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Sample records for model protein hen

  1. Modelo para determinar as exigências de proteína para poedeiras Modelling protein utilization in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilva Kazue Sakomura

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi elaborar um modelo para estimar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB para poedeiras leves, usando o método fatorial. Para determinar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB para manutenção foi utilizada a técnica do balanço de nitrogênio. A exigência de proteína bruta para o ganho de peso foi determinada em função do conteúdo de nitrogênio na carcaça e a eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio da dieta. A exigência de PB, para produção de ovos, foi determinada considerando o teor de PB determinado nos ovos e a eficiência de deposição do nitrogênio no ovo. A partir dos valores das exigências para manutenção, para o ganho e produção foi elaborada uma equação para predizer as exigências diárias de PB (g/ ave/ dia para poedeiras: PB = 1,94. P0,75 + 0,48.G + 0,301.O, em que P = peso corporal (kg, G = ganho de peso diário (g/dia e O = massa de ovos produzida (g/ave/dia.The objective of this study was to determine a model for crude protein requirements (CP for laying hen by the factorial method. The protein maintenance requirement was determine by the nitrogen balance technique . The crude protein requirement for weight gain was determined based on body nitrogen content and nitrogen efficiency for body deposition. The crude protein requirement for egg production was determined based on the nitrogen content of eggs and nitrogen efficiency for egg deposition. Considering the requirements for maintenance, egg production and weight gain, it was elaborated a protein requirement model for laying hen: PB = 1.94xW.75 + 0.480xG + 0,301x E, where PB = requirement (g/bird/day, W = body weight (kg, G = daily weight gain (g/day and E = egg mass (g/bird/day.

  2. Modelling energy utilisation in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, C B V; Sakomura, N K; Longo, F A; Couto, H P; Pacheco, C R; Fernandes, J B K

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine a metabolisable energy (ME) requirement model for broiler breeder hens. The influence of temperature on ME requirements for maintenance was determined in experiments conducted in three environmental rooms with temperatures kept constant at 13, 21 and 30 degrees C using a comparative slaughter technique. The energy requirements for weight gain were determined based upon body energy content and efficiency of energy utilisation for weight gain. The energy requirements for egg production were determined on the basis of egg energy content and efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. 2. The following model was developed using these results: ME = kgW0.75(806.53-26.45T + 0.50T2) + 31.90G + 10.04EM, where kgW0.75 is body weight (kg) raised to the power 0.75, T is temperature ( degrees C), G is weight gain (g) and EM is egg mass (g). 3. A feeding trial was conducted using 400 Hubbard Hi-Yield broiler breeder hens and 40 Peterson males from 31 to 46 weeks of age in order to compare use of the model with a recommended feeding programme for this strain of bird. The application of the model in breeder hens provided good productive and reproductive performance and better results in feed and energy conversion than in hens fed according to strain recommendation. In conclusion, the model evaluated predicted an ME intake which matched breeder hens' requirements.

  3. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... between the two feeding strategies or dietary protein levels, nor were ... supplied, whilst in other cases hens may not consume their daily allocation, ..... Aviagen, 2014. http://en.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/Ross_Broiler/ ...

  4. Differential abundance of egg white proteins in laying hens treated with corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimin; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2014-12-24

    Stressful environments can affect not only egg production and quality but also gene and protein abundance in the ovary and oviduct in laying hens. The oviductal magnum of laying hens is the organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of egg white proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone as a stress model on the abundance of proteins in the egg white and of mRNA and proteins in the magnum in laying hens. After a 14-day acclimation, 40 laying hens were divided into two groups which were provided for the next 14 days with either control (Control) or corticosterone (Stress) diet containing at 30 mg/kg. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased feed intake (P ≤ 0.05) and decreased egg production. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS using eggs obtained on days 0 and 5 revealed differential abundance of egg white proteins by Stress: transiently expressed in neural precursors (TENP), hemopexin (HPX), IgY-Fcυ3-4, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP) were decreased while ovoinhibitor and ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX) were increased on days 5 vs 0 (P ≤ 0.05). Expression of mRNAs and proteins was also significantly modulated in the magnum of hens in Stress on day 14 (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence showing that dietary corticosterone modulates protein abundance in the egg white in laying hens, and it suggests that environmental stress can differentially modify expression of egg white proteins in laying hens.

  5. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins

  6. Fabrication of redox-responsive magnetic protein microcapsules from hen egg white by the sonochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuangling; Cui, Xuejun; Tian, Fangyuan

    2015-01-01

    Redox-responsive magnetic protein microcapsules with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) encapsulated inside have been obtained using a facile, cost-effective and fast sonochemical method from hen egg white proteins. Such prepared redox-responsive magnetic hen egg white protein microcapsules (MHEWPMCs) could be easily manipulated to do magnetic-guided targeting delivery. The synchronous loading of the hydrophobic dye Coumarin 6 as a model of drug into MHEWPMCs was readily achieved during the fabrication of MHEWPMCs by dissolving them into the oil phase before ultrasonication. TEM images indicated that Fe3O4 MNPs were encapsulated in MHEWPMCs. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images indicated that the dye was distributed evenly in the MHEWPMCs and no leakage of dye from the MHEWPMCs was observed due to the protection of protein shells. The MHEWPMCs are potential candidates as attractive carriers for drug targeting delivery and stimuli-responsive release due to their magnetic and redox responsiveness of the disulfide in the microcapsule shells.

  7. Molecular phylogenetics and comparative modeling of HEN1, a methyltransferase involved in plant microRNA biogenesis

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    Obarska Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, HEN1 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was discovered as an essential enzyme in plant microRNA (miRNA biogenesis. HEN1 transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 2'-OH or 3'-OH group of the last nucleotide of miRNA/miRNA* duplexes produced by the nuclease Dicer. Previously it was found that HEN1 possesses a Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM domain and a long N-terminal extension including a putative double-stranded RNA-binding motif (DSRM. However, little is known about the details of the structure and the mechanism of action of this enzyme, and about its phylogenetic origin. Results Extensive database searches were carried out to identify orthologs and close paralogs of HEN1. Based on the multiple sequence alignment a phylogenetic tree of the HEN1 family was constructed. The fold-recognition approach was used to identify related methyltransferases with experimentally solved structures and to guide the homology modeling of the HEN1 catalytic domain. Additionally, we identified a La-like predicted RNA binding domain located C-terminally to the DSRM domain and a domain with a peptide prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase fold, but without the conserved PPIase active site, located N-terminally to the catalytic domain. Conclusion The bioinformatics analysis revealed that the catalytic domain of HEN1 is not closely related to any known RNA:2'-OH methyltransferases (e.g. to the RrmJ/fibrillarin superfamily, but rather to small-molecule methyltransferases. The structural model was used as a platform to identify the putative active site and substrate-binding residues of HEN and to propose its mechanism of action.

  8. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on behavior in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal versus vegetable protein sources in the diet on the development of behavior in laying hens. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with four diets, each containing one of four processed animal proteins

  9. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Veldkamp, T; Binnendijk, G P; de Veer, R

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and the remaining 2 (Daka-40 and Sonac-50) were classified as meat and bone meals. First, fecal digestibility of nutrients in the PAP was determined in Lohmann Brown layers. Hens (n = 132) were housed in 22 cages (6 hens/cage) and allotted to 5 dietary treatments. In the PAP diets (4 replicates/treatment), 100 g/kg of CP of animal origin was added, replacing soybean meal and corn (Zea mays) in the basal diet (6 replicates/treatment). The PAP sources differed largely in chemical composition and digestibility coefficients. Energy content (AME(n)) varied from 1,817 (Daka-40) to 3,107 kcal/kg (Sonac-60), and digestible lysine varied from 15.4 (Daka-40) to 28.3 g/kg (Sonac-50). Subsequently, the effect of a control diet (without PAP) vs. 4 PAP diets (50 g/kg of CP of animal origin from the same batches as used in the digestibility study) on performance was determined. All diets were isocaloric (AME(n) = 2,825 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (digestible lysine = 6.8 g/kg). Hens were housed in 40 floor pens (12 hens/pen, 8 pens/treatment) from 20 to 40 wk of age. Feed intake levels of the hens fed the meat and bone meal diets were reduced compared with those of hens fed the meat meal diets, whereas the feed intake level of hens fed the control diet was intermediate. Laying hen performance differed between treatments, being was most favorable for the Sonac-50 treatment and most adverse for the Daka-40 treatment. Differences in laying hen performance seemed to be related partly to differences in feed intake and corresponding amino acid intake.

