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Sample records for model protein hen

  1. Effect of temperature on the interaction of cisplatin with the model protein hen egg white lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Giarita; Pica, Andrea; Russo Krauss, Irene; Pane, Francesca; Amoresano, Angela; Merlino, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    The products of the reaction between cisplatin (CDDP) and the model protein hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) at 20, 37 and 55 °C in pure water were studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. X-ray structures were also solved for the adducts formed at 20 and 55 °C. Data demonstrate that high temperature facilitates the formation of CDDP-HEWL adducts, where Pt atoms bind ND1 atom of His15 or NE2 atom of His15 and NH1 atom of Arg14. Our study suggests that high human body temperature (fever) could increase the rate of drug binding to proteins thus enhancing possible toxic side effects related to CDDP administration.

  2. Modelo para determinar as exigências de proteína para poedeiras Modelling protein utilization in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilva Kazue Sakomura

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi elaborar um modelo para estimar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB para poedeiras leves, usando o método fatorial. Para determinar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB para manutenção foi utilizada a técnica do balanço de nitrogênio. A exigência de proteína bruta para o ganho de peso foi determinada em função do conteúdo de nitrogênio na carcaça e a eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio da dieta. A exigência de PB, para produção de ovos, foi determinada considerando o teor de PB determinado nos ovos e a eficiência de deposição do nitrogênio no ovo. A partir dos valores das exigências para manutenção, para o ganho e produção foi elaborada uma equação para predizer as exigências diárias de PB (g/ ave/ dia para poedeiras: PB = 1,94. P0,75 + 0,48.G + 0,301.O, em que P = peso corporal (kg, G = ganho de peso diário (g/dia e O = massa de ovos produzida (g/ave/dia.The objective of this study was to determine a model for crude protein requirements (CP for laying hen by the factorial method. The protein maintenance requirement was determine by the nitrogen balance technique . The crude protein requirement for weight gain was determined based on body nitrogen content and nitrogen efficiency for body deposition. The crude protein requirement for egg production was determined based on the nitrogen content of eggs and nitrogen efficiency for egg deposition. Considering the requirements for maintenance, egg production and weight gain, it was elaborated a protein requirement model for laying hen: PB = 1.94xW.75 + 0.480xG + 0,301x E, where PB = requirement (g/bird/day, W = body weight (kg, G = daily weight gain (g/day and E = egg mass (g/bird/day.

  3. Modelling energy utilisation in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, C B V; Sakomura, N K; Longo, F A; Couto, H P; Pacheco, C R; Fernandes, J B K

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine a metabolisable energy (ME) requirement model for broiler breeder hens. The influence of temperature on ME requirements for maintenance was determined in experiments conducted in three environmental rooms with temperatures kept constant at 13, 21 and 30 degrees C using a comparative slaughter technique. The energy requirements for weight gain were determined based upon body energy content and efficiency of energy utilisation for weight gain. The energy requirements for egg production were determined on the basis of egg energy content and efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. 2. The following model was developed using these results: ME = kgW0.75(806.53-26.45T + 0.50T2) + 31.90G + 10.04EM, where kgW0.75 is body weight (kg) raised to the power 0.75, T is temperature ( degrees C), G is weight gain (g) and EM is egg mass (g). 3. A feeding trial was conducted using 400 Hubbard Hi-Yield broiler breeder hens and 40 Peterson males from 31 to 46 weeks of age in order to compare use of the model with a recommended feeding programme for this strain of bird. The application of the model in breeder hens provided good productive and reproductive performance and better results in feed and energy conversion than in hens fed according to strain recommendation. In conclusion, the model evaluated predicted an ME intake which matched breeder hens' requirements.

  4. Differential abundance of egg white proteins in laying hens treated with corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimin; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2014-12-24

    Stressful environments can affect not only egg production and quality but also gene and protein abundance in the ovary and oviduct in laying hens. The oviductal magnum of laying hens is the organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of egg white proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone as a stress model on the abundance of proteins in the egg white and of mRNA and proteins in the magnum in laying hens. After a 14-day acclimation, 40 laying hens were divided into two groups which were provided for the next 14 days with either control (Control) or corticosterone (Stress) diet containing at 30 mg/kg. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased feed intake (P ≤ 0.05) and decreased egg production. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS using eggs obtained on days 0 and 5 revealed differential abundance of egg white proteins by Stress: transiently expressed in neural precursors (TENP), hemopexin (HPX), IgY-Fcυ3-4, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP) were decreased while ovoinhibitor and ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX) were increased on days 5 vs 0 (P ≤ 0.05). Expression of mRNAs and proteins was also significantly modulated in the magnum of hens in Stress on day 14 (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence showing that dietary corticosterone modulates protein abundance in the egg white in laying hens, and it suggests that environmental stress can differentially modify expression of egg white proteins in laying hens.

  5. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two basal feeds (118 and 175 g protein/kg) with similar balanced amino acid mixtures were appropriately blended to produce six experimental diets differing in protein. These were fed for six weeks to 180 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) housed in individual cages from 26 w of age. A 13 h photoperiod was applied. Half the ...

  6. Role of the osmolyte taurine on the folding of a model protein, hen egg white lysozyme, under a crowding condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshito; Ohkuri, Takatoshi; Yoshitomi, Sachiko; Murakami, Shigeru; Ueda, Tadashi

    2015-05-01

    Taurine is one of the osmolytes that maintain the structure of proteins in cells exposed to denaturing environmental stressors. Recently, cryoelectron tomographic analysis of eukaryotic cells has revealed that their cytoplasms are crowded with proteins. Such crowding conditions would be expected to hinder the efficient folding of nascent polypeptide chains. Therefore, we examined the role of taurine on the folding of denatured and reduced lysozyme, as a model protein, under a crowding condition. The results confirmed that taurine had a better effect on protein folding than did β-alanine, which has a similar chemical structure, when the protein to be folded was present at submillimolar concentration. NMR analyses further revealed that under the crowding condition, taurine had more interactions than did β-alanine with the lysozyme molecule in both the folded and denatured states. We concluded that taurine improves the folding of the reduced lysozyme at submillimolar concentration to allow it to interact more favorably with the lysozyme molecule. Thus, the role of taurine, as an osmolyte in vivo, may be to assist in the efficient folding of proteins.

  7. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins

  8. Biophysical insights into the interaction of hen egg white lysozyme with therapeutic dye clofazimine: modulation of activity and SDS induced aggregation of model protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Zaidi, Nida; Alam, Parvez; Zaman, Masihuz; Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Nusrat, Saima; Jamal, Mohammad Sarwar; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2017-08-01

    The present study details the binding process of clofazimine to hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) using spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and molecular docking techniques. Clofazimine binds to the protein with binding constant (K b ) in the order of 1.57 × 10 4 at 298 K. Binding process is spontaneous and exothermic. Molecular docking results suggested the involvement of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions in the binding process. Bacterial cell lytic activity in the presence of clofazimine increased to more than 40% of the value obtained with HEWL only. Interaction of the drug with HEWL induced ordered secondary structure in the protein and molecular compaction. Clofazimine also effectively inhibited the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induced amyloid formation in HEWL and caused disaggregation of preformed fibrils, reinforcing the notion that there is involvement of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding in the binding process of clofazimine with HEWL and clofazimine destabilizes the mature fibrils. Further, TEM images confirmed that fibrillar species were absent in the samples where amyloid induction was performed in the presence of clofazimine. As clofazimine is a drug less explored for the inhibition of fibril formation of the proteins, this study reports the inhibition of SDS-induced amyloid formation of HEWL by clofazimine, which will help in the development of clofazimine-related molecules for the treatment of amyloidosis.

  9. Hydrophobic interaction adsorption of hen egg white proteins albumin, conalbumin, and lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Edwin E Garcia; dos Reis Coimbra, Jane S; Minim, Luis A; Saraiva, Sérgio H; da Silva, César A Sodré

    2006-08-18

    Hydrophobic adsorption equilibrium data of the hen egg white proteins albumin, conalbumin, and lysozyme were obtained in batch systems, at 25 degrees C, using the Streamline Phenyl resin as adsorbent. The influence of three types of salt, NaCl, Na(2)SO(4), or (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and their concentration on the equilibrium data were evaluated. The salt Na(2)SO(4) showed the higher interaction with the studied proteins, thus favoring the adsorption of proteins by the adsorbent, even though each type of salt interacted in a distinct manner with each protein. The isotherm models of Langmuir, Langmuir exponential, and Chen and Sun were well fitted to the equilibrium data, with no significant difference being observed at the 5% level of significance. The mass transfer model applied simulated correctly adsorption kinetics of the proteins under the studied conditions.

  10. Molecular phylogenetics and comparative modeling of HEN1, a methyltransferase involved in plant microRNA biogenesis

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    Obarska Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, HEN1 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was discovered as an essential enzyme in plant microRNA (miRNA biogenesis. HEN1 transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 2'-OH or 3'-OH group of the last nucleotide of miRNA/miRNA* duplexes produced by the nuclease Dicer. Previously it was found that HEN1 possesses a Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM domain and a long N-terminal extension including a putative double-stranded RNA-binding motif (DSRM. However, little is known about the details of the structure and the mechanism of action of this enzyme, and about its phylogenetic origin. Results Extensive database searches were carried out to identify orthologs and close paralogs of HEN1. Based on the multiple sequence alignment a phylogenetic tree of the HEN1 family was constructed. The fold-recognition approach was used to identify related methyltransferases with experimentally solved structures and to guide the homology modeling of the HEN1 catalytic domain. Additionally, we identified a La-like predicted RNA binding domain located C-terminally to the DSRM domain and a domain with a peptide prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase fold, but without the conserved PPIase active site, located N-terminally to the catalytic domain. Conclusion The bioinformatics analysis revealed that the catalytic domain of HEN1 is not closely related to any known RNA:2'-OH methyltransferases (e.g. to the RrmJ/fibrillarin superfamily, but rather to small-molecule methyltransferases. The structural model was used as a platform to identify the putative active site and substrate-binding residues of HEN and to propose its mechanism of action.

  11. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on behavior in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal versus vegetable protein sources in the diet on the development of behavior in laying hens. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with four diets, each containing one of four processed animal proteins

  12. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Veldkamp, T; Binnendijk, G P; de Veer, R

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and the remaining 2 (Daka-40 and Sonac-50) were classified as meat and bone meals. First, fecal digestibility of nutrients in the PAP was determined in Lohmann Brown layers. Hens (n = 132) were housed in 22 cages (6 hens/cage) and allotted to 5 dietary treatments. In the PAP diets (4 replicates/treatment), 100 g/kg of CP of animal origin was added, replacing soybean meal and corn (Zea mays) in the basal diet (6 replicates/treatment). The PAP sources differed largely in chemical composition and digestibility coefficients. Energy content (AME(n)) varied from 1,817 (Daka-40) to 3,107 kcal/kg (Sonac-60), and digestible lysine varied from 15.4 (Daka-40) to 28.3 g/kg (Sonac-50). Subsequently, the effect of a control diet (without PAP) vs. 4 PAP diets (50 g/kg of CP of animal origin from the same batches as used in the digestibility study) on performance was determined. All diets were isocaloric (AME(n) = 2,825 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (digestible lysine = 6.8 g/kg). Hens were housed in 40 floor pens (12 hens/pen, 8 pens/treatment) from 20 to 40 wk of age. Feed intake levels of the hens fed the meat and bone meal diets were reduced compared with those of hens fed the meat meal diets, whereas the feed intake level of hens fed the control diet was intermediate. Laying hen performance differed between treatments, being was most favorable for the Sonac-50 treatment and most adverse for the Daka-40 treatment. Differences in laying hen performance seemed to be related partly to differences in feed intake and corresponding amino acid intake.

  13. Effect of Guar Meal as a Source of protein on Laying Hens performance

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    P Soleymani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate guar meal (GM as a source of protein on laying hen’s performance and egg quality. Two hundred and twenty eight laying hens (58 weeks of age were fed diets containing 0, 3, 6 and 9% guar meal with/without β-mannanase (Hemicell® for 12 weeks. A complete block randomized design with 4×2 factorial arrangement were used to have eight diets of each fed to four replicate hens of nine each. Hen-day egg production was significantly decreased when hens were fed diets that contained 6 and 9% GM in first week and only 9% GM at second week of experiment as compared with 0 and 3% GM fed birds. Whereas, hen-day egg production was not influenced when hens fed up to 9% GM after third week. Egg mass was significantly lower when hens fed 9% GM during the experimental periods compared to control and 3% GM fed birds. Feeding of GM did not affect specific gravity, percentage wet albumen and wet yolk based on percentage of whole egg weight and shell weight and thickness. Performance, egg quality and blood parameters were not affected by Supplementation of β-mannanase during the experimental periods. Feeding of GM at the level of 6 and 9% decreased serum cholesterol and triglyceride but did not affect total SRBC, IgG and IgM. The results of this study showed that 6% GM may be added to the diet of laying hens with no adverse effects on performance.

  14. Estimates of methionine and sulfur amino acid requirements for laying hens using different models

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    AA Saki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary methionine (Met content on the performance of white commercial laying hens and to determine Met and total sulfur amino acids requirements (TSAA. These requirements were estimated using three statistical models (broken-line regression, exponential and second order equations to evaluate their abilit to determine amino acid requirements. A total of 216 laying hens (23 wks of age was used in a completely randomized design (CRD with six treatments with four replicates of nine birds each. The basal diet contained 15.25% crude protein, 2830.16 kcal/kg ME and 0.24% Met. Synthetic DL-Met was added to the deficient (basal diet in 0.05% increments to make the other five experimental diets (0.29, 0.34, 0.39, 0.44 and 0.49% Met. Increasing Met level from 0.24 to 0.34% significantly increased egg production, egg weight, egg mass, egg content, and feed intake and decreased feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. However, further Met increases, from 0.34 to 0.49%, no longer influenced these parameters. Out of the three models, the broken-line regression model presented better estimates of AA requirements. Based on broken-line equations, average Met and TSAA requirements of the laying hens were 0.31 and 0.60% (245.50 and 469.25 mg/hen/day from 22 to 36 wks of age, respectively.

  15. The Effect of Dietary Protein Levels in Growing Period on Performance at Onset of Lay of Crossbred Hens between Cockerel Native Chickens and Commercial Laying Hens

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    Harimurti Februari Trisiwi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effects of various dietary protein levels during growing period crossbreed hens between cockerel native chickens and laying hens on performance at onset of lay. The effects of the dietary protein levels on weight and other components of eggs were also examined. Eighteen hens aged thirteen weeks were randomly divided into three different treatment groups. Each group consists of six replications. The replication contains a hen. All the treatment hens were grown in a battery-cage until reaching sexual maturity then were fed with three different dietary protein levels which are 13,54%, 12,00%, and 9,80% formulated with 2600 kcal/kg ME. The collected data were analyzed by a one-way classification of variance analysis (CRD followed by testing the significant means using The Duncan,s MultipleRange Test (DMRT. The experiment result suggested that the treatment during hen’s growing period did not cause significance on performance at onset lay, egg weight, and egg components weight.

  16. Preference of laying hens for different protein sources in a cafeteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laying hens (29-wk old) had access to a basal diet and one of full-fat soybeans, fish meal or blood meal during a 6-week trial to investigate their preference for different protein sources. There was no effect of the dietary treatment on egg production, egg weight or mortality mte (P>0.05). However, weight loss was different ...

  17. ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein source for laying hens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dehulled faba beans were evaluated as an alternative to soybeans as a protein source for laying hens using 240 individually caged birds, 50 weeks of age. Two basal feeds were formulated to the same nutrient specifications but with one containing no faba beans and the other containing 200 g dehulled faba bean meal/kg.

  18. GLUCOSE, TOTAL PROTEINS, URIC ACID AND TRIGL YCERIDES CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD OF ATIVE LAYING HENS

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    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken, to estimate levels of glucose, total proteins, albumins, uric acid and triglycerides in plasma of Desi and Naked Neck laying hens. The experimental birds received ration containing 16 per cent crude protein and were housed in open sheds. The mean values (mg/dL observed in Desi hens were 226.736+15.20 glucose, 1.624+0.224 albumin, 5.203+1.078 total proteins, 4.633+1.875 uric acid and 529.800+554.74 triglycerides. In Naked neck hens, the mean values were found to be 231.818+31.376 glucose, 1.562+0.287 albumins, 4.533+0.797total proteins, 4.157+1.336 uric acid and 791.200+320.474 triglycerides. There was no difference (P<0.05 in mean values of blood parameters between both the native laying hens which suggested that in identical genetical mechanism regulated concentrations of blood chemical constituents under study.

  19. A natural and readily available crowding agent: NMR studies of proteins in hen egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Gabriel; Adrover, Miquel; Kelly, Geoff; Temussi, Piero Andrea; Pastore, Annalisa

    2011-05-01

    In vitro studies of biological macromolecules are usually performed in dilute, buffered solutions containing one or just a few different biological macromolecules. Under these conditions, the interactions among molecules are diffusion limited. On the contrary, in living systems, macromolecules of a given type are surrounded by many others, at very high total concentrations. In the last few years, there has been an increasing effort to study biological macromolecules directly in natural crowded environments, as in intact bacterial cells or by mimicking natural crowding by adding proteins, polysaccharides, or even synthetic polymers. Here, we propose the use of hen egg white (HEW) as a simple natural medium, with all features of the media of crowded cells, that could be used by any researcher without difficulty and inexpensively. We present a study of the stability and dynamics behavior of model proteins in HEW, chosen as a prototypical, readily accessible natural medium that can mimic cytosol. We show that two typical globular proteins, dissolved in HEW, give NMR spectra very similar to those obtained in dilute buffers, although dynamic parameters are clearly affected by the crowded medium. The thermal stability of one of these proteins, measured in a range comprising both heat and cold denaturation, is also similar to that in buffer. Our data open new possibilities to the study of proteins in natural crowded media. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... (1988) analysed the relative changes in rate of lay and egg weight and showed that rate of lay is influenced to a greater extent by a decrease in protein intake than is egg weight. This has important implications for broiler breeders where the marginal revenue for breeder eggs is considerably higher than is ...

  1. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia Nalesso Costa

    2009-01-01

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of 60 Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such

  2. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

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    Xiaocui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50. The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%, had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05 and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05. Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.

  3. Effect of dietary threonine on laying performance and intestinal immunity of laying hens fed low-crude-protein diets during the peak production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Zou, X T

    2017-10-01

    Threonine (Thr) may be a limiting amino acid for laying hens fed diets with lowered protein level. An experiment was conducted to examine laying performance, and the intestinal immune function of laying hens provided diets varying in digestible Thr levels. Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 480), 28 weeks of age, were allocated to six dietary treatments, each of which included five replicates of 16 hens. Dietary crude protein (CP) 16.18% diet was offered as the positive control diet. L-Thr was added to the negative diet (14.16% CP) by 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 g/kg, corresponding 0.44%, 0.43%, 0.49%, 0.57%, 0.66% and 0.74% digestible Thr. At 40 weeks, a reduction in CP level decreased laying performance (p hens fed 0.66% Thr showed the lowest value (p feed conversion ratio (FCR). Serum level of uric acid showed the lowest values (p hens fed the low-CP diet compared with hens fed CP (16.18%) and hens fed 0.57-0.66%. Expressions of ileal MUC2 mRNA maximized (p hens during the peak production period. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Effect of using insect larvae meal as a complete protein source on quality and productivity characteristics of laying hens

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    Mohammed Farooq Abdulhameed Al-Qazzaz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL as a source of protein in layer diets on product performance, egg quality, hatchability, fertility, and sensory characteristics of eggs. The BSFL contained a high percentage of protein (559.9 g kg−1, metabolizable energy (696.3 kcal kg−1, crude fat (18.6 g kg−1, and dry matter (178 g kg−1 and a good balance of amino acids. A total of 54 Arabic strain hens at nine months of age were mixed with nine cocks at 12 months old; all were divided into three treatments. The diets were formulated based on three levels of energy-to-protein ratio: 155, 140, and 170. The BSFL meal was added at 0, 50, and 10 g kg−1 respectively. The results showed that feed intake, weight gain, Haugh unit, and hatchability were not affected by dietary treatments with BSFL. However, there was significant improvement in hen day egg production and hen house egg production due to dietary treatments of BSFL. Also, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, shell thickness, shell weight, egg yolk color, fertility, and egg mass were affected by dietary treatments. In addition, a significant improvement was observed in appearance, texture, taste, and acceptance of eggs of hens fed BSFL at 50 g kg−1. The odor was not affected by dietary treatments. Black soldier fly larvae can be a good source of protein in layer diets.

  5. Comparison of the characteristics in hen and quail corneas as experimental models of refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, G C; Pérez-Merino, P; Martínez-García, M C; Barcía, A; Merayo-Loves, J

    2016-07-01

    To compare the histological, morphological and the biophysical measurements between hen and quail corneas, in order to determine which of them were better suited for use as an animal model for research into corneal refractive surgery. A study was performed using the biophysical measurements of the cornea (curvature, thickness, refraction, and axial length) of 20 animals (10 hens and 10 quails). The corneas were then prepared for histological analysis under microscopy light. The analysis showed that both groups have the same number of corneal layers as the human cornea and with an evident Bowman's layer. The thickness of the hen cornea and axial length of the eye, 225.3±18.4μm and 12.8±0.25mm, respectively, were larger than that of the quail (Phen central cornea, 3.65±0.08mm, was greater than that for the quail (Ppower of each cornea was similar. The proportion of total corneal thickness of the hen stroma, 82.6%, was more similar to that of the human than was the quail stroma, 72.5%. Within the hen stroma, the density of keratocytes, 8.57±1.49 per 5,000μm(2), was about half that in the quail stroma (Phen cornea, the stromal thickness and proportional similarity of the corneal layers with human cornea, the hen maybe better than the quail as an alternative species suitable for use in studies of corneal refractive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulse radiolysis studies of intramolecular electron transfer in model peptides and proteins. 7. Trp -> TyrO radical transformation in hen egg-white lysozyme. Effects of pH, temperature, Trp62 oxidation and inhibitor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobrowski, K.; Holcman, J.; Poznanski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Intramolecular long-range electron transfer (LRET) in hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) accompanying Trp --> TyrO radical transformation was investigated in aqueous solution by pulse radiolysis as a function of pH (5.2-7.4) and temperature (283-328K). The reaction was induced by highly selective...

  7. Recombinant proteins from Gallibacterium anatis induces partial protection against heterologous challenge in egg-laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Skjerning, Ragnhild Bager; Flachs, Esben M.

    2016-01-01

    Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium and major cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying hens, thereby contributing to decreased egg production and increased mortality among the hens. Due to widespread drug resistance and antigenic diversity, novel prophylactic measures...

  8. Crystallization and evaluation of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals for protein pH titration in the crystalline state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Wakari; Yagi, Daichi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Ohnishi, Yuki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    Hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5–8.0) and the quality of the crystals was characterized. Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined To observe the ionized status of the amino acid residues in proteins at different pH (protein pH titration in the crystalline state) by neutron diffraction, hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5–8.0). Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined. At pH < 4.5 the border between the metastable region and the nucleation region shifted to the left (lower precipitant concentration) in the phase diagram, and at pH > 4.5 the border shifted to the right (higher precipitant concentration). The qualities of these crystals were characterized using the Wilson plot method. The qualities of all crystals at different pH were more or less equivalent (B-factor values within 25–40). It is expected that neutron diffraction analysis of these crystals of different pH provides equivalent data in quality for discussions of protein pH titration in the crystalline state of hen egg-white lysozyme

  9. Sustainable production of broiler chicken and laying hen: bibliographical review and proposal of a model for small producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Soler F.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The peasant production of broiler chicken and laying hens in the world is wide, being the developing countries which most productions of this type arise. 'ese backyard holdings play an important role as they ensure the consumption of protein products and a subsistence economy to poor families. Due to the low number of technical and scientific studies on these extensive systems in the department of Boyacá, this work aimed to establish by general literature review the world, national and regional state of the art in the production of broiler chicken and alternatively laying hen, and as specific objectives, to produce an analysis of the diferent managements and plans and propose a production model that suits the needs of small producers. the results of the world’s state of the art showed that all countries have a variety of peasant farms, but there is a clear path to commercialization of these poultry farming products, renowned for their safety and quality of nutrients. In some municipalities in Boyacá, these farmers have favorable production systems and yields earnings due to the reduced production costs by the introduction of crop products and recyclable materials, and also have no significant environmental impacts, however, health management is poor and animal feeding starts to rely on concentrated foods.

  10. Dynamics of the amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Over a period of 4 days 12 colostomized laying hens daily received 36 g 15 N-labelled wheat with 15 N excess ( 15 N') of 14.37 atom-% together with a conventional feed mixture for laying hens. The labelling of the lysine N in the wheat was 13.58 atom-%, that of histidine N 14.38 and that of arginine 15 N' 13.63 atom-% 15 N'. Three hens each were butchered 12, 36, 60 and 108 h after the last 15 N' feeding. The first three hens did not receive any feed before being butchered. The following three hens each received the unlabelled feed ration for another 1, 2 or 4 days, resp., after the main period until they were butchered. The total of skeleton muscles, heart and stomach muscle (without inner skin) of each hen were combined into one sample, cut thinly, drenched with fluid nitrogen and pulverized. N, 15 N' and the basic and non-basic amino acids as well as their 15 N' were determined in the individual samples. In contrast to the organs, the proteins in the muscle tissue have a long half-life so that a slight decrease of atom-% 15 N' in the muscles could only be detected after 108 h. The 14 N and 15 N' quota of the non-basic amino acids in the total nitrogen of the muscles is 50 %. The 14 N quota of the basic amino acids is 30% and the 15 N' quota only 22.5% in the total muscle N. The heavy nitrogen of the free lysine in the TCA soluble N fraction is hardly detectable 36 h and 60 h after the last 15 N' supply and not at all after 108 h. In contrast to this, the other two free basic amino acids remain significantly higher labelled in dependence on the last butchering time. (author)

  11. Dietary fibers and crude protein content alleviate hepatic fat deposition and obesity in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Shivazad, M; Zaghari, M; Aminzadeh, S; Rezaian, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    The effects of inclusion of cellulose or inulin as a source of dietary fiber and CP content of the diet on hepatic fat deposition were investigated in hens fed restricted or close to ad libitum consumption. There were 12 dietary treatments forming a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens [restricted and liberal (close to ad libitum consumption; LIB)], 3 fiber sources (control, 3% inulin, and 3% cellulose), and 2 levels of CP (14.5 and 17.4%). Hens were assigned in groups of 6 to 60 floor pens. From 43 to 55 wk of age, hens fed LIB showed increased activity of the hepatic malic enzyme (MalE; P liver weight and hepatic lipid deposition and was associated with enhancements (P liver and abdominal fat weight, whereas cellulose inclusion decreased (P liver weight (P liver, as well as plasma triglyceride concentration and abdominal fat pad weight (P fiber inclusion reduced abdominal fat and liver weight, with effects being more pronounced with cellulose than with inulin. An increase in dietary CP reduced MalE activity and alleviated hepatic and plasma lipid concentration; therefore, it might be a practical approach to reduce the incidence of obesity-linked problems in broiler breeder hens. The combination of high-CP diets and the inclusion of a fiber source did not suppress liver lipid content over that observed with the high-CP diet, exclusively.

  12. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P≤0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P≤0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P≤0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P≤0.01. Significant (P≤0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  13. Effects of previous protein intake on rectal temperature, blood glucose, plasma thyroid hormone and minerals by laying hens during a forced molt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.A.; Moraes, V.M.B.; Cherici, I; Furlan, R.L.; Macari, M.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of forced molting on blood glucose, rectal temperature, plasma T4, T3 and minerals were studied in hens previously fed rations with different protein contents (14, 17 and 20% crude protein). Blood samples were obtained from brachial veins for blood glucose, T4 and T3 were measured by radioimmunoassay, and plasma minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood glucose and rectal temperature were reduced during fasting regardless of previous protein intake. Pre molting T4 plasma level was higher in laying hens fed higher protein ration, but feed deprivation reduced T 4 and T 3 concentrations irrespective of protein intake, except T 4 level for 14% crude protein fed birds that increased during fasting. The data obtained in this experiment suggest that previous protein intake does not interfere with the metabolic changes during forced molt. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  14. Sequential feeding using whole wheat and a separate protein-mineral concentrate improved feed efficiency in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Faruk, M; Bouvarel, I; Même, N; Rideau, N; Roffidal, L; Tukur, H M; Bastianelli, D; Nys, Y; Lescoat, P

    2010-04-01

    The effect of feeding nutritionally different diets in sequential or loose-mix systems on the performance of laying hen was investigated from 16 to 46 wk of age. Equal proportions of whole wheat grain and protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) were fed either alternatively (sequential) or together (loose-mix) to ISA Brown hens. The control was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained 5 birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per d) and distributed twice (4 and 11 h after lights-on). In the sequential treatment, only wheat was fed at first distribution, followed by balancer diet at the second distribution. In loose-mix, the 2 rations were mixed and fed together during the 2 distributions. Leftover feed was always removed before the next distribution. Sequential feeding reduced total feed intake when compared with loose-mix and control. It had lower wheat (-9 g/bird per d) but higher balancer (+1.7 g/bird per d) intakes than loose-mix. Egg production, egg mass, and egg weight were similar among treatments. This led to an improvement in efficiency of feed utilization in sequential compared with loose-mix and control (10 and 5%, respectively). Birds fed sequentially had lower calculated ME (kcal/bird per d) intake than those fed in loose-mix and control. Calculated CP (g/bird per d) intake was reduced in sequential compared with loose-mix and control. Sequentially fed hens were lighter in BW. However, they had heavier gizzard, pancreas, and liver. Similar liver lipid was observed among treatments. Liver glycogen was higher in loose-mix than the 2 other treatments. It was concluded that feeding whole wheat and balancer diet, sequentially or loosely mixed, had no negative effect on performance in laying hens. Thus, the 2 systems are alternative to conventional feeding. The increased efficiency of feed utilization in sequential feeding is an added

  15. Chemical structure, comparison antioxidant capacity and separation antioxidant of hen, duck and quail egg white protein hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah, A.; Meihu, M.; Ning, Q.; Setiani, B. E.; Bintoro, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acid linkages as proteins are nutritional substance which important for diet intake. Purification protein procesing undergo heating procedure process followed by additional of proteolytic enzymes or acid had been resulting in protein hydrolysates. A protein hydrolysate describe as many free amino acids bound together through a complex mixture of peptides. Egg white protein hydrolysates is one of subject interested to study for human health or industry product. The objectives of the research are to determine and identification the antioxidant derived from egg white hydrolysate protein. Identification of chemical structure of albumen and albumen protein hydrolysate was examine using IR Spectrophotometry. While comparison of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant separation egg albumen was also investigate using FTIR method (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Hen, duck and quail albumen egg white and on hydrolisate form were used as research materials. The results were showing that different time and enzyme of hydrolysis were not influence at secondary structure of hydrolysate albumen protein. Phytochemical content such as alcohol and hydroxyl compound which have potential as functional group of antioxidant were detected in all of the samples. Their results of radical scavenging activities samples hydrolyzed by pepsin were respectively 89.40%, 50.25% and 85.13%. Whereas the radical scavenging activities of hydrolysates hydrolyzed by papain were 72.85%, 61% and 76.45% respectively.

  16. Hen uterine gene expression profiling during eggshell formation reveals putative proteins involved in the supply of minerals or in the shell mineralization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The chicken eggshell is a natural mechanical barrier to protect egg components from physical damage and microbial penetration. Its integrity and strength is critical for the development of the embryo or to ensure for consumers a table egg free of pathogens. This study compared global gene expression in laying hen uterus in the presence or absence of shell calcification in order to characterize gene products involved in the supply of minerals and / or the shell biomineralization process. Results Microarrays were used to identify a repertoire of 302 over-expressed genes during shell calcification. GO terms enrichment was performed to provide a global interpretation of the functions of the over-expressed genes, and revealed that the most over-represented proteins are related to reproductive functions. Our analysis identified 16 gene products encoding proteins involved in mineral supply, and allowed updating of the general model describing uterine ion transporters during eggshell calcification. A list of 57 proteins potentially secreted into the uterine fluid to be active in the mineralization process was also established. They were classified according to their potential functions (biomineralization, proteoglycans, molecular chaperone, antimicrobials and proteases/antiproteases). Conclusions Our study provides detailed descriptions of genes and corresponding proteins over-expressed when the shell is mineralizing. Some of these proteins involved in the supply of minerals and influencing the shell fabric to protect the egg contents are potentially useful biological markers for the genetic improvement of eggshell quality. PMID:24649854

  17. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) meal as protein source by laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, Siaka Seriba; Kant, Rashmi; Tanhimana, Jemarlyn; Lela, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control), 33, 67 and 100%. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compa...

  18. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  19. High-pressure protein crystallography of hen egg-white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nagae, Takayuki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was analyzed under pressures of up to 950 MPa. The high pressure modified the conformation of the molecule and induced a novel phase transition in the tetragonal crystal of HEWL. Crystal structures of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) determined under pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 950 MPa are presented. From 0.1 to 710 MPa, the molecular and internal cavity volumes are monotonically compressed. However, from 710 to 890 MPa the internal cavity volume remains almost constant. Moreover, as the pressure increases to 950 MPa, the tetragonal crystal of HEWL undergoes a phase transition from P4 3 2 1 2 to P4 3 . Under high pressure, the crystal structure of the enzyme undergoes several local and global changes accompanied by changes in hydration structure. For example, water molecules penetrate into an internal cavity neighbouring the active site and induce an alternate conformation of one of the catalytic residues, Glu35. These phenomena have not been detected by conventional X-ray crystal structure analysis and might play an important role in the catalytic activity of HEWL

  20. High-pressure protein crystallography of hen egg-white lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nagae, Takayuki [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Nobuhisa, E-mail: nobuhisa@nagoya-u.jp [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    The crystal structure of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was analyzed under pressures of up to 950 MPa. The high pressure modified the conformation of the molecule and induced a novel phase transition in the tetragonal crystal of HEWL. Crystal structures of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) determined under pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 950 MPa are presented. From 0.1 to 710 MPa, the molecular and internal cavity volumes are monotonically compressed. However, from 710 to 890 MPa the internal cavity volume remains almost constant. Moreover, as the pressure increases to 950 MPa, the tetragonal crystal of HEWL undergoes a phase transition from P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 to P4{sub 3}. Under high pressure, the crystal structure of the enzyme undergoes several local and global changes accompanied by changes in hydration structure. For example, water molecules penetrate into an internal cavity neighbouring the active site and induce an alternate conformation of one of the catalytic residues, Glu35. These phenomena have not been detected by conventional X-ray crystal structure analysis and might play an important role in the catalytic activity of HEWL.

  1. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  2. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by 14 C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs

  3. In vivo engineering of a functional tendon sheath in a hen model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Cao, Dejun; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, Wen Jie; Cao, Yilin

    2010-05-01

    Repair of injured tendon sheath remains a major challenge and this study explored the possibility of in vivo reconstruction of a tendon sheath with tendon sheath derived cells and polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers in a Leghorn hen model. Total 55 Leghorn hens with a 1cm tendon sheath defect created in the left middle toe of each animal were randomly assigned into: (1) experimental group (n=19) that received a cell-PGA construct; (2) scaffold control group (n=18) that received a cell-free PGA scaffold; (3) blank control group (n=18) with the defect untreated. Tendon sheath cells were isolated, in vitro expanded, and seeded onto PGA scaffolds. After in vitro culture for 7 days, the constructs were in vivo implanted to repair the sheath defects. Alcian blue staining confirmed the ability of cultured cells to produce specific matrices containing acidic carboxyl mucopolysaccharide (mainly hyaluronic acid). In addition, the engineered sheath formed a relatively mature structure at 12 weeks post-surgery, which was similar to that of native counterpart, including a smooth inner surface, a well-developed sheath histological structure with a clear space between the tendon and the engineered sheath. More importantly, Work of Flexion assay revealed that the tendons needed less power consumption to glide inside the engineered sheath when compared to the tendons which were surrounded by scar-repaired tissues, indicating that the engineered sheaths had gained the function to a certain extent of preventing tendon adhesion. Taken together, these results suggest that tendon sheaths that are functionally and structurally similar to native sheaths are possible to be engineered in vivo using tendon sheath cells and PGA scaffolds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pulse radiolysis studies of intramolecular electron transfer in model peptides and proteins. 7. Trp -> TyrO radical transformation in hen egg-white lysozyme. Effects of pH, temperature, Trp62 oxidation and inhibitor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobrowski, K.; Holcman, J.; Poznanski, J.

    1997-01-01

    by ozone had a pronounced effect on its temperature-dependence. Taken together these observations indicate that of the six tryptophans present in HEWL Trp62 contributes about 50% to the yield of the observed LRET. In the enzyme-inhibitor complex, HEWL(GlcNAc)(3), where Trp62 and Trp63 are completely...... oxidation of Trp with N-3(.) radicals under low concentration of the reactants but at a high HEWL/N-3(.) molar ratio, so that more than 99% of the oxidized protein molecules contained only a single tryptophyl radical. Synchronous decay of Trp(.) and build-up of TyrO(.) conformed satisfactorily to first......-order kinetics, indicating that LRET involved either one or more Trp(.)/Tyr redox pairs characterized by similar rate constants. The rate constant of LRET, k(5), increased monotonously with decreasing pH showing the following characteristics: (i) in the pH range 7.4-5.2 the plot of k(5) against pH was sigmoidal...

  5. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  6. Low protein and high-energy diet: a possible natural cause of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in caged White Leghorn laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenboim, I; Mahato, J; Cohen, N A; Tirosh, O

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic condition of chicken and other birds caused by diverse nutritional, hormonal, environmental, and metabolic factors. Here we studied the effect of different diet composition on the induction of FLHS in single comb White Leghorn (WL) Hy-line laying hens. Seventy six (76) young WL (26 wks old) laying hens and 69 old hens (84 wks old) of the same breed were each divided into 4 treatment groups and provided 4 different diet treatments. The diet treatments included: control (C), 17.5% CP, 3.5% fat (F); normal protein, high fat (HF), 17.5% CP, 7% F; low protein, normal fat (LP), 13% CP, 3.5% F; and low protein, high fat (LPHF), 13% CP, 6.5% F. The diets containing high fat also had a higher ME of 3,000 kcal/kg of feed while the other 2 diets with normal fat had a regular lower amount of ME (2750 kcal/kg). Hen-day egg production (HDEP), ADFI, BW, egg weight, plasma enzymes indicating liver damage (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]), liver and abdominal fat weight, liver color score (LCS), liver hemorrhagic score (LHS), liver fat content (LFC), liver histological examination, lipid peroxidation product in the liver, and genes indicating liver inflammation were evaluated. HDEP, ADFI, BW, and egg weight were significantly decreased in the LPHF diet group, while egg weight was also decreased in the LP diet group. In the young hens (LPHF group), ALP was found significantly higher at 30 d of diet treatment and was numerically higher throughout the experiment, while AST was significantly higher at 105 d of treatment. LCS, LHS, and LFC were significantly higher in young hens on the LPHF diet treatment. A liver histological examination shows more lipid vacuolization in the LPHF treatment diet. HF or LP alone had no significant effect on LFC, LHS, or LCS. We suggest that LP in the diet with higher ME from fat can be a possible natural cause for predisposing laying hens

  7. Studies on the protein and amino acid metabolism of laying hens using 15N-labelled casein. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, G.

    1977-01-01

    Four colostomized Leghorn hens were fed, during 6 days, 15 N-labelled casein as sole protein source. Two animals were slaughtered 48 hours, the other two 144 hours after the last 15 N-application. The share of TCE-soluble N in total N averaged 16% for the body parts analysed, i.e. meat, bone, liver, kidneys, oviducts, residual viscera and other. The variation of the lysine, histidine and arginine levels in the body parts ranged from 3.6 to 7.9 g, 1.1 to 3.7 g and 6.4 to 7.4 g in 16.7 g hydrolysate N, respectively. Except for feathers, the analysed body parts contained an excess amount of heavy nitrogen. The degree of labelling was found to depend on the time of slaughtering after the tracer application. In the liver and in the oviduct being metabolically active organs, the 15 N-excess in the total N fraction decreased by 45% between the 2nd and the 6th days after 15 N-feeding, whilst in the meat it went down by 20%. The decline of the 15 N-concentration in the TCE-soluble N compounds was faster than in the total N-fraction. Out of the body samples analysed, the lysine of the liver having 0.26 atom% 15 N-excess was found to be more strongly labelled in hens 1 and 2. The amino acid arginine reached about the same level of labelling, the 15 N-frequency of histidine being the lowest. (author)

  8. Model comparison to evaluate a shell quality bio-complex in layer hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, J; Wolc, A; Settar, P; O'Sullivan, N P

    2016-11-01

    Reducing the incidence of egg shell breakage is an important selection goal in egg layer hens breeding. Breaking strength provides an indicator of static shell resistance correlated with shell thickness. Acoustic egg tests combine shell's resonance profile with egg mass to calculate dynamic stiffness (KDyn) a quantitative indicator of integral shell resistance, and a novel direct detection of both cracks and micro-cracks (MCr) making it possible for use in selection programs aiming improvement of shell quality. A shell quality bio-complex was defined to improve overall shell quality, including: breaking strength at equator (BSe) and poles (BSp), KDyn, and MCr, on multiple eggs/hen-age. A total of 81,667; 101,113; and 72,462 records from 4 generations of three pure lines were evaluated. Two models were tested in the brown-egg line: I) four-trait linear repeatability model and II) three-trait linear (BS, KDyn)-threshold (MCr) in the three lines. Models were implemented with AIREMLF90 and THRGIBBS1F90. Heritability and repeatability (Model I) estimates were: h 2 = 0.14, 0.18, 0.33, and 0.02; r = 0.16, 0.28, 0.43, and 0.03 for BSe, BSp, KDyn, and MCr, respectively. Corresponding values in White Plymouth Rock were h 2 = 0.14, 0.17, 0.33, and 0.02; r = 0.21, 0.33, 0.44, and 0.04, and in White Leghorn were h 2 = 0.14, 0.23, 0.36, and 0.02; r = 0.24, 0.38, 0.52, and 0.02. Genetic correlations between BSe and BSp were between 0.51 and 0.68. The BS traits were moderately correlated with KDyn (+0.23 to +0.51), and tended to be negatively correlated with MCr. KDyn, and MCr (-0.46 to -0.62). Model II had similar results; except for increased h 2 = 0.06 and r = 0.09 for MCr. Results indicate that BSe and BSp are different traits; while incidence of MCr is low in heritable but showed negative genetic correlations with the other traits. This makes MCr unsuitable for direct selection; but favors indirect selection against MCr via BSe, BSp, and KDyn for a holistic selection to

  9. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  10. Predicting heat stress index in Sasso hens using automatic linear modeling and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, A; Oluremi, O I A; Ekpo, E I

    2018-03-17

    There is an increasing use of robust analytical algorithms in the prediction of heat stress. The present investigation therefore, was carried out to forecast heat stress index (HSI) in Sasso laying hens. One hundred and sixty seven records on the thermo-physiological parameters of the birds were utilized. They were reared on deep litter and battery cage systems. Data were collected when the birds were 42- and 52-week of age. The independent variables fitted were housing system, age of birds, rectal temperature (RT), pulse rate (PR), and respiratory rate (RR). The response variable was HSI. Data were analyzed using automatic linear modeling (ALM) and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures. The ALM model building method involved Forward Stepwise using the F Statistic criterion. As regards ANN, multilayer perceptron (MLP) with back-propagation network was used. The ANN network was trained with 90% of the data set while 10% were dedicated to testing for model validation. RR and PR were the two parameters of utmost importance in the prediction of HSI. However, the fractional importance of RR was higher than that of PR in both ALM (0.947 versus 0.053) and ANN (0.677 versus 0.274) models. The two models also predicted HSI effectively with high degree of accuracy [r = 0.980, R 2  = 0.961, adjusted R 2  = 0.961, and RMSE = 0.05168 (ALM); r = 0.983, R 2  = 0.966; adjusted R 2  = 0.966, and RMSE = 0.04806 (ANN)]. The present information may be exploited in the development of a heat stress chart based largely on RR. This may aid detection of thermal discomfort in a poultry house under tropical and subtropical conditions.

  11. Predicting heat stress index in Sasso hens using automatic linear modeling and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, A.; Oluremi, O. I. A.; Ekpo, E. I.

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing use of robust analytical algorithms in the prediction of heat stress. The present investigation therefore, was carried out to forecast heat stress index (HSI) in Sasso laying hens. One hundred and sixty seven records on the thermo-physiological parameters of the birds were utilized. They were reared on deep litter and battery cage systems. Data were collected when the birds were 42- and 52-week of age. The independent variables fitted were housing system, age of birds, rectal temperature (RT), pulse rate (PR), and respiratory rate (RR). The response variable was HSI. Data were analyzed using automatic linear modeling (ALM) and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures. The ALM model building method involved Forward Stepwise using the F Statistic criterion. As regards ANN, multilayer perceptron (MLP) with back-propagation network was used. The ANN network was trained with 90% of the data set while 10% were dedicated to testing for model validation. RR and PR were the two parameters of utmost importance in the prediction of HSI. However, the fractional importance of RR was higher than that of PR in both ALM (0.947 versus 0.053) and ANN (0.677 versus 0.274) models. The two models also predicted HSI effectively with high degree of accuracy [r = 0.980, R 2 = 0.961, adjusted R 2 = 0.961, and RMSE = 0.05168 (ALM); r = 0.983, R 2 = 0.966; adjusted R 2 = 0.966, and RMSE = 0.04806 (ANN)]. The present information may be exploited in the development of a heat stress chart based largely on RR. This may aid detection of thermal discomfort in a poultry house under tropical and subtropical conditions.

  12. Differential Regulation of Gene and Protein Expression by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Hen's Ovarian Granulosa Cells: Specific Roles of Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao

    Full Text Available Annually, tons and tons of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs are produced in the world. And they are applied in almost all aspects of our life. Their release from the products into environment may pose issue for human health. Although many studies have reported the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on organisms, little is known about the effects on female reproductive systems or the related mechanisms. Quantitative proteomics have not been applied although quantitative transcriptomics have been used in zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs research. Genes are very important players however proteins are the real actors in the biological systems. By using hen's ovarian granulosa cells, it was found that ZnO-NP-5μg/ml and ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatments produced the same amount of intracellular Zn and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And NPs were found in the treated cells. However, ZnO-NP-5μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of genes and proteins compared with that in ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatment. For the first time, this investigation reports that intact NPs produce different impacts on the expression of genes and proteins involved in specific pathways compared to that by Zn2+. The findings enrich our knowledge for the molecular insights of zinc oxide nanoparticles effects on the female reproductive systems. This also may raise the health concern that ZnO NPs may adversely affect the female reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways.

  13. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  14. Dynamics of amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, A.; Gruhn, K.; Kirchner, E.

    1987-01-01

    In a 6-day preliminary period with a pelleted ration 12 colostomized laying hybrids received 15 N-labelled wheat protein over 4 days. The labelling of the wheat was 14.37 atom-% 15 N excess ( 15 N'). During the 4-day application of 15 N-labelled wheat protein each hen consumed 12.08 g N, 3.52 g lysine, 2.12 g histidine, 4.41 g arginine, of which were 540 mg 15 N', 18.1 mg lysine 15 N', 21.5 mg histidine 15 N' and 47.9 mg arginine 15 N'. Heavy nitrogen was determined in urine and its uric acid N in the daily urine samples of the individual animals. The average daily urine N excretion was 54% of the total nitrogen consumed with the ration. The labelling of the urine N reached a plateau on the fourth day of the experiment with 3.2 atom-% 15 N'. On an average of the total experiment the quota of heavy nitrogen of the uric acid in the total 15 N' of the urine was 83.4% and that of uric acid nitrogen in the total urine nitrogen 80.8%. (author)

  15. Small intestine development of laying hens fed different fiber sources diets and crude protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFFM Praes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the presente study was to evaluate the effects on different dietary fiber sources and crude protein levels on the intestinal morphometry of commercial layers. Isa Brown® layers with 48 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, resulting in seven treatments with seven replicates of eight birds each. At the end of the fourth experimental period (28 days each, birds were 64 weeks of age and were randomly chosen (two birds per replicate, totaling 14 birds per treatment, weighed and sacrificed by neck dislocation. Their intestine was dissected and the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected for subsequent analysis of intestinal morphometry. Treatments consisted of diets containing three different fiber sources (cottonseed hulls, soybean hulls or rice husks and two crude protein levels (12% or 16%. Soybean hulls and 16% crude protein level promoted, in general, an increase in villus height and crypt depth in the three intestinal segments. In the duodenum, the control diet resulted in higher villus height and crypt depth relative to the diets containing fiber. In the jejunum, higher crypt depth values. In the ileum, dietary fiber increased villus height as compared to the control diet.

  16. Proteomic comparison by iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometry of egg white proteins in laying hens (Gallus gallus) fed with soybean meal and cottonseed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Yue, Hongyuan; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is commonly used in hens’ diets to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, the molecular consequences of this substitution remains unclear. To investigate the impact of this substitution at the molecular level, iTRAQ combined with biochemical analysis was performed in Hy-Line W-36 hens supplemented with a mixed diet of CSM and SBM. Egg weight, albumen height, and Haugh unit were significantly reduced in the CSM100 group (100% crude protein of SBM replaced by CSM) compared with the SBM group (Phen diet. PMID:28813468

  17. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis in the spleens of hens by bacterins that vary in fimbrial protein SefD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene sefD is part of operon sefABCD, and it is required for production of the SEF14 fimbria by Salmonella Enteritidis. We compared strains that varied in SefD content for their ability to reduce recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from the spleens of hens infected by parenteral challenge. The two bac...

  18. Effect of vegetable diets versus diets with processed animal proteins on performance and health status of laying hens = Effecten van plantaardig voer versus voer met dierlijke eiwitten op productieprestaties en gezondheidsstatus van leghennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Jansman, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Meat and bone meal and meat meal in diets and their effects on performance and health status of laying hens has been reviewed. Properties of dietary animal proteins are compared with dietary vegetable proteins and possible causative factors for differences in performance and health are described in

  19. Uncovering molecular events associated with the chemosuppressive effects of flaxseed: a microarray analysis of the laying hen model of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Karen H; Speckman, Sheree C; Kurrey, Nawneet K; Hales, Dale B

    2014-08-24

    The laying hen model of spontaneous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unique in that it is the only model that enables observations of early events in disease progression and is therefore also uniquely suited for chemoprevention trials. Previous studies on the effect of dietary flaxseed in laying hens have revealed the potential for both amelioration and prevention of ovarian cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of flaxseed on genes and pathways that are dysregulated in tumors. We have used a bioinformatics approach to identify these genes, followed by qPCR validation, immunohistochemical localization, and in situ hybridization to visualize expression in normal ovaries and tumors from animals fed a control diet or a diet containing 10% flaxseed. Bioinformatic analysis of ovarian tumors in hens led to the identification of a group of highly up-regulated genes that are involved in the embryonic process of branching morphogenesis. Expression of these genes coincides with expression of E-cadherin in the tumor epithelium. Levels of expression of these genes in tumors from flax-fed animals are reduced 40-60%. E-cadherin and miR200 are both up-regulated in tumors from control-fed hens, whereas their expression is decreased 60-75% in tumors from flax-fed hens. This does not appear to be due to an increase in ZEB1 as mRNA levels are increased five-fold in tumors, with no significant difference between control-fed and flax-fed hens. We suggest that nutritional intervention with flaxseed targets the pathways regulating branching morphogenesis and thereby alters the progression of ovarian cancer.

  20. Comparison of antibody responses to hen's egg and cow's milk proteins in orally sensitized rats and food-allergic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Kleij, H.P.M. van der; Koppelman, S.J.; Houben, G.F.; Penninks, A.H.; Felius, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Background: No adequate enteral sensitization models are available to study food allergy and the allergenicity of food proteins. To further validate an enteral brown Norway (BN) rat sensitization model under development, we studied specific protein recognition to determine whether a comparable

  1. The Protein Model Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, J?rgen; Battey, James N. D.; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D.; Berman, Helen M.; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploratio...

  2. Combination effects of NaOH and NaCl on the rheology and gel characteristics of hen egg white proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Yufan; Fan, Qiao; Teng, Changhao; Xie, Weiying; Shi, Yue; Su, Yujie; Yang, Yanjun

    2018-06-01

    The effects of NaOH and NaCl on the rheology and gel properties of hen egg white were investigated. As the concentration of NaOH increased, egg white gel exhibited lower opacity and particle turbidity with coincidental increase in zeta potential, while the addition of NaCl resulted in the formation of opaque egg white gel and increase of surface hydrophobicity, particle turbidity and zeta potential. Rheological tests showed that alkali treatment will affect the unfolding state of egg white proteins during the heat stage while NaCl addition can inhibit the unfolding of egg white proteins. The results of correlation analysis indicated that random coil and α-helix were in good correlation with gel textural properties. Therefore, the rheology and gel properties of alkali/salt-induced egg white dispersions were closely related to the changes in surface hydrophobicity, molecule surface charge, and protein secondary structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensory evaluation by gamma radiation effect on protein allergen of laying hen eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, M. N. C.; Arthur, V.; Perina, V. C. S.; Silva, L. C. A. S.; Bortoleto, G. G.

    2012-08-01

    Although considered the most complete food and nutritionally shown to be part of a healthy diet, the egg is the source of many eating disorders, especially for infants. Irradiation has been used in studies not only as a means of microbiological control, but also on its structural action in the substances molecules and has been used to reduce the allergenic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory effects of Co60 gamma radiation on proteins, enabling the acceptability of allergy food for genetically intolerant people. Eggs commercial fresh and freeze-dried and subjected to gamma irradiation by Co60 source at doses 0 (control), 10 kGy; 20 kGy and 30 kGy and rates of doses of 19.4 kGy/h and 31.8 kGy/h. Acceptability test was used by the hedonic scale, since it is necessary to know the "affective status" of consumers for the product, implying a preference, i.e. the most preferred samples are the most accepted and vice versa. The samples were presented as the habit of consumption (cooked) to a group of 41 adults panelists of both gender, aged from 21 to 40 years, and served under complete block design balanced with respect to the order of presentation. The evaluated attributes was flavor, appearance and overall acceptability. In general, for boiled eggs and freeze-dried, it was observed that the control sample was the most acceptable, followed by the sample irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rates. In addition, panelists presented in testimony that they found interesting changes due to irradiation; also said they would not buy the product because of the marked change in appearance and smell, which at one point he ended up in disgust and detract from sales of the product, but they would buy irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rate and dose of 20 kGy at a dose rate of 19.4 kGy/h.

