quantitative agreement between the predicted and measured protein retention factors is obtained using the coupled MD-linear response models, supporting the reliability of the proposed approach. The model allows quantifying the electrostatic, van der Waals, and conformational contributions to the interaction free energies. A good agreement between experiments and model is obtained also using the semiempirical model that, although requiring parameterization over higher level models or experimental data, proves to be useful in order to rapidly determine protein retention factors across wide pH and ionic strength ranges as it is computationally inexpensive

  4. Effect of surface energy of solid surfaces on the micro- and macroscopic properties of adsorbed BSA and lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indu; Pattanayek, Sudip K

    2017-07-01

    The surface energy, a macroscopic property, depends on the chemical functionality and micro- and macroscopic roughness of the surface. The adsorption of two widely used proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme on surfaces of four different chemical functionalities were done to find out the interrelation between macroscopic and microscopic properties. We have observed the secondary structure of protein after its adsorption. In addition, we observed the variation of surface energy of proteins due to variation in adsorption time, change in protein concentration and effect of a mixture of proteins. Surfaces of three different chemical functionalities namely, amine, hydroxyl and octyl were obtained through self-assembled monolayer on silica surfaces and were tested for responses towards adsorption of lysozyme and BSA. The adsorbed lysozyme has higher surface energy than the adsorbed BSA on amine and octyl surfaces. On hydroxyl functional surface, the surface energy due to the adsorbed lysozyme or BSA increases slowly with time. The surface energy of the adsorbed protein increases gradually with increasing protein concentration on hydrophobic surfaces. On hydrophilic surfaces, with increasing BSA concentration in bulk solution, the surface energy of the adsorbed protein on GPTMS and amine surfaces is maximum at 1μM concentration. During the adsorption from a mixture of BSA and lysozyme on octyl surface, first lysozyme adsorbs and subsequent BSA adsorption leads to a high surface energy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Expression of lysozyme in the life history of the house fly (Musca domestica l.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayduch, Dana; Joyner, Chester

    2013-07-01

    From egg to adult, all life history stages of house flies associate with septic environments teeming with bacteria. House fly lysozyme was first identified in the larval midgut, where it is used for digestion of microbe-rich meals because of its broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. This study aimed to determine the temporal expression of lysozyme in the life history of house flies (from egg through adults) on both the mRNA and protein level, and to determine the tissue-specific expression of lysozyme in adult flies induced by feeding Staphylococcus aureus. From 30-min postoviposition through adulthood, all life history stages of the house fly express lysozyme on the mRNA level. In adult flies, lysozyme is expressed both locally in the alimentary canal and systemically in the fat body. Interestingly, we found that during the normal life history of flies, lysozyme protein was only detected in larval stages and older adults, likely because of ingestion of immune-stimulating levels of bacteria, not experienced during egg, pupa, and teneral adult stages. Constitutive expression on the mRNA level implies that this effector is a primary defense molecule in all stages of the house fly life history, and that a mechanism for posttranscriptional control of mature lysozyme enzyme expression may be present. Lysozyme active enzyme primarily serves both a digestive and defensive function in larval and adult flies, and may be a key player in the ability of Musca domestica L. to thrive in microbe-rich environments.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of a novel bioactive glass/lysozyme/PLGA composite microsphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Shi, Shuangshuang; Cao, Jin; Ji, Lijun; He, Yan; Xi, Jumei

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to fabricate a novel nano-bioceramics incorporated lysozyme poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere. The nano-bioceramics was used as a biodegradable and sustained-release antacid to stabilize the lysozyme in the drug release process. First, the nano-bioceramics were prepared by sol-gel method, and then were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, dynamic light scattering and in vitro degradation test. Second, the lysozyme PLGA microsphere incorporated with nano-bioceramic was fabricated by the S/W/O/W emulsion solvent evaporation method. The microsphere was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV circular dichroism (UV CD). Finally the in vitro drug release and bioactivity test was carried out. The composition of the nano-bioceramics was 58% SiO2, 36% CaO, 6% P2O5, and the average particle size was 295 nm. The nano-bioceramics incorporated lysozyme PLGA microspheres were prepared by the multi-emulsion method. The SEM results showed that the bioceramics was uniformly distributed in the PLGA microsphere. Results from in vitro lysozyme release test exhibited a prolonged release time for 1month. The FTIR and UVCD results suggested that the lysozyme in the drug release process had a similar secondary structure conformation to the native one. The Micrococcus lysodeikticus test showed that the microspheres incorporated with bioceramics provided long-term protein stability against the acidic environment resulted from PLGA's degradates and more than 90% of the lysozyme released over the 1 month period was preserved in a bioactive form. A novel bioceramics incorporated lysozyme PLGA microsphere was prepared with potentials for sustained protein release formulation.

  7. Analysis of an approach to oviduct-specific expression of modified chicken lysozyme genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mamiko; Losos, Jan K; Gibbins, Ann M Verrinder

    2005-02-01

    The -2.7 kb enhancer (E) element of the chicken lysozyme gene domain appears to govern expression of the gene in macrophages but not in oviduct tubular gland cells, the only other site of lysozyme expression. The ultimate goal of our research was to determine whether lysozyme domain variants could be developed that would mainly be expressed in the oviduct so that transgenic birds could be produced that would deposit exogenous protein in the egg white. Accordingly, precise mutations were made by poxvirus-mediated gene targeting in FEF/PU.1 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factor binding sites in the -2.7 kb E of cloned copies of a specific lysozyme gene variant that includes a hydrophobic pentapeptide tail encoding sequence inserted immediately prior to the stop codon. This variant contains the entire lysozyme domain and is cloned in a lambda bacteriophage vector (lambdaDIILys-HT); the novel tail sequence enables distinction in cell-based expression systems between transcripts of the variant and those of the endogenous gene. These various lysozyme domain mutants, in bacteriophage vector form, were tested for expression in cultured chicken blastodermal cells cotransfected with plasmids encoding the transcription factors C/EBP and v-Myb. In the absence of these plasmids, barely detectable levels of endogenous lysozyme gene transcription resulted in the blastodermal cells. In the presence of the plasmids, however, transcripts of the endogenous gene could be detected as well as varying levels (as evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR) of transcripts of all of the lysozyme domain mutants. These results are discussed in the context of the known role and occurrence of various transcription factors involved in gene expression in differentiating macrophage cells. The ultimate test of expression of the variants in macrophages vs. oviduct cells will be to use them to produce transgenic birds.

  8. Disulfide-bond scrambling promotes amorphous aggregates in lysozyme and bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu; Dutta, Colina; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-03-12

    Disulfide bonds are naturally formed in more than 50% of amyloidogenic proteins, but the exact role of disulfide bonds in protein aggregation is still not well-understood. The intracellular reducing agents and/or improper use of antioxidants in extracellular environment can break proteins disulfide bonds, making them unstable and prone to misfolding and aggregation. In this study, we report the effect of disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) on hen egg white lysozyme (lysozyme) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregation at pH 7.2 and 37 °C. BSA and lysozyme proteins treated with disulfide-reducing agents form very distinct amorphous aggregates as observed by scanning electron microscope. However, proteins with intact disulfide bonds were stable and did not aggregate over time. BSA and lysozyme aggregates show unique but measurable differences in 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) and 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) fluorescence, suggesting a loose and flexible aggregate structure for lysozyme but a more compact aggregate structure for BSA. Scrambled disulfide-bonded protein aggregates were observed by nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for both proteins. Similar amorphous aggregates were also generated using a nonthiol-based reducing agent, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP), at pH 7.2 and 37 °C. In summary, formation of distinct amorphous aggregates by disulfide-reduced BSA and lysozyme suggests an alternate pathway for protein aggregation that may be relevant to several proteins.

  9. Biomimetic mineralization of calcium carbonate/carboxymethylcellulose microspheres for lysozyme immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zheng; Zhang Juan; Ma Yunzi; Song Siyue; Gu Wei

    2012-01-01

    Porous calcium carbonate/carboxymethylcellulose (CaCO 3 /CMC) microspheres were prepared by the biomimetic mineralization method for lysozyme immobilization via adsorption. The size and morphology of CaCO 3 /CMC microspheres were characterized by transmitted electron microscopy (TEM) and zeta potential measurement. The lysozyme immobilization was verified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effects of pHs and temperatures on lysozyme adsorption were investigated as well. It was revealed that CaCO 3 /CMC microspheres could immobilize lysozyme efficiently via electrostatic interactions and a maximum adsorption capacity of 450 mg/g was achieved at pH 9.2 and 25 °C. Moreover, it was found that the adsorption process fitted well with the Langmuir isothermal model. In addition, UV, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies showed that lysozyme maintained its original secondary structure during the adsorption/desorption process. Our study therefore demonstrated that CaCO 3 /CMC microsphere can be used as a cost-effective and efficient support for lysozyme immobilization. - Graphical abstract: CaCO 3 /CMC microsphere was prepared by a facile biomimetic mineralization method and can be used as an efficient and cost-effective support for lysozyme immobilization. Highlights: ► CaCO 3 /CMC microspheres were prepared by the biomimetic mineralization method. ► Lysozyme was efficiently immobilized to CaCO 3 /CMC microspheres via adsorption. ► A maximum adsorption capacity of 450 mg/g was obtained at pH 9.2 and 25 °C. ► The original secondary structure of lysozyme was maintained upon immobilization.

  10. Development of a label-free aptasensor for monitoring the self-association of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, Alina; Gaspar, Szilveszter; Mihai, Iuliana; Tache, Andreia; Litescu, Simona Carmen

    2013-06-21

    A novel aptamer and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based sensor was developed for the label-free detection of lysozyme. The aptasensor is characterised by a detection limit of 1 μg mL(-1) and a linear range of 5-50 μg mL(-1). As an application, we examined the usefulness of the aptasensor for monitoring the early stages of the aggregation of lysozyme. It was surprisingly found that, despite a significant decrease in monomer content during aggregation, the response of the aptasensor for protein solutions aged for 12 hours was similar to that for the fresh protein. To correlate the results obtained with the aptasensor with the composition of lysozyme solutions at various time points, we examined them in detail by atomic force microscopy (AFM), thioflavin T fluorescence, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All methods together indicated that during the initial hours of aggregation, the protein solutions contained small lysozyme oligomers (mainly dimers) and decreasing amounts of monomers. Our results thus suggest that the aptamer also recognizes lysozyme dimers/oligomers. A higher non-specific binding was observed for the aggregated lysozyme at the surface of the aptasensor as compared to the native protein. This was attributed to the hydrophobic patches which are exposed by the unfolded lysozyme and/or oligomer species, allowing for different adsorption and organisation at the surface of the aptasensor. This hypothesis is supported by square wave voltammetry (SWV) studies using solutions of aggregated lysozyme. A higher electrochemical signal due to the direct oxidation of tyrosine/tryptophan residues was observed for aged protein solutions as compared to the fresh solution, indicative of an increased number of such exposed electroactive residues and of overall increased surface hydrophobicity of the protein. Our work presents a label-free lysozyme aptasensor that is

  11. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and phylogeny of first caudata g-type lysozyme in axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Gao, Jiuxiang; Lu, Yiling; Guang, Huijuan; Cai, Shasha; Zhang, Songyan; Wang, Yipeng

    2013-11-01

    Lysozymes are key proteins that play important roles in innate immune defense in many animal phyla by breaking down the bacterial cell-walls. In this study, we report the molecular cloning, sequence analysis and phylogeny of the first caudate amphibian g-lysozyme: a full-length spleen cDNA library from axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). A goose-type (g-lysozyme) EST was identified and the full-length cDNA was obtained using RACE-PCR. The axolotl g-lysozyme sequence represents an open reading frame for a putative signal peptide and the mature protein composed of 184 amino acids. The calculated molecular mass and the theoretical isoelectric point (pl) of this mature protein are 21523.0 Da and 4.37, respectively. Expression of g-lysozyme mRNA is predominantly found in skin, with lower levels in spleen, liver, muscle, and lung. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that caudate amphibian g-lysozyme had distinct evolution pattern for being juxtaposed with not only anura amphibian, but also with the fish, bird and mammal. Although the first complete cDNA sequence for caudate amphibian g-lysozyme is reported in the present study, clones encoding axolotl's other functional immune molecules in the full-length cDNA library will have to be further sequenced to gain insight into the fundamental aspects of antibacterial mechanisms in caudate.

  12. Fourier transform infrared studies in solid egg white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivzi, T.Z.

    1994-12-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy is the most recent addition to the arsenal of bioanalytical techniques capable of providing information about the secondary structure of proteins in a variety of environments. FTIR spectra have been obtained in solid egg white lysozyme. The spectra display the usual amide I, II and III bands. Secondary structural information obtained from the spectra after applying resolution enhancement techniques to the amide I band has been found consistent with the x-ray crystallographic data of the protein and also to the spectroscopic data of the protein in aqueous solution. (author). 17 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Hydrophobic nano-carrier for lysozyme adsorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... For this purpose, adsorption conditions wereoptimized and maximum lysozyme binding capacity was found to be 278.8 mg g−1 polymer in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer at 25∘C. Desorption and reusability properties of the nanoparticles were investigated and lysozyme adsorption efficiency did not change ...

  14. Comparative insight into surfactants mediated amyloidogenesis of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sumit K; Khan, Javed M; Siddiqi, Mohammad K; Alam, Parvez; Khan, Rizwan H

    2016-02-01

    Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions have an important role in the protein aggregation. In this study, we have investigated the effect of charge and hydrophobicity of oppositely charged surfactants i.e., anionic (AOT and SDS) and cationic (CTAB and DTAB) on hen egg white lysozyme at pH 9.0 and 13.0, respectively. We have employed various methods such as turbidity measurements, Rayleigh light scattering, ThT, Congo red and ANS dye binding assays, far-UV CD, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron and fluorescence microscopy. At lower molar ratio, both anionic and cationic surfactants promote amyloid fibril formation in lysozyme at pH 9.0 and 13.0, respectively. The aggregation was proportionally increased with respect to protein concentration and hydrophobicity of surfactant. The morphology of aggregates at both the pH was fibrillar in structure, as visualized by dye binding and microscopic imaging techniques. Initially, the interaction between surfactants and lysozyme was electrostatic and then hydrophobic as investigated by ITC. This study demonstrates the crucial role of charge and hydrophobicity during amyloid fibril formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Characteristics of thermal inactivation of lysozyme in solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, E I; Eremin, A N; Metelitsa, D I

    1986-01-01

    In the buffer solution (pH 6,2) at 20-80 degrees, the lysozyme thermoinactivation was studied by monitoring of its activity decrease in the lysis of M. lysodeicticus cells. Protein inactivation was characterized by effective pseudofirst order rate constants which depend on enzyme concentration and are described by equation k = k0 . exp [-alpha 0 (1-gamma/T) [E]0], where k0 is inactivation rate constant at "infinite" enzyme dilution, [E0] is an initial lysozyme concentration, alpha 0 and gamma are the coefficients independent on [E0]. By extrapolation of the "k" dependencies on [E]0 the constants k0 were determined. In the range 40-70 degrees C, the rate constant k0 is equal 4,0 X 10(11) . exp (-24 200/RT) sec-1.

  16. Dependence of salt concentration on glycosaminoglycan-lysozyme interactions in cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J M; Van Damme, M P; Murphy, W H; Preston, B N

    1997-12-01

    The cationic protein, lysozyme, has an extracellular distribution in cartilage but its precise role in this tissue has not yet been established. This study describes the dependence of salt concentration on the binding properties of lysozyme isoforms of different cationic charges, isolated from bovine cartilage, to the two major and structurally similar glycosaminoglycans of cartilage, i.e., chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan. The binding of most cartilage lysozyme isoforms and hen egg-white lysozyme (control) to chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan linked to agarose supports displayed optimal levels at approximately 20 and 5-10 mM salt, respectively, but decreased at both lower and higher salt concentrations indicating the electrostatic nature of the interactions. However, optimal binding of the most cationic lysozyme isoform to chondroitin sulfate occurred at 60 mM salt, with significant binding remaining at 150 mM. This isoform also showed binding to hyaluronan up to 60 mM salt, while for the other isoforms binding was observed only up to 150 and 40 mM salt for chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan, respectively. The low salt concentrations at which these interactions occur are likely to exist in cartilage as shown from equilibrium dialysis studies performed using solutions of chondroitin sulfate (up to 10%, a concentration likely to occur in cartilage). From Scatchard analysis, the affinity of binding of all lysozymes to chondroitin sulfate was similar (Kd = 10(-6) M) and slightly lower than their binding to hyaluronan (Kd = 10(-7) M) of similar molecular mass.