  10. Food-cooking processes modulate allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Feng, Bai-Sui; Kong, Xiaoli; Xu, Hong; Li, Xiumin; Yang, Ping-Chang; Liu, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the allergenicity of food allergens can suppress the clinical symptoms of food allergy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of processing on the allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins. Eggs were processed by traditional Chinese cooking, including steaming, water boiling, frying, spicing and tea boiling. The contents of processed egg protein were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; the allergenicity was evaluated by Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme allergosorbent test inhibition. Circular dichroism spectrum analysis of four major egg allergens from various egg products was performed as well. A mouse model of food allergy was developed to test the allergenicity of processed egg protein in vivo. Protein degradation was significant following tea boiling and spiced-tea boiling. The total allergenic potential of water-boiled egg and fried egg was relatively higher than that of steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg. Challenge with proteins from raw egg, water-boiled egg and fried egg induced skewed T-helper 2 pattern responses (Th2 responses) in the intestine of mice sensitized to egg proteins; however, when the mice sensitized to egg proteins were challenged with proteins from steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg, respectively, only weak Th2 responses were induced in their intestine. Processing by steaming, spicing, or tea boiling can weaken the allergenicity of egg proteins. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Effect of Dietary Protein Levels in Growing Period on Performance at Onset of Lay of Crossbred Hens between Cockerel Native Chickens and Commercial Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harimurti Februari Trisiwi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effects of various dietary protein levels during growing period crossbreed hens between cockerel native chickens and laying hens on performance at onset of lay. The effects of the dietary protein levels on weight and other components of eggs were also examined. Eighteen hens aged thirteen weeks were randomly divided into three different treatment groups. Each group consists of six replications. The replication contains a hen. All the treatment hens were grown in a battery-cage until reaching sexual maturity then were fed with three different dietary protein levels which are 13,54%, 12,00%, and 9,80% formulated with 2600 kcal/kg ME. The collected data were analyzed by a one-way classification of variance analysis (CRD followed by testing the significant means using The Duncan,s MultipleRange Test (DMRT. The experiment result suggested that the treatment during hen’s growing period did not cause significance on performance at onset lay, egg weight, and egg components weight.

  12. ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein source for laying hens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dehulled faba beans were evaluated as an alternative to soybeans as a protein source for laying hens using 240 individually caged birds, 50 weeks of age. Two basal feeds were formulated to the same nutrient specifications but with one containing no faba beans and the other containing 200 g dehulled faba bean meal/kg.

  13. A natural and readily available crowding agent: NMR studies of proteins in hen egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Gabriel; Adrover, Miquel; Kelly, Geoff; Temussi, Piero Andrea; Pastore, Annalisa

    2011-05-01

    In vitro studies of biological macromolecules are usually performed in dilute, buffered solutions containing one or just a few different biological macromolecules. Under these conditions, the interactions among molecules are diffusion limited. On the contrary, in living systems, macromolecules of a given type are surrounded by many others, at very high total concentrations. In the last few years, there has been an increasing effort to study biological macromolecules directly in natural crowded environments, as in intact bacterial cells or by mimicking natural crowding by adding proteins, polysaccharides, or even synthetic polymers. Here, we propose the use of hen egg white (HEW) as a simple natural medium, with all features of the media of crowded cells, that could be used by any researcher without difficulty and inexpensively. We present a study of the stability and dynamics behavior of model proteins in HEW, chosen as a prototypical, readily accessible natural medium that can mimic cytosol. We show that two typical globular proteins, dissolved in HEW, give NMR spectra very similar to those obtained in dilute buffers, although dynamic parameters are clearly affected by the crowded medium. The thermal stability of one of these proteins, measured in a range comprising both heat and cold denaturation, is also similar to that in buffer. Our data open new possibilities to the study of proteins in natural crowded media. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Importance of the CMAP Correction to the CHARMM22 Protein Force Field: Dynamics of Hen Lysozyme

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Matthias; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Pastor, Richard W.; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2005-01-01

    The recently developed CMAP correction to the CHARMM22 force field (C22) is evaluated from 25 ns molecular dynamics simulations on hen lysozyme. Substantial deviations from experimental backbone root mean-square fluctuations and N-H NMR order parameters obtained in the C22 trajectories (especially in the loops) are eliminated by the CMAP correction. Thus, the C22/CMAP force field yields improved dynamical and structural properties of proteins in molecular dynamics simulations.

  15. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the range of protein intakes from 18.5 and 28.8 g/bird, no differences were observed in rate of laying between the two feeding strategies or dietary protein levels, nor were there differences in the proportions of yolk or albumen between these treatments. Egg weight, egg output and weight gain increased with ...

  16. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia Nalesso Costa

    2009-01-01

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of 60 Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such

  17. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50. The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%, had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05 and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05. Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.

  18. Effect of dietary threonine on laying performance and intestinal immunity of laying hens fed low-crude-protein diets during the peak production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Zou, X T

    2017-10-01

    Threonine (Thr) may be a limiting amino acid for laying hens fed diets with lowered protein level. An experiment was conducted to examine laying performance, and the intestinal immune function of laying hens provided diets varying in digestible Thr levels. Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 480), 28 weeks of age, were allocated to six dietary treatments, each of which included five replicates of 16 hens. Dietary crude protein (CP) 16.18% diet was offered as the positive control diet. L-Thr was added to the negative diet (14.16% CP) by 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 g/kg, corresponding 0.44%, 0.43%, 0.49%, 0.57%, 0.66% and 0.74% digestible Thr. At 40 weeks, a reduction in CP level decreased laying performance (p hens fed 0.66% Thr showed the lowest value (p feed conversion ratio (FCR). Serum level of uric acid showed the lowest values (p hens fed the low-CP diet compared with hens fed CP (16.18%) and hens fed 0.57-0.66%. Expressions of ileal MUC2 mRNA maximized (p hens during the peak production period. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Development of a model forecasting Dermanyssus gallinae's population dynamics for advancing Integrated Pest Management in laying hen facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, Monique F.; Riel, van Johannes; Roy, Lise; Zoons, Johan; Andre, Geert; George, David R.; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.; Dicke, Marcel; Mourik, van Simon; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.

    2017-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most significant pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control of D. gallinae could be greatly improved with advanced Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. The development of a model forecasting

  20. Comparison of the characteristics in hen and quail corneas as experimental models of refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, G C; Pérez-Merino, P; Martínez-García, M C; Barcía, A; Merayo-Loves, J

    2016-07-01

    To compare the histological, morphological and the biophysical measurements between hen and quail corneas, in order to determine which of them were better suited for use as an animal model for research into corneal refractive surgery. A study was performed using the biophysical measurements of the cornea (curvature, thickness, refraction, and axial length) of 20 animals (10 hens and 10 quails). The corneas were then prepared for histological analysis under microscopy light. The analysis showed that both groups have the same number of corneal layers as the human cornea and with an evident Bowman's layer. The thickness of the hen cornea and axial length of the eye, 225.3±18.4μm and 12.8±0.25mm, respectively, were larger than that of the quail (Phen central cornea, 3.65±0.08mm, was greater than that for the quail (Ppower of each cornea was similar. The proportion of total corneal thickness of the hen stroma, 82.6%, was more similar to that of the human than was the quail stroma, 72.5%. Within the hen stroma, the density of keratocytes, 8.57±1.49 per 5,000μm(2), was about half that in the quail stroma (Phen cornea, the stromal thickness and proportional similarity of the corneal layers with human cornea, the hen maybe better than the quail as an alternative species suitable for use in studies of corneal refractive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates of laying hens and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K

    2005-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) of laying hens. Thirty-six 32-wk-old laying hens were fed diets formulated with 1) uncontaminated grains, 2) contaminated grains, or 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent for a period of 4 wk. Hepatic FSR were measured in vivo by the flooding-dose method. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased hepatic FSR in laying hens compared with controls after 4 wk. The hepatic FSR of birds fed contaminated grains and contaminated grains + glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent were not different. It was concluded that the in vivo hepatic FSR of laying hens was inhibited by the feeding of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and that this may explain some of the adverse effects seen when contaminated grains were fed to laying hens.

  2. Crystallization and evaluation of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals for protein pH titration in the crystalline state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Wakari; Yagi, Daichi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Ohnishi, Yuki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-05-01

    To observe the ionized status of the amino acid residues in proteins at different pH (protein pH titration in the crystalline state) by neutron diffraction, hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5-8.0). Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined. At pH diagram, and at pH > 4.5 the border shifted to the right (higher precipitant concentration). The qualities of these crystals were characterized using the Wilson plot method. The qualities of all crystals at different pH were more or less equivalent (B-factor values within 25-40). It is expected that neutron diffraction analysis of these crystals of different pH provides equivalent data in quality for discussions of protein pH titration in the crystalline state of hen egg-white lysozyme.