  4. Sensory evaluation by gamma radiation effect on protein allergen of laying hen eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, M.N.C.; Arthur, V.; Perina, V.C.S.; Silva, L.C.A.S.; Bortoleto, G.G.

    2012-01-01

    Although considered the most complete food and nutritionally shown to be part of a healthy diet, the egg is the source of many eating disorders, especially for infants. Irradiation has been used in studies not only as a means of microbiological control, but also on its structural action in the substances molecules and has been used to reduce the allergenic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory effects of Co 60 gamma radiation on proteins, enabling the acceptability of allergy food for genetically intolerant people. Eggs commercial fresh and freeze-dried and subjected to gamma irradiation by Co 60 source at doses 0 (control), 10 kGy; 20 kGy and 30 kGy and rates of doses of 19.4 kGy/h and 31.8 kGy/h. Acceptability test was used by the hedonic scale, since it is necessary to know the “affective status” of consumers for the product, implying a preference, i.e. the most preferred samples are the most accepted and vice versa. The samples were presented as the habit of consumption (cooked) to a group of 41 adults panelists of both gender, aged from 21 to 40 years, and served under complete block design balanced with respect to the order of presentation. The evaluated attributes was flavor, appearance and overall acceptability. In general, for boiled eggs and freeze-dried, it was observed that the control sample was the most acceptable, followed by the sample irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rates. In addition, panelists presented in testimony that they found interesting changes due to irradiation; also said they would not buy the product because of the marked change in appearance and smell, which at one point he ended up in disgust and detract from sales of the product, but they would buy irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rate and dose of 20 kGy at a dose rate of 19.4 kGy/h. - Highlights: ► To minimized allergenic foods problem can be used gamma radiation. ► To identify the consumers preference about the quality of this kind food was used

  5. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C α RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Immunogenicity of Structurally Perturbed Hen Egg Lysozyme Adsorbed to Silicone Oil Microdroplets in Wild-Type and Transgenic Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Carly F; Soucie, Kaitlin R; Song, Jane S; Strauch, Pamela; Torres, Raul M; Carpenter, John F; Ragheb, Jack A; Randolph, Theodore W

    2017-06-01

    Silicone oil microdroplets may act as adjuvants, promoting unwanted immune responses against both foreign and self-proteins. Proteins often unfold upon adsorption to silicone oil microdroplets, but it is unclear how such unfolding might affect the immune response. In this study, we found that hen egg lysozyme (HEL) readily adsorbed to silicone oil microdroplets and perturbed the conformation of HEL. We compared the immune response to injections of HEL formulated in the presence and absence of silicone oil microdroplets in both wild-type mice and transgenic littermates that express a soluble form of HEL (sHEL), thus rendering them immunologically tolerant to this nominal self-antigen. Following 2 subcutaneous injections of a HEL formulation containing silicone oil microdroplets, wild-type mice exhibited a stronger IgG1 antibody response against HEL compared to the response in wild-type mice that administered an oil-free HEL formulation. However, when HEL was subcutaneously administered to sHEL-transgenic mice, immunological tolerance to sHEL was not broken in the presence of silicone oil microdroplets. Thus, although structural perturbations in proteins adsorbed to silicone oil microdroplets may augment the immune response, in the case of endogenously expressed proteins, such structural perturbations may not be sufficient to result in a breach of immunological tolerance. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein solubility modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Interleukin 16- (IL-16-) Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Agent Improves Detection of Ovarian Tumors in Laying Hens, a Preclinical Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Animesh; Yellapa, Aparna; Bahr, Janice M; Adur, Malavika K; Utterback, Chet W; Bitterman, Pincas; Basu, Sanjib; Sharma, Sameer; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2015-01-01

    Limited resolution of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) scanning is a significant barrier to early detection of ovarian cancer (OVCA). Contrast agents have been suggested to improve the resolution of TVUS scanning. Emerging evidence suggests that expression of interleukin 16 (IL-16) by the tumor epithelium and microvessels increases in association with OVCA development and offers a potential target for early OVCA detection. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility of IL-16-targeted contrast agents in enhancing the intensity of ultrasound imaging from ovarian tumors in hens, a model of spontaneous OVCA. Contrast agents were developed by conjugating biotinylated anti-IL-16 antibodies with streptavidin coated microbubbles. Enhancement of ultrasound signal intensity was determined before and after injection of contrast agents. Following scanning, ovarian tissues were processed for the detection of IL-16 expressing cells and microvessels. Compared with precontrast, contrast imaging enhanced ultrasound signal intensity significantly in OVCA hens at early (P ultrasound signals in OVCA hens were associated with increased frequencies of IL-16 expressing cells and microvessels. These results suggest that IL-16-targeted contrast agents improve the visualization of ovarian tumors. The laying hen may be a suitable model to test new imaging agents and develop targeted anti-OVCA therapeutics.

  9. Interleukin 16- (IL-16- Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Agent Improves Detection of Ovarian Tumors in Laying Hens, a Preclinical Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Barua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited resolution of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS scanning is a significant barrier to early detection of ovarian cancer (OVCA. Contrast agents have been suggested to improve the resolution of TVUS scanning. Emerging evidence suggests that expression of interleukin 16 (IL-16 by the tumor epithelium and microvessels increases in association with OVCA development and offers a potential target for early OVCA detection. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility of IL-16-targeted contrast agents in enhancing the intensity of ultrasound imaging from ovarian tumors in hens, a model of spontaneous OVCA. Contrast agents were developed by conjugating biotinylated anti-IL-16 antibodies with streptavidin coated microbubbles. Enhancement of ultrasound signal intensity was determined before and after injection of contrast agents. Following scanning, ovarian tissues were processed for the detection of IL-16 expressing cells and microvessels. Compared with precontrast, contrast imaging enhanced ultrasound signal intensity significantly in OVCA hens at early (P<0.05 and late stages (P<0.001. Higher intensities of ultrasound signals in OVCA hens were associated with increased frequencies of IL-16 expressing cells and microvessels. These results suggest that IL-16-targeted contrast agents improve the visualization of ovarian tumors. The laying hen may be a suitable model to test new imaging agents and develop targeted anti-OVCA therapeutics.

  10. The Protein Model Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, Jürgen; Battey, James N D; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D; Berman, Helen M; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2009-03-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploration of the protein structure space. One of the challenges in using model information effectively has been to access all models available for a specific protein in heterogeneous formats at different sites using various incompatible accession code systems. Often, structure models for hundreds of proteins can be derived from a given experimentally determined structure, using a variety of established methods. This has been done by all of the PSI centers, and by various independent modeling groups. The goal of the Protein Model Portal (PMP) is to provide a single portal which gives access to the various models that can be leveraged from PSI targets and other experimental protein structures. A single interface allows all existing pre-computed models across these various sites to be queried simultaneously, and provides links to interactive services for template selection, target-template alignment, model building, and quality assessment. The current release of the portal consists of 7.6 million model structures provided by different partner resources (CSMP, JCSG, MCSG, NESG, NYSGXRC, JCMM, ModBase, SWISS-MODEL Repository). The PMP is available at http://www.proteinmodelportal.org and from the PSI Structural Genomics Knowledgebase.

  11. Immunoreactivity of hen egg allergens: influence on in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the presence of other egg white proteins and of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Gustavo; López-Fandiño, Rosina; Molina, Elena

    2013-01-15

    Hen egg white comprises of a complex mixture of proteins, which greatly differ in their physicochemical characteristics and relative abundance. We aimed to identify potential undiscovered egg allergens within the egg white proteome and investigated the existence of matrix effects on the proteolytic stability and resultant IgE-binding of the allergenic proteins. In addition to the main egg allergens: ovalbumin (OVA), ovomucoid (OM) and lysozyme (LYS), two minor egg white proteins, tentatively identified as ovoinhibitor and clusterin, were found to react with serum IgE from egg-allergic patients. Egg white exhibited residual immunoreactivity after gastrointestinal digestion due to the presence of intact OVA and LYS, as well as of several IgE-binding peptides derived from OVA. The presence of egg yolk slightly increased the susceptibility to hydrolysis of egg white proteins and abrogated bile salt-induced precipitation of LYS in the duodenal medium. However, the resultant immunoreactivity against IgE of egg white proteins after in vitro digestion was not significantly modified by the presence of yolk components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MODELS OF PROTEIN FOLDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnati Ahluwalia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to explore the understanding of protein folding mechanism, various models have been proposed in the literature. Advances in recent experimental and computational techniques rationalized our understanding on some of the fundamental features of the protein folding pathways. The goal of this review is to revisit the various models and outline the essential aspects of the folding reaction.

  13. Managing Colllinearity in Modeling the Effect of Age in the Prediction of Egg Components of Laying Hens Using Stepwise and Ridge Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TM Shafey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The relationships between egg measurements [egg weight (EGWT, egg width (EGWD, egg shape index (EGSI, egg volume (EGV and egg density (EGD], and egg components [eggshell (SWT, yolk (YWT and albumen (AWT] were investigated in laying hens with 32, 45, and 59 weeks of age with an objective of managing multicollinearity (MC, using stepwise regression (SR and ridge regression (RR analyses. There were significant correlations among egg traits that led to MC problems in all eggs. Hen age influenced egg characteristics and the magnitude of the correlations among egg characteristics. Eggs produced at older age had significantly (p<0.01 higher EGWT, EGWD, EGV, YWT and AWT than those produced at younger age. The SR model alleviated MC problem in eggs produced at 32 weeks, with condition index greater than 30, and one predictor, EGWT had a model fit predicted egg components with R2 ranged from 60 to 99%. The SR model of eggs produced at 45 and 59 weeks indicated MC problem with variance inflation factors (VIF values greater than 10, and 4 predictors; EGWT, EGWD, EGV and EGD had a model fit that significantly predicted egg components with R2 % ranged from 76 to 99 %. The RR analysis provided lower VIF values than 10 and eliminated the MC problem for eggs produced at any age group. It is concluded that the RR analysis provided an ideal solution for managing the MC problem and successfully predicting egg components of laying hens from egg measurements.

  14. Comparison between Laying Hen Performance in the Cage System and the Deep Litter System on a Diet Free from Animal Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Voslářová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery cage systems for housing laying hens are being replaced by alternative systems including the deep litter system. At the same time, the substitution of meat and bone meal by vegetable matter in poultry feed mixtures is sought in the nutrition of laying hens. In the experiment, we compared the performance of laying hens of the ISA BROWN hybrid in both the cage system and the deep litter system, on a diet with the meat and bone meal content replaced by vegetable feeds (based on lupin. In the first group, 36 laying hens were kept in the deep litter system; in the second group, 36 laying hens were kept in cages. Over the period of nine months, the number of eggs laid, their weight, shell quality, the clinical state of the laying hens and incidence of their mortality were monitored daily. We found that in the cage system a higher number of eggs was obtained; a lower mean egg weight (p p p p p > 0.05, and the number of laying hens which died was lower (p < 0.05 in comparison with the deep litter system. The results of the experiment demonstrate that, with the substitution of meat and bone meal by vegetable matter in the feed mixtures for laying hens, there are differences between the performance of laying hens from the deep litter system as compared to the laying hens from the cage system. The deep litter system better meets the requirements for the welfare of laying hens; however, it provides a lower yield.

  15. Effects of feeding regimen, fiber inclusion, and crude protein content of the diet on performance and egg quality and hatchability of eggs of broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Shivazad, M; Zaghari, M; Rezaian, M; Aminzadeh, S; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    A 12-wk experiment was conducted to study the effects of feeding regimen, inclusion of a fiber source, and CP content of the diet on performance of broiler breeder hens. In total, 360 hens and 60 males, 43 wk of age, were assigned to 60 floor pens (6 hens and 1 male each). There were 12 treatments arranged factorially with 2 feeding regimens [restricted (R) and liberal feeding (close to ad libitum consumption; LIB)], 3 sources of fiber (0, 3% inulin, and 3% cellulose), and 2 levels of CP (14.5 and 17.4%). No interactions among main effects were observed for any of the traits studied, and therefore, only main effects are presented. Body weight, liver weight, and abdominal fat weight were higher (P fiber source in the diet decreased (P fiber produced more (P dietary CP reduced obesity in broiler breeder hens.

  16. Dynamics of the amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.

    1988-01-01

    In a 15 N labelling experiment 12 colostomized laying hens received 15 N-labelled wheat with 14.37 atom-% 15 N excess ( 15 N') over 4 days. 3 hens each were butchered after 12 h, 36 h, 60 h and 108 h after the last 15 N' application. The gastrointestinal tract was divided into 3 parts (esophagus with crop and gizzard as well as glandular stomach, small intestine, large intestine). These parts and the pancreas were hydrolyzed with 6 N HCl and the individual basic as well as the sum of acid and neutral amino acids were determined in the hydrolyzed fractions. In addition, the amino acids and peptides were determined in the TCA soluble N fraction. The atom-% 15 N' was determined in the individual amino acid and peptide fractions. The labelling of the basic amino acids in the individual tract segments was lower than in the acid and neutral amino acids. In comparison to the peptides, a higher atom-% 15 N' could be determined in the free amino acids. (author)

  17. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.

    1987-01-01

    In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15 N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15 N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15 N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

  18. Solubilization and identification of hen eggshell membrane proteins during different times of chicken embryo development using the proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaweewong, Kritsda; Garnjanagoonchorn, Wunwiboon; Jirapakkul, Wannee; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

    2013-04-01

    A fertilized chicken egg is a unit of life. During hatching, transport of nutrients, including calcium, have been reported from the egg components to the developing embryo. Calcium is mobilized from the eggshell with the involvement of Ca(2+)-binding proteins. In addition, other unknown proteins may also play some important roles during embryo developing process. Therefore identification and prediction of biological functions of eggshell membrane (ESM) proteins during chick embryo development was conducted by proteome analysis. Comparison of different lysis solutions indicated that the highest ability to extract ESM proteins could be obtained with 1 % sodium dodecyl sulfate in 5 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 8.8 containing 0.1 % 2-mercaptoethanol. In this study fertilized Cornish chicken eggs were incubated at 37 °C in humidified incubators for up to 21 days. At selected times (days 1, 9, 15 and 21), samples were taken and the ESMs were carefully separated by hand, washed with distilled water, and air-dried at room temperature. The ESM proteins were then solubilized and analyzed by proteome analysis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed 62 proteins in the ESM; only keratin is known ESM protein, 8 of which are egg white proteins and related while 53 others have not previously been reported. Some differences in the types of proteins and their molecular functions were noted in ESM at different incubation times. One protein which was present only at days 15 and 21 of egg incubation was identified as a calcium binding protein i.e. EGF like repeats and discoidin I like domain 3 (EDIL3 homologous protein).

  19. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  20. Dynamics of the amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Kirchner, E.

    1988-01-01

    12 colostomized laying hens received, together with a conventional feed ration, 15 N-labelled wheat with a 15 N excess ( 15 N') of 14.37 atom-% over 4 days. 3 animals each were butchered after 12 h, 36 h, 60 h and 108 h after the last 15 N' application and, apart from various organs, the contents and the tissue of the gastrointestinal tract of each hen was divided into 3 fractions. TCA precipitation was carried out with the contents and the tissue of the 3 fractions. Nitrogen and its atom-% 15 N' were determined in the supernatant and the precipitate. The 15 N' amount in the contents of the crop and the stomachs, the small and large intestines is still considerable 12 h after the last 15 N wheat feeding and still clearly detectable 108 h after it. The TCA precipitable amounts of 14 N and 15 N' of the contents of crop and stomach and that of the small intestine agree well; they are 75% and 50% resp. of the total N. The amount of atom-% 15 N' of the contents of the small and large intestines remains the same up to 36 h after the last 15 N' application and is higher at the following measuring points in the contents of the large intestine. A close correlation could be ascertained between the atom-% 15 N' in the contents and tissue of the small and large intestines. The TCA soluble N quotas of both 14 N and 15 N' in the pancreas are above 50%. (author)

  1. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  2. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    OpenAIRE

    H Mohammadi Emarat; A Golian; A Tahmasbi; H Kermanshahi

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15%) and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37%) and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age) each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed ...

  3. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas-Duran, Catalina; Chacon-Villalobos, Alejandro; Zamora-Sanchez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The effect of shrimp meal (SM) was measure in commercial laying hen diets. Pleuroncodes planipes was used in Costa Rica, from April to September 2013, to obtain a meal (SM) with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40,67%), ether extract (11,05%), crude fiber (7,12%), ash (27,48%), calcium (9,03%), phosphorus (2,66%), amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84%) and acidity (8,34). Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05). The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets. (author) [es

  4. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Salas-Durán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to meassure the effect of shrimp meal (SM in commercial laying hen diets. From April to September 2013, in Costa Rica, Pleuroncodes planipes was used to obtain a meal (SM with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40.67%, ether extract (11.05%, crude fiber (7.12%, ash (27.48%, calcium (9.03%, phosphorus (2.66%, amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84% and acidity (8.34. Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05. The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets.

  5. Behavioral differences of laying hens with fractured keel bones within furnished cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Marie Casey-Trott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens is reported in all housing systems. Keel fractures have been associated with pain and restricted mobility in hens in loose housing. The objective was to determine whether keel fractures were associated with activity of hens in furnished cages. Thirty-six pairs of LSL Lite hens (72 wk were enrolled in the study. One hen with a fractured keel and one hen without were identified by palpation in each of 36 groups of hens housed in either 30 or 60-bird cages stocked at 750cm2/hen. Behavioral activity of each hen was recorded by four observers blind to keel status using focal animal sampling for 10 min within a 2 hr period in the morning (08:00-10:00, afternoon (12:00-14:00, and evening (17:00-19:00. All hens were observed during each of the three sample periods for three days totaling 90 min, and individual hen data was summed for analysis. Hens were euthanized 48hr after final observations, dissected, and classified by keel status: F0 (no fracture, N=24; F1 (single fracture, N=17; F2 (multiple fractures, N=31. The percentages of time hens performed each behavior were analyzed using a mixed procedure in SAS with fracture severity, body weight, cage size, rearing environment, and tier in the model. Fracture severity affected the duration of perching (P=0.04 and standing (P=0.001, bout length of standing (P<0.0001, and location (floor vs perch of resting behaviors (P=0.01. F2 hens perched longer than F0 hens, 20.0% ± 2.9 and 11.6% ± 3.2. F2 hens spent less time standing, 15.2% ± 1.5, than F0 and F1 hens, 20.7% ± 1.6 and 21.6% ± 1.8. F2 hens had shorter standing bouts (22.0 sec ± 4.2 than both F0 and F1 hens, 33.1 sec ± 4.3 and 27.4 sec ± 4.4. Non-fractured hens spent 80.0% ± 6.9 of total resting time on the floor whereas F1 and F2 hens spent 56.9% ± 12.4 and 51.5% ± 7.7, resting on the floor. Behavioral differences reported here provide insight into possible causes of keel damage, or

  6. Dynamics of the amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.; Kirchner, E.

    1987-01-01

    12 colostomized laying hens which received 15 N-labelled wheat over 4 days were butchered 12 h, 36 h, and 108 h (3 animals each) after the last 15 N application. The intake of 15 N exess ( 15 N') from the wheat amounted to 540 mg 15 N' during the application period. The 15 N' in the blood plasma decreased after the last 15 N' application from 0.76 atom-% to 0.55 atom-% after 108 h, the labelling of the corpuscular components at the same measuring points increased from 0.28 to 0.50 atom-% 15 N'. 96.6% of the plasma 15 N' and 93,8% of that in the corpuscles is precipitable in trichloroacetic acid. The atom-% 15 N' of histidine in the total blood remained unchanged in dependence on the butchering time. The 15 N amount in lysine and arginine and that in the non-basic amino acids decreased inconsiderably in the period between 12 h and 108 h after the last 15 N' wheat feeding. (author)

  7. Modelling of proteins in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; May, S.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review describes some recent theories and simulations of mesoscopic and microscopic models of lipid membranes with embedded or attached proteins. We summarize results supporting our understanding of phenomena for which the activities of proteins in membranes are expected to be significantly...... oppositely charged lipid membranes, lipid-induced tilting of proteins embedded in lipid bilayers, protein-induced bilayer deformations, protein insertion and assembly, and lipid-controlled functioning of membrane proteins....

  8. Analysis of ordered categorical data with threshold models exemplified by plumage damage scores from laying hens differing in their genotype and rearing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielenz, N; Spilke, J; von Borell, E

    2010-11-01

    Plumage damage scores (PDS) were assessed in laying hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Tradition and Lohmann Silver) at the 45th and 70th weeks of age, with scores ranging from zero (no damage) to 6 (completely denuded). This ordinally scaled categorical characteristic was recorded from different body regions of 365 hens that had experienced different housing environments (2 enrichment levels) during their rearing and laying periods. The so-called threshold model is an option for analyzing repeated ordered categorical data from individual animals. This model represents a generalized linear mixed model if the linear predictor additionally includes the animal as a random effect. This paper is intended to fill the gap between the theoretical aspects of generalized linear mixed models and their practical application in animal science. A cumulative probit model was adapted for analyzing plumage damage. The variation among birds was considered as a random effect for the analysis of cumulative probabilities. The numerical implementation of the methodology was done based on the NLMIXED procedure of the SAS statistical program. A threshold model with inhomogeneous residual variances for the latent variable was used because less plumage damages were observed up to the 45th week of age compared to the 70th week of age. Differences in PDS were evident between genotypes, age, and enrichment levels during housing periods. However, neither of the 2 enriched environments proved consistent superiority or inferiority across all traits. Major plumage damage (PDS larger than or equal to 5) was observed for the breast region in 56.6% of all birds with the Lohmann Tradition genotype and in 34.4% with the Lohmann Silver genotype when we look at the mean over all treatments. The most severe plumage damage was observed at the 70th week of age for the traits breast and housing environment without additional enrichment.

  9. Genetic parameters for feather pecking and aggressive behavior in a large F2-cross of laying hens using generalized linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennewitz, J; Bögelein, S; Stratz, P; Rodehutscord, M; Piepho, H P; Kjaer, J B; Bessei, W

    2014-04-01

    Feather pecking and aggressive pecking is a well-known problem in egg production. In the present study, genetic parameters for 4 feather-pecking-related traits were estimated using generalized linear mixed models. The traits were bouts of feather pecking delivered (FPD), bouts of feather pecking received (FPR), bouts of aggressive pecking delivered (APD), and bouts of aggressive pecking received (APR). An F2-design was established from 2 divergent selected founder lines. The lines were selected for low or high feather pecking for 10 generations. The number of F2 hens was 910. They were housed in pens with around 40 birds. Each pen was observed in 21 sessions of 20 min, distributed over 3 consecutive days. An animal model was applied that treated the bouts observed within 20 min as repeated observations. An over-dispersed Poisson distribution was assumed for observed counts and the link function was a log link. The model included a random animal effect, a random permanent environment effect, and a random day-by-hen effect. Residual variance was approximated on the link scale by the delta method. The results showed a heritability around 0.10 on the link scale for FPD and APD and of 0.04 for APR. The heritability of FPR was zero. For all behavior traits, substantial permanent environmental effects were observed. The approximate genetic correlation between FPD and APD (FPD and APR) was 0.81 (0.54). Egg production and feather eating records were collected on the same hens as well and were analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model, assuming a binomial distribution and using a probit link function. The heritability on the link scale for egg production was 0.40 and for feather eating 0.57. The approximate genetic correlation between FPD and egg production was 0.50 and between FPD and feather eating 0.73. Selection might help to reduce feather pecking, but this might result in an unfavorable correlated selection response reducing egg production. Feather eating and

  10. Dynamics of the amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Hennig, A.

    1989-01-01

    Over a period of 4 days 12 colostomized laying hens daily received 36 g coarse wheat meal containing 14.37 atom-% 15 N excess ( 15 N') together with a conventional ration. After the homogenisation of each oviduct N and 15 N' were determined. After the precipitation with TCA the 15 N' of the amino acids was analysed in both the precipitate and the supernatant. In addition, the free amino acids and the peptides were determined in the TCA soluble fraction. The atom-% 15 N' in the total N and in the non-basic amino acid N showed a parallel decrease; it diminshed from 1.75 atom-% 15 N' to 0.64. Of the three basic amino acids, lysine shows the lowest labelling at all four measuring points. The quotas of non-basic amino acid 14 N and 15 N' in the total 14 N and 15 N' of the oviduct are the same and amount to 53%. In contrast to this, the quota of the 14 N of the basic amino acids in the total 14 N of the oviduct only amounts to 21.6% and that of 15 N' only to 15.4%. The average atom-% 15 N' of the free amino acids 12 h after the last 15 N application is 1.54 and is considerably above that of the peptides with 1.15 atom-% 15 N'. 36 h after the last 15 N application the ascertained value of 1.25 is identical in both fractions. The labelling of the free amino acids decreases more quickly than that of the peptides the more time has passed after the last 15 N application. (author)

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of hen egg white proteins during early phase of embryonic development by combinatorial peptide ligand library and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijun; Qiu, Ning; Ma, Meihu

    2013-07-01

    Little is known regarding the diversification of relative low-abundance proteins in hen egg white that underlie the process of chicken embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to identify changes that may be involved in the development of chick embryos. Comparative proteomic analysis was conducive to revealing the potential biological function of low-abundance proteins and embryonic development demand. In addition, those proteins that are increased in abundance seem to have advantages to be targeted as new biomarkers for animal disease or animal production. However, the huge disparity in abundance in chicken egg white and poor performance of affinity depletion methods were specific challenges. This study applied combinatorial peptide ligand library for expanding the deep proteomics. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was performed with the hen embryo egg white, which was obtained from embryos at d 0 and 7. The protein spots showing significant increases were selected for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (2 mass analyzers for tandem mass spectrometry). Many precursors were identified as strongly increased after 7 d of incubation. They were ovoinhibitor precursor, clusterin precursor, apolipoprotein D precursor, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein precursor. Moreover, clusterin precursor were observed concentrated in 2 regions: one is the range of molecular weight increase and the other is the range of high pH. In addition, ovalbumin and ovotransferrin were observed in high pH area in a 2-DE map. These findings will give insight into the changes in fertilized egg white proteins during hatching and provide a better understanding of the biochemical changes in the egg development process.

  12. Obesity-associated cardiac pathogenesis in broiler breeder hens: Pathological adaption of cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Lin, H Y; Chen, Y W; Ko, Y J; Liu, Y J; Chen, Y H; Walzem, R L; Chen, S E

    2017-07-01

    Broiler hens consuming feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) show increased mortality. Feed restriction (R) typically improves reproductive performance and livability of hens. Rapidly growing broilers can exhibit increased mortality due to cardiac insufficiency but it is unknown whether the increased mortality of non-R broiler hens is also due to cardiac compromise. To assess cardiac growth and physiology in fully mature birds, 45-week-old hens were either continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding for 7 or 21 days. AL hens exhibited increased bodyweight, adiposity, absolute and relative heart weight, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiac protein/DNA ratio by d 21 (P hens (P Hens allowed AL feeding for 70 d exhibited a higher incidence of mortality (40% vs. 10%) in association with ascites, pericardial effusion, and ventricle dilation. A higher incidence of irregular ECG patterns and rhythmicity consistent with persistently elevated systolic blood pressure and ventricle fibrosis were observed in AL hens (P feeding in broiler hens results in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy that progresses to overt pathogenesis in contractility and thereby increases mortality. Feed restriction provides clear physiological benefit to heart function of adult broiler hens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Henning Bergenholtz: Bibliovita

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Tarp, Sven

    2009-01-01

    contributed to research and therefore influenced both national and international research communities. Not only has Henning Bergenholtz published theoretical works on lexicography and other topics, but he is also the author and co-author of a range of dictionaries. His theoretical publications in a variety...... of the founding fathers of both), he still is and has been on the advisory and editorial boards of several international journals, and he has acted as consultant for several publishing houses around the world....

  14. Turkey-hen amino acid composition of brain and eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyeye, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    The amino acids composition of the brain and eyes of the mature Turkey-hen (Meleagris gallopavo L.), were determined on dry weight basis. Total essential amino acids ranged from 35.1-36.0 g/100 g as 49.5-49.8% of the total amino acids. The amino acid score showed that lysine ranged from 0.76-0.91 (on whole hen.s egg comparison), 0.85-1.03 (on provisional essential amino acid scoring pattern), and 0.81-0.98 (on suggested requirement of the essential amino acid of a preschool child). The predicted protein efficiency ratio was 1.94-2.41, whilst essential amino acid index range was 1.06-1.08 and the calculated isoelectric point range was 3.97-4.18. The correlation coefficient (rxy) was positively high and significant at r = 0.01 for the total amino acids, amino acid scores (on the whole hen.s egg comparisons made) and the isoelectric point. On the whole, the eyes were better in 12/18 or 66.7% parameters of the amino acids than the brain of Turkey-Hen. (author)

  15. Gregarious nesting - An anti-predator response in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting can be defined as a behaviour that occurs when a laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site. It occurs frequently in flocks of laying hens kept under commercial conditions, contrasting...... the behaviour displayed by feral hens that isolate themselves from the flock during nesting activities. What motivates laying hens to perform gregarious nesting is unknown. One possibility is that gregarious nesting is an anti-predator response to the risk of nest predation emerging from behavioural flexibility....... Nesting and spacing behaviour were video recorded for 5 days in each of three distinct periods; (a) pre-predator; a pre-exposure period, (b) predator; a period with daily exposure to a simulated attack by a lifelike flying model of a hooded crow (Corvus cornix, a potential egg-predator), and (c) post...

  16. Modelling of proteins in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; May, S.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review describes some recent theories and simulations of mesoscopic and microscopic models of lipid membranes with embedded or attached proteins. We summarize results supporting our understanding of phenomena for which the activities of proteins in membranes are expected to be significantly...

  17. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: radio-frequency identification of impacts on range use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Dyall, T R; Warin, L; Little, B A; Lee, C

    2017-01-01

    The number and size of free-range laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) production systems are increasing within Australia in response to consumer demand for perceived improvement in hen welfare. However, variation in outdoor stocking density has generated consumer dissatisfaction leading to the development of a national information standard on free-range egg labelling by the Australian Consumer Affairs Ministers. The current Australian Model Code of Practice for Domestic Poultry states a guideline of 1500 hens/ha, but no maximum density is set. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking technology was used to measure daily range usage by individual ISA Brown hens housed in six small flocks (150 hens/flock - 50% of hens tagged), each with access to one of three outdoor stocking density treatments (two replicates per treatment: 2000, 10 000, 20 000 hens/ha), from 22 to 26, 27 to 31 and 32 to 36 weeks of age. There was some variation in range usage across the sampling periods and by weeks 32 to 36 individual hens from the lowest stocking density on average used the range for longer each day (Prange with 2% of tagged hens in each treatment never venturing outdoors and a large proportion that accessed the range daily (2000 hens/ha: 80.5%; 10 000 hens/ha: 66.5%; 20 000 hens/ha: 71.4%). On average, 38% to 48% of hens were seen on the range simultaneously and used all available areas of all ranges. These results of experimental-sized flocks have implications for determining optimal outdoor stocking densities for commercial free-range laying hens but further research would be needed to determine the effects of increased range usage on hen welfare.

  18. Changes in brown eggshell color as the hen ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabaşi, A Z; Miles, R D; Balaban, M O; Portier, K M

    2007-02-01

    The color of eggshells from eggs laid by commercial-type Hy-Line brown hens 25 wk of age was studied over a period of 10 mo. Color measurements were made by a color machine vision system and were analyzed using a mixed model to calculate between and within hen variances and to investigate the effect of time on shell color. Hens laid eggs with lighter colored shells as the flock aged, as evidenced by the lightness (L*) values increasing in time. A decrease in pigmentation was associated with a decrease in the amount of redness (a*) in the eggshell. When L* and a* values were corrected for egg weight, the rate of change in the L* and a* values decreased, indicating that size of the egg was a major factor affecting the color of the eggshell. These findings quantified the observations that older hens lay lighter colored eggs due to an increase in egg size associated with no proportionate change in the quantity of pigment deposited over the shell surface. Using a 2-stage sampling analysis and the variances between and within hens, sample sizes required to estimate the color of eggshells within 5% of the true mean were calculated. Accordingly, 11 eggs would need to be collected from each of the 51 hens housed for a study of brown eggshell color using the L*, a*, and b* (yellowness) coordinates.

  19. Assessment of welfare and egg production of laying hens moravia ssl in small-scale breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2015-10-01

    . The laying hens had unlimited access to feed and water. The commercial feed mixture was available ad libitum and fresh kitchen remnants were added in a small amount, provided that they fed in the short term, so that not subject to harmful degradation process. The management of our experiment was scheduled at age of laying hens 30 to 90 weeks. The egg laying intensity was observed 50% in a moment of the experimental 1st week (age of laying hens 30 weeks. High egg laying intensity of laying hens was at their age between 39 to 63 weeks. At the end of the experiment, at age of laying hens 90 weeks was decreased egg laying intensity at 26.19%, which represents almost half of egg laying intensity recorded at the beginning of the experiment. An indicator of egg production in the our experiment was studied under defined conditions for small-scale breeding, i.e. in alternative production system with free range, under defined conditions of nutrition and timing of investigation more than one year, from the end of October to the end of December of the following year. The results of our experiment can be related to the season, months of the year. The laying hens laid the eggs by individual weeks 33-90 weeks of age about average weight from 57.5 to 75.0 g. The fat content of an egg mass was 11.3 g.100-1 and protein 12.39.g.100-1. The table eggs from conditions of small-scale breeding are an important source of foodstuffs for the population, especially in rural areas. It must be given to this source of table eggs for human nutrition the highest quality and health safety too.

  20. Automated protein structure modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Comparative protein structure modeling is a computational approach to build three-dimensional structural models for proteins using experimental structures of related protein family members as templates. Regular blind assessments of modeling accuracy have demonstrated that comparative protein structure modeling is currently the most reliable technique to model protein structures. Homology models are often sufficiently accurate to substitute for experimental structures in a wide variety of applications. Since the usefulness of a model for specific application is determined by its accuracy, model quality estimation is an essential component of protein structure prediction. Comparative protein modeling has become a routine approach in many areas of life science research since fully automated modeling systems allow also nonexperts to build reliable models. In this chapter, we describe practical approaches for automated protein structure modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal.

  1. Automated Protein Structure Modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Comparative protein structure modeling is a computational approach to build three-dimensional structural models for proteins using experimental structures of related protein family members as templates. Regular blind assessments of modeling accuracy have demonstrated that comparative protein structure modeling is currently the most reliable technique to model protein structures. Homology models are often sufficiently accurate to substitute for experimental structures in a wide variety of appl...

  2. Can Non-Beak Treated Hens be Kept in Commercial Furnished Cages? Exploring the Effects of Strain and Extra Environmental Enrichment on Behaviour, Feather Cover, and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Krysta L H; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Baker, Laurence; Widowski, Tina M; Sandilands, Victoria

    2016-02-25

    Commercial laying hens are prone to injurious pecking (IP), a common multifactorial problem. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design assessed the effects of breed (Lohmann Brown Classic (L) or Hyline Brown (H)), beak treatment (infra-red treated (T) or not (NT)), and environment (extra enrichment (EE) or no extra enrichment (NE)) on mortality, behaviour, feather cover, and beak shape. Hens were allocated to treatments at 16 weeks of age and data were collected every four weeks from age 19 to 71 weeks. Data were analysed in Genstat using mixed models. L hens had higher all and IP-related mortality than H hens (p < 0.003), whilst NT hens had higher mortality than T hens but only due to culling of whole cages (p < 0.001). Feather cover for L hens deteriorated more quickly with age at most body sites than H hens (age × breed × body site p < 0.001). For NT hens, feather cover was worse at most body sites (beak treatment × body site p < 0.001), and worsened more quickly with age (age × beak treatment p = 0.014) than T hens. L and NE hens performed more bird-to-bird pecking than H and EE hens, respectively (breed p = 0.015, enrichment p = 0.032). More damage to mats and ropes was caused by L and NT hens than by H and T hens, respectively (age × breed p < 0.005, beak treatment p < 0.001). Though H hens had fewer mortalities and better feather cover, breed effects may have been influenced by farm management practices, as they may have been better suited to H than L hens. Though EE hens performed less bird-to-bird pecking, the enrichments were less effective at reducing feather cover damage and mortality than expected.

  3. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the response of broiler breeder hens to feeds supplemented with synthetic lysine and methionine when fed once or twice daily during peak production. Replacing intact protein with increasing amounts of free lysine and methionine, up to 2.3 g/kg feed, had no effect on feed intake, ...

  4. The effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) to laying hens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) to laying hens. M.D. Olver. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, lrene. One hundred and twenty 4-month-old, single-combed, brown. Hy-Line pullets were fed two isocaloric diets containing 16 or. 13,5o/o protein with and without 5% clinoptilolite in four.

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation of guinea hen weed ( Petiveria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary supplementation of guinea hen weed ( Petiveria alliacea ) leaf and root meals on nutrient utilization and intestinal morphology of finishing broiler chicken. ... Crude protein, ash and NFE digestibility of birds fed diet containing PRM were higher compared to birds fed PLM. Birds fed 1500mg/kg had the highest ...

  6. Histology of the Ovary of the Laying Hen (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, K Denise; Bird, Karyn E; Cherian, Gita; Löhr, Christiane V

    2017-12-11

    The laying hen ( Gallus domesticus ) is a robust animal model for epithelial ovarian cancer. The use of animal models is critical in identifying early disease markers and developing and testing chemotherapies. We describe the microscopic characteristics of the normally functioning laying hen ovary and proximal oviduct to establish baselines from which lesions associated with ovarian cancer can be more readily identified. Ovaries and oviducts were collected from 18-month-old laying hens ( n = 18) and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections were examined by light microscopy. Both post-ovulatory follicular regression and atresia of small follicles produce remnant clusters of vacuolated cells with no histological evidence that scar tissue persists. Infiltrates of heterophils are associated with atresia of small follicles, a relationship not previously documented in laying hen ovaries. Because these tissues can be mistaken for cancerous lesions, we present a detailed histological description of remnant Wolffian tissues in the laying hen ovary. Immunohistochemical staining for pancytokeratin produced a positive response in ovarian surface epithelium and staining for vimentin produced a positive response in granulosa cells of follicles. Epithelial cells lining glands of the remnant epoöphoron had a positive response to both pancytokeratin and vimentin, a result also observed in women.

  7. Dietary supplementation of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, Dunal) enhances NK cell function in ovarian tumors in the laying hen model of spontaneous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Animesh; Bradaric, Michael J; Bitterman, Pincas; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Sharma, Sameer; Basu, Sanjib; Lopez, Heather; Bahr, Janice M

    2013-12-01

    Ovarian cancer (OVCA) disseminates in a distinct pattern through peritoneal metastasis and little is known about the immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. Our goal was to determine changes in NK cell population during OVCA development and the effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, Dunal) supplementation on NK cell localization in laying hens with OVCA. Frequency of NK cells in ovarian tumors at early and late stages in 3- to 4-year-old hens (exploratory study) as well as in hens supplemented with dietary Ashwagandha root powder for 90 days (prospective study) was examined. The population of stromal NK cells but not the intratumoral NK cells increased with OVCA development and progression. Ashwagandha supplementation decreased the incidence and progression of OVCA. Both the stromal and intratumoral NK cell population increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in Ashwagandha supplementated hens. The results of this study suggest that the population of stromal and tumorinfiltrating NK cells is increased by dietary Ashwagandha supplementation. Thus, Ashwagandha may enhance antitumor function of NK cells. This study may be useful for a clinical study to determine the effects of dietary Ashwagandha on NK cell immune function in patients with ovarian cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Scientist prepare Lysozyme Protein Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Dan Carter and Charles Sisk center a Lysozyme Protein crystal grown aboard the USML-2 shuttle mission. Protein isolated from hen egg-white and functions as a bacteriostatic enzyme by degrading bacterial cell walls. First enzyme ever characterized by protein crystallography. It is used as an excellent model system for better understanding parameters involved in microgravity crystal growth experiments. The goal is to compare kinetic data from microgravity experiments with data from laboratory experiments to study the equilibrium.

  9. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler breeding hens. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, R.; Gruhn, K.; Hennig, A.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolization of the straw N and the influence of the straw on N excretion in urine were studied in 2 experiments with colostomized broiler hens and with 15 N-labelled wheat straw as well as 15 N-labelled wheat. In experiment 1 the test animals divided up into 4 groups received 0 g, 20 g, 30 g and 40 g straw meal per animal and day in addition to 120 g mixed feed. The daily 15 N excess ( 15 N') intake from the straw was 18.4 mg, 27.5 mg and 36.7 mg. The amount of 15 N' daily consumed with the labelled wheat in experiment 2 was 119.7 mg. 40 g straw meal resulted in a significantly increased amount of urine (p 15 N' of the labelled wheat was not influenced by the straw meal supplement. The productive 15 N' of the straw increased from 3.8 mg/animal and day (20 g straw) to 13.4 mg/animal and day (40 g straw). In contrast to 15 N wheat, straw as a 15 N source resulted in a lower labelling of uric acid N in comparison with urine N. It can be assumed that the changed metabolization of the straw N is influenced by microbial processes in the intestines. (author)

  10. Production, crystallization and X-ray characterization of chemically glycosylated hen egg-white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Jaramillo, F. J.; Pérez-Banderas, F.; Hernández-Mateo, F.; Santoyo-González, F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of glycosylation post-purification has been demonstrated by introducing glucose into the model protein lysozyme via a novel reaction that is compatible with biological samples. The crystallization of glycoproteins is one of the challenges to be confronted by the crystallographic community in the frame of what is known as glycobiology. The state of the art for the crystallization of glycoproteins is not promising and removal of the carbohydrate chains is generally suggested since they are flexible and a source of heterogeneity. In this paper, the feasibility of introducing glucose into the model protein hen egg-white lysozyme via a post-purification glycosylation reaction that may turn any protein into a model glycoprotein whose carbohydrate fraction can be manipulated is demonstrated

  11. Isolation and purification of lysozyme from the hen egg white

    OpenAIRE

    DEKINA S.S.; ROMANOVSKA I.I.; OVSEPYAN A.M.; BODYUL M.G.; TOPTIKOV V.A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was the development of the method of lysozyme isolation from hen egg proteins. Lysozyme was isolated by differential heat denaturation of proteins with changing of the medium pH value, followed by neutralization, dialysis and additional purification by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Activity was determined by bacteriolytic method (with Micrococcus lysodeikticus 4698 as a substrate). The enzyme purity and molecular mass were determined using SDS-electrophoresis an...

  12. Carnitine supplementation modulates high dietary copper-induced oxidative toxicity and reduced performance in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Berrin Kocaoğlu; Kara, Kanber; Çakır, Latife; Çetin, Ebru; Kanbur, Murat

    2011-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine on performance, egg quality and certain biochemical parameters in laying hens fed a diet containing high levels of copper proteinate. Forty-eight 42-week-old laying hens were divided into four groups with four replicates. The laying hens were fed with a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with either 400 mg carnitine (Car)/kg diet, 800 mg copper proteinate (CuP)/kg diet or 400 mg carnitine + 800 mg copper (Car+CuP)/kg diet, for 6 weeks. Supplemental CuP decreased feed consumption (p alkaline phosphatase (p effects of high dietary copper on performance and lipid peroxidation in hens.

  13. Nutrient digestibility and mass balance in laying hens fed a commercial or acidifying diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W J; Angel, C R; Hale, C E; Applegate, T J

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of an acidifying diet (gypsum) combined with zeolite and slightly reduced crude protein (R) vs. a control diet (C) on nutrient retention in laying hens and compare 3 approaches to estimating nutrient excretion from hens: 1) mass balance calculation (feed nutrients - egg nutrient), 2) use of an indigestible marker with analyzed feed and excreta nutrient content, and 3) an environmental chamber that allowed for capturing all excreted and volatilized nutrients. Hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental chambers for 3-wk periods. Excreta samples were collected at the end of each trial to estimate apparent retention of N, S, P, and Ca. No diet effects on apparent retention of N were observed (53.44%, P > 0.05). Apparent retention of S, P, and Ca decreased in hens fed R diet (18.7, - 11.4, and 22.6%, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (40.7, 0.3, and 28.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). Total N excretion from hens fed the C and R diet was not different (1.16 g/hen/d); however, mass of chamber N remaining in excreta following the 3-wk period was less from hens fed the C diet (1.27 kg) than from hens fed the R diet (1.43 kg). Gaseous emissions of NH(3) over the 3-wk period from hens fed the C diet (0.74 kg per chamber) were greater than emissions from hens fed the R diet (0.45 kg). The 3-wk S excretion mass (estimated using the calculation, indigestible marker, and environmental chamber methods, respectively) was greater from hens fed the R diet (1.85, 1.54, and 1.27 kg, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (0.24, 0.20, and 0.14 kg, respectively). The 3-wk P excretion was similar between diets (0.68 kg). Results demonstrate that feeding the acidified diet resulted in decreased N emissions, but because of the acidulant fed, greatly increased S excretion and emissions.

  14. VEGFR2-Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Agent Enhances the Detection of Ovarian Tumors at Early Stage in Laying Hens, a Preclinical Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Animesh; Yellapa, Aparna; Bahr, Janice M; Machado, Sergio A; Bitterman, Pincas; Basu, Sanjib; Sharma, Sameer; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2015-07-01

    Tumor-associated neoangiogenesis (TAN) is an early event in ovarian cancer (OVCA) development. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by TAN vessels presents a potential target for early detection by ultrasound imaging. The goal of this study was to examine the suitability of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound contrast agents in detecting spontaneous OVCA in laying hens. Effects of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents in enhancing the intensity of ultrasound imaging from spontaneous ovarian tumors in hens were examined in a cross-sectional study. Enhancement in the intensity of ultrasound imaging was determined before and after injection of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents. All ultrasound images were digitally stored and analyzed off-line. Following scanning, ovarian tissues were collected and processed for histology and detection of VEGFR2-expressing microvessels. Enhancement in visualization of ovarian morphology was detected by gray-scale imaging following injection of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents. Compared with pre-contrast, contrast imaging enhanced the intensities of ultrasound imaging significantly (p ultrasound imaging was significantly (p ultrasound imaging in hens with OVCA were positively correlated with increased (p therapeutics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we study the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of two model proteins widely used in the food industry -b-lactoglobulin (b-lg) and hen

  16. A Mesoscopic Model for Protein-Protein Interactions in Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Mikael; Jönsson, Bo

    2003-01-01

    Protein self-association may be detrimental in biological systems, but can be utilized in a controlled fashion for protein crystallization. It is hence of considerable interest to understand how factors like solution conditions prevent or promote aggregation. Here we present a computational model describing interactions between protein molecules in solution. The calculations are based on a molecular description capturing the detailed structure of the protein molecule using x-ray or nuclear ma...

  17. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  18. Phosphorus requirement in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, W.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Star, L.

    2014-01-01

    It was hypothesized that P supply by feed in alternative housing systems can be lowered without negative effects on bone quality and production performance. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were 1) to update the retainable phosphorus (rP) needs of two modern laying hen breeds from 36

  19. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF LYSOZYME FROM THE HEN EGG WHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the development of the method of lysozyme isolation from hen egg proteins. Lysozyme was isolated by differential heat denaturation of proteins with changing of the medium pH value, followed by neutralization, dialysis and additional purification by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Activity was determined by bacteriolytic method (with Micrococcus lysodeikticus 4698 as a substrate. The enzyme purity and molecular mass were determined using SDS-electrophoresis and massspectrometry. The method of lysozyme isolation from hen egg proteins with the enzyme yield of 3.2 ± 0.2% and bacteriolytic activity of 22 025 ± 1 500 U/mg is modified. According to electrophoresis data, the isolated enzyme is characterized by high degree of purity (~95–98% and is comparable with lysozyme of AppliChem company by main physical and chemical characteristics. The obtaining product is stored in a crystalline form at low temperature (–24 оC for 9 months. The proposed method allows obtaining active and stable lysozyme with high purity from hen egg protein in laboratory conditions for the usage in biotechnology.

  20. The effect of dietary protein and lysine on egg quality and production of laying hens during 28-42 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammadi Emarat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and lysine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets consisted of 3 levels of protein (14, 15 and 16% and 5 levels of lysine (0.71, 0.74, 0.77, 0.80 and 0.83 % in a 35 factorial arrangement were provided. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 12 birds, during four periods of 4 weeks (28-44wks of age. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined for each period. Eggs from each replicate were weighed at the end of three consecutive days of each period and six eggs were used to measure the egg quality characteristics. Although the feed intake did not affected by dietary protein but the egg production, egg mass and feed conversion were improved significantly (p

  1. Effect of corticosterone on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Song, Zhigang; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two groups: one received subcutaneous injection of CORT (2mg/kg body weight, CORT-exposed) and the other received sham-treatment (Control). Treatment of hens with CORT stimulated an increase (P0.05) on the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), melanocortin receptor 4 and 5 (MCR-4 and MCR-5) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the hypothalamus when compared with control hens. However, the expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and melanocortin recepter 1 (MCR-1) were significantly (Phens. Treatment of laying hens with CORT had no significant (P>0.05) effect on the mRNA levels of CCK in the glandular stomach and the duodenum, and those of ghrelin in the glandular stomach, the duodenum and the jejunum. However, the mRNA levels of CCK in the jejunum and the ileum, and those of ghrelin in the ileum were significantly (Pfeeding status of CORT-exposed laying hens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Laying hen performance in different production systems; why do they differ and how to close the gap? Results of discussions with groups of farmers in The Netherlands, Switzerland and France, benchmarking and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Maurer, V.; Galea, F.; Bestman, M.W.P.; Amsler, Z.; Visscher, J.; Vermeij, I.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Free range and organic systems expose the laying hen more to unexpected events and adverse climatic conditions than barn and cage systems. In France, The Netherlands and Switzerland the requirements for a hen suitable to produce in free range and organic systems were discussed with farmers. The

  3. THE EFFECT OF LUTEIN ADDITIVES ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN BLOOD OF LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Grčević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the performance and some biochemical parameters in the blood of hens fed feed mixtures with different levels of lutein. The study involved a total of 291 Tetra SL hybrid laying hens, divided into 3 groups (O0 with 0 mg/kg lutein added, O200 with 200 mg/kg lutein added and O400 with 400 mg/kg lutein added, and lasted for 5 weeks. The O0 group included 93 hens, whereas experimental groups 98 and 100 hens, respectively. The highest egg production and the best feed consumption per egg were recorded in O400 group with a total of 3367 pieces of eggs produced and 128.60 g of feed consumed. The best laying intensity (96.68% and number of eggs per laying hen (34.19 as well as the highest feed consumption per day (129.01 g, was recorded in O200 group. Lutein added to feed mixtures for laying hens did not significantly affect the values of biochemical parameters in blood (P>0.05. An increase in total cholesterol (CHOL and HDL cholesterol content as well as the decrease of total protein (PROT and albumin (ALB content in the experimental groups can be observed. The content of glucose (GUK and urea was similar between the experimental groups, while the highest content of triglycerides (TGC was recorded in O200 group. It can be concluded that different levels of lutein added to the feed mixtures for laying hens did not have negative effect on the performance and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens.

  4. Dynamics of hydration in hen egg white lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpone, F; Ceccarelli, M; Marchi, M

    2001-08-10

    We investigate the hydration dynamics of a small globular protein, hen egg-white lysozyme. Extensive simulations (two trajectories of 9 ns each) were carried out to identify the time-scales and mechanism of water attachment to this protein. The location of the surface and integral water molecules in lysozyme was also investigated. Three peculiar temporal scales of the hydration dynamics can be discerned: two among these, with sub-nanosecond mean residence time, tau(w), are characteristic of surface hydration water; the slower time-scale (tau(w) approximately 2/3 ns) is associated with buried water molecules in hydrophilic pores and in superficial clefts. The computed tau(w) values in the two independent runs fall in a similar range and are consistent with each other, thus adding extra weight to our result. The tau(w) of surface water obtained from the two independent trajectories is 20 and 24 ps. In both simulations only three water molecules are bound to lysozyme for the entire length of the trajectories, in agreement with nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion estimates. Locations other than those identified in the protein crystal are found to be possible for these long-residing water molecules. The dynamics of the hydration water molecules observed in our simulations implies that each water molecule visits a multitude of residues during the lifetime of its bound with the protein. The number of residues seen by a single water molecule increases with the time-scale of its residence time and, on average, is equal to one only for the water molecules with shorter residence time. Thus, tau(w) values obtained from inelastic neutron scattering and based on jump-diffusion models are likely not to account for the contribution of water molecules with longer residence time. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs;Efeito da radiacao gama em proteina alergenica de ovos de galinhas poedeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia Nalesso Costa

    2009-07-01

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of {sup 60}Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation

  6. THE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN AMINO-ACIDS SUPPLEMENTATION OF THE LAYING HEN`S FODDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA SIMIZ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment has been carried out on 69 Tetra SL hens, 27-36 weeks old, distributed into 3 groups consisted of 23 hens. They were fed with fodder recipes with different protein levels (17, 16 and respectively 15%. These recipes have been supplemented with DL-methionine and L-lysine up to the level of 0.80% lysine and 0.38% methionine. Fish flour has participated in a proportion of 3% in group 1, 1.5% in group 2 and it was absent from the fodder structure used in group 3. The reduction of crude protein with 1-2p% compared to the available commercial products, but with an amino acid supplementation, has led to the improvement of the economic criteria regarding egg production, generating savings of 7.7% in the group with 16% CP and of 12.8% in the group with 15% CP. The egg mass has not been affected significantly (p>0.05, the best yield being achieved from the hens fed with a 16%CP recipe.

  7. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying hens 27 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and five replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet without CNM and others with the inclusion of this food at levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Upon regression analysis, a linear increase in nitrogen metabolism, crude energy and apparently metabolizable energy was seen. The dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy corrected for rations were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM. Feed intake and egg weight were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM; however, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and yolk color worsened linearly with inclusion of CNM. Compared to control diet, the inclusion of CNM worsened the egg mass and feed conversion from 15%, and yolk color from 20%. As a result, it is recommended the inclusion of the CNM in the diet of laying hens at a maximum level of 10%.