  17. A Mesoscopic Model for Protein-Protein Interactions in Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Mikael; Jönsson, Bo

    2003-01-01

    Protein self-association may be detrimental in biological systems, but can be utilized in a controlled fashion for protein crystallization. It is hence of considerable interest to understand how factors like solution conditions prevent or promote aggregation. Here we present a computational model describing interactions between protein molecules in solution. The calculations are based on a molecular description capturing the detailed structure of the protein molecule using x-ray or nuclear ma...

  18. Studies on biotransformation of lysozyme, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzuriha, Teruaki; Katayama, Kouichi; Tsutsumi, Junzo

    1978-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of hen egg-white lysozyme (hen lysozyme) was investigated and evaluated in order to examine the biotransformation of the enzyme in men. 125 I-labeled hen lysozyme was prepared and separation of the free from the bound form of the enzyme was performed by dextran-treated charcoal method in comparison with two-antibody method. From the result, it was indicated that dextran-treated charcoal method was useful from the viewpoint of precision, reproducibility and simplicity. The stability of hen lysozyme labeled was determined by the degree of radioactivity bound to antibody. The recovery of radioactivity bound to antibody decreased with the time lapse after labeling and it was found that the recovery rate was restored by dialysis. In this radioimmunoassay system, the competitive binding of labeled and unlabeled hen lysozyme to antibody was examined, and 0.3 to 5.0 ng/ml of the enzyme were detectable. It was found that human lysozyme had an influence on the radioimmunoassay system with over 2 μg/ml. But, the influence did not disturb the assay of hen lysozyme in human serum. Additionally, since it was found that the ratio of the bound form to the free increased with human serum, the assay of hen lysozyme in human serum was carried out using a calibration curve of the enzyme added to untreated human serum. Thus, human serum levels after oral administration of hen lysozyme were measured by the radioimmunoassay in comparison with the determination method by lytic activity. This radioimmunoassay system was found to be appropriate for the determination of hen lysozyme in human serum. (auth.)

  19. Inhibition of lysozyme amyloidogenesis by phospholipids. Focus on long-chain dimyristoylphosphocholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikova, Slavomira; Kubackova, Jana; Bednarikova, Zuzana; Marek, Jozef; Demjen, Erna; Antosova, Andrea; Musatov, Andrey; Gazova, Zuzana

    2017-11-01

    Protein amyloid aggregation is an important pathological feature of a group of different degenerative human diseases called amyloidosis. We tested effect of two phospholipids, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) on amyloid aggregation of hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme in vitro. Effect of phospholipids was investigated using spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence and CD spectroscopy), atomic force microscopy and image analysis. Phospholipids DMPC and DHPC are able dose-dependently inhibit lysozyme fibril formation. The length of the phospholipid tails and different structural arrangement of the phospholipid molecules affect inhibitory activity; long-chain DMPC inhibits fibrillization more efficiently. Interestingly, interference of DMPC with lysozyme amyloid fibrils has no effect on their morphology or amount. Phospholipid molecules have significant effect on lysozyme amyloid fibrillization. We suggest that inhibitory activity is due to the interference of phospholipids with lysozyme leading to the blocking of the intermolecular protein interactions important for formation of the cross-β structure within the core of the fibrils. The higher inhibitory activity of DMPC is probably due to adsorption of protein molecules on the liposome surfaces which caused decrease of species needed for fibrillization. Interaction of the phospholipids with formed fibrils is not sufficient enough to interrupt the bonds in β-sheets which are required for destroying of amyloid fibrils. The obtained results contribute to a better understanding of the effect of phospholipids on amyloid fibrillization of the lysozyme. The data suggest that DMPC and DHPC phospholipids represent agents able to modulate lysozyme amyloid aggregation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure and Interaction in the pH-Dependent Phase Behavior of Nanoparticle-Protein Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Indresh; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, Vinod K; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2017-02-07

    The pH-dependent structure and interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles (diameter 18 nm) with two globular model proteins, lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA), have been studied. Cationic lysozyme adsorbs strongly on the nanoparticles, and the adsorption follows exponential growth as a function of lysozyme concentration, where the saturation value increases as pH approaches the isoelectric point (IEP) of lysozyme. By contrast, irrespective of pH, anionic BSA does not show any adsorption. Despite having a different nature of interactions, both proteins render a similar phase behavior where nanoparticle-protein systems transform from being one-phase (clear) to two-phase (turbid) above a critical protein concentration (CPC). The measurements have been carried out for a fixed concentration of silica nanoparticles (1 wt %) with varying protein concentrations (0-5 wt %). The CPC is found to be much higher for BSA than for lysozyme and increases for lysozyme but decreases for BSA as pH approaches their respective IEPs. The structure and interaction in these systems have been examined using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The effective hydrodynamic size of the nanoparticles measured using DLS increases with protein concentration and is related to the aggregation of the nanoparticles above the CPC. The propensity of the nanoparticles to aggregate is suppressed for lysozyme and enhanced for BSA as pH approached their respective IEPs. This behavior is understood from SANS data through the interaction potential determined by the interplay of electrostatic repulsion with a short-range attraction for lysozyme and long-range attraction for BSA. The nanoparticle aggregation is caused by charge neutralization by the oppositely charged lysozyme and through depletion for similarly charged BSA. Lysozyme-mediated attractive interaction decreases as pH approaches the IEP because of a decrease in the charge on the protein. In the case of

  1. Terahertz mechanical vibrations in lysozyme: Raman spectroscopy vs modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Lacidogna, Giuseppe; Piana, Gianfranco; Bassani, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    The mechanical behaviour of proteins is receiving an increasing attention from the scientific community. Recently it has been suggested that mechanical vibrations play a crucial role in controlling structural configuration changes (folding) which govern proteins biological function. The mechanism behind protein folding is still not completely understood, and many efforts are being made to investigate this phenomenon. Complex molecular dynamics simulations and sophisticated experimental measurements are conducted to investigate protein dynamics and to perform protein structure predictions; however, these are two related, although quite distinct, approaches. Here we investigate mechanical vibrations of lysozyme by Raman spectroscopy and linear normal mode calculations (modal analysis). The input mechanical parameters to the numerical computations are taken from the literature. We first give an estimate of the order of magnitude of protein vibration frequencies by considering both classical wave mechanics and structural dynamics formulas. Afterwards, we perform modal analyses of some relevant chemical groups and of the full lysozyme protein. The numerical results are compared to experimental data, obtained from both in-house and literature Raman measurements. In particular, the attention is focused on a large peak at 0.84 THz (29.3 cm-1) in the Raman spectrum obtained analyzing a lyophilized powder sample.

  2. Zero-order release of lysozyme from (poly)ethylene glycol)/poly(butylene terephthalate) matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.M.; Radersma, R.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2000-01-01

    Protein release from a series of biodegradable poly(ether ester) multiblock copolymers, based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) was investigated. Lysozyme-containing PEG/PBT films and microspheres were prepared using an emulsion technique. Proteins were

  3. Specific delivery of captopril to the kidney with the prodrug captopril-lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.J; Moolenaar, Frits; de Zeeuw, D; Meijer, D.K F

    Low-molecular-weight proteins (LMWPs) accumulate in the proximal tubular cells of the kidney, which makes these proteins interesting tools for renal drug targeting. We studied this approach using the LMWP lysozyme as a carrier for the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. Captopril was

  4. [Expressions of lysozyme C and lactoferrin in tears of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihong; Mou, Pei; Wei, Ruili

    2015-03-17

    To explore the differential expressions of lysozyme C and lactoferrin in tears of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) patients versus healthy subjects by proteomics. Tear samples were obtained from patients with active period TAO and age and gender-matched healthy subjects without symptoms of ocular surface. Then they were divided into patient and control groups. Then tear samples of two groups were analyzed. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of 15% gel was performed to determine the different protein bands in sample groups. And different labeled protein bands were collected for in-gel tryptic digestion. Mass spectrometry was employed to determine the protein components from different protein bands. Then Scaffold search engine was used for analyzing the results of mass spectrometry and identifying specific proteins. Based on mass spectrometric analysis of different protein bands, most proteins were down-regulated or became absent in TAO patients. Both lysozyme C and lactoferrin were up-regulated. Identification of protein relative quantitative ratio (patient/control): lysozyme C: 4.88, lactoferrin: 1.61. Lysozyme C and lactoferrin are two important effectors of tear function and metabolism. Both are up-regulated in TAO patients' tears. Thus both are probably involved in inflammatory process of TAO and play synergistic roles in the pathogenesis of disease.

  5. Long-term studies on tetragonal lysozyme crystals grown in quiescent and forced convection environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, M. L.; Saville, D. A.

    The growth of tetragonal hen lysozyme crystals in the size range 150-300 μm was studied using digital microscopy; the size and orientation of the growing crystals were estimated from the geometry of the ideal tetragonal lysozyme crystal. At a confidence level above 99%, statistical analyses indicate the (110) face growth rates of crystals grown in quiescent conditions are not inhibited by weak buoyancy-driven natural convection. Yet similar analyses of crystals subjected to a weak forced flow of the same magnitude indicate a statistically significant decrease in growth rate with time. This apparent paradox probably results from mass transport limitations within the crystal growth cell. Mathematical models of fluid mixing inside the growth chamber suggest that crystal growth is limited by the rate at which protein molecules are transported to crystals growing on the walls of the chamber. Our experiments also reveal a large variation in the growth rates of crystals within a nominally homogeneous population. The local environment of the crystal may account for some of the variation, but the mechanisms are not understood.

  6. Characterization of expression, activity and role in antibacterial immunity of Anopheles gambiae lysozyme c-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajla, Mayur K.; Andreeva, Olga; Gilbreath, Thomas M.; Paskewitz, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    There are eight lysozyme genes in the Anopheles gambiae genome. Transcripts of one of these genes, LYSC-1, increased in Anopheles gambiae cell line 4a3B by 24 h after exposure to heat-killed Micrococcus luteus. Lysozyme activity was also identified in conditioned media from the cell line from which the protein was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and gel filtration. Mass spectrometric analysis of the purified protein showed 100% identity to lysozyme c-1. Purified lysozyme c-1 was tested against non-mosquito derived as well as culturable bacteria isolated from mosquito midguts. Lysozyme c-1 had negligible effects on the growth of most mosquito-derived bacteria in vitro but did inhibit the growth of M. luteus. Although Lys c-1 did not directly kill most bacteria, knockdown of LYSC-1 resulted in significant mortality in mosquitoes subjected to hemocoelic infections with Escherichia coli but not M. luteus thus suggesting that this protein plays an important role in antibacterial defense against selected bacteria. PMID:19932188

  7. Phenanthrene binding by humic acid–protein complexes as studied by passive dosing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Zhenyu; Ghosh, Saikat; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the binding behavior of phenanthrene by humic acids (HA-2 and HA-5), proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), lysozyme and pepsin), and their complexes using a passive dosing technique. All sorption isotherms were fitted well with Freundlich model and the binding capability followed an order of HA-5 > HA-2 > BSA > pepsin > lysozyme. In NaCl solution, phenanthrene binding to HA-BSA complexes was much higher than the sum of binding to individual HA and BSA, while there was no enhancement for HA-pepsin. Positively charged lysozyme slightly lowered phenanthrene binding on both HAs due to strong aggregation of HA-lysozyme complexes, leading to reduction in the number of binding sites. The binding enhancement by HA-BSA was observed under all tested ion species and ionic strengths. This enhancement can be explained by unfolding of protein, reduction of aggregate size and formation of HA-BSA complexes with favorable conformations for binding phenanthrene. Highlights: • Phenanthrene binding capability followed an order: HA-5>HA-2>BSA>pepsin>lysozyme. • Phenanthrene binding to HA-BSA was enhanced relative to individual HA and BSA. • Binding enhancement to HA-BSA was observed under all tested solution conditions. • The enhancement is related to BSA unfolding, size reduction and HA-BSA complexation. -- Phenanthrene binding to HA-BSA complexes is much higher than the sum to individual HA and BSA while there was no binding enhancement to HA-pepsin or HA-lysozyme

  8. Identification and characterization of a highly thermostable bacteriophage lysozyme

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne, R; Briers, Y; Hertveldt, K; ROBBEN, Johan; Volckaert, G

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage phiKMV is a T7-like lytic phage. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the structural proteins revealed gene product 36 (gp36) as part of the phiKMV phage particle. The presence of a lysozyme domain in the C terminal of this protein (gp36C) was verified by turbidimetric assays on chloroform-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 and Escherichia coli WK6 cells. The molecular mass (20,884 Da) and pI (6.4) of recombinant gp36C were determined, as were the optimal en...

  9. X-ray reflectivity study of the self-assembly of ordered lysozyme films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayushina, R.L.; Stepina, N.D.; Belyaev, V.V.; Khurgin, Yu.I.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the method of self-assembly of multilayer structures can be successfully used to obtain structures including the globular protein lysozyme. A precursor film was obtained by alternating adsorption of polyanions [sodium poly(styrenesulfonate)] and polycations [poly(allylaimine) hydrochoride.] The process of film assembly was controlled by the x-ray reflectivity method. It is shown that the total thickness of a multilayer film increases linearly with the number of layers of polyelectrolyte pairs. The average thickness of the layer of polyelectrolyte pairs was 37 A. The thickness of the adsorbed lysozyme layer was about 45 A, which is consistent with the dimensions of the protein molecule

  10. Influence of polymers on lysozyme molecules association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gromovoy T. Yu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Study of lysozyme molecules behaviour at immobilization in gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt solutions by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI. Methods. Determination of the activity of lysozyme, both free and entrapped in gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (Na-CMC solutions, was conducted by bacteriolytic method. The enzyme interaction with polymers was confirmed by viscometry and mass-spectrometry methods. Results. The occurrence of lysozyme associates in aqueous solution in monomeric and oligomeric forms was shown. A non-valent interaction of the enzyme with solutions of polymers results in the dissociation of oligomeric associates into subunits, which depends on the support nature and mass ratio of lysozyme to polymer. The quantitative retention of immobilized lysozyme hydrolytic activity was established, which favours obtaining mucoadhesive film forms with bacteriolytic action. Conclusions. The lysozyme immobilization by non-valent interactions in gelatin solution and Na-CMC solutions causes dissociation of the enzyme oligomeric structures; a stronger lysozyme coupling with NaCMC was noted.

  11. Serum anti-lysozyme is associated with disease activity of Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Su; Kang, Mi-Il; Ha, You-Jung; Song, Jason Jungsik; Park, Yong-Beom; Lee, Soo-Kon; Lee, Sang-Won

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the association between autoantibodies against non-myeloperoxidase (MPO) neutrophil granule antigens and activity of Behçet's disease (BD). We consecutively enrolled 51 BD patients. We assessed clinical data and BD activity using patients' index scores from the Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form and we performed tests for antibodies against proteinase 3 (PR3), MPO, bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI), cathepsin G, elastase, lactoferrin and lysozyme. The median patient index score was 2.0, and 56.9% of patients had active BD. In multivariate analysis of variables with significant correlations, only anti-lysozyme showed a significant correlation with BD activity (P = 0.002). In multivariate logistic regression analyses of variables, when patients were classified into groups according to the optimal cutoff levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and anti-lysozyme (ESR > 42.5 mm/h, CRP > 1.35 mg/L and anti-lysozyme > 2.95 IU/mL), the variable with independent predictive value was anti-lysozyme (odds ratio 8.384, P = 0.015). Anti-lysozyme was significantly correlated with disease activity score and it was the only independent value to predict active disease in patients with BD. Furthermore, patients having anti-lysozyme levels ≥ 2.95 IU/mL had a significantly higher risk of having active BD than those who did not. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Lysozyme as diffusion tracer for measuring aqueous solution viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Avanish S; Muschol, Martin

    2009-11-01

    Measuring tracer diffusion provides a convenient approach for monitoring local changes in solution viscosity or for determining viscosity changes in response to multiple solution parameters including pH, temperature, salt concentrations or salt types. One common limitation of tracer diffusion in biologically relevant saline solutions is the loss of colloidal stability and aggregation of the tracer particles with increasing ionic strength. Using dynamic light scattering to measure tracer diffusion, we compared the performance of two different types of tracer particles, polystyrene nanobeads vs. the small protein lysozyme, for viscosity measurements of saline solutions. Polystyrene beads provide reliable values for water viscosity, but begin flocculating at ionic strengths exceeding about 100mM. Using lysozyme, in contrast, we could map out viscosity changes of saline solutions for a variety of different salts, for salt concentrations up to 1M, over a wide range of pH values, and over the temperature range most relevant for biological systems (5-40 degrees C). Due to its inherently high structural and colloidal stability, lysozyme provides a convenient and reliable tracer particle for all these measurements, and its use can be readily extended to other optical approaches towards localized measurements of tracer diffusion such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

  13. Release of proteins via ion exchange from albumin-heparin microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Cremers, H.F.M.; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1992-01-01

    Albumin-heparin and albumin microspheres were prepared as ion exchange gels for the controlled release of positively charged polypeptides and proteins. The adsorption isotherms of chicken egg and human lysozyme, as model proteins, on microspheres were obtained. An adsorption isotherm of chicken egg

  14. Molecular Insight into Human Lysozyme and Its Ability to Form Amyloid Fibrils in High Concentrations of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: A View from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Jafari

    Full Text Available Changes in the tertiary structure of proteins and the resultant fibrillary aggregation could result in fatal heredity diseases, such as lysozyme systemic amyloidosis. Human lysozyme is a globular protein with antimicrobial properties with tendencies to fibrillate and hence is known as a fibril-forming protein. Therefore, its behavior under different ambient conditions is of great importance. In this study, we conducted two 500000 ps molecular dynamics (MD simulations of human lysozyme in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS at two ambient temperatures. To achieve comparative results, we also performed two 500000 ps human lysozyme MD simulations in pure water as controls. The aim of this study was to provide further molecular insight into all interactions in the lysozyme-SDS complexes and to provide a perspective on the ability of human lysozyme to form amyloid fibrils in the presence of SDS surfactant molecules. SDS, which is an anionic detergent, contains a hydrophobic tail with 12 carbon atoms and a negatively charged head group. The SDS surfactant is known to be a stabilizer for helical structures above the critical micelle concentration (CMC [1]. During the 500000 ps MD simulations, the helical structures were maintained by the SDS surfactant above its CMC at 300 K, while at 370 K, human lysozyme lost most of its helices and gained β-sheets. Therefore, we suggest that future studies investigate the β-amyloid formation of human lysozyme at SDS concentrations above the CMC and at high temperatures.