  3. Recombinant proteins from Gallibacterium anatis induces partial protection against heterologous challenge in egg-laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Skjerning, Ragnhild Bager; Flachs, Esben M.

    2016-01-01

    Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium and major cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying hens, thereby contributing to decreased egg production and increased mortality among the hens. Due to widespread drug resistance and antigenic diversity, novel prophylactic measures...

  4. Crystallization and evaluation of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals for protein pH titration in the crystalline state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Wakari; Yagi, Daichi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Ohnishi, Yuki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    Hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5–8.0) and the quality of the crystals was characterized. Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined To observe the ionized status of the amino acid residues in proteins at different pH (protein pH titration in the crystalline state) by neutron diffraction, hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5–8.0). Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined. At pH < 4.5 the border between the metastable region and the nucleation region shifted to the left (lower precipitant concentration) in the phase diagram, and at pH > 4.5 the border shifted to the right (higher precipitant concentration). The qualities of these crystals were characterized using the Wilson plot method. The qualities of all crystals at different pH were more or less equivalent (B-factor values within 25–40). It is expected that neutron diffraction analysis of these crystals of different pH provides equivalent data in quality for discussions of protein pH titration in the crystalline state of hen egg-white lysozyme

  5. Pulse radiolysis studies of intramolecular electron transfer in model peptides and proteins. 7. Trp -> TyrO radical transformation in hen egg-white lysozyme. Effects of pH, temperature, Trp62 oxidation and inhibitor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobrowski, K.; Holcman, J.; Poznanski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Intramolecular long-range electron transfer (LRET) in hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) accompanying Trp --> TyrO radical transformation was investigated in aqueous solution by pulse radiolysis as a function of pH (5.2-7.4) and temperature (283-328K). The reaction was induced by highly selective...... below its denaturation temperature. Selective oxidation by ozone of the Trp62 indole side-chain in HEWL to N'-formylkynurenine (NFKyn62-HEWL) caused a large drop in the initial yield of Trp(.) radicals, G(Trp(.))(i). This was accompanied by a relatively small decrease in k(5) but selective oxidation...

  6. Dynamics of the amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Over a period of 4 days 12 colostomized laying hens daily received 36 g 15 N-labelled wheat with 15 N excess ( 15 N') of 14.37 atom-% together with a conventional feed mixture for laying hens. The labelling of the lysine N in the wheat was 13.58 atom-%, that of histidine N 14.38 and that of arginine 15 N' 13.63 atom-% 15 N'. Three hens each were butchered 12, 36, 60 and 108 h after the last 15 N' feeding. The first three hens did not receive any feed before being butchered. The following three hens each received the unlabelled feed ration for another 1, 2 or 4 days, resp., after the main period until they were butchered. The total of skeleton muscles, heart and stomach muscle (without inner skin) of each hen were combined into one sample, cut thinly, drenched with fluid nitrogen and pulverized. N, 15 N' and the basic and non-basic amino acids as well as their 15 N' were determined in the individual samples. In contrast to the organs, the proteins in the muscle tissue have a long half-life so that a slight decrease of atom-% 15 N' in the muscles could only be detected after 108 h. The 14 N and 15 N' quota of the non-basic amino acids in the total nitrogen of the muscles is 50 %. The 14 N quota of the basic amino acids is 30% and the 15 N' quota only 22.5% in the total muscle N. The heavy nitrogen of the free lysine in the TCA soluble N fraction is hardly detectable 36 h and 60 h after the last 15 N' supply and not at all after 108 h. In contrast to this, the other two free basic amino acids remain significantly higher labelled in dependence on the last butchering time. (author)

  7. Sustainable production of broiler chicken and laying hen: bibliographical review and proposal of a model for small producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Soler F.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The peasant production of broiler chicken and laying hens in the world is wide, being the developing countries which most productions of this type arise. 'ese backyard holdings play an important role as they ensure the consumption of protein products and a subsistence economy to poor families. Due to the low number of technical and scientific studies on these extensive systems in the department of Boyacá, this work aimed to establish by general literature review the world, national and regional state of the art in the production of broiler chicken and alternatively laying hen, and as specific objectives, to produce an analysis of the diferent managements and plans and propose a production model that suits the needs of small producers. the results of the world’s state of the art showed that all countries have a variety of peasant farms, but there is a clear path to commercialization of these poultry farming products, renowned for their safety and quality of nutrients. In some municipalities in Boyacá, these farmers have favorable production systems and yields earnings due to the reduced production costs by the introduction of crop products and recyclable materials, and also have no significant environmental impacts, however, health management is poor and animal feeding starts to rely on concentrated foods.

  8. Reproductive performance and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in young and old broiler breeder hens orally exposed to supplementary biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Mianji, G Rahimi; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2014-09-01

    Published data on the probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sustaining sperm viability in sperm storage tubules in 38-wk-old turkeys, and the high affinity of avidin or its analogs to biotin suggest that supplementary biotin may increase oviductal avidin and AVR2 expression, thereby attenuating the adverse effect of aging on hen reproductive performance. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120) were randomly assigned to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg of biotin/L of drinking water from 30 to 33 (young) and 53 to 56 (old) wk of age, and artificially inseminated to determine their reproductive performance. At the end of each period of biotin administration, 8 hens from each treatment group were killed for RNA extraction from the uterovaginal junction. Egg production was lower in the old hens (44%) compared with the young ones (82%), and biotin supplementation increased egg production only in the latter. Administering supplementary biotin to young hens increased their oviductal expression of AVR2, which was much higher in the old hens (1.0 and 4.6 for young and old groups, respectively). Fertility rate was not different between young and old hens, and was increased (4.4%) at the higher level of biotin supplementation. Hatchability and hatchling quality were not affected by biotin supplementation. Embryonic mortality between 17 to 21 d of incubation was higher in young (5.2%) compared with old (1.4%) birds. Egg fertility rate showed a moderate correlation (P biotin supplementation on AVR2 expression, and the relationship between biotin administration and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 was dependent on the hen's age, being higher in the young hens. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Development of a model forecasting Dermanyssus gallinae's population dynamics for advancing Integrated Pest Management in laying hen facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Roy, Lise; Zoons, Johan; André, Geert; George, David R; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; van Mourik, Simon; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2017-10-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most significant pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control of D. gallinae could be greatly improved with advanced Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. The development of a model forecasting the pests' population dynamics in laying hen facilities without and post-treatment will contribute to this advanced IPM and could consequently improve implementation of IPM by farmers. The current work describes the development and demonstration of a model which can follow and forecast the population dynamics of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities given the variation of the population growth of D. gallinae within and between flocks. This high variation could partly be explained by house temperature, flock age, treatment, and hen house. The total population growth variation within and between flocks, however, was in part explained by temporal variation. For a substantial part this variation was unexplained. A dynamic adaptive model (DAP) was consequently developed, as models of this type are able to handle such temporal variations. The developed DAP model can forecast the population dynamics of D. gallinae, requiring only current flock population monitoring data, temperature data and information of the dates of any D. gallinae treatment. Importantly, the DAP model forecasted treatment effects, while compensating for location and time specific interactions, handling the variability of these parameters. The characteristics of this DAP model, and its compatibility with different mite monitoring methods, represent progression from existing approaches for forecasting D. gallinae that could contribute to advancing improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Henning Bergenholtz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoonderbeek Hansen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Kort redegørelse for Professor for Center for Leksikografi, Henning Bergenholtz' fratrædelse 18.01.2013......Kort redegørelse for Professor for Center for Leksikografi, Henning Bergenholtz' fratrædelse 18.01.2013...