  8. Modeling disordered protein interactions from biophysical principles.

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    Lenna X Peterson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Disordered protein-protein interactions (PPIs, those involving a folded protein and an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP, are prevalent in the cell, including important signaling and regulatory pathways. IDPs do not adopt a single dominant structure in isolation but often become ordered upon binding. To aid understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disordered PPIs, it is crucial to obtain the tertiary structure of the PPIs. However, experimental methods have difficulty in solving disordered PPIs and existing protein-protein and protein-peptide docking methods are not able to model them. Here we present a novel computational method, IDP-LZerD, which models the conformation of a disordered PPI by considering the biophysical binding mechanism of an IDP to a structured protein, whereby a local segment of the IDP initiates the interaction and subsequently the remaining IDP regions explore and coalesce around the initial binding site. On a dataset of 22 disordered PPIs with IDPs up to 69 amino acids, successful predictions were made for 21 bound and 18 unbound receptors. The successful modeling provides additional support for biophysical principles. Moreover, the new technique significantly expands the capability of protein structure modeling and provides crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms of disordered PPIs.

  9. The influence of low frequency of external electric field on nucleation enhancement of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weichun; Xu, Haixing; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Jin; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Han, Jianzhong; Li, Ang

    2015-10-01

    Protein crystal nucleation processes are drawing increasing interests in both academic and industrial communities. Electric field is a promising means, due to its versatility and easy application, among various external fields that may lead to controllable desired protein crystal nucleation. Different from literature reported experimental and theoretical studies that examined the effects of high frequency electric fields; this work was focused on the low frequency range. For this purpose, Hen-White Lysozyme crystal nucleation from its aqueous solution was used as the model system. We found by experiments that the nucleation rate is non-monotonously dependent on electric field frequency less than 1 kHz, which may be ascribed to the mutual orientation modification between neighbor protein molecules induced by the external low frequency, and is different from the case of high frequencies that influence the intermolecular interactions.

  10. Níveis de proteína e de vitamina E para matrizes de frango de corte. 1. Efeito sobre o desempenho das matrizes, composição do ovo e desempenho da progênie Protein and vitamin E levels for broiler breed hens. 1. Effects on broiler breed performance, egg composition and performance of their progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L.T. Barreto

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de dois níveis de proteína bruta (PB, 14 e 16%, e dois de vitamina E (VE, 25 e 250mg/kg, na dieta sobre o desempenho e composição do ovo de matrizes de frangos de corte, entre 24 e 54 semanas de idade e sobre o desempenho de suas progênies. Foram alojadas 480 fêmeas e 48 machos da linhagem Ross, com 18 semanas de idade, em 16 boxes com 30 fêmeas e 3 machos em cada um. As dietas foram à base de milho e farelo de soja, sendo todas isocalóricas (2750kcal de EM/kg. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, constituído de quatro tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2×2, sendo dois níveis de PB (NPB e dois níveis de VE (NVE, representados por quatro repetições cada um. A produção de ovos/ave/dia, o número de ovos/ave-alojada, o peso do ovo, a viabilidade, o peso corporal das fêmeas no final do experimento e a percentagem de gema no ovo não foram influenciados (P>0,05 pelos tratamentos e nem pela interação entre NVE × NPB. Menor percentagem de casca (P0,05 dos NPB e dos NVE, representados pelo peso do ovo incubado, pela taxa de eclosão, pela razão entre o peso do ovo e o peso da progênie e pelo desempenho da progênie até a idade de abate. Porém, maior peso ao nascer (PThis study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of supplementation of two levels of crude protein (14 and 16% CP and vitamin E (25 and 250mg VE/kg in the diet on the performance and egg composition of broiler breed hens and on the performance of their progeny during the laying period (24-to-54 weeks of age. Thus 480 female and 48 male Ross breeder 18-week-old birds were randomly distributed in 16 floor pens, with 30 females and three males in each one. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and all them were isoenergetics (2750kcal ME/kg. The experimental design was a complete randomized block and the treatments were arranged in 2 × 2 factorial (CP × VE levels with two

  11. Digestible threonine to lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 24-40 weeks

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    Tatiana Cristina da Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-hundred sixteen white laying hens were used to assess the ideal ratio of digestible threonine:lysine in diets for laying hens at 24 to 40 weeks of age. Birds were assigned to a randomized block design, with six treatments, six replicates per treatment and six birds per experimental unit. The cage was used as the blocking criterion. Experimental diets contained different digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratios (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90% with 142 g/kg of crude protein. Experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric with different contents of L-glutamic acid. Feed intake (g/hen/d, egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/hen/d, feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen and kg/kg egg, eggshell weight (g, albumen weight (g, yolk weight (g and body weight gain (g were assessed. The maximum egg production was observed at 78% digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio, while the best values of feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen egg and feed conversion ratio (kg/kg of egg were observed at 77.6% and 75%, respectively. Feed intake, egg mass and egg contents (yolk, albumen and eggshell were not affected by treatments. The estimated digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of Hy-Line W36 laying hens at 24 to 40 weeks of age is 78%, corresponding to 5.70 g/kg of dietary digestible threonine.

  12. Adding value to the meat of spent laying hens manufacturing sausages with a healthy appeal

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    KMR de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of the use of spent laying hens' meat in the manufacturing of mortadella-type sausages with healthy appeal by using vegetable oil instead of animal fat. 120 Hy-line® layer hens were distributed in a completely randomized design into two treatments of six replicates with ten birds each. The treatments were birds from light Hy-line® W36 and semi-heavy Hy-line® Brown lines. Cold carcass, wing, breast and leg fillets yields were determined. Dry matter, protein, and lipid contents were determined in breast and leg fillets. The breast and legg fillets of three replicates per treatment were used to manufacture mortadella. After processing, sausages were evaluated for proximal composition, objective color, microbiological parameters, fatty acid profile and sensory acceptance. The meat of light and semi-heavy spent hens presented good yield and composition, allowing it to be used as raw material for the manufacture of processed products. Mortadellas were safe from microbiological point of view, and those made with semi-heavy hens fillets were redder and better accepted by consumers. Values for all sensory attributes were evaluated over score 5 (neither liked nor disliked. Both products presented high polyunsaturated fatty acid contents and good polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. The excellent potential for the use of meat from spent layer hens of both varieties in the manufacturing of healthier mortadella-type sausage was demonstrated.

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING BIOSECURITY ADOPTION ON LAYING HEN FARMERS

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    V.S. Lestari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to identify factors that influences biosecurity adoption on laying hen farmers in Sidrap district, South Sulawesi. This district was choosen because beside it was famous as the center of laying hen farms, it was also as one of districts in South Sulawesi which suffered from Avian influenza outbreak. Total samples were 60 respondents. The samples were choosen through stratified random sampling from two subdistricts which had the most populous of layer smallholders, namely Baranti and Maritengngae. Data were obtained through observations and interviews using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a score based on biosecurity status. Biosecurity status was obtained based on the adoption of biosecurity measures which consisted of 9 stages: farm inputs, traffic onto farms, distance from sources of pathogens to shed, exposure of farm, biosecurity at farm boundary, biosecurity between farm boundary and shed, biosecurity at the shed door, traffic into the shed and susceptibility of the flock. Multiple regression model was employed to analyze the data. The study revealed that the adoption biosecurity were associated with gender, age, education, farming experience, farm-income, family size and social capital. These variables contributed 20% variation in biosecurity adoption of laying hen farms. However, only farm income, family size and social capital were the major factors influencing to the adoption of biosecurity (P<0.05.

  14. Learning generative models for protein fold families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Sivaraman; Kamisetty, Hetunandan; Carbonell, Jaime G; Lee, Su-In; Langmead, Christopher James

    2011-04-01

    We introduce a new approach to learning statistical models from multiple sequence alignments (MSA) of proteins. Our method, called GREMLIN (Generative REgularized ModeLs of proteINs), learns an undirected probabilistic graphical model of the amino acid composition within the MSA. The resulting model encodes both the position-specific conservation statistics and the correlated mutation statistics between sequential and long-range pairs of residues. Existing techniques for learning graphical models from MSA either make strong, and often inappropriate assumptions about the conditional independencies within the MSA (e.g., Hidden Markov Models), or else use suboptimal algorithms to learn the parameters of the model. In contrast, GREMLIN makes no a priori assumptions about the conditional independencies within the MSA. We formulate and solve a convex optimization problem, thus guaranteeing that we find a globally optimal model at convergence. The resulting model is also generative, allowing for the design of new protein sequences that have the same statistical properties as those in the MSA. We perform a detailed analysis of covariation statistics on the extensively studied WW and PDZ domains and show that our method out-performs an existing algorithm for learning undirected probabilistic graphical models from MSA. We then apply our approach to 71 additional families from the PFAM database and demonstrate that the resulting models significantly out-perform Hidden Markov Models in terms of predictive accuracy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Concentração de proteínas em gemas de ovos de poedeiras (Gallus gallus nos diferentes ciclos de postura e sua interferência na disponibilidade do ferro Protein concentration (phosvitin and lipovitelin in egg yolks of Laying Hens (Gallus gallus in different posture cycles and its interference in the iron availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vidal Sartori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é o produto de eficiente transformação biológica feita pela galinha (Gallus gallus de postura, com alta qualidade nutricional para o consumo humano. Na gema do ovo encontra-se a proteína denominada fosvitina, que atua como carreadora do ferro se ligando a ele. A deficiência de ferro ocorre normalmente devido ao consumo insuficiente de alimentos fontes de ferro ou à baixa biodisponibilidade. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a concentração de proteínas, em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina presente em gemas de ovos crus e cozidos nos diferentes ciclos de postura (inicial, intermediário e final e avaliar a interferência desta proteína na disponibilidade do micronutriente ferro. Os tratamentos foram realizados em diferentes períodos e utilizaram ovos crus e cozidos, sendo gemas cruas de poedeiras em início, meio e fim de postura e gemas cozidas nos três ciclos de postura. Foram realizadas as análises de composição centesimal, concentração de ferro total e dialisável, concentração de proteínas em gemas e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Houve diferença na concentração de proteínas e diferentes níveis de ferro dialisável nos três ciclos de postura, porém em gemas cruas e cozidas. Com o passar dos ciclos (inicial, intermediário e final, as poedeiras mais velhas, apresentaram ovos (gemas com um teor mais elevado de ferro disponível, porém uma quantidade inferior de proteínas em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina, comparando-se com os ciclos inicial e intermediário. A disponibilidade de ferro foi mais elevada em gemas que passaram pelo processo de cocção, porém em poedeiras de postura final.The egg is the product of efficient biological transformation made by a laying hen. It has high nutritional value for human consumption. Most of the iron in egg yolk is bound by phosvitin, a major protein present in the egg yolk. Iron deficiency normally occurs due to insufficient intake of dietary iron

  16. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of DDGS and BBP. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Heterogeneity Determination and Purification of Commercial Hen Egg-White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. R.; Vekilov, P. G.; Rosenberger, F.

    1998-01-01

    Hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) is widely used as a model protein, although its purity has not been adequately characterized by modern biochemical techniques. We have identified and quantified the protein heterogeneities in three commercial HEWL preparations by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with enhanced silver staining, reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and immunoblotting with comparison to authentic protein standards. Depending on the source, the contaminating proteins totalled 1-6%(w/w) and consisted of ovotransferrin, ovalbumin, HEWL dimers, and polypeptides with approximate M(sub r) of 39 and 18 kDa. Furthermore, we have obtained gram quantities of electrophoretically homogeneous [> 99.9%(w/w)] HEWL by single-step semi-preparative scale cation-exchange FPLC with a yield of about 50%. Parallel studies of crystal growth kinetics, salt repartitioning and crystal perfection with this highly purified material showed fourfold increases in the growth-step velocities and significant enhancement in the structural homogeneity of HEWL crystals.

  18. Cooled perch effects on performance and well-being traits in caged White Leghorn hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J Y; Hester, P Y; Makagon, M M; Vezzoli, G; Gates, R S; Xiong, Y J; Cheng, H W

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the effects of chilled water cooling perches on hen performance and physiological and behavioral parameters under "natural" high temperatures during the 2013 summer with a 4-hour acute heating episode. White Leghorns at 16 wk of age (N = 162) were randomly assigned to 18 cages (n = 9) arranged into 3 units. Each unit was assigned to one of the 3 treatments through 32 wk of age: 1) cooled perches, 2) air perches, and 3) no perches. Chilled water (10°C) was circulated through the cooled perches when cage ambient temperature exceeded 25°C. At the age of 27.6 wk, hens were subjected to a 4-hour acute heating episode of 33.3°C and plasma corticosterone was determined within 2 hours. Egg production was recorded daily. Feed intake and egg and shell quality were measured at 5-week intervals. Feather condition, foot health, adrenal and liver weights, plasma corticosterone, and heat shock protein 70 mRNA were determined at the end of the study at 32 wk of age. The proportion of hens per cage perching, feeding, drinking, panting, and wing spreading was evaluated over one d every 5 wks and on the d of acute heat stress. There were no treatment effects on the measured physiological and production traits except for nail length. Nails were shorter for cooled perch hens than control (P = 0.002) but not air perch hens. Panting and wing spread were observed only on the day of acute heat stress. The onset of both behaviors was delayed for cooled perch hens, and they perched more than air perch hens following acute heat stress (P = 0.001) and at the age 21.4 wk (P = 0.023). Cooled perch hens drank less than control (P = 0.019) but not air perch hens at the age 21.4 wk. These results indicate that thermally cooled perches reduced thermoregulatory behaviors during acute heat stress, but did not affect their performance and physiological parameters under the ambient temperature imposed during this study. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  19. Modelling of DNA-protein recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, R.; Garduno, R.; Colombano, S.; Nir, S.; Haydock, K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer model-building procedures using stereochemical principles together with theoretical energy calculations appear to be, at this stage, the most promising route toward the elucidation of DNA-protein binding schemes and recognition principles. A review of models and bonding principles is conducted and approaches to modeling are considered, taking into account possible di-hydrogen-bonding schemes between a peptide and a base (or a base pair) of a double-stranded nucleic acid in the major groove, aspects of computer graphic modeling, and a search for isogeometric helices. The energetics of recognition complexes is discussed and several models for peptide DNA recognition are presented.

  20. The effect of essential plant oils on mineral composition of egg mass and blood parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert HERKEĽ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to analyze the dietary effect of pumpkin and flaxseed oils on mineral composition of egg mass and blood parameters of laying hens. At 38 weeks of age, Lohmann Brown Lite hens were housed in three-floor cages, divided into three dietary groups (C-control, E1-pumpkin oil (3%, E2-flaxseed oil (3%. There were housed six hens in one cage. A total 18 hens were monitored. In the control group hens were fed with standard complete feed mixture for laying hens and in the experimental groups by feed mixtures with supplementation of pumpkin or flaxseed oils. Vitamin E was added into feed mixture in the experimental groups. The experiment lasted 52 days. Twelve eggs from each dietary treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. As regards the mineral composition of eggs, only concentrations of calcium after both oil supplementations and zinc after flaxseed oil supplementation in diet were significantly (P0.05 influence on enzymatic and protein profile.

  1. Fast loop modeling for protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiong; Nguyen, Son; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong; Kosztin, Ioan

    2015-03-01

    X-ray crystallography is the main method for determining 3D protein structures. In many cases, however, flexible loop regions of proteins cannot be resolved by this approach. This leads to incomplete structures in the protein data bank, preventing further computational study and analysis of these proteins. For instance, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of structure-function relationship require complete protein structures. To address this shortcoming, we have developed and implemented an efficient computational method for building missing protein loops. The method is database driven and uses deep learning and multi-dimensional scaling algorithms. We have implemented the method as a simple stand-alone program, which can also be used as a plugin in existing molecular modeling software, e.g., VMD. The quality and stability of the generated structures are assessed and tested via energy scoring functions and by equilibrium MD simulations. The proposed method can also be used in template-based protein structure prediction. Work supported by the National Institutes of Health [R01 GM100701]. Computer time was provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.

  2. Impact of supplementing diets with propolis on productive performance, egg quality traits and some haematological variables of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, A A A; El-Sheikh, T M

    2017-06-01

    One hundred and twenty eight, 28-weeks-old Lohmann LSL hybrid layers were used in this experiment, which lasted 12 weeks to investigate the effect of propolis supplementation on the productive performance, egg quality traits and haematological variables of laying hens. All hens were randomly classified into four equal experimental groups, eight replicates (4 birds/each). Hens in group 1 were fed on a commercial diet and considered as control group, while those in groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed on the same commercial diet and supplemented with 250, 500 and 1000 mg propolis/kg diet. The obtained results revealed that daily feed consumption/hen increased insignificantly with increasing propolis level than that of the control group. Regarding the means of egg mass and egg production rate, it was observed that the laying hens fed diets containing 250 and 1000 mg propolis/kg significantly (p hens as compared to those in the control. Concerning the haematological parameters, the results showed that the levels of total protein and globulin increased significantly with increasing propolis level, while cholesterol and liver enzymes were significantly decreased (p hens in the treated groups significantly decreased, whereas the lymphocyte count significantly increased, resulting in a decreased H/L ratio than that of the control group. Thus, it could be concluded that the supplementation of 250 mg propolis/kg diet is highly recommended to improving egg production, blood constituent and haematological parameters of the commercial laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Effect of Quantum phytase on nutrient digestibility and bone ash in White Leghorn laying hens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A L; Dahiya, J P; Wyatt, C L; Classen, H L

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of an Escherichia coli 6-phytase supplementation (Quantum) on nutrient digestibility-retention and bone ash in laying hens fed corn-soybean meal (CSM) diets was investigated. White Leghorn hens (Shaver and Bovan strains) were fed CSM diets containing 0.35% (positive control, PC), 0.25% (negative control 1, NC1), or 0.15% (negative control 2, NC2) nonphytate P from 21 to 61 wk of age. Six more diets were manufactured by supplementing the negative control diets with 200, 400, and 600 units per kilogram of exogenous phytase resulting in a total of 9 treatments. Each dietary treatment x strain subclass was replicated twice with 6 hens per replication. Fecal and ileal digesta samples were collected at 42 wk of age to determine apparent nutrient digestibility or retention. Left tibiae were collected at 42 and 61 wk of age to determine bone ash. The coefficients for ileal digestibility and fecal retention for protein were higher (P ash percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in 61-wk-old hens fed 200 or 400 units per kilogram of phytase-supplemented NC2 diets. Significantly higher diet AME and fecal protein retention were demonstrated for Shaver hens in comparison to the Bovan hens. Overall, the Quantum phytase was not efficacious at improving nutrient digestibility-retention in laying hens fed CSM diets deficient in nonphytate P.

  4. Parthenogenesis in mated Chinese Painted quail (Coturnix chinensis) hens decreases sperm-egg penetration and alters albumen characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Rosa, P; Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; McDaniel, C D

    2016-10-15

    Parthenogenesis, embryonic development without fertilization, resembles very early embryonic mortality in fertilized eggs. Also, parthenogenesis alters egg albumen characteristics in virgin Chinese Painted quail hens genetically selected for parthenogenesis (PV). When these PV hens are mated (PM), hatchability is reduced versus control mated (CM) hens that were not genetically selected for parthenogenesis. However, it is unclear if parthenogenesis, which occurs in PM hens, reduces hatchability due to infertility and altered albumen characteristics. Sperm-egg penetration (SEP) holes are indicative of true fertilization and may be useful in identifying if eggs from PM hens exhibit a decrease in fertility versus CM hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if parthenogenesis in PM hens (1) decreases SEP, (2) alters albumen characteristics similar to parthenogenesis in eggs from PV hens, and (3) yields albumen characteristics similar to fertilized eggs containing early mortality. Daily, PV and PM eggs were collected, labeled, and incubated for 10 days, then broken out to determine the incidence of parthenogenesis and albumen characteristics. Also daily, fresh PM and CM quail eggs were macroscopically examined to determine if an egg was infertile with no embryonic development, parthenogenetic, or fertile. Each of these eggs was then microscopically examined for SEP. For both PV and PM incubated eggs, parthenogenesis decreased albumen pH, O2, and protein concentrations yet increased Ca(2+) and CO2 concentrations versus eggs with no development. For incubated PM eggs, albumen pH and O2 were lower, yet CO2 was higher for eggs containing parthenogens or early dead embryos versus infertile eggs. For SEP, fresh eggs classified as infertile or parthenogenetic from PM and CM hens had similar SEP holes but only one sixth as many SEP holes as eggs classified as fertilized. Eggs from CM hens had 3.5 times as many SEP holes as PM eggs. In conclusion

  5. Laying performances and egg quality of local barred hens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study was designated to evaluate the laying performances and egg traits in local barred hens. Sixteen (16) hens and 4 cocks were used, divided into 4 experimental units of 4 hens and 1 cock per unit. Methodology and Results: The following parameters were studied: feed intake (g/bird/day), egg production ...

  6. Evaluation of production parameters and nutrient utilization of hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and fifty Babcock hens in their 10th week of lay were divided into 5 groups of 50 hens each and randomly assigned to the 5 treatment rations in a completely randomized design (CRD). Data were collected on average final weight, body weight change, average feed intake, average hen-day lay, average egg ...

  7. Lysophosphatidic acid produced by hen egg white lysophospholipase D induces vascular development on extraembryonic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Junichi; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi; Satouchi, Kiyoshi; Yoshiomoto, Tanihiro; Tokumura, Akira

    2013-03-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (lysoPtdOH), a lysophospholipid mediator, exerts diverse physiological effects, including angiogenesis, through its specific G-protein-coupled receptors. Previously, we showed that unfertilized hen egg white contains polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich lysoPtdOH and lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD). Here, we examined whether lysoPtdOH was produced by lysoPLD in the presence and absence of a hen fertilized ovum and what the physiological role of lysoPtdOH in hen egg white is. Mass spectrometry showed that fertilized hen egg white contained about 8 μM lysoPtdOH before incubation with an ovum, mainly comprised of 18:1- (12.6 %), 18:2- (37.8 %) and 20:4-molecular species (41.5 %). In an early gestation period, the lysoPtdOH was increased up to 9.6 μM, concomitant with a decrease in the level of polyunsaturated lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho). Moreover, lysoPtdOH-degrading activities were found in egg white and the vitelline membrane, showing that these enzymes control lysoPtdOH levels in egg white. In an egg yolk angiogenesis assay, two lysoPtdOH receptor antagonists, Ki16425 and N-palmitoyl serine phosphoric acid (NASP), inhibited blood vessel formation induced by exogenously added 18:1-lysoPtdOH and its precursor lysoPtdCho on the hen yolk sac. Ki16425 and NASP also inhibited blood vessel formation in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Furthermore, the relatively higher levels of LPA₁, LPA₂, LPA₄ and LPA₆ mRNA were present in the yolk sac and CAM. These results suggest that lysoPtdOH produced from lysoPtdCho by the action of lysoPLD in hen egg white is involved in the formation of blood vessel networks through several lysoPtdOH receptors on various extraembryonic membranes, including the yolk sac membrane and CAM.

  8. Biochemical Parameters and Histopathological Findings in the Forced Molt Laying Hens

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    N Mert

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of forced molting using biochemical parameters and histopathological findings in laying hens. 36 Hyline W36 strain laying hens, 90 weeks old were chosen for this research. Eight of these chickens were randomly selected and placed in a cage as the control group before the molting program began. All the others 28 chickens were used for the forced molting program. Eight laying hens were slaughtered at the end of the molting program named as molting group. The remaining 20 hens were fed for 37 days, weighted and slaughtered when they reached the maximum egg production (80% as postmolting group. Then, blood was analyzed for malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, albumin, globulin, total protein, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and Vitamin C. The malondialdehyde and glutathione levels of the thyroid and liver tissues were also analyzed along with an examination of the histopathological changes of the liver, ovarium and thyroid glands; and live body, liver, ovarium, thyroid weights and thyroid lengths. In conclusion, it was found that forced molting produces stress and notable side effects in hens, like the oxidant and antioxidant status of the organs, tissue weights and sizes, hormon profiles, blood biochemical and histopathological parameter changes. The activities of thyroid malondialdehyde (p<0.05, liver glutathione (p<0.01, plasma catalase (p<0.001 were significantly decreased in molting group compared to control values, while liver malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased (p<0.001 and thyroid glutathione levels had nonsignificant effect. These levels in molting hens were the first study for veterinary science.

  9. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Hen Survival: Effects of Raptors, Anthropogenic and Landscape Features, and Hen Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Conover, Michael R.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Frey, S. Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Survival of breeding-age hens has been identified as the demographic rate with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte, 1827); hereafter “Sage-Grouse”). During 2008–2011, we collected summer survival data from 427 Sage-Grouse hens in southern Wyoming, USA. We assessed the effects of raptor densities, anthropogenic features, landscape features, and Sage-Grouse hen behavior on Sage-Grouse hen survival. Survival of Sage-G...

  10. The Protein Model Portal--a comprehensive resource for protein structure and model information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Juergen; Roth, Steven; Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Schmidt, Tobias; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The Protein Model Portal (PMP) has been developed to foster effective use of 3D molecular models in biomedical research by providing convenient and comprehensive access to structural information for proteins. Both experimental structures and theoretical models for a given protein can be searched simultaneously and analyzed for structural variability. By providing a comprehensive view on structural information, PMP offers the opportunity to apply consistent assessment and validation criteria to the complete set of structural models available for proteins. PMP is an open project so that new methods developed by the community can contribute to PMP, for example, new modeling servers for creating homology models and model quality estimation servers for model validation. The accuracy of participating modeling servers is continuously evaluated by the Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) project. The PMP offers a unique interface to visualize structural coverage of a protein combining both theoretical models and experimental structures, allowing straightforward assessment of the model quality and hence their utility. The portal is updated regularly and actively developed to include latest methods in the field of computational structural biology. Database URL: http://www.proteinmodelportal.org.

  11. The Protein Model Portal—a comprehensive resource for protein structure and model information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Juergen; Roth, Steven; Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Schmidt, Tobias; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The Protein Model Portal (PMP) has been developed to foster effective use of 3D molecular models in biomedical research by providing convenient and comprehensive access to structural information for proteins. Both experimental structures and theoretical models for a given protein can be searched simultaneously and analyzed for structural variability. By providing a comprehensive view on structural information, PMP offers the opportunity to apply consistent assessment and validation criteria to the complete set of structural models available for proteins. PMP is an open project so that new methods developed by the community can contribute to PMP, for example, new modeling servers for creating homology models and model quality estimation servers for model validation. The accuracy of participating modeling servers is continuously evaluated by the Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) project. The PMP offers a unique interface to visualize structural coverage of a protein combining both theoretical models and experimental structures, allowing straightforward assessment of the model quality and hence their utility. The portal is updated regularly and actively developed to include latest methods in the field of computational structural biology. Database URL: http://www.proteinmodelportal.org PMID:23624946

  12. Modeling protein structures: construction and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, C S; Cohen, F E

    1993-06-01

    Although no general solution to the protein folding problem exists, the three-dimensional structures of proteins are being successfully predicted when experimentally derived constraints are used in conjunction with heuristic methods. In the case of interleukin-4, mutagenesis data and CD spectroscopy were instrumental in the accurate assignment of secondary structure. In addition, the tertiary structure was highly constrained by six cysteines separated by many residues that formed three disulfide bridges. Although the correct structure was a member of a short list of plausible structures, the "best" structure was the topological enantiomer of the experimentally determined conformation. For many proteases, other experimentally derived structures can be used as templates to identify the secondary structure elements. In a procedure called modeling by homology, the structure of a known protein is used as a scaffold to predict the structure of another related protein. This method has been used to model a serine and a cysteine protease that are important in the schistosome and malarial life cycles, respectively. The model structures were then used to identify putative small molecule enzyme inhibitors computationally. Experiments confirm that some of these nonpeptidic compounds are active at concentrations of less than 10 microM.

  13. Hot Electron Nanoscopy and Spectroscopy (HENs)

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2017-08-17

    This chapter includes a brief description of different laser coupling methods with guided surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at the surface of a cone. It shows some devices, their electromagnetic simulations, and their optical characterization. A theoretical section illustrates the optical and quantum description of the hot charge generation rate as obtained for the SPP propagation along the nanocone in adiabatic compression. The chapter also shows some experimental results concerning the application of the hot electron nanoscopy and spectroscopy (HENs) in the so-called Schottky configuration, highlighting the sensitivity and the nanoscale resolution of the technique. The comparison with Kelvin probe and other electric atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques points out the intrinsic advantages of the HENs. In the end, some further insights are given about the possibility of exploiting HENs with a pulsed laser at the femtosecond time scale without significant pulse broadening and dispersion.

  14. Predicting Protein Secondary Structure with Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Larsen, Simon; Thomsen, Claus

    2004-01-01

    we are considering here, is to predict the secondary structure from the primary one. To this end we train a Markov model on training data and then use it to classify parts of unknown protein sequences as sheets, helices or coils. We show how to exploit the directional information contained...... in the Markov model for this task. Classifications that are purely based on statistical models might not always be biologically meaningful. We present combinatorial methods to incorporate biological background knowledge to enhance the prediction performance....

  15. Molecular modeling of protein A affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Zamolo, Laura; Busini, Valentina; Moscatelli, Davide; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2009-12-11

    The properties of the complex between fragment B of Protein A and the Fc domain of IgG were investigated adopting molecular dynamics with the intent of providing useful insight that might be exploited to design mimetic ligands with properties similar to those of Protein A. Simulations were performed both for the complex in solution and supported on an agarose surface, which was modeled as an entangled structure constituted by two agarose double chains. The energetic analysis was performed by means of the molecular mechanics Poisson Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA), molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA), and the linear interaction energy (LIE) approaches. An alanine scan was performed to determine the relative contribution of Protein A key amino acids to the complex interaction energy. It was found that three amino acids play a dominant role: Gln 129, Phe 132 and Lys 154, though also four other residues, Tyr 133, Leu 136, Glu 143 and Gln 151 contribute significantly to the overall binding energy. A successive molecular dynamics analysis of Protein A re-organization performed when it is not in complex with IgG has however shown that Phe 132 and Tyr 133 interact among themselves establishing a significant pi-pi interaction, which is disrupted upon formation of the complex with IgG and thus reduces consistently their contribution to the protein-antibody bond. The effect that adsorbing fragment B of Protein A on an agarose support has on the stability of the protein-antibody bond was investigated using a minimal molecular model and compared to a similar study performed for a synthetic ligand. It was found that the interaction with the surface does not hinder significantly the capability of Protein A to interact with IgG, while it is crucial for the synthetic ligand. These results indicate that ligand-surface interactions should be considered in the design of new synthetic affinity ligands in order to achieve results comparable to those of Protein A

  16. Paul Henning Krogh on Soil Ecotoxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning

    2008-01-01

    In a recent analysis of data from Essential Science Indicators SM from Thomson Reuters , Dr. Paul Henning Krogh was named a Rising Star in the field of Environment & Ecology. His current record in this field includes 48 papers cited a total of 410 times. Dr. Krogh is a Senior Scientist in the Dep......In a recent analysis of data from Essential Science Indicators SM from Thomson Reuters , Dr. Paul Henning Krogh was named a Rising Star in the field of Environment & Ecology. His current record in this field includes 48 papers cited a total of 410 times. Dr. Krogh is a Senior Scientist...

  17. Protein Folding: Search for Basic Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Y. Torshin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How a unique three-dimensional structure is rapidly formed from the linear sequence of a polypeptide is one of the important questions in contemporary science. Apart from biological context of in vivo protein folding (which has been studied only for a few proteins, the roles of the fundamental physical forces in the in vitro folding remain largely unstudied. Despite a degree of success in using descriptions based on statistical and/or thermodynamic approaches, few of the current models explicitly include more basic physical forces (such as electrostatics and Van Der Waals forces. Moreover, the present-day models rarely take into account that the protein folding is, essentially, a rapid process that produces a highly specific architecture. This review considers several physical models that may provide more direct links between sequence and tertiary structure in terms of the physical forces. In particular, elaboration of such simple models is likely to produce extremely effective computational techniques with value for modern genomics.

  18. Ortho-methylated 3-hydroxypyridines hinder hen egg-white lysozyme fibrillogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Laura; Pauwels, Kris; Casasnovas, Rodrigo; Sanchis, Pilar; Vilanova, Bartolomé; Muñoz, Francisco; Donoso, Josefa; Adrover, Miquel

    2015-07-01

    Protein aggregation with the concomitant formation of amyloid fibrils is related to several neurodegenerative diseases, but also to non-neuropathic amyloidogenic diseases and non-neurophatic systemic amyloidosis. Lysozyme is the protein involved in the latter, and it is widely used as a model system to study the mechanisms underlying fibril formation and its inhibition. Several phenolic compounds have been reported as inhibitors of fibril formation. However, the anti-aggregating capacity of other heteroaromatic compounds has not been studied in any depth. We have screened the capacity of eleven different hydroxypyridines to affect the acid-induced fibrillization of hen lysozyme. Although most of the tested hydroxypyridines alter the fibrillation kinetics of HEWL, only 3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine, 3-hydroxy-6-methylpyridine and 3-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylpyridine completely abolish fibril formation. Different biophysical techniques and several theoretical approaches are combined to elucidate their mechanism of action. O-methylated 3-hydroxypyridines bind non-cooperatively to two distinct but amyloidogenic regions of monomeric lysozyme. This stabilises the protein structure, as evidenced by enhanced thermal stability, and results in the inhibition of the conformational transition that precedes fibril assembly. Our results point to o-methylated 3-hydroxypyridines as a promising molecular scaffold for the future development of novel fibrillization inhibitors.

  19. Modeling disordered regions in proteins using Rosetta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Yu-Ruei Wang

    Full Text Available Protein structure prediction methods such as Rosetta search for the lowest energy conformation of the polypeptide chain. However, the experimentally observed native state is at a minimum of the free energy, rather than the energy. The neglect of the missing configurational entropy contribution to the free energy can be partially justified by the assumption that the entropies of alternative folded states, while very much less than unfolded states, are not too different from one another, and hence can be to a first approximation neglected when searching for the lowest free energy state. The shortcomings of current structure prediction methods may be due in part to the breakdown of this assumption. Particularly problematic are proteins with significant disordered regions which do not populate single low energy conformations even in the native state. We describe two approaches within the Rosetta structure modeling methodology for treating such regions. The first does not require advance knowledge of the regions likely to be disordered; instead these are identified by minimizing a simple free energy function used previously to model protein folding landscapes and transition states. In this model, residues can be either completely ordered or completely disordered; they are considered disordered if the gain in entropy outweighs the loss of favorable energetic interactions with the rest of the protein chain. The second approach requires identification in advance of the disordered regions either from sequence alone using for example the DISOPRED server or from experimental data such as NMR chemical shifts. During Rosetta structure prediction calculations the disordered regions make only unfavorable repulsive contributions to the total energy. We find that the second approach has greater practical utility and illustrate this with examples from de novo structure prediction, NMR structure calculation, and comparative modeling.

  20. EFFICACY OF PROBIOTICS INTAKE ON INTERNAL MILIEU OF HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mellen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the functional efficiency of probiotic preparation on selected blood biochemical parameters of ISA Brown hens. Feed in the experimental group of hens was enriched with a probiotic preparation in the dose of 500g.t-1 consisted of freeze-dried cultures: Lactobacillus bulgaricus LAT 187, L. acidophilus LAT 180, L. helveticus LAT 179, L. delbrueckii ssp. Lactis LAT 182, Streptococcus thermophiles LAT 205, Enterococcus faecium E-253 with concentration of 5.109 (CFU LAB living organisms in 1 gram. Blood samples were collected in 25 and 48 week of hens’ age. Biochemical parameters of mineral profile (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorides, energetic profile (plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, bilirubin, glucose, and activities of serum liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase AST, alanine aminotransferase ALT, alkaline phosphatase ALP were analysed using Ecoline kits and a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyser Microlab 300 (Vilat Scientific, Dieren, The Nederland. Probiotic preparation reduced (P<0.05 serum cholesterol and triglycerides content. No significant effects of probiotic on remaining parameters were confirmed.

  1. Effect of light-emitting diode vs. fluorescent lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 1 - Operational characteristics of lights and production traits of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Ning, Z; Xin, H

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lights are becoming more affordable for agricultural applications. Despite many lab-scale studies concerning impact of LED on poultry, little research has been documented under field production conditions, especially for laying hens. This 15-month field study was carried out to evaluate the effects of LED vs. fluorescent (FL) lights on laying hens (Dekalb white breed) using 4 (2 pairs) aviary hen houses each at a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The evaluation was done regarding operational characteristics of the lights and hen production traits. The results show that spatial distribution of the LED light was less uniform than that of the FL light. Light intensity of the LED light decreased by 27% after 3,360 h use but remained quite steady from 3,360 to 5,760 h use. Eleven out of 762 (1.44%) LED lamps (new at onset of the study) in the 2 houses failed during the 15-month experiment period. The neck area of the LED lamp was hottest, presumably the primary reason for the lamp failure as cracks were noticed in the neck region of all failed LED lamps. No differences were observed in egg weight, hen-day egg production, feed use, and mortality rate between LED and FL regimens. However, hens under the FL had higher eggs per hen housed and better feed conversion than those under the LED during 20 to 70 wk production (P Hens under the LED tended to have less feather uniformity and insulation than those under the FL (P hens under the LED showed a larger median avoidance distance than those under the FL at 36 wk age (P hens under the LED were more alert; but no difference at 60 wk age. More comparative research to quantify behavioral and production responses of different breeds of hens to LED vs. FL lighting seems warranted. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Dietary tea polyphenol supplementation improved egg production performance, albumen quality, and magnum morphology of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Cui; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Shu-Geng; Qi, Guang-Hai

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary supplementation of tea polyphenols (TP) and tea catechins (TC) affect laying performance, albumen quality, ovomucin composition, and magnum morphology of laying hens in the late phase of production. Two hundred seventy Hy-Line Brown laying hens (64 wk old) were assigned to a basal diet (the control), the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg tea polyphenols (TP200) or 200 mg/kg tea catechins (TC200). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens each. The feeding trial lasted 10 wks. Over the course of the trial, dietary supplementation with TP200 significantly increased the egg production (EP) and improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in wk 6 to 10 and wk 1 to 10 (P hens fed TP200 were higher than those of hens fed the control diet at wks 8 and 10 (P 0.05). The SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that bands of the ovomucin fractions in the TP200 group had the highest intensity compared with those of the control and TC200 groups. Compared with the control, there was a significant increase in protein sulfhydryl (SH) content of the albumen in the TP200 group at the end of experiment, while a significant decrease in protein carbonyl content and protein surface hydrophobicity (P hens. In addition, TP rather than TC could improve the health status of the magnum for aged layers.

  3. Effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy on laying hens in barn system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan Ku; Park, Seong Bok; Jeon, Jin Joo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Sang Ho; Hong, Eui Chul; Kim, Chan Ho

    2018-04-12

    This experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) on the laying performance, egg quality, blood parameter, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to laying hens. A total of three-hundred twenty 33-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were evenly assigned to four experimental diets of 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal AMEn/kg in floor with deep litter of rice hulls. There were four replicates of each treatment, each consisting of 20 birds in a pen. AMEn intake was increased (linear, p Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were improved (linear, p hen-day egg production tended to be increased as increasing level of AMEn in diets increased. During the experiment, leukocyte concentration and blood biochemistry (total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, calcium, asparate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) were not influenced by increasing level of AMEn in diets. Gross energy and ether extract were increased (linear, p hens fed high AMEn diet (i.e., 3,050 kcal/kg in the current experiment) tended to overconsume energy with a positive effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology but not in egg production and egg mass.

  4. Dietary supplementation of mannanoligosaccharides to turkey hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... The research focused on the effect of a prebiotic additive, mannanoligosaccharides (Bio-Mos), in the diet of turkey hens on their growth performance and ... Group I was the control group, whereas the birds in group II were fed the control diet with a 0.5% addition of Bio-Mos.

  5. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  6. 1H NMR studies of human lysozyme: Spectral assignment and comparison with hen lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfield, C.; Dobson, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Complete main-chain (NH and αCH) 1 H NMR assignments are reported for the 130 residues of human lysozyme, along with extensive assignments for side-chain protons. Analysis of 2-D NOESY experiments shows that the regions of secondary structure for human lysozyme in solution are essentially identical with those found previously in a similar study of hen lysozyme and are in close accord with the structure of the protein reported previously from x-ray diffraction studies in the crystalline state. Comparison of the chemical shifts, spin-spin coupling constants, and hydrogen exchange behavior are also consistent with closely similar structures for the two proteins in solution. In a number of cases specific differences in the NMR parameters between hen and human lysozymes can be correlated with specific differences observed in the crystal structures

  7. Modelling heating effects in cryocooled protein crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, J; Fayz, K; Fell, B; Garman, E

    2001-01-01

    With the application of intense X-ray beams from third generation synchrotron sources, damage to cryocooled macromolecular crystals is being observed more commonly . In order to fully utilize synchrotron facilities now available for studying biological crystals, it is essential to understand the processes involved in radiation damage and beam heating so that, if possible, action can be taken to slow the rate of damage. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been applied to model the heating effects of X-rays on cryocooled protein crystals, and to compare the relative cooling efficiencies of nitrogen and helium.

  8. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. The Effect of Garlic (Allium Sativum L) Supplementation on Production and Egg Cholesterol Level of Hysex Brown Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    Sutama, INS; Lindawati, SA

    2008-01-01

    This aims of this study was to evaluate the effect of garlic supplementation on production and egg cholesterol level of Hysex Brown laying hens. This study was conducted based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatment of garlic containing 0; 2; 4 and 6% and five replicate.  In each replicate, there were four hens aged 38 weeks. The formulation diet of 2.900,01 ME kcal/kg, 16.5% of protein and drinking water were prepared in ad libitum during 4 weeks observation. The result showed th...

  10. Application of temperature control strategies to the growth of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Constance A.; Riley, Jill S.; Li, Edwin; Arnold, Edward; Wiencek, John M.

    1996-08-01

    Solubility data were combined with mass balances and growth kinetics to derive a temperature control algorithm which maintains a constant level of supersaturation. This constant supersaturation control (CSC) algorithm attempts to maximize the size of protein crystals by maintaining the growth conditions in the metastable zone. Using hen egg-white lysozyme as a model protein system, four temperature programming strategies were employed in seeded and unseeded systems: the CSC algorithm, a linear ramp derived from the CSC algorithm, isothermal 20°C, and isothermal 4°C. Both the CSC-derived linear and the CSC temperature programs yielded large, well-formed crystals which were significantly larger than crystals grown isothermally at 20 and 4°C. The isothermal 4°C program resulted in poorly formed crystals due to the high initial growth rates. The seeded systems displayed much higher levels of nucleation than the unseeded systems which is attributed to secondary nucleation. The results indicate that moderate deviations (˜ 20%) from constant supersaturation can be tolerated, while still producing large, well-formed crystals appropriate for X-ray crystallography.

  11. Epithelial structure and function in the hen lower intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverty, G.; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Árnason, Sigvatur S.

    2006-01-01

    In birds, transport processes in the lower intestine mediate absorption of ions, water and a variety of organic substrates, including significant amounts of glucose, amino acids derived from protein associated with urate spheres, and short-chain fatty acids derived from fermentation processes....... These transport pathways contribute to both osmoregulation and energy homeostasis. Although birds lack a urinary bladder, evidence has shown that ureteral urine, entering the distal lower intestine, is forced into the colon, caecae and even distal portions of the small intestine. Further, substrates also enter......, by resalination of low-salt hens, or by aldosterone administration to high-salt-acclimated birds. In the coprodeum, the changes in transport are paralleled by extensive remodelling of the mucosal surface, with low-salt acclimation increasing cell numbers, microvillus density and length and the proportion...

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING BIOSECURITY ADOPTION ON LAYING HEN FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Lestari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to identify factors that influences biosecurity adoption on layinghen farmers in Sidrap district, South Sulawesi. This district was choosen because beside it was famousas the center of laying hen farms, it was also as one of districts in South Sulawesi which suffered fromAvian influenza outbreak. Total samples were 60 respondents. The samples were choosen throughstratified random sampling from two subdistricts which had the most populous of layer smallholders,namely Baranti and Maritengngae. Data were obtained through observations and interviews using aquestionnaire. Data were analyzed using a score based on biosecurity status. Biosecurity status wasobtained based on the adoption of biosecurity measures which consisted of 9 stages: farm inputs, trafficonto farms, distance from sources of pathogens to shed, exposure of farm, biosecurity at farm boundary,biosecurity between farm boundary and shed, biosecurity at the shed door, traffic into the shed andsusceptibility of the flock. Multiple regression model was employed to analyze the data. The studyrevealed that the adoption biosecurity were associated with gender, age, education, farming experience,farm-income, family size and social capital. These variables contributed 20% variation in biosecurityadoption of laying hen farms. However, only farm income, family size and social capital were the majorfactors influencing to the adoption of biosecurity (P<0.05.

  13. Evaluation of aflatoxicosis in hens fed with commercial poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    DHANASEKARAN, Dharumadurai; PANNEERSELVAM, Annamalai; THAJUDDIN, Noorudin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of aflatoxin in the growth of hens was histopathologically analyzed. Mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated and characterized as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. The aflatoxin was extracted from Aspergillus flavus and their impact on the growth pattern of hens was evaluated. The histopathological analysis reveals that more lesions were found in the vital organs of hens in comparison with the control chick group. In the present study, it is concluded that the quality of poultry ...

  14. The preference for high-fiber feed in laying hens divergently selected on feather pecking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmendal, R; Bessei, W

    2012-08-01

    Earlier studies in laying hens have demonstrated a negative correlation between feather pecking and the dietary fiber content of the feed. However, the factors underlying this relationship are not fully understood. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that birds prone to feather pecking would prefer a diet supplemented with dietary fiber. Thus, the aim was to investigate the voluntary consumption of a wheat-soy control diet (CON) and a diet supplemented with 8% spelt hulls (FIB) on the expense of wheat in 20 individually caged hens selected for high feather pecking (HFP) behavior and 20 individually caged hens selected for low feather pecking (LFP) behavior. The proportional intake of FIB was 0.39 and significantly different from 0.50 (Phens (0.36; Phens had inferior plumage condition (Pfeed intake (Phens plucked more feathers from a simple inanimate feather-pecking model, but the number of feathers being pulled out did not correlate with the proportional intake of FIB. It was concluded that the preference for feed supplemented with spelt hulls was different between hens displaying different feather-pecking behavior. The underlying reason for such a difference needs further investigation.

  15. Simple micromechanical model of protein crystals for their mechanical characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteins have been known to perform the excellent mechanical functions and exhibit the remarkable mechanical properties such as high fracture toughness in spider silk protein [1]. This indicates that the mechanical characterization of protein molecules and/or crystals is very essential to understand such remarkable mechanical function of protein molecules. In this study, for gaining insight into mechanical behavior of protein crystals, we developed the micromechanical model by using the empirical potential field prescribed to alpha carbon atoms of a protein crystal in a unit cell. We consider the simple protein crystals for their mechanical behavior under tensile loading to be compared with full atomic models

  16. Mining protein kinases regulation using graphical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfeng; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-03-01

    Abnormal kinase activity is a frequent cause of diseases, which makes kinases a promising pharmacological target. Thus, it is critical to identify the characteristics of protein kinases regulation by studying the activation and inhibition of kinase subunits in response to varied stimuli. Bayesian network (BN) is a formalism for probabilistic reasoning that has been widely used for learning dependency models. However, for high-dimensional discrete random vectors the set of plausible models becomes large and a full comparison of all the posterior probabilities related to the competing models becomes infeasible. A solution to this problem is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This paper proposes a BN-based framework to discover the dependency correlations of kinase regulation. Our approach is to apply the MCMC method to generate a sequence of samples from a probability distribution, by which to approximate the distribution. The frequent connections (edges) are identified from the obtained sampling graphical models. Our results point to a number of novel candidate regulation patterns that are interesting in biology and include inferred associations that were unknown.

  17. Nest sharing under semi-natural conditions in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    problems to laying hens, and egg production may also be negatively affected. Understanding what causes this difference in nest location selection may provide solutions to the problems associated with simultaneous nest sharing. The aims were to investigate whether a commercial strain of laying hens normally...... daily of each nest with regard to number of eggs, position, and materials used. On five mornings nesting behaviour was observed. Nest sharing occurred on all but the first 5 days of egg-laying. The majority of hens (n = 14) chose to visit an occupied nest at least once, but no hens exclusively used...

  18. A 9-state hidden Markov model using protein secondary structure information for protein fold recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Lee, Jong Yun; Jung, Kwang Su; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2009-06-01

    In protein fold recognition, the main disadvantage of hidden Markov models (HMMs) is the employment of large-scale model architectures which require large data sets and high computational resources for training. Also, HMMs must consider sequential information about secondary structures of proteins, to improve prediction performance and reduce model parameters. Therefore, we propose a novel method for protein fold recognition based on a hidden Markov model, called a 9-state HMM. The method can (i) reduce the number of states using secondary structure information about proteins for each fold and (ii) recognize protein folds more accurately than other HMMs.

  19. Chlorinated drinking water for lightweight laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of chlorine in drinking water of laying hens on zootechnical performance, eggs shell quality, hemogasometry levels and calcium content in tibia. 144 Hy-Line laying hens, 61 weeks old, were used distributed in 24 metabolism cages. They were subjected to water diets, for a period of 28 days, using sodium hypochlorite as a chlorine source in order to obtain the following concentrations: 5ppm (control, 20ppm, 50ppm, and 100ppm. Their performance was evaluated through water consumption, feed intake, egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion. Shell quality was measured by specific gravity. At the end of the experiment, arterial blood was collected for blood gas level assessment and a poultry of each replicate was sacrificed to obtain tibia and calcium content measurement. There was a water consumption reduction from 20ppm of chlorine and feed intake reduction in poultry receiving water with 100ppm of chlorine. The regression analysis showed that the higher the level of chlorine in water, the higher the reduction in consumption. There were no differences in egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion, specific gravity, tibia calcium content, and hemogasometry levels (hydrogenionic potential, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide total concentration, anion gap and oxygen saturation. The use of levels above 5ppm of chlorine is not recommended in the water of lightweight laying hens.

  20. Peningkatan Produktivitas Ayam Petelur Melalui Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kemangi (INCREASED LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KEMANGI LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirically, kemangi leaves reported to increase health quality in human and livestock. Thepreliminary study was designed to explore the potency of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves to increaselaying hens performance. Sixteen laying hens (pullet were divided into 4 groups and repeated 4 times.Control group was laying hen administered aquadest orally, treated group was laying hen administeredextract of kemangi leaves orally at a dose of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg BW, respectively. Every day, the experimentallaying hens were fed for 3 times and drinking water was provided ad libitum. Variables observed were thenumber of eggs, egg weight, time of first laying, egg laying intervals, egg quality ( water content, crudeprotein, and crude fat, and liver function (SGPT and SGOT values . Results of this research showed thatadministration of kemangi leaves extract at a dose of 3 mg/kg BW significantly increased the number ofegg production and egg weight (p<0.05. Time of first laying and laying interval did not show any significantdifference among treatments. Examination of moisture, crude protein, and crude fat content of the eggindicated that the administration of kemangi leaves extract did not affect egg quality. Extract of kemangileaves decreased SGPT and SGOT values that indicated improvement of liver function. It was concludedthat administration of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves could increase laying hens productivity byimprovement of liver function that is critical in vitellogenesis.

  1. Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marono, S; Loponte, R; Lombardi, P; Vassalotti, G; Pero, M E; Russo, F; Gasco, L; Parisi, G; Piccolo, G; Nizza, S; Di Meo, C; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal. Feed intake, number of eggs produced, and egg weight were recorded weekly along the trial. At 45 wk of age, blood samples were collected from 2 hens per replicate. The use of HIML led to a more favorable (P meal produced a higher percentage of eggs from small (S), medium (M), and extra-large (XL) classes (P meal, while creatinine was higher (P meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for laying hens even if the complete replacement of soybean meal needs further investigation to avoid the negative effects on feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Structural insights into mechanisms of the small RNA methyltransferase HEN1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Ji, Lijuan; Huang, Qichen; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Jin-Biao; (UAB); (UCR)

    2010-02-22

    RNA silencing is a conserved regulatory mechanism in fungi, plants and animals that regulates gene expression and defence against viruses and transgenes. Small silencing RNAs of {approx}20-30 nucleotides and their associated effector proteins, the Argonaute family proteins, are the central components in RNA silencing. A subset of small RNAs, such as microRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants, Piwi-interacting RNAs in animals and siRNAs in Drosophila, requires an additional crucial step for their maturation; that is, 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal nucleotide. A conserved S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent RNA methyltransferase, HUA ENHANCER 1 (HEN1), and its homologues are responsible for this specific modification. Here we report the 3.1 {angstrom} crystal structure of full-length HEN1 from Arabidopsis in complex with a 22-nucleotide small RNA duplex and cofactor product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. Highly cooperative recognition of the small RNA substrate by multiple RNA binding domains and the methyltransferase domain in HEN1 measures the length of the RNA duplex and determines the substrate specificity. Metal ion coordination by both 2' and 3' hydroxyls on the 3'-terminal nucleotide and four invariant residues in the active site of the methyltransferase domain suggests a novel Mg{sup 2+}-dependent 2'-O-methylation mechanism.