  15. Molecular Insight into Human Lysozyme and Its Ability to Form Amyloid Fibrils in High Concentrations of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: A View from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Majid; Mehrnejad, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the tertiary structure of proteins and the resultant fibrillary aggregation could result in fatal heredity diseases, such as lysozyme systemic amyloidosis. Human lysozyme is a globular protein with antimicrobial properties with tendencies to fibrillate and hence is known as a fibril-forming protein. Therefore, its behavior under different ambient conditions is of great importance. In this study, we conducted two 500000 ps molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of human lysozyme in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at two ambient temperatures. To achieve comparative results, we also performed two 500000 ps human lysozyme MD simulations in pure water as controls. The aim of this study was to provide further molecular insight into all interactions in the lysozyme-SDS complexes and to provide a perspective on the ability of human lysozyme to form amyloid fibrils in the presence of SDS surfactant molecules. SDS, which is an anionic detergent, contains a hydrophobic tail with 12 carbon atoms and a negatively charged head group. The SDS surfactant is known to be a stabilizer for helical structures above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) [1]. During the 500000 ps MD simulations, the helical structures were maintained by the SDS surfactant above its CMC at 300 K, while at 370 K, human lysozyme lost most of its helices and gained β-sheets. Therefore, we suggest that future studies investigate the β-amyloid formation of human lysozyme at SDS concentrations above the CMC and at high temperatures.

  16. Solubility and binding properties of PEGylated lysozyme derivatives with increasing molecular weight on hydrophobic-interaction chromatographic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Egbert; Josic, Djuro; Schröder, Tim; Moosmann, Anna

    2010-07-09

    Dynamic binding capacities and resolution of PEGylated lysozyme derivatives with varying molecular weights of poly (ethylene) glycol (PEG) with 5 kDa, 10 kDa and 30 kDa for HIC resins and columns are presented. To find the optimal range for the operating conditions, solubility studies were performed by high-throughput analyses in a 96-well plate format, and optimal salt concentrations and pH values were determined. The solubility of PEG-proteins was strongly influenced by the length of the PEG moiety. Large differences in the solubilities of PEGylated lysozymes in two different salts, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride were found. Solubility of PEGylated lysozyme derivatives in ammonium sulfate decreases with increased length of attached PEG chains. In sodium chloride all PEGylated lysozyme derivatives are fully soluble in a concentration range between 0.1 mg protein/ml and 10 mg protein/ml. The binding capacities for PEGylated lysozyme to HIC resins are dependent on the salt type and molecular weight of the PEG polymer. In both salt solutions, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, the highest binding capacity of the resin was found for 5 kDa PEGylated lysozyme. For both native lysozyme and 30 kDa mono-PEGylated lysozyme the binding capacities were lower. In separation experiments on a TSKgel Butyl-NPR hydrophobic-interaction column with ammonium sulfate as mobile phase, the elution order was: native lysozyme, 5 kDa mono-PEGylated lysozyme and oligo-PEGylated lysozyme. This elution order was found to be reversed when sodium chloride was used. Furthermore, the resolution of the three mono-PEGylated forms was not possible with this column and ammonium sulfate as mobile phase. In 4 M sodium chloride a resolution of all PEGylated lysozyme forms was achieved. A tentative explanation for these phenomena can be the increased solvation of the PEG polymers in sodium chloride which changes the usual attractive hydrophobic forces in ammonium sulfate to more repulsive

  17. A New Family of Lysozyme Inhibitors Contributing to Lysozyme Tolerance in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Callewaert, Lien; Aertsen, Abram; Deckers, Daphne; Vanoirbeek, Kristof G. A.; Vanderkelen, Lise; Van Herreweghe, Joris M.; Masschalck, Barbara; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Robben, Johan; Michiels, Chris W.

    2008-01-01

    Lysozymes are ancient and important components of the innate immune system of animals that hydrolyze peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer. Bacteria engaging in commensal or pathogenic interactions with an animal host have evolved various strategies to evade this bactericidal enzyme, one recently proposed strategy being the production of lysozyme inhibitors. We here report the discovery of a novel family of bacterial lysozyme inhibitors with widespread homologs in gram-negative...

  18. Adsorption and conformations of lysozyme and α-lactalbumin at a water-octane interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, David L.

    2017-11-01

    As proteins contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids, they will readily adsorb onto interfaces between water and hydrophobic fluids such as oil. This adsorption normally causes changes in the protein structure, which can result in loss of protein function and irreversible adsorption, leading to the formation of protein interfacial films. While this can be advantageous in some applications (e.g., food technology), in most cases it limits our ability to exploit protein functionality at interfaces. To understand and control protein interfacial adsorption and function, it is necessary to understand the microscopic conformation of proteins at liquid interfaces. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the adsorption and conformation of two similar proteins, lysozyme and α-lactalbumin, at a water-octane interface. While they both adsorb onto the interface, α-lactalbumin does so in a specific orientation, mediated by two amphipathic helices, while lysozyme adsorbs in a non-specific manner. Using replica exchange simulations, both proteins are found to possess a number of distinct interfacial conformations, with compact states similar to the solution conformation being most common for both proteins. Decomposing the different contributions to the protein energy at oil-water interfaces suggests that conformational change for α-lactalbumin, unlike lysozyme, is driven by favourable protein-oil interactions. Revealing these differences between the factors that govern the conformational change at interfaces in otherwise similar proteins can give insight into the control of protein interfacial adsorption, aggregation, and function.

  19. Small angle neutron scattering study of the initial stage of lysozyme crystallization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minezaki, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo; Ataka, Mituo; Katsura, Tatsuo.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the enormous amount of information obtained from atomic resolution crystal data, the difficulties encountered in growing crystals preclude structural X-ray studies for the majority of known isolated proteins. The protein crystal growth process can be studied by electron microscopy and by light scattering, and recently Ataka and Asai have discussed the kinetics on lysozyme crystal growth. We have conducted small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on the time evolution from the initial stages to the visible size of crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme. SANS from several kinds of solutions have been carried out. The SANS result showed the distinctive change of time evolution. We have also conducted the experiments under various unsaturated conditions using SANS. From these experiments, we found that even under unsaturated conditions, aggregation of lysozyme was found to be started, against the result of light-scattering experiments. (author)

  20. Developmentally Regulated Recruitment of Transcription Factors and Chromatin Modification Activities to Chicken Lysozyme cis-Regulatory Elements In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Pascal; Melnik, Svitlana; Wilson, Nicola; Riggs, Arthur D.; Bonifer, Constanze

    2003-01-01

    Expression of the chicken lysozyme gene is upregulated during macrophage differentiation and reaches its highest level in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. This is accompanied by complex alterations in chromatin structure. We have previously shown that chromatin fine-structure alterations precede the onset of gene expression in macrophage precursor cells and mark the lysozyme chromatin domain for expression later in development. To further examine this phenomenon and to investigate the basis for the differentiation-dependent alterations of lysozyme chromatin, we studied the recruitment of transcription factors to the lysozyme locus in vivo at different stages of myeloid differentiation. Factor recruitment occurred in several steps. First, early-acting transcription factors such as NF1 and Fli-1 bound to a subset of enhancer elements and recruited CREB-binding protein. LPS stimulation led to an additional recruitment of C/EBPβ and a significant change in enhancer and promoter structure. Transcription factor recruitment was accompanied by specific changes in histone modification within the lysozyme chromatin domain. Interestingly, we present evidence for a transient interaction of transcription factors with lysozyme chromatin in lysozyme-nonexpressing macrophage precursors, which was accompanied by a partial demethylation of CpG sites. This indicates that a partially accessible chromatin structure of lineage-specific genes is a hallmark of hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:12773578

  1. Lysozyme-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and colloidal stability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devrim, Burcu; Kara, Aslı; Vural, İmran; Bozkır, Asuman

    2016-11-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNPs) are polymeric nanoparticles enveloped by lipid layers, which have emerged as a potent therapeutic nanocarrier alternative to liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. The aim of this work was to develop, characterize and evaluate LPNPs to deliver a model protein, lysozyme. Lysozyme-loaded LPNPs were prepared by using the modified w/o/w double-emulsion-solvent-evaporation method. Poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) was used as polymeric core material and tripalmitin:lechitin mixture was used to form a lipid shell around the LPNPs. LPNPs were evaluated for particle size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, stability and cytotoxicity. The DLS measurement results showed that the particle size of LPNPs ranged from 58.04 ± 1.95 nm to 2009.00 ± 0.52 nm. The AFM and TEM images of LPNPs demonstrate that LPNPs are spherical in shape. The protein-loading capacity of LPNPs ranged from 5.81% to 60.32%, depending on the formulation parameters. LPNPs displayed a biphasic drug release pattern with a burst release within 1 h, followed by sustained release afterward. Colloidal stability results of LPNPs in different media showed that particle size and zeta potential values of particles did not change significantly in all media except of FBS 100% for 120 h. Finally, the results of a cellular uptake study showed that LPNPs were significantly taken up by 83.3% in L929 cells. We concluded that the LPNPs prepared with PCL as polymeric core material and tripalmitin:lechitin mixture as lipid shell should be a promising choice for protein delivery.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a New C-type Lysozyme Gene from Yak Mammary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Feng Jiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk lysozyme is the ubiquitous enzyme in milk of mammals. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a new chicken-type (c-type milk lysozyme gene (YML, was cloned from yak mammary gland tissue. A 444 bp open reading frames, which encodes 148 amino acids (16.54 kDa with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids, was sequenced. Further analysis indicated that the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences identities between yak and cow milk lysozyme were 89.04% and 80.41%, respectively. Recombinant yak milk lysozyme (rYML was produced by Escherichia coli BL21 and Pichia pastoris X33. The highest lysozyme activity was detected for heterologous protein rYML5 (M = 1,864.24 U/mg, SD = 25.75 which was expressed in P. pastoris with expression vector pPICZαA and it clearly inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Result of the YML gene expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the YML gene was up-regulated to maximum at 30 day postpartum, that is, comparatively high YML can be found in initial milk production. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the amino acid sequence was similar to cow kidney lysozyme, which implied that the YML may have diverged from a different ancestor gene such as cow mammary glands. In our study, we suggest that YML be a new c-type lysozyme expressed in yak mammary glands that plays a role as host immunity.

  3. Short-time dynamics of lysozyme solutions with competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riest, Jonas; Nägele, Gerhard; Liu, Yun; Wagner, Norman J.; Godfrin, P. Douglas

    2018-02-01

    Recently, atypical static features of microstructural ordering in low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions have been extensively explored experimentally and explained theoretically based on a short-range attractive plus long-range repulsive (SALR) interaction potential. However, the protein dynamics and the relationship to the atypical SALR structure remain to be demonstrated. Here, the applicability of semi-analytic theoretical methods predicting diffusion properties and viscosity in isotropic particle suspensions to low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions is tested. Using the interaction potential parameters previously obtained from static structure factor measurements, our results of Monte Carlo simulations representing seven experimental lysoyzme samples indicate that they exist either in dispersed fluid or random percolated states. The self-consistent Zerah-Hansen scheme is used to describe the static structure factor, S(q), which is the input to our calculation schemes for the short-time hydrodynamic function, H(q), and the zero-frequency viscosity η. The schemes account for hydrodynamic interactions included on an approximate level. Theoretical predictions for H(q) as a function of the wavenumber q quantitatively agree with experimental results at small protein concentrations obtained using neutron spin echo measurements. At higher concentrations, qualitative agreement is preserved although the calculated hydrodynamic functions are overestimated. We attribute the differences for higher concentrations and lower temperatures to translational-rotational diffusion coupling induced by the shape and interaction anisotropy of particles and clusters, patchiness of the lysozyme particle surfaces, and the intra-cluster dynamics, features not included in our simple globular particle model. The theoretical results for the solution viscosity, η, are in qualitative agreement with our experimental data even at higher concentrations. We demonstrate that semi

  4. Short-time dynamics of lysozyme solutions with competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion: Experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riest, Jonas; Nägele, Gerhard; Liu, Yun; Wagner, Norman J; Godfrin, P Douglas

    2018-02-14

    Recently, atypical static features of microstructural ordering in low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions have been extensively explored experimentally and explained theoretically based on a short-range attractive plus long-range repulsive (SALR) interaction potential. However, the protein dynamics and the relationship to the atypical SALR structure remain to be demonstrated. Here, the applicability of semi-analytic theoretical methods predicting diffusion properties and viscosity in isotropic particle suspensions to low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions is tested. Using the interaction potential parameters previously obtained from static structure factor measurements, our results of Monte Carlo simulations representing seven experimental lysoyzme samples indicate that they exist either in dispersed fluid or random percolated states. The self-consistent Zerah-Hansen scheme is used to describe the static structure factor, S(q), which is the input to our calculation schemes for the short-time hydrodynamic function, H(q), and the zero-frequency viscosity η. The schemes account for hydrodynamic interactions included on an approximate level. Theoretical predictions for H(q) as a function of the wavenumber q quantitatively agree with experimental results at small protein concentrations obtained using neutron spin echo measurements. At higher concentrations, qualitative agreement is preserved although the calculated hydrodynamic functions are overestimated. We attribute the differences for higher concentrations and lower temperatures to translational-rotational diffusion coupling induced by the shape and interaction anisotropy of particles and clusters, patchiness of the lysozyme particle surfaces, and the intra-cluster dynamics, features not included in our simple globular particle model. The theoretical results for the solution viscosity, η, are in qualitative agreement with our experimental data even at higher concentrations. We demonstrate that semi

  5. Lack of Evidence for Prenucleation Aggregate Formation in Lysozyme Crystal Growth Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschol, Martin; Rosenberger, Franz

    1996-01-01

    There have been numerous claims of large concentrations of prenucleation aggregates in supersaturated as well as undersaturated lysozyme solutions at high salt concentrations. The presence of these aggregates was derived from measurements of the light or neutron scattering intensity, ultracentrifugation and dialysis behavior, as well as over-simplified crystal growth kinetics considerations. In all these interpretations it has been assumed that lysozyme solutions are either ideal or that protein interactions are independent of salt concentration. Contrary to these presumptions, our static and dynamic light scattering experiments provide evidence that lysozyme forms highly non-ideal, strongly interacting solutions. At low salt concentrations, the scattering intensities fall well below the values expected for an ideal, monomeric solution at the same protein concentration, while diffusivities increase with increasing protein concentration. Upon increase in salt concentration, these trends are eventually reversed. This enhancement in scattering intensity and decrease in diffusivity was widely interpreted as sign of aggregate formation. Yet, a quantitative interpretation of the scattering behavior over the whole salt concentration range can only be given in terms of a transition from net repulsion to net attraction between lysozyme monomers. Increased salt screening of the electrostatic repulsion among the protein macro-ions, together with attractive protein interactions, such as van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydration forces, provide an unambiguous mechanism for the observed transition and a more physical interpretation of the various observations.