  11. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P≤0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P≤0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P≤0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P≤0.01. Significant (P≤0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  12. Effects of previous protein intake on rectal temperature, blood glucose, plasma thyroid hormone and minerals by laying hens during a forced molt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.A.; Moraes, V.M.B.; Cherici, I; Furlan, R.L.; Macari, M.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of forced molting on blood glucose, rectal temperature, plasma T4, T3 and minerals were studied in hens previously fed rations with different protein contents (14, 17 and 20% crude protein). Blood samples were obtained from brachial veins for blood glucose, T4 and T3 were measured by radioimmunoassay, and plasma minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood glucose and rectal temperature were reduced during fasting regardless of previous protein intake. Pre molting T4 plasma level was higher in laying hens fed higher protein ration, but feed deprivation reduced T 4 and T 3 concentrations irrespective of protein intake, except T 4 level for 14% crude protein fed birds that increased during fasting. The data obtained in this experiment suggest that previous protein intake does not interfere with the metabolic changes during forced molt. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  13. Effects of previous protein intake on rectal temperature, blood glucose, plasma thyroid hormone and minerals by laying hens during a forced molt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G A; Moraes, V M.B.; Cherici, I; Furlan, R L; Macari, M [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    1991-12-01

    The effects of forced molting on blood glucose, rectal temperature, plasma T4, T3 and minerals were studied in hens previously fed rations with different protein contents (14, 17 and 20% crude protein). Blood samples were obtained from brachial veins for blood glucose, T4 and T3 were measured by radioimmunoassay, and plasma minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood glucose and rectal temperature were reduced during fasting regardless of previous protein intake. Pre molting T4 plasma level was higher in laying hens fed higher protein ration, but feed deprivation reduced T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} concentrations irrespective of protein intake, except T{sub 4} level for 14% crude protein fed birds that increased during fasting. The data obtained in this experiment suggest that previous protein intake does not interfere with the metabolic changes during forced molt. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs.

  14. Sequential feeding using whole wheat and a separate protein-mineral concentrate improved feed efficiency in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Faruk, M; Bouvarel, I; Même, N; Rideau, N; Roffidal, L; Tukur, H M; Bastianelli, D; Nys, Y; Lescoat, P

    2010-04-01

    The effect of feeding nutritionally different diets in sequential or loose-mix systems on the performance of laying hen was investigated from 16 to 46 wk of age. Equal proportions of whole wheat grain and protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) were fed either alternatively (sequential) or together (loose-mix) to ISA Brown hens. The control was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained 5 birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per d) and distributed twice (4 and 11 h after lights-on). In the sequential treatment, only wheat was fed at first distribution, followed by balancer diet at the second distribution. In loose-mix, the 2 rations were mixed and fed together during the 2 distributions. Leftover feed was always removed before the next distribution. Sequential feeding reduced total feed intake when compared with loose-mix and control. It had lower wheat (-9 g/bird per d) but higher balancer (+1.7 g/bird per d) intakes than loose-mix. Egg production, egg mass, and egg weight were similar among treatments. This led to an improvement in efficiency of feed utilization in sequential compared with loose-mix and control (10 and 5%, respectively). Birds fed sequentially had lower calculated ME (kcal/bird per d) intake than those fed in loose-mix and control. Calculated CP (g/bird per d) intake was reduced in sequential compared with loose-mix and control. Sequentially fed hens were lighter in BW. However, they had heavier gizzard, pancreas, and liver. Similar liver lipid was observed among treatments. Liver glycogen was higher in loose-mix than the 2 other treatments. It was concluded that feeding whole wheat and balancer diet, sequentially or loosely mixed, had no negative effect on performance in laying hens. Thus, the 2 systems are alternative to conventional feeding. The increased efficiency of feed utilization in sequential feeding is an added

  15. Chemical structure, comparison antioxidant capacity and separation antioxidant of hen, duck and quail egg white protein hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah, A.; Meihu, M.; Ning, Q.; Setiani, B. E.; Bintoro, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acid linkages as proteins are nutritional substance which important for diet intake. Purification protein procesing undergo heating procedure process followed by additional of proteolytic enzymes or acid had been resulting in protein hydrolysates. A protein hydrolysate describe as many free amino acids bound together through a complex mixture of peptides. Egg white protein hydrolysates is one of subject interested to study for human health or industry product. The objectives of the research are to determine and identification the antioxidant derived from egg white hydrolysate protein. Identification of chemical structure of albumen and albumen protein hydrolysate was examine using IR Spectrophotometry. While comparison of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant separation egg albumen was also investigate using FTIR method (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Hen, duck and quail albumen egg white and on hydrolisate form were used as research materials. The results were showing that different time and enzyme of hydrolysis were not influence at secondary structure of hydrolysate albumen protein. Phytochemical content such as alcohol and hydroxyl compound which have potential as functional group of antioxidant were detected in all of the samples. Their results of radical scavenging activities samples hydrolyzed by pepsin were respectively 89.40%, 50.25% and 85.13%. Whereas the radical scavenging activities of hydrolysates hydrolyzed by papain were 72.85%, 61% and 76.45% respectively.

  16. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  17. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) meal as protein source by laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, Siaka Seriba; Kant, Rashmi; Tanhimana, Jemarlyn; Lela, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control), 33, 67 and 100%. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compa...

  18. High-pressure protein crystallography of hen egg-white lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nagae, Takayuki [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Nobuhisa, E-mail: nobuhisa@nagoya-u.jp [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    The crystal structure of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was analyzed under pressures of up to 950 MPa. The high pressure modified the conformation of the molecule and induced a novel phase transition in the tetragonal crystal of HEWL. Crystal structures of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) determined under pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 950 MPa are presented. From 0.1 to 710 MPa, the molecular and internal cavity volumes are monotonically compressed. However, from 710 to 890 MPa the internal cavity volume remains almost constant. Moreover, as the pressure increases to 950 MPa, the tetragonal crystal of HEWL undergoes a phase transition from P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 to P4{sub 3}. Under high pressure, the crystal structure of the enzyme undergoes several local and global changes accompanied by changes in hydration structure. For example, water molecules penetrate into an internal cavity neighbouring the active site and induce an alternate conformation of one of the catalytic residues, Glu35. These phenomena have not been detected by conventional X-ray crystal structure analysis and might play an important role in the catalytic activity of HEWL.

  19. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by 14 C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs

  20. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  1. In vivo engineering of a functional tendon sheath in a hen model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Cao, Dejun; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, Wen Jie; Cao, Yilin

    2010-05-01

    Repair of injured tendon sheath remains a major challenge and this study explored the possibility of in vivo reconstruction of a tendon sheath with tendon sheath derived cells and polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers in a Leghorn hen model. Total 55 Leghorn hens with a 1cm tendon sheath defect created in the left middle toe of each animal were randomly assigned into: (1) experimental group (n=19) that received a cell-PGA construct; (2) scaffold control group (n=18) that received a cell-free PGA scaffold; (3) blank control group (n=18) with the defect untreated. Tendon sheath cells were isolated, in vitro expanded, and seeded onto PGA scaffolds. After in vitro culture for 7 days, the constructs were in vivo implanted to repair the sheath defects. Alcian blue staining confirmed the ability of cultured cells to produce specific matrices containing acidic carboxyl mucopolysaccharide (mainly hyaluronic acid). In addition, the engineered sheath formed a relatively mature structure at 12 weeks post-surgery, which was similar to that of native counterpart, including a smooth inner surface, a well-developed sheath histological structure with a clear space between the tendon and the engineered sheath. More importantly, Work of Flexion assay revealed that the tendons needed less power consumption to glide inside the engineered sheath when compared to the tendons which were surrounded by scar-repaired tissues, indicating that the engineered sheaths had gained the function to a certain extent of preventing tendon adhesion. Taken together, these results suggest that tendon sheaths that are functionally and structurally similar to native sheaths are possible to be engineered in vivo using tendon sheath cells and PGA scaffolds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Low protein and high-energy diet: a possible natural cause of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in caged White Leghorn laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenboim, I; Mahato, J; Cohen, N A; Tirosh, O

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic condition of chicken and other birds caused by diverse nutritional, hormonal, environmental, and metabolic factors. Here we studied the effect of different diet composition on the induction of FLHS in single comb White Leghorn (WL) Hy-line laying hens. Seventy six (76) young WL (26 wks old) laying hens and 69 old hens (84 wks old) of the same breed were each divided into 4 treatment groups and provided 4 different diet treatments. The diet treatments included: control (C), 17.5% CP, 3.5% fat (F); normal protein, high fat (HF), 17.5% CP, 7% F; low protein, normal fat (LP), 13% CP, 3.5% F; and low protein, high fat (LPHF), 13% CP, 6.5% F. The diets containing high fat also had a higher ME of 3,000 kcal/kg of feed while the other 2 diets with normal fat had a regular lower amount of ME (2750 kcal/kg). Hen-day egg production (HDEP), ADFI, BW, egg weight, plasma enzymes indicating liver damage (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]), liver and abdominal fat weight, liver color score (LCS), liver hemorrhagic score (LHS), liver fat content (LFC), liver histological examination, lipid peroxidation product in the liver, and genes indicating liver inflammation were evaluated. HDEP, ADFI, BW, and egg weight were significantly decreased in the LPHF diet group, while egg weight was also decreased in the LP diet group. In the young hens (LPHF group), ALP was found significantly higher at 30 d of diet treatment and was numerically higher throughout the experiment, while AST was significantly higher at 105 d of treatment. LCS, LHS, and LFC were significantly higher in young hens on the LPHF diet treatment. A liver histological examination shows more lipid vacuolization in the LPHF treatment diet. HF or LP alone had no significant effect on LFC, LHS, or LCS. We suggest that LP in the diet with higher ME from fat can be a possible natural cause for predisposing laying hens

  3. Studies on the protein and amino acid metabolism of laying hens using 15N-labelled casein. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, G.