  3. Wild-type hen egg white lysozyme aggregation in vitro can form self-seeding amyloid conformational variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Vishwanath; Prasanna, Nalla Lakshmi; Sharma, Neetu; Prasad, Archana; Patel, Basant K

    2016-12-01

    Misfolded β-sheet-rich protein aggregates termed amyloid, deposit in vivo leading to debilitating diseases such as Alzheimer's, prion and renal amyloidosis diseases etc. Strikingly, amyloid can induce conversion of their natively folded monomers into similarly aggregated conformation via 'seeding'. The specificity of seeding is well documented in vivo for prions, where prion-variants arising from conformationally altered amyloids of the same protein, faithfully seed monomers into amyloid displaying the original variant's conformation. Thus far, amyloid variant formation is reported only for a few non-prion proteins like Alzheimer's Aβ42-peptide and β-2 microglobulin, however, their conformational cross-seeding capabilities are unexplored. While mutant human lysozyme causes renal amyloidosis, the hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) has been extensively investigated in vitro as a model amyloid protein. Here we investigated if wild-type HEWL could form self-seeding amyloid variants to examine if variant formation is more wide-spread. We found that HEWL aggregates formed under quiescent versus agitated conditions, displayed different particle sizes, detergent stabilities & β-sheet content, and they only seeded monomeric HEWL under similar incubation conditions, but not under swapped incubation conditions thereby showing amyloid variant formation by HEWL analogous to prion variants. This may have implications to the amyloidosis caused by different mutants of human lysozyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Applying the principles of welfare and quality of production in the organic farm of the laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zdechovanová

    2013-07-01

    monitored on the base of  collecting eggs two and several times a day, which was recorded daily on an organic farm. Chemical analyzes of samples of eggs were conducted according to the methodology for analytical laboratories (2009. In the farm were application welfare principles.  The laying hens had unlimited access to feed and water, ad libitum, free movement in the stable hall on the litter and perches. The laying hens rummaged and ashed in the free-range are of clay. In the free-range area of grassland where was a shelter, they free ranged and explorated environment. The microclimatic conditions, a construction of the perches, nests in the hall and location of the feedersand drinkers in the hall and in the free-range were solution in the accordance with the needs of improved living conditions of the laying hens. The laying hens achieved an intensity of egg-laying 84.60% in the all laying cycle. An egg weight was 62.30 g at laying hens old 42 weeks. The average dry mater contents was in the table eggs 26.21 g per 100 g of egg mass, the proteins 12.34 g per 100 g of egg mass, a fat 11.63 g per 100 g of egg mass and a cholesterol 1.27 g per 100 g of egg yolk. On the base of achivied the results, further research was recommended in the field the welfare of the laying hens intendent for the production of the table eggs.

  5. Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    van Krimpen, M.M.; van Diepen, J.T.M; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; van Harn, J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table. Laying hens, organic feed raw materials, digestibility, nutritive value

  6. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for cefovecin in hens and green iguanas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Line Risager; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Brimer, Leon

    2009-01-01

    hens and green iguanas, following subcutaneous injections with 10 mg cefovecin / kg bodyweight. Preliminary studies in eight additional species of birds and reptiles were performed and results were compared with the parameters found in hens and green iguanas. The kinetics were characterized by rapid...... absorption with peak plasma concentration of 6 ± 2 lg / mL in hens and 35 ± 12 lg / mL in green iguanas. The mean plasma half-life for cefovecin was 0.9 ± 0.3 h for hens and 3.9 h in green iguanas. Volume of distribution was 1.6 ± 0.5 L / kg for hens and 0.3 L / kg for green iguanas and clearance was 1252...... ± 185 mLÆh/ kg for hens and 53 mLÆh/ kg for green iguanas. Results from preliminary studies did not differ notably from those seen in hens and green iguanas. Cefovecin is not suitable for the treatment of bacterial infections with a 14-day dosing interval in hens or green iguanas and seems...

  7. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for Cefovecin in hens and green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, L R; Bertelsen, M F; Brimer, L; Skaanild, M T

    2009-12-01

    The third generation cephalosporin cefovecin has been shown to have an exceptionally long elimination half-life in dogs and cats, making it suitable for antibacterial treatment with a 14-day dosing interval in these species. Pharmacokinetic parameters for cefovecin were investigated in juvenile hens and green iguanas, following subcutaneous injections with 10 mg cefovecin/kg bodyweight. Preliminary studies in eight additional species of birds and reptiles were performed and results were compared with the parameters found in hens and green iguanas. The kinetics were characterized by rapid absorption with peak plasma concentration of 6 +/- 2 microg/mL in hens and 35 +/- 12 microg/mL in green iguanas. The mean plasma half-life for cefovecin was 0.9 +/- 0.3 h for hens and 3.9 h in green iguanas. Volume of distribution was 1.6 +/- 0.5 L/kg for hens and 0.3 L/kg for green iguanas and clearance was 1252 +/- 185 mL.h/kg for hens and 53 mL.h/kg for green iguanas. Results from preliminary studies did not differ notably from those seen in hens and green iguanas. Cefovecin is not suitable for the treatment of bacterial infections with a 14-day dosing interval in hens or green iguanas and seems not to be in a number of other bird and retile species either.

  8. Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs from conventional and alternative farming systems. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... This study was carried out to investigate the effect of conventional farming systems for laying hens (standard cage batteries) and new alternative systems ...

  9. Genetic analysis of production, immunity and behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biscarini, F.

    2010-01-01

    The new regulations about the husbandry of laying hens and the so-called genomic revolution offer both opportunities and challenges for the breeding of layers. Hens are currently housed mainly in battery cages of 4 individuals each. Following recent developments of the communitarian legislation,

  10. Overall welfare assessment of laying hens: Comparing science-based, environmental-based and animal-based assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimmura, T.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Mol, de R.M.; Hirahara, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2011-01-01

    To increase the validity of evaluations and facilitate expansion and maintenance of assessment systems, we constructed a database of studies on the welfare of laying hens around the world. On the basis of this database, we devised a science-based welfare assessment model. Our model includes

  11. Characterization of the surface of protein-adsorbed dental materials by wetting and streaming potential measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumura, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Okumura, N.; Kambara, M.; Norde, W.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we have elucidated the water-wettability and the electrokinetic surface potential of protein-covered dental materials. The proteins used here as typical proteins were human serum albumin and lysozyme from hen*s egg. The wettability (hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) and the surface

  12. Response of shaver brown hens to feeds of different sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve-week study was conducted to determine the effect of feed type on performance of Shaver brown hens in the humid tropical environment. One hundred and twenty (120) Shaverbrown hens of 28 weeks of age were used for the study.The hens were divided into five groups of 24 hens each and each group was ...

  13. Feather-pecking and injurious pecking in organic laying hens in 107 flocks from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestman, M.; Verwer, Cynthia; Brenninkmeyer, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Feather-pecking and cannibalism may reduce the potential of organic husbandry to enhance the welfare of laying hens. We report risk factors for these issues based on a large survey of 107 commercial flocks in eight European countries. Information was collected regarding housing, management...... and flock characteristics (age, genotype). Near the end of lay, 50 hens per flock were assessed for plumage condition and wounds. Potential influencing factors were screened and submitted to a multivariate model. The majority of the flocks (81%) consisted of brown genotypes and were found in six countries...

  14. A residue level protein-protein interaction model in electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueyu

    2014-03-01

    The osmotic second virial coefficients B2 are directly related to the solubility of protein molecules in electrolyte solutions and can be useful to narrow down the search parameter space of protein crystallization conditions. Using a residue level model of protein-protein interaction in electrolyte solutions B2 of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and lysozyme in various solution conditions such as salt concentration, pH and temperature are calculated using an extended Fast Multipole Methods in combination with the boundary element formulation. Overall, the calculated B2 are well correlated with the experimental observations for various solution conditions. In combination with our previous work on the binding affinity calculations of protein complexes it is demonstrated that our residue level model can be used as a reliable model to describe protein-protein interaction in solutions.

  15. Modeling and molecular dynamics simulation of PR-1 protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are considered as major weapons in plant's defense tactics against pathogens. The PR-1protein of Solanum tuberosum forms an integral part of the host defense system. We present here the 3D structure of PR-1 protein of S. tuberosum based on homology modeling technique.

  16. Mechanical Modeling and Computer Simulation of Protein Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigozhin, Maxim B.; Scott, Gregory E.; Denos, Sharlene

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, science education and modern technology are bridged to teach students at the high school and undergraduate levels about protein folding and to strengthen their model building skills. Students are guided from a textbook picture of a protein as a rigid crystal structure to a more realistic view: proteins are highly dynamic…

  17. Prediction of protein-protein interactions between viruses and human by an SVM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Guangyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several computational methods have been developed to predict protein-protein interactions from amino acid sequences, but most of those methods are intended for the interactions within a species rather than for interactions across different species. Methods for predicting interactions between homogeneous proteins are not appropriate for finding those between heterogeneous proteins since they do not distinguish the interactions between proteins of the same species from those of different species. Results We developed a new method for representing a protein sequence of variable length in a frequency vector of fixed length, which encodes the relative frequency of three consecutive amino acids of a sequence. We built a support vector machine (SVM model to predict human proteins that interact with virus proteins. In two types of viruses, human papillomaviruses (HPV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, our SVM model achieved an average accuracy above 80%, which is higher than that of another SVM model with a different representation scheme. Using the SVM model and Gene Ontology (GO annotations of proteins, we predicted new interactions between virus proteins and human proteins. Conclusions Encoding the relative frequency of amino acid triplets of a protein sequence is a simple yet powerful representation method for predicting protein-protein interactions across different species. The representation method has several advantages: (1 it enables a prediction model to achieve a better performance than other representations, (2 it generates feature vectors of fixed length regardless of the sequence length, and (3 the same representation is applicable to different types of proteins.

  18. Completion of autobuilt protein models using a database of protein fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowtan, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Two developments in the process of automated protein model building in the Buccaneer software are described: the use of a database of protein fragments in improving the model completeness and the assembly of disconnected chain fragments into complete molecules. Two developments in the process of automated protein model building in the Buccaneer software are presented. A general-purpose library for protein fragments of arbitrary size is described, with a highly optimized search method allowing the use of a larger database than in previous work. The problem of assembling an autobuilt model into complete chains is discussed. This involves the assembly of disconnected chain fragments into complete molecules and the use of the database of protein fragments in improving the model completeness. Assembly of fragments into molecules is a standard step in existing model-building software, but the methods have not received detailed discussion in the literature

  19. Effects of organic and inorganic dietary selenium supplementation on gene expression profiles in oviduct tissue from broiler-breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K M; Crowdus, C A; Cantor, A H; Pescatore, A J; Barger, J L; Horgan, K; Xiao, R; Power, R F; Dawson, K A

    2011-05-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential component of at least 25 selenoproteins involved in a multitude of physiological functions, including reproduction. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms by which Se exerts its physiological effects in reproductive tissue. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of long-term inorganic Se (sodium selenite, SS) and organic yeast-derived Se (Sel-Plex(®), SP) supplementations on tissue Se content and gene expression patterns in the oviduct of broiler-breeder hens. Hens were randomly assigned at 6 weeks of age to one of the three treatments: basal semi-purified diet (control), basal diet+0.3 ppm Se as SP or basal diet+0.3 ppm Se as SS. At 49 weeks, oviduct tissue from hens randomly selected from each treatment (n=7) was analyzed for Se content and gene expression profiles using the Affymetrix Chicken genome array. Gene expression data were evaluated using GeneSpring GX 10.0 (Silicon Genetics, Redwood, CA) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software (Ingenuity Systems, Redwood City, CA). Oviduct Se concentration was greater with Se supplementation compared with the control (P≤0.05) but did not differ between SS- and SP-supplemented groups. Gene expression analysis revealed that the quantity of gene transcripts associated with energy production and protein translation were greater in the oviduct with SP but not SS supplementation. Targets up-regulated by SP, but not SS, included genes encoding several subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes, ubiquinone production and ribosomal subunits. SS hens showed a decrease in transcripts of genes involved in respiratory complexes, ATP synthesis and protein translation and metabolism in oviduct relative to control hens. In this study, although tissue Se concentrations did not differ between hens fed SS- and SP-supplemented diets, expression patterns of genes involved in energy production and protein synthesis pathways differed between treatments. These

  20. Discrete persistent-chain model for protein binding on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2011-04-01

    We describe and solve a discrete persistent-chain model of protein binding on DNA, involving an extra σ(i) at a site i of the DNA. This variable takes the value 1 or 0, depending on whether or not the site is occupied by a protein. In addition, if the site is occupied by a protein, there is an extra energy cost ɛ. For a small force, we obtain analytic expressions for the force-extension curve and the fraction of bound protein on the DNA. For higher forces, the model can be solved numerically to obtain force-extension curves and the average fraction of bound proteins as a function of applied force. Our model can be used to analyze experimental force-extension curves of protein binding on DNA, and hence deduce the number of bound proteins in the case of nonspecific binding. ©2011 American Physical Society

  1. Early-life sensitization to hen's egg predicts asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis at 14 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sensitization to both inhalant and food allergens has been shown to be risk factors for development of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis (RC). However, few studies have addressed the role of transient or persistent IgE sensitization to specific allergens in early life for later developme......'s egg was associated with asthma and RC at 14 years. Furthermore, sensitization to HDM was associated with asthma at 14 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....... to groups of and to individual allergens and asthma and RC at 6 and 14 years compared to a reference group with no sensitization. RESULTS: Both transient and persistent early-life sensitization to cow's milk or hen's egg proteins were associated with asthma (aOR 3.99(1.41-11.32) and 5.95(1.78-19.92)) and RC...... (aOR 2.94(1.19-7.28) and 6.18(1.86-20.53)) at 14 years, this association being driven mainly by sensitization to hen's egg. Transient early-life sensitization to HDM had increased risk of asthma (aOR 3.80(1.17-12.41)) at 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Early transient and persistent IgE sensitization to hen...

  2. Protein adsorption on nanoparticles: model development using computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qing; Hall, Carol K

    2016-10-19

    The adsorption of proteins on nanoparticles results in the formation of the protein corona, the composition of which determines how nanoparticles influence their biological surroundings. We seek to better understand corona formation by developing models that describe protein adsorption on nanoparticles using computer simulation results as data. Using a coarse-grained protein model, discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to investigate the adsorption of two small proteins (Trp-cage and WW domain) on a model nanoparticle of diameter 10.0 nm at protein concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5 mM. The resulting adsorption isotherms are well described by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Kiselev models, but not by the Elovich, Fowler-Guggenheim and Hill-de Boer models. We also try to develop a generalized model that can describe protein adsorption equilibrium on nanoparticles of different diameters in terms of dimensionless size parameters. The simulation results for three proteins (Trp-cage, WW domain, and GB3) on four nanoparticles (diameter  =  5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 nm) illustrate both the promise and the challenge associated with developing generalized models of protein adsorption on nanoparticles.

  3. Phytase and protease supplementation for laying hens in peak egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Serpa Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the combination of enzymes in commercial laying hens need to be more explored in literature. To determine if the type of protease affects performance, egg quality, nutrient intake, and morphometry of intestinal mucosa of laying hens in peak egg production and fed with phytase, 780 25-weeks Hy-Line W36 hens were assigned to a completely randomized design composed of five treatments/diets (one positive control, two negative controls, and negative controls plus protease A or B, with 12 replicates of 13 birds each. There was no effect of treatments (P > 0.05 on egg production, egg mass and feed conversion, even though the nutritional restriction imposed by the negative controls reduced egg weight (P = 0.02, albumen height (P < 0.01, and Haugh unit (P < 0.01. Although inclusion of proteases in negative controls did not cause the calculated intake of protein and amino acids to return to the same amount consumed by positive-control hens, egg quality parameters returned to positive control standards with protease A. Intestinal mucosa responded to treatment only at jejunum, where birds fed with protease B showed greater (P < 0.01 villus height and crypt depth than those treated with protease A. These findings suggest that different proteases and phytases interact distinctly and, in consequence, induce different responses on the birds. Moreover, the behavior of egg quality parameters after protease A inclusion in the diet indicates that the nutritional contribution of the combination of this protease with phytase is greater than the contribution of protease alone.

  4. Oral sensitization to food proteins: A Brown Norway rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Spanhaak, S.; Houben, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Although several in vivo antigenicity assays using parenteral immunization are operational, no adequate enteral sensitization models are available to study food allergy and allergenicity of food proteins. Objective: This paper describes the development of an enteral model for food

  5. Models of protein-ligand crystal structures: trust, but verify

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, Marc C.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    X-ray crystallography provides the most accurate models of protein-ligand structures. These models serve as the foundation of many computational methods including structure prediction, molecular modelling, and structure-based drug design. The success of these computational methods ultimately depends on the quality of the underlying protein-ligand models. X-ray crystallography offers the unparalleled advantage of a clear mathematical formalism relating the experimental data to the protein-ligand model. In the case of X-ray crystallography, the primary experimental evidence is the electron density of the molecules forming the crystal. The first step in the generation of an accurate and precise crystallographic model is the interpretation of the electron density of the crystal, typically carried out by construction of an atomic model. The atomic model must then be validated for fit to the experimental electron density and also for agreement with prior expectations of stereochemistry. Stringent validation of protein-ligand models has become possible as a result of the mandatory deposition of primary diffraction data, and many computational tools are now available to aid in the validation process. Validation of protein-ligand complexes has revealed some instances of overenthusiastic interpretation of ligand density. Fundamental concepts and metrics of protein-ligand quality validation are discussed and we highlight software tools to assist in this process. It is essential that end users select high quality protein-ligand models for their computational and biological studies, and we provide an overview of how this can be achieved.

  6. Protein surface topology-probing by selective chemical modification and mass spectrometric peptide mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    Suckau, D; Mak, M; Przybylski, M

    1992-01-01

    Aminoacetylation of lysine residues and the modification of arginine by 1,2-cyclohexanedione to N7,N8-(dihydroxy-1,2-cyclohexylidene)arginine were used for probing the surface topology of hen-eggwhite lysozyme as a model protein. The molecular identification of lysine and arginine modification sites was provided by molecular weight determinations of modified and unmodified tryptic peptide mixtures (peptide mapping) using 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry. At conditions of limited chem...

  7. Predicting nucleic acid binding interfaces from structural models of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Iris; Shazman, Shula; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2012-02-01

    The function of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins can be inferred from the characterization and accurate prediction of their binding interfaces. However, the main pitfall of various structure-based methods for predicting nucleic acid binding function is that they are all limited to a relatively small number of proteins for which high-resolution three-dimensional structures are available. In this study, we developed a pipeline for extracting functional electrostatic patches from surfaces of protein structural models, obtained using the I-TASSER protein structure predictor. The largest positive patches are extracted from the protein surface using the patchfinder algorithm. We show that functional electrostatic patches extracted from an ensemble of structural models highly overlap the patches extracted from high-resolution structures. Furthermore, by testing our pipeline on a set of 55 known nucleic acid binding proteins for which I-TASSER produces high-quality models, we show that the method accurately identifies the nucleic acids binding interface on structural models of proteins. Employing a combined patch approach we show that patches extracted from an ensemble of models better predicts the real nucleic acid binding interfaces compared with patches extracted from independent models. Overall, these results suggest that combining information from a collection of low-resolution structural models could be a valuable approach for functional annotation. We suggest that our method will be further applicable for predicting other functional surfaces of proteins with unknown structure. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Equação de predição da exigência de proteína bruta para aves reprodutoras pesadas na fase de produção Prediction equation of crude protein requirements for broiler breeders hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bôa-Viagem Rabello

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar as exigências de proteína para aves reprodutoras pesadas através do método fatorial. A exigência de proteína bruta para mantença (PBm foi determinada por intermédio da técnica do balanço de nitrogênio por meio de ensaio de metabolismo com aves submetidas a quatro dietas com níveis decrescentes de proteína, proporcionando balanço positivo, próximo a zero e negativo. Para determinar a exigência de proteína bruta para o ganho de peso (PBg dois experimentos foram conduzidos, sendo que em um, determinou-se as exigências líquidas de nitrogênio e no outro, a eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio para o ganho, por meio de abates semanais de aves no período de 26 a 33 semanas de idade. A exigência de proteína bruta para produção de ovos (PBo foi determinada através de análises semanais de proteína bruta dos ovos coletados, no período de 31 a 37 semanas de idade, considerando a eficiência de deposição da proteína no ovo. A exigência e eficiência de utilização da proteína para mantença foram 2.282 mg PB/kg0,75/dia e 60,79%; respectivamente. As exigências de PBg e PBo determinadas foram: 356 mg PB/g e 262 mg PB/g, respectivamente, e as eficiências de utilização do nitrogênio, 40 e 46,80%, respectivamente. A equação de predição elaborada para aves reprodutoras pesadas na fase de produção foi: PB=2,282.P0,75+0,356.G+0,262.MO, onde PB é a exigência de proteína bruta (g/ave/dia, P o peso corporal (kg, G o ganho de peso (g/dia e MO a massa de ovos (g/dia.The objective of this study was to determine the protein requirement for broiler breeder hens using factorial method. The requirement of crude protein for maintenance (CPm was determined using nitrogen balance technique in metabolism assay. The birds were fed with four protein levels in order to get a positive, a close to zero and a negative nitrogen balance. To determine the crude protein weight gain

  9. Níveis de proteína e de vitamina E para matrizes de frango de corte. 2. Efeito sobre a concentração de alfa-tocoferol na gema e nos tecidos e balanço de nitrogênio Protein and vitamin E levels for broiler breed hens. 2. Effects on yolk and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentration and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L.T. Barreto

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 16 matrizes de frangos de corte com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de proteína bruta (NPB, 14 e 16%, e dois níveis de vitamina E (NVE, 25 e 250mg/kg, na dieta sobre a concentração de alfa-tocoferol (AT na gema, no fígado, no soro sangüíneo e na excreta, e sobre a retenção de AT e de nitrogênio (N. O período experimental foi de 25 dias, sendo 15 dias para a adaptação das aves à dieta e 10 dias para a coleta de ovos e da excreta para análise de vitamina E (VE e N. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, formado por quatro tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 × 2 (NVE × NPB, constituído cada um por quatro repetições, e cada unidade experimental representada por uma ave. Houve aumento linear (PSixteen broiler breed hens were used with the objective of evaluating the effects of supplementation of two crude protein (14 and 16% CP and two vitamin E levels (25 and 250mg VE/kg in the diet on the alpha-tocopherol (AT concentration in the egg yolk, liver, blood serum and feces, and on the AT and nitrogen (N retentions. The experiment lasted 25 days, in which 15 days were used for hens adaptation and 10 days for egg and fecal collection for AT and N analyses. The experimental design was a complete randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (CP × VE levels with four repetitions per treatment. The increasing of VE in the diet resulted in increase (P0.05. Thus, it could be concluded that the increasing of VE levels in the diet increased the AT concentrations in the egg yolk and body tissues, and decreased the AT and increased the N retention in broiler breed hens during the laying peak period.

  10. Computational protein structure modeling and analysis of UV-B stress protein in Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Akhlaqur; Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Sinha, Sukrat; Pandey, Paras Nath; Gupta, Dwijendra Kumar; Sundaram, Shanthy; Tripathi, Ashutosh

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on Ultra Violet stress (UVS) gene product which is a UV stress induced protein from cyanobacteria, Synechocystis PCC 6803. Three dimensional structural modeling of target UVS protein was carried out by homology modeling method. 3F2I pdb from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 was selected as a suitable template protein structure. Ultimately, the detection of active binding regions was carried out for characterization of functional sites in modeled UV-B stress protein. The top five probable ligand binding sites were predicted and the common binding residues between target and template protein was analyzed. It has been validated for the first time that modeled UVS protein structure from Synechocystis PCC 6803 was structurally and functionally similar to well characterized UVS protein of another cyanobacterial species, Nostoc sp PCC 7120 because of having same structural motif and fold with similar protein topology and function. Investigations revealed that UVS protein from Synechocystis sp. might play significant role during ultraviolet resistance. Thus, it could be a potential biological source for remediation for UV induced stress.

  11. Development of performance, behavior and gut health in laying hens in relation to dietary protein source = Ontwikkeling van technische resultaten, gedrag en darmgezondheid van leghennen in relatie tot eiwitbron in het voer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    From this study, it can be concluded that addition of protein of animal origin to a layer diet will not guarantee for a reduction in feather pecking behavior and an improvement of gut health. Despite this, feather pecking behavior and percentage of wet litter area were reduced in two (Daka-40 and

  12. Parmodel: a web server for automated comparative modeling of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchôa, Hugo Brandão; Jorge, Guilherme Eberhart; Freitas Da Silveira, Nelson José; Camera, João Carlos; Canduri, Fernanda; De Azevedo, Walter Filgueira

    2004-12-24

    Parmodel is a web server for automated comparative modeling and evaluation of protein structures. The aim of this tool is to help inexperienced users to perform modeling, assessment, visualization, and optimization of protein models as well as crystallographers to evaluate structures solved experimentally. It is subdivided in four modules: Parmodel Modeling, Parmodel Assessment, Parmodel Visualization, and Parmodel Optimization. The main module is the Parmodel Modeling that allows the building of several models for a same protein in a reduced time, through the distribution of modeling processes on a Beowulf cluster. Parmodel automates and integrates the main softwares used in comparative modeling as MODELLER, Whatcheck, Procheck, Raster3D, Molscript, and Gromacs. This web server is freely accessible at .

  13. Developing algorithms for predicting protein-protein interactions of homology modeled proteins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Shawn Bryan; Sale, Kenneth L.; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Roe, Diana C.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the protein-protein docking problem, especially as it relates to homology-based structures, identify the key bottlenecks in current software tools, and evaluate and prototype new algorithms that may be developed to improve these bottlenecks. This report describes the current challenges in the protein-protein docking problem: correctly predicting the binding site for the protein-protein interaction and correctly placing the sidechains. Two different and complementary approaches are taken that can help with the protein-protein docking problem. The first approach is to predict interaction sites prior to docking, and uses bioinformatics studies of protein-protein interactions to predict theses interaction site. The second approach is to improve validation of predicted complexes after docking, and uses an improved scoring function for evaluating proposed docked poses, incorporating a solvation term. This scoring function demonstrates significant improvement over current state-of-the art functions. Initial studies on both these approaches are promising, and argue for full development of these algorithms.

  14. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, Joachim [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  15. Henning Witte : Estonia-film tuleb / Villem Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Villem, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et "Estonia" uppus maffiavandenõu tõttu. Stsenaristideks on Juta Rabe, Henning Witte ja Kaj Holmberg. Ka : Nädal nr. 47, lk. 5

  16. Modeling protein network evolution under genome duplication and domain shuffling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isambert Hervé

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successive whole genome duplications have recently been firmly established in all major eukaryote kingdoms. Such exponential evolutionary processes must have largely contributed to shape the topology of protein-protein interaction (PPI networks by outweighing, in particular, all time-linear network growths modeled so far. Results We propose and solve a mathematical model of PPI network evolution under successive genome duplications. This demonstrates, from first principles, that evolutionary conservation and scale-free topology are intrinsically linked properties of PPI networks and emerge from i prevailing exponential network dynamics under duplication and ii asymmetric divergence of gene duplicates. While required, we argue that this asymmetric divergence arises, in fact, spontaneously at the level of protein-binding sites. This supports a refined model of PPI network evolution in terms of protein domains under exponential and asymmetric duplication/divergence dynamics, with multidomain proteins underlying the combinatorial formation of protein complexes. Genome duplication then provides a powerful source of PPI network innovation by promoting local rearrangements of multidomain proteins on a genome wide scale. Yet, we show that the overall conservation and topology of PPI networks are robust to extensive domain shuffling of multidomain proteins as well as to finer details of protein interaction and evolution. Finally, large scale features of direct and indirect PPI networks of S. cerevisiae are well reproduced numerically with only two adjusted parameters of clear biological significance (i.e. network effective growth rate and average number of protein-binding domains per protein. Conclusion This study demonstrates the statistical consequences of genome duplication and domain shuffling on the conservation and topology of PPI networks over a broad evolutionary scale across eukaryote kingdoms. In particular, scale

  17. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide in laying hens stimulates antimicrobial properties of egg white against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrani, Larbi; Helloin, Emmanuelle; Guyot, Nicolas; Nys, Yves

    2013-04-15

    The natural protective system of eggs relies on egg yolk immunoglobulins and on antimicrobial proteins/peptides mainly concentrated in the egg white. There is much evidence concerning the specific stimulation of immunoglobulins by antigens but to date, the influence of the hen milieu on the regulation of the egg innate molecular immunity has not been established. To explore the hypothesis of modulation in egg antimicrobial molecules, laying hens were immune-challenged with intravenous injections of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 24 h intervals. Eggs of the control and LPS groups were collected over a period of 21 days following the first LPS injection and the egg white activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were assessed. The increase in egg white anti-S. aureus activity reached 20.9% and 23.4% (pegg whites. We recorded no significant variations between the two experimental groups for these potential modulating factors. Finally, using RT-qPCR we studied the expression of several genes coding for antimicrobial proteins and peptides involved in the immune response in the infundibulum and the magnum, Out of the 11 genes, only TLR4 in the magnum and ovocalyxin-36 in infundibulum were over-expressed respectively 24h and 8 days after the first LPS injection. The other candidate genes showed similar or down regulated expression in the LPS group as compared to the control especially during the first 24h. Our results suggest that the hen enhances the albumen antimicrobial activity of its eggs when exposed to immune stimulations or infections. This could be an attempt to preventively reinforce the protection of the embryo with nonspecific antimicrobial agents in addition to the specific antibodies exported to the egg. The origin of this stimulation of egg molecular immunity remains to be characterized amongst the numerous novel egg proteins recently identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P sunflower meal may be a valid alternative in diets for laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. EGG QUALITY AND HATCHABILITY OF In situ - REARED KEDU AND CEMANI HENS FED DIET OF FARMER FORMULATION SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Wahyuni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation in Kedu andCemani hens reraed in situ and given farmer-formulated diet on egg performances. A total of 120 femaleand 24 male birds were equally divided into two groups of Kedu and Cemani, with average body weightof 1890+216.79 and 1830+396.23 g, respectively. Basal ration was based on the diet formulated by thefarmer (R1 consisting of corn (30%, rice bran (50%, protein concentrate (15%, and premix (5%.Dietary treatments evaluated were R1 (without additional vitamin E, and the other three were theinclusion of DL α-tocopheryl acetate into the R1 diet up to 2 (R2, 4 (R3 and 6 IU (R4. The experimentwas arranged in a Randomized Block Design with 4 treatments, and 2 different groups of hen (Kedu andCemani were assigned as block. Parameters observed were feed consumption, hen day production, feedconversion ratio, egg quality, fertility, and hatchability. The result showed that vitamin Esupplementation did not affect whatever parameters, except egg fertility. Egg hatchability between Keduand Cemani hens was significantly different (p<0.05. Trend comparison test indicated significantlylinear (p<0.05 for fertility and hatchability. In conclusion, vitamin E supplementation up to 6 IUincreased linearly egg fertility and hatchability of about 5-8%, and egg hatchability of Kedu hens washigher (11% than that of Cemani.

  20. Performance of an image analysis processing system for hen tracking in an environmental preference chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiha, Mohammad Amin; Green, Angela R; Sales, Tatiana Glogerley; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniel; Gates, Richard S

    2014-10-01

    Image processing systems have been widely used in monitoring livestock for many applications, including identification, tracking, behavior analysis, occupancy rates, and activity calculations. The primary goal of this work was to quantify image processing performance when monitoring laying hens by comparing length of stay in each compartment as detected by the image processing system with the actual occurrences registered by human observations. In this work, an image processing system was implemented and evaluated for use in an environmental animal preference chamber to detect hen navigation between 4 compartments of the chamber. One camera was installed above each compartment to produce top-view images of the whole compartment. An ellipse-fitting model was applied to captured images to detect whether the hen was present in a compartment. During a choice-test study, mean ± SD success detection rates of 95.9 ± 2.6% were achieved when considering total duration of compartment occupancy. These results suggest that the image processing system is currently suitable for determining the response measures for assessing environmental choices. Moreover, the image processing system offered a comprehensive analysis of occupancy while substantially reducing data processing time compared with the time-intensive alternative of manual video analysis. The above technique was used to monitor ammonia aversion in the chamber. As a preliminary pilot study, different levels of ammonia were applied to different compartments while hens were allowed to navigate between compartments. Using the automated monitor tool to assess occupancy, a negative trend of compartment occupancy with ammonia level was revealed, though further examination is needed. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Assessment of the effect of housing on feather damage in laying hens using IR thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichová, K; Bilčík, B; Košt'ál, L'

    2017-04-01

    Plumage damage represents one of the animal-based measures of laying hens welfare. Damage occurs predominantly due to age, environment and damaging pecking. IR thermography, due to its non-invasiveness, objectivity and repeatability is a promising alternative to feather damage scoring systems such as the system included in the Welfare Quality ® assessment protocol for poultry. The aim of this study was to apply IR thermography for the assessment of feather damage in laying hens kept in two housing systems and to compare the results with feather scoring. At the start of the experiment, 16-week-old laying hens (n=30) were divided into two treatments such as deep litter pen and enriched cage. During 4 months, feather damage was assessed regularly in 2-week intervals. One more single assessment was done nine and a half months after the start of the experiment. The feather damage on four body regions was assessed by scoring and IR thermography: head and neck, back and rump, belly, and underneck and breast. Two variables obtained by IR thermography were used: the difference between the body surface temperature and ambient temperature (ΔTB) and the proportion of featherless areas, which were defined as areas with a temperature >33.5°C. Data were analyzed using a GLM model. The effects of housing, time, region and their interactions on feather damage, measured by the feather scoring and by both IR thermography measures, were all significant (PIR thermography assessment of the feather damage revealed differences between hens kept in different housing systems in agreement with the feather scoring. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the IR thermography is a useful tool for the assessment of poultry feather cover quality that is not biased by the subjective component and provides higher precision than feather damage scoring.

  2. Modeling the SHG activities of diverse protein crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haupert, Levi M.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The origins of the diversity in the SHG signal from protein crystals are investigated and potential protein-crystal coverage by SHG microscopy is assessed. A symmetry-additive ab initio model for second-harmonic generation (SHG) activity of protein crystals was applied to assess the likely protein-crystal coverage of SHG microscopy. Calculations were performed for 250 proteins in nine point-group symmetries: a total of 2250 crystals. The model suggests that the crystal symmetry and the limit of detection of the instrument are expected to be the strongest predictors of coverage of the factors considered, which also included secondary-structural content and protein size. Much of the diversity in SHG activity is expected to arise primarily from the variability in the intrinsic protein response as well as the orientation within the crystal lattice. Two or more orders-of-magnitude variation in intensity are expected even within protein crystals of the same symmetry. SHG measurements of tetragonal lysozyme crystals confirmed detection, from which a protein coverage of ∼84% was estimated based on the proportion of proteins calculated to produce SHG responses greater than that of tetragonal lysozyme. Good agreement was observed between the measured and calculated ratios of the SHG intensity from lysozyme in tetragonal and monoclinic lattices

  3. An Integrated Framework Advancing Membrane Protein Modeling and Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca F Alford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins are critical functional molecules in the human body, constituting more than 30% of open reading frames in the human genome. Unfortunately, a myriad of difficulties in overexpression and reconstitution into membrane mimetics severely limit our ability to determine their structures. Computational tools are therefore instrumental to membrane protein structure prediction, consequently increasing our understanding of membrane protein function and their role in disease. Here, we describe a general framework facilitating membrane protein modeling and design that combines the scientific principles for membrane protein modeling with the flexible software architecture of Rosetta3. This new framework, called RosettaMP, provides a general membrane representation that interfaces with scoring, conformational sampling, and mutation routines that can be easily combined to create new protocols. To demonstrate the capabilities of this implementation, we developed four proof-of-concept applications for (1 prediction of free energy changes upon mutation; (2 high-resolution structural refinement; (3 protein-protein docking; and (4 assembly of symmetric protein complexes, all in the membrane environment. Preliminary data show that these algorithms can produce meaningful scores and structures. The data also suggest needed improvements to both sampling routines and score functions. Importantly, the applications collectively demonstrate the potential of combining the flexible nature of RosettaMP with the power of Rosetta algorithms to facilitate membrane protein modeling and design.

  4. Vold, svensk uro og Henning Mankell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    Paperet undersøger den fiktionelle repræsentation af vold hos Henning Mankell med fokus på Innan frosten fra 2002 og filmatiseringen heraf fra 2005, men med fyldige udblik til såvel andre af Mankells fortællinger og ikke mindst sociologiske og filosofiske diskussioner af volden, voldens...... forstyrrelse af demokrati og velfærdsstat hos Mankell. I Mankells fortælling er det sociale fodfæste og den idylliske sociale overstrøm kuldkastet af udemokratiske mekanismer i en fundamentalistisk religiøs trosretning. I overvejelsen af denne intrige vender jeg blikket mod ambivalensen inkluderet i både...... Mankells gennemgående efterforsker Wallander såvel som demokratiske strukturer....

  5. Theoretical model analysis of molecular orientations in liquid protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, some theoretical model functions have been used to explain the molecular behaviour of four different types of proteins; human haemoglobin, Insulin, egg-white lysozyme and β - globulin molecules in solution. The results of the computational fitting procedures showed that the dielectric dispersion of the protein ...

  6. Preferential interactions and the effect of protein PEGylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Louise Stenstrup; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Kasimova, Marina Robertovna

    2015-01-01

    excipients that preferentially interact with the protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The model protein hen egg white lysozyme was doubly PEGylated on two lysines with 5 kDa linear PEGs (mPEG-succinimidyl valerate, MW 5000) and studied in the absence and presence of preferentially excluded sucrose...... enthalpy was decreased to half the value for PEGylated lysozyme. The ratio between calorimetric and van't Hoff enthalpy suggests that our PEGylated lysozyme is a dimer. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The PEGylated model protein displayed similar stability responses to the addition of preferentially active......BACKGROUND: PEGylation is a strategy used by the pharmaceutical industry to prolong systemic circulation of protein drugs, whereas formulation excipients are used for stabilization of proteins during storage. Here we investigate the role of PEGylation in protein stabilization by formulation...

  7. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P eggs with significantly different (P eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  8. Mallard Use of Hen HousesTM in Eastern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan Zimmerling

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesting structures for ground-nesting waterfowl may be an effective technique for increasing nesting success in regions in which nest success is below the 15% threshold needed to maintain a stable population. We studied the occupancy rate of artificial nesting structures called hen housesTM by Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos nesting in two different wetland habitats, beaver ponds and sewage lagoons, in eastern Ontario during 1999-2001. We hypothesized that, because natural cover was sparse on sewage lagoons, Mallards would occupy hen houses at a higher rate on sewage lagoons than on beaver ponds. However, of the 248 hen houses distributed between beaver ponds and sewage lagoons, none was occupied by waterfowl. Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula were the only avian species that nested in hen houses. However, Mallards successfully nested directly under several structures (n = 6 when water levels were low enough to expose the ground beneath them. Mayfield daily nest survival estimates for Mallards nesting in natural cover were similar on sewage lagoons and beaver ponds for all years (mean = 0.99 and were higher than most published estimates. Factors such as nesting cover, predation pressures, and structure design and material may influence the use of artificial hen houses and should be considered when planning a hen house program outside of the Prairie Pothole Region.

  9. Comparative Study of Elastic Network Model and Protein Contact Network for Protein Complexes: The Hemoglobin Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall topology and interfacial interactions play key roles in understanding structural and functional principles of protein complexes. Elastic Network Model (ENM and Protein Contact Network (PCN are two widely used methods for high throughput investigation of structures and interactions within protein complexes. In this work, the comparative analysis of ENM and PCN relative to hemoglobin (Hb was taken as case study. We examine four types of structural and dynamical paradigms, namely, conformational change between different states of Hbs, modular analysis, allosteric mechanisms studies, and interface characterization of an Hb. The comparative study shows that ENM has an advantage in studying dynamical properties and protein-protein interfaces, while PCN is better for describing protein structures quantitatively both from local and from global levels. We suggest that the integration of ENM and PCN would give a potential but powerful tool in structural systems biology.

  10. Gaia: automated quality assessment of protein structure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Pradeep; Ding, Feng; Ramachandran, Srinivas; Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2011-08-15

    Increasing use of structural modeling for understanding structure-function relationships in proteins has led to the need to ensure that the protein models being used are of acceptable quality. Quality of a given protein structure can be assessed by comparing various intrinsic structural properties of the protein to those observed in high-resolution protein structures. In this study, we present tools to compare a given structure to high-resolution crystal structures. We assess packing by calculating the total void volume, the percentage of unsatisfied hydrogen bonds, the number of steric clashes and the scaling of the accessible surface area. We assess covalent geometry by determining bond lengths, angles, dihedrals and rotamers. The statistical parameters for the above measures, obtained from high-resolution crystal structures enable us to provide a quality-score that points to specific areas where a given protein structural model needs improvement. We provide these tools that appraise protein structures in the form of a web server Gaia (http://chiron.dokhlab.org). Gaia evaluates the packing and covalent geometry of a given protein structure and provides quantitative comparison of the given structure to high-resolution crystal structures. dokh@unc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Protein buffering in model systems and in whole human saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamanda

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and alpha-amylase, were shown to provide, in combination with hydrogencarbonate and di-hydrogenphosphate, almost identical buffer attributes as whole human resting saliva. It was further demonstrated that changes in the protein concentration as small as 0.1% may change the buffer value of a buffer solution up to 15 times. Additionally, it was shown that there was a protein concentration change in the same range (0.16% between saliva samples collected at the time periods of 13:00 and others collected at 9:00 am and 17:00. The mode of the protein expression changed between these samples corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the change of the buffer value at pH 6.7. Finally, SDS Page and Ruthenium II tris (bathophenantroline disulfonate staining unveiled a constant protein expression in all samples except for one 50 kDa protein band. As the change in the expression pattern of that 50 kDa protein band corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the buffer value at pH 6.7, it was reasonable to conclude that this 50 kDa protein band may contain the protein(s belonging to the protein buffer system of human saliva.

  12. Embryonic protein undernutrition by albumen removal programs the hepatic amino acid and glucose metabolism during the perinatal period in an avian model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Willems

    Full Text Available Different animal models have been used to study the effects of prenatal protein undernutrition and the mechanisms by which these occur. In mammals, the maternal diet is manipulated, exerting both direct nutritional and indirect hormonal effects. Chicken embryos develop independent from the hen in the egg. Therefore, in the chicken, the direct effects of protein deficiency by albumen removal early during incubation can be examined. Prenatal protein undernutrition was established in layer-type eggs by the partial replacement of albumen by saline at embryonic day 1 (albumen-deprived group, compared to a mock-treated sham and a non-treated control group. At hatch, survival of the albumen-deprived group was lower compared to the control and sham group due to increased early mortality by the manipulation. No treatment differences in yolk-free body weight or yolk weight could be detected. The water content of the yolk was reduced, whereas the water content of the carcass was increased in the albumen-deprived group, compared to the control group, indicating less uptake of nutrients from the yolk. At embryonic day 16, 20 and at hatch, plasma triiodothyronine (T3, corticosterone, lactate or glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen content were not affected by treatment. At embryonic day 20, the plasma thyroxine (T4 concentrations of the albumen-deprived embryos was reduced compared to the control group, indicating a decreased metabolic rate. Screening for differential protein expression in the liver at hatch using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed not only changed abundance of proteins important for amino acid metabolism, but also of enzymes related to energy and glucose metabolism. Interestingly, GLUT1, a glucose transporter, and PCK2 and FBP1, two out of three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis were dysregulated. No parallel differences in gene expressions causing the differences in protein abundance could be detected

  13. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in egg whites of transgenic hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainan Cao

    Full Text Available Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications.

  14. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in egg whites of transgenic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications.

  15. Knowledge of Chemical Indicators of Eggs from Hens Reared in Conventional and Free Range System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Iuliana Cotfas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many consumers prefer nowadays eggs from alternative production systems because of their concerns about its own food safety and welfare of laying hens (Anderson. K. E., 2009. According to the regulations, a free range egg is obtained in poultry farms were laying hens have access to outdoor paddock, where they can show all the instincts of physiological and ethological (Usturoi M.G., 2004. Aims: The aim of this research was the correct information on the quality of these products and comparative study of chemical characteristics of eggs obtain from different production systems (conventional and free range. Materials and Methods: Chemical indicators’ determination was made through specific methods, in according with actual standards and consists in establishing of water, proteins, fats, ash and non-nitrogenous extractive substances contents. The biological material was represented by 90 eggs produced by Lohmann Brown laying hens aged 33 weeks: 45 gathered from birds exploited in free range system and 45 from birds reared in cages agreed by EU. Results: Egg obtained from free range system have a slightly higher content of protein (10.35±0.12 % vs. 9.97±0.03 % compared with conventional system, from albumen and from yolk (17.46±0.00 % vs. 17.19±0.01 %, this fact was happened because of aport of green grass from the outside paddock (Morris T.R., 2004. Comparative with conventional system, eggs from free range system have a higher content of lipids of yolk with 2.23%.Chemical analysis of melange from studied eggs showed a higher rate of dry matter at free range eggs (23.374% vs. 22.969%, but also for proteins (12.952% vs. 12.520% and lipids (7.676% vs. 7.398%. Conclusions: The increase in freedom of laying hens (free range caused a qualitative improvement of dry components of both the egg components (yolk and albumen but also the quantitative one, and eggs obtained has a high nutritional value  

  16. A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo, Daniel; Tramontano, Anna

    2012-08-02

    Increasingly, biologists and biochemists use computational tools to design experiments to probe the function of proteins and/or to engineer them for a variety of different purposes. The most effective strategies rely on the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the protein of interest. However it is often the case that an experimental structure is not available and that models of different quality are used instead. On the other hand, the relationship between the quality of a model and its appropriate use is not easy to derive in general, and so far it has been analyzed in detail only for specific application. This paper describes a database and related software tools that allow testing of a given structure based method on models of a protein representing different levels of accuracy. The comparison of the results of a computational experiment on the experimental structure and on a set of its decoy models will allow developers and users to assess which is the specific threshold of accuracy required to perform the task effectively. The ModelDB server automatically builds decoy models of different accuracy for a given protein of known structure and provides a set of useful tools for their analysis. Pre-computed data for a non-redundant set of deposited protein structures are available for analysis and download in the ModelDB database. IMPLEMENTATION, AVAILABILITY AND REQUIREMENTS: Project name: A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models. Project home page: http://bl210.caspur.it/MODEL-DB/MODEL-DB_web/MODindex.php.Operating system(s): Platform independent. Programming language: Perl-BioPerl (program); mySQL, Perl DBI and DBD modules (database); php, JavaScript, Jmol scripting (web server). Other requirements: Java Runtime Environment v1.4 or later, Perl, BioPerl, CPAN modules, HHsearch, Modeller, LGA, NCBI Blast package, DSSP, Speedfill (Surfnet) and PSAIA. License: Free. Any restrictions to use by non-academics: No.

  17. A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models.

    KAUST Repository

    Carbajo, Daniel

    2012-08-02

    BACKGROUND: Increasingly, biologists and biochemists use computational tools to design experiments to probe the function of proteins and/or to engineer them for a variety of different purposes. The most effective strategies rely on the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the protein of interest. However it is often the case that an experimental structure is not available and that models of different quality are used instead. On the other hand, the relationship between the quality of a model and its appropriate use is not easy to derive in general, and so far it has been analyzed in detail only for specific application. RESULTS: This paper describes a database and related software tools that allow testing of a given structure based method on models of a protein representing different levels of accuracy. The comparison of the results of a computational experiment on the experimental structure and on a set of its decoy models will allow developers and users to assess which is the specific threshold of accuracy required to perform the task effectively. CONCLUSIONS: The ModelDB server automatically builds decoy models of different accuracy for a given protein of known structure and provides a set of useful tools for their analysis. Pre-computed data for a non-redundant set of deposited protein structures are available for analysis and download in the ModelDB database. IMPLEMENTATION, AVAILABILITY AND REQUIREMENTS: Project name: A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models. Project home page: http://bl210.caspur.it/MODEL-DB/MODEL-DB_web/MODindex.php.Operating system(s): Platform independent. Programming language: Perl-BioPerl (program); mySQL, Perl DBI and DBD modules (database); php, JavaScript, Jmol scripting (web server). Other requirements: Java Runtime Environment v1.4 or later, Perl, BioPerl, CPAN modules, HHsearch, Modeller, LGA, NCBI Blast package, DSSP, Speedfill (Surfnet) and PSAIA. License: Free. Any restrictions to use by

  18. Binding free energy analysis of protein-protein docking model structures by evERdock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kazuhiro; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Kitao, Akio

    2018-03-14

    To aid the evaluation of protein-protein complex model structures generated by protein docking prediction (decoys), we previously developed a method to calculate the binding free energies for complexes. The method combines a short (2 ns) all-atom molecular dynamics simulation with explicit solvent and solution theory in the energy representation (ER). We showed that this method successfully selected structures similar to the native complex structure (near-native decoys) as the lowest binding free energy structures. In our current work, we applied this method (evERdock) to 100 or 300 model structures of four protein-protein complexes. The crystal structures and the near-native decoys showed the lowest binding free energy of all the examined structures, indicating that evERdock can successfully evaluate decoys. Several decoys that show low interface root-mean-square distance but relatively high binding free energy were also identified. Analysis of the fraction of native contacts, hydrogen bonds, and salt bridges at the protein-protein interface indicated that these decoys were insufficiently optimized at the interface. After optimizing the interactions around the interface by including interfacial water molecules, the binding free energies of these decoys were improved. We also investigated the effect of solute entropy on binding free energy and found that consideration of the entropy term does not necessarily improve the evaluations of decoys using the normal model analysis for entropy calculation.

  19. Binding free energy analysis of protein-protein docking model structures by evERdock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kazuhiro; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Kitao, Akio

    2018-03-01

    To aid the evaluation of protein-protein complex model structures generated by protein docking prediction (decoys), we previously developed a method to calculate the binding free energies for complexes. The method combines a short (2 ns) all-atom molecular dynamics simulation with explicit solvent and solution theory in the energy representation (ER). We showed that this method successfully selected structures similar to the native complex structure (near-native decoys) as the lowest binding free energy structures. In our current work, we applied this method (evERdock) to 100 or 300 model structures of four protein-protein complexes. The crystal structures and the near-native decoys showed the lowest binding free energy of all the examined structures, indicating that evERdock can successfully evaluate decoys. Several decoys that show low interface root-mean-square distance but relatively high binding free energy were also identified. Analysis of the fraction of native contacts, hydrogen bonds, and salt bridges at the protein-protein interface indicated that these decoys were insufficiently optimized at the interface. After optimizing the interactions around the interface by including interfacial water molecules, the binding free energies of these decoys were improved. We also investigated the effect of solute entropy on binding free energy and found that consideration of the entropy term does not necessarily improve the evaluations of decoys using the normal model analysis for entropy calculation.

  20. Molecular modeling of protein materials: case study of elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakanova, Anna; Buehler, Markus J.

    2013-09-01

    Molecular modeling of protein materials is a quickly growing area of research that has produced numerous contributions in fields ranging from structural engineering to medicine and biology. We review here the history and methods commonly employed in molecular modeling of protein materials, emphasizing the advantages for using modeling as a complement to experimental work. We then consider a case study of the protein elastin, a critically important ‘mechanical protein’ to exemplify the approach in an area where molecular modeling has made a significant impact. We outline the progression of computational modeling studies that have considerably enhanced our understanding of this important protein which endows elasticity and recoil to the tissues it is found in, including the skin, lungs, arteries and the heart. A vast collection of literature has been directed at studying the structure and function of this protein for over half a century, the first molecular dynamics study of elastin being reported in the 1980s. We review the pivotal computational works that have considerably enhanced our fundamental understanding of elastin's atomistic structure and its extraordinary qualities—focusing on two in particular: elastin's superb elasticity and the inverse temperature transition—the remarkable ability of elastin to take on a more structured conformation at higher temperatures, suggesting its effectiveness as a biomolecular switch. Our hope is to showcase these methods as both complementary and enriching to experimental approaches that have thus far dominated the study of most protein-based materials.

  1. Protein Structure Classification and Loop Modeling Using Multiple Ramachandran Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Najibi, Seyed Morteza

    2017-02-08

    Recently, the study of protein structures using angular representations has attracted much attention among structural biologists. The main challenge is how to efficiently model the continuous conformational space of the protein structures based on the differences and similarities between different Ramachandran plots. Despite the presence of statistical methods for modeling angular data of proteins, there is still a substantial need for more sophisticated and faster statistical tools to model the large-scale circular datasets. To address this need, we have developed a nonparametric method for collective estimation of multiple bivariate density functions for a collection of populations of protein backbone angles. The proposed method takes into account the circular nature of the angular data using trigonometric spline which is more efficient compared to existing methods. This collective density estimation approach is widely applicable when there is a need to estimate multiple density functions from different populations with common features. Moreover, the coefficients of adaptive basis expansion for the fitted densities provide a low-dimensional representation that is useful for visualization, clustering, and classification of the densities. The proposed method provides a novel and unique perspective to two important and challenging problems in protein structure research: structure-based protein classification and angular-sampling-based protein loop structure prediction.

  2. Computational Modeling of Complex Protein Activity Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schivo, Stefano; Leijten, Jeroen; Karperien, Marcel; Post, Janine N.; Prignet, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Because of the numerous entities interacting, the complexity of the networks that regulate cell fate makes it impossible to analyze and understand them using the human brain alone. Computational modeling is a powerful method to unravel complex systems. We recently described the development of a

  3. Ochratoxicosis in White Leghorn breeder hens: Production and breeding performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ul Hassan*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed1, Umer Sadique2 and Aisha Khatoon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ochratoxin A (OTA upon production and breeding parameters in White Leghorn (WL breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 WL breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. The hens in these groups were maintained on feed contaminated with OTA @ 0.0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg, respectively for 21 days. These hens were artificially inseminated with semen obtained from healthy roosters kept on OTA free feed. Egg production and their quality parameters were recorded. Fertile eggs obtained from each group were set for incubation on weekly basis. At the end of the experiment, hens in each group were killed to determined gross and microscopic lesions in different organs. OTA residue concentrations were determined in extracts of liver, kidneys and breast muscles by immunoaffinity column elution and HPLC-Fluorescent detection techniques. Feeing OTA contaminated diet resulted in a significant decrease in egg mass and egg quality parameters. Liver and kidneys showed characteristic lesions of ochratoxicosis. Residue concentration (ng/g of OTA in the hens fed 10 mg/kg OTA, was the highest in liver (26.336±1.16 followed by kidney (8.223±0.85 and were least in breast muscles (1.235±0.21. Embryonic mortalites were higher, while hatachabilites of the chicks were lower in the groups fed higher doses of OTA. Feeding OTA contaminated diets to breeder hen resulted in residues accumulation in their tissues along with significantly reduced production and breeding performance.

  4. Arsenic in Eggs and Excreta of Laying Hens in Bangladesh: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, M. A.; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M. Z.; Rao, D. Ramkishan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n=248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (pfeed and excreta (r=0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r=0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens. PMID:23304904

  5. Hen på bibliotek : En diskursanalys av genusintresserade bibliotekariers tal om begreppet hen

    OpenAIRE

    Almström, Vera Henrika

    2013-01-01

    This master’s thesis looks at discourses that use the pronoun ”hen”. The media debate in Sweden over this pronoun in 2012 started in connection with the publishing of a children’s picture book: Kivi och monsterhund, by Jesper Lundqvist and Bettina Jansson. The essay investigates how eight librarians, who take an interest in and work with gender issues, talk about the pronoun hen and about this picture book and other books that have characters which are not named as a sex/gender. The essay tak...