  6. The influence of low frequency of external electric field on nucleation enhancement of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weichun; Xu, Haixing; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Jin; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Han, Jianzhong; Li, Ang

    2015-10-01

    Protein crystal nucleation processes are drawing increasing interests in both academic and industrial communities. Electric field is a promising means, due to its versatility and easy application, among various external fields that may lead to controllable desired protein crystal nucleation. Different from literature reported experimental and theoretical studies that examined the effects of high frequency electric fields; this work was focused on the low frequency range. For this purpose, Hen-White Lysozyme crystal nucleation from its aqueous solution was used as the model system. We found by experiments that the nucleation rate is non-monotonously dependent on electric field frequency less than 1 kHz, which may be ascribed to the mutual orientation modification between neighbor protein molecules induced by the external low frequency, and is different from the case of high frequencies that influence the intermolecular interactions.

  7. Consumption of transgenic milk containing the antimicrobials lactoferrin and lysozyme separately and in conjunction by 6-week-old pigs improves intestinal and systemic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2014-02-01

    Lactoferrin and lysozyme are antimicrobial and immunomodulatory proteins produced in high quantities in human milk that aid in gastrointestinal (GI) health and have beneficial effects when supplemented separately and in conjunction in human and animal diets. Ruminants produce low levels of lactoferrin and lysozyme; however, there are genetically engineered cattle and goats that respectively secrete recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF-milk), and human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk. Effects of consumption of rhLF-milk, hLZ-milk and a combination of rhLF-and hLZ-milk were tested on young pigs as an animal model for the GI tract of children. Compared with control milk-fed pigs, pigs fed a combination of rhLF and hLZ (rhLF+hLZ) milk had a significantly deeper intestinal crypts and a thinner lamina propria layer. Pigs fed hLZ-milk, rhLF-milk and rhLF+hLZ had significantly reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cells (RBCs) were significantly increased in pigs fed hLZ-milk and rhLF-milk and tended to be increased in rhLF+hLZ-fed pigs, indicating more mature RBCs. These results support previous research demonstrating that pigs fed milk containing rhLF or hLZ had decreased intestinal inflammation, and suggest that in some parameters the combination of lactoferrin and lysozyme have additive effects, in contrast to the synergistic effects reported when utilising in-vitro models.

  8. Evaluating protein incorporation and release in electrospun composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Tonye; Matos, Jeffrey; Collins, George; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2015-10-01

    Electrospun polymer/ceramic composites have gained interest for use as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, we investigated methods to incorporate Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) in electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) or PCL prepared with polyethylene oxide (PEO), where both contained varying levels (up to 30 wt %) of ceramic composed of biphasic calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Using a model protein, lysozyme, we compared two methods of protein incorporation, adsorption and emulsion electrospinning. Adsorption of lysozyme on scaffolds with ceramic resulted in minimal release of lysozyme over time. Using emulsion electrospinning, lysozyme released from scaffolds containing a high concentration of ceramic where the majority of the release occurred at later time points. We investigated the effect of reducing the electrostatic interaction between the protein and the ceramic on protein release with the addition of the cationic surfactant, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). In vitro release studies demonstrated that electrospun scaffolds prepared with CTAB released more lysozyme or PDGF-BB compared with scaffolds without the cationic surfactant. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on composite scaffolds containing PDGF-BB incorporated through emulsion electrospinning expressed higher levels of osteogenic markers compared to scaffolds without PDGF-BB, indicating that the bioactivity of the growth factor was maintained. This study revealed methods for incorporating growth factors in polymer/ceramic scaffolds to promote osteoinduction and thereby facilitate bone regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multi-component adsorption model for pellicle formation: the influence of salivary proteins and non-salivary phospho proteins on the binding of histatin 5 onto hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A; Margolis, H C; Yao, Y; Grogan, J; Oppenheim, F G

    2006-02-01

    The acquired enamel pellicle formed by selective adsorption of proteins in whole saliva is a protective integument on the tooth surface. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the formation of human acquired enamel pellicle using an in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) model and 3H-histatin 5 to allow accurate measurement of histatin 5 binding in a multi-component experimental system. A binary system was employed by mixing 3H-histatin 5 with one unlabeled protein prior to incubation with HA or by first incubating 3H-histatin 5 with the HA which had been pre-coated with one of a panel of unlabeled proteins (human albumin, salivary amylase, lysozyme, acidic PIFs, statherin, the N-terminal fragment of statherin, and egg yolk phosvitin). A ternary system was employed by mixing 3H-histatin 5 with HA sequentially pre-coated with two different unlabeled proteins, including recombinant histatin 1. The results showed that only salivary statherin and egg yolk phosvitin promote histatin 5 adsorption significantly. The amount of histatin 5 adsorbed was also found to increase as a function of the amount of phosvitin and statherin used to pre-coat HA up to a maximum level that was two- to four-fold greater than that observed on untreated HA. These data suggest that specific protein-protein interactions may play important roles in pellicle formation in vivo.

  10. Synergistic action of Galleria mellonella apolipophorin III and lysozyme against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Stączek, Sylwia; Mak, Paweł; Skrzypiec, Krzysztof; Mendyk, Ewaryst; Cytryńska, Małgorzata

    2013-06-01

    Insect immune response relies on the humoral and cellular mechanisms of innate immunity. The key factors are the antimicrobial polypeptides that act in concert against invading pathogens. Several such components, e.g. apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), lysozyme, and anionic peptide 2, are present constitutively in the hemolymph of non-challenged Galleria mellonella larvae. In the present study, we demonstrate an evidence for a synergistic action of G. mellonella lysozyme and apoLp-III against Gram-negative bacteria, providing novel insights into the mode of action of these proteins in insect antimicrobial defense. It was found that the muramidase activity of G. mellonella lysozyme considerably increased in the presence of apoLp-III. Moreover, apoLp-III enhanced the permeabilizing activity of lysozyme toward Escherichia coli cells. As shown using non-denaturing PAGE, the proteins did not form intermolecular complexes in vivo and in vitro, indicating that the effect observed was not connected with the intermolecular interactions between the proteins. Analysis of AFM images of E. coli cells exposed to G. mellonella lysozyme and/or apoLp-III revealed evident alterations in the bacterial surface structure accompanied by the changes in their biophysical properties. The bacterial cells demonstrated significant differences in elasticity, reflected by Young's modulus, as well as in adhesive forces and roughness values in comparison to the control ones. The constitutive presence of these two defense molecules in G. mellonella hemolymph and the fact that apoLp-III enhances lysozyme muramidase and perforating activities indicate that they can be regarded as important antibacterial factors acting at the early stage of infection against Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tear Lipids Interfacial Rheology: Effect of Lysozyme and Lens Care Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitova, Tatyana F.; Lin, Meng C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the interfacial properties of ex vivo tear lipid multilayers with controlled and varying thickness. The influence of lysozyme and surfactant-containing multi-purpose lens care solutions (MPS) on interfacial rheology of lipids and mixed lipid-protein films were studied. Methods Lipids were extracted from lotrafilcon A lenses worn continuously for 1 month. Interfacial properties of the lipids without and with lysozyme in the aqueous phase were examined using tensiometry and step-strain relaxation. Lipid-lysozyme multilayers were exposed to either diluted Optifree Express (OFX) or Optifree Replenish (OFR) for 30 min, and then MPS was displaced from the bulk phase. Surface tension and rheological parameters before and after MPS exposure were measured and compared. Results Thick lipid films exerted high surface pressure at the air-aqueous interface, 50 ± 2 mN/m, with little inter- and intra-subject variability. The rheological storage modulus (E∞; 25.3 ± 2 mN/m) and relaxation time (τ; 87 ± 25 s) were similar among subjects. Neither lysozyme nor MPS changed the surface tension of the lipid multilayers. Lysozyme adsorbed irreversibly onto multilayers without changing E∞, but increased τ 2.5 times. Exposure of mixed multilayers to OFX reduced E∞ to less than a half of its original value (13 ± 4.5 mN/m; p rheology of the ex vivo lipids. OFX and OFR changed rheological properties of the mixed films to different extents. PMID:19901859

  12. Effects of chemical modification of lysine residues on the sweetness of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ide, Nobuyuki; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2005-03-01

    Lysozyme is a sweet-tasting protein with a sweetness threshold value of around 7 microM. To clarify the effect of basicity at the side chain of lysine residues on the threshold values of sweetness, charge-specific chemical modifications such as guanidination, acetylation and phosphopyridoxylation of lysine residues were performed. Sensory analysis showed that the sweetness threshold value of lysozyme was not changed by guanidination, whereas it was increased markedly by acetylation and phosphopyridoxylation. To confirm the importance of the basicity in the lysine residues in detail, purification of acetylated (Ac-) and phosphopyridoxylated (PLP-) lysozymes using SP-ion exchange column chromatography was performed. The threshold values were not changed by modification with fewer than two residues (approximately 7 microM), whereas the threshold values significantly increased to 15 and 34 microM when tetra-Ac and tri-PLP, respectively. Furthermore, sweetness was not detected at 30 microM (hexa-, penta-Ac and tetra-PLP). It should be noted that removal of the negative charges of the phosphate groups in the tri-PLP lysozyme by acid phosphatase resulted in the recovery of sweetness (6.4 microM), indicating that basicity at the position of the lysine residues is responsible for lysozyme sweetness and that strict charge complementarities might be required for interaction to its putative receptor.

  13. Crystallization, data collection and phasing of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marana, S. R.; Cançado, F. C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Valério, A. A. [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Estrutural (CeBiMe), Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), CP 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Ferreira, C.; Terra, W. R. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Barbosa, J. A. R. G., E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Estrutural (CeBiMe), Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), CP 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-08-01

    The digestive lysozymes 1 and 2 from M. domestica were crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystallographic data were processed to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å in both cases. Lysozymes are mostly known for their defensive role against bacteria, but in several animals lysozymes have a digestive function. Here, the initial crystallographic characterization of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica are presented. The proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium sulfate or PEG/2-propanol as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å using synchrotron radiation. The lysozyme 1 and 2 crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} (unit-cell parameters a = 36.52, b = 79.44, c = 45.20 Å, β = 102.97°) and the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (unit-cell parameters a = 73.90, b = 96.40, c = 33.27 Å), respectively. The crystal structures were solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is in progress.

  14. Crystallization, data collection and phasing of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marana, S. R.; Cançado, F. C.; Valério, A. A.; Ferreira, C.; Terra, W. R.; Barbosa, J. A. R. G.

    2006-01-01

    The digestive lysozymes 1 and 2 from M. domestica were crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystallographic data were processed to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å in both cases. Lysozymes are mostly known for their defensive role against bacteria, but in several animals lysozymes have a digestive function. Here, the initial crystallographic characterization of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica are presented. The proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium sulfate or PEG/2-propanol as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å using synchrotron radiation. The lysozyme 1 and 2 crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 (unit-cell parameters a = 36.52, b = 79.44, c = 45.20 Å, β = 102.97°) and the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 (unit-cell parameters a = 73.90, b = 96.40, c = 33.27 Å), respectively. The crystal structures were solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is in progress

  15. Synthesis of HgS nanocrystals in the Lysozyme aqueous solution through biomimetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Yang Guangrui; He Guoxu; Wang Li; Liu Qiaoru; Zhang Qiuxia; Qin Dezhi

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, it is reported for Lysozyme-conjugated HgS nanocrystals with tunable sizes prepared at Lysozyme (Lyso) aqueous solutions by using biomimetic method. The obtained HgS nanoparticles with good dispersibility have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS). The Lysozyme molecules can control nucleation and growth of HgS crystals by binding on the surface of nanocrystals to stabilize protein-capped nanoparticles. Quantum confinement effect of Lyso-conjugated HgS nanocrystals has been confirmed by UV-vis spectra. The nanoparticles exhibit a well-defined emission feature at about 470 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) data are used to envisage the binding of nanoparticles with functional groups of Lysozyme. The results of circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that the formation of HgS nanocrystals can lead to conformational change of Lysozyme.

  16. Binding and Inhibitory Effect of the Dyes Amaranth and Tartrazine on Amyloid Fibrillation in Lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2017-02-16

    Interaction of two food colorant dyes, amaranth and tartrazine, with lysozyme was studied employing multiple biophysical techniques. The dyes exhibited hypochromic changes in the presence of lysozyme. The intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme was quenched by both dyes; amaranth was a more efficient quencher than tartrazine. The equilibrium constant of amaranth was higher than that of tartarzine. From FRET analysis, the binding distances for amaranth and tartrazine were calculated to be 4.51 and 3.93 nm, respectively. The binding was found to be dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. Both dyes induced alterations in the microenvironment surrounding the tryptophan and tyrosine residues of the protein, with the alterations being comparatively higher for the tryptophans than the tyrosines. The interaction caused significant loss in the helicity of lysozyme, the change being higher with amaranth. The binding of both dyes was exothermic. The binding of amaranth was enthalpy driven, while that of tartrazine was predominantly entropy driven. Amaranth delayed lysozyme fibrillation at 25 μM, while tartrazine had no effect even at 100 μM. Nevertheless, both dyes had a significant inhibitory effect on fibrillogenesis. The present study explores the potential antiamyloidogenic property of these azo dyes used as food colorants.

  17. An improved 96-well turbidity assay for T4 lysozyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Additional information T4L is an enzyme found in T4 phage that is tolerant of mutations and amenable to crystallization. Extensive mutagenesis and...pnas.0912009106. [16] W.A. Baase, L. Liu, D.E. Tronrud, B.W. Matthews, Lessons from the lysozyme of phage T4 , Protein Sci. 19 (2010) 631–641. [17] D... phage T4 , Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 26 (1961) 25–30. [21] D.W. Heinz, W.A. Baase, B.W. Matthews, Folding and function of a T4 lysozyme

  18. Milk skimming, heating, acidification, lysozyme, and rennet affect the pattern, repeatability, and predictability of milk coagulation properties and of curd-firming model parameters: A case study of Grana Padano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Calamari, L; Bittante, G

    2015-08-01

    Milk coagulation properties are used to evaluate the cheesemaking aptitude of milk samples. No international standard procedure exists, although laboratories often mimic the production of a full-fat fresh cheese for milk coagulation properties. Questions have arisen about the predictability of such a procedure for different types of cheese production. The aim of this study was to establish a procedure mimicking the production conditions of a long-ripened hard cheese, taking Protected Designation of Origin Grana Padano as a case study. With respect to the traditional conditions (standard procedure; SP), the Grana Padano procedure (GP) modifications were the use of standardized milk, coagulation lower temperature, previous milk acidification, lysozyme addition, and rennet type. Each modification was tested in turn versus the SP and also all together in the GP. Another 3 tests were carried out: SP on naturally creamed milk, SP with double the quantity of rennet, and a simplified GP on a full-fat milk sample. The 10 procedures were tested on 2 subsamples with 2 replicates each and were repeated using individual milk samples from 15 dual-purpose Simmental cows in 4 sessions for a total of 600 tests. Two Formagraph instruments (Foss Electric A/S, Hillerød, Denmark) measuring curd firmness every 15 s were used, prolonging test duration to 60min to obtain 5 traditional single-point milk coagulation properties and 3 parameters of the curd firming model using all 240 points recorded for each replicate. The 8 traits of each replicate were analyzed according to a mixed model with fixed effects of 4 sessions, 10 treatments, 2 instruments, and 16microvats, and random effects of 15 animals and 300 subsamples. Compared with the SP, the coagulation and curd firming was slowed by low temperature and was accelerated by acidification and by adding a double amount of rennet; natural creaming, fat standardization, and rennet with 5% pepsin affected only some traits, whereas lysozyme

  19. Modified denatured lysozyme effectively solubilizes fullerene c60 nanoparticles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepi, Marialuisa; Politi, Jane; Dardano, Principia; Amoresano, Angela; De Stefano, Luca; Monti, Daria Maria; Notomista, Eugenio

    2017-08-01

    Fullerenes, allotropic forms of carbon, have very interesting pharmacological effects and engineering applications. However, a very low solubility both in organic solvents and water hinders their use. Fullerene C60, the most studied among fullerenes, can be dissolved in water only in the form of nanoparticles of variable dimensions and limited stability. Here the effect on the production of C60 nanoparticles by a native and denatured hen egg white lysozyme, a highly basic protein, has been systematically studied. In order to obtain a denatured, yet soluble, lysozyme derivative, the four disulfides of the native protein were reduced and exposed cysteines were alkylated by 3-bromopropylamine, thus introducing eight additional positive charges. The C60 solubilizing properties of the modified denatured lysozyme proved to be superior to those of the native protein, allowing the preparation of biocompatible highly homogeneous and stable C60 nanoparticles using lower amounts of protein, as demonstrated by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies. This lysozyme derivative could represent an effective tool for the solubilization of other carbon allotropes.