    1977-01-01

    Four colostomized Leghorn hens were fed, during 6 days, 15 N-labelled casein as sole protein source. Two animals were slaughtered 48 hours, the other two 144 hours after the last 15 N-application. The share of TCE-soluble N in total N averaged 16% for the body parts analysed, i.e. meat, bone, liver, kidneys, oviducts, residual viscera and other. The variation of the lysine, histidine and arginine levels in the body parts ranged from 3.6 to 7.9 g, 1.1 to 3.7 g and 6.4 to 7.4 g in 16.7 g hydrolysate N, respectively. Except for feathers, the analysed body parts contained an excess amount of heavy nitrogen. The degree of labelling was found to depend on the time of slaughtering after the tracer application. In the liver and in the oviduct being metabolically active organs, the 15 N-excess in the total N fraction decreased by 45% between the 2nd and the 6th days after 15 N-feeding, whilst in the meat it went down by 20%. The decline of the 15 N-concentration in the TCE-soluble N compounds was faster than in the total N-fraction. Out of the body samples analysed, the lysine of the liver having 0.26 atom% 15 N-excess was found to be more strongly labelled in hens 1 and 2. The amino acid arginine reached about the same level of labelling, the 15 N-frequency of histidine being the lowest. (author)

  4. Statistical model and first-principles simulation on concentration of HenV cluster and He bubble formation in α-Fe and W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-Lin; Yu, Yang; Dai, Zhen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the stabilities of He and Hen-vacancy (HenV) clusters in α-Fe and W. Vacancy formation energies are 2.08 eV in α-Fe and 3.11 eV in W, respectively. Single He in both α-Fe and W prefers to occupy the tetrahedral interstitial site. We recalculated the He solution energy considering the effect of zero-point energy (ZPE). The ZPEs of He in α-Fe and W at the tetrahedral (octahedral) interstitial site are 0.072 eV (0.031 eV) and 0.078 eV (0.034 eV), respectively. The trapping energies of single He at vacancy in α-Fe and W are -2.39 eV and -4.55 eV, respectively. By sequentially adding He into vacancy, a monovacancy trap up to 10 He atoms distributing in the vacancy vicinity. Based on the above results combined with statistical model, we evaluate the concentrations of all relevant HenV clusters as a function of He chemical potential. The critical HenV concentration is found to be ∼10-40 (atomic) at the critical temperature T = 600 K in α-Fe and T = 1600 K in W, respectively. Beyond the critical HenV concentrations, considerable HenV aggregate to form HenVm clusters. By further growing of HenVm, the HenVm clusters grow bigger resulting in the larger He bubble formation.

  5. Modelling hen harrier dynamics to inform human-wildlife conflict resolution: a spatially-realistic, individual-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes P M Heinonen

    Full Text Available Individual-based models have gained popularity in ecology, and enable simultaneous incorporation of spatial explicitness and population dynamic processes to understand spatio-temporal patterns of populations. We introduce an individual-based model for understanding and predicting spatial hen harrier (Circus cyaneus population dynamics in Great Britain. The model uses a landscape with habitat, prey and game management indices. The hen harrier population was initialised according to empirical census estimates for 1988/89 and simulated until 2030, and predictions for 1998, 2004 and 2010 were compared to empirical census estimates for respective years. The model produced a good qualitative match to overall trends between 1989 and 2010. Parameter explorations revealed relatively high elasticity in particular to demographic parameters such as juvenile male mortality. This highlights the need for robust parameter estimates from empirical research. There are clearly challenges for replication of real-world population trends, but this model provides a useful tool for increasing understanding of drivers of hen harrier dynamics and focusing research efforts in order to inform conflict management decisions.

  6. Modelling hen harrier dynamics to inform human-wildlife conflict resolution: a spatially-realistic, individual-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Johannes P M; Palmer, Stephen C F; Redpath, Steve M; Travis, Justin M J

    2014-01-01

    Individual-based models have gained popularity in ecology, and enable simultaneous incorporation of spatial explicitness and population dynamic processes to understand spatio-temporal patterns of populations. We introduce an individual-based model for understanding and predicting spatial hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) population dynamics in Great Britain. The model uses a landscape with habitat, prey and game management indices. The hen harrier population was initialised according to empirical census estimates for 1988/89 and simulated until 2030, and predictions for 1998, 2004 and 2010 were compared to empirical census estimates for respective years. The model produced a good qualitative match to overall trends between 1989 and 2010. Parameter explorations revealed relatively high elasticity in particular to demographic parameters such as juvenile male mortality. This highlights the need for robust parameter estimates from empirical research. There are clearly challenges for replication of real-world population trends, but this model provides a useful tool for increasing understanding of drivers of hen harrier dynamics and focusing research efforts in order to inform conflict management decisions.

  7. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  8. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica meal as protein source for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control, 33, 67 and 100 %. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compared to the 67% replacement diet but did not differ from the other treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on egg performance parameters observed (egg production, egg weight, total egg mass, feed conversion ratio and percent shell. The overall feed cost of egg production reduced on the snail mealbased diets. The organoleptic evaluation of boiled eggs revealed no difference between the treatments. Based on these results it was concluded that total replacement of fish meal with cooked snail meat meal does not compromise laying performance or egg quality. The substitution is beneficial in terms of production cost reduction and the reduction of snails will have a beneficial impact especially where these snails are a serious agricultural pest. The manual collection and processing of snails can also become a source of rural income.

  9. Predicting heat stress index in Sasso hens using automatic linear modeling and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, A.; Oluremi, O. I. A.; Ekpo, E. I.

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing use of robust analytical algorithms in the prediction of heat stress. The present investigation therefore, was carried out to forecast heat stress index (HSI) in Sasso laying hens. One hundred and sixty seven records on the thermo-physiological parameters of the birds were utilized. They were reared on deep litter and battery cage systems. Data were collected when the birds were 42- and 52-week of age. The independent variables fitted were housing system, age of birds, rectal temperature (RT), pulse rate (PR), and respiratory rate (RR). The response variable was HSI. Data were analyzed using automatic linear modeling (ALM) and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures. The ALM model building method involved Forward Stepwise using the F Statistic criterion. As regards ANN, multilayer perceptron (MLP) with back-propagation network was used. The ANN network was trained with 90% of the data set while 10% were dedicated to testing for model validation. RR and PR were the two parameters of utmost importance in the prediction of HSI. However, the fractional importance of RR was higher than that of PR in both ALM (0.947 versus 0.053) and ANN (0.677 versus 0.274) models. The two models also predicted HSI effectively with high degree of accuracy [r = 0.980, R 2 = 0.961, adjusted R 2 = 0.961, and RMSE = 0.05168 (ALM); r = 0.983, R 2 = 0.966; adjusted R 2 = 0.966, and RMSE = 0.04806 (ANN)]. The present information may be exploited in the development of a heat stress chart based largely on RR. This may aid detection of thermal discomfort in a poultry house under tropical and subtropical conditions.

  10. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  11. Lycopene Protects Against Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer Formation in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Yenice, Engin; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Mizrak, Cengizhan; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Sahin, Nurhan; Yilmaz, Bahiddin; Bilir, Birdal; Ozpolat, Bulent; Kucuk, Omer

    2018-03-01

    Dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against ovarian carcinogenesis. Lycopene's molecular mechanisms of action in ovarian cancer have not been fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of lycopene on the ovarian cancer formation using the laying hen model, a biologically relevant animal model of spontaneous ovarian carcinogenesis due to high incidence rates similar to humans. In this study, a total of 150 laying hens at age of 102 weeks were randomized into groups of 50: a control group (0 mg of lycopene per kg of diet) and two treatment groups (200 mg or 400 mg of lycopene per kg of diet, or ~26 and 52 mg/d/hen, respectively). At the end of 12 months, blood, ovarian tissues and tumors were collected. We observed that lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the overall ovarian tumor incidence ( P Lycopene also significantly decreased the rate of adenocarcinoma, including serous and mucinous subtypes ( P lycopene-fed hens compared to control birds ( P lycopene reduced the expression of NF-κB while increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 and its major target protein, heme oxygenase 1. In addition, lycopene supplementation decreased the expression of STAT3 by inducing the protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 expression in the ovarian tissues. Taken together, our findings strongly support the potential of lycopene in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  12. Dynamics of amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, A.; Gruhn, K.; Kirchner, E.