  6. Markov dynamic models for long-timescale protein motion.

    KAUST Repository

    Chiang, Tsung-Han

    2010-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a well-established method for studying protein motion at the atomic scale. However, it is computationally intensive and generates massive amounts of data. One way of addressing the dual challenges of computation efficiency and data analysis is to construct simplified models of long-timescale protein motion from MD simulation data. In this direction, we propose to use Markov models with hidden states, in which the Markovian states represent potentially overlapping probabilistic distributions over protein conformations. We also propose a principled criterion for evaluating the quality of a model by its ability to predict long-timescale protein motions. Our method was tested on 2D synthetic energy landscapes and two extensively studied peptides, alanine dipeptide and the villin headpiece subdomain (HP-35 NleNle). One interesting finding is that although a widely accepted model of alanine dipeptide contains six states, a simpler model with only three states is equally good for predicting long-timescale motions. We also used the constructed Markov models to estimate important kinetic and dynamic quantities for protein folding, in particular, mean first-passage time. The results are consistent with available experimental measurements.

  7. Model of a DNA-protein complex of the architectural monomeric protein MC1 from Euryarchaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Paquet

    Full Text Available In Archaea the two major modes of DNA packaging are wrapping by histone proteins or bending by architectural non-histone proteins. To supplement our knowledge about the binding mode of the different DNA-bending proteins observed across the three domains of life, we present here the first model of a complex in which the monomeric Methanogen Chromosomal protein 1 (MC1 from Euryarchaea binds to the concave side of a strongly bent DNA. In laboratory growth conditions MC1 is the most abundant architectural protein present in Methanosarcina thermophila CHTI55. Like most proteins that strongly bend DNA, MC1 is known to bind in the minor groove. Interaction areas for MC1 and DNA were mapped by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR data. The polarity of protein binding was determined using paramagnetic probes attached to the DNA. The first structural model of the DNA-MC1 complex we propose here was obtained by two complementary docking approaches and is in good agreement with the experimental data previously provided by electron microscopy and biochemistry. Residues essential to DNA-binding and -bending were highlighted and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the Arg25 side-chain was essential to neutralize the negative charge of two phosphates that come very close in response to a dramatic curvature of the DNA.

  8. Modelling responses of broiler chickens to dietary balanced protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should

  9. A generative, probabilistic model of local protein structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter; Mardia, Kanti V.; Taylor, Charles C.

    2008-01-01

    conformational stabilities. Here, we present a fully probabilistic, continuous model of local protein structure in atomic detail. The generative model makes efficient conformational sampling possible and provides a framework for the rigorous analysis of local sequence-structure correlations in the native state...

  10. Digestibility and physico-chemical characteristics of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarina de Souza Batalha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens on apparent digestibility and energy metabolism. Seventy-two Hisex White hens with 71 weeks of age were assigned to a completely randomized with two treatments (control diet and diet with 3% pirarucu waste acid silage with six replicates of six birds each. The ensiled biomass was light brown in color, showing acidified aroma; creamy consistency; 4.38±0.11 pH; 84.16% dry matter; 40.06% crude protein; 26.82% ether extract; 9.31% mineral matter, 65.16 g kg-1 calcium and 22.90 g kg-1 phosphorus. Differences (p > 0.05 were detected in digestibility of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates (soluble carbohydrates, etherextract, mineral matter, metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy coefficient. Our results indicate that the acid silage mealmade of pirarucu waste can be included up to 3% in diets for laying hens, showing satisfactory nutrient digestibility and potential to be used as an energy source.

  11. Stable isotopes as a tool to differentiate eggs laid by caged, barn, free range, and organic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2009-05-27

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of whole yolk, delipidized yolk, albumen, and egg membrane were analyzed from 18 different brands of chicken eggs laid under caged, barn, free range, and organic farming regimes. In general, free range and organic egg components showed enrichment of (15)N values up to 4‰ relative to caged and barn laid eggs, suggesting a higher animal protein (trophic) contribution to the chicken's diet than pure plant-based foods and/or that the feed was organically manufactured. One sample of free range and two samples of organic eggs had δ(15)N values within the range of caged or barn laid eggs, suggesting either that these eggs were mislabeled (the hens were raised under "battery" or "barn" conditions, and not permitted to forage outside) or that there was insufficient animal protein gained by foraging to shift the δ(15)N values of their primary food source. δ(13)C values of potential food sources are discussed with respect to dietary intake and contribution to the isotopic signature of the eggs to determine mixing of C(3) and C(4) diets, although they did not elucidate laying regimen. The study finds that stable nitrogen isotope analysis of egg components is potentially a useful technique to unravel dietary differences between caged or barn hens and free range hens (both conventional and organic) and could be further developed as an authentication tool in the egg industry.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT LEVEL OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDES ON PERFORMANCE AND CANNIBALISM IN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of different diets containing different level ofnon-starch polysaccharides (NSP on performance and cannibalism of laying hens. Six diets (wheatbased,rice hull-based, plant protein-based, millrun-based, MOS, and bentonite were used and wererandomly given to 6 groups of ISA Brown hens, with 18 replicates per group and 5 birds per replicatefor 8 weeks. The results showed that diets did not have a significant effect (P>0.05 on cannibalismmortality, but numerically the rice hull diet gave the lowest effect, the millrun gave the intermediateeffect, whereas the plant protein diet gave the largest negative effect. Diet significantly affected feedintake (P<0.01, egg production (P<0.01, feed to egg ratio (P<0.01 and egg weight (P<0.05. Birds onmillrun diet had the lowest intake, but the feed to egg ratio was superior and egg production was thehighest compared to those fed other diets. In contrast, the feed to egg ratio in rice hull diet was inferior,and egg weight was also lighter than those fed other diets. In conclusion, fibre sources have beenverified as contributing factors involved in the outbreak of cannibalism in laying hens. Diets containinghigh insoluble NSP had a potential to decrease the mortality due to cannibalism.

  13. Exploiting conformational ensembles in modeling protein-protein interactions on the proteome scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Guray; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth; Keskin, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Cellular functions are performed through protein-protein interactions; therefore, identification of these interactions is crucial for understanding biological processes. Recent studies suggest that knowledge-based approaches are more useful than ‘blind’ docking for modeling at large scales. However, a caveat of knowledge-based approaches is that they treat molecules as rigid structures. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) offers a wealth of conformations. Here, we exploited ensemble of the conformations in predictions by a knowledge-based method, PRISM. We tested ‘difficult’ cases in a docking-benchmark dataset, where the unbound and bound protein forms are structurally different. Considering alternative conformations for each protein, the percentage of successfully predicted interactions increased from ~26% to 66%, and 57% of the interactions were successfully predicted in an ‘unbiased’ scenario, in which data related to the bound forms were not utilized. If the appropriate conformation, or relevant template interface, is unavailable in the PDB, PRISM could not predict the interaction successfully. The pace of the growth of the PDB promises a rapid increase of ensemble conformations emphasizing the merit of such knowledge-based ensemble strategies for higher success rates in protein-protein interaction predictions on an interactome-scale. We constructed the structural network of ERK interacting proteins as a case study. PMID:23590674

  14. Protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and neuronal cell death in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Anushka

    Many studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Yet, the mechanism by which oxidative stress leads to tissue damage in these disorders is unclear. Recent work from our laboratory has revealed that protein carbonylation, a major oxidative modification caused by severe and/or chronic oxidative stress conditions, is elevated in MS and EAE. Furthermore, protein carbonylation has been shown to alter protein structure leading to misfolding/aggregation. These findings prompted me to hypothesize that carbonylated proteins, formed as a consequence of oxidative stress and/or decreased proteasomal activity, promote protein aggregation to mediate neuronal apoptosis in vitro and in EAE. To test this novel hypothesis, I first characterized protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis along the spinal cord during the course of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice [Chapter 2]. The results show that carbonylated proteins accumulate throughout the course of the disease, albeit by different mechanisms: increased oxidative stress in acute EAE and decreased proteasomal activity in chronic EAE. I discovered not only that there is a temporal correlation between protein carbonylation and apoptosis but also that carbonyl levels are significantly higher in apoptotic cells. A high number of juxta-nuclear and cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing the majority of the oxidized proteins are also present during the course of EAE, which seems to be due to reduced autophagy. In chapter 3, I show that when gluthathione levels are reduced to those in EAE spinal cord, both neuron-like PC12 (nPC12) cells and primary neuronal cultures accumulate carbonylated proteins and undergo cell death (both by necrosis and apoptosis). Immunocytochemical and biochemical studies also revealed a temporal

  15. Neutron crystallography of hen egg-white lysozyme at pH4.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujiwara, Satoru; Niimura, Nobuo; Yonezawa, Yasushige

    2001-01-01

    In order to elucidate protein stability and function, it is important to know states of protonation of each amino acid in the protein under different pH. To answer this problem, we have been studying the neutron protein crystallography of hen egg-white (HEW) lysozyme under different pH. Neutron diffraction experiments of single crystals of HEW lysozyme at pH4.9 were carried out with BIX-II at JAERI. The state of protonation of active site in the HEW lysozyme was investigated; there was a hydrogen (deuterium) atom bound to carboxylate oxygen atom of Glu 35 and no hydrogen (deuterium) atom bound to that of Asp 52. The results agreed with the proposed catalytic mechanism of active site in the HEW lysozyme. (author)

  16. The Effects of Dietary Flavonoid Supplementation on the Antioxidant Status of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Iskender

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ninety-six 28-week-old Lohmann White laying hens were utilized to test the antioxidant effects of flavonoids (hesperidin, naringin, and quercetin at 0.5 g/kg diet during an 8-wk experimental period. At the end of the experiment blood samples were collected to determine total protein, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels as well as activities of glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and superoxide dismutase (SOD and level of glutathione (GSH in erythrocyte lysates. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Naringin supplementation did not alter serum cholesterol concentration, whereas hesperidin and quercetin supplementations decreased serum cholesterol concentration. Naringin and quercetin supplementations did not affect serum protein concentration. All flavonoids decreased MDA concentration as well as increased GSH-Px, GR, GST, and SOD activities and GSH level, being quercetion superior to hesperidin and naringin. In conclusion, flavonoids, especially quercetin, exert antioxidant activity, which may help improve wellbeing when laying hens are exposed to stressors.

  17. Temporal and Sequential Structure of Behavior and Facility Usage of Laying Hens in an Enriched Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, A.K.; Koene, P.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Spruijt, B.M.; Beek, van P.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Improved housing for laying hens may start from the translation of their behavioral needs into welfare-based design parameters for laying hen houses. The objective of our research was to gain insights into the facility usage and behavioral needs of the hen over 24 h when there are no obvious

  18. Effects of organometallic chelates and inulin in diets for laying hens on Mn and Fe absorption coefficients and their content in egg and tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornescu Gabriela Maria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of organic sources of manganese (Mn and iron (Fe and inulin in diets for laying hens on absorption of these minerals and their deposition in egg and tissue. The study was conducted on 90 Lohmann Brown laying hens in the period from 46-52 weeks of age, assigned to 3 groups with 30 hens/group and 3 hens/cage. The hens from the control group (C received a diet based on corn, rice bran and soybean meal with 16% of crude protein, as well as 60 mg Fe/kg and 71.9 mg Mn/kg of diet in form of inorganic salts. The formulation of the experimental diets (E1 and E2 differed from C group diet by the replacement of inorganic Fe and Mn salts by organometallic chelates of these elements, at a level of 25% lower than in the premix for group C. As source of inulin, group E1 diet also included 0.5% of dry Jerusalem artichoke, while group E2 diet included 0.5% of a product based on chicory root extract. At the end of the experiment, 6 hens from each group were slaughtered and blood serum and liver samples were collected and assayed for concentration of Fe and Mn. In the final week of the experiment, 18 eggs/group were collected for determination of Fe and Mn concentration in egg yolk. Concentration of measured blood serum parameters (haemoglobin, haematocrit, Fe and Mn in experimental (E groups were lower than in group C, but no significant differences (P>0.05 were registered. Absorption coefficients of Mn had higher values in E groups than in group C, with significant increase (P0.05 between groups were observed for Mn and Fe concentration in egg yolk.

  19. The hatching results of indigenous Hungarian speckled hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Benk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the pilot farm of Szeged University Faculty of Agriculture we keep two varieties of the Hungarian speckled hen, the feathered-neck variant and the naked-neck type since 1977. The three colour variations of the domestic hen species were bred from the Hungarian lea-land bird by the middle of the 20th Century. Because of the spread of intensive poultry keeping the population of this species has become endangered. Programs supporting ecological-biological farming that began in the last two decades placed the domestically bred birds in the forefront both as purebreds and as candidates in projects for developing merchandisable bio-poultry. Beside the gene preservation, we endeavor to find the best way for the production-purpose utilisation of the speckled hen stock. On the basis of our experiments the laying hens can be used in small scale egg production. We examined the hatching results of both type of speckled hens, during more than 20 generations.

  20. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Estimating mortality in laying hens as the environmental temperature increases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Layer mortality due to heat stress is an important economic loss for the producer. The aim of this study was to determine the mortality pattern of layers reared in the region of Bastos, SP, Brazil, according to external environment and bird age. Data mining technique were used based on monthly mortality records of hens in production, 135 poultry houses, from January 2004 to August 2008. The external environment was characterized according maximum and minimum temperatures, obtained monthly at the meteorological station CATI in the city of Tupã, SP, Brazil. Mortality was classified as normal (£ 1.2% or high (> 1.2%, considering the mortality limits mentioned in literature. Data mining technique produced a decision tree with nine levels and 23 leaves, with 62.6% of overall accuracy. The hit rate for the High class was 64.1% and 59.9% for Normal class. The decision tree allowed finding a pattern in the mortality data, generating a model for estimating mortality based on the thermal environment and bird age.

  2. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enriched Hen Eggs Consumption Enhances Microvascular Reactivity in Young Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupin, Ana; Rasic, Lidija; Matic, Anita; Stupin, Marko; Kralik, Zlata; Kralik, Gordana; Grcevic, Manuela; Drenjancevic, Ines

    2018-04-10

    Whilst the beneficial effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation on cardiovascular (CV) system is well supported in CV patients, the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched functional food in healthy individuals is still not fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched hen eggs on microvascular reactivity (primary outcome), blood pressure (BP) and serum lipid profile in young healthy individuals. Control group (N=16) ate three ordinary hen eggs (277 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day), and OMEGA-3 group (N=20) ate three omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs containing 259 mg of omega-3 PUFAs/egg daily (ALA 167 mg/egg, EPA 7 mg/egg, DHA 84 mg/egg) for 3 weeks (777 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in skin microcirculation assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and arterial BP were measured in all subjects before and after the protocol. PORH was significantly enhanced, and triglycerides, hsCRP and BP were significantly decreased in OMEGA-3 group compared to baseline measurement, while there was no significant difference in Control group after the protocol compared to baseline. This is the first study to demonstrate that consumption of a mixture of omega-3 PUFAs (ALA+EPA+DHA), provided via enriched hen eggs, elicits changes in microvascular reactivity, BP and triglycerides level in healthy subjects that are associated with CV benefits, thus suggesting that daily consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs in healthy individuals may potentially contribute to CV risk factors attenuation and disease prevention.

  3. An Efficient Null Model for Conformational Fluctuations in Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Tim Philipp; Borg, Mikael; Bottaro, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Protein dynamics play a crucial role in function, catalytic activity, and pathogenesis. Consequently, there is great interest in computational methods that probe the conformational fluctuations of a protein. However, molecular dynamics simulations are computationally costly and therefore are often...... limited to comparatively short timescales. TYPHON is a probabilistic method to explore the conformational space of proteins under the guidance of a sophisticated probabilistic model of local structure and a given set of restraints that represent nonlocal interactions, such as hydrogen bonds or disulfide...... bridges. The choice of the restraints themselves is heuristic, but the resulting probabilistic model is well-defined and rigorous. Conceptually, TYPHON constitutes a null model of conformational fluctuations under a given set of restraints. We demonstrate that TYPHON can provide information...

  4. Ab initio modeling of small proteins by iterative TASSER simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting 3-dimensional protein structures from amino-acid sequences is an important unsolved problem in computational structural biology. The problem becomes relatively easier if close homologous proteins have been solved, as high-resolution models can be built by aligning target sequences to the solved homologous structures. However, for sequences without similar folds in the Protein Data Bank (PDB library, the models have to be predicted from scratch. Progress in the ab initio structure modeling is slow. The aim of this study was to extend the TASSER (threading/assembly/refinement method for the ab initio modeling and examine systemically its ability to fold small single-domain proteins. Results We developed I-TASSER by iteratively implementing the TASSER method, which is used in the folding test of three benchmarks of small proteins. First, data on 16 small proteins (α-root mean square deviation (RMSD of 3.8Å, with 6 of them having a Cα-RMSD α-RMSD α-RMSD of the I-TASSER models was 3.9Å, whereas it was 5.9Å using TOUCHSTONE-II software. Finally, 20 non-homologous small proteins (α-RMSD of 3.9Å was obtained for the third benchmark, with seven cases having a Cα-RMSD Conclusion Our simulation results show that I-TASSER can consistently predict the correct folds and sometimes high-resolution models for small single-domain proteins. Compared with other ab initio modeling methods such as ROSETTA and TOUCHSTONE II, the average performance of I-TASSER is either much better or is similar within a lower computational time. These data, together with the significant performance of automated I-TASSER server (the Zhang-Server in the 'free modeling' section of the recent Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP7 experiment, demonstrate new progresses in automated ab initio model generation. The I-TASSER server is freely available for academic users http://zhang.bioinformatics.ku.edu/I-TASSER.

  5. Effect of the Feed Additive Clinoptilolite (ZeoFeed on Nutrient Metabolism and Production Performance of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Macháček

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two levels of clinoptilolite administered in feed (2% and 4% on some selected performance indicators, metabolic utilization of basic nutrients and the health status of laying hens. The selected 24 Bovans Goldline hybrid laying hens were divided into three equal groups, two experimental groups (E1 and E2 and one control group (C. The laying hens were housed individually in cages with an automatic supply of drinking water, manual feeding, in a setting with controlled light and temperature regimens. Hens from individual groups were all fed a complete feed mix of the same composition and the only difference was in clinoptilolite supplementation: feed mixes for E1 and E2 groups contained 2% and 4% of clinoptilolite (commercial additive ZeoFeed respectively, replacing the same amounts of wheat. The hens received feed mixes and drinking water ad libitum. During this 28-day experiment, feed consumption and the number and weight of eggs laid were monitored individually for each hen. At the end of the experiment, the balance test using the indicator method (Cr2O3 was performed in all eight hens in each of the groups. The results of balance tests were then used to calculate the metabolic utilization of selected nutrients (nitrogen, fat, ash, nitrogen-free extracts, starch, gross energy, Ca, P. After the balance tests, blood samples for haematological and biochemical examinations were collected via puncture of the vena basilica. The addition of 2% clinoptilolite to feed mix resulted in a highly significant (P ⪬ 0.01 increase in mean egg weight to 64.69 g, but the addition of 4% clinoptilolite in group E2 resulted in a highly significant (P ⪬ 0.01 decrease in mean egg weight to 62.20 g compared to the control (63.73 g. Moreover, daily feed mix consumption in group E1 decreased to 114 g per one laying hen/day compared to the controls (118 g per one laying hen/day. In group E2 (4% clinoptilolite, daily

  6. Phase diagram of a model of the protein amelogenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaga, Jason; Pemberton, Elizabeth; Gunton, J. D.; Rickman, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the self-assembly and phase behavior of models of colloidal and protein particles with anisotropic interactions. One example of particular interest is amelogenin, an important protein involved in the formation of dental enamel. Amelogenin is primarily hydrophobic with a 25-residue charged C-terminus tail. This protein undergoes a hierarchical assembly process that is crucial to mineral deposition, and experimental work has demonstrated that the deletion of the C-terminus tail prevents this self-assembly. A simplified model of amelogenin has been proposed in which the protein is treated as a hydrophobic sphere, interacting via the Asakura-Oosawa (AO) potential, with a tethered point charge on its surface. In this paper, we examine the effect of the Coulomb interaction between the point charges in altering the phase diagram of the AO model. For the parameter case specific to amelogenin, we find that the previous in vitro experimental and model conditions correspond to the system being near the low-density edge of the metastable region of the phase diagram. Our study illustrates more generally the importance of understanding the phase diagram for proteins, in that the kinetic pathway for self-assembly and the resulting aggregate morphology depends on the location of the initial state in the phase diagram.

  7. Bayesian Proteoform Modeling Improves Protein Quantification of Global Proteomic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Datta, Susmita; Payne, Samuel H.; Kang, Jiyun; Bramer, Lisa M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Tardiff, Mark F.; McDermott, Jason E.; Pounds, Joel G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2014-12-01

    As the capability of mass spectrometry-based proteomics has matured, tens of thousands of peptides can be measured simultaneously, which has the benefit of offering a systems view of protein expression. However, a major challenge is that with an increase in throughput, protein quantification estimation from the native measured peptides has become a computational task. A limitation to existing computationally-driven protein quantification methods is that most ignore protein variation, such as alternate splicing of the RNA transcript and post-translational modifications or other possible proteoforms, which will affect a significant fraction of the proteome. The consequence of this assumption is that statistical inference at the protein level, and consequently downstream analyses, such as network and pathway modeling, have only limited power for biomarker discovery. Here, we describe a Bayesian model (BP-Quant) that uses statistically derived peptides signatures to identify peptides that are outside the dominant pattern, or the existence of multiple over-expressed patterns to improve relative protein abundance estimates. It is a research-driven approach that utilizes the objectives of the experiment, defined in the context of a standard statistical hypothesis, to identify a set of peptides exhibiting similar statistical behavior relating to a protein. This approach infers that changes in relative protein abundance can be used as a surrogate for changes in function, without necessarily taking into account the effect of differential post-translational modifications, processing, or splicing in altering protein function. We verify the approach using a dilution study from mouse plasma samples and demonstrate that BP-Quant achieves similar accuracy as the current state-of-the-art methods at proteoform identification with significantly better specificity. BP-Quant is available as a MatLab ® and R packages at https://github.com/PNNL-Comp-Mass-Spec/BP-Quant.

  8. Domain-Based Predictive Models for Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xue-Wen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein interactions are of biological interest because they orchestrate a number of cellular processes such as metabolic pathways and immunological recognition. Recently, methods for predicting protein interactions using domain information are proposed and preliminary results have demonstrated their feasibility. In this paper, we develop two domain-based statistical models (neural networks and decision trees for protein interaction predictions. Unlike most of the existing methods which consider only domain pairs (one domain from one protein and assume that domain-domain interactions are independent of each other, the proposed methods are capable of exploring all possible interactions between domains and make predictions based on all the domains. Compared to maximum-likelihood estimation methods, our experimental results show that the proposed schemes can predict protein-protein interactions with higher specificity and sensitivity, while requiring less computation time. Furthermore, the decision tree-based model can be used to infer the interactions not only between two domains, but among multiple domains as well.

  9. Scientific Opinion on a quantitative estimation of the public health impact of setting a new target for the reduction of Salmonella in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Nørrung, Birgit; Chriél, Mariann

    Public health risks of Salmonella infection in laying hens (Gallus gallus) can be associated with exposure through four different pathways: internally contaminated table eggs, externally contaminated table eggs, egg products and meat from spent hens. In relation to eggs, Salmonella Enteritidis...... contamination. Fresh meat from spent laying hens might carry a higher prevalence of Salmonella than meat from broiler flocks, in particular if sourced from Salmonella-positive flocks. The quantification of under-ascertainment and underreporting of human salmonellosis cases, improving knowledge on within...... is by far the serovar most frequently associated with human illness, and exposure through eggs that are internally contaminated with this serovar has a higher public health significance than exposure to externally contaminated eggs. A mathematical model, using reported field data from two EU Member States...

  10. A simple probabilistic model of multibody interactions in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe; Hamelryck, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure prediction methods typically use statistical potentials, which rely on statistics derived from a database of know protein structures. In the vast majority of cases, these potentials involve pairwise distances or contacts between amino acids or atoms. Although some potentials...... arbitrarily limiting the number of contacts. The success of this approach is based on replacing a naive table-based approach with a simple hierarchical model involving suitable probability distributions and conditional independence assumptions. The model captures the joint probability distribution of an amino...

  11. Fast Proton Titration Scheme for Multiscale Modeling of Protein Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andre Azevedo Reis; Lund, Mikael; da Silva, Fernando Luís Barroso

    2010-10-12

    Proton exchange between titratable amino acid residues and the surrounding solution gives rise to exciting electric processes in proteins. We present a proton titration scheme for studying acid-base equilibria in Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations where salt is treated at the Debye-Hückel level. The method, rooted in the Kirkwood model of impenetrable spheres, is applied on the three milk proteins α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin, for which we investigate the net-charge, molecular dipole moment, and charge capacitance. Over a wide range of pH and salt conditions, excellent agreement is found with more elaborate simulations where salt is explicitly included. The implicit salt scheme is orders of magnitude faster than the explicit analog and allows for transparent interpretation of physical mechanisms. It is shown how the method can be expanded to multiscale modeling of aqueous salt solutions of many biomolecules with nonstatic charge distributions. Important examples are protein-protein aggregation, protein-polyelectrolyte complexation, and protein-membrane association.

  12. Validation of protein models by a neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantucci Piercarlo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development and improvement of reliable computational methods designed to evaluate the quality of protein models is relevant in the context of protein structure refinement, which has been recently identified as one of the bottlenecks limiting the quality and usefulness of protein structure prediction. Results In this contribution, we present a computational method (Artificial Intelligence Decoys Evaluator: AIDE which is able to consistently discriminate between correct and incorrect protein models. In particular, the method is based on neural networks that use as input 15 structural parameters, which include energy, solvent accessible surface, hydrophobic contacts and secondary structure content. The results obtained with AIDE on a set of decoy structures were evaluated using statistical indicators such as Pearson correlation coefficients, Znat, fraction enrichment, as well as ROC plots. It turned out that AIDE performances are comparable and often complementary to available state-of-the-art learning-based methods. Conclusion In light of the results obtained with AIDE, as well as its comparison with available learning-based methods, it can be concluded that AIDE can be successfully used to evaluate the quality of protein structures. The use of AIDE in combination with other evaluation tools is expected to further enhance protein refinement efforts.

  13. DockQ: A Quality Measure for Protein-Protein Docking Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Basu

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art to assess the structural quality of docking models is currently based on three related yet independent quality measures: Fnat, LRMS, and iRMS as proposed and standardized by CAPRI. These quality measures quantify different aspects of the quality of a particular docking model and need to be viewed together to reveal the true quality, e.g. a model with relatively poor LRMS (>10Å might still qualify as 'acceptable' with a descent Fnat (>0.50 and iRMS (<3.0Å. This is also the reason why the so called CAPRI criteria for assessing the quality of docking models is defined by applying various ad-hoc cutoffs on these measures to classify a docking model into the four classes: Incorrect, Acceptable, Medium, or High quality. This classification has been useful in CAPRI, but since models are grouped in only four bins it is also rather limiting, making it difficult to rank models, correlate with scoring functions or use it as target function in machine learning algorithms. Here, we present DockQ, a continuous protein-protein docking model quality measure derived by combining Fnat, LRMS, and iRMS to a single score in the range [0, 1] that can be used to assess the quality of protein docking models. By using DockQ on CAPRI models it is possible to almost completely reproduce the original CAPRI classification into Incorrect, Acceptable, Medium and High quality. An average PPV of 94% at 90% Recall demonstrating that there is no need to apply predefined ad-hoc cutoffs to classify docking models. Since DockQ recapitulates the CAPRI classification almost perfectly, it can be viewed as a higher resolution version of the CAPRI classification, making it possible to estimate model quality in a more quantitative way using Z-scores or sum of top ranked models, which has been so valuable for the CASP community. The possibility to directly correlate a quality measure to a scoring function has been crucial for the development of scoring functions for

  14. [Changes of urinary proteins in a bacterial meningitis rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yanying; Zhang, Fanshuang; An, Manxia; Gao, Youhe

    2017-07-25

    Unlike cerebrospinal fluid or blood, urine accumulates metabolic changes of the body and has the potential to be a promising source of early biomarkers discovery. Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of illness among neonates and children worldwide. In this study, we used Escherichia coli-injected rat model to mimic meningitis and collected urine samples on day 1 and day 3. We used two different methods to digest proteins and analyzed peptides by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We identified 17 and 20 differential proteins by two methods respectively on day 1, and 5 differential proteins by filter-aided digestion method on day 3. Finding these differential proteins laid a foundation to further explore biomarkers of bacterial meningitis.

  15. Effects of chopped sinusoidal voltages on the behavior and performance of laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidali, G.; Silversides, F.G.; Boily, R. [Laval Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Faculte de Sciences et Genie; Villeneuve, P.; Joncas, R. [Quebec Ministere de l`Agriculture, des Pecheries et de l`Aminentation, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Studies were conducted to measure the effects of sinusoidal voltages on hens. One hundred and twenty laying hens between 23 and 43 weeks of age were used in these experiments. Normal sinusoidal voltages with constant amplitudes of one to nine volts and pulses with random amplitudes of 3 to 18 volts were applied to the hens. The electrical resistance of hens was also measured to determine their path resistance to electrical currents. No effects on production performance or behavior of laying hens were found. Neither water and feed consumption, nor egg production and quality were affected by the treatments. No behavioral or health problems were observed. 15 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Influence of Natural Zeolite on Performance of Laying Hens and Egg Quality

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Ergin; ERENER, Güray; SARICA, Musa

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of natural zeolite on the performance of laying hens. One hundred and eighty 37-week-old Babcock B-300 hens were fed with a diet containing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g clinoptilolite/kg in an experiment consisting of 36 hens per treatment during a 4x28 days experimental period. All feeding programs were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Hens were put at random into 5 treatment groups (12 replicates and 36 hens per treatment). No significant dietar...

  17. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management...... during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden...

  18. A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbajo Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, biologists and biochemists use computational tools to design experiments to probe the function of proteins and/or to engineer them for a variety of different purposes. The most effective strategies rely on the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the protein of interest. However it is often the case that an experimental structure is not available and that models of different quality are used instead. On the other hand, the relationship between the quality of a model and its appropriate use is not easy to derive in general, and so far it has been analyzed in detail only for specific application. Results This paper describes a database and related software tools that allow testing of a given structure based method on models of a protein representing different levels of accuracy. The comparison of the results of a computational experiment on the experimental structure and on a set of its decoy models will allow developers and users to assess which is the specific threshold of accuracy required to perform the task effectively. Conclusions The ModelDB server automatically builds decoy models of different accuracy for a given protein of known structure and provides a set of useful tools for their analysis. Pre-computed data for a non-redundant set of deposited protein structures are available for analysis and download in the ModelDB database. Implementation, availability and requirements Project name: A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models. Project home page: http://bl210.caspur.it/MODEL-DB/MODEL-DB_web/MODindex.php. Operating system(s: Platform independent. Programming language: Perl-BioPerl (program; mySQL, Perl DBI and DBD modules (database; php, JavaScript, Jmol scripting (web server. Other requirements: Java Runtime Environment v1.4 or later, Perl, BioPerl, CPAN modules, HHsearch, Modeller, LGA, NCBI Blast package, DSSP, Speedfill (Surfnet and PSAIA. License: Free. Any

  19. Control methods for Dermanyssus gallinae in systems for laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mul, M.; Fiks-van Niekerk, T.; Chirico, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a seminar on poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae. Eighteen researchers from eight European countries discussed life cycle issues of the mite, effects of mites on hens and egg production, and monitoring and control methods for PRM in poultry facilities...... and admitting the problem and in taking timely measures. Currently, the most promising control method combines heating the hen house in combination with chemical treatments. Future areas of development which show promise include the use of entomopathogenic fungi, vaccination and predatory mites. The final aim...

  20. Orale L-Carnitin-Supplementierung bei Hochleistungskühen

    OpenAIRE

    Glatz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Einleitung: L-Carnitin spielt eine zentrale Rolle im Energiestoffwechsel. Da dieser in der Frühlaktation bei Hochleistungskühen besonders beansprucht und z.T. überlastet wird, ergibt sich die Frage, ob durch L-Carnitinsupplementation ein stabilerer Stoffwechsel und damit bessere Leistungen erreicht werden können. Zielstellung: Es wurde geprüft, ob bei Hochleistungskühen mit einer mittleren Milchleistung von 12000 kg/Jahr die orale Supplementation von L Carnitin im peripartalem Zeitraum bei...

  1. Optimal in-feed amino acid ratio for broiler breeder hens based on deletion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigam, J C P; Sakomura, N K; Sarcinelli, M F; Gonçalves, C A; de Lima, M B; Peruzzi, N J

    2017-12-01

    An ideal amino acid ratio (IAAR) for breeder hens is needed for maximum nitrogen retention (NR) taking into account nitrogen deposition in body (ND B ), feathers (ND F ) and egg mass (NEM) to improve dietary protein efficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to apply the deletion method to derive the IAAR for broiler breeder hens. The nitrogen balance trials were performed from 31 to 35 weeks and from 46 to 50 weeks. Twelve treatments with eight replicates and one hen per cage were used. A balanced diet (BD) was formulated to meet the requirement of all nutrients. The other diets were formulated diluting 55% of BD with corn starch and refilled with amino acids (AAs) and other ingredients, except the AA tested. Each trial lasted 25 days. Feather losses, egg production and egg weight were recorded daily, and the samples were stored to further determine NEM and nitrogen in feather losses (ND FL ). At the start and the end of each period, a group of birds were slaughtered to further determine ND B and ND F . The NR was calculated as the sum of ND B , ND F , ND FL , NEM and the nitrogen maintenance requirement (NMR). The deletion of valine greatly depressed the NR in peak production (31 to 35 weeks) while the deletion of the isoleucine greatly depressed the NR of the hens from 46 to 50 weeks of age. The percentual reduction in NR and the per cent of the AA to delete from the BD were used to calculate the AA requirement. The average IAAR was Lys 100, Met+Cys 86, Trp 23, Thr 80, Arg 113, Val 90, Ile 91, Leu 133, Phe+Tyr 108, Gly+Ser 94 and His 35. The IAAR was in line with the recommendation from the literature, validating deletion method with the advantages from a rapid and low-cost procedure. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

    2015-02-01

    As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of γ-HCH/α-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no

  3. Sketching protein aggregation with a physics-based toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Marta; Rey, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We explore the applicability of a single-bead coarse-grained molecular model to describe the competition between protein folding and aggregation. We have designed very simple and regular sequences, based on our previous studies on peptide aggregation, that successfully fold into the three main protein structural families (all-α, all-β, and α + β). Thanks to equilibrium computer simulations, we evaluate how temperature and concentration promote aggregation. Aggregates have been obtained for all the amino acid sequences considered, showing that this process is common to all proteins, as previously stated. However, each structural family presents particular characteristics that can be related to its specific balance between hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. The model is very simple and has limitations, yet it is able to reproduce both the cooperative folding of isolated polypeptide chains with regular sequences and the formation of different types of aggregates at high concentrations.

  4. Improved protein model quality assessments by changing the target function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziela, Karolis; Menéndez Hurtado, David; Shu, Nanjiang; Wallner, Björn; Elofsson, Arne

    2018-03-09

    Protein modeling quality is an important part of protein structure prediction. We have for more than a decade developed a set of methods for this problem. We have used various types of description of the protein and different machine learning methodologies. However, common to all these methods has been the target function used for training. The target function in ProQ describes the local quality of a residue in a protein model. In all versions of ProQ the target function has been the S-score. However, other quality estimation functions also exist, which can be divided into superposition- and contact-based methods. The superposition-based methods, such as S-score, are based on a rigid body superposition of a protein model and the native structure, while the contact-based methods compare the local environment of each residue. Here, we examine the effects of retraining our latest predictor, ProQ3D, using identical inputs but different target functions. We find that the contact-based methods are easier to predict and that predictors trained on these measures provide some advantages when it comes to identifying the best model. One possible reason for this is that contact based methods are better at estimating the quality of multi-domain targets. However, training on the S-score gives the best correlation with the GDT_TS score, which is commonly used in CASP to score the global model quality. To take the advantage of both of these features we provide an updated version of ProQ3D that predicts local and global model quality estimates based on different quality estimates. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. HIV-specific probabilistic models of protein evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Nickle

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparative sequence analyses, including such fundamental bioinformatics techniques as similarity searching, sequence alignment and phylogenetic inference, have become a mainstay for researchers studying type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1 genome structure and evolution. Implicit in comparative analyses is an underlying model of evolution, and the chosen model can significantly affect the results. In general, evolutionary models describe the probabilities of replacing one amino acid character with another over a period of time. Most widely used evolutionary models for protein sequences have been derived from curated alignments of hundreds of proteins, usually based on mammalian genomes. It is unclear to what extent these empirical models are generalizable to a very different organism, such as HIV-1-the most extensively sequenced organism in existence. We developed a maximum likelihood model fitting procedure to a collection of HIV-1 alignments sampled from different viral genes, and inferred two empirical substitution models, suitable for describing between-and within-host evolution. Our procedure pools the information from multiple sequence alignments, and provided software implementation can be run efficiently in parallel on a computer cluster. We describe how the inferred substitution models can be used to generate scoring matrices suitable for alignment and similarity searches. Our models had a consistently superior fit relative to the best existing models and to parameter-rich data-driven models when benchmarked on independent HIV-1 alignments, demonstrating evolutionary biases in amino-acid substitution that are unique to HIV, and that are not captured by the existing models. The scoring matrices derived from the models showed a marked difference from common amino-acid scoring matrices. The use of an appropriate evolutionary model recovered a known viral transmission history, whereas a poorly chosen model introduced phylogenetic

  6. Model systems for understanding absorption tuning by opsin proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial review reports on model systems that have been synthesised and investigated for elucidating how opsin proteins tune the absorption of the protonated retinal Schiff base chromophore. In particular, the importance of the counteranion is highlighted. In addition, the review advocates...

  7. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells.

  8. Local pH at the surface of hen egg white lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otosu, Takuhiro; Kobayashi, Kaito; Yamaguchi, Shoichi

    2018-02-01

    The microenvironment at the surface of hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was examined by analyzing the change in pKa of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) upon binding to the N-terminus of HEWL. The result showed that the local pH at the HEWL surface is higher than the bulk pH. Furthermore, the data showed that the difference between the local and bulk pH becomes larger with decreasing pH, suggesting HEWL repels more protons at lower pH. Because the local pH affects the protonation states of functional amino-acids at the protein surface, the results provide the fundamental insight into the microenvironment at the protein surface.

  9. Effect of humic-plant feed preparations on biochemical blood parameters of laying hens in deep litter housing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubel, F; Dobrzański, Z; Gaweł, A; Pogoda-Sewerniak, K; Grela, E R

    2015-01-01

    An influence of various humic-plant feed additives based on some herbs (nettle, chamomile, yarrow, perforatum), lucerne and humic materials on biochemical indices of Lohmann Brown (LB) layers blood plasma was estimated. Hens were housed in deep litter system, 20 birds in a group. Four groups were formed: control (C - standard feeding), and experimental, supplemented with prepara- tions: E-1 herbal-humic, E-2 humic-herbal and E-3--humic-lucerne. Hens were placed in the pens on the 16th week of life, addition of preparations with standard food mixture started at the 22nd wk and lasted until 66th wk of life. Blood for analyses was collected four times in the following periods: 27, 37, 54 and 65th wk of life. The applied humic-plant preparations to a limited degree affected the values of examined biochemical parameters in serum: total protein (TP), albumins (Albs), glucose (Glu), urea, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TCh), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminot- ransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is difficult to determine based on these study, which preparation is one the most active biologically, however is seems that humic-lucerne prepara- tion affected the examined blood parameters to the highest degree. The reference values ranges in hens blood serum LB hens were proposed for: TP (43-65 g/l), Albs (15-22 g/l), urea (0.5-1.2 mmol/l), Glu 10-15 mmol/l), TCh (2.2-4.5 mmol/l), TAG (10-24 mmol/l), AST (4-12 U/l), ALT (150-280 mmol/l) and ALP (190-350 U/l).

  10. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C, imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB, and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB. The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF] compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing

  11. On the characterization of intermediates in the isodesmic aggregation pathway of hen lysozyme at alkaline pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ravi

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation leading to formation of amyloid fibrils is a symptom of several diseases like Alzheimer's, type 2 diabetes and so on. Elucidating the poorly understood mechanism of such phenomena entails the difficult task of characterizing the species involved at each of the multiple steps in the aggregation pathway. It was previously shown by us that spontaneous aggregation of hen-eggwhite lysozyme (HEWL at room temperature in pH 12.2 is a good model to study aggregation. Here in this paper we investigate the growth kinetics, structure, function and dynamics of multiple intermediate species populating the aggregation pathway of HEWL at pH 12.2. The different intermediates were isolated by varying the HEWL monomer concentration in the 300 nM-0.12 mM range. The intermediates were characterized using techniques like steady-state and nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Growth kinetics of non-fibrillar HEWL aggregates were fitted to the von Bertalanffy equation to yield a HEWL concentration independent rate constant (k = (6.6 ± 0.6 × 10(-5 s(-1. Our results reveal stepwise changes in size, molecular packing and enzymatic activity among growing HEWL aggregates consistent with an isodesmic aggregation model. Formation of disulphide bonds that crosslink the monomers in the aggregate appear as a unique feature of this aggregation. AFM images of multiple amyloid fibrils emanating radially from amorphous aggregates directly confirmed that on-pathway fibril formation was feasible under isodesmic polymerization. The isolated HEWL aggregates are revealed as polycationic protein nanoparticles that are robust at neutral pH with ability to take up non-polar molecules like ANS.

  12. Preparation and storage stability of meat spread developed from spent hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Mendiratta, S. K.; Sen, Arup Ratan; Kandeepan, G.; Talukder, Suman; Sharma, Heena; Soni, Arvind; Irshad, A.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to develop a meat spread as a healthier alternative to already existing meat products utilizing undervalued spent hen meat to add a new dimension to meat products. Materials and Methods: Carcasses were processed within 30 min of slaughter and conditioned at 4±1°C for about 24 h and then braised along with other ingredients to get the final product. The products were evaluated for proximate composition, peroxide values, pH, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: The mean percent values for moisture, crude protein, ether extract, and total ash content of developed product were 58.75±0.32, 9.12±0.44, 11.19±0.16, and 2.35±0.17, respectively. No significant difference was observed for mean coliform and the yeast and mold counts with the progression of storage period, but samples differed significantly for mean pH, thiobarbituric acid and total viable plate count during storage of meat spread. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The meat spread was found to be a good alternative to process the underutilized spent hens for its efficient utilization for product development. PMID:27047151

  13. Mass spectrometry characterization for N-glycosylation of immunoglobulin Y from hen egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Long; He, Zhenjiao; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2018-03-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody that exists in hen egg yolk. It is a glycoprotein, not much is known about its N-glycan structures, site occupancy and site-specific N-glycosylation. In this study, purified protein from hen egg yolk was identified as IgY based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. N-glycan was released from IgY using peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase treatment, and the molecular weight of IgY was calculated using the difference between the molecular weight of IgY and deglycosylated IgY. Two potential N-Glycosylation sites (ASN 308 and ASN 409 ) were detected on IgY by nanoLC-ESI MS. Sugar chains were separated using normal phase liquid chromatography after fluorescence labeling, and 17 N-glycan structures were confirmed using ESI-MS. The sugar chain pattern contained high-mannose oligosaccharide, hybrid oligosaccharide and complex oligosaccharide. These results could lead to other important information regarding IgY glycosylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hrabčáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P<0.05 in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P<0.05. At the end of the laying period, an increase (P<0.05 was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P<0.05 were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period.

  15. Pathological Responses of White Leghorn Breeder Hens Kept on Ochratoxin A Contaminated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor-ul-Hassan, M. Zargham Khan*, Ahrar Khan and Ijaz Javed1

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are among the most important environmental contaminants. In the present study, ochratoxin A (OTA was produced by propagation of Aspergillus ochraceus and fed to breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. Group A served as control, while groups B, C, D, E, F and G were fed OTA at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg feed, respectively for 3 weeks. Clinical signs, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and egg mass production were recorded on daily basis, while body weight was recorded on weekly basis. Lesions on visceral organs and serum biochemical parameters were determined. Significant decrease in feed intake, body weight and egg mass production was found in the OTA treated groups compared to control (P<0.05. Among different groups, diarrhea, unthriftiness, water intake and depression increased with increase in dietary OTA levels. Enlargement and hemorrhages on liver and kidney were more severe in birds fed higher dietary OTA levels. Serum ALT, urea, creatinine and total protein levels were significantly higher in OTA treated groups. It was concluded that production performance, pathological alterations and serum biochemical changes determined became more severe with increase in dietary levels of OTA.

  16. Effect of quercetin on performance and egg quality during the late laying period of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Li, Y; Liu, H-N; Suo, Y-L; Hu, L-L; Feng, X-A; Zhang, L; Jin, F

    2013-01-01

    1. At the end of the peak laying period for fowl, both performance and egg quality decrease markedly. Counteracting either or both of these could, therefore, have significant positive economic implications. Quercetin, a typical representative of the flavonol compounds, has a variety of biological functions. However, there are no reported findings on its use as a feed additive. 2. In this study, we investigated the effects of quercetin on laying rate, egg quality and blood traits associated with egg quality in laying hens (Hessain) during the late laying period and explored the possibility of using quercetin as a functional feed additive. 3. The laying hens (n = 240; 39 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 6 replicates (n = 10) and were fed with diets containing quercetin at 0, 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6 g/kg. 4. Results showed that laying rate was increased and feed-egg ratio was decreased significantly by 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg quercetin. Compared with controls, Haugh unit, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness and yolk protein were increased, but yolk cholesterol was decreased by quercetin. 5. In conclusion, quercetin was beneficial in improving performance and egg quality. The recommended concentration of quercetin is 0.4 g/kg of the basal diet. At this concentration, increased laying rate, improved egg quality and reduced yolk cholesterol can be expected.

  17. Modelling Transcapillary Transport of Fluid and Proteins in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pietribiasi

    Full Text Available The kinetics of protein transport to and from the vascular compartment play a major role in the determination of fluid balance and plasma refilling during hemodialysis (HD sessions. In this study we propose a whole-body mathematical model describing water and protein shifts across the capillary membrane during HD and compare its output to clinical data while evaluating the impact of choosing specific values for selected parameters.The model follows a two-compartment structure (vascular and interstitial space and is based on balance equations of protein mass and water volume in each compartment. The capillary membrane was described according to the three-pore theory. Two transport parameters, the fractional contribution of large pores (αLP and the total hydraulic conductivity (LpS of the capillary membrane, were estimated from patient data. Changes in the intensity and direction of individual fluid and solute flows through each part of the transport system were analyzed in relation to the choice of different values of small pores radius and fractional conductivity, lymphatic sensitivity to hydraulic pressure, and steady-state interstitial-to-plasma protein concentration ratio.The estimated values of LpS and αLP were respectively 10.0 ± 8.4 mL/min/mmHg (mean ± standard deviation and 0.062 ± 0.041. The model was able to predict with good accuracy the profiles of plasma volume and serum total protein concentration in most of the patients (average root-mean-square deviation < 2% of the measured value.The applied model provides a mechanistic interpretation of fluid transport processes induced by ultrafiltration during HD, using a minimum of tuned parameters and assumptions. The simulated values of individual flows through each kind of pore and lymphatic absorption rate yielded by the model may suggest answers to unsolved questions on the relative impact of these not-measurable quantities on total vascular refilling and fluid balance.

  18. The active site of hen egg-white lysozyme: flexibility and chemical bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Jeanette; Smaalen, Sander van

    2014-01-01

    Chemical bonding at the active site of lysozyme is analyzed on the basis of a multipole model employing transferable multipole parameters from a database. Large B factors at low temperatures reflect frozen-in disorder, but therefore prevent a meaningful free refinement of multipole parameters. Chemical bonding at the active site of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) is analyzed on the basis of Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules [QTAIM; Bader (1994 ▶), Atoms in Molecules: A Quantum Theory. Oxford University Press] applied to electron-density maps derived from a multipole model. The observation is made that the atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) of HEWL at a temperature of 100 K are larger than ADPs in crystals of small biological molecules at 298 K. This feature shows that the ADPs in the cold crystals of HEWL reflect frozen-in disorder rather than thermal vibrations of the atoms. Directly generalizing the results of multipole studies on small-molecule crystals, the important consequence for electron-density analysis of protein crystals is that multipole parameters cannot be independently varied in a meaningful way in structure refinements. Instead, a multipole model for HEWL has been developed by refinement of atomic coordinates and ADPs against the X-ray diffraction data of Wang and coworkers [Wang et al. (2007), Acta Cryst. D63, 1254–1268], while multipole parameters were fixed to the values for transferable multipole parameters from the ELMAM2 database [Domagala et al. (2012), Acta Cryst. A68, 337–351] . Static and dynamic electron densities based on this multipole model are presented. Analysis of their topological properties according to the QTAIM shows that the covalent bonds possess similar properties to the covalent bonds of small molecules. Hydrogen bonds of intermediate strength are identified for the Glu35 and Asp52 residues, which are considered to be essential parts of the active site of HEWL. Furthermore, a series of weak C

  19. The active site of hen egg-white lysozyme: flexibility and chemical bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Jeanette, E-mail: jeanette.netzel@uni-bayreuth.de; Smaalen, Sander van [University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Chemical bonding at the active site of lysozyme is analyzed on the basis of a multipole model employing transferable multipole parameters from a database. Large B factors at low temperatures reflect frozen-in disorder, but therefore prevent a meaningful free refinement of multipole parameters. Chemical bonding at the active site of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) is analyzed on the basis of Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules [QTAIM; Bader (1994 ▶), Atoms in Molecules: A Quantum Theory. Oxford University Press] applied to electron-density maps derived from a multipole model. The observation is made that the atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) of HEWL at a temperature of 100 K are larger than ADPs in crystals of small biological molecules at 298 K. This feature shows that the ADPs in the cold crystals of HEWL reflect frozen-in disorder rather than thermal vibrations of the atoms. Directly generalizing the results of multipole studies on small-molecule crystals, the important consequence for electron-density analysis of protein crystals is that multipole parameters cannot be independently varied in a meaningful way in structure refinements. Instead, a multipole model for HEWL has been developed by refinement of atomic coordinates and ADPs against the X-ray diffraction data of Wang and coworkers [Wang et al. (2007), Acta Cryst. D63, 1254–1268], while multipole parameters were fixed to the values for transferable multipole parameters from the ELMAM2 database [Domagala et al. (2012), Acta Cryst. A68, 337–351] . Static and dynamic electron densities based on this multipole model are presented. Analysis of their topological properties according to the QTAIM shows that the covalent bonds possess similar properties to the covalent bonds of small molecules. Hydrogen bonds of intermediate strength are identified for the Glu35 and Asp52 residues, which are considered to be essential parts of the active site of HEWL. Furthermore, a series of weak C

  20. Age-Related Variations in Intestinal Microflora of Free-Range and Caged Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yizhe; Wang, Qiuju; Liu, Shengjun; Sun, Rui; Zhou, Yaqiang; Li, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens' intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens' gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form. Samples of whole small intestines and cecal digesta were collected from young hens (8-weeks) and mature laying hens (30-weeks). Based on analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplicons, the microflora of all intestinal contents were affected by both feeding patterns and age of hens. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the main components. Additionally, uncultured environmental samples were found too. There were large differences between young hens and adult laying hens, the latter had more Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and bacterial community is more abundant in 30-weeks laying hens of all six phyla than 8-weeks young hens of only two phyla. In addition, the differences were also observed between free range and caged hens. Free range hens had richer Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Most of strains found were detected more abundant in small intestines than in cecum. Also the selected Lactic acid bacteria from hens gut were applied in feed and they had beneficial effects on growth performance and jejunal villus growth of young broilers. This study suggested that feeding patterns have an importance effect on the microflora composition of hens, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  1. Assessment of lighting needs by W-36 laying hens via preference test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H; Xin, H; Zhao, Y; Li, B; Shepherd, T A; Alvarez, I

    2016-04-01

    Light intensity, spectrum and pattern may affect laying hen behaviors and production performance. However, requirements of these lighting parameters from the hens' standpoint are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate hens' needs for light intensity and circadian rhythm using a light tunnel with five identical compartments each at a different fluorescent light intensity of hens were able to move freely among the respective compartments. A group of four W-36 laying hens (23 to 30 weeks of age) were tested each time, and six groups or replicates were conducted. Behaviors of the hens were continuously recorded, yielding data on daily time spent, daily feed intake, daily feeding time, and eggs laid under each light intensity and daily inter-compartment movement. The results show that the hens generally spent more time in lower light intensities. Specifically, the hens spent 6.4 h (45.4%) at 5 lux, 3.0 h (22.1%) at 15 lux, 3.1 h (22.2%) at 30 lux and 1.5 h (10.3%) at 100 lux under light condition; and an accumulation of 10.0 h in darkness (feed intake (87.3 g/hen) among the different light conditions mirrored the trend of time spent in the respective light intensity, that is, highest at 5 lux (28.4 g/hen, 32.5% daily total) and lowest at 100 lux (5.8 g/hen, 6.7%). Hen-day egg production rate was 96.0%. Most of the eggs were laid in hens. Further studies to assess or verify welfare and performance responses of the hens to the preferred lighting conditions and rhythm over extended periods are recommended.