  20. The Effect of Ethylene Glycol, Glycine Betaine, and Urea on Lysozyme Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Nordstrom, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    The four-week student project described in this article is an extension of protein thermal denaturation experiments to include effects of added cosolutes ethylene glycol, glycine betaine, and urea on the unfolding of lysozyme. The transition temperatures and van't Hoff enthalpies for unfolding are evaluated for six concentrations of each cosolute,…

  1. Chronopotentiometric sensing of specific interactions between lysozyme and the DNA aptamer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostatná, Veronika; Vargová, Veronika; Kekedy-Nagy, L.; Černocká, Hana; Ferapontova, E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, APR2017 (2017), s. 42-47 ISSN 1567-5394 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00956S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : self -assembled monolayers * protein interactions * lysozyme Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.346, year: 2016

  2. Interaction between Humic Acid and Lysozyme, Studied by Dynamic Light Scattering and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Wen Feng; Koopal, Luuk K.; Norde, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with the protein lysozyme (LSZ) are studied with dynamic light scattering and isothermal titration calorimetry by mixing LSZ and PAHA at various mass ratios. In solution LSZ is positive and PAHA is negative at the investigated pH values. Up to

  3. Pluronic-lysozyme conjugates as anti-adhesive and antibacterial bifunctional polymers for surface coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muszanska, Agnieszka K.; Busscher, Henk J.; Herrmann, Andreas; van der Mei, Henny C.; Norde, Willem

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of polymer protein conjugates composed of a synthetic triblock copolymer with a central polypropylene oxide (PPO) block and two terminal polyethylene oxide (PEO) segments, Pluronic F-127, and the antibacterial enzyme lysozyme attached to the

  4. Pluronic-lysozyme conjugates as anti-adhesive and antibacterial bifunctional polymers for surface coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muszanska, A.K.; Busscher, H.J.; Herrmann, A.; Mei, van der H.C.; Norde, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of polymer protein conjugates composed of a synthetic triblock copolymer with a central polypropylene oxide (PPO) block and two terminal polyethylene oxide (PEO) segments, Pluronic F-127, and the antibacterial enzyme lysozyme attached to the

  5. Immobilised Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) Beads for Lysozyme Separation: Synthesis and Characterization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatin Mohd Nasir; Sofiah Hamzah; Amirah Hamzah; Nora'aini Ali; Marinah Mohd Ariffin

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been established as a highly specific chromatographic technique for the production of enzymes and proteins including lysozyme. This study aimed to prepare and characterize the IMAC beads for lysozyme separation. Silica gel served as chromatographic matrix which has been coated with chitosan layer and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GTA-CTS-SiO 2 ) since it is very convenient to promote fixation. Various IMAC ligands were immobilized by chelating 1500 mg/ l Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ and Al 3+ ions, respectively on GTA-CTS-SiO 2 . IMAC which was immobilized with 1200mg/ l Cu 2+ exhibited the maximal immobilization capacity (27.08mg/ g) of within 30 minutes incubation time. This fundamental study can be a momentous pathway to develop an efficient chromatographic system for lysozyme separation in the future. (author)

  6. Ultra-sensitive quantification of lysozyme based on element chelate labeling and capillary electrophoresis–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, MingWei; Wu, WeiHua; Ruan, YaJuan; Huang, LiMei; Wu, Zujian; Cai, Yong; Fu, FengFu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An ultra-sensitive method for the determination of lysozyme was developed based on the Gd 3+ chelate labeling and CE–ICP–MS. The proposed method has an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole and has been successfully used to detect lysozyme in saliva sample, showing excellent reliability. The success of the present method provides a new possibility for biological assays and clinical diagnoses. -- Highlights: •An ultra-sensitive method for detecting lysozyme based on CE–ICP–MS was described. •The proposed method has an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole. •It can be used to detect trace lysozyme in saliva sample with a satisfied recovery. •The method provides a new potential for sensitive detection of low-abundant proteins. -- Abstract: In this study, an ultra-sensitive method for the quantification of lysozyme based on the Gd 3+ diethylenetriamine-N,N,N′,N″,N″-pentaacetic acid labeling and capillary electrophoresis–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE–ICP–MS) was described. The Gd 3+ -tagged lysozyme was effectively separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and sensitively determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). Based on the gadolinium-tagging and CE–ICP–MS, the lysozyme was determined within 12 min with an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole (3.89 × 10 −11 mol L −1 for 100 nL of sample injection) and a RSD < 6% (n = 5). The proposed method has been successfully used to detect lysozyme in saliva samples with a recovery of 91–106%, suggesting that our method is sensitive and reliable. The success of the present method provides a new potential for the biological assays and sensitive detection of low-abundant proteins

  7. Modulating protein adsorption onto hydroxyapatite particles using different amino acid treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing-Hin; Loo, Ching-Yee; Van, Kim Linh; Zavgorodniy, Alexander V; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

    2012-05-07

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a material of choice for bone grafts owing to its chemical and structural similarities to the mineral phase of hard tissues. The combination of osteogenic proteins with HA materials that carry and deliver the proteins to the bone-defective areas will accelerate bone regeneration. The study investigated the treatment of HA particles with different amino acids such as serine (Ser), asparagine (Asn), aspartic acid (Asp) and arginine (Arg) to enhance the adsorption ability of HA carrier for delivering therapeutic proteins to the body. The crystallinity of HA reduced when amino acids were added during HA preparation. Depending on the types of amino acid, the specific surface area of the amino acid-functionalized HA particles varied from 105 to 149 m(2) g(-1). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme were used as model proteins for adsorption study. The protein adsorption onto the surface of amino acid-functionalized HA depended on the polarities of HA particles, whereby, compared with lysozyme, BSA demonstrated higher affinity towards positively charged Arg-HA. Alternatively, the binding affinity of lysozyme onto the negatively charged Asp-HA was higher when compared with BSA. The BSA and lysozyme adsorptions onto the amino acid-functionalized HA fitted better into the Freundlich than Langmuir model. The amino acid-functionalized HA particles that had higher protein adsorption demonstrated a lower protein-release rate.

  8. Relationship of Salivary Lactoferrin and Lysozyme Concentrations with Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Moslemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Lysozyme and lactoferrin are salivary proteins which play an important role in innate defense mechanisms against bacteria. This study investigated the association of salivary lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations with early childhood caries (ECC. Materials and methods. This study was carried out on 42 healthy children (age range, 36 to 71 months, of whom 21 were caries free (CF and 21 had ECC. Disposable needle-less syringes were used to collect unstimulated saliva from buccal and labial vestibules. Fifteen children who had ECC were treated completely and their saliva was collected in the same way for the second time, three months after treatment. Lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations were measured and recorded by the ELISA method. The intergroup comparisons were carried out using chi-square, Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon signed ranked test. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results. The mean concentration of lysozyme was significantly higher in CF group compared with that of ECC group (P = 0.04. Although the mean concentration of lactoferrin in ECC group was higher in comparison with ECC group, the differ-ence was not statistically significant (P = 0.06. After dental treatment, the mean concentrations of lysozyme and lactoferrin did not change in comparison with their concentrations before treatment. Conclusion. ECC may have a relationship with lower concentrations of unstimulated salivary lactoferrin and lysozyme and reduced amounts of these two salivary proteins may be a risk factor for dental caries in children.

  9. Heterogeneity Determination and Purification of Commercial Hen Egg-White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. R.; Vekilov, P. G.; Rosenberger, F.

    1998-01-01

    Hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) is widely used as a model protein, although its purity has not been adequately characterized by modern biochemical techniques. We have identified and quantified the protein heterogeneities in three commercial HEWL preparations by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with enhanced silver staining, reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and immunoblotting with comparison to authentic protein standards. Depending on the source, the contaminating proteins totalled 1-6%(w/w) and consisted of ovotransferrin, ovalbumin, HEWL dimers, and polypeptides with approximate M(sub r) of 39 and 18 kDa. Furthermore, we have obtained gram quantities of electrophoretically homogeneous [> 99.9%(w/w)] HEWL by single-step semi-preparative scale cation-exchange FPLC with a yield of about 50%. Parallel studies of crystal growth kinetics, salt repartitioning and crystal perfection with this highly purified material showed fourfold increases in the growth-step velocities and significant enhancement in the structural homogeneity of HEWL crystals.

  10. Synergistic cytotoxicity and mechanism of caffeine and lysozyme on hepatoma cell line HepG2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongchao; Li, Jingjuan; Cui, Lin; Ren, Yanqing; Niu, Liying; Wang, Xinguo; Huang, Yun; Cui, Lijian

    2018-03-01

    The influences of caffeine, lysozyme and the joint application of them on the hepatoma cell line HepG2 proliferation inhibition and cell apoptosis were observed by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and Hoechst 33342, which showed the proliferation inhibition rate of the joint application on HepG2 cells was 47.21%, significantly higher than caffeine or lysozyme, and the joint application promoted the apoptosis of HepG2 cells obviously. Van't Hoff classical thermodynamics formula, the Föster theory of non-radiation energy transfer and fluorescence phase diagram were used to manifest that the process of lysozyme binding to caffeine followed a two-state model, which was spontaneous at low temperature driven by enthalpy change, and the predominant intermolecular force was hydrogen bonding or Van der Waals force to stabilize caffeine-lysozyme complex with the distance 5.86 nm. The attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that caffeine decreased the relative contents of α-helix and β-turn, which inferred the structure of lysozyme tended to be "loose". Synchronous fluorescence spectra and ultraviolet spectra supported the above conclusion. The amino acid residues in the cleft of lysozyme were exposed and electropositivity was increased attributing to the loose structure, which were conducive to increasing caffeine concentration on the HepG2 cell surface by electrostatic interaction to show synergistic effect. The great quantities of microvilli on the liver cancer cell membrane surface, is beneficial for the lysozyme-caffeine compound to aggregate on cell surface to increase the concentration of caffeine to play stronger physiological role by electrostatic effect.

  11. Effect of mechanical denaturation on surface free energy of protein powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin; Grimsey, Ian M; Forbes, Robert T; Blagbrough, Ian S; Conway, Barbara R

    2016-10-01

    Globular proteins are important both as therapeutic agents and excipients. However, their fragile native conformations can be denatured during pharmaceutical processing, which leads to modification of the surface energy of their powders and hence their performance. Lyophilized powders of hen egg-white lysozyme and β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae were used as models to study the effects of mechanical denaturation on the surface energies of basic and acidic protein powders, respectively. Their mechanical denaturation upon milling was confirmed by the absence of their thermal unfolding transition phases and by the changes in their secondary and tertiary structures. Inverse gas chromatography detected differences between both unprocessed protein powders and the changes induced by their mechanical denaturation. The surfaces of the acidic and basic protein powders were relatively basic, however the surface acidity of β-galactosidase was higher than that of lysozyme. Also, the surface of β-galactosidase powder had a higher dispersive energy compared to lysozyme. The mechanical denaturation decreased the dispersive energy and the basicity of the surfaces of both protein powders. The amino acid composition and molecular conformation of the proteins explained the surface energy data measured by inverse gas chromatography. The biological activity of mechanically denatured protein powders can either be reversible (lysozyme) or irreversible (β-galactosidase) upon hydration. Our surface data can be exploited to understand and predict the performance of protein powders within pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Designing microcapsules based on protein fibrils and protein - polysaccharide complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, K.N.P.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: encapsulation, microcapsule, protein, fibril, protein-polysaccharide complex, controlled release, interfacial rheology, lysozyme, ovalbumin This thesis describes the design of encapsulation systems using mesostructures from proteins and polysaccharides. The approach was to first

  13. Designing microcapsules based on protein fibrils and protein - polysaccharide complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, K.N.P.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: encapsulation, microcapsule, protein, fibril, protein-polysaccharide complex, controlled release, interfacial rheology, lysozyme, ovalbumin

    This thesis describes the design of encapsulation systems using mesostructures from proteins and polysaccharides. The approach

  14. Modeling disordered protein interactions from biophysical principles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenna X Peterson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Disordered protein-protein interactions (PPIs, those involving a folded protein and an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP, are prevalent in the cell, including important signaling and regulatory pathways. IDPs do not adopt a single dominant structure in isolation but often become ordered upon binding. To aid understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disordered PPIs, it is crucial to obtain the tertiary structure of the PPIs. However, experimental methods have difficulty in solving disordered PPIs and existing protein-protein and protein-peptide docking methods are not able to model them. Here we present a novel computational method, IDP-LZerD, which models the conformation of a disordered PPI by considering the biophysical binding mechanism of an IDP to a structured protein, whereby a local segment of the IDP initiates the interaction and subsequently the remaining IDP regions explore and coalesce around the initial binding site. On a dataset of 22 disordered PPIs with IDPs up to 69 amino acids, successful predictions were made for 21 bound and 18 unbound receptors. The successful modeling provides additional support for biophysical principles. Moreover, the new technique significantly expands the capability of protein structure modeling and provides crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms of disordered PPIs.

  15. Electromagnetic Fields Effects on the Secondary Structure of Lysozyme and Bioprotective Effectiveness of Trehalose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Calabrò

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FTIR spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field and of microwaves at 900 MHz on the secondary structure of a typical protein, the lysozyme, evaluating the bioprotective effectiveness of trehalose. Lysozyme in D2O solution (60 mg/ml was exposed to 50 Hz frequency electromagnetic field at 180 μT. The FTIR spectra indicated an increase of CH2 group at 1921 and 1853 cm−1 after 3 h of exposure. Such effect was not observed after the addition of trehalose (150 mg/mL at the same exposure conditions. Lysozyme dissolved in D2O at the concentration of 100 mg/mL was exposed up to 4 h to 900 MHz mobile phone microwaves at 25 mA/m. A significant increase in intensity of the amide I vibration band in the secondary structure of the protein was observed after 4 h exposure to microwaves. This effect was inhibited by the presence of trehalose at the concentration of 150 mg/mL. Fourier self-deconvolution spectral analysis of lysozyme in D2O solution after exposure to microwaves revealed an increase in intensity of the conformational components of amide I mode, particularly of β-sheet and turn that can be attributed to disorder and unfolding processes of the protein.

  16. Non-monotonic course of protein solubility in aqueous polymer-salt solutions can be modeled using the sol-mxDLVO model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herhut, Marcel; Brandenbusch, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Protein purification is often performed using cost-intensive chromatographic steps. To discover economic alternatives (e.g., crystallization), knowledge on protein solubility as a function of temperature, pH, and additives in solution as well as their concentration is required. State-of-the-art models for predicting protein solubility almost exclusively consider aqueous salt systems, whereas "salting-in" and "salting-out" effects induced by the presence of an additional polymer are not considered. Thus, we developed the sol-mxDLVO model. Using this newly developed model, protein solubility in the presence of one salt and one polymer, especially the non-monotonic course of protein solubility, could be predicted. Systems considered included salts (NaCl, Na-p-Ts, (NH(4))(2) SO(4)) and the polymer polyethylene glycol (MW: 2000 g/mol, 12000 g/mol) and proteins lysozyme from chicken egg white (pH 4 to 5.5) and D-xylose ketol-isomerase (pH 7) at 298.15 K. The results show that by using the sol-mxDLVO model, protein solubility in polymer-salt solutions can be modeled in good agreement with the experimental data for both proteins considered. The sol-mxDLVO model can describe the non-monotonic course of protein solubility as a function of polymer concentration and salt concentration, previously not covered by state-of-the-art models. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A comparative study on the aggregating effects of guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea on lysozyme aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emadi, Saeed, E-mail: emadi@iasbs.ac.ir; Behzadi, Maliheh

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M). • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M). • Lysozyme did not aggregated at any concentration (0.5–5 M) of urea. • Unfolding pathway is more important than unfolding per se in aggregation. - Abstract: Protein aggregation and its subsequent deposition in different tissues culminate in a diverse range of diseases collectively known as amyloidoses. Aggregation of hen or human lysozyme depends on certain conditions, namely acidic pH or the presence of additives. In the present study, the effects on the aggregation of hen egg-white lysozyme via incubation in concentrated solutions of three different chaotropic agents namely guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea were investigated. Here we used three different methods for the detection of the aggregates, thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Our results showed that upon incubation with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 M) of the chemical denaturants, lysozyme was aggregated at low concentrations of guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M) and at high concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M), although no fibril formation was detected. In the case of urea, no aggregation was observed at any concentration.