    1987-01-01

    In a 6-day preliminary period with a pelleted ration 12 colostomized laying hybrids received 15 N-labelled wheat protein over 4 days. The labelling of the wheat was 14.37 atom-% 15 N excess ( 15 N'). During the 4-day application of 15 N-labelled wheat protein each hen consumed 12.08 g N, 3.52 g lysine, 2.12 g histidine, 4.41 g arginine, of which were 540 mg 15 N', 18.1 mg lysine 15 N', 21.5 mg histidine 15 N' and 47.9 mg arginine 15 N'. Heavy nitrogen was determined in urine and its uric acid N in the daily urine samples of the individual animals. The average daily urine N excretion was 54% of the total nitrogen consumed with the ration. The labelling of the urine N reached a plateau on the fourth day of the experiment with 3.2 atom-% 15 N'. On an average of the total experiment the quota of heavy nitrogen of the uric acid in the total 15 N' of the urine was 83.4% and that of uric acid nitrogen in the total urine nitrogen 80.8%. (author)

  13. Proteomic comparison by iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometry of egg white proteins in laying hens (Gallus gallus) fed with soybean meal and cottonseed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Yue, Hongyuan; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is commonly used in hens’ diets to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, the molecular consequences of this substitution remains unclear. To investigate the impact of this substitution at the molecular level, iTRAQ combined with biochemical analysis was performed in Hy-Line W-36 hens supplemented with a mixed diet of CSM and SBM. Egg weight, albumen height, and Haugh unit were significantly reduced in the CSM100 group (100% crude protein of SBM replaced by CSM) compared with the SBM group (Phen diet. PMID:28813468

  14. Oral administration of supplementary biotin differentially influences the fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in low- and high-fertility broiler line hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Mianji, G Rahimi; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2015-02-01

    Probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sperm viability in the sperm storage tubules of turkeys has been suggested. The high affinity of biotin to avidin and its analogs is also well documented. The present study aimed to determine the effect of oral biotin on reproductive performance and oviductal mRNA expression of avidin and AVR2 in 2 broiler hen lines with different fertility rates. Low-fertility (line B) and high-fertility (line D) hens (n=144) were randomly allotted to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg/L biotin in drinking water from 30 through 33 wk of age. The reproductive performance of the hens was evaluated using artificial insemination. At the end of the treatment period, 24 hens per line were killed to assay the expression of avidin and AVR2 in the uterovaginal junction. Supplementary biotin increased egg production from 73.5% for T0 to 87.8% for T2. Hens administered with biotin in line B, but not in line D, showed an increase (8.4%) in fertility rate. Hatchability, chick quality, and overall embryonic mortality were not different among the experimental groups. Real-time PCR data showed that both avidin (P=0.0013) and AVR2 (Pbiotin×line interaction effect, where low-fertility line B hens receiving the high biotin level recorded respectively a 3.9 and 15.3% increase in avidin and AVR2 mRNA expression, although biotin did not affect these traits in line D hens. Control hens in line D had a dramatically higher AVR2 expression record (7.4-fold) compared with the control hens in line B. The correlation coefficients of fertility rate and avidin expression were 0.73 and 0.66 in lines B and D, respectively. However, the correlation of fertility and AVR2 (r=0.65) was significant for line D hens only. Overall, fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 were dichotomously affected by oral biotin in low- and high-fertility line hens, where only low-fertility birds showed improvements in these attributes.

  15. Effect of vegetable diets versus diets with processed animal proteins on performance and health status of laying hens = Effecten van plantaardig voer versus voer met dierlijke eiwitten op productieprestaties en gezondheidsstatus van leghennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Jansman, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Meat and bone meal and meat meal in diets and their effects on performance and health status of laying hens has been reviewed. Properties of dietary animal proteins are compared with dietary vegetable proteins and possible causative factors for differences in performance and health are described in

  16. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis in the spleens of hens by bacterins that vary in fimbrial protein SefD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene sefD is part of operon sefABCD, and it is required for production of the SEF14 fimbria by Salmonella Enteritidis. We compared strains that varied in SefD content for their ability to reduce recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from the spleens of hens infected by parenteral challenge. The two bac...

  17. Comparison of antibody responses to hen's egg and cow's milk proteins in orally sensitized rats and food-allergic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Kleij, H.P.M. van der; Koppelman, S.J.; Houben, G.F.; Penninks, A.H.; Felius, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Background: No adequate enteral sensitization models are available to study food allergy and the allergenicity of food proteins. To further validate an enteral brown Norway (BN) rat sensitization model under development, we studied specific protein recognition to determine whether a comparable

  18. Sensory evaluation by gamma radiation effect on protein allergen of laying hen eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, M.N.C.; Arthur, V.; Perina, V.C.S.; Silva, L.C.A.S.; Bortoleto, G.G.

    2012-01-01

    Although considered the most complete food and nutritionally shown to be part of a healthy diet, the egg is the source of many eating disorders, especially for infants. Irradiation has been used in studies not only as a means of microbiological control, but also on its structural action in the substances molecules and has been used to reduce the allergenic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory effects of Co 60 gamma radiation on proteins, enabling the acceptability of allergy food for genetically intolerant people. Eggs commercial fresh and freeze-dried and subjected to gamma irradiation by Co 60 source at doses 0 (control), 10 kGy; 20 kGy and 30 kGy and rates of doses of 19.4 kGy/h and 31.8 kGy/h. Acceptability test was used by the hedonic scale, since it is necessary to know the “affective status” of consumers for the product, implying a preference, i.e. the most preferred samples are the most accepted and vice versa. The samples were presented as the habit of consumption (cooked) to a group of 41 adults panelists of both gender, aged from 21 to 40 years, and served under complete block design balanced with respect to the order of presentation. The evaluated attributes was flavor, appearance and overall acceptability. In general, for boiled eggs and freeze-dried, it was observed that the control sample was the most acceptable, followed by the sample irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rates. In addition, panelists presented in testimony that they found interesting changes due to irradiation; also said they would not buy the product because of the marked change in appearance and smell, which at one point he ended up in disgust and detract from sales of the product, but they would buy irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rate and dose of 20 kGy at a dose rate of 19.4 kGy/h. - Highlights: ► To minimized allergenic foods problem can be used gamma radiation. ► To identify the consumers preference about the quality of this kind food was used

  19. Sensory evaluation by gamma radiation effect on protein allergen of laying hen eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, M. N. C.; Arthur, V.; Perina, V. C. S.; Silva, L. C. A. S.; Bortoleto, G. G.

    2012-08-01

    Although considered the most complete food and nutritionally shown to be part of a healthy diet, the egg is the source of many eating disorders, especially for infants. Irradiation has been used in studies not only as a means of microbiological control, but also on its structural action in the substances molecules and has been used to reduce the allergenic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory effects of Co60 gamma radiation on proteins, enabling the acceptability of allergy food for genetically intolerant people. Eggs commercial fresh and freeze-dried and subjected to gamma irradiation by Co60 source at doses 0 (control), 10 kGy; 20 kGy and 30 kGy and rates of doses of 19.4 kGy/h and 31.8 kGy/h. Acceptability test was used by the hedonic scale, since it is necessary to know the "affective status" of consumers for the product, implying a preference, i.e. the most preferred samples are the most accepted and vice versa. The samples were presented as the habit of consumption (cooked) to a group of 41 adults panelists of both gender, aged from 21 to 40 years, and served under complete block design balanced with respect to the order of presentation. The evaluated attributes was flavor, appearance and overall acceptability. In general, for boiled eggs and freeze-dried, it was observed that the control sample was the most acceptable, followed by the sample irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rates. In addition, panelists presented in testimony that they found interesting changes due to irradiation; also said they would not buy the product because of the marked change in appearance and smell, which at one point he ended up in disgust and detract from sales of the product, but they would buy irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rate and dose of 20 kGy at a dose rate of 19.4 kGy/h.

  20. Effect of varying concentrations of dietary crude protein and metabolizable energy on laying performance of Pearl Grey guinea fowl hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahashon, S N; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate optimum dietary concentrations of ME and CP for egg production performance of the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens. In a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, 360 Pearl Gray guinea fowl replacement pullets (22 wk of age) were randomly assigned to experimental diets with 2,800 and 2,900 kcal of ME/kg of diet, each containing 14, 16, and 18% CP, respectively. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times, and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Experimental birds were raised in laying cages and received 16 h of light throughout the study period. The birds were observed for feed consumption, hen-day egg production (HDEP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed conversion ratio, internal egg quality, shell thickness (ST), and BW at the end of each 28-d lay period at 26 to 50 wk of age and at 62 to 86 wk of age. Mortality was recorded as it occurred. Mean HDEP, EW, EM, and ST were higher (P treatments. Differences in feed consumption, EW, internal egg quality, BW, and mortality among dietary ME and CP concentrations were not significant (P > 0.05). Overall, diets composed of 2,800 kcal of ME/kg of diet and 14% CP were utilized more efficiently by the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens at 26 to 50 and 62 to 86 wk of age.