  2. Protein-lipid interactions in bilayer membranes: A lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, David A.; Chapman, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    A lattice model has been developed to study the effects of intrinsic membrane proteins upon the thermodynamic properties of a lipid bilayer membrane. We assume that only nearest-neighbor van der Waals and steric interactions are important and that the polar group interactions can be represented by effective pressure—area terms. Phase diagrams, the temperature T0, which locates the gel—fluid melting, the transition enthalpy, and correlations were calculated by mean field and cluster approximations. Average lipid chain areas and chain areas when the lipid is in a given protein environment were obtained. Proteins that have a “smooth” homogeneous surface (“cholesterol-like”) and those that have inhomogeneous surfaces or that bind lipids specifically were considered. We find that T0 can vary depending upon the interactions and that another peak can appear upon the shoulder of the main peak which reflects the melting of a eutectic mixture. The transition enthalpy decreases generally, as was found before, but when a second peak appears departures from this behavior reflect aspects of the eutectic mixture. We find that proteins have significant nonzero probabilities for being adjacent to one another so that no unbroken “annulus” of lipid necessarily exists around a protein. If T0 does not increase much, or decreases, with increasing c, then lipids adjacent to a protein cannot all be all-trans on the time scale (10-7 sec) of our system. Around a protein the lipid correlation depth is about one lipid layer, and this increases with c. Possible consequences of ignoring changes in polar group interactions due to clustering of proteins are discussed. PMID:286996

  3. Protein homology model refinement by large-scale energy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hahnbeom; Ovchinnikov, Sergey; Kim, David E; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David

    2018-03-20

    Proteins fold to their lowest free-energy structures, and hence the most straightforward way to increase the accuracy of a partially incorrect protein structure model is to search for the lowest-energy nearby structure. This direct approach has met with little success for two reasons: first, energy function inaccuracies can lead to false energy minima, resulting in model degradation rather than improvement; and second, even with an accurate energy function, the search problem is formidable because the energy only drops considerably in the immediate vicinity of the global minimum, and there are a very large number of degrees of freedom. Here we describe a large-scale energy optimization-based refinement method that incorporates advances in both search and energy function accuracy that can substantially improve the accuracy of low-resolution homology models. The method refined low-resolution homology models into correct folds for 50 of 84 diverse protein families and generated improved models in recent blind structure prediction experiments. Analyses of the basis for these improvements reveal contributions from both the improvements in conformational sampling techniques and the energy function.

  4. Stochastic lattice model of synaptic membrane protein domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwei; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A.

    2017-05-01

    Neurotransmitter receptor molecules, concentrated in synaptic membrane domains along with scaffolds and other kinds of proteins, are crucial for signal transmission across chemical synapses. In common with other membrane protein domains, synaptic domains are characterized by low protein copy numbers and protein crowding, with rapid stochastic turnover of individual molecules. We study here in detail a stochastic lattice model of the receptor-scaffold reaction-diffusion dynamics at synaptic domains that was found previously to capture, at the mean-field level, the self-assembly, stability, and characteristic size of synaptic domains observed in experiments. We show that our stochastic lattice model yields quantitative agreement with mean-field models of nonlinear diffusion in crowded membranes. Through a combination of analytic and numerical solutions of the master equation governing the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains, together with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we find substantial discrepancies between mean-field and stochastic models for the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains. Based on the reaction and diffusion properties of synaptic receptors and scaffolds suggested by previous experiments and mean-field calculations, we show that the stochastic reaction-diffusion dynamics of synaptic receptors and scaffolds provide a simple physical mechanism for collective fluctuations in synaptic domains, the molecular turnover observed at synaptic domains, key features of the observed single-molecule trajectories, and spatial heterogeneity in the effective rates at which receptors and scaffolds are recycled at the cell membrane. Our work sheds light on the physical mechanisms and principles linking the collective properties of membrane protein domains to the stochastic dynamics that rule their molecular components.

  5. Stochastic lattice model of synaptic membrane protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwei; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2017-05-01

    Neurotransmitter receptor molecules, concentrated in synaptic membrane domains along with scaffolds and other kinds of proteins, are crucial for signal transmission across chemical synapses. In common with other membrane protein domains, synaptic domains are characterized by low protein copy numbers and protein crowding, with rapid stochastic turnover of individual molecules. We study here in detail a stochastic lattice model of the receptor-scaffold reaction-diffusion dynamics at synaptic domains that was found previously to capture, at the mean-field level, the self-assembly, stability, and characteristic size of synaptic domains observed in experiments. We show that our stochastic lattice model yields quantitative agreement with mean-field models of nonlinear diffusion in crowded membranes. Through a combination of analytic and numerical solutions of the master equation governing the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains, together with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we find substantial discrepancies between mean-field and stochastic models for the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains. Based on the reaction and diffusion properties of synaptic receptors and scaffolds suggested by previous experiments and mean-field calculations, we show that the stochastic reaction-diffusion dynamics of synaptic receptors and scaffolds provide a simple physical mechanism for collective fluctuations in synaptic domains, the molecular turnover observed at synaptic domains, key features of the observed single-molecule trajectories, and spatial heterogeneity in the effective rates at which receptors and scaffolds are recycled at the cell membrane. Our work sheds light on the physical mechanisms and principles linking the collective properties of membrane protein domains to the stochastic dynamics that rule their molecular components.

  6. Daily management support in aviary housing systems for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.

    1996-01-01


    Determining the goals, critical success factors and information needs of poultry farmers working with aviary systems for laying hens reveals that support of the day-to-day management should aim to control the feed consumption and the ambient house temperature, and to detect diseases

  7. Performance of Laying Hens Fed Diets Containing Varying Levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost of production significantly (p<0.05) increased with brewer's spent grain inclusion levels above 50% in laying hens diet. Cost effectiveness was obtained with T3 (50% BDG). Egg weight value from birds on diet T1 differed significantly from the egg weight obtained from birds on diet T5, egg weights from birds on diet T1 ...

  8. Performance and economy of production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed fermented wild cocoyam corm (FWCC) as a partial replacement for maize. Two hundred and forty (240) Nera black laying birds were randomly allocated to four experimental diets formulated on 0, 10, 20 and 30% FWCC as graded replacement ...

  9. Enrichment of bifidobacteria in the hen caeca by dietary inulin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Rada, V.; Dušková, D.; Petr, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2001), s. 73-75 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/99/0480; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : bifidobacteria * hen * inulin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  10. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...

  11. Nigerian Indigenous vs Exotic Hens: the Correlation Factor in Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic interrelationship within and between strains was assessed using pure Nigerian normal feathered local, pure exotic and their crossbred hens for age and body weight at first lay, egg weight and egg internal quality traits. 100 layers comprising 20 Black Nera, 20 White Leghorn, 20 Normal feathered local chicken, 20 ...

  12. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg shape index and eggshell weight did not differ among treatments. Eggshell thickness and eggshell breaking strength were higher in hens fed with MBM as compared to control and OSM fed birds. Similar to the tendency in shell quality, MBM inclusion in the diet tended to enhance albumen height and Haugh unit.

  13. EGG QUALITY OF CREOLE HENS REARED IN THE BACKYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano Juárez-Caratachea

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The egg quality from Creole backyard hens was determined by collecting samples from 11 municipalities from the central area of Michoacan State, Mexico. It was measured: egg weight (EW, longitude diameter (LD of the egg, transversal diameter (TD of the egg, shell weight (SW, shell thickness (ST, shell index (SI, white diameter (WD, yolk diameter (YD, white high (WH, yolk high (YH, air chamber high (ACH and Haugh units (HU. The averages obtained were: EW 50.7 g; LD 5.6 cm; TD 4.2 cm; SW 4.5 g.; ST 0.28 mm; SI 8.9 %; WD 10.0 cm; YD 4.5 cm; WH 6.3 mm; YH 1.6 cm; ACH 5.4 mm; HU 73.4, YP 12.1. In conclusion, the eggs of backyard hens were smaller than commercial eggs. However, the internal quality indicators suggested that backyard hen eggs have similar quality to that of commercial hens.

  14. Haematology and serum biochemistry of laying hens fed red pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hematology and serum biochemistry of ISA brown laying hens fed red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as feed additive in their diet was studied. Sixty (60) laying birds (in their 32nd week) were randomly allotted to four different dietary treatments with graded levels of red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as additive.

  15. Measuring fearfulness of hens in commercial organic egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate agreement between flock-based fear tests used in welfare assessments of laying hens in commercial organic farms, three tests were applied in 27 flocks of layers. Tests were performed at 35 and 55 weeks of age and were based on the concepts of 'novel object', 'sudden sound' and two...

  16. 405 Nigerian Indigenous vs Exotic Hens: the Correlation Factor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Abstract. Genetic interrelationship within and between strains was assessed using pure. Nigerian normal feathered local, pure exotic and their crossbred hens for age and body weight at first lay, egg weight and egg internal quality traits. 100 layers comprising 20 Black Nera, 20 White Leghorn, 20 Normal.

  17. One Hen: Teaching Elementary-Level Economics for Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative case study focused on describing and analyzing the student and teacher experience with One Hen, a project-based learning unit specifically designed to teach civic engagement. In this study I address three questions: 1) Do fifth-grade students' knowledge and skills in economics change after participating in a…

  18. Hen eggs chemical compounds, caloricity and cholesterol level, as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    simba

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... Keywords: Battery cages, chemical composition, dietetic value, improved cages, free-range, laying hens. # Corresponding author: umariusg@gmail.com ... complemented with vitamin E as an antioxidant (Sparks, 2006), through a dietary combination of fish and linseed oils (King et al., 2012), or through diet ...

  19. Modeling Protein Structure at Near Atomic Resolutions With Gorgon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew L.; Abeysinghe, Sasakthi S.; Schuh, Stephen; Coleman, Ross A.; Abrams, Austin; Marsh, Michael P.; Hryc, Corey F.; Ruths, Troy; Chiu, Wah; Ju, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) has played an increasingly important role in elucidating the structure and function of macromolecular assemblies in near native solution conditions. Typically, however, only non-atomic resolution reconstructions have been obtained for these large complexes, necessitating computational tools for integrating and extracting structural details. With recent advances in cryo-EM, maps at near-atomic resolutions have been achieved for several macromolecular assemblies from which models have been manually constructed. In this work, we describe a new interactive modeling toolkit called Gorgon targeted at intermediate to near-atomic resolution density maps (10-3.5 Å), particularly from cryo-EM. Gorgon's de novo modeling procedure couples sequence-based secondary structure prediction with feature detection and geometric modeling techniques to generate initial protein backbone models. Beyond model building, Gorgon is an extensible interactive visualization platform with a variety of computational tools for annotating a wide variety of 3D volumes. Examples from cryo-EM maps of Rotavirus and Rice Dwarf Virus are used to demonstrate its applicability to modeling protein structure. PMID:21296162

  20. Models of protein and amino acid requirements for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlindo Tedeschi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein supply and requirements by ruminants have been studied for more than a century. These studies led to the accumulation of lots of scientific information about digestion and metabolism of protein by ruminants as well as the characterization of the dietary protein in order to maximize animal performance. During the 1980s and 1990s, when computers became more accessible and powerful, scientists began to conceptualize and develop mathematical nutrition models, and to program them into computers to assist with ration balancing and formulation for domesticated ruminants, specifically dairy and beef cattle. The most commonly known nutrition models developed during this period were the National Research Council (NRC in the United States, Agricultural Research Council (ARC in the United Kingdom, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA in France, and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO in Australia. Others were derivative works from these models with different degrees of modifications in the supply or requirement calculations, and the modeling nature (e.g., static or dynamic, mechanistic, or deterministic. Circa 1990s, most models adopted the metabolizable protein (MP system over the crude protein (CP and digestible CP systems to estimate supply of MP and the factorial system to calculate MP required by the animal. The MP system included two portions of protein (i.e., the rumen-undegraded dietary CP - RUP - and the contributions of microbial CP - MCP as the main sources of MP for the animal. Some models would explicitly account for the impact of dry matter intake (DMI on the MP required for maintenance (MPm; e.g., Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System - CNCPS, the Dutch system - DVE/OEB, while others would simply account for scurf, urinary, metabolic fecal, and endogenous contributions independently of DMI. All models included milk yield and its components in estimating MP required for lactation

  1. Physical Properties of the Very Young PN Hen3-1357 (Stingray Nebula) Based on Multiwavelength Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Masaaki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU. No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Parthasarathy, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II B lock Koramangala, Bangalore 560034, Karnataka (India); Tajitsu, A. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 N Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hubrig, S., E-mail: otsuka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP) An der Sternwarte 12, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2017-03-20

    We carried out a detailed analysis of the interesting and important very young planetary nebula (PN) Hen3-1357 (Stingray Nebula) based on a unique data set of optical to far-IR spectra and photometric images. We calculated the abundances of nine elements using collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines (RLs). The RL C/O ratio indicates that this PN is O-rich, which is also supported by the detection of the broad 9/18 μ m bands from amorphous silicate grains. The observed elemental abundances can be explained by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models for initially 1–1.5 M {sub ⊙} stars with Z = 0.008. The Ne overabundance might be due to the enhancement of {sup 22}Ne isotope in the He-rich intershell. Using the spectrum of the central star synthesized by Tlusty as the ionization/heating source of the PN, we constructed the self-consistent photoionization model with Cloudy to the observed quantities and derived the gas and dust masses, dust-to-gas mass ratio, and core mass of the central star. About 80% of the total dust mass is from warm–cold dust component beyond ionization front. Comparison with other Galactic PNe indicates that Hen3-1357 is an ordinary amorphous silicate-rich and O-rich gas PN. Among other studied PNe, IC4846 shows many similarities in properties of the PN to Hen3-1357, although their post-AGB evolution is quite different from each other. Further monitoring of observations and comparisons with other PNe such as IC4846 are necessary to understand the evolution of Hen3-1357.

  2. Alfalfa as a single dietary source for molt induction in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, K L; Woodward, C L; Li, X; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2005-03-01

    Molting is a process by which a hen's reproductive tract is rejuvenated prior to the beginning of a laying cycle. This process is often artificially induced in commercial settings in order to extend the productive life of a flock of hens. The most common method for the induction of molt is feed withdrawal for a period of several days. It has been noted that feed withdrawal, while effective in inducing molt and allowing an adequate reproductive rest period for the hen, may cause deleterious effects on the animal. This has prompted the investigation of alternatives to feed deprivation for the induction of molt in commercial laying hens. This study involved feeding alfalfa to hens to assess its ability to induce molt. Results show that alfalfa meal and alfalfa pelleted diets were equally effective as feed withdrawal in causing ovary weight regression in birds. Molted hens induced by alfalfa diets exhibited postmolt levels of egg production over a twelve week period that were similar to that of hens molted by feed withdrawal. The postmolt eggs laid by hens molted by alfalfa were of comparable quality to eggs from feed deprived hens. Alfalfa, a fibrous feed with low metabolizable energy, may be provided to hens on an ad libitum basis for an effective molt induction that retains comparable egg quality and production.

  3. Criteria for folding in structure-based models of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wołek, Karol; Cieplak, Marek, E-mail: mc@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-05-14

    In structure-based models of proteins, one often assumes that folding is accomplished when all contacts are established. This assumption may frequently lead to a conceptual problem that folding takes place in a temperature region of very low thermodynamic stability, especially when the contact map used is too sparse. We consider six different structure-based models and show that allowing for a small, but model-dependent, percentage of the native contacts not being established boosts the folding temperature substantially while affecting the time scales of folding only in a minor way. We also compare other properties of the six models. We show that the choice of the description of the backbone stiffness has a substantial effect on the values of characteristic temperatures that relate both to equilibrium and kinetic properties. Models without any backbone stiffness (like the self-organized polymer) are found to perform similar to those with the stiffness, including in the studies of stretching.

  4. Structural model of dodecameric heat-shock protein Hsp21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutsdottir, Gudrun; Härmark, Johan; Weide, Yoran

    2017-01-01

    Small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) prevent aggregation of thermosensitive client proteins in a first line of defense against cellular stress. The mechanisms by which they perform this function have been hard to define due to limited structural information; currently, there is only one high......-resolution structure of a plant sHsp published, that of the cytosolic Hsp16.9. We took interest in Hsp21, a chloroplast-localized sHsp crucial for plant stress resistance, which has even longer N-terminal arms than Hsp16.9, with a functionally important and conserved methionine-rich motif. To provide a framework...... for investigating structure-function relationships of Hsp21 and understanding these sequence variations, we developed a structural model of Hsp21 based on homology modeling, cryo-EM, cross-linking mass spectrometry, NMR, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Our data suggest a dodecameric arrangement of two trimer...

  5. Protein model discrimination using mutational sensitivity derived from deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Bharat V; Tripathi, Arti; Sahoo, Anusmita; Bajaj, Kanika; Goswami, Devrishi; Chakrabarti, Purbani; Swarnkar, Mohit K; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2012-02-08

    A major bottleneck in protein structure prediction is the selection of correct models from a pool of decoys. Relative activities of ∼1,200 individual single-site mutants in a saturation library of the bacterial toxin CcdB were estimated by determining their relative populations using deep sequencing. This phenotypic information was used to define an empirical score for each residue (RankScore), which correlated with the residue depth, and identify active-site residues. Using these correlations, ∼98% of correct models of CcdB (RMSD ≤ 4Å) were identified from a large set of decoys. The model-discrimination methodology was further validated on eleven different monomeric proteins using simulated RankScore values. The methodology is also a rapid, accurate way to obtain relative activities of each mutant in a large pool and derive sequence-structure-function relationships without protein isolation or characterization. It can be applied to any system in which mutational effects can be monitored by a phenotypic readout. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical modeling of geometrically confined disordered protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, David

    2015-08-01

    The transport of cargo across the nuclear membrane is highly selective and accomplished by a poorly understood mechanism involving hundreds of nucleoporins lining the inside of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Currently, there is no clear picture of the overall structure formed by this collection of proteins within the pore, primarily due to their disordered nature and uncertainty regarding the properties of individual nucleoporins. We first study the defining characteristics of the amino acid sequences of nucleoporins through bioinformatics techniques, although bioinformatics of disordered proteins is especially challenging given high mutation rates for homologous proteins and that functionality may not be strongly related to sequence. Here we have performed a novel bioinformatic analysis, based on the spatial clustering of physically relevant features such as binding motifs and charges within disordered proteins, on thousands of FG motif containing nucleoporins (FG nups). The biophysical mechanism by which the critical FG nups regulate nucleocytoplasmic transport has remained elusive, yet our analysis revealed a set of highly conserved spatial features in the sequence structure of individual FG nups, such as the separation, localization, and ordering of FG motifs and charged residues along the protein chain. These sequence features are likely conserved due to a common functionality between species regarding how FG nups functionally regulate traffic, therefore these results constrain current models and eliminate proposed biophysical mechanisms responsible for regulation of nucleocytoplasmic traffic in the NPC which would not result in such a conserved amino acid sequence structure. Additionally, this method allows us to identify potentially functionally analogous disordered proteins across distantly related species. To understand the physical implications of the sequence features on structure and dynamics of the nucleoporins, we performed coarse-grained simulations

  7. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164 at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i 0 mg/kg, ii 25 mg/kg, iii 50 mg/kg, and iv 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05 by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009 and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to

  8. Predicting turns in proteins with a unified model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Song

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Turns are a critical element of the structure of a protein; turns play a crucial role in loops, folds, and interactions. Current prediction methods are well developed for the prediction of individual turn types, including α-turn, β-turn, and γ-turn, etc. However, for further protein structure and function prediction it is necessary to develop a uniform model that can accurately predict all types of turns simultaneously. RESULTS: In this study, we present a novel approach, TurnP, which offers the ability to investigate all the turns in a protein based on a unified model. The main characteristics of TurnP are: (i using newly exploited features of structural evolution information (secondary structure and shape string of protein based on structure homologies, (ii considering all types of turns in a unified model, and (iii practical capability of accurate prediction of all turns simultaneously for a query. TurnP utilizes predicted secondary structures and predicted shape strings, both of which have greater accuracy, based on innovative technologies which were both developed by our group. Then, sequence and structural evolution features, which are profile of sequence, profile of secondary structures and profile of shape strings are generated by sequence and structure alignment. When TurnP was validated on a non-redundant dataset (4,107 entries by five-fold cross-validation, we achieved an accuracy of 88.8% and a sensitivity of 71.8%, which exceeded the most state-of-the-art predictors of certain type of turn. Newly determined sequences, the EVA and CASP9 datasets were used as independent tests and the results we achieved were outstanding for turn predictions and confirmed the good performance of TurnP for practical applications.

  9. The effect of different feed restriction programs on reproductive performance, efficiency, frame size, and uniformity in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, M; Coon, C N

    2007-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feed restriction programs on breeder reproductive performance. In experiment 1, every day (ED), skip-a-day (SK), 4-3, and 5-2 programs were compared. Diets did not differ, and feed intake was identical in all groups. Four hundred twenty pullets were reared on each program. At 21 wk, 80 breeders from each program were individually housed to record performance parameters. Body weight and frame size were larger in ED pullets than SK, 4-3, or 5-2 despite equal intakes. Hens fed ED reached sexual maturity at a younger age than other groups. Hens fed ED also produced more total and settable eggs than SK hens. Egg weight was heavier in 5-2 hens than in ED with 4-3 and SK intermediate. Efficiency of feed utilization was best in ED hens. In experiment 2 the same programs were tested, but pullets were reared to reach equal BW. One hundred seventy-five pullets were reared on each program, of which 60 were housed. Feed intake was greater for SK, 4-3, and 5-2 than ED pullets to reach the same BW. Frame size did not differ, indicating that BW was the cause of differences in experiment 1. In experiment 2, differences in performance were attenuated but not eliminated by feeding to reach equal BW, suggesting that metabolic factors aside from BW are altered by feeding programs. The 5-2 produced larger eggs than ED with the trend among programs being identical to that in experiment 1. These results suggest that metabolic changes such as increased lipogenesis or alterations in body composition may result in larger eggs in feeding programs that include off-feed days. Mortality, fertility, and hatchability were not affected by feeding programs in either experiment. Body composition analysis indicated the importance of total lean protein mass as a threshold for the onset of sexual maturity. Programs like SK are less efficient than ED and may result in reduced performance.

  10. Modeling of human factor Va inactivation by activated protein C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because understanding of the inventory, connectivity and dynamics of the components characterizing the process of coagulation is relatively mature, it has become an attractive target for physiochemical modeling. Such models can potentially improve the design of therapeutics. The prothrombinase complex (composed of the protease factor (FXa and its cofactor FVa plays a central role in this network as the main producer of thrombin, which catalyses both the activation of platelets and the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the main substances of a clot. A key negative feedback loop that prevents clot propagation beyond the site of injury is the thrombin-dependent generation of activated protein C (APC, an enzyme that inactivates FVa, thus neutralizing the prothrombinase complex. APC inactivation of FVa is complex, involving the production of partially active intermediates and “protection” of FVa from APC by both FXa and prothrombin. An empirically validated mathematical model of this process would be useful in advancing the predictive capacity of comprehensive models of coagulation. Results A model of human APC inactivation of prothrombinase was constructed in a stepwise fashion by analyzing time courses of FVa inactivation in empirical reaction systems with increasing number of interacting components and generating corresponding model constructs of each reaction system. Reaction mechanisms, rate constants and equilibrium constants informing these model constructs were initially derived from various research groups reporting on APC inactivation of FVa in isolation, or in the presence of FXa or prothrombin. Model predictions were assessed against empirical data measuring the appearance and disappearance of multiple FVa degradation intermediates as well as prothrombinase activity changes, with plasma proteins derived from multiple preparations. Our work integrates previously published findings and through the cooperative

  11. Biokinetics of carbohydrate and lipid matabolism in normal laying hen; pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Y.H.; Riis, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The radiochemical purity of sup(14)C(U)-glucose solution to be injected to normal laying hen was investigated for studying biokinetics of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The liquid scintillation counter was employed for determining the activity of carbon-14. The barium hydroxide and zinc sulfate were adopted to precipitate the protein in the solution. The glucose content in the solution was observed as 0.912 mg per ml. applying Hultman's method. The specific activity of sup(14)C(U)-glucose solution was known as 31.3 nCi/mg glucose. The glucose pentaacetate was synthesized to isolate the pure glucose from the solution. The specific activity of pure glucose was measured as 28.5 nCi/mg glucose. Therefore, it was known that the radiochemical purity of the solution was 82.7%. (Author)

  12. Effects of Microheterogeneity in Hen Egg-White Lysozyme Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. R.; Vekilov, P. G.; Rosenberger, F.

    1998-01-01

    In earlier sodium dodecylsulfate polyacylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) studies it has been found that commonly utilized commercial hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) preparations contained 0.2-0.4 mol% covalently bound dimers. Here it is shown, using high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), that HEWL contains, in addition, two differently charged monomers in comparable amounts. To explore the origin of these microheterogeneous contaminants, purified HEWL (PHEWL) has been oxidized with hydrogen peroxide (0.0026-0.88 M) at various pH levels between 4.5 and 12.0. Optical densitometry of oxidized PHEWL (OHEWL) bands in SDS PAGE gels shows that hydrogen peroxide at 0.88 M in acetate buffer pH 4.5 increased the amount of dimers about sixfold over that in commercial HEWL. OHEWL had, in addition to one of the two monomer forms found in HEWL and PHEWL, three other differently charged monomer forms, each of them representing about 25% of the preparation. SDS-PAGE analysis of OHEWL yielded two closely spaced dimer bands with M(sub r) = 28 000 and 27 500. In addition, larger HEWL oligomers with M, = 1.7 million and 320 000 were detected by gel-filtration fast protein liquid chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering detection. Non-dissociating PAGE in large pore size gels at pH 4.5 confirmed the presence of these large oligomers in HEWL and OHEWL. Increased microheterogeneity resulted in substantial effects on crystal growth and nucleation rate. On addition of 10 microgram(exp -1) mg ml(exp -1) OHEWL to 32 mg ml(exp -1) HEWL crystallizing solutions, both the number and size of forming crystals decreased roughly proportionally to the concentration of the added microheterogeneity. The same effect was observed in HEWL solutions on addition of 0.03-9,3 M Hydrogen peroxide. Repartioning of the dimer during crystallzation aat various temperatures between 277 and 293 K was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The crystals contained <= 25 % weight by volume of the oligomers in

  13. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule-motor-protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  14. Modeling of allergen proteins found in sea food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Galán-Freyle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish are a source of food allergens, and their consumption is the cause of severe allergic reactions in humans. Tropomyosins, a family of muscle proteins, have been identified as the major allergens in shellfish and mollusks species. Nevertheless, few experimentally determined three-dimensional structures are available in the Protein Data Base (PDB. In this study, 3D models of several homologous of tropomyosins present in marine shellfish and mollusk species (Chaf 1, Met e1, Hom a1, Per v1, and Pen a1 were constructed, validated, and their immunoglobulin E binding epitopes were identified using bioinformatics tools. All protein models for these allergens consisted of long alpha-helices. Chaf 1, Met e1, and Hom a1 had six conserved regions with sequence similarities to known epitopes, whereas Per v1 and Pen a1 contained only one. Lipophilic potentials of identified epitopes revealed a high propensity of hydrophobic amino acids in the immunoglobulin E binding site. This information could be useful to design tropomyosin-specific immunotherapy for sea food allergies.

  15. PERFORMANCE AND EGGS QUALITY OF HENS OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Ledvinka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the performance and technological values of eggs of Czech Hen and Oravka breeds housed on litter. The assumption was that the genotype of hens affects their performance, egg weight, and parameters of yolk, albumen and eggshell quality. A total of 30 pullets of Czech Hen breed and 30 pullets of Oravka breed in the age of 17 weeks were included in to the experiment. Environmental conditions corresponded to the standard requirements for laying hens in observed type of housing system. Hen day egg production, egg yield, daily feed consumption per hen, feed consumption per egg and egg weight, egg shape index, proportion and index of yolk and albumen,yolk colour and Haugh units score were monitored in the experiment. From the parameters of eggshell, proportion, thickness, strength and colour of eggshell were observed. Performance parameters of laying hens weren't affected by the genotype of hens. Czech Hen breed showed insignificantly the higher value in all indicators. The significantly (P≤0.01 and P≤0.001 better values of eggshell quality parameters were detected in Czech Hen breed. We found out that Czech Hen breed had also statistically significantly lighter colour of eggshell. There were no significant interbreed differences in egg weight, proportion of yolk and albumen. The egg shape index was significantly higher in Oravka. Index of yolk and albumen was also significantly (P≤0.001 higher in Oravka. Haugh units score, that reflect the quality of the eggs, were found significantly (P≤0.001higher in Oravka too. On the other hand, yolk colour was detected significantly (P≤0.001 darker for the Czech Hen.

  16. Age-Related Variations in Intestinal Microflora of Free-Range and Caged Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhe Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens’ intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens’ gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form. Samples of whole small intestines and cecal digesta were collected from young hens (8-weeks and mature laying hens (30-weeks. Based on analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplicons, the microflora of all intestinal contents were affected by both feeding patterns and age of hens. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the main components. Additionally, uncultured environmental samples were found too. There were large differences between young hens and adult laying hens, the latter had more Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and bacterial community is more abundant in 30-weeks laying hens of all six phyla than 8-weeks young hens of only two phyla. In addition, the differences were also observed between free range and caged hens. Free range hens had richer Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Most of strains found were detected more abundant in small intestines than in cecum. Also the selected Lactic acid bacteria from hens gut were applied in feed and they had beneficial effects on growth performance and jejunal villus growth of young broilers. This study suggested that feeding patterns have an importance effect on the microflora composition of hens, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  17. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC, medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I, medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II, and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III and conventional cages (CC. The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens’ behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05, and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p0.05. The hens in MFC-I, −II, and −III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05. The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05. In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.

  18. Effects of interaction of breed by pen and cage position on hen day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in which Pen location was designated as ' L' and mean cage position as 'C',the mean hen day lay of the breeds were estimated in percentages. This were subjected to a two way Analysis of variance to determine the effect of breed by pen and cage interaction on hen-day performance.Mean hen day lay of Haco black by pen ...

  19. Scoring predictive models using a reduced representation of proteins: model and energy definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corazza Alessandra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced representations of proteins have been playing a keyrole in the study of protein folding. Many such models are available, with different representation detail. Although the usefulness of many such models for structural bioinformatics applications has been demonstrated in recent years, there are few intermediate resolution models endowed with an energy model capable, for instance, of detecting native or native-like structures among decoy sets. The aim of the present work is to provide a discrete empirical potential for a reduced protein model termed here PC2CA, because it employs a PseudoCovalent structure with only 2 Centers of interactions per Amino acid, suitable for protein model quality assessment. Results All protein structures in the set top500H have been converted in reduced form. The distribution of pseudobonds, pseudoangle, pseudodihedrals and distances between centers of interactions have been converted into potentials of mean force. A suitable reference distribution has been defined for non-bonded interactions which takes into account excluded volume effects and protein finite size. The correlation between adjacent main chain pseudodihedrals has been converted in an additional energetic term which is able to account for cooperative effects in secondary structure elements. Local energy surface exploration is performed in order to increase the robustness of the energy function. Conclusion The model and the energy definition proposed have been tested on all the multiple decoys' sets in the Decoys'R'us database. The energetic model is able to recognize, for almost all sets, native-like structures (RMSD less than 2.0 Å. These results and those obtained in the blind CASP7 quality assessment experiment suggest that the model compares well with scoring potentials with finer granularity and could be useful for fast exploration of conformational space. Parameters are available at the url: http://www.dstb.uniud.it/~ffogolari/download/.

  20. Scoring predictive models using a reduced representation of proteins: model and energy definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Pieri, Lidia; Dovier, Agostino; Bortolussi, Luca; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro; Viglino, Paolo

    2007-03-23

    Reduced representations of proteins have been playing a keyrole in the study of protein folding. Many such models are available, with different representation detail. Although the usefulness of many such models for structural bioinformatics applications has been demonstrated in recent years, there are few intermediate resolution models endowed with an energy model capable, for instance, of detecting native or native-like structures among decoy sets. The aim of the present work is to provide a discrete empirical potential for a reduced protein model termed here PC2CA, because it employs a PseudoCovalent structure with only 2 Centers of interactions per Amino acid, suitable for protein model quality assessment. All protein structures in the set top500H have been converted in reduced form. The distribution of pseudobonds, pseudoangle, pseudodihedrals and distances between centers of interactions have been converted into potentials of mean force. A suitable reference distribution has been defined for non-bonded interactions which takes into account excluded volume effects and protein finite size. The correlation between adjacent main chain pseudodihedrals has been converted in an additional energetic term which is able to account for cooperative effects in secondary structure elements. Local energy surface exploration is performed in order to increase the robustness of the energy function. The model and the energy definition proposed have been tested on all the multiple decoys' sets in the Decoys'R'us database. The energetic model is able to recognize, for almost all sets, native-like structures (RMSD less than 2.0 A). These results and those obtained in the blind CASP7 quality assessment experiment suggest that the model compares well with scoring potentials with finer granularity and could be useful for fast exploration of conformational space. Parameters are available at the url: http://www.dstb.uniud.it/~ffogolari/download/.

  1. Effects of HCV proteins in current HCV transgenic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Wang, Jiangbin; Sallberg, Matii

    2010-02-01

    Hepatits C virus (HCV) is an enveloped virus with positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome that causes both acute and persistent infections associated with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which needs fully functional human hepatocytes for its development. Due to the strict human tropism of HCV, only human and higher primates such as chimpanzees have been receptive to HCV infection and development, cognition about pathophysiololgy and host immune responses of HCV infection is limited by lacking of simple laboratory models of infection for a long time. During the past decade, gene transfer approaches have been helpful to the understanding of the molecular basis of human disease. Transgenic cell lines, chimeric and transgenic animal models were developed and had been demonstrated their invaluable benefits. This review focuses on the existing HCV transgenic models and summarize the relative results about probable pathophysical changes induced by HCV proteins.

  2. EFFECT OF THE DIETARY PELLET:MEAL RATIO ON THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Armando Sarmiento-Franco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary pellet:meal ratio on the performance of laying hens was evaluated using 60 Plymouth Barred Rock 30 week old hens. Hens were distributed at random to three treatments: 100:0, 75:25 and 50:50% of pellet:meal ratio in the diet along 49 days, with 20 replicates each. Final body weight of hens, polar and ecuatorial diameters of the egg, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, and yolk colour were not different between treatments (p>0.05. However, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, food consumption, food conversion and production cost were affected by treatments (p

  3. The influence of hen age on fatty acid composition of commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Lešić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional composition of commercial eggs from Lohman Brown hens through fat and fatty acid content analysis, as well as to evaluate the effect of hen age on the above parameters. Egg samples (n=108 were collected every two weeks from 21- to 55- week old hens during the 2015/2016 autumn/winter period. The results revealed significant differences in fatty acid composition dependent on hen age (p 0.05. The total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content was statistically significantly higher in eggs laid by 55- week old hens as compared to those laid by 21- week old hens. The n-6/n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratios were more favourable in the elder hens. In general, the results revealed hen ageing-based variations in fatty acid composition of their eggs, in particular in the representation of linoleic (LA, alpha-linolenic (ALA and arachidonic acid (AA, for which statistically significant hen age-based differences were found.

  4. Plasma corticosterone levels in laying hens from three different housing systems: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Asdrubali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical and thyroidal hormones are physiological indicators of various forms of stress in the fowl. In order to establish possible variations in corticosterone levels, blood samples were collected from ISA Brown hens reared in three different housing systems (cage, floor and organic way. Results showed that corticosterone concentrations were highest in caged hens, intermediate in organic reared hens and lowest in floor reared hens. It could be assumed that in the last one system birds have an adequate space in controlled environment that permits them to satisfy, though partially, their behavioural needs without the presence of different chronic stress factors acting in the other systems.

  5. Health and Welfare in Dutch Organic Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Bestman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From 2007–2008, data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Our aim was to investigate how organic egg farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which farm factors affected this performance. The flocks in our study were kept on farms with 34 to 25,000 hens (average 9,300 hens. Seventy-one percent of the flocks consisted of ‘silver hybrids’: white hens that lay brown eggs. Fifty-five percent of the flocks were kept in floor-based housing and 45% of the flocks in aviaries. No relation was found between the amount of time spent outdoors during the laying period and mortality at 60 weeks. Flocks that used their outdoor run more intensively had better feather scores. In 40% of the flocks there was mortality caused by predators. The average feed intake was 129 g/day at 30 weeks and 133 g/day at 60 weeks of age. The average percentage of mislaid eggs decreased from three at 30 weeks to two at 60 weeks. The average mortality was 7.8% at 60 weeks. Twenty-five percent of the flocks were not treated for worms in their first 50 weeks. Flubenol© was applied to the flocks that were treated. Ten percent of the flocks followed Flubenol© instructions for use and were wormed five or more times. The other 65% percent were treated irregularly between one and four times. Sixty-eight percent of the flocks showed little or no feather damage, 24% showed moderate damage and 8% showed severe damage. The feather score was better if the hens used the free-range area more intensely, the laying percentage at 60 weeks was higher, and if they were allowed to go outside sooner after arrival on the laying farm. In 69% of the flocks, hens had peck wounds in the vent area: on average this was 18% of the hens. Keel bone deformations were found in all flocks, on average in 21% of the birds. In 78% of the flocks, an average of 13% of the hens

  6. Analysis and Ranking of Protein-Protein Docking Models Using Inter-Residue Contacts and Inter-Molecular Contact Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Oliva, Romina

    2015-07-01

    In view of the increasing interest both in inhibitors of protein-protein interactions and in protein drugs themselves, analysis of the three-dimensional structure of protein-protein complexes is assuming greater relevance in drug design. In the many cases where an experimental structure is not available, protein-protein docking becomes the method of choice for predicting the arrangement of the complex. However, reliably scoring protein-protein docking poses is still an unsolved problem. As a consequence, the screening of many docking models is usually required in the analysis step, to possibly single out the correct ones. Here, making use of exemplary cases, we review our recently introduced methods for the analysis of protein complex structures and for the scoring of protein docking poses, based on the use of inter-residue contacts and their visualization in inter-molecular contact maps. We also show that the ensemble of tools we developed can be used in the context of rational drug design targeting protein-protein interactions.

  7. Neutron protein crystallography in JAERI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    crystals and a database of hydrogen and hydration have also been developed. In the near future, a pulsed ... these studies, very interesting topics relevant to hydrogen and hydration in proteins have been extracted from the ... The first application of the NIP was a structure determination of tetragonal hen-egg-white lysozyme ...

  8. Expression of Inflammatory and Cell Death Program Genes and Comet DNA Damage Assay Induced by Escherichia coli in Layer Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaisen, Gamal M. K.; Eshak, Mariam G.; El Sabry, M. I.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods of industrial poultry and egg production systems involve stressful practices that stimulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) activity causing endotoxic shock. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death program genes and DNA damage induced by E. coli in the brain and liver tissues of laying hens. A total of two hundred and ten H&N brown layer hens with 20 week age, were used in this research. First, preliminary experiments were designed (60 hens in total) to establish the optimal exposure dose of E. coli and to determine the nearest time of notable response to be used in the remainder studies of this research. At 35-wk of age, 150 hens were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 3 replicates of 25 birds each; the first group was injected in the brachial wing vein with 107 E. coli colony/hen, while the second group was injected with saline and served as a control. The body temperature and plasma corticosterone concentration were measured 3 hr after injection. Specimens of liver and brain were obtained from each group and the gene expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, interlukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bax, and caspase-3 genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. DNA damage in the brain and liver tissues were also measured by comet assay. Hens treated with E. coli showed significant (P<0.05) increase of body temperature and plasma corticosterone (42.6°C and 14.5 ng/ml, respectively) compared to the control group (41.1°C and 5.5 ng/ml, respectively). Additional remarkable over-inflammation gene expression of p38, IL-1β and TNF-α.genes were also detected in the brain (2.2-fold, 2.0-fold and 3.3-fold, respectively) and the liver (2.1-fold, 1.9-fold and 3.0-fold, respectively) tissues of the infected chickens. It is also important to note that hens injected with E. coli showed an increase in DNA damage in the brain and liver cells (P<0.05). These

  9. dd →3 Hen Reaction at Intermediate Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygina, N. B.

    2012-01-01

    The dd → 3 Hen reaction is considered at the energies between 200 and 520 MeV. The Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas equations are iterated up to the lowest order terms over the nucleon-nucleon t-matrix. The parameterized 3He wave function including five components is used. The angular dependence of the differential cross section and energy dependence of tensor analyzing power T 20 at the zero scattering angle are presented in comparison with the experimental data. (author)

  10. Fiber level for laying hens during the growing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding management of laying hens has been focused on the direct influence of nutrient intake on weight gain, especially at growing phase. This study evaluates nutrient digestibility, performance, development of the digestive tract, body composition, and bone quality of two strains of laying hens fed with different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF during the growing phase from the 7th to the 12th week of age. A total of 1,296 birds were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two strains x three levels of NDF with four replicates of 54 birds per treatment. Semi-heavy (Hy Line Brown and light-strain (Lohman LSL pullets were allotted to dietary treatments consisting of 14.50, 16.50, and 18.50% NDF. An interaction between strains and NDF levels was observed only for feed/gain ratio and light-strain pullets had lower performance with 18.50% NDF. The increasing levels of NDF in the diet reduced the coefficients of digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy, and the values of metabolizable energy. Higher levels of NDF in the diet increased the relative weight of liver and intestines and reduced gizzard weight. It was also observed differences between bone quality and composition of the femur and tibia of light and semi-heavy hens. The increase in NDF level in ration for growing phase laying hens above 14.50% decreases the nutrient digestibility and the metabolizable energy of the diet; however, it does not affect the carcass composition, bone quality, feed intake, and weight gain, although it may impair feed conversion of light-strain pullets.

  11. Thermal gelation properties of spent hen mince and surimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowsad, A A; Kanoh, S; Niwa, E

    2000-01-01

    Thermal gelation properties of spent hen mince and surimi were investigated. The mince from 98-wk-old spent hens was washed two times with 0.1% NaCl. A portion of unwashed and washed mince was mixed with 4% sugar, 4% sorbitol, and 0.2% Na-tripolyphosphate to produce surimi and was kept frozen at -20 C. The mince and surimi were ground with 3% NaCl and a small amount of water to adjust the final moisture content to 80%. A 6 to 8% potato starch was mixed with some pastes. The pastes were stuffed into sausage casings and heated by one-step and two-step heating. The effects of washing, heating, and addition of ingredients on the color, composition, and functional properties of the mince and gel were compared. Washed, spent hen mince was lighter and less red in color and higher in collagen, gel strength, water-holding ability, and cooking yield than unwashed mince. The best temperature and time schedule for the gelation of spent hen mince was 90 C for 15 min in one-step heating. Heating at 100 C for 5 min after preheating at 60 to 70 C for 30 min resulted a gel with distinctly improved gel strength. Sucrose (4%), sorbitol (4%), and Na-tripolyphosphate (0.2%) improved the gel quality of nonfrozen mince but showed little cryoprotective effect against the degradation of frozen-stored product. A 6% potato starch improved the gel texture, cooking yield, and water-holding ability compared with 8% starch.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Swiss laying hens, prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisberger, M; Gobeli, S; Hoop, R; Dewulf, J; Perreten, V; Regula, G

    2011-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern to public health, and food-producing animals are known to be a potential source for transmission of resistant bacteria to humans. As legislation of the European Union requires to ban conventional cages for the housing of laying hens on the one hand, and a high food safety standard for eggs on the other hand, further investigations about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in alternative housing types are required. In this study, we determined antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria from 396 cloacal swabs from 99 Swiss laying hen farms among four alternative housing types during a cross-sectional study. On each farm, four hens were sampled and exposure to potential risk factors was identified with a questionnaire. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined using broth microdilution in Escherichia coli (n=371) for 18 antimicrobials and in Enterococcus faecalis (n=138) and Enterococcus faecium (n=153) for 16 antimicrobials. All antimicrobial classes recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for E. coli and enterococci were included in the resistance profile. Sixty per cent of the E. coli isolates were susceptible to all of the considered antimicrobials and 30% were resistant to at least two antimicrobials. In E. faecalis, 33% of the strains were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials and 40% were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, whereas in E. faecium these figures were 14% and 39% respectively. Risk factor analyses were carried out for bacteria species and antimicrobials with a prevalence of resistance between 15% and 85%. In these analyses, none of the considered housing and management factors showed a consistent association with the prevalence of resistance for more than two combinations of bacteria and antimicrobial. Therefore we conclude that the impact of the considered housing and management practices on the egg producing farms on resistance in laying hens is low. © 2010

  13. The effect of dietary flaxseed meal on liver and egg yolk fatty acid profiles, immune response and antioxidant status of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementing laying hen diets with 0, 50, or 100 g flaxseed meal (FSM/kg over a 12-week period on liver and egg yolk fatty acids (FA composition, liver and serum lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx], serum lipids (triglyerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, proteins (total protein, globulin and albumin, and immune response [serum antibody titres to sheep red blood cells (SRBC and white blood cell count (WBC and differential (heterophils (H, lymphocytes (L, monocytes (M, eosinophils (E and basophils (B] of laying hens were studied. The FSM diets increased total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA and omega-3 FA of α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, docosapentanoic (C22:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n-3, and they reduced total monounsaturated FA (MUFA and total omega- 3/total omega-6 FA (Σn-6:Σn-3 ratio in the liver and egg yolk. Hens fed the FSM diets had a higher serum anti-SRBC and a lower blood H:L ratio. The 100 g FSM/kg diet increased liver TBARS level when compared with the control diet. Dietary FSM did not influence levels of TBARS, SOD, lipids and proteins in the serum, SOD and GPx in the liver, and blood count of M, E, B and total WBC. It was concluded that the addition of FSM to the diet of laying hens enhanced immune response of birds, increased omeg-3 FA and PUFA, and reduced MUFA and Σn-6:Σn-3 ratio in the liver and egg yolk, and that of 100 g FSM/kg diet increased hepatic lipid peroxidation.

  14. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  15. Development of locomotion over inclined surfaces in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, C; Tobalske, B; Bowley, S; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate locomotor strategies during development in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus); we were motivated, in part, by current efforts to improve the design of housing systems for laying hens which aim to reduce injury and over-exertion. Using four strains of laying hens (Lohmann Brown, Lohmann LSL lite, Dekalb White and Hyline Brown) throughout this longitudinal study, we investigated their locomotor style and climbing capacity in relation to the degree (0 to 70°) of incline, age (2 to 36 weeks) and the surface substrate (sandpaper or wire grid). Chicks and adult fowl performed only walking behavior to climb inclines ⩽40° and performed a combination of wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) or aerial ascent on steeper inclines. Fewer birds used their wings to aid their hind limbs when climbing 50° inclines on wire grid surface compared with sandpaper. The steepness of angle achieved during WAIR and the tendency to fly instead of using WAIR increased with increasing age and experience. White-feathered strains performed more wing-associated locomotor behavior compared with brown-feathered strains. A subset of birds was never able to climb incline angles >40° even when using WAIR. Therefore, we suggest that inclines of up to 40° should be provided for hens in three-dimensional housing systems, which are easily negotiated (without wing use) by chicks and adult fowl.

  16. Battery Change Improves the Welfare of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the welfare of the laying hens in two different housing systems (conventionalbatteries and furnished colony cages, evaluating the housing conditions and management practices and someanimal-linked parameters (feather condition, diseases, production and mortality.Between 2009 and 2011 a large laying hen farm was assessed, before and after the modification of the housingsystem from conventional batteries to furnished colony cages. The housing conditions were significantly better afterthe housing system was changed. The mean score of the feather condition was slightly higher in the furnished cages,comparing with the conventional batteries, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Thefrequency of the lice infestation and the mortality of the birds were higher in the conventional housing than in theimproved one. The egg production was not influenced by the housing system. Even if factors altering the layinghens’ welfare were identified in both housing systems, yet, based on the obtained results we can state that the welfareof the laying hens kept in furnished colony cages is better than that of the birds housed in conventional battery cages.

  17. Do Laying Hens with Keel Bone Fractures Experience Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed A. F.; Nicol, Christine J.; Murrell, Joanna C.

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p = 0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  18. Do laying hens with keel bone fractures experience pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A F Nasr

    Full Text Available The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM landing time (seconds birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3, 2.2 (0.3, p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6, 16.9 (6.7, p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4, 26.3 (7.6, p = 0.02 150 cm. Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems.

  19. Genome-wide mapping of estrogen receptor α binding sites by ChIP-seq to identify genes related to sexual maturity in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Li, Yi; Chen, Yuxia; Guo, Xiaoli; Yuan, Zhenjie; Jiang, Yunliang

    2018-02-05

    In ovarian follicle development, estrogen acts as a regulatory molecule to mediate proliferation and differentiation of follicular cells. ERα (estrogen receptor α) exerts regulatory function classically by binding directly to the estrogen response element, recruiting co-factors and activating or repressing transcription in response to E2. In this study, we used ChIP-seq to map ERα-binding sites in ovaries of Hy-line Brown commercial hens at 45d, 90d and 160d. In total, 24,886, 21,680 and 23,348 binding sites were identified in the ovaries of hens at 45d, 90d and 160d, which are linked to 86, 83 and 74 genes, respectively. The PPI network contains 47 protein nodes and 164 interaction edges, among which, AKT1 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 1) and ACTN2 (Actinin Alpha 2) with the highest weight in the network, followed by CREB1 (CAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 1), and EPHA5 (EPH Receptor A5) were identified. These genes are likely related to sexual maturity in hens. This study also provides insight into the regulation of the ERα target gene networks and a reference for understanding ERα-regulated transcription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Membrane protein simulations with a united-atom lipid and all-atom protein model: lipid-protein interactions, side chain transfer free energies and model proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tieleman, D Peter; MacCallum, Justin L; Ash, Walter L; Kandt, Christian; Xu Zhitao; Monticelli, Luca

    2006-01-01

    We have reparameterized the dihedral parameters in a commonly used united-atom lipid force field so that they can be used with the all-atom OPLS force field for proteins implemented in the molecular dynamics simulation software GROMACS. Simulations with this new combination give stable trajectories and sensible behaviour of both lipids and protein. We have calculated the free energy of transfer of amino acid side chains between water and 'lipid-cyclohexane', made of lipid force field methylene groups, as a hydrophobic mimic of the membrane interior, for both the OPLS-AA and a modified OPLS-AA force field which gives better hydration free energies under simulation conditions close to those preferred for the lipid force field. The average error is 4.3 kJ mol -1 for water-'lipid-cyclohexane' compared to 3.2 kJ mol -1 for OPLS-AA cyclohexane and 2.4 kJ mol -1 for the modified OPLS-AA water-'lipid-cyclohexane'. We have also investigated the effect of different methods to combine parameters between the united-atom lipid force field and the united-atom protein force field ffgmx. In a widely used combination, the strength of interactions between hydrocarbon lipid tails and proteins is significantly overestimated, causing a decrease in the area per lipid and an increase in lipid ordering. Using straight combination rules improves the results. Combined, we suggest that using OPLS-AA together with the united-atom lipid force field implemented in GROMACS is a reasonable approach to membrane protein simulations. We also suggest that using partial volume information and free energies of transfer may help to improve the parameterization of lipid-protein interactions and point out the need for accurate experimental data to validate and improve force field descriptions of such interactions

  1. Adding of ascorbic acid to the culture medium influences the antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters in the hen granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capcarova, M; Kolesarova, A; Kalafova, A; Bulla, J; Sirotkin, A V

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) of the hen granulosa cells, and selected biochemical parameters, including calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, glucose, cholesterol, proteins, in the culture medium of granulosa cells after exposing them to ascorbic acid in vitro conditions. Ovarian granulosa cells of hens were incubated with various doses of ascorbic acid (E1 0.09 mg/ml, E2 0.13 mg/ml, E3 0.17 mg/ml, E4 0.33 mg/ml, E5 0.5 mg/ml). Ascorbic acid did not manifest antioxidant potential and higher doses of ascorbic acid (0.17; 0.33 and 0.5 mg/ml) decreased the activity of SOD in granulosa cells. Vitamin application resulted in a significantly (pascorbic acid might be involved in the regulation of selected biochemical and physiological processes in ovarian granulosa cells.

  2. On the similarity of properties in solution or in the crystalline state: A molecular dynamics study of hen lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, U.; Spiegel, K.; Gunsteren, W.F. van

    2000-01-01

    As protein crystals generally possess a high water content, it is assumed that the behaviour of a protein in solution and in crystal environment is very similar. This assumption can be investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of proteins in the different environments. Two 2ns simulations of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) in crystal and solution environment are compared to one another and to experimental data derived from both X-ray and NMR experiments, such as crystallographic B-factors, NOE atom-atom distance bounds, 3 J HNα -coupling constants, and 1 H- 15 N bond vector order parameters. Both MD simulations give very similar results. The crystal simulation reproduces X-ray and NMR data slightly better than the solution simulation

  3. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks. For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks, period 2 (58 to 61 weeks, and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks. For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05 at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05 at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  4. Simulation studies of protein-induced bilayer deformations, and lipid-induced protein tilting, on a mesoscopic model for lipid bilayers with embedded proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturoli, M.; Smit, B.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2005-01-01

    in membranes, we considered proteins of different hydrophobic length ( as well as different sizes). We studied the cooperative behavior of the lipid-protein system at mesoscopic time-and lengthscales. In particular, we correlated in a systematic way the protein-induced bilayer perturbation, and the lipid......Biological membranes are complex and highly cooperative structures. To relate biomembrane structure to their biological function it is often necessary to consider simpler systems. Lipid bilayers composed of one or two lipid species, and with embedded proteins, provide a model system for biological...... membranes. Here we present a mesoscopic model for lipid bilayers with embedded proteins, which we have studied with the help of the dissipative particle dynamics simulation technique. Because hydrophobic matching is believed to be one of the main physical mechanisms regulating lipid-protein interactions...

  5. The physicochemical quality and meat microstructure of post laying hen with addition of Biduri (Calotropis gigantea) latex extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Hertanto, B. S.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Swastike, W.; Cahyadi, M.; Rasid, S.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extract level of Biduri latex on the meat quality of laying hens. The materials of this research were Biduri latex and thigh meat from hens strain Lohman. The latex was tapped from a young tissue stem and centrifuged for its supernatant. Meats were smeared with latex, punctured and incubated for 30 minutes. Concentrations of latex were 0, 3, 6 and 9% from the weight of meat (w/w). The variables were water, dissolved protein, crude fat content, tenderness and microstructure of meat. The statistical analysis method using ANOVA and if there was a mean difference, Duncan test was used. Descriptive analysis was used for microstructures of meat by comparing its hydrolysis conditions. The study showed that fat had significant difference (P meat structure. The fat content increased with addition of 3% latex. The value of dissolved protein increased but tenderness decreased by addition extract of 6% latex. The addition of Biduri latex extract showed that hydrolysis in the microstructure of meat. The addition of 6% latex was the best meat quality.