  18. A New Role for an Old Antimicrobial: Lysozyme c-1 Can Function to Protect Malaria Parasites in Anopheles Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Luckhart, Shirley; Li, Jianyong; Paskewitz, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Plasmodium requires an obligatory life stage in its mosquito host. The parasites encounter a number of insults while journeying through this host and have developed mechanisms to avoid host defenses. Lysozymes are a family of important antimicrobial immune effectors produced by mosquitoes in response to microbial challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings A mosquito lysozyme was identified as a protective agonist for Plasmodium. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that Anopheles gambiae lysozyme c-1 binds to oocysts of Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum at 2 and 5 days after infection. Similar results were observed with Anopheles stephensi and P. falciparum, suggesting wide occurrence of this phenomenon across parasite and vector species. Lysozyme c-1 did not bind to cultured ookinetes nor did recombinant lysozyme c-1 affect ookinete viability. dsRNA-mediated silencing of LYSC-1 in Anopheles gambiae significantly reduced the intensity and the prevalence of Plasmodium berghei infection. We conclude that this host antibacterial protein directly interacts with and facilitates development of Plasmodium oocysts within the mosquito. Conclusions/Significance This work identifies mosquito lysozyme c-1 as a positive mediator of Plasmodium development as its reduction reduces parasite load in the mosquito host. These findings improve our understanding of parasite development and provide a novel target to interrupt parasite transmission to human hosts. PMID:21573077

  19. A comparative study on the aggregating effects of guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea on lysozyme aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emadi, Saeed; Behzadi, Maliheh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M). • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M). • Lysozyme did not aggregated at any concentration (0.5–5 M) of urea. • Unfolding pathway is more important than unfolding per se in aggregation. - Abstract: Protein aggregation and its subsequent deposition in different tissues culminate in a diverse range of diseases collectively known as amyloidoses. Aggregation of hen or human lysozyme depends on certain conditions, namely acidic pH or the presence of additives. In the present study, the effects on the aggregation of hen egg-white lysozyme via incubation in concentrated solutions of three different chaotropic agents namely guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea were investigated. Here we used three different methods for the detection of the aggregates, thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Our results showed that upon incubation with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 M) of the chemical denaturants, lysozyme was aggregated at low concentrations of guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M) and at high concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M), although no fibril formation was detected. In the case of urea, no aggregation was observed at any concentration

  20. Effects of dissolving microneedle fabrication parameters on the activity of encapsulated lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraei Lahiji, Shayan; Jang, Yoojung; Ma, Yonghao; Dangol, Manita; Yang, Huisuk; Jang, Mingyu; Jung, Hyungil

    2018-05-30

    Dissolving microneedle (DMN) is referred to a microscale needle that encapsulates drug(s) within a biodegradable polymer matrix and delivers it into the skin in a minimally invasive manner. Although vast majority of studies have emphasized DMN as an efficient drug delivery system, the activity of DMN-encapsulated proteins or antigens can be significantly affected due to a series of thermal, physical and chemical stress factors during DMN fabrication process and storage period. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of DMN fabrication parameters including polymer type, polymer concentration, fabrication and storage temperature, and drying conditions on the activity of the encapsulated therapeutic proteins by employing lysozyme (LYS) as a model protein. Our results indicate that a combination of low temperature fabrication, mild drying condition, specific polymer concentration, and addition of protein stabilizer can maintain the activity of encapsulated LYS up to 99.8 ± 3.8%. Overall, findings of this study highlight the importance of optimizing DMN fabrication parameters and paves way for the commercialization of an efficient delivery system for therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of modified β-cyclodextrin on thermal stability and conformation of lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Tadashi; Satoh, Megumi; Tateishi, Takahiro; Nojiri, Tomoaki; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Kimura, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of cyclodextrin on stability and conformation of lysozyme were clarified. ► The CD influences the hydrophobic interaction of lysozyme by the inclusion. ► The CD relatively destabilized the folded state by stabilizing the unfolded state. ► The destabilization depends on the concentration and the substituent of CD. ► The conformation of lysozyme was more spread at unfolded state by inclusion of CD. - Abstract: Effects of cyclic oligosaccharide cyclodextrin (CD) on stability and conformation of lysozyme were clarified thermodynamically and rheologically by DSC, viscosity, and circular dichroism measurements. The modified β-CD relatively destabilized the folded state of lysozyme by stabilizing the unfolded state due to inclusion of hydrophobic part into the hydrophobic interior of CD. The order of higher destabilization effect was acetyl-β-CD > methyl-β-CD > hydroxypropyl-β-CD. Apparent number of bound CD to unfolded state for methyl-, hydroxypropyl-, and acetyl-β-CD is 6.7 ± 0.7, 4.2 ± 1.1, and 18.6 ± 4.3 and the binding constant is 5.5 ± 0.8, 6.7 ± 2.4, and 4.4 ± 1.2 L mol −1 , respectively. The viscosity for unfolded state was increased with an increase in the each modified β-CD concentration, suggesting that the inclusion of CD on a part of hydrophobic core at unfolded state leads to break the hydrophobic core, then lysozyme would be more spread structure. The substituent of CD can accelerate instability by directly breaking hydrogen bond and/or can restrain instability by increase in hydrophobic interaction. The fact that the each modified CDs has different destabilization effect shows a possibility to control the stability of protein by the substitution of CD.

  2. One-step production of protein-loaded PLGA microparticles via spray drying using 3-fluid nozzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Andersen, Sune Klint; Bjerregaard, Simon; Foged, Camilla; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using a spray-dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle to microencapsulate protein drugs into polymeric microparticles. Lysozyme and PLGA were used as a model protein and a model polymer, respectively. The effects of process and formulation variables, such as i) the type of organic solvent, ii) the feeding rate ratio of the outer PLGA-containing feed solution to inner lysozyme-containing feed solution, and iii) the mass ratio of PLGA to protein, on the properties (morphology, internal structure, protein surface enrichment and release profiles) of the spray dried microparticles were investigated to understand protein microencapsulation and particle formation mechanisms. The spherical, condensed microparticles were obtained with D50 of 1.07-1.60 μm and Span in the range of 0.82-1.23. The lysozyme surface content decreased upon different organic solvents used as follows: acetonitrile > acetone > dichloromethane. Additionally, the lysozyme surface enrichment decreased slightly when increasing the feeding rate ratio of the outer feed solution to the inner feed solution from 4:1 to 10:1. Furthermore, it was observed that there was a correlation between the degree of burst release and the lysozyme surface enrichment, whereas the lysozyme loading content had no substantial impact on the release kinetics. The present work demonstrates the potential of spray dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle in microencapsulation of proteins into PLGA matrices with different characteristics by varying process and formulation parameters.

  3. Full-matrix least-squares refinement of lysozymes and analysis of anisotropic thermal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harata, K; Abe, Y; Muraki, M

    1998-02-15

    Crystal structures of turkey egg lysozyme (TEL) and human lysozyme (HL) were refined by full-matrix least-squares method using anisotropic temperature factors. The refinement converged at the conventional R-values of 0.104 (TEL) and 0.115 (HL) for reflections with Fo > 0 to the resolution of 1.12 A and 1.15 A, respectively. The estimated r.m.s. coordinate errors for protein atoms were 0.031 A (TEL) and 0.034 A (HL). The introduction of anisotropic temperature factors markedly reduced the R-value but did not significantly affect the main chain coordinates. The degree of anisotropy of atomic thermal motion has strong positive correlation with the square of distance from the molecular centroid. The ratio of the radial component of thermal ellipsoid to the r.m.s. magnitude of three principal components has negative correlation with the distance from the molecular centroid, suggesting the domination of libration rather than breathing motion. The TLS model was applied to elucidate the characteristics of the rigid-body motion. The TLS tensors were determined by the least-squares fit to observed temperature factors. The profile of the magnitude of reproduced temperature factors by the TLS method well fitted to that of observed B(eqv). However, considerable disagreement was observed in the shape and orientation of thermal ellipsoid for atoms with large temperature factors, indicating the large contribution of local motion. The upper estimate of the external motion, 67% (TEL) and 61% (HL) of B(eqv), was deduced from the plot of the magnitude of TLS tensors determined for main chain atoms which were grouped into shells according to the distance from the center of libration. In the external motion, the translational portion is predominant and the contribution of libration and screw motion is relatively small. The internal motion, estimated by subtracting the upper estimate of the external motion from the observed temperature factor, is very similar between TEL and HL in spite

  4. Effect of polymorphism in egg white lysozyme on muramidase and antibacterial activities as well as hatchability in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Si Lhyam; Kinoshita, Keiji; Shimogiri, Takeshi; Ibrahim, Hisham R; Tsusaki, Tomohiro; Tanoue, Tomomi; Kawabe, Kotaro; Maeda, Yoshizane; Okamoto, Shin

    2012-06-01

    Lysozyme is one of the best characterized antimicrobial proteins in egg white. Three phenotypes of egg white lysozyme in Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, (namely fast; slow; and the combination, FS) were observed by acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The fast phenotype showed faster mobility on Acid-PAGE than the slow phenotype. Comparison of the coding sequences for lysozyme derived from the slow and fast phenotypes revealed a nonsynonymous SNP at nucleotide position 115 from the translation initiation site, which alters AA sequence of lysozyme. This nonsynonymous SNP converted glutamine (Q) in the slow phenotype to lysine (K) in the fast phenotype at AA residue 21 of mature lysozyme (Q21K). Here, we investigated the effect of these phenotypes on muramidase activity, antibacterial activity, and hatchability. Muramidase activity toward isolated cell walls of Micrococcus lysodeikticus was in the order: fast allozyme > slow allozyme > chicken (Gallus gallus), but no significant difference was found among the 3 (P > 0.05). Antibacterial activity against live Staphylococcus aureus cells was significantly greater for the fast allozyme than the slow allozyme from 20 h after incubation (P lysozyme influences the electrophoretic migration, muramidase activity, and antibacterial activity of the protein, in addition to the hatchability of the eggs. These results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant difference in antibacterial activity and hatchability between 2 lysozyme phenotypes in Japanese quail.

  5. Formation of Silica-Lysozyme Composites Through Co-Precipitation and Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. van den Heuvel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between silica and proteins are crucial for the formation of biosilica and the production of novel functional hybrid materials for a range of industrial applications. The proteins control both precipitation pathway and the properties of the resulting silica–organic composites. Here, we present data on the formation of silica–lysozyme composites through two different synthesis approaches (co-precipitation vs. adsorption and show that the chemical and structural properties of these composites, when analyzed using a combination of synchrotron-based scattering (total scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, spectroscopic, electron microscopy, and potentiometric methods vary dramatically. We document that while lysozyme was not incorporated into nor did its presence alter the molecular structure of silica, it strongly enhanced the aggregation of silica particles due to electrostatic and potentially hydrophobic interactions, leading to the formation of composites with characteristics differing from pure silica. The differences increased with increasing lysozyme content for both synthesis approaches. Yet, the absolute changes differ substantially between the two sets of composites, as lysozyme did not just affect aggregation during co-precipitation but also particle growth and likely polymerization during co-precipitation. Our results improve the fundamental understanding of how organic macromolecules interact with dissolved and nanoparticulate silica and how these interactions control the formation pathway of silica–organic composites from sodium silicate solutions, a widely available and cheap starting material.

  6. Structural basis of antigen recognition: crystal structure of duck egg lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, David Brent; Schofield, Peter; Jackson, Jenny; Zeraati, Mahdi; Maltby, David; Christie, Mary; Burnett, Deborah; Brink, Robert; Goodnow, Christopher; Christ, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Duck egg lysozyme (DEL) is a widely used model antigen owing to its capacity to bind with differential affinity to anti-chicken egg lysozyme antibodies. However, no structures of DEL have so far been reported, and the situation had been complicated by the presence of multiple isoforms and conflicting reports of primary sequence. Here, the structures of two DEL isoforms from the eggs of the commonly used Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos) are reported. Using structural analyses in combination with mass spectrometry, non-ambiguous DEL primary sequences are reported. Furthermore, the structures and sequences determined here enable rationalization of the binding affinity of DEL for well documented landmark anti-lysozyme antibodies. PMID:29095163

  7. Logarithmic decay in single-particle relaxations of hydrated lysozyme powder

    OpenAIRE

    Lagi, Marco; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    We present the self-dynamics of protein amino acids of hydrated lysozyme powder around the physiological temperature by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The self-intermediate scattering functions (SISF) of the amino acid residue center-of-mass and of the protein hydrogen atoms display a logarithmic decay over 3 decades of time, from 2 picoseconds to 2 nanoseconds, followed by an exponential alpha-relaxation. This kind of slow dynamics resembles the relaxation scenario within the ...

  8. Effect of salt entropy on protein solubility and Hofmeister series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    We present a theory of salt effects on protein solubility that accounts for salting-in, salting-out, and the Hofmeister series. We represent protein charge by the first order multipole expansion to include attractive and repulsive electrostatic interactions in the model. Our model also includes non-electrostatic protein-ion interactions, and ion-solvent interactions via an effective solvated ion radius. We find that the finite size of the ions has significant effects on the translational entropy of the salt, which accounts for the changes in the protein solubility. At low salt the dominant effect comes from the entropic cost of confining ions within the aggregate. At high concentrations the salt drives a depletion attraction that favors aggregation. Our theory explains the reversal in the Hofmeister series observed in lysozyme cloud point measurements and semi-quantitatively describes the solubility of lysozyme and chymosin crystals.

  9. Electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions in high energy collisions with molecular oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, P; Nielsen, SB; Sørensen, M

    2001-01-01

    We report on the electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions Lys-Hn(n)+ (n = 7 - 17) and the concomitant formation of Lys-Hn(n+1)+. in high-energy collisions with molecular oxygen (laboratory kinetic energy = 50 x n keV). The cross section for electron loss increases with the charge state...... of the precursor from n = 7 to n = 11 and then remains constant when n increases further. The absolute size of the cross section ranges from 100 to 200 A2. The electron loss is modeled as an electron transfer process between lysozyme cations and molecular oxygen....

  10. Learning generative models for protein fold families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Sivaraman; Kamisetty, Hetunandan; Carbonell, Jaime G; Lee, Su-In; Langmead, Christopher James

    2011-04-01

    We introduce a new approach to learning statistical models from multiple sequence alignments (MSA) of proteins. Our method, called GREMLIN (Generative REgularized ModeLs of proteINs), learns an undirected probabilistic graphical model of the amino acid composition within the MSA. The resulting model encodes both the position-specific conservation statistics and the correlated mutation statistics between sequential and long-range pairs of residues. Existing techniques for learning graphical models from MSA either make strong, and often inappropriate assumptions about the conditional independencies within the MSA (e.g., Hidden Markov Models), or else use suboptimal algorithms to learn the parameters of the model. In contrast, GREMLIN makes no a priori assumptions about the conditional independencies within the MSA. We formulate and solve a convex optimization problem, thus guaranteeing that we find a globally optimal model at convergence. The resulting model is also generative, allowing for the design of new protein sequences that have the same statistical properties as those in the MSA. We perform a detailed analysis of covariation statistics on the extensively studied WW and PDZ domains and show that our method out-performs an existing algorithm for learning undirected probabilistic graphical models from MSA. We then apply our approach to 71 additional families from the PFAM database and demonstrate that the resulting models significantly out-perform Hidden Markov Models in terms of predictive accuracy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibrium and protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems containing biodegradable salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Brenda; Malpiedi, Luciana Pellegrini; Tubío, Gisela; Nerli, Bibiana; Alcântara Pessôa Filho, Pedro de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Binodal data of systems (water + polyethyleneglycol + sodium) succinate are reported. ► Pitzer model describes the phase equilibrium of systems formed by polyethyleneglycol and biodegradable salts satisfactorily. ► This simple thermodynamic framework was able to predict the partitioning behaviour of model proteins acceptably well. - Abstract: Phase diagrams of sustainable aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) formed by polyethyleneglycols (PEGs) of different average molar masses (4000, 6000, and 8000) and sodium succinate are reported in this work. Partition coefficients (Kps) of seven model proteins: bovine serum albumin, catalase, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-amylase, lysozyme, pepsin, urease and trypsin were experimentally determined in these systems and in ATPSs formed by the former PEGs and other biodegradable sodium salts: citrate and tartrate. An extension of Pitzer model comprising long and short-range term contributions to the excess Gibbs free energy was used to describe the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium. Comparison between experimental and calculated tie line data showed mean deviations always lower than 3%, thus indicating a good correlation. The partition coefficients were modeled by using the same thermodynamic approach. Predicted and experimental partition coefficients correlated quite successfully. Mean deviations were found to be lower than the experimental uncertainty for most of the assayed proteins.