  1. The Protein Model Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, J?rgen; Battey, James N. D.; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D.; Berman, Helen M.; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploratio...

  2. Post mortem Survival of Gallibacterium anatis in a Laying Hen Experimental Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2018-06-01

    To assess the survival of Gallibacterium anatis in dead laying hens, 21-wk-old laying hens were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 ml brain hearth infusion broth containing 10 8 colony-forming units (CFU) of G. anatis 12656-12 liver ( n = 16), Escherichia coli ST141 ( n = 16), or a mix of G. anatis 12656-12 liver and E. coli ST141 ( n = 16), respectively. Birds were euthanatized 24 hr post injection. From each group eight dead birds were kept at 4 C and eight at room temperature. Swab samples were taken at different time points post euthanatization and streaked on blood agar plates. From the birds kept at 4 C, G. anatis was reisolated from the G. anatis and the G. anatis- E. coli co-injected groups at least 12 days post euthanization. From birds kept at room temperature, G. anatis was reisolated up to 2 days post euthanatization. When using the gyrB-based G. anatis-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR), G. anatis was detected within at least 5 days, and up to 5 days post euthanatization, from birds kept at room temperature and 4 C, respectively. Escherichia coli was reisolated from all the time points independent of how the birds were kept. No difference was observed between the reisolation rates for G. anatis or E. coli when comparing similar detection methods. For birds kept at 4 C, bacterial cultivation was a more sensitive method for detecting G. anatis ( P < 0.05), whereas for birds kept at room temperature, the G. anatis-specific qPCR outperformed bacterial culture ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that G. anatis has a poorer survival rate than does E. coli in dead chickens kept at room temperature. That finding may affect the overall diagnostic sensitivity and lead to underdiagnosis of G. anatis in a normal production setting.

  3. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C α RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparison between Laying Hen Performance in the Cage System and the Deep Litter System on a Diet Free from Animal Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Voslářová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery cage systems for housing laying hens are being replaced by alternative systems including the deep litter system. At the same time, the substitution of meat and bone meal by vegetable matter in poultry feed mixtures is sought in the nutrition of laying hens. In the experiment, we compared the performance of laying hens of the ISA BROWN hybrid in both the cage system and the deep litter system, on a diet with the meat and bone meal content replaced by vegetable feeds (based on lupin. In the first group, 36 laying hens were kept in the deep litter system; in the second group, 36 laying hens were kept in cages. Over the period of nine months, the number of eggs laid, their weight, shell quality, the clinical state of the laying hens and incidence of their mortality were monitored daily. We found that in the cage system a higher number of eggs was obtained; a lower mean egg weight (p p p p p > 0.05, and the number of laying hens which died was lower (p < 0.05 in comparison with the deep litter system. The results of the experiment demonstrate that, with the substitution of meat and bone meal by vegetable matter in the feed mixtures for laying hens, there are differences between the performance of laying hens from the deep litter system as compared to the laying hens from the cage system. The deep litter system better meets the requirements for the welfare of laying hens; however, it provides a lower yield.

  5. The Protein Model Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, Jürgen; Battey, James N D; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D; Berman, Helen M; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2009-03-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploration of the protein structure space. One of the challenges in using model information effectively has been to access all models available for a specific protein in heterogeneous formats at different sites using various incompatible accession code systems. Often, structure models for hundreds of proteins can be derived from a given experimentally determined structure, using a variety of established methods. This has been done by all of the PSI centers, and by various independent modeling groups. The goal of the Protein Model Portal (PMP) is to provide a single portal which gives access to the various models that can be leveraged from PSI targets and other experimental protein structures. A single interface allows all existing pre-computed models across these various sites to be queried simultaneously, and provides links to interactive services for template selection, target-template alignment, model building, and quality assessment. The current release of the portal consists of 7.6 million model structures provided by different partner resources (CSMP, JCSG, MCSG, NESG, NYSGXRC, JCMM, ModBase, SWISS-MODEL Repository). The PMP is available at http://www.proteinmodelportal.org and from the PSI Structural Genomics Knowledgebase.

  6. Immune cells in the normal ovary and spontaneous ovarian tumors in the laying hen (Gallus domesticus) model of human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradaric, Michael J; Penumatsa, Krishna; Barua, Animesh; Edassery, Seby L; Yu, Yi; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Bahr, Janice M; Luborsky, Judith L

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian cancer in chickens resembles human tumors both histologically and biochemically. The goal was to determine if there are differences in lymphocyte content between normal ovaries and ovarian tumors in chickens as a basis for further studies to understand the role of immunity in human ovarian cancer progression. Hens were selected using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound to determine if they had normal or tumor morphology. Cells were isolated from ovaries (n = 6 hens) and lymphocyte numbers were determined by flow cytometry using antibodies to avian CD4 and CD8 T and B (Bu1a) cells. Ovarian sections from another set of hens (n = 26) were assessed to verify tumor type and stage and to count CD4, CD8 and Bu1a immunostained cells by morphometric analysis. T and B cells were more numerous in ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. There were less CD4+ cells than CD8+ and Bu1a+ cells in normal ovaries or ovarian tumors. CD8+ cells were the dominant T cell sub-type in both ovarian stroma and in ovarian follicles compared to CD4+ cells. Bu1a+ cells were consistently found in the stroma of normal ovaries and ovarian tumors but were not associated with follicles. The number of immune cells was highest in late stage serous tumors compared to endometrioid and mucinous tumors. The results suggest that similar to human ovarian cancer there are comparatively more immune cells in chicken ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries, and the highest immune cell content occurs in serous tumors. Thus, this study establishes a foundation for further study of tumor immune responses in a spontaneous model of ovarian cancer which will facilitate studies of the role of immunity in early ovarian cancer progression and use of the hen in pre-clinical vaccine trials.

  7. Dynamics of the amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.

    1988-01-01

    In a 15 N labelling experiment 12 colostomized laying hens received 15 N-labelled wheat with 14.37 atom-% 15 N excess ( 15 N') over 4 days. 3 hens each were butchered after 12 h, 36 h, 60 h and 108 h after the last 15 N' application. The gastrointestinal tract was divided into 3 parts (esophagus with crop and gizzard as well as glandular stomach, small intestine, large intestine). These parts and the pancreas were hydrolyzed with 6 N HCl and the individual basic as well as the sum of acid and neutral amino acids were determined in the hydrolyzed fractions. In addition, the amino acids and peptides were determined in the TCA soluble N fraction. The atom-% 15 N' was determined in the individual amino acid and peptide fractions. The labelling of the basic amino acids in the individual tract segments was lower than in the acid and neutral amino acids. In comparison to the peptides, a higher atom-% 15 N' could be determined in the free amino acids. (author)

  8. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.

    1987-01-01

    In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15 N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15 N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15 N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

  9. Dynamics of the amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Kirchner, E.

    1988-01-01

    12 colostomized laying hens received, together with a conventional feed ration, 15 N-labelled wheat with a 15 N excess ( 15 N') of 14.37 atom-% over 4 days. 3 animals each were butchered after 12 h, 36 h, 60 h and 108 h after the last 15 N' application and, apart from various organs, the contents and the tissue of the gastrointestinal tract of each hen was divided into 3 fractions. TCA precipitation was carried out with the contents and the tissue of the 3 fractions. Nitrogen and its atom-% 15 N' were determined in the supernatant and the precipitate. The 15 N' amount in the contents of the crop and the stomachs, the small and large intestines is still considerable 12 h after the last 15 N wheat feeding and still clearly detectable 108 h after it. The TCA precipitable amounts of 14 N and 15 N' of the contents of crop and stomach and that of the small intestine agree well; they are 75% and 50% resp. of the total N. The amount of atom-% 15 N' of the contents of the small and large intestines remains the same up to 36 h after the last 15 N' application and is higher at the following measuring points in the contents of the large intestine. A close correlation could be ascertained between the atom-% 15 N' in the contents and tissue of the small and large intestines. The TCA soluble N quotas of both 14 N and 15 N' in the pancreas are above 50%. (author)

  10. In vivo model experiment using laying hens treated with Enterococcus faecium EM41 from ostrich faeces and its enterocin EM41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lauková1,