  6. Heterologous Expression of Hen Egg White Lysozyme and Resonance Assignment of Tryptophan Side Chains in its Non-native States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloerb, Christian; Ackermann, Katrin; Richter, Christian; Wirmer, Julia; Schwalbe, Harald

    2005-01-01

    A new protocol is described for the isotope ( 15 N and 13 C, 15 N) enrichment of hen egg white lysozyme. Hen egg white lysozyme and an all-Ala-mutant of this protein have been expressed in E. coli. They formed inclusion bodies from which mg quantities of the proteins were purified and prepared for NMR spectroscopic investigations. 1 H, 13 C and 15 N main chain resonances of disulfide reduced and S-methylated lysozyme were assigned and its residual structure in water pH 2 was characterized by chemical shift perturbation analysis. A new NMR experiment has been developed to assign tryptophan side chain indole resonances by correlation of side chain and backbone NH resonances with the C γ resonances of these residues. Assignment of tryptophan side chains enables further residue specific investigations on structural and dynamical properties, which are of significant interest for the understanding of non-natives states of lysozyme stabilized by hydrophobic interactions between clusters of tryptophan residues

  7. Systematic Identification of Machine-Learning Models Aimed to Classify Critical Residues for Protein Function from Protein Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Corral, Ricardo; Beltrán, Jesús A; Brizuela, Carlos A; Del Rio, Gabriel

    2017-10-09

    Protein structure and protein function should be related, yet the nature of this relationship remains unsolved. Mapping the critical residues for protein function with protein structure features represents an opportunity to explore this relationship, yet two important limitations have precluded a proper analysis of the structure-function relationship of proteins: (i) the lack of a formal definition of what critical residues are and (ii) the lack of a systematic evaluation of methods and protein structure features. To address this problem, here we introduce an index to quantify the protein-function criticality of a residue based on experimental data and a strategy aimed to optimize both, descriptors of protein structure (physicochemical and centrality descriptors) and machine learning algorithms, to minimize the error in the classification of critical residues. We observed that both physicochemical and centrality descriptors of residues effectively relate protein structure and protein function, and that physicochemical descriptors better describe critical residues. We also show that critical residues are better classified when residue criticality is considered as a binary attribute (i.e., residues are considered critical or not critical). Using this binary annotation for critical residues 8 models rendered accurate and non-overlapping classification of critical residues, confirming the multi-factorial character of the structure-function relationship of proteins.

  8. Examination of egg number and egg weight variables and their effects on daily management in aviary systems for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.; Keen, A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Characteristics of egg numbers and mean egg weight were examined for their usefulness in the daily management of aviary systems for laying hens. 2. A number of 3238 brown Isabrown/Warren hens were housed in 1 compartment, a separated part of the house where the hens could move around freely, of a

  9. Individual consistency of feather pecking behavior in laying hens: once a feather pecker always a feather pecker?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daigle, C.L.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Swanson, J.C.; Siegford, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The pecking behavior [severe feather, gentle feather, and aggressive pecks (AP)] of individual White Shaver non-cage laying hens (n = 300) was examined at 21, 24, 27, 32, and 37 weeks. Hens were housed in 30 groups of 10 hens each and on 3 cm litter with access to a feeder, perch, and two nest

  10. Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model for Protein Crystal Growth Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, Sabine; Smith, Lori; Karr, Laurel; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea Victoria has become a popular marker for e.g. mutagenesis work. Its fluorescent property, which originates from a chromophore located in the center of the molecule, makes it widely applicable as a research too]. GFP clones have been produced with a variety of spectral properties, such as blue and yellow emitting species. The protein is a single chain of molecular weight 27 kDa and its structure has been determined at 1.9 Angstrom resolution. The combination of GFP's fluorescent property, the knowledge of its several crystallization conditions, and its increasing use in biophysical and biochemical studies, all led us to consider it as a model material for macromolecular crystal growth studies. Initial preparations of GFP were from E.coli with yields of approximately 5 mg/L of culture media. Current yields are now in the 50 - 120 mg/L range, and we hope to further increase this by expression of the GFP gene in the Pichia system. The results of these efforts and of preliminary crystal growth studies will be presented.

  11. Model to predict inhomogeneous protein-sugar distribution in powders prepared by spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Niels; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2016-01-01

    A protein can be stabilized by spray drying an aqueous solution of the protein and a sugar, thereby incorporating the protein into a glassy sugar matrix. For optimal stability, the protein should be homogeneously distributed inside the sugar matrix. The aim of this study was to develop a model that

  12. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  13. Characterizing the histopathology of natural co-infection with Marek's disease virus and subgroup J avian leucosis virus in egg-laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yawen; Huang, Qi; Yang, Chengcheng; Pan, Ling; Wang, Guijun; Qi, Kezong; Liu, Hongmei

    2018-02-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) and avian leucosis virus (ALV) are known to cause tumours in egg-laying hens. Here, we investigated the aetiology of tumours in a flock of egg-laying hens vaccinated against MDV. We carried out gross pathology and histopathological examinations of the diseased tissues, identified virus antigen and sequenced viral oncogenes to elucidate the cause of death in 21-22-week-old hens. At necropsy, diseased hens had distinctly swollen livers, spleens, and proventriculus, and white tumour nodules in the liver. The spleen and liver had been infiltrated by lymphoid tumour cells, while the proventriculus had been infiltrated by both lymphoid tumour cells and myeloblastic cells. Subtype J ALV (ALV-J) and MDV were widely distributed in the proventricular gland cells, and the lymphoid tumour cells in the liver and the spleen. In addition, positive ALV-J signals were also observed in parts of the reticular cells in the spleen. MDV and ALV-J antigens were observed in the same foci of the proventricular gland cells; however, the two antigens were not observed in the same foci from the spleen and liver. The amino acid sequence of the AN-1 (the representative liver tumour tissue that was positive for both ALV-J and MDV) Meq protein was highly similar to the very virulent MDV QD2014 from China. Compared to the ALV-J HPRS-103 reference strain, 10 amino acids (224-CTTEWNYYAY-233) were deleted from the gp85 protein of AN-1. We concluded that concurrent infection with MDV and ALV-J contributed to the tumorigenicity observed in the flock.

  14. Model test on the relationship feed energy and protein ratio to the production and quality of milk protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, R.; Jantra, M. A. C.; Santosa, S. A. B.; Purnomoadi, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find an appropriate relationship model between the feed energy and protein ratio with the amount of production and quality of milk proteins. This research was conducted at Getasan Sub-district, Semarang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia using 40 samples (Holstein Friesian cattle, lactation period II-III and lactation month 3-4). Data were analyzed using linear and quadratic regressions, to predict the production and quality of milk protein from feed energy and protein ratio that describe the diet. The significance of model was tested using analysis of variance. Coefficient of determination (R2), residual variance (RV) and root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) were reported for the developed equations as an indicator of the goodness of model fit. The results showed no relationship in milk protein (kg), milk casein (%), milk casein (kg) and milk urea N (mg/dl) as function of CP/TDN. The significant relationship was observed in milk production (L or kg) and milk protein (%) as function of CP/TDN, both in linear and quadratic models. In addition, a quadratic change in milk production (L) (P = 0.003), milk production (kg) (P = 0.003) and milk protein concentration (%) (P = 0.026) were observed with increase of CP/TDN. It can be concluded that quadratic equation was the good fitting model for this research, because quadratic equation has larger R2, smaller RV and smaller RMSPE than those of linear equation.

  15. Protein modelling of triterpene synthase genes from mangrove plants using Phyre2 and Swiss-model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Wati, R.; Sulistiyono, N.; Hayati, R.; Sumardi; Oku, H.; Baba, S.; Sagami, H.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular cloning of five oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) genes from Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Kandelia candel, and Rhizophora stylosa had previously been cloned, characterized, and encoded mono and -multi triterpene synthases. The present study analyzed protein modelling of triterpene synthase genes from mangrove using Phyre2 and Swiss-model. The diversity was noted within protein modelling of triterpene synthases using Phyre2 from sequence identity (38-43%) and residue (696-703). RsM2 was distinguishable from others for template structure; it used lanosterol synthase as a template (PDB ID: w6j.1.A). By contrast, other genes used human lanosterol synthase (1w6k.1.A). The predicted bind sites were correlated with the product of triterpene synthase, the product of BgbAS was β-amyrin, while RsM1 contained a significant amount of β-amyrin. Similarly BgLUS and KcMS, both main products was lupeol, on the other hand, RsM2 with the outcome of taraxerol. Homology modelling revealed that 696 residues of BgbAS, BgLUS, RsM1, and RsM2 (91-92% of the amino acid sequence) had been modelled with 100% confidence by the single highest scoring template using Phyre2. This coverage was higher than Swiss-model (85-90%). The present study suggested that molecular cloning of triterpene genes provides useful tools for studying the protein modelling related regulation of isoprenoids biosynthesis in mangrove forests.

  16. Egg fertility and hatchability in Avians broiler-breeder hens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of temperature and humidity in different month of lay was evaluated on fertility and hatchability in broiler breeder hens reared in Sapele, Nigeria. Six million, six hundred and nineteen thousand, seven hundred and forty six eggs from flocks of Avians broiler-breeder hens reared between 2005 and 2006 in a farm ...

  17. Substitution Value of Maize Offal for Maize in Diets of Laying Hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Two hundred and sixteen Golden Hubbard strain of laying hens, aged 32 weeks, were used to investigate the optimal level of maize offal (MO) that could replace maize witb no detrimental effects on the ... There were no significant (P> 0.05) differences between diets in egg production and weight gain of the hens.

  18. The value of feed consumption data for breeding in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiting, P.

    1991-01-01

    The results of statistical and experimental analyses of residual feed consumption (RFC) in White Leghorn laying hens are presented. RFC is defined as the difference between the observed feed consumption of a hen and its feed consumption predicted from its egg mass production, body weight

  19. Ammonia emission from aviary housing systems for laying hens : inventory, characteristics and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    1998-01-01

    The development and practical application of welfare friendly aviary housing systems for laying hens, that generally emit more ammonia per hen than battery cage housing systems, would conflict with the Dutch policy to substantially reduce the total emission of ammonia from animal

  20. Immune response of laying hens exposed to 30 ppm ammonia for 25 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is one of the most prominent aerial pollutants inside poultry production facilities, affecting chicken health and well-being based on its levels and exposure durations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 30 ppm ammonia on the immune response of laying hens. Hens at 18 wk ...

  1. The prevention and control of feather pecking in laying hens : identifying the underlying principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T. B.; van Krimpen, M. M.; de Jong, I. C.; de Haas, E. N.; Kops, M. S.; Riedstra, B. J.; Nordquist, R. E.; Wagenaar, J. P.; Bestman, M.; Nicol, C. J.

    Feather pecking (FP) in laying hens remains an important economic and welfare issue. This paper reviews the literature on causes of FP in laying hens. With the ban on conventional cages in the EU from 2012 and the expected future ban on beak trimming in many European countries, addressing this

  2. Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Kwakernaak, C.; Kan, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14¿32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems

  3. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg damage and dirty, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the damage and dirty eggs and egg weight, depending on two different breeding systems and different ages of laying hens. Object of investigation were table eggs, their damage and dirty in the laying hens of the final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and the free range system.  In both rearing systems were ensured the conditions for laying hens in accordance with legislation establishing minimum standards for the laying hens minimum standards for the protection of laying hens, protection of animals kept for farming purposes in accordance with the principles of the so-called five freedoms. That was used to feed a complete feed mixture HYD 10 in both breeding systems. The feeders were supplemented with feed by hand every day and the same day were supplemented water to drinking troughs.  Egg collection was hand in both breeding systems. This paper is a contribution to the solution of optimal breeding hens and production of high quality and safe of table eggs. Based on the results was formulated conclusion, which shows that to the damage and dirty eggs are not affected by the age of the breeding system and age of laying hens. Statistically significant difference     (p ≤ 0.05 in the egg weight was observed between breeding cage system and breeding free range system and   between age 30 and 40 weeks of laying hens.

  4. Performance And Egg Quality Of Hens Fed Cocoa Husk Based Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lowman Brown hens, 37 - week - old, were used to study the effect of dietary inclusion of 10 and 20% cocoa husk meal (CHM) at the expense of maize on hen performance and egg quality. The trial was conducted for 10 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed consumption (FC), and feed ...

  5. Survival analysis of white Leghorn laying hens in the early and late production period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamuno, Doreen; Mészáros, Gábor; Ellen, Esther D.; Sölkner, Johann

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out survival analysis to evaluate fixed effects and to estimate genetic parameters on survival of laying hens. The data set contained 16,694 records of three purebred White Leghorn layer lines coded W1, WB and WF. At 17 weeks old after rearing, hens were transported

  6. Strength of preference for dustbathing and foraging substrates in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Wolthuis, M.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the substrate preferences of laying hens, with particular respect to dustbathing and foraging behaviour, in order to guide decisions concerning which resources should be provided in laying hen housing systems to best enable the expression of these behaviours. The

  7. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, J.L.T.; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T.B.; Tuyttens, F.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage

  8. The layering and physical characteristics of Shaver Brown Hens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were collected from 120 Shaver Brown hens for a period of 56 days in order to determine their oviposition time, sequence of laying, lag time, laying intensity and egg weight. The hens were subsequently divided into three classes on the basis of their laying performance namely: good layers, intermediate layers and ...

  9. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  10. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a retrospective ...

  11. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a ...

  12. Space use by 4 strains of laying hens to perch, wing flap, dust bathe, stand and lie down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Elizabeth R; Ali, Ahmed B A; Campbell, Dana L M; Siegford, Janice M

    2018-01-01

    The laying hen industry is implementing aviary systems intended to improve welfare by providing hens with more space and resources to perform species-specific behaviors. To date, limited research has examined spatial requirements of various strains of laying hens for performing key behaviors and none has been conducted within an alternative housing system. This study investigated the amount of space used by 4 strains of laying hens (Hy-Line Brown [HB], Bovans Brown [BB], DeKalb White [DW], and Hy-Line W36) to perform 5 different behaviors in the litter area of a commercial-style aviary. Hens were recorded standing [S], lying [L], perching [P], wing flapping [WF], and dust bathing [DB] on an open-litter area with an outer perch between 12:00 and 15:00 at peak lay (28 wk of age). Still images of each behavior were analyzed using ImageJ software for 16 hens per strain, and maximum hen length and width were used to calculate total area occupied per hen for each behavior. Brown hens required, on average, 89.6cm2 more space for S (P≤0.021) and 81.5cm2 more space for L (P≤0.013) than white hens. White hens used, on average, 572cm2 more space to perform WF than brown hens (P≤0.024) while brown hens used 170.3cm2 more space for DB than white hens (P≤0.022). On average, hens of all strains were wider while perching than the 15cm commonly recommended per hen (e.g., DW: 18.03; HB: 21.89cm), and brown hens required, on average, 3.38cm more space while perching than white hens (P≤0.01). Brown and white hens occupy different amounts of space when performing key behaviors. These differences, along with factors such as behavioral synchrony, clustering, and preferred inter-bird distances associated with these behaviors, should be considered when creating industry guidelines, crafting legislation and designing and stocking laying hen facilities to ensure hens can fulfill their behavioral needs.

  13. Simulation of heat exchanger network (HEN) and planning the optimum cleaning schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad

    2007-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of heat exchanger networks for estimating the amount of fouling, variations in overall heat transfer coefficient, and variations in outlet temperatures of hot and cold streams has a significant effect on production analysis. In this analysis, parameters such as the exchangers' types and arrangements, their heat transfer surface areas, mass flow rates of hot and cold streams, heat transfer coefficients and variations of fouling with time are required input data. The main goal is to find the variations of the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams with time to plan the optimum cleaning schedule of heat exchangers that provides the minimum operational cost or maximum amount of savings. In this paper, the simulation of heat exchanger networks is performed by choosing an asymptotic fouling function. Two main parameters in the asymptotic fouling formation model, i.e. the decay time of fouling formation (τ) and the asymptotic fouling resistance (R f ∼ ) were obtained from empirical data as input parameters to the simulation relations. These data were extracted from the technical history sheets of the Khorasan Petrochemical Plant to guaranty the consistency between our model outputs and the real operating conditions. The output results of the software program developed, including the variations with time of the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams, the heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer rate in the exchangers, are presented for two case studies. Then, an objective function (operational cost) was defined, and the optimal cleaning schedule of the HEN (heat exchanger network) in the Urea and Ammonia units were found by minimizing the objective function using a numerical search method. Based on this minimization procedure, the decision was made whether a heat exchanger should be cleaned or continue to operate. The final result was the most cost effective plan for the HEN cleaning schedule. The corresponding savings by

  14. Feed addition of curcumin to laying hens showed anticoccidial effect, and improved egg quality and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Gabriela M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Biazus, Angelisa H; Reis, João H; Boiago, Marcel M; Topazio, Josué P; Migliorini, Marcos J; Guarda, Naiara S; Moresco, Rafael N; Ourique, Aline F; Santos, Cayane G; Lopes, Leandro S; Baldissera, Matheus D; Stefani, Lenita M

    2018-01-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of curcumin in the diet of commercial laying hens could have an anticoccidial action and improve egg quality. For this, 60 laying hens were divided into three groups: T0 (the control group); T30 and T50 (30 and 50 mg/kg of curcumin in the feed, respectively). Eggs recently laid were collected on days 14 and 21 of the experiment, and stored for 21 days. It was observed increased specific gravity and yolk index in stored eggs of the groups T30 and T50 compared to T0. The yolk color reduced in the eggs stored from groups T30 and T50 compared to T0. Moreover, TBARS levels were lower in fresh and stored eggs from groups T30 and T50. It was observed increased TAC levels in fresh eggs from groups T30 and T50 and in stored eggs from the group T50. The presence of curcumin was not detected by HPLC in the yolk and albumen. Seric levels of albumin and uric acid did not differ between groups, while seric levels of total proteins increased on day 21 on groups T30 and T50. Finally, it was observed a significant reduction on the number of oocysts in fecal samples on days 14 and 21 of T30 and T50 compared to T0. Based on these evidences, it is possible to conclude that the addition of curcumin in the diet of laying hens has an anticoccidial effect and improves egg quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of enzyme supplementation on diets of medium-heavy laying hens at 28 to 40 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina de Souza Resende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to verify the effect of the addition of an enzyme complex on performance (feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass, and feed conversion per dozen eggs, and on egg quality (% of shell, albumen and yolk, shell thickness, specific gravity, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen index, in medium-heavy laying hens at 28 to 40 weeks of age. A total of 240 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were used in a randomised block design with 10 replications of six birds per lot and four treatments: positive control (basal feed, negative control (with a reduction in metabolisable energy, crude protein, calcium and phosphorus, negative control + enzymes, and positive control + enzymes. The enzyme complex, composed of β-glucanases, β-xylanase, cellulase and phytase, was added to the feed at a ratio of 50 g t-1. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with the mean values compared by Tukey's test at 5%. There was no difference in feed intake or egg weight between treatments. However, the addition of the enzyme complex to the negative control diet gave results similar to the remaining performance variables when compared to the positive control group. For the external and internal quality of the eggs, there was no difference between treatments for the variables under evaluation, except for the albumin index. It was concluded that use of the enzyme complex in the diet of medium-heavy laying hens gives a reduction in nutritional density without compromising production performance or egg quality.

  16. Plasticized protein for 3D printing by fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunier, Laurent; Leroy, Eric; Della Valle, Guy; Lourdin, Denis

    2016-10-01

    The developments of Additive Manufacturing (AM) by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) now target new 3D printable materials, leading to novel properties like those given by biopolymers such as proteins: degradability, biocompatibility and edibility. Plasticized materials from zein, a storage protein issued from corn, present interesting thermomechanical and rheological properties, possibly matching with AM-FDM specifications. Thus commercial zein plasticized with 20% glycerol has a glass transition temperature (Tg) at about 42°C, after storage at intermediate relative humidity (RH=59%). Its principal mechanical relaxation at Tα ≈ 50°C leads to a drop of the elastic modulus from about 1.1 GPa, at ambient temperature, to 0.6 MPa at Tα+100°C. These values are in the same range as values obtained in the case of standard polymers for AM-FDM processing, as PLA and ABS, although relaxation mechanisms are likely different in these materials. Such results lead to the setting up of zein-based compositions printable by AM-FDM and allow processing bioresorbable printed parts, with designed 3D geometry and structure.

  17. Effect of feeding silages or carrots as supplements to laying hens on production performance, nutrient digestibility, gut structure, gut microflora and feather pecking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenfeldt, S; Kjaer, J B; Engberg, R M

    2007-08-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to examine the suitability of using maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots as foraging materials for egg-laying hens. Production performance, nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal characteristics, including the composition of the intestinal microflora as well as feather pecking behaviour were the outcome variables. 2. The protein content of the foraging material (g/kg DM) was on average 69 g in carrots, 94 g in maize silage and 125 g in barley-pea silage. The starch content was highest in the maize silage (312 g/kg DM), and the content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) varied from 196 to 390 g/kg, being lowest in carrots. Sugars were just traceable in the silages, whereas carrots contained on average 496 g/kg DM. 3. Egg production was highest in hens fed either carrots or maize silage, whereas hens fed barley-pea silage produced less (219 vs. 208). Although the consumption of foraging material was high (33, 35 and 48% of the total feed intake on 'as fed' basis for maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots, respectively) only a minor effect on nitrogen corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(n)) and apparent digestibility was seen. At 53 weeks of age, hens fed maize silage had AME(n) and apparent digestibility values close to the control group (12.61 and 12.82, respectively), whereas access to barley-pea silage and carrots resulted in slightly lower values (12.36 and 12.42, respectively). Mortality was reduced dramatically in the three groups given supplements (0.5 to 2.5%) compared to the control group (15.2%). 4. Hens receiving silage had greater relative gizzard weights than the control or carrot-fed groups. At 53 weeks of age, the gizzard-content pH of hens receiving silage was about 0.7 to 0.9 units lower than that of the control or carrot-fed hens. Hens fed both types of silage had higher concentrations of lactic acid (15.6 vs. 3.2 micromoles/g) and acetic acid (3.6 vs. 6.1 micromoles/g) in the gizzard contents

  18. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; Hoffman, John; Stringfellow, Kendre; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Zhao, Dan; Caldwell, David; Lee, Jason; Styles, Darrel; Berghman, Luc; Byrd, James; Farnell, Yuhua; Archer, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Reportable diseases, such as avian influenza, spread rapidly among poultry, resulting in the death of a large number of birds. Once such a disease has been diagnosed at a farm, infected and susceptible birds are rapidly killed to prevent the spread of the disease. The methods to eliminate infected caged laying hens are limited. An experiment was conducted to study the effectiveness of foam made from compressed air, water, and soap to kill laying hens in cages. The study found that stress levels of the hens killed using compressed air foam in cages to be similar to the hens killed by carbon dioxide or the negative control. Hens exposed to carbon dioxide died earlier as compared to the foam methods. The authors conclude that application of compressed air foam in cages is an alternative to methods such as gas inhalation and ventilation shutdown to rapidly and humanely kill laying hens during epidemics. Abstract During the 2014–2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO2 inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO2 added to a chamber, a CO2 pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO2 added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly

  19. Application of Paracoccus marcusii as a potential feed additive for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradie, Tersia A; Pieterse, Elsje; Jacobs, Karin

    2018-03-01

    Carotenoids have been used for many years as an added pigment to enhance egg yolk color. One such carotenoid, astaxanthin, has a strong antioxidant activity and is produced by several microorganisms, including the bacterium Paracoccus marcusii, which has shown promise to be used as a feed additive. Therefore, this study investigated the use of P. marcusii as a possible source of pigmentation in layer hen feed to enhance egg yolk color. Paracoccus marcusii was fed to hens in a sucrose solution (10% m/v). The hens were fed daily and all eggs were collected for analysis. Dilutions of egg contents were plated onto selective media to detect the presence of known food pathogens (E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella). In the feeding trial, there was no negative effect on hen body weight, egg production, or overall egg quality. There was a significant increase (P feed additive for laying hens.

  20. Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-06-01

    Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P hens. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Performance and nitrogen balance of laying hens fed increasing levels of digestible lysine and arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyola Barros de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of two digestible lysine levels and four digestible arginine levels on laying hens from 24 to 48 weeks of age. Three hundred and twenty Lohmann LSL laying hens were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement, with two levels of digestible lysine (700 and 900 mg/kg of diet and four digestible arginine levels (700, 800, 900 and 1000 mg/kg of diet. Results indicated requirement of 884 and 830 mg of digestible arginine/kg of diet, considering an average feed intake of 95 g/hen/day and an average hen weight of 1.5 kg, aiming at lesser feed intake and better nutritional balance of nitrogen, respectively. High digestible lysine levels in the diet require higher digestible arginine supplementation for a better performance of hens.

  2. Self-organized critical model for protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    The major factor that drives a protein toward collapse and folding is the hydrophobic effect. At the folding process a hydrophobic core is shielded by the solvent-accessible surface area of the protein. We study the fractal behavior of 5526 protein structures present in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. Power laws of protein mass, volume and solvent-accessible surface area are measured independently. The present findings indicate that self-organized criticality is an alternative explanation for the protein folding. Also we note that the protein packing is an independent and constant value because the self-similar behavior of the volumes and protein masses have the same fractal dimension. This power law guarantees that a protein is a complex system. From the analyzed data, q-Gaussian distributions seem to fit well this class of systems.

  3. Volume properties and spectroscopy: A terahertz Raman investigation of hen egg white lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Paola; Perticaroli, Stefania; Comez, Lucia; Giugliarelli, Alessandra; Paolantoni, Marco; Fioretto, Daniele; Morresi, Assunta

    2013-12-01

    The low frequency depolarized Raman spectra of 100 mg/ml aqueous solutions of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) have been collected in the 25-85 °C range. Short and long exposures to high temperatures have been used to modulate the competition between the thermally induced reversible and irreversible denaturation processes. A peculiar temperature evolution of spectra is evidenced under prolonged exposure of the protein solution at temperatures higher than 65 °C. This result is connected to the self-assembling of polypeptide chains and testifies the sensitivity of the technique to the properties of both protein molecule and its surrounding. Solvent free spectra have been obtained after subtraction of elastic and solvent components and assigned to a genuine vibrational contribution of hydrated HEWL. A straight similarity is observed between the solvent-free THz Raman feature and the vibrational density of states as obtained by molecular dynamics simulations; according to this, we verify the relation between this spectroscopic observable and the effective protein volume, and distinguish the properties of this latter respect to those of the hydration shell in the pre-melting region.

  4. Motivation of hens to obtain feed during a molt induced by feed withdrawal, wheat middlings, or melengestrol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J M; Lay, D C; McMunn, K A; Moritz, J S; Wilson, M E

    2007-04-01

    Traditionally, molting was initiated by withdrawing feed. However, public criticism of feed deprivation, based on the perception that it inhumanely increases hunger, has led the poultry industry to ban the practice. Thus far, alternatives have not been demonstrated to ameliorate the increase in hunger that led to the ban on inducing molting by feed deprivation. Incorporating melengestrol acetate (MGA), an orally active progestin, into a balanced layer diet induces molting and increases postmolt egg quality. Hy-Line W-98 hens (n = 60) were randomly assigned to a balanced layer ration (control), a balanced layer ration containing MGA, or a 94% wheat middlings diet (wheat) for 20 d, or were feed deprived for 8 d. Hens were trained to peck a switch to receive a feed reward based on a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule. Motivation of hens to acquire feed was measured as the total number of pecks recorded in 15 min on d 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20. On d 20, abdominal fat pad and digesta-free gizzards were weighed. The number of pecks in the feed-deprived group was greater than controls by d 4 and remained greater at d 8, when these hens were removed from the experiment. Hens in the wheat group that were rewarded with a layer diet pecked more than controls from d 8 to 20. Hens in the MGA group pecked for a reward at the same rate as control hens throughout the experiment. Hens fed the wheat diet had heavier gizzards compared with control and MGA-fed hens. Hens fed MGA had greater abdominal fat pad compared with wheat and control hens. Hens molted using a diet containing MGA have a similar motivation to obtain feed as control hens; therefore, this alternative does not appear to increase hunger. However, hens molted with a wheat middling diet appear to be as motivated to obtain feed as did the feed-deprived hens.

  5. Laying hens behave differently in artificially and naturally sourced ammoniated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, B B; Dos Santos, V M; Wood, D; Van Heyst, B; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2017-12-01

    Laying hens are chronically exposed to high levels of ammonia (NH3), one of the most abundant aerial pollutants in poultry houses. Tests for aversion to NH3 in laying hens have used artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures (i.e., from a gas cylinder) showing that birds prefer fresh air to NH3. However, artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures may not accurately reflect barn air conditions, where manure emits a variety of gases. Herein, we investigated whether laying hens differentiate between artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures and how exposure to NH3 affects foraging and aversive behavior. A total of 20 laying hens was exposed to artificially sourced [A] (from an anhydrous NH3 cylinder) and naturally sourced [N] (from conspecific laying hen excreta) gas mixtures. Hens were exposed to A and N mixtures with NH3 concentrations of 25 and 45 ppm, as well as fresh air [FA]. During the experiment, all birds were exposed to each treatment 3 times using a custom-built polycarbonate chamber, containing a foraging area (containing raisins, mealworms, and feed mix) and a gas delivery system. All testing sessions were video recorded, analyzed with INTERACT® software, and subjected to a GLIMMIX procedure in SAS. Our results showed that the laying hens spent less time foraging overall (P hens were more likely to forage for a longer time (with fewer interruptions) in N than in A treatments (P hens also reacted with greater aversion towards treatment A compared to treatment N (P hens of our study preferred fresh to ammoniated air and that they behaved differently in artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures, possibly due to the presence of familiar stimuli from the excreta. These findings have implications for new developments in methodological approaches for behavioral testing and for recommendations regarding NH3 levels inside poultry barns. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Obesity-associated cardiac pathogenesis in broiler breeder hens: Development of metabolic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Huang, Y F; Ko, Y J; Liu, Y J; Chen, Y H; Walzem, R L; Chen, S E

    2017-07-01

    Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate metabolic cardiomyopathies underlying the etiology of obesity-associated cardiac pathology. Metabolic measurements were made in hens continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding after 7 d and 21 days. AL feeding increased plasma insulin, glucose, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations by 21 d (P hens was confirmed by cardiac triacylglycerol (TG) and ceramide accumulation consistent with up-regulation of related enzyme gene expressions, and by increased indices of oxidation stress (P hens, cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity and glucose transporter (GLUT) gene expressions increased progressively while carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) transcript levels in AL hens declined from 7 d to 21 d (P hens was further indicated by increased leukocyte infiltrates, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 production, cellular apoptosis, interstitial fibrosis, and expression of the heart failure marker myosin heavy chain (MHC-β; cardiac muscle beta) (P hens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens’ behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (phens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, −II, and −III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (phens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (phens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs. PMID:26954171

  8. A Practical Teaching Course in Directed Protein Evolution Using the Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruller, Roberto; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Ward, Richard John

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool, which correlates protein structure with specific functions, both in applied biotechnology and in basic research. Here, we present a practical teaching course for engineering the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from "Aequorea victoria" by a random mutagenesis strategy using error-prone polymerase…

  9. MQAPRank: improved global protein model quality assessment by learning-to-rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoyang; Dong, Qiwen

    2017-05-25

    Protein structure prediction has achieved a lot of progress during the last few decades and a greater number of models for a certain sequence can be predicted. Consequently, assessing the qualities of predicted protein models in perspective is one of the key components of successful protein structure prediction. Over the past years, a number of methods have been developed to address this issue, which could be roughly divided into three categories: single methods, quasi-single methods and clustering (or consensus) methods. Although these methods achieve much success at different levels, accurate protein model quality assessment is still an open problem. Here, we present the MQAPRank, a global protein model quality assessment program based on learning-to-rank. The MQAPRank first sorts the decoy models by using single method based on learning-to-rank algorithm to indicate their relative qualities for the target protein. And then it takes the first five models as references to predict the qualities of other models by using average GDT_TS scores between reference models and other models. Benchmarked on CASP11 and 3DRobot datasets, the MQAPRank achieved better performances than other leading protein model quality assessment methods. Recently, the MQAPRank participated in the CASP12 under the group name FDUBio and achieved the state-of-the-art performances. The MQAPRank provides a convenient and powerful tool for protein model quality assessment with the state-of-the-art performances, it is useful for protein structure prediction and model quality assessment usages.

  10. Pushing the frontiers of atomic models for protein tertiary structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of proteins in an explicit solvent environment at a much faster rate and 100 times longer time scales.28 Taking the protein folding in a new direction, researchers at the University of Washington developed a protein fold- ing video game Foldit that uses human visual prob- lem solving and strategy development capabilities ...

  11. Epithelial structure and function in the hen lower intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverty, G.; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Árnason, Sigvatur S.

    2006-01-01

    in turn varies inversely with dietary salt content. Numerous studies have shown that following acclimation to low-salt diets, sodium-linked organic substrate co-transporters are largely suppressed, while electrogenic sodium channels (ENaCs) are induced. These changes can be manipulated, at least in part......, by resalination of low-salt hens, or by aldosterone administration to high-salt-acclimated birds. In the coprodeum, the changes in transport are paralleled by extensive remodelling of the mucosal surface, with low-salt acclimation increasing cell numbers, microvillus density and length and the proportion...

  12. Effect of atmospheric ammonia on laying hen performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaton, J.W.; Reece, F.N.; Lott, B.D.

    1982-09-01

    In periods of extremely cold weather, energy conservation in a pit-type laying house usually results in a restricted ventilation rate and an increase in air pollutants particularly ammonia. Results show that 200 ppm ammonia for 17 days causes a significant loss in percent egg production and the hens lose a significant amount of weight with a reduced feed intake. Although not satisfactory, it appears that lesser amounts of ammonia (100 ppm) can be tolerated for short periods without an immediate drastic loss in laying performance if a choice has to be made between frozen waterers and cold stress versus atmospheric ammonia in the laying house.

  13. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  14. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient

  15. The effect of essential oils on performance of laying hens

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    Henrieta Arpášová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbs, spices and their extracts (botanicals have a wide range of activities. May have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with different doses of thyme or oregano essential oil addition on body weight, feed consumption and egg production were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=50 were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10 and fed for 20 weeks with diets with thyme or oregano essential oil supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first and  second experimental groups were supplemented with 0.5 ml/kg or 1.0 ml/kg thyme essential oil. The diets in the third and fourth experimental groups were supplemented with 0.5 or 1.0 ml/kg oregano essential oil.  Average body weight for the whole period was in the order of the groups 1791.2±80.83; 1809.0±66.88; 1742.6±65.43;   1819.1±78.54 and 1803.9± 98.00 g (P>0.05. In the feed consumption per feeding day, per egg, or in the feed conversion were observed statistically non-significant differences compared to the control group (P>0.05. Number of eggs per hen during the reporting period was in order of the groups: 135.6; 140.7; 139.1; 137.3 and 138.5 pcs at an average intensity of laying 90.4; 93.80; 92.73; 91.53 and 92.33%. The results suggest that the body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, egg production, egg mass and egg weight were not significantly influenced with thyme or oregano oil addition (P>0.05.

  16. A finite element model for protein transport in vivo

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    Montas Hubert J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological mass transport processes determine the behavior and function of cells, regulate interactions between synthetic agents and recipient targets, and are key elements in the design and use of biosensors. Accurately predicting the outcomes of such processes is crucial to both enhancing our understanding of how these systems function, enabling the design of effective strategies to control their function, and verifying that engineered solutions perform according to plan. Methods A Galerkin-based finite element model was developed and implemented to solve a system of two coupled partial differential equations governing biomolecule transport and reaction in live cells. The simulator was coupled, in the framework of an inverse modeling strategy, with an optimization algorithm and an experimental time series, obtained by the Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP technique, to estimate biomolecule mass transport and reaction rate parameters. In the inverse algorithm, an adaptive method was implemented to calculate sensitivity matrix. A multi-criteria termination rule was developed to stop the inverse code at the solution. The applicability of the model was illustrated by simulating the mobility and binding of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor in the nucleoplasm of mouse adenocarcinoma. Results The numerical simulator shows excellent agreement with the analytic solutions and experimental FRAP data. Detailed residual analysis indicates that residuals have zero mean and constant variance and are normally distributed and uncorrelated. Therefore, the necessary and sufficient criteria for least square parameter optimization, which was used in this study, were met. Conclusion The developed strategy is an efficient approach to extract as much physiochemical information from the FRAP protocol as possible. Well-posedness analysis of the inverse problem, however, indicates that the FRAP protocol provides insufficient

  17. Dietary genistein supplementation in laying broiler breeder hens alters the development and metabolism of offspring embryos as revealed by hepatic transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zengpeng; Fan, Hao; Zhang, Beibei; Ning, Chao; Xing, Kun; Guo, Yuming

    2018-03-08

    Genistein (GEN) is a type of isoflavone mainly derived from soy products. In this experiment, we added 40 and 400 mg/kg GEN to the diet of laying broiler breeder hens to clarify the maternal effects of GEN on the development and metabolism of chick embryos. GEN treatment at 40 mg/kg increased embryonic length, weight, and liver index, as well as the width of the proliferative zone in the tibial growth plate of chick embryos. Gene ontology (GO) cluster analysis of the hepatic transcriptome showed that GEN treatment promoted embryonic development and cell proliferation. Low-dose GEN treatment increased insulin growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)3 mRNA expression in the embryonic liver, whereas high-dose GEN treatment increased IGFBP5 expression and activated the apoptosis and protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Furthermore, adding supplemental GEN to the diet of hens promoted the glycolysis process in the embryonic liver through the insulin-signaling pathway, upregulated target genes (phosphoglucomutase-2, hexokinase 1, dihydroxyacetone phosphate by aldolase, phosphofructokinase, platelet, and enolase 2), and enhanced the transport of carboxylic acids and cholesterol and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid (arachidonic acid) in the embryonic liver through upregulation of liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, and patatin-like phospholipase A. Additionally, GEN treatment increased fatty acid β-oxidation and Na + /K + -ATPase activity in the embryonic liver through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs; PPARα and PPARδ) and the AMPK signaling pathway, which could provide energy for embryonic development. In addition, GEN treatment in hens increased superoxide dismutase activity and metallothionein expression in the chick embryonic liver and promoted lymphocyte proliferation through upregulation of mRNA expression of CDKN1A, IL12RB1, Sox11, PRKAR1A, PRKCQ, and TCF3. The improved immunity and antioxidant

  18. Toward a rigorous network of protein-protein interactions of the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, S.R.; Joachimiak, M.P.; Petzold, C.J.; Zane, G.M.; Price, M.N.; Gaucher, S.; Reveco, S.A.; Fok, V.; Johanson, A.R.; Batth, T.S.; Singer, M.; Chandonia, J.M.; Joyner, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Arkin, A.P.; Wall, J.D.; Singh, A.K.; Keasling, J.D.

    2011-05-01

    Protein–protein interactions offer an insight into cellular processes beyond what may be obtained by the quantitative functional genomics tools of proteomics and transcriptomics. The aforementioned tools have been extensively applied to study E. coli and other aerobes and more recently to study the stress response behavior of Desulfovibrio 5 vulgaris Hildenborough, a model anaerobe and sulfate reducer. In this paper we present the first attempt to identify protein-protein interactions in an obligate anaerobic bacterium. We used suicide vector-assisted chromosomal modification of 12 open reading frames encoded by this sulfate reducer to append an eight amino acid affinity tag to the carboxy-terminus of the chosen proteins. Three biological replicates of the 10 ‘pulled-down’ proteins were separated and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Replicate agreement ranged between 35% and 69%. An interaction network among 12 bait and 90 prey proteins was reconstructed based on 134 bait-prey interactions computationally identified to be of high confidence. We discuss the biological significance of several unique metabolic features of D. vulgaris revealed by this protein-protein interaction data 15 and protein modifications that were observed. These include the distinct role of the putative carbon monoxide-induced hydrogenase, unique electron transfer routes associated with different oxidoreductases, and the possible role of methylation in regulating sulfate reduction.

  19. Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenstra, F; Maurer, V; Bestman, M; van Sambeek, F; Zeltner, E; Reuvekamp, B; Galea, F; van Niekerk, T

    2012-01-01

    1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes (brands) were present on the farms. In France, all birds were brown feathered hens laying brown eggs. In Switzerland and The Netherlands, there were brown, white (white feathered hens laying white eggs) and silver (white feathered hens laying brown eggs) hens. In Switzerland, mixed flocks were also present. 3. The overall effect of system (organic vs. conventional free range) on egg production and mortality was significant, with higher mortality and lower egg production among organic hens. In pair wise comparisons within country, the difference was highly significant in The Netherlands, and showed a non-significant tendency in the same direction in Switzerland and France. 4. White hens tended to perform better than brown hens. Silver hens appeared to have a higher mortality and lower production per hen housed at 60 weeks of age. 5. There were no significant relationships between production, mortality, feather condition and use of outside run or with flock size. 6. There was more variation in mortality and egg production among farms with a small flock size than among farms with a large flock size.

  20. Rheological characterization of plasticized corn proteins for fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunier, Laurent; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Della Valle, Guy; Lourdin, Denis; Marion, Didier; Leroy, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) of tailored natural biopolymer-based objects by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) opens new perspectives for applications such as biomedical temporary devices, or pharmaceutical tablets. This exploits the biocompatibility, resorbability and edibility properties of biopolymers. When adequately plasticized, zeins, storage proteins from endosperm of maize kernels, displayed thermomechanical properties possibly matching FDM processing requirements at a convenient temperature Tprinting=130°C. Indeed, with 20% glycerol added (Tg=42°C), plasticized zeins present a high modulus, E'>1GPa, at ambient conditions, which drops below 0.6 MPa at the processing temperature T=130°C, before flowing in the molten state. The rheological characterization shows that the processing window is limited by a progressive increase of viscosity linked to proteins aggregation and crosslinking by S-S bonding between cysteine amino acid residues, which can lead to gelation. However, for short residence time typical of FDM, the viscosity of plasticized zeins is comparable to the one of standard polymers, like ABS or PLA in their FDM processing conditions: indeed, in presence of glycerol, the molten zeins show a shear-thinning behavior with |η*|≈3kPa.s at 1s-1, decreasing to |η*|≈0.3kPa.s at 100s-1, at 130°C. Moreover, zeins presenting both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, amphiphilic plasticizers can be used supplementary to tune their rheological behavior. With 20% oleic acid added to the previous composition, the viscosity is divided down to a ratio about 1/2 at 100s-1 at 130°C, below the value of a standard polymer as PLA at its printing temperature. These results show the possible enhancement of the printability of zein-based materials in the molten state, by combining polar and amphiphilic plasticizers.

  1. Folding 19 proteins to their native state and stability of large proteins from a coarse-grained model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Abhijeet; Travesset, Alex

    2014-03-01

    We develop an intermediate resolution model, where the backbone is modeled with atomic resolution but the side chain with a single bead, by extending our previous model (Proteins (2013) DOI: 10.1002/prot.24269) to properly include proline, preproline residues and backbone rigidity. Starting from random configurations, the model properly folds 19 proteins (including a mutant 2A3D sequence) into native states containing β sheet, α helix, and mixed α/β. As a further test, the stability of H-RAS (a 169 residue protein, critical in many signaling pathways) is investigated: The protein is stable, with excellent agreement with experimental B-factors. Despite that proteins containing only α helices fold to their native state at lower backbone rigidity, and other limitations, which we discuss thoroughly, the model provides a reliable description of the dynamics as compared with all atom simulations, but does not constrain secondary structures as it is typically the case in more coarse-grained models. Further implications are described. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of parenteral gibberellic acid and dietary supplementaion of vitamin D3 on egg quality and physiological characteristics in aged laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Razuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parenteral gibberellic acid (GA3 and/or vitamin D3 supplementation in diet on egg quality and blood physiological characteristics in aged laying hens. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens aging 73-week were randomly assigned to equal three treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3 with equal 3 replicas in each group. The birds of group T1 (control group were injected subcutaneously (SC with sesame oil at 0.2 mL/kg body weight. The birds of group T2 were given with GA3 at 400 µg/kg b.wt., SC, whereas group T3 had diet containing vitamin D3 at 500 IU/kg feed. Relative weight of albumen and egg shell, Haugh unit, shell thickness, serum glucose, serum calcium, serum phosphorous, serum estradiol, and bone calcium absorption were significantly increased in the birds of group T2 and T3. On the other hand, relative weight of yolk, yolk cholesterol, and serum cholesterol were significantly decreased in group T2 and T3 as compared to group T1. However, serum protein and albumen were unaffected in the treatments. In conclusion, the parenteral GA3 and vitamin D3 supplementation in diet could improve egg quality traits and serum blood biochemical perperties in agend laying hens.

  3. Modelos de regressão aleatória para avaliação da curva de crescimento em matrizes de codorna de corte Random regression models for growth evaluation of meat-type quail hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bastos Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar diferentes modelos de regressão aleatória por meio de funções polinomiais de Legendre de diferentes ordens, para avaliar o que melhor se ajusta ao estudo genético da curva de crescimento de codornas de corte. Foram avaliados dados de 2136 matrizes de codorna de corte, dos quais 1026 pertenciam ao grupo genético UFV1 e 1110 ao grupo UFV2. As codornas foram pesadas nos 1°, 7°, 14°, 21°, 28°, 35°, 42°, 77°, 112° e 147° dias de idade e seus pesos utilizados para a análise. Foram testadas duas possíveis modelagens de variância residual heterogênea, sendo agrupadas em 3 e 5 classes de idade. Após, foi realizado o estudo do modelo de regressão aleatória que melhor aplica-se à curva de crescimento das codornas. A comparação entre os modelos foi feita pelo Critério de Informação de Akaike (AIC, Critério de Informação Bayesiano de Schwarz (BIC, Logaritmo da função de verossimilhança (Log e L e teste da razão de verossimilhança (LRT, ao nível de 1%. O modelo que considerou a heterogeneidade de variância residual CL3 mostrou-se adequado à linhagem UFV1, e o modelo CL5 à linhagem UFV2. Uma função polinomial de Legendre com ordem 5, para efeito genético aditivo direto e 5 para efeito permanente de animal, para a linhagem UFV1 e, com ordem 3, para efeito genético aditivo direto e 5 para efeito permanente de animal para a linhagem UFV2, deve ser utilizada na avaliação genética da curva de crescimento das codornas de corte.The objective was to compare different random regression models using Legendre polynomial functions of different orders, to evaluate what best fits the genetic study of the growth curve of meat quails. It was evaluated data from 2136 cut dies quail, of which 1026 belonged to genetic group UFV1 and 1110 the group UFV2. Quail were weighed at 10, 70, 140, 210, 280, 350, 420, 770, 1120 and 1470 days of age, and weights used for the analysis. It was tested two possible modeling

  4. Nutritional levels of digestible methionine + cystine to brown-egg laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks of age

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    Clauber Polese

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the requirement of digestible methionine + cystine of brown-eggs laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks age at the end of the first production cycle. The design was completely randomized, with 150 Brown Shaver hens, which were distributed in five treatments with six replications of five birds each. Birds received a basal diet with 2857 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 15.97% crude protein, supplemented with 0.132; 0.174, 0.215, 0.256 and 0.298% DL-methionine (98%, in order to provide 0.572, 0.613, 0.653, 0.693 and 0.734% digestible methionine + cystine. The levels of digestible methionine + digestible cystine followed, respectively, the relations of 67, 72, 77, 81 and 86% with lysine fixed at 0.851%. Feed intake, methionine + cystine intake, feed conversion per dozen eggs, egg weigth and mass, percentage of egg components, internal egg quality and weight gain were evaluated. Methionine + cystine levels showed a quadratic effect on feed conversion per dozen eggs and egg weight, a linear effect on feed conversion per kilogram of eggs and percentage of albumen. There was also a positive linear effect on yolk percentage. The methionine + cystine requirement was estimated at 0.572%, corresponding to 682 mg of digestible methionine + cystine/bird/day.

  5. ESTIMATION OF BIOCHEMICAL AND HAEMA TOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AFTER TREATMENT WITH BIOVET IN DIFFERENT STRAINS OF LAYING HENS

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    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat, Rozina Sardar and Ghazala Naheed

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study 'effect of Biovet (E.M. Technology on biochemical and haematological parameters of four genetically 'different strains of laying hens including cross, Desj, Fayoumi and Nick Chick. A total of 60 laying hens were involved in the trial giving 15 birds under each strain. Prior to administration of Biovet (2 ml/litre} birds were maintained in,controlled environment for 2 weeks, five blood samples were taken from each strain, and analysed for bichemical and haematological parameters, The same birds were then administered Biovet in drinking water and after 2 weeks of treatment, five blood samples from each strain of chickens were collected and teste4:as was done before treatment. Serum glucose was markedly (P<0.05 increased due to treatment and there was also significant (P<0.05 inter strain variation. Serum protein levels were only affected (P<0.05 due to treatment but there was no inter strain variation, Serum albumin and cholesterol were not affected by treatment, The haematological parameters such as Hb, WBC, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes,PCV , MCH, MCHC; and Heterophils were not affected. by treatment. There was significant (P<0.05 difference in RBCs concentration in serum which also; caused an -increase (P<0.05 in MCV values. The Biovet supplementation presumably stimulated haemopoietic system to improve performance of birds.

  6. Genome-scale metabolic model of Pichia pastoris with native and humanized glycosylation of recombinant proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irani, Zahra Azimzadeh; Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is used for commercial production of human therapeutic proteins, and genome-scale models of P. pastoris metabolism have been generated in the past to study the metabolism and associated protein production by this yeast. A major challenge with clinical usage of recombinant proteins...... native nor humanized N-glycosylation, and we therefore developed ihGlycopastoris, an extension to the iLC915 model with both native and humanized N-glycosylation for recombinant protein production, but also an estimation of N-glycosylation of P. pastoris native proteins. This new model gives a better...... produced by P. pastoris is the difference in N-glycosylation of proteins produced by humans and this yeast. However, through metabolic engineering, a P. pastoris strain capable of producing humanized N-glycosylated proteins was constructed. The current genome-scale models of P. pastoris do not address...

  7. Effects of nanocalcium carbonate on egg production performance and plasma calcium of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjigohari, S; Ziaei, N; Ramzani Ghara, A; Tasharrofi, S

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nanocalcium carbonate (NCC) instead of calcium carbonate (CC) on egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR, blood calcium and egg quality characteristics in laying hens. A total of 120 laying hens were used in a 10-weeks trial, from week 23 to 33 of age. Laying hens were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replications, five hens each. The experimental treatments involved replacing 50% of the CC in the diet by decreasing amounts of NCC and were T1 Basal diet (BD) with 8.06% CC; T2 (6.045% of CC as a negative control); T3 (4.03% of CC replaced by 2.015% NCC); T4 (4.03% of CC replaced by 1.01% NCC); T5 (4.03% of CC replaced by 0.252% NCC) and T6 (4.03 of CC replaced with 0.126%NCC).Egg weight was unaffected by dietary treatments (p > .05). However, the egg production percentage and egg mass in T6 were less than that of other treatments (p hens in the control group had the best average feed conversion ratio (p hens' blood was recorded for birds fed T6 (p hens. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effect of thermal processing on retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Héryka M M; Santos, Videanny V A; Medeiros, Vanessa P Q; Silva, Keith H D; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Eggs are a food item of high nutritional value, a source of vitamin A and readily accessible to the general population. Methods This paper analysed the effect of cooking on the retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The retinol levels of hen and quail eggs were also compared. Results The raw egg yolk retinol concentrations of free-range and caged hen eggs were 476.53+/-39.44 and 474.93+/-41.10 microg/100 g and cooked egg yolk concentrations were 393.53+/-24.74 and 379.01+/-30.78 microg/100 g, respectively; quail egg concentration was 636.56+/-32.71 microg retinol/100 g. No significant difference was found between the retinol of free-range and caged hen egg yolks; however, cooking diminished retinol levels, causing a loss of 17 and 20% in the free-range and caged hen egg yolks, respectively. Quail egg retinol concentration was significantly higher than that of the hens. Conclusion The retinol found in 100 g of hen and quail egg yolks could supply around 42 and 70.7% of the vitamin A requirements of an adult man, and is accordingly considered an excellent source of this vitamin.

  9. Genome-scale metabolic model of Pichia pastoris with native and humanized glycosylation of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Zahra Azimzadeh; Kerkhoven, Eduard J; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-05-01

    Pichia pastoris is used for commercial production of human therapeutic proteins, and genome-scale models of P. pastoris metabolism have been generated in the past to study the metabolism and associated protein production by this yeast. A major challenge with clinical usage of recombinant proteins produced by P. pastoris is the difference in N-glycosylation of proteins produced by humans and this yeast. However, through metabolic engineering, a P. pastoris strain capable of producing humanized N-glycosylated proteins was constructed. The current genome-scale models of P. pastoris do not address native nor humanized N-glycosylation, and we therefore developed ihGlycopastoris, an extension to the iLC915 model with both native and humanized N-glycosylation for recombinant protein production, but also an estimation of N-glycosylation of P. pastoris native proteins. This new model gives a better prediction of protein yield, demonstrates the effect of the different types of N-glycosylation of protein yield, and can be used to predict potential targets for strain improvement. The model represents a step towards a more complete description of protein production in P. pastoris, which is required for using these models to understand and optimize protein production processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Feeding ecology of pintail hens during reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Food supply has been acknowledged as one of eight major external factors regulating the sexual cycles of birds (Marshall 1961). Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the role of food supply as an ultimate factor regulating breeding (Marshall 1951; Lack 1954, 1968; Wynne-Edwards 1962; and others). Another potential influence of food is its being a proximate stimulus to breeding. When certain foods become available they may act as a stimulus as the female requires them to meet her dietary needs during egg formation. Lack (1966a: 24) suggested that the average date of laying by the Great Tit (Parus major) probably resulted from a correlation between spring temperatures and the time of appearance of the insect foods the adult females need to form eggs. He also cited other passerines whose breeding was affected by food supply available to the female. In waterfowl it has been suggested that laying females require invertebrate foods (Moyle 1961, Leitch 1964). If true, this implies that the timing of laying is influenced by those environmental changes that affect food supply.The Pintail (Anas acuta) lives primarily on plant foods during much of the year (Martin et al. 1951); thus a study of feeding ecology during the nesting season provided an opportunity to evaluate the significance of an invertebrate food source to females during the period of egg formation. Marshall (1951) stated that essentially vegetarian species appear compelled to switch at least partially to a heavier protein diet when feeding their developing young. Production of a clutch of eggs, like tissue growth in the young, requires a special dietary need that presumably should be reflected in the diet of vegetarian species during the period that eggs are being formed. This paper describes the diet of the female Pintail prior to, during, and after laying and discusses the impact of certain environmental and physiological changes on Pintail breeding.