  12. A new membrane-based crystallization technique: tests on lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Efrem; Profio, Gianluca Di; Drioli, Enrico

    2003-01-01

    The great importance of protein science both in industrial and scientific fields, in conjunction with the intrinsic difficulty to grow macromolecular crystals, stimulates the development of new observations and ideas that can be useful in initiating more systematic studies using novel approaches. In this regard, an innovative technique, based on the employment of microporous hydrophobic membranes in order to promote the formation of lysozyme crystals from supersaturated solutions, is introduced in this work. Operational principles and possible advantages, both in terms of controlled extraction of solvent by acting on the concentration of the stripping solution and reduced induction times, are outlined. Theoretical developments and experimental results concerning the mass transfer, in vapour phase, through the membrane are presented, as well as the results from X-ray diffraction to 1.7 Å resolution of obtained lysozyme crystals using NaCl as the crystallizing agent and sodium acetate as the buffer. Crystals were found to be tetragonal with unit cell dimensions of a= b=79.1 Å and c=37.9 Å; the overall Rmerge on intensities in the resolution range from 25 to 1.7 Å was, in the best case, 4.4%.

  13. Hydrophobic nano-carrier for lysozyme adsorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adsorption–desorption cycles by using same nanoparticles. 2.2e Assay of lysozyme activity: A simple spectrophoto- metric method from Shugar [38] was used for the activ- ity tests. For this, Micrococcus lysodeikticus suspension was prepared by mixing 9 g of M. lysodeikticus with 30 ml of carbonate buffer (pH 9, 100 mM).

  14. Regular arrangement of periodates bound to lysozyme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondráček, Jan; Weiss, M.S.; Brynda, Jiří; Fiala, J.; Jursík, F.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Jenner, L.B.; Sedláček, Juraj

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 61, Pt9 (2005), s. 1181-1189 ISSN 0907-4449 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : hen egg white lysozyme * periodate * epitaxy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2005

  15. Kinetics of supersaturation decay in the crystallization of lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. W.; Barlow, D. A.; Caraballo, K. G.; Baird, J. K.

    The molecular architecture of proteins can be determined by analysing the X-ray diffraction patterns of their crystals. The technology of X-ray crystallography has reached the point, however, where the determination of the structure of a given crystal is controlled by the limited availability of the crystals themselves. Proteins can often be crystallized from pH buffered aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes. When dissolved protein in solution is more stable than crystalline protein, the appearance of crystals can be said to be under thermodynamic control. If, on the other hand, the crystals are more stable than the dissolved protein, and still crystals are slow to appear, the crystallization can be said to be under kinetic control. Using dilatometry, we have followed the rate of decay of the protein supersaturation in crystallizing solutions of chicken egg-white lysozyme under conditions of kinetic control. We have found that the rate of decay of the supersaturation is first order in the supersaturation and that the rate constant is independent of the initial protein concentration, but increases with increasing pH, decreasing temperature, and with increasing concentrations of sodium chloride and buffer salt. We correlate these observed trends in the rate constant with related trends in the solubility and surface charge density of the crystals. We conclude that the rate constant for supersaturation decay is inversely proportional to the protein solubility.

  16. Lysozyme and succinylated lysozyme as adsorbates and emulsifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der M.

    2005-01-01

    Many food products are emulsions, i.e., a system of two immiscible liquids of which the one is finely dispersed in the other. In many emulsions, a monolayer of protein molecules in the liquid/liquid interface prevents coalescence of the droplets. Therefore, in the formation of a protein-stabilized

  17. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Assorted Sulfate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Snell, Edward H.; Malone, Christine C.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1999-01-01

    Chicken egg white lysozyme has been found to crystallize from ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates at acidic and basic pH, with protein concentrations from 60 to 190 mg/ml. Crystals have also been grown at 4 C in the absence of any other added salts using isoionic lysozyme which was titrated to pH 4.6 with dilute sulfuric acid. Four different crystal forms have been obtained, depending upon the temperature, protein concentration, and precipitating salt employed. Crystals grown at 15 C were generally tetragonal, with space group P4(sub 3)2(sub 1)2. Crystallization at 20 C typically resulted in the formation of orthorhombic crystals, space group P2(sub 1)2(sub 1)2(sub 1). The tetragonal reversible reaction orthorhombic transition appeared to be a function of both the temperature and protein concentration, occurring between 15 and 20 C and between 100 and 125 mg/ml protein concentration. Crystallization from 1.2 M magnesium sulfate at pH 7.8 gave a trigonal crystal, space group P3(sub 1)2(sub 1), a = b = 87.4, c = 73.7, gamma = 120 deg, which diffracted to 2.8 A. Crystallization from ammonium sulfate at pH 4.6, generally at lower temperatures, was also found to result in a monoclinic form. space group C2, a = 65.6, b = 95.0, c = 41.2, beta = 119.2 deg. A crystal of approximately 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.5 mm grown from bulk solution diffracted to approximately 3.5 A.

  18. Crystallization of chicken egg white lysozyme from assorted sulfate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Snell, Edward H.; Malone, Christine C.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1999-01-01

    Chicken egg white lysozyme has been found to crystallize from ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates at acidic and basic pH, with protein concentrations from 60 to 190 mg/ml. Crystals have also been grown at 4°C in the absence of any other added salts using isoionic lysozyme which was titrated to pH 4.6 with dilute sulfuric acid. Four different crystal forms have been obtained, depending upon the temperature, protein concentration, and precipitating salt employed. Crystals grown at 15°C were generally tetragonal, with space group P4 32 12. Crystallization at 20°C typically resulted in the formation of orthorhombic crystals, space group P2 12 12 1. The tetragonal ↔ orthorhombic transition appeared to be a function of both the temperature and protein concentration, occurring between 15 and 20°C and between 100 and 125 mg/ml protein concentration. Crystallization from 1.2 M magnesium sulfate at pH 7.8 gave a trigonal crystal, space group P3 12 1, a= b=87.4, c=73.7, γ=120°, which diffracted to 2.8 Å. Crystallization from ammonium sulfate at pH 4.6, generally at lower temperatures, was also found to result in a monoclinic form, space group C2, a=65.6, b=95.0, c=41.2, β=119.2°. A crystal of ˜0.2×0.2×0.5 mm grown from bulk solution diffracted to ˜3.5 Å.

  19. A Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Human Lysozyme –Camelid VHH HL6 Antibody System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yuan Su

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer’s and thrombosis are characterized by an aberrant assembly of specific proteins or protein fragments into fibrils and plaques that are deposited in various tissues and organs. The single-domain fragment of a camelid antibody was reported to be able to combat against wild-type human lysozyme for inhibiting in-vitro aggregations of the amyloidogenic variant (D67H. The present study is aimed at elucidating the unbinding mechanics between the D67H lysozyme and VHH HL6 antibody fragment by using steered molecular dynamics (SMD simulations on a nanosecond scale with different pulling velocities. The results of the simulation indicated that stretching forces of more than two nano Newton (nN were required to dissociate the protein-antibody system, and the hydrogen bond dissociation pathways were computed.

  20. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate and lysozyme improves antimicrobial activities of ovotransferrin against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, K Y; Mendoncam, A F; Ismail, H; Ahn, D U

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EDTA, lysozyme, or the combination of EDTA and lysozyme on the antibacterial activity of ovotransferrin against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Ovotransferrin solutions (20 mg/mL) containing 100 mM NaHCO3 (OS) with added EDTA (2.0 or 2.5 mg/mL), lysozyme (1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/mL), or both were prepared. The antibacterial activities of OS, OSE (OS+EDTA), or OSL (OS+lysozyme) against E. coli O157:H7 in model systems were investigated by turbidity and viability tests. In addition, OSE, OSL, or OSEL (OS+EDTA+lysozyme) was applied to irradiated pork chops and commercial hams to determine whether the solutions had antibacterial activity on meat products. The effect of the initial cell population on the antibacterial activity of OSE, OSL, and OSEL was determined. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate at 2 mg/mL plus OS induced a reduction of approximately 3 to 4 log in viable E. coli O157:H7 cells in brain heart infusion broth media, and 1 mg/mL of lysozyme plus OS resulted in a reduction of approximately 0.5 to 1.0 log during a 36-h incubation at 35 degrees C. However, neither OSE nor OSEL showed a significant antibacterial effect on pork chops and hams during storage at 10 degrees C. The initial cell number in media did not affect the antibacterial activity of OSE or OSEL against E. coli O157:H7. This study demonstrates that combinations of ovotransferrin, NaHCO3, and EDTA have the potential to control E. coli O157:H7.

  1. Lysozyme release and polymer erosion behavior of injectable implants prepared from PLGA-PEG block copolymers and PLGA/PLGA-PEG blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milacic, Vesna; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the controlled release lysozyme from various poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 50/50-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block copolymers relative to PLGA 50/50. Methods Lysozyme was encapsulated in cylindrical implants (0.8 mm diameter) by a solvent extrusion method. Release studies were conducted in phosphate buffered saline + 0.02 % Tween 80 (PBST) at 37°C. Lysozyme activity was measured by a fluorescence-based assay. Implant erosion was evaluated by kinetics of polymer molecular weight decline, water uptake, and mass loss. Results Lysozyme release from an AB15 di-block copolymer (15% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 28 kDa) was very fast, whereas an AB10 di-block copolymer (with 10% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 45 kDa) and ABA10 tri-block copolymer (with 10% 6 kDa PEG, PLGA 27kDa) showed release profiles similar to PLGA. We achieved continuous lysozyme release for up to 4 weeks from AB10 and ABA10 by lysozyme co-encapsulation with the pore- forming and acid-neutralizing MgCO3, and from AB15 by co-encapsulation of MgCO3 and blending AB15 with PLGA. Lysozyme activity was mostly recovered during four weeks. Conclusions These block co-polymers may have utility either alone or as PLGA blends for the controlled release of proteins. PMID:23959854

  2. Lysozyme release and polymer erosion behavior of injectable implants prepared from PLGA-PEG block copolymers and PLGA/PLGA-PEG blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesna Milacic, Vesna Milacic; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the controlled release of lysozyme from various poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 50/50-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block copolymers relative to PLGA 50/50. Lysozyme was encapsulated in cylindrical implants (0.8 mm diameter) by a solvent extrusion method. Release studies were conducted in phosphate buffered saline +0.02% Tween 80 (PBST) at 37°C. Lysozyme activity was measured by a fluorescence-based assay. Implant erosion was evaluated by kinetics of polymer molecular weight decline, water uptake, and mass loss. Lysozyme release from an AB15 di-block copolymer (15% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 28 kDa) was very fast, whereas an AB10 di-block copolymer (with 10% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 45 kDa) and ABA10 tri-block copolymer (with 10% 6 kDa PEG, PLGA 27 kDa) showed release profiles similar to PLGA. We achieved continuous lysozyme release for up to 4 weeks from AB10 and ABA10 by lysozyme co-encapsulation with the pore-forming and acid-neutralizing MgCO3, and from AB15 by co-encapsulation of MgCO3 and blending AB15 with PLGA. Lysozyme activity was mostly recovered during 4 weeks. These block co-polymers may have utility either alone or as PLGA blends for the controlled release of proteins.

  3. Analysis on the expression and function of a chicken-type and goose-type lysozymes in Chinese giant salamanders Andrias davidianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Ranran; Cui, Dan; Liu, Haixia; Xiong, Dongmei; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Lixin

    2017-07-01

    Lysozymes as an important immune factor, play vital roles in innate immune response against pathogen infection. In the present study, one c-type and g-type lysozymes were identified from Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). They shared highly conserved structural features with lysozymes from other species. Spatial expression analysis revealed that AdlysC transcript was most abundant in liver and stomach, and least in muscle and brain. In contrast, the expression level of AdlysG was most abundant in liver and least in muscle and skin. The transcription level of c-type and g-type lysozymes were up-regulated after Aeromonas hydrophila infection in liver and spleen, indicating their participations in the immune response. Moreover, the recombinant AdlysC and AdlysG protein were produced and purified, and were used to investigate the lysozyme activity at different pH and temperatures. The optimal lytic activity was determined at pH 6.0 and at a temperature of 30 °C. Through the minimal inhibitory concentration test, the rAdlysC and rAdlysG exhibited apparent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with a variable concentration. In conclusion, it is the first report of lysozymes in A. davidianus, and c-type and g-type lysozymes should be involved in the innate immune response of A. davidianus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in egg whites of transgenic hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainan Cao

    Full Text Available Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications.

  5. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in egg whites of transgenic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications.

  6. Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-, (S)- and (RS)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauber, Mark; Jakoncic, Jean; Berger, Jacob; Karp, Jerome M.; Axelbaum, Ariel; Sastow, Dahniel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Hrnjez, Bruce J.; Asherie, Neer

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol produces more ordered crystals and a higher resolution protein structure than crystallization with (S)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol. The results suggest that chiral interactions with chiral additives are important in protein crystal formation. Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with (R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with (R)-MPD and (RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by (R)-MPD, demonstrating that there is preferential interaction between lysozyme and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization

  7. Structural and Mechanistic Studies of Pesticin, a Bacterial Homolog of Phage Lysozymes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzer, Silke I.; Albrecht, Reinhard; Braun, Volkmar; Zeth, Kornelius

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis produces and secretes a toxin named pesticin that kills related bacteria of the same niche. Uptake of the bacteriocin is required for activity in the periplasm leading to hydrolysis of peptidoglycan. To understand the uptake mechanism and to investigate the function of pesticin, we combined crystal structures of the wild type enzyme, active site mutants, and a chimera protein with in vivo and in vitro activity assays. Wild type pesticin comprises an elongated N-terminal translocation domain, the intermediate receptor binding domain, and a C-terminal activity domain with structural analogy to lysozyme homologs. The full-length protein is toxic to bacteria when taken up to the target site via the outer or the inner membrane. Uptake studies of deletion mutants in the translocation domain demonstrate their critical size for import. To further test the plasticity of pesticin during uptake into bacterial cells, the activity domain was replaced by T4 lysozyme. Surprisingly, this replacement resulted in an active chimera protein that is not inhibited by the immunity protein Pim. Activity of pesticin and the chimera protein was blocked through introduction of disulfide bonds, which suggests unfolding as the prerequisite to gain access to the periplasm. Pesticin, a muramidase, was characterized by active site mutations demonstrating a similar but not identical residue pattern in comparison with T4 lysozyme. PMID:22593569

  8. Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-, (S)- and (RS)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauber, Mark [Yeshiva University, 2495 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10033-3312 (United States); Yeshiva University, 2495 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10033-3312 (United States); Jakoncic, Jean [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Building 725D, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Berger, Jacob; Karp, Jerome M.; Axelbaum, Ariel; Sastow, Dahniel [Yeshiva University, 2495 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10033-3312 (United States); Yeshiva University, 2495 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10033-3312 (United States); Buldyrev, Sergey V. [Yeshiva University, 2495 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10033-3312 (United States); Hrnjez, Bruce J. [Collegiate School, 260 West 78th Street, New York, NY 10024-6559 (United States); Asherie, Neer, E-mail: asherie@yu.edu [Yeshiva University, 2495 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10033-3312 (United States); Yeshiva University, 2495 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10033-3312 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol produces more ordered crystals and a higher resolution protein structure than crystallization with (S)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol. The results suggest that chiral interactions with chiral additives are important in protein crystal formation. Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with (R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with (R)-MPD and (RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by (R)-MPD, demonstrating that there is preferential interaction between lysozyme and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization.

  9. Identification and characterization of a goose-type lysozyme from sewage snail Physa acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yunhai; He, Hongxuan

    2014-08-01

    Freshwater snail Physa acuta has been considered as an important invasive species and medical mollusc. Field investigation has shown that this snail could survive better than other snails in polluted water bodies. To understand the immune mechanisms of P. acuta, suppression subtractive hybridization hepatopancreas cDNA library has been constructed with bacterial challenge. In this study, a full-length cDNA of a novel goose-type lysozyme (PALysG) has been identified from P. acuta by EST and RACE technique. The conservative structure domains share high homology with other molluscan g-type lysozymes including the SLT domain, the substrate binding sites, the catalytic residues, three alpha-helices structures and six molluscan specific cysteines. Meanwhile, PALysG is the first record of goose-type lysozyme in Gastropoda. Real-time PCR indicated that PALysG mRNA had been expressed significantly at high levels in hepatopancreas for 8-48 h. PALysG recombinant protein displayed the lytic activity of g-type lysozyme with other organisms against Micrococcus lysodikicus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavior of lysozyme adsorbed onto biological liquid crystal lipid monolayer at the air/water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiaolong; Hao Changchun; Chen Huan; Zhang Lei; Li Junhua; Xu Guoqing; Sun Runguang; Shi Ruixin

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between proteins and lipids is one of the basic problems of modern biochemistry and biophysics. The purpose of this study is to compare the penetration degree of lysozyme into 1,2-diapalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethano-lamine (DPPE) by analyzing the data of surface pressure–area ( π –A) isotherms and surface pressure–time ( π – T ) curves. Lysozyme can penetrate into both DPPC and DPPE monolayers because of the increase of surface pressure at an initial pressure of 15 mN/m. However, the changes of DPPE are larger than DPPC, indicating stronger interaction of lysozyme with DPPE than DPPC. The reason may be due to the different head groups and phase state of DPPC and DPPE monolayers at the surface pressure of 15 mN/m. Atomic force microscopy reveals that lysozyme was absorbed by DPPC and DPPE monolayers, which leads to self-aggregation and self-assembly, forming irregular multimers and conical multimeric. Through analysis, we think that the process of polymer formation is similar to the aggregation mechanism of amyloid fibers. (special topic)

  11. Molecular mechanism of lysozyme adsorption onto chemically modified alginate guar gum matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassesco, Ma Emilia; Woitovich Valetti, Nadia; Picó, Guillermo

    2017-03-01

    The equilibrium isotherms and adsorption kinetics of lysozyme (LZ) on epichlorohydrin (Epi) cross-linked alginate-guar gum (Alg-GG) matrix were studied. Adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-first-order model while the equilibrium isotherm could be represented by the Freundlich equation. The maximal amount of LZ adsorbed onto this matrix was around 2.4mg per g of hydrated matrix at pH 7.00. The adsorption mechanism was associated to a simple diffusion process with a weak columbic interaction between LZ and the matrix. The presence of NaCl 0.3M induced a total displacement of the LZ from the matrix. Under this condition, the percentage of desorbed protein was 95%. Successive cycles of adsorption-washing-elution were performed and the results showed the reversibility of the process and the usefulness of the method for enzyme purification and separation. A last successful step was carried out for the purification of LZ from egg white as natural source. The model proved to be useful applied as a platform design in the isolation and purification of proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling of DNA-protein recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, R.; Garduno, R.; Colombano, S.; Nir, S.; Haydock, K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer model-building procedures using stereochemical principles together with theoretical energy calculations appear to be, at this stage, the most promising route toward the elucidation of DNA-protein binding schemes and recognition principles. A review of models and bonding principles is conducted and approaches to modeling are considered, taking into account possible di-hydrogen-bonding schemes between a peptide and a base (or a base pair) of a double-stranded nucleic acid in the major groove, aspects of computer graphic modeling, and a search for isogeometric helices. The energetics of recognition complexes is discussed and several models for peptide DNA recognition are presented.

  13. Characterisation by triple-quantum filtered 17O-NMR of water molecules buried in lysozyme and trapped in a lysozyme-inhibitor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baguet, E.; Hennebert, N.

    1999-01-01

    Triple-quantum filtering NMR sequences were used to study the multiexponential relaxation behaviour of H 2 17 O in the presence of hen egg white lysozyme. By this means, the fraction and the correlation time of water were determined in slow motion, as well as the relaxation time of water in the extreme narrowing limit. The small number of water molecules in slow motion, which is between four and five per lysozyme, seems to correspond to the 'integral' water, buried or in the cleft inside the protein, whereas water in fast motion corresponds to all other water molecules, interacting or not with the macromolecules. The same experiment was performed after addition of the inhibitor tri-N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) 3 . For solutions of sufficient viscosity, there were approximately three supplementary water molecules in slow motion per lysozyme, probably trapped between the protein and the inhibitor. The correlation time of these water molecules was estimated at 2 ns, which should correspond to their residence time in the complex. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Fast loop modeling for protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiong; Nguyen, Son; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong; Kosztin, Ioan

    2015-03-01

    X-ray crystallography is the main method for determining 3D protein structures. In many cases, however, flexible loop regions of proteins cannot be resolved by this approach. This leads to incomplete structures in the protein data bank, preventing further computational study and analysis of these proteins. For instance, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of structure-function relationship require complete protein structures. To address this shortcoming, we have developed and implemented an efficient computational method for building missing protein loops. The method is database driven and uses deep learning and multi-dimensional scaling algorithms. We have implemented the method as a simple stand-alone program, which can also be used as a plugin in existing molecular modeling software, e.g., VMD. The quality and stability of the generated structures are assessed and tested via energy scoring functions and by equilibrium MD simulations. The proposed method can also be used in template-based protein structure prediction. Work supported by the National Institutes of Health [R01 GM100701]. Computer time was provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.

  15. Yam tuber mucilage as a candidate substance for saliva substitute: in vitro study of its viscosity and influences on lysozyme and peroxidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Hong-Seop; Park, Moon-Soo; Chang, Ji-Youn; Kim, Yoon-Young

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the viscosity of yam tuber mucilage (YTM) and its effects on lysozyme and peroxidase activities in solution phase and on surface phase. Two kinds of YTM were extracted, one containing both protein and carbohydrate and the other containing mainly carbohydrate. Hen egg-white lysozyme and bovine lactoperoxidase were used as lysozyme and peroxidase sources, respectively. Viscosity was measured with a cone-and-plate digital viscometer. Lysozyme activity was determined using the turbidimetric method, and peroxidase activity was determined using the NbsSCN assay. Hydroxyapatite beads were used as a solid phase. The viscosity values of YTM followed a pattern of a non-Newtonian fluid. The carbohydrate concentration affected the viscosity values at all shear rates, while the protein concentration affected the viscosity values at low shear rates. It could be suggested that YTM composed of 1.0 mg/ml protein and 1.0 mg/ml carbohydrate has viscosity values similar to those of unstimulated whole saliva at shear rates present at routine oral functions. Hydroxyapatite-adsorbed YTM significantly increased the adsorption and subsequent enzymatic activities of lysozyme, but not those of peroxidase. Yam tuber mucilage has viscoelastic properties similar to those of human saliva and enhances the enzymatic activity of lysozyme on hydroxyapatite surfaces. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparative investigations of the effects of X- and UV-irradiation on lysozyme in the absence or presence of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durchschlag, H.; Hefferle, T.; Zipper, P.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The radiation damage (X-ray, UV light) of many proteins and other biomolecules has been investigated by various physicochemical techniques. They revealed numerous changes of the local and global structure of the proteins studied, together with alterations of their functional ability. For the comparison of radiation-induced effects, lysozyme was chosen in a case study, because this enzyme is well characterized, both from the radiobiological and physicochemical point of view. Since the 3D structure and many other details of this protein are known, it may also be used for modeling approaches, including visualization of the individual constituents (amino acid residues, surrounding water molecules). Despite many problems and ambiguities concerning an exact comparison of the impact of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, the resultant radiation effects may be correlated quantitatively. A critical analysis of the radiation damages obtained allows determination of 'isoeffective' doses. The doses, which have been derived from activity measurements (e.g., 1 kGy and 30 kJ/m 2 in the case of lysozyme), may also be applied successfully for comparing the structural changes occurring after preceding irradiation. A comparison of the radiation effects monitored in the absence of additives reveals that the damages observed after X- and UV-irradiation (inactivation, aggregation, fragmentation, destruction of aromatics and SS bonds, formation of crosslinks and new chromophores, partial unfolding etc.) are similar but differ with respect to the type of irradiation and the conditions applied. Addition of many compounds discloses a quite different behavior of the compounds tested as protectives against X- or UV-irradiation. Some substances may provide a chemical repair of already damaged particles, restoring some of the original molecular features

  17. Strategy and its implications of protein bioanalysis utilizing high-resolution mass spectrometric detection of intact protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qian; Ji, Qin C; Arnold, Mark E; Humphreys, W Griffith; Zhu, Mingshe

    2011-12-01

    Currently, mass spectrometry-based protein bioanalysis is primarily achieved through monitoring the representative peptide(s) resulting from analyte protein digestion. However, this approach is often incapable of differentiating the measurement of protein analyte from its post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or potential biotransformation (BTX) products. This disadvantage can be overcome by direct measurement of the intact protein analytes. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) on triple quadrupole mass spectrometers has been used for the direct measurement of intact protein. However, the fragmentation efficiency though the SRM process could be limited in many cases, especially for high molecular weight proteins. In this study, we present a new strategy of intact protein bioanalysis by high-resolution (HR) full scan mass spectrometry using human lysozyme as a model protein. An HR linear ion-trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer was used for detection. A composite of isotopic peaks from one or multiple charge states can be isolated from the background and used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The acquired data were processed by summing extracted ion chromatograms (EIC) of the 10 most intense isotopic ions of octuply protonated lysozyme. Quantitation of the plasma lysozyme was conducted by utilizing high resolving power and an EIC window fitting to the protein molecular weight. An assay with a linear dynamic range from 0.5 to 500 μg/mL was developed with good accuracy and precision. The assay was successfully employed for monitoring the level of endogenous lysozyme and a potential PTM in human plasma. The current instrumentation limitations and potential advantages of this approach for the bioanalysis of large proteins are discussed.

  18. Expression of c-type lysozyme gene in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is highly regulated and time dependent after salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi; Liang, Xue-Wang; Chang, Ya-Qing; Song, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Lysozymes have been confirmed to possess varieties of functions in a range of organisms. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced c-type lysozyme cDNAs, constructed the recombinant protein over-expression of c-type lysozyme and analyzed the expression of transcription level in various tissues. The c-type lysozyme cDNA contained an open reading frame of 759 bp encoding a polypeptide of 252 amino acids. The molecular weight of the deduced amino acid of AjcLYZ is 26.7 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.66. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that AjcLYZ had two highly conserved active sites (Glu147 and Asp159) and eight typical Cys residues. The tertiary structure and modeled AjcLYZ showed structural similarity to Meretrix lusoria LYZ. The results of mRNA transcripts showed that the highest expression was found in the tube foot, followed by the muscle, body wall, and coelomic fluid. In contrast, the intestine, tentacle and respiratory tree exhibited very low expression levels. Under salinity stress, significant down-regulation of AjcLYZ was observed in response to salinity stress in the intestine and coelomic fluid. Significant up-regulation and down-regulation of AjcLYZ were observed in response to salinity stress in body wall and respiratory tree. The purified recombinant protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and a single band with a molecular mass of 45.09 kDa, which was in agreement with the theoretical size (26.7 kDa for AjcLYZ and 18.39 kDa Trx-His-S tags) of the recombinant protein. Radial diffusion assay was employed to determine the antimicrobial spectrum of recombinant AjcLYZ against three Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and three sea cucumber pathogenic Vibrio species. From the radius of the antimicrobial zone, it was found that recombinant AjcLYZ harbored remarkable in vitro inhibitive effect on tested Gram-positive bacteria, while lytic activity against Gram-negative bacteria was relatively weak. The results will provide new clues about the

  19. Interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with lysozyme amyloid fibrils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdovinová, Veronika; Tomašovičová, Natália; Batko, Ivan; Batková, Marianna; Balejčíková, Lucia; Garamus, Vasyl M.; Petrenko, Viktor I.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Kopčanský, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the structural study of complex solutions of magnetic nanoparticles with lysozyme amyloid fibrils due to possible ordering of such system by applying the external magnetic field. The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with amyloid fibrils has been followed by atomic force microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. It has been observed that magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) adsorb to lysozyme amyloid fibrils. It was found that MNPs alter amyloids structures, namely the diameter of lysozyme amyloid fibrils is increased whereas the length of fibrils is decreased. In the same time MNPs do not change the helical pitch significantly. - Highlights: • Solution of MNPs with lysozyme amyloid fibrils was characterized by AFM and SAXS. • MNPs adsorb to lysozyme amyloid fibrils. • Diameter and size of lysozyme amyloid fibrils change due to doping with MNPs.

  20. Recognition of lysozyme using surface imprinted bacterial cellulose nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylan, Yeşeren; Tamahkar, Emel; Denizli, Adil

    2017-11-01

    Here, we developed the lysozyme imprinted bacterial cellulose (Lyz-MIP/BC) nanofibers via the surface imprinting strategy that was designed to recognize lysozyme. This study includes the molecular imprinting method onto the surface of bacterial cellulose nanofibers in the presence of lysozyme by metal ion coordination, as well as further characterizations methods FTIR, SEM and contact angle measurements. The maximum lysozyme adsorption capacity of Lyz-MIP/BC nanofibers was found to be 71 mg/g. The Lyz-MIP/BC nanofibers showed high selectivity for lysozyme towards bovine serum albumin and cytochrome c. Overall, the Lyz-MIP/BC nanofibers hold great potential for lysozyme recognition due to the high binding capacity, significant selectivity and excellent reusability.

  1. Interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with lysozyme amyloid fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdovinová, Veronika [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Tomašovičová, Natália, E-mail: nhudak@saske.sk [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Batko, Ivan; Batková, Marianna; Balejčíková, Lucia [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Garamus, Vasyl M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht: Zentrum fr Material, und Kstenforschung GmbH, Max-Plank-Strae 1, Geesthacht 216502 (Germany); Petrenko, Viktor I. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kopčanský, Peter [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2017-06-01

    This work is devoted to the structural study of complex solutions of magnetic nanoparticles with lysozyme amyloid fibrils due to possible ordering of such system by applying the external magnetic field. The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with amyloid fibrils has been followed by atomic force microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. It has been observed that magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) adsorb to lysozyme amyloid fibrils. It was found that MNPs alter amyloids structures, namely the diameter of lysozyme amyloid fibrils is increased whereas the length of fibrils is decreased. In the same time MNPs do not change the helical pitch significantly. - Highlights: • Solution of MNPs with lysozyme amyloid fibrils was characterized by AFM and SAXS. • MNPs adsorb to lysozyme amyloid fibrils. • Diameter and size of lysozyme amyloid fibrils change due to doping with MNPs.

  2. [Partially unfolded state of lysozyme with a developed secondary structure in dimethylsulfoxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, A A; Kirkitadze, M D; Prokhorov, D A; Potekhin, S A; Serdiuk, I N

    1996-06-01

    The conformation of a chicken egg lysozyme molecule (dimensions, stoichiometry of its associates, and the degree of helicity) in DMSO was studied by small-angle neutron scattering, dynamic light scattering, and optical rotatory dispersion in the visible region of the spectrum. At high DMSO concentrations (70%), the protein was shown to exist as a dimer. The monomer molecules in the dimer adopt a partially unfolded conformation, with dimensions substantially greater than those in the native state and a high content of secondary structure (the degree of helicity is close to that of native lysozyme). This approach provides a unique possibility to assess the compactness of molecules in associates, which may be very useful in studying protein self-organization.

  3. The Protein Model Portal--a comprehensive resource for protein structure and model information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Juergen; Roth, Steven; Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Schmidt, Tobias; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The Protein Model Portal (PMP) has been developed to foster effective use of 3D molecular models in biomedical research by providing convenient and comprehensive access to structural information for proteins. Both experimental structures and theoretical models for a given protein can be searched simultaneously and analyzed for structural variability. By providing a comprehensive view on structural information, PMP offers the opportunity to apply consistent assessment and validation criteria to the complete set of structural models available for proteins. PMP is an open project so that new methods developed by the community can contribute to PMP, for example, new modeling servers for creating homology models and model quality estimation servers for model validation. The accuracy of participating modeling servers is continuously evaluated by the Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) project. The PMP offers a unique interface to visualize structural coverage of a protein combining both theoretical models and experimental structures, allowing straightforward assessment of the model quality and hence their utility. The portal is updated regularly and actively developed to include latest methods in the field of computational structural biology. Database URL: http://www.proteinmodelportal.org.

  4. The Protein Model Portal—a comprehensive resource for protein structure and model information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Juergen; Roth, Steven; Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Schmidt, Tobias; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The Protein Model Portal (PMP) has been developed to foster effective use of 3D molecular models in biomedical research by providing convenient and comprehensive access to structural information for proteins. Both experimental structures and theoretical models for a given protein can be searched simultaneously and analyzed for structural variability. By providing a comprehensive view on structural information, PMP offers the opportunity to apply consistent assessment and validation criteria to the complete set of structural models available for proteins. PMP is an open project so that new methods developed by the community can contribute to PMP, for example, new modeling servers for creating homology models and model quality estimation servers for model validation. The accuracy of participating modeling servers is continuously evaluated by the Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) project. The PMP offers a unique interface to visualize structural coverage of a protein combining both theoretical models and experimental structures, allowing straightforward assessment of the model quality and hence their utility. The portal is updated regularly and actively developed to include latest methods in the field of computational structural biology. Database URL: http://www.proteinmodelportal.org PMID:23624946

  5. Preferential binding of lysozyme to elastic fibres in pulmonary emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Shteyngart, B.; Chaiwiriyakul, S.; Wong, J.; Cantor, J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Lysozyme is increased in inflammatory reactions and is a component of the extracellular matrix, but its possible role in lung diseases such as emphysema and interstitial fibrosis has not been investigated.
METHODS—To characterise differences in lysozyme content among normal, emphysematous, and fibrotic human lungs, tissue sections obtained from necropsy specimens were immunostained with rabbit p