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecium EM41 is an isolate from ostrich faeces. It produces a thermo-stable proteinaceous substance, bacteriocin (enterocin EM41 with the highest inhibition activity in late logarithmic phase of growth (25 600 AU/ml. This strain and its enterocin have not been previously tested in animals. Lohmann Brown laying hens (aged 45 weeks were involved in this model/pilot experiment, divided into 3 groups 6 birds in each. E. faecium EM41 applied was a variant treated with rifampicin (109 cfu/ml, dose 400 μl/animal/day to differentiate it from the other enterococci. Partially-purified enterocin EM41 (Ent EM41, dose 40 μl/animal/day and its producer were applied to water for 21 days. The experiment lasted 35 days. Sampling was performed at days 0 - 1, 21 (3 weeks of additive application, 35 (2 weeks after cessation of additive application from every bird. E. faecium EM41 sufficiently colonized the intestinal tract of laying hens from the initial concentration 109 cfu/g, its count reached 4.30 log cfu/g at day 21. PCR genotypization confirmed the identity of the EM41 strain with the species Enterococcus faecium. E. faecium EM41 and its enterocin EM41 showed antimicrobial effects demonstrated by reduction of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp. and Campylobacter spp. The hens were Salmonella spp. free. After administration of both additives, phagocytic activity was stimulated with a significant increase. The additives did not negatively influence biochemical and haematological parameters or weight gains.

  11. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  12. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  13. Dynamics of the amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.; Kirchner, E.

    1987-01-01

    12 colostomized laying hens which received 15 N-labelled wheat over 4 days were butchered 12 h, 36 h, and 108 h (3 animals each) after the last 15 N application. The intake of 15 N exess ( 15 N') from the wheat amounted to 540 mg 15 N' during the application period. The 15 N' in the blood plasma decreased after the last 15 N' application from 0.76 atom-% to 0.55 atom-% after 108 h, the labelling of the corpuscular components at the same measuring points increased from 0.28 to 0.50 atom-% 15 N'. 96.6% of the plasma 15 N' and 93,8% of that in the corpuscles is precipitable in trichloroacetic acid. The atom-% 15 N' of histidine in the total blood remained unchanged in dependence on the butchering time. The 15 N amount in lysine and arginine and that in the non-basic amino acids decreased inconsiderably in the period between 12 h and 108 h after the last 15 N' wheat feeding. (author)

  14. Lieb-Liniger-like model of quantum solvation in CO-4HeN clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, D.; Iñarrea, M.; Lanchares, V.; Salas, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Small 4He clusters doped with various molecules allow for the study of "quantum solvation" as a function of cluster size. A peculiarity of quantum solvation is that, as the number of 4He atoms is increased from N = 1, the solvent appears to decouple from the molecule which, in turn, appears to undergo free rotation. This is generally taken to signify the onset of "microscopic superfluidity." Currently, little is known about the quantum mechanics of the decoupling mechanism, mainly because the system is a quantum (N + 1)-body problem in three dimensions which makes computations difficult. Here, a one-dimensional model is studied in which the 4He atoms are confined to revolve on a ring and encircle a rotating CO molecule. The Lanczos algorithm is used to investigate the eigenvalue spectrum as the number of 4He atoms is varied. Substantial solvent decoupling is observed for as few as N = 5 4He atoms. Examination of the Hamiltonian matrix, which has an almost block diagonal structure, reveals increasingly weak inter-block (solvent-molecule) coupling as the number of 4He atoms is increased. In the absence of a dopant molecule the system is similar to a Lieb-Liniger (LL) gas and we find a relatively rapid transition to the LL limit as N is increased. In essence, the molecule initially—for very small N—provides a central, if relatively weak, attraction to organize the cluster; as more 4He atoms are added, the repulsive interactions between the identical bosons start to dominate as the solvation ring (shell) becomes more crowded which causes the molecule to start to decouple. For low N, the molecule pins the atoms in place relative to itself; as N increases the atom-atom repulsion starts to dominate the Hamiltonian and the molecule decouples. We conclude that, while the notion of superfluidity is a useful and correct description of the decoupling process, a molecular viewpoint provides complementary insights into the quantum mechanism of the transition from a molecular

  15. Functional characterization of folic acid transport in the intestine of the laying hen using the everted intestinal sac model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Karmin, O; House, J D

    2011-01-01

    Absorption at the level of the intestine is likely a primary regulatory mechanism for the deposition of dietary supplemented folic acid into the chicken egg. Therefore, factors affecting the intestinal transport of folic acid in the laying hen may influence the level of egg folate concentrations. To this end, a series of experiments using intestinal everted sacs were conducted to characterize intestinal folic acid absorption processes in laying hens. Effects of naturally occurring folate derivatives (5-methyl and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate) as well as heme on folic acid absorption were also investigated. Folic acid absorption was measured based on the rate of uptake of (3)H-labeled folic acid in the everted sac from various segments of the small and large intestines. Folic acid concentration, incubation length, and pH condition were optimized before the performance of uptake experiments. The distribution profile of folic acid transport along the intestine was highest in the upper half of the small intestine. Maximum uptake rate (nmol·100 g tissue(-1)·min(-1)) was observed in the duodenum (20.6 ± 1.9) and jejunum (22.3 ± 2.0) and decreased significantly in the ileum (15.3 ± 1.1) and cecum (9.3 ± 0.9). Transport increased proportionately (P methyl and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate as well as heme impeded folic acid uptake, reducing intestinal folic acid absorption when added at concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 µM. Overall, these data indicated the presence of a folic acid transport system in the entire intestine of the laying hen. Uptake of folic acid in the cecum raises the likelihood of absorption of bacterial-derived folate.

  16. Robustness in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the project ‘The genetics of robustness in laying hens’ was to investigate nature and regulation of robustness in laying hens under sub-optimal conditions and the possibility to increase robustness by using animal breeding without loss of production. At the start of the project, a robust

  17. Dynamics of the amino acid and protein metabolism of laying hens after the application of 15N-labelled wheat protein. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Hennig, A.

    1989-01-01

    Over a period of 4 days 12 colostomized laying hens daily received 36 g coarse wheat meal containing 14.37 atom-% 15 N excess ( 15 N') together with a conventional ration. After the homogenisation of each oviduct N and 15 N' were determined. After the precipitation with TCA the 15 N' of the amino acids was analysed in both the precipitate and the supernatant. In addition, the free amino acids and the peptides were determined in the TCA soluble fraction. The atom-% 15 N' in the total N and in the non-basic amino acid N showed a parallel decrease; it diminshed from 1.75 atom-% 15 N' to 0.64. Of the three basic amino acids, lysine shows the lowest labelling at all four measuring points. The quotas of non-basic amino acid 14 N and 15 N' in the total 14 N and 15 N' of the oviduct are the same and amount to 53%. In contrast to this, the quota of the 14 N of the basic amino acids in the total 14 N of the oviduct only amounts to 21.6% and that of 15 N' only to 15.4%. The average atom-% 15 N' of the free amino acids 12 h after the last 15 N application is 1.54 and is considerably above that of the peptides with 1.15 atom-% 15 N'. 36 h after the last 15 N application the ascertained value of 1.25 is identical in both fractions. The labelling of the free amino acids decreases more quickly than that of the peptides the more time has passed after the last 15 N application. (author)

  18. Obesity-associated cardiac pathogenesis in broiler breeder hens: Pathological adaption of cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Lin, H Y; Chen, Y W; Ko, Y J; Liu, Y J; Chen, Y H; Walzem, R L; Chen, S E

    2017-07-01

    Broiler hens consuming feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) show increased mortality. Feed restriction (R) typically improves reproductive performance and livability of hens. Rapidly growing broilers can exhibit increased mortality due to cardiac insufficiency but it is unknown whether the increased mortality of non-R broiler hens is also due to cardiac compromise. To assess cardiac growth and physiology in fully mature birds, 45-week-old hens were either continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding for 7 or 21 days. AL hens exhibited increased bodyweight, adiposity, absolute and relative heart weight, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiac protein/DNA ratio by d 21 (P hens (P Hens allowed AL feeding for 70 d exhibited a higher incidence of mortality (40% vs. 10%) in association with ascites, pericardial effusion, and ventricle dilation. A higher incidence of irregular ECG patterns and rhythmicity consistent with persistently elevated systolic blood pressure and ventricle fibrosis were observed in AL hens (P feeding in broiler hens results in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy that progresses to overt pathogenesis in contractility and thereby increases mortality. Feed restriction provides clear physiological benefit to heart function of adult broiler hens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Turkey-hen amino acid composition of