  11. Preferential Interactions and the Effect of Protein PEGylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Stenstrup Holm

    Full Text Available PEGylation is a strategy used by the pharmaceutical industry to prolong systemic circulation of protein drugs, whereas formulation excipients are used for stabilization of proteins during storage. Here we investigate the role of PEGylation in protein stabilization by formulation excipients that preferentially interact with the protein.The model protein hen egg white lysozyme was doubly PEGylated on two lysines with 5 kDa linear PEGs (mPEG-succinimidyl valerate, MW 5000 and studied in the absence and presence of preferentially excluded sucrose and preferentially bound guanine hydrochloride. Structural characterization by far- and near-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy was supplemented by investigation of protein thermal stability with the use of differential scanning calorimetry, far and near-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that PEGylated lysozyme was stabilized by the preferentially excluded excipient and destabilized by the preferentially bound excipient in a similar manner as lysozyme. However, compared to lysozyme in all cases the melting transition was lower by up to a few degrees and the calorimetric melting enthalpy was decreased to half the value for PEGylated lysozyme. The ratio between calorimetric and van't Hoff enthalpy suggests that our PEGylated lysozyme is a dimer.The PEGylated model protein displayed similar stability responses to the addition of preferentially active excipients. This suggests that formulation principles using preferentially interacting excipients are similar for PEGylated and non-PEGylated proteins.

  12. Utilization of 15N-labelled urea in laying hens. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.

    1985-01-01

    In an N metabolism experiment 3 colostomized laying hybrids received 2870 mg 15 N excess ( 15 N') per animal in 6 days in the form of urea with their conventional feed rations. During the 8-day experiment the 21 eggs laid were separated into egg-shell, white of egg and yolk. Weight, N content and 15 N' of the individual fractions of the eggs were determined. On an average 4.6% of the heavy nitrogen was in the egg-shells, 50% in the white of egg and 45.5% in the yolk. 2.8%, 4.5% and 5.5% (hens 1 - 3) of the 15 N' consumed were detected in the eggs. The maximum 15 N' output in the white of egg was reached on the 6th day, whereas 15 N' output in the yolk showed a nearly linear increase in the time of the experiment. The results show that labelled nitrogen from urea is incorporated into the egg to a lower degree than after the feeding of 15 N-labelled proteins and that the development of its incorporation into the white of egg and the yolk differ from that after the feeding of 15 N-labelled native proteins. (author)

  13. Effects of Dietary Corticosterone on Yolk Colors and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Hwa Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone on egg quality. For 2 weeks hens received either control or experimental diet containing corticosterone at 30 mg/kg diet. Feed intake and egg production were monitored daily, and body weight measured weekly. Egg weights and egg quality were measured daily. Corticosterone treatment resulted in a remarkable increase in feed intake and sharp decrease in egg production compared with control (p<0.05 whereas body weight remained unchanged. Decreased albumen height, but no changes in egg weight, led to decreased Haugh unit (p<0.05. Corticosterone caused elevated eggshell thickness (p<0.05 without altering weight and strength, suggesting possible changes in shell structure. Yolk color and redness were increased by corticosterone (p<0.05 but lightness and yellowness were either not changed or inconsistent over the time period of measurements. Increased concentrations in plasma were also found for corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and amylase (p<0.05, suggesting that corticosterone increased protein breakdown, renal dysfunctions and pancreatitis. Together, the current results imply that dietary corticosterone affects egg quality such as yolk colors and shell thickness, in addition to its effects on feed intake and egg production.

  14. Detection of protein-ligand NOEs with small, weakly binding ligands by combined relaxation and diffusion filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponstingl, Hannes; Otting, Gottfried

    1997-01-01

    The use of a diffusion filter is proposed to suppress the NMR signals of small organic compounds in the presence of macromolecules.Combined with a spin-echo relaxation filter, the diffusion filter enables the selective and simultaneous detection of intermolecular solvent-protein NOEs in a straightforward two-dimensional NOESY experiment. Using the intermolecular NOEs observed between N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and hen egg-white lysozyme in an aqueous solution containing 2 M DMF, the binding of DMF at the specificity-determining substrate binding site C of the enzyme was modelled

  15. Fast and accurate multivariate Gaussian modeling of protein families: predicting residue contacts and protein-interaction partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Baldassi

    Full Text Available In the course of evolution, proteins show a remarkable conservation of their three-dimensional structure and their biological function, leading to strong evolutionary constraints on the sequence variability between homologous proteins. Our method aims at extracting such constraints from rapidly accumulating sequence data, and thereby at inferring protein structure and function from sequence information alone. Recently, global statistical inference methods (e.g. direct-coupling analysis, sparse inverse covariance estimation have achieved a breakthrough towards this aim, and their predictions have been successfully implemented into tertiary and quaternary protein structure prediction methods. However, due to the discrete nature of the underlying variable (amino-acids, exact inference requires exponential time in the protein length, and efficient approximations are needed for practical applicability. Here we propose a very efficient multivariate Gaussian modeling approach as a variant of direct-coupling analysis: the discrete amino-acid variables are replaced by continuous Gaussian random variables. The resulting statistical inference problem is efficiently and exactly solvable. We show that the quality of inference is comparable or superior to the one achieved by mean-field approximations to inference with discrete variables, as done by direct-coupling analysis. This is true for (i the prediction of residue-residue contacts in proteins, and (ii the identification of protein-protein interaction partner in bacterial signal transduction. An implementation of our multivariate Gaussian approach is available at the website http://areeweb.polito.it/ricerca/cmp/code.

  16. Fast and accurate multivariate Gaussian modeling of protein families: predicting residue contacts and protein-interaction partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassi, Carlo; Zamparo, Marco; Feinauer, Christoph; Procaccini, Andrea; Zecchina, Riccardo; Weigt, Martin; Pagnani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the course of evolution, proteins show a remarkable conservation of their three-dimensional structure and their biological function, leading to strong evolutionary constraints on the sequence variability between homologous proteins. Our method aims at extracting such constraints from rapidly accumulating sequence data, and thereby at inferring protein structure and function from sequence information alone. Recently, global statistical inference methods (e.g. direct-coupling analysis, sparse inverse covariance estimation) have achieved a breakthrough towards this aim, and their predictions have been successfully implemented into tertiary and quaternary protein structure prediction methods. However, due to the discrete nature of the underlying variable (amino-acids), exact inference requires exponential time in the protein length, and efficient approximations are needed for practical applicability. Here we propose a very efficient multivariate Gaussian modeling approach as a variant of direct-coupling analysis: the discrete amino-acid variables are replaced by continuous Gaussian random variables. The resulting statistical inference problem is efficiently and exactly solvable. We show that the quality of inference is comparable or superior to the one achieved by mean-field approximations to inference with discrete variables, as done by direct-coupling analysis. This is true for (i) the prediction of residue-residue contacts in proteins, and (ii) the identification of protein-protein interaction partner in bacterial signal transduction. An implementation of our multivariate Gaussian approach is available at the website http://areeweb.polito.it/ricerca/cmp/code.

  17. Quantitative chemogenomics: machine-learning models of protein-ligand interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Claes R; Gustafsson, Mats G; Strömbergsson, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Chemogenomics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that lies in the interface of biology, chemistry, and informatics. Most of the currently used drugs are small molecules that interact with proteins. Understanding protein-ligand interaction is therefore central to drug discovery and design. In the subfield of chemogenomics known as proteochemometrics, protein-ligand-interaction models are induced from data matrices that consist of both protein and ligand information along with some experimentally measured variable. The two general aims of this quantitative multi-structure-property-relationship modeling (QMSPR) approach are to exploit sparse/incomplete information sources and to obtain more general models covering larger parts of the protein-ligand space, than traditional approaches that focuses mainly on specific targets or ligands. The data matrices, usually obtained from multiple sparse/incomplete sources, typically contain series of proteins and ligands together with quantitative information about their interactions. A useful model should ideally be easy to interpret and generalize well to new unseen protein-ligand combinations. Resolving this requires sophisticated machine-learning methods for model induction, combined with adequate validation. This review is intended to provide a guide to methods and data sources suitable for this kind of protein-ligand-interaction modeling. An overview of the modeling process is presented including data collection, protein and ligand descriptor computation, data preprocessing, machine-learning-model induction and validation. Concerns and issues specific for each step in this kind of data-driven modeling will be discussed. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers

  18. A Folding Pathway Model of Mini-Protein BBA5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the folding pathway model of mini-protein BBA5, a bundle of secondary structures, α-helix and β-hairpin, by using action-derived molecular dynamics (ADMD simulations. From ten independent ADMD simulations, we extracted common features of the folding pathway of BBA5, from which we found that the early stage chain compaction was followed by the formation of C-terminal α-helix. The N-terminal β-hairpin was observed to form only after α-helix was stabilized. This result is in good agreement with the experimental observation that BBA5 mutants were moderately cooperative folders, and their C-terminal helical fragments were of higher secondary structure propensity while the N-terminal hairpin fragments were of a random coil spectrum. We found that the most flexible part of BBA5 is the N-terminal four residues. Although both are made of the identical ββα motif, the secondary structure formation sequence of BBA5 is found to be different from that of FSD-1. Finally, a description of the folding pathway in terms of principal component analysis is presented to characterize the folding dynamics in reduced dimensions. With only three principal components, we were able to describe 83.4% of the pathway.

  19. The effect of space allowance and cage size on laying hens housed in furnished cages, Part II: Behavior at the feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowski, T. M; Caston, L. J; Casey-Trott, T. M; Hunniford, M. E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Standards for feeder (a.k.a. feed trough) space allowance (SA) are based primarily on studies in conventional cages where laying hens tend to eat simultaneously, limiting feeder space. Large furnished cages (FC) offer more total space and opportunities to perform a greater variety of behaviors, which may affect feeding behavior and feeder space requirements. Our objective was to determine the effects of floor/feeder SA on behavior at the feeder. LSL-Lite hens were housed in FC equipped with a nest, perches, and a scratch mat. Hens with SA of either 520 cm2 (Low; 8.9 cm feeder space/hen) or 748 cm2 (High; 12.8 cm feeder space/hen) per bird resulted in groups of 40 vs. 28 birds in small FC (SFC) and 80 vs. 55 in large FC (LFC). Chain feeders ran at 0500, 0800, 1100, 1400, and 1700 with lights on at 0500 and off at 1900 hours. Digital recordings of FC were scanned at chain feeder onset and every 15 min for one h after (5 scans × 5 feeding times × 2 d) to count the number of birds with their head in the feeder. All occurrences of aggressive pecks and displacements during 2 continuous 30-minute observations at 0800 h and 1700 h also were counted. Mixed model repeated analyses tested the effects of SA, cage size, and time on the percent of hens feeding, and the frequency of aggressive pecks and displacements. Surprisingly, the percent of birds feeding simultaneously was similar regardless of cage size (LFC: 23.0 ± 0.9%; SFC: 24.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.44) or SA (Low: 23.8 ± 0.9%; High: 23.3 ± 1.0%; P = 0.62). More birds were observed feeding at 1700 h (35.3 ± 0.1%) than any at other time (P < 0.001). Feeder use differed by cage area (nest, middle, or scratch) over the d (P < 0.001). The frequency of aggressive pecks was low overall and not affected by SA or cage size. Frequency of displacements was also low but greater at Low SA (P = 0.001). There was little evidence of feeder competition at the Low SA in this study. PMID:29050409

  20. Influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Guard, J; Gast, R K; Buhr, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Abdo, Z; Plumblee, J R; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Rigsby, L L; Robison, C I; Regmi, P; Karcher, D M

    2016-05-01

    The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-free aviary, conventional cage, and enriched colony cage systems. Environmental and eggshell pool samples were collected from selected cages/segments of the housing systems throughout the production cycle and monitored for Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence. At 77 wk of age, 120 hens per housing system were examined for Salmonella and Campylobacter colonization in the: adrenal glands, spleen, ceca, follicles, and upper reproductive tract. All isolates detected from environmental swabs, eggshell pools, and tissues were identified for serotype. Two predominant Salmonella were detected in all samples:S.Braenderup andS.Kentucky.Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni were the only Campylobacter detected in the flocks. Across all housing systems, approximately 7% of hens were colonized with Salmonella, whereas >90% were colonized with Campylobacter Salmonella Braenderup was the isolate most frequently detected in environmental swabs (PCampylobacter jejuni was the isolate most frequently found in environmental swabs (P<0.01), while housing system impacted the prevalence of C. coli and jejuniin ceca (P<0.0001). The results of this study provide a greater understanding of the impact of hen housing systems on hen health and product safety. Additionally, producers and academia can utilize the findings to make informed decisions on hen housing and management strategies to enhance hen health and food safety. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: effects on behaviour and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Downing, J A; Lee, C

    2017-06-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing within Australia and research is needed to determine optimal outdoor stocking densities. Six small (n=150 hens) experimental flocks of ISA Brown laying hens were housed with access to ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities with two pen replicates per density: 2000 hens/ha, 10 000 hens/ha or 20 000 hens/ha. Birds were provided daily range access from 21 to 36 weeks of age and the range usage of 50% of hens was tracked using radio-frequency identification technology. Throughout the study, basic external health assessments following a modified version of the Welfare Quality® protocol showed most birds were in visibly good condition (although keel damage was increasingly present with age) with few differences between stocking densities. Toenail length at 36 weeks of age was negatively correlated with hours spent ranging for all pens of birds (all r⩾-0.23, P⩽0.04). At 23 weeks of age, there were no differences between outdoor stocking densities in albumen corticosterone concentrations (P=0.44). At 35 weeks of age, density effects were significant (PBehavioural observations of hens both on the range and indoors showed more dust bathing and foraging (scratching followed by ground-pecking) was performed outdoors, but more resting indoors (all Pbehavioural measures there were differences between pen replicates within stocking densities. These data show outdoor stocking density has some effects on hen welfare, and it appears that consideration of both individual and group-level behaviour is necessary when developing optimal stocking density guidelines and free-range system management practices.

  2. Stimulation of IgY responses in gene gun immunized laying hens by combined administration of vector DNA coding for the target antigen Botulinum toxin A1 and for avian cytokine adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederstadt, Lars; Hohn, Oliver; Dorner, Brigitte G; Schade, Rüdiger; Bannert, Norbert

    2012-08-31

    DNA immunization is a convenient and effective way of inducing a specific antibody response. In mammals, co-administration of vectors encoding immunostimulatory cytokines can enhance the humoral response resulting in elevated antibody titers. We therefore set out to investigate the effect using avian interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and avian interleukin 6 (IL-6) as genetic adjuvants when immunizing laying hens. A BoNT A1 holotoxoid DNA immunogen carrying two inactivating mutations was evaluated for its ability to induce a specific and sustained IgY antibody response. Both the holotoxoid and the cytokine sequences were codon-optimized. In vitro, the proteins were efficiently expressed in transfected HEK 293T cells and the cytokines were secreted into the culture supernatants. Whereas eggs from hens immunized via gene gun using a prime boost strategy showed no differences in their total IgY content, the specific αBoNT A1 response was slightly elevated up to 1.4× by the IL-1β adjuvant vector and increased by 3.8× by the IL-6 vector. Finally, although hens receiving the IL-1β adjuvant had laying capacities above the average, hens receiving the IL-6 adjuvant experienced laying problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of age and housing systems on properties of tibia and humerus of Lohmann White hens1: Bone properties of laying hens in commercial housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, P; Nelson, N; Haut, R C; Orth, M W; Karcher, D M

    2017-10-01

    This study was aimed at analyzing bone properties of Lohmann White hens in different commercial housing systems at various points throughout production. Pullets reared in conventional cages (CC) were either continued in CC or moved to enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. Pullets reared in cage-free aviaries (AV) were moved to AV hen houses. Bone samples were collected from 60 hens at each of 18 and 72 wk and 30 hens at 26 and 56 wk from each housing system. Left tibiae and humeri were broken under uniform bending to analyze mechanical properties. Cortical geometry was analyzed using digital calipers at the fracture site. Contralateral tibiae and humeri were used for measurement of ash percentage. AV pullets' humeri had 41% greater cortical areas, and tibiae had 19% greater cortical areas than the CC pullets (P < 0.05). Average humeri diameter was greater in AV pullets than in CC pullets (P < 0.05), whereas the tibiae outer dimensions were similar. Aviary pullet bones had greater stiffness (31 and 7% greater for tibiae and humeri, respectively) and second moment of inertia (43 and 13% greater for tibiae and humeri, respectively) than CC pullets (P < 0.05). The differences between bones of AV and CC hens persisted throughout the laying cycle. Moving CC pullets to EN resulted in decreased endosteal resorption in humeri, evident by a 7.5% greater cortical area in the EN hens (P < 0.05). Whole-bone breaking strength did not change with age. Stiffness increased with age, while energy to failure decreased in both the tibiae and humeri. These results indicated that tibiae and humeri of laying hens become stiffer but lose toughness and become brittle with age. Furthermore, AV and EN systems can bring positive changes in mechanical and structural properties that are more pronounced in the humerus than the tibia. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. A New Heuristic Algorithm for Protein Folding in the HP Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traykov, Metodi; Angelov, Slav; Yanev, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    This article presents an efficient heuristic for protein folding. The protein folding problem is to predict the compact three-dimensional structure of a protein based on its amino acid sequence. The focus is on an original integer programming model derived from a platform used for Contact Map Overlap problem.

  5. Model system-guided protein interaction mapping for virus isolated from phloem tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) is an agriculturally important phloem-limited pathogen that causes significant yield loss in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and a model virus in the Luteoviridae. Encoding only a small repertoire of viral proteins, PLRV relies on carefully orchestrated protein-protein intera...

  6. Effect of heat exposure on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhigang; Liu, Lei; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of heat stress on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two circumstances: high (31 ± 1.5°C; relative humidity, 82.0 ± 2.2%) or normal (20 ± 2°C, control; relative humidity, 60.1 ± 4.5%) ambient environment. Heat stress decreased body weight gain (P feed intake (P feed efficiency (P feed intake in laying hens under high ambient temperature.

  7. Effects of perch on feed consumption and behaviour of caged laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    E. VALKONEN; R. RINNE; J. VALAJA

    2008-01-01

    This experiment studied the effects of perches in furnished cages on behaviour and feed consumption of laying hens. The study used 352 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) hens. The hens were housed at 16 weeks of age in furnished cages in groups of 8 birds. The experiment lasted for 205 days. The treatments were: perches present from 16 weeks of age (P16), perches present from 19 weeks of age (P19), and no perches present (NP). Feed consumption and egg production were measured over the pre-laying ...

  8. The Effect Alfalfa Leaf Meal on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Parameters of Laying Hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nobakht

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM on egg production, egg traits and blood parameters of laying hens with 144 Hy-line (W36 laying hens from 65-75 weeks of age in 4 treatments, 3 replicates and 12 hens in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Experimental groups included: 1 control group, 2 group with 1% of ALM, 3 group with 2% of ALM, 4 group with 3% of ALM. Diets with 2% and 3% increased egg production, reduced the amount of feed intake, improved the feed conversion ratio and reduced the egg production cost (P

  9. Both feather peckers and victims are more asymmetrical than control hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado Tahamtani, Fernanda; Forkman, Björn; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2017-01-01

    Feather pecking is the major welfare issue facing the egg farming industry worldwide. Previous research has found a relationship between cannibalistic behaviour, fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral traits (FA) and body weight in laying hens. As cannibalism is linked to severe feather pecking......, it could be suggested that a relationship between feather pecking, FA and body weight also exists. The purpose of this study was to analyse the association between feather pecking behaviour and a) FA, b) body weight and c) comb size in laying hens. Sixty-four laying hens were categorised as feather peckers...

  10. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  11. Pushing the frontiers of atomic models for protein tertiary structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Protein folding, considered to be the holy grail of molecular biology, remains intractable even after six decades since the report of the first crystal structure. Over 70,000 X-ray and NMR structures are now available in protein structural repositories and no physico-chemical solution is in sight. Molecular simulation.

  12. Protein modeling of apical membrane antigen-1(AMA-1) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... available for the vast majority of the protein sequences. At this juncture, prediction methods have gained much. *Corresponding author. E-mail: drdmmamatha@gmail.com interest (Schwede et al. 2003). Genome sequencing projects continuously detect new protein sequences, this provides new information ...

  13. Elevated pressure improves the extraction and identification of proteins recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol B; Chesnick, Ingrid E; Moore, Cedric D; O'Leary, Timothy J; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2010-12-08

    Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%). Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis) of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates. These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form suitable for proteomic analysis.

  14. Elevated Pressure Improves the Extraction and Identification of Proteins Recovered from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol B.; Chesnick, Ingrid E.; Moore, Cedric D.; O'Leary, Timothy J.; Mason, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing. Principal Findings In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%). Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis) of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form

  15. Elevated pressure improves the extraction and identification of proteins recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol B Fowler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing.In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%. Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates.These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form suitable for proteomic analysis.

  16. A Proposed Model for Protein Crystal Nucleation and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    How does one take a molecule, strongly asymmetric in both shape and charge distribution, and assemble it into a crystal? We propose a model for the nucleation and crystal growth process for tetragonal lysozyme, based upon fluorescence, light, neutron, and X-ray scattering data, size exclusion chromatography experiments, dialysis kinetics, AFM, and modeling of growth rate data, from this and other laboratories. The first species formed is postulated to be a 'head to side' dimer. Through repeating associations involving the same intermolecular interactions this grows to a 4(sub 3) helix structure, that in turn serves as the basic unit for nucleation and subsequent crystal growth. High salt attenuates surface charges while promoting hydrophobic interactions. Symmetry facilitates subsequent helix-helix self-association. Assembly stability is enhanced when a four helix structure is obtained, with each bound to two neighbors. Only two unique interactions are required. The first are those for helix formation, where the dominant interaction is the intermolecular bridging anion. The second is the anti-parallel side-by-side helix-helix interaction, guided by alternating pairs of symmetry related salt bridges along each side. At this stage all eight unique positions of the P4(sub3)2(sub 1),2(sub 1) unit cell are filled. The process is one of a) attenuating the most strongly interacting groups, such that b) the molecules begin to self-associate in defined patterns, so that c) symmetry is obtained, which d) propagates as a growing crystal. Simple and conceptually obvious in hindsight, this tells much about what we are empirically doing when we crystallize macromolecules. By adjusting the growth parameters we are empirically balancing the intermolecular interactions, preferentially attenuating the dominant strong (for lysozyme the charged groups) while strengthening the lesser strong (hydrophobic) interactions. In the general case for proteins the lack of a singularly defined

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex on absorption and metabolism of calcium of laying hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazim Sahin

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex (ASI; 49.5-8.2-25 g/kg, respectively to laying hens were investigated with respect to eggshell quality, calcium (Ca balance, and expression of duodenal proteins related to Ca metabolism (calbindin and tight junction proteins. A total of 360 laying hens, 25 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate of cages, 20 birds per cage. The groups were fed a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with 500 or 1000 mg ASI complex per kilogram for 90 days. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA using data during the first week of the adaptation period as covariates. As the ASI complex supplementation level increased, there were increases in feed intake (P < 0.0001, egg production (P < 0.001, egg weight (P < 0.0001 and eggshell weight (P < 0.001 weight, and shell thickness (P < 0.001 and decreases in feed conversion ratio and cracked egg percentage (P < 0.0001 for both. Concentrations of serum osteocalcin (P < 0.0001, vitamin D (P < 0.0001, calcium (P < 0.001, phosphorus (P < 0.001, and alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.008 as well as amounts of calcium retention (P < 0.0001 and eggshell calcium deposition (P < 0.001, and Ca balance (P < 0.0001 increased, whereas amount of calcium excretion (P < 0.001 decreased linearly in a dose-dependent manner. The ASI complex supplementation increased expressions of calcium transporters (calbindin-D28k, N sodium-calcium exchanger, plasma membrane calcium ATPase, and vitamin D receptor and tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1 and occludin in the duodenum in a linear fashion (P < 0.0001 for all. In conclusion, provision of dietary ASI complex to laying hens during the peak laying period improved eggshell quality through improving calcium utilization as reflected by upregulation of genes related to the calcium metabolism. Further studies are needed to elucidate the contribution of each of the ASI complex ingredients.

  18. Using an Engineered Protein Model to Constrain Protein-Mineral Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, S. S.; Reardon, P. N.; Washton, N.; Kleber, M.

    2015-12-01

    Exoenzymes are proteins that can catalyze the depolymerization of soil organic matter (SOM). Proteins can also be an important source of organic N for microorganisms, but must be fragmented into small peptides in order to be transported through their membranes. An exoenzyme's affinity to mineral surfaces found in soil affects their capacity to degrade SOM or other proteins. Our goal was to determine the range of modifications on proteins when they interact with a mineral surface. We hypothesized that pedogenic oxides would fragment or promote greater chemical modifications to a protein than phyllosilicates. A well-characterized protein proxy (Gb1, IEP 4.0, 6.2 kDA) was adsorbed onto functionally different mineral surfaces (goethite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and birnesite) at pH 5 and pH 7. We then generated three engineered proxies of Gb1 by inserting either negatively charged, positively charged or aromatic amino acids into the second loop. We used liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) and solution-state Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HSQC NMR) to observe modifications to Gb1 that was allowed to equilibrate during the adsorption process for kaolinite, goethite, birnessite, and montmorillonite. We also used Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM) to determine which surface archetypes Gb1 preferentially adsorbed to as a function of the mineral type. The three engineered proxies were used to determine how variation of the amino acid sequence affects a protein interaction with a mineral surface. Preliminary results in the LC-MS/MS indicate that birnessite hydrolytically fragments Gb1 into polypeptides. Our results suggest that not all mineral surfaces in soil may act as sorbents for EEs and that chemical modification of their structure should also be considered as an explanation for decrease in EE activity. Our results also indicate an abiotic pathway for the turnover of proteins, although its relative

  19. Exploration of freely available web-interfaces for comparative homology modelling of microbial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Vijay; Pal, Sudhir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find the best suited freely available software for modelling of proteins by taking a few sample proteins. The proteins used were small to big in size with available crystal structures for the purpose of benchmarking. Key players like Phyre2, Swiss-Model, CPHmodels-3.0, Homer, (PS)2, (PS)(2)-V(2), Modweb were used for the comparison and model generation. Benchmarking process was done for four proteins, Icl, InhA, and KatG of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and RpoB of Thermus Thermophilus to get the most suited software. Parameters compared during analysis gave relatively better values for Phyre2 and Swiss-Model. This comparative study gave the information that Phyre2 and Swiss-Model make good models of small and large proteins as compared to other screened software. Other software was also good but is often not very efficient in providing full-length and properly folded structure.

  20. The distribution of carotenoids in hens fed on biofortified maize is influenced by feed composition, absorption, resource allocation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose Antonio; Díaz-Gómez, Joana; Nogareda, Carmina; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Serrano, José C E; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-10-14

    Carotenoids are important dietary nutrients with health-promoting effects. The biofortification of staple foods with carotenoids provides an efficient delivery strategy but little is known about the fate and distribution of carotenoids supplied in this manner. The chicken provides a good model of human carotenoid metabolism so we supplemented the diets of laying hens using two biofortified maize varieties with distinct carotenoid profiles and compared the fate of the different carotenoids in terms of distribution in the feed, the hen's livers and the eggs. We found that after a period of depletion, pro-vitamin A (PVA) carotenoids were preferentially diverted to the liver and relatively depleted in the eggs, whereas other carotenoids were transported to the eggs even when the liver remained depleted. When retinol was included in the diet, it accumulated more in the eggs than the livers, whereas PVA carotenoids showed the opposite profile. Our data suggest that a transport nexus from the intestinal lumen to the eggs introduces bottlenecks that cause chemically-distinct classes of carotenoids to be partitioned in different ways. This nexus model will allow us to optimize animal feed and human diets to ensure that the health benefits of carotenoids are delivered in the most effective manner.

  1. The genetic reservation of Hungarian Speckled Hen and the Speckled Transylvanian Naked Neck Hen in Hódmezővásárhely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Benk

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our faculty has been dealing with the cross-breeding of Hungarian speckled hen to maintain the species since 1977. We keep two varieties of the Hungarian speckled hen, the feathered-neck variant and the bare-neck type on the pilot farm. The three colour variations of the domestic hen species were bred from the Hungarian lea-land bird by the middle of the 20th Century. Because of the spread of intensive poultry keeping the population of this species has become endangered. Programs supporting ecological-biological farming that began in the last two decades placed the domestically bred birds in the forefront both as purebreds and as candidates in projects for developing merchandisable bio-poultry. Beside the gene preservation, we endeavour to find the best way for the productionpurpose utilisation of the speckled hen stock. On the basis of our experiments the laying hens can be used in small scale egg production. We examined the egg production, the eggshell colour and the hatching results.

  2. Characterization of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is an estrogen induced egg yolk and white protein. Eggs from hens which have a splice mutation in RCP gene fail to hatch, indicating an absolute requirement of RCP for the transport of riboflavin to the oocyte. In order to understand the mechanism of regulation of this gene by ...

  3. Modeling the structure of SARS 3a transmembrane protein using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 12. Modeling the structure of SARS 3a transmembrane protein using a minimum unfavorable contact approach. S Ramakrishna ... Keywords. Membrane protein modeling; ion channel; transmembrane helices; viroporin; molecular dynamics; SARS 3a.

  4. Protein a resin lifetime study: Evaluation of protein a resin performance with a model-based approach in continuous capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Ketki; Cha, Bumjoon; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2018-01-22

    A modified shrinking core model (MSCM) has been used to describe the mechanism for the degradation of Protein A resin particles taking place under continuous chromatographic operation. The model is based on the hypothetical shrinkage of the boundary layer of the resin particles, which house the active Protein A ligands within their pores. The caustic during the sanitization phase of chromatography has been determined to cause the Protein A ligand degradation. Protein A resins provided by manufacturers possess unique caustic stability, which has been used in MSCM to appraise the ligand degradation. The kinetic model utilized semiempirical parameters including diffusion constant, rate constant, stoichiometric factor, and reaction order. The parameters were estimated from column breakthrough experiments to simulate continuous Protein A chromatography for three distinct resins. The reaction order has been identified as the key parameter for predicting the degradation kinetics. The recorded reaction orders vary for three different resins with the resin B showing the highest reaction order of 4 and lowest being 1.65 for the resin C. The model can predict the effects of caustic on resin performance and displayed that minimal degradation of the resins A and B occurred, when exposed to 0.1 N and 0.2N NaOH, retaining up to 96% binding capacity after 240 cycles. The adsorption study conducted for the resin B demonstrated the dynamic physical and chemical changes transpiring through the life cycle of the resin, further supported the degradation model. The performance data demonstrate that the resin B exhibits the desirable performance, with higher reaction order indicating slower resin degradation, higher binding capacities, and increased sustenance of this binding capacity for extended duration. The degradation model can be extended to build effective cleaning strategies for continuous downstream processing.

  5. Both feather peckers and victims are more asymmetrical than control hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado Tahamtani, Fernanda; Forkman, Björn; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2017-01-01

    Feather pecking is the major welfare issue facing the egg farming industry worldwide. Previous research has found a relationship between cannibalistic behaviour, fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral traits (FA) and body weight in laying hens. As cannibalism is linked to severe feather pecking......, it could be suggested that a relationship between feather pecking, FA and body weight also exists. The purpose of this study was to analyse the association between feather pecking behaviour and a) FA, b) body weight and c) comb size in laying hens. Sixty-four laying hens were categorised as feather peckers......, victims or control hens based on weekly performance of feather pecking behaviour from age 0–23 weeks and plumage condition at age 23 weeks. After culling at 23 weeks of age, the lengths of ulna, tarsus and middle toe as well as the widths of tarsus and hock were measured twice in each side. Each trait...

  6. Verteerbaarheid van biologisch geteelde veevoedergrondstoffen bij leghennen = Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Harn, van J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table.

  7. Outer membrane vesicles of Gallibacterium anatis induce protective immunity in egg-laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Pedersen, Ida Just; Skjerning, Ragnhild Bager

    2016-01-01

    Gallibacterium anatis causes infections in the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens and induce increased mortality and decreased egg production. New prophylactic measures are needed in order to improve animal welfare and production efficiency. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have...... previously shown promising results in protection against infections and we hypothesized that OMVs could serve as an immunogen to protect egg-laying hens against G. anatis. To investigate the immunogenic potential of G. anatis OMVs, two in vivo studies in egg-laying hens were made. The trials assessedthe...... degree of protection provided by immunization with G. anatis OMV against challenge and the IgY responses in serum after immunization and challenge, respectively. A total of 64 egg-laying hens were included in the trials. OMVs for immunization were produced and purified from a high-producing G. anatis...

  8. Development with age of nest box use and gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2010-01-01

    Use of nest boxes is an important part of the behavioural repertoire of laying hens kept under commercial conditions. A special form of nest box use is gregarious nesting, which occurs when a hen given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site...... risk of broken or dirty eggs. The main objectives were to investigate the use of nest boxes according to their position and the occurrence of gregarious nesting with age. Twelve groups of 15 Isa Warren hens were housed in pens each containing three adjacent roll-out nest boxes only differing...... and higher at age 20 weeks than at the other ages (P eggs were laid in the left nest box than in the other two nest boxes (P  0.05). The proportion of gregarious visits of the total number of visits, where the hens had a choice between...

  9. Effect of oils sources on blood lipid parameters of commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Murata

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to verify if total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triacylglicerol plasma levels are affected when laying hens are fed rations containing different dietary oil sources. One hundred sixty 50 week-old hens, assigned to four treatments with five replicates using 8 hens per replicate were used. The experimental period was of 84 days divided in 3 cycles of 28 days each. In the last day of each cycle, blood samples of 2 hens per replicate were randomly choose and blood samples were collected. On the other hand, blood was also collected at 7 am, 11 am and 3 pm aiming to study the daily changes of these lipids. Blood lipid parameters were not affected by different dietary oil sources (p > 0.05; however, HDL-cholesterol did change during the day, giving evidence that this lipid is indeed involved in the egg yolk formation.

  10. Effect of different dietary levels of mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves and spice supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, lipid metabolism and metabolic profiles in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, M A; El-Deek, A A; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F; Qota, E M

    2009-11-01

    In order to study the influence of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves on productive performance, egg quality, lipids metabolism and metabolic profiles, 180 Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to 6 dietary treatments each contained 6 replicates of 5 individually caged hens during the period from 50 to 60 weeks of age. 2. Three isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 0, 50 and 100 g/kg of sun-dried mangrove leaves. Each diet was fed with or without supplementation of 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet. 3. Mangrove leaves at either 50 or 100 g/kg adversely affect laying rate, egg mass and FCR, whilst increasing water intake and water to feed ratio. Mangrove leaves had no significant effect on dry matter, protein, lipid, cholesterol and ash content of liver, or on dry matter, protein and ash of yolk. 4. Plasma total protein, total lipids; liver enzymes AST and ALT and mortality rate were not significantly affected by mangrove leaves. On the other hand, yolk lipid, yolk cholesterol and plasma cholesterol significantly decreased, while yolk colour significantly increased with inclusion of 50 or 100 g/kg mangrove leaves, and Haugh unit score significantly increased with 100 g/kg mangrove leaves. 5. Spice mixture significantly increased egg weight by 2.2%. Yolk lipid content significantly decreased by 2.6%, while yolk colour and Haugh unit significantly increased with inclusion of spice mixtures. 6. In conclusion, mangrove leaves at 50 g/kg may be included in the laying hen diets as a means of decreasing lipid and cholesterol in yolk and plasma cholesterol and increasing yolk colour. Spice mixture at 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet increased laying rate, egg mass, Haugh unit score and yolk colour while decreasing yolk lipids.

  11. Assessment of the allergic potential of food protein extracts and proteins on oral application using the Brown Norway rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    The need for widely accepted and validated animal models to test the potential allergenicity and potency of novel (biotechnology-derived) proteins has become an important issue for their safety evaluation.In this article, we summarize the results of the development of an oral sensitization protocol

  12. Towards predictive resistance models for agrochemicals by combining chemical and protein similarity via proteochemometric modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westen, Gerard J P; Bender, Andreas; Overington, John P

    2014-10-01

    Resistance to pesticides is an increasing problem in agriculture. Despite practices such as phased use and cycling of 'orthogonally resistant' agents, resistance remains a major risk to national and global food security. To combat this problem, there is a need for both new approaches for pesticide design, as well as for novel chemical entities themselves. As summarized in this opinion article, a technique termed 'proteochemometric modelling' (PCM), from the field of chemoinformatics, could aid in the quantification and prediction of resistance that acts via point mutations in the target proteins of an agent. The technique combines information from both the chemical and biological domain to generate bioactivity models across large numbers of ligands as well as protein targets. PCM has previously been validated in prospective, experimental work in the medicinal chemistry area, and it draws on the growing amount of bioactivity information available in the public domain. Here, two potential applications of proteochemometric modelling to agrochemical data are described, based on previously published examples from the medicinal chemistry literature.

  13. How does the presence of excreta affect the behavior of laying hens on scratch pads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, B B; Boecker, I; Kwon, I Y; Jeyachanthiran, L; McBride, P; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2018-03-01

    Enriched cages for laying hens provide scratch pads for foraging on the wire mesh floors. Apart from foraging on scratch pads, hens also defecate on these pads, causing them to become soiled with excreta. This study was conducted to determine the relative preference of laying hens for foraging on clean (C) scratch pads or scratch pads soiled with excreta (E), and to study the behaviors performed by hens on such pads. A total of 288 laying hens was housed in 16 enriched cages (18 hens/cage), each divided into 2 compartments. On a daily basis, half of the scratch pads (one in each compartment) were removed and cleaned, while the other half were cleaned and then covered with 550 g (0.35 g/cm2) of conspecific excreta. The C and E scratch pads were then put back into the cages in a systematic order to avoid side bias. Feed was delivered automatically onto the scratch pads as a litter substrate. The frequency of visits and the total time spent performing different behaviors on C and E pads were video-recorded [the time of video recording was relative to litter (feed) delivery on the scratch pads] for a total of 10 min/d, 3 times/wk, over a period of 4 weeks. Overall, the allocation of the time budget for different behaviors was found to be-in order of greatest to least amount of time-resting, locomotor behaviors (walking and running), foraging, and dust bathing. Laying hens showed a relative preference for E scratch pads by visiting them more frequently (P = 0.001), and spent more time (P = 0.035) foraging on them, whereas they rested for more time (P hens. Similarly, the longer use of C scratch pads for resting indicates the need for an ideal and clean resting surface in enriched cages.

  14. Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Diets Supplemented with Herbal Extracts and Flaxseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majidzadeh Heravi R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the effects of fennel and thyme extracts with and without flaxseed were investigated on performance and egg quality of Leghorn-type laying hens (Hy-Line W-36. 200 laying hens from 26 to 38 weeks of age were assigned to five dietary treatments with five replications. The treatment groups were: 1 Control (a diet without any additives; 2 control diet plus fennel (40 mg/kg feed; 3 control diet plus thyme (40 mg/kg feed; 4 a diet containing flaxseed and fennel; and 5 a diet containing flaxseed plus thyme. There were significant differences in feed intake and egg weight between the treatments (P < 0.05. The egg yolk color index in hens that received thyme extract and flaxseed treatment was significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05. Hens fed control diet had lower Haugh unit compared to other treatments that contained herbal extracts. The eggshell strength was significantly higher in hens that received thyme extract and flaxseed treatments than control (P < 0.05. The eggshell weight in treatments containing flaxseed was significantly higher compared to the other treatments (P < 0.05. The lowest egg yolk cholesterol concentration was found in hens fed thyme and flaxseed treatment. The hens fed plant extracts and flaxseed diets had eggs with low palmitic and stearic acids and high α-linolenic acid. It is concluded that thyme and fennel extracts, as well as flaxseed, improved the performance and egg quality of laying hens. The use of flaxseed and thyme extract improved egg yolk omega-3 fatty acids and decreased yolk cholesterol content.

  15. Determination of some heavy metals in hen eggs using ICP-AES technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, I.; Khan, F.A.; Tahir, M.; Nazami, S.S.; Syed, N.

    2011-01-01

    This study was focused on evaluating the essential trace metals level in hen egg that collected from local market of London, UK. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Cadmium and cobalt were not found in any egg sample. The mean concentration of analysed hen egg sample was within permissible limit (PL) for Pb, Cu and Zn. (author)

  16. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Gurung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2014–2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO2 inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT and time to cessation of movement (COM of hens subjected to CAF, CO2 inhalation, and negative control (NEG treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO2 added to a chamber, a CO2 pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO2 added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly different among the CAF in cages, CAF in a chamber, NEG control, and CO2 inhalation treatments. However, spent hens subjected to the CAF in a chamber had significantly higher CORT levels than birds in the rest of the treatments. Times to COM of spent hens subjected to CAF in cages and aspirated foam were significantly greater than of birds exposed to the CO2 in a chamber treatment. These data suggest that applying CAF in cages is a viable alternative for layer hen depopulation during a reportable disease outbreak.

  17. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg shell quality, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the selected quality indicators of egg shell according to two different breeding systems and different age of laying hens. An object of investigation were shell weight, share of the shell, strength and thickness of the shell for table eggs. There were used the laying hens of final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and free range system. In both breeding systems were ensured the conditions with application of the welfare principles. There was used to feed a complete feed mixture HYD 10 in the both breeding systems.  The feeders were supplemented with feed by hand, daily and the same day was supplemented water to drinking troughs. Egg collection was hand in both breeding systems. This paper is a contribution to the solution of optimal breeding laying hens and production of high quality and safe production of table eggs. From the evaluation of the results was formulated conclusion, which shows that statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 higher egg shell thickness was observed in the breeding free range system compared to the thickness of the egg shell in the breeding cage system, and in age 40 weeks of laying hens in both breeding systems compared to the thickness of the egg shell in age 30 weeks of laying hens. No statistically significant difference (p ≥ 0.05 was observed in egg shell weight between breeding cage system and free range system. Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 higher egg shell weight was observed in the age 40 weeks of laying hens in both breeding  systems compared to age 30 weeks of laying hens. There no statistically significant difference (p ≥ 0.05 was observed in the share of egg shell and egg shell strength between breeding cage system and free range system, nor between age 30 and 40 weeks of laying hens.

  18. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg shell quality, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Angelovičová; Viera Ševčíková; Marek Angelovič; Ondřej Bučko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the selected quality indicators of egg shell according to two different breeding systems and different age of laying hens. An object of investigation were shell weight, share of the shell, strength and thickness of the shell for table eggs. There were used the laying hens of final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and free range system. In both breeding systems were ensured the conditions with application of the welfar...

  19. Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, J; Kwakernaak, C; Kan, C A

    2008-08-01

    Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14-32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems incompatible with high productivity. In this study laying hens were fed pelleted diets with 0%, 10%, 20%, 25% and 30% of sand addition to determine its effect on productivity. Feed intake, feed and nutrient (feed minus sand) conversion ratio, egg production, egg weight and body weight gain were measured over a 4-week period. Acid insoluble ash concentration in the faeces was measured to determine the accuracy of estimating the soil ingestion by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife as a way to determine soil ingestion of free range and organic hens under practical circumstances. The hens were able to compensate the dilution of the diet with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand by increasing their feed intake. Feed intake increased significantly and feed to egg conversion ratio decreased significantly with increasing sand levels in the diet. The nutrient to egg conversion ratio of the diet without sand tended to be worse than for the diets with sand, presumably due to the total absence of coarse material in the diet. There were no differences in egg production and egg weight between hens fed the different diets but body weight gain was significantly lower for the hens fed the diets with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand. Estimation of sand ingestion was done by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife. Provided that the actual dry matter digestibility coefficient of the nutrient part of the diet is taken into account, estimating the soil ingestion according to the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife seems an appropriate way to determine soil ingestion for free range and organic hens under practical circumstances.

  20. Use of dietary thyroxine as an alternate molting procedure in spent turkey breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulde, V A L; Renema, R; Bédécarrats, G Y

    2010-01-01

    In the turkey industry, molting is traditionally achieved by reducing photoperiod and withdrawing feed and water for several days. Although it is the most effective method, this practice is discouraged in Canada and alternative strategies need to be established. Thyroid hormone levels naturally change during molt, and dietary thyroxine (T4) supplementation was previously shown to induce molt in chickens. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of supplemental dietary T4 in inducing molt in spent turkey breeder hens. One hundred twenty 75-wk-old hens were randomly divided into 4 groups (5 floor pens/replicates, 5 hens each) with the control group kept under a 14-h photoperiod and fed a breeder's diet throughout, whereas hens from the 3 other groups were supplemented with 40 ppm (45.76 mg/kg) T4 for 10 d. One treatment group was maintained under 14 h of light and fed a breeder's diet, whereas the 2 others were subjected to a drop in photoperiod to 6 h during or after supplementation and then were fed a maintenance diet. Egg production, feed intake, BW, molt, and plasma levels of T4, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone were measured. All treated hens ceased laying by d 20; however, several individuals spontaneously returned to lay when left on 14 h of light, suggesting incomplete involution of the reproductive tract. Supplementation significantly reduced feed consumption and induced rapid BW loss. All hens returned to their initial weight by the end of the experiment. Most treated hens initiated molt by d 8 of supplementation and all completed molt by d 37. Plasma T4 in treated hens increased significantly by d 3 (P dropping the photoperiod was necessary to completely reset the reproductive system.

  1. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Heerkens, J.L.T.; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T.B.; Tuyttens, F.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage housing systems known as aviaries. Factors tested included type of system flooring, degree of red mite infestation, and access to free-range areas. Information on housing characteristics, management, a...

  2. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; Hoffman, John; Stringfellow, Kendre; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Zhao, Dan; Caldwell, David; Lee, Jason; Styles, Darrel; Berghman, Luc; Byrd, James; Farnell, Yuhua; Archer, Gregory; Farnell, Morgan

    2018-01-11

    During the 2014-2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO₂) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO₂ inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO₂ added to a chamber, a CO₂ pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO₂ added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly different among the CAF in cages, CAF in a chamber, NEG control, and CO₂ inhalation treatments. However, spent hens subjected to the CAF in a chamber had significantly higher CORT levels than birds in the rest of the treatments. Times to COM of spent hens subjected to CAF in cages and aspirated foam were significantly greater than of birds exposed to the CO₂ in a chamber treatment. These data suggest that applying CAF in cages is a viable alternative for layer hen depopulation during a reportable disease outbreak.

  3. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, Lisanne M.; Ampe, Bart A.; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D’Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper L.T.; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Until 2012, laying hens in the EU were often housed in conventional cages that offered limited space and few opportunities to perform highly motivated behaviors. Conventional cages are now banned in the EU in order to improve animal welfare. In this study, egg farmers were surveyed (winter 2013–2014) to assess whether they perceived any changes in animal welfare since changing housing systems, what role hen welfare played in choosing a new housing system, and which aspects of hen welfare they find most important. The data show that the answers differ depending on which housing system the farmers currently use and whether they had used conventional cages in the past. Abstract As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study’s aim was to gain insight into farmers’ opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research. PMID:26703742

  4. Residues depletion in egg after warfarin ingestion by laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, M; Pouliquen, H; Pinault, L; Loyau, M

    1998-10-01

    Accidental ingestion of anticoagulant rodenticide bait by poultry rarely leads to clinical signs of poisoning, but represents a risk for the consumer because of potential residues in the laid eggs. An assay was conducted for a better risk assessment. Three groups of laying hens were given a single oral dose of 10, 30 or 90 mg warfarin/kg BW. Eggs were collected for 14 d, and warfarin was analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Warfarin was present in the white for 3 to 4 d following anticoagulant ingestion, while concentration increased in the yolk until the 5th or 6th d, and then gradually decreased. At the end of experimentation, warfarin was still detected at below 100 ng/g in the yolk of eggs in each group.

  5. Welfare indicators in laying hens in relation to nest exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, M; Tauson, R; Holm, L

    2016-01-01

    Leghorn hens housed in furnished cages. Welfare indicators were measured between 61 and 70 wk of age in birds excluded from their nests for 5 consecutive d and control birds that had continuous access to nests. Baseline recordings were carried out in both groups prior to and post exclusion period....... The assessed indicators were: corticosterone metabolites in droppings (FCM), corticosterone concentration in yolk, corticosterone concentration in plasma, irregularities of eggshells, heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, tonic immobility duration, and feather cover. Behavioral observations showed...... that the birds had a clear preference for using the secluded nest sites, confirming that they were likely to perceive nest exclusion as an undesirable experience. Further, elevated levels of FCM in droppings, yolk corticosterone concentrations, H:L ratios and irregular eggshells were detected in both nest...

  6. Alleviation of hysteria in laying hens with dietary tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, S R; Ball, R O

    1990-01-01

    A commercial layer breeder flock that was suffering from hysteria was fed a diet containing 5 grams tryptophan/kg for six days. The incidence of episodes of hysteria declined from five times/hour on day 0 to once/hour on day 6 and none on day 8. Feed consumption increased from 107 g to 145 g/hen/day and egg production increased 23% during the six day feeding period. The tryptophan concentration in plasma doubled (from 95.6 to 188.2 mumol/mL). Plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine also increased. Birds that were not in lay, by postmortem examination, had significantly higher plasma valine concentrations (476.4 vs 372.7 mumol/mL). Tryptophan, serotonin and related metabolites increased in both the hypothalamic region and the remainder of the brain following tryptophan feeding, and subsequently declined. High levels of dietary tryptophan may be useful in alleviating hysteria in poultry. PMID:2357668

  7. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens.

  8. Mannan-binding protein forms complexes with alpha-2-macroglobulin. A protein model for the interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, P; Holm Nielsen, E; Skriver, E

    1995-01-01

    We report that alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) can form complexes with a high molecular weight porcine mannan-binding protein (pMBP-28). The alpha 2M/pMBP-28 complexes was isolated by PEG-precipitation and affinity chromatography on mannan-Sepharose, protein A-Sepharose and anti-IgM Sepharose......-PAGE, which reacted with antibodies against alpha 2M and pMBP-28, respectively, in Western blotting. Furthermore, alpha 2M/pMBP-28 complexes were demonstrated by electron microscopy. Fractionation of pMBP-containing D-mannose eluate from mannan-Sepharose on Superose 6 showed two protein peaks which reacted...

  9. Development of a Model Protein Interaction Pair as a Benchmarking Tool for the Quantitative Analysis of 2-Site Protein-Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamniuk, Aaron P; Newitt, John A; Doyle, Michael L; Arisaka, Fumio; Giannetti, Anthony M; Hensley, Preston; Myszka, David G; Schwarz, Fred P; Thomson, James A; Eisenstein, Edward

    2015-12-01

    A significant challenge in the molecular interaction field is to accurately determine the stoichiometry and stepwise binding affinity constants for macromolecules having >1 binding site. The mission of the Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG) of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) is to show how biophysical technologies are used to quantitatively characterize molecular interactions, and to educate the ABRF members and scientific community on the utility and limitations of core technologies [such as biosensor, microcalorimetry, or analytic ultracentrifugation (AUC)]. In the present work, the MIRG has developed a robust model protein interaction pair consisting of a bivalent variant of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens extracellular RNase barnase and a variant of its natural monovalent intracellular inhibitor protein barstar. It is demonstrated that this system can serve as a benchmarking tool for the quantitative analysis of 2-site protein-protein interactions. The protein interaction pair enables determination of precise binding constants for the barstar protein binding to 2 distinct sites on the bivalent barnase binding partner (termed binase), where the 2 binding sites were engineered to possess affinities that differed by 2 orders of magnitude. Multiple MIRG laboratories characterized the interaction using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), AUC, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methods to evaluate the feasibility of the system as a benchmarking model. Although general agreement was seen for the binding constants measured using solution-based ITC and AUC approaches, weaker affinity was seen for surface-based method SPR, with protein immobilization likely affecting affinity. An analysis of the results from multiple MIRG laboratories suggests that the bivalent barnase-barstar system is a suitable model for benchmarking new approaches for the quantitative characterization of complex biomolecular interactions.

  10. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking....... Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm...... was developed which mimics secretory machinery and assigns each secretory protein to a particular secretory class that determines the set of PTMs and transport steps specific to each protein. Protein abundances were integrated with the model in order to gain system level estimation of the metabolic demands...

  11. Maillard-reaction-induced modification and aggregation of proteins and hardening of texture in protein bar model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Guo, Mufan; Liu, Dasong; Liu, Xiaoming; Labuza, Teodore P

    2013-03-01

    The hardening of high-protein bars causes problems in their acceptability to consumers. The objective of this study was to determine the progress of the Maillard reaction in model systems of high-protein nutritional bars containing reducing sugars, and to illustrate the influences of the Maillard reaction on the modification and aggregation of proteins and the hardening of bar matrices during storage. The progress of the Maillard reaction, glycation, and aggregation of proteins, and textural changes in bar matrices were investigated during storage at 25, 35, and 45 °C. The initial development of the Maillard reaction caused little changes in hardness; however, further storage resulted in dramatic modification of protein with formation of high-molecular-weight polymers, resulting in the hardening in texture. The replacement of reducing sugars with nonreducing ingredients such as sugar alcohols in the formula minimized the changes in texture. The hardening of high-protein bars causes problems in their acceptability to consumers. Maillard reaction is one of the mechanisms contributing to the hardening of bar matrix, particularly for the late stage of storage. The replacement of reducing sugars with nonreducing ingredients such as sugar alcohols in the formula will minimize the changes in texture. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Improving the nutritive values of solid heavy phase to substitute corn in laying hens diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiurma Pasaribu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid heavy phase (SHP, a by product material of palm oil factory obtained by ceramic filtration from liquid waste could be used as a feedstuff to replace corn in poultry diet. A series of experiment was carried out to improve nutrient value of the SHP by supplementation of enzymes and amino acids in order to increase the proportion of SHP to substitute corn in layer diet. There are three enzymes i.e.: Balitnak production (BS4, a commercial single enzyme (consist of mannanase and comercial multienzymes were tested. All the enzymes were mixed with fresh SHP in different dose, dried and ground. The nutrient digestibility of these materials was measured in order to decide the optimum level of each enzyme. Based on this result, a feeding trial was carried out. Experimental diets were formulated to study the effect of substitusion of 25% or 50% corn with dried SHP or enzymes-treated SHP on the performances of the layers. The effect of methionine and lysine supplementation into diets contained high levels of SHP was also studied. Results showed that all enzymes studied could increase the energy (TME of the SHP. BS4 enzyme and the commercial multienzimes, except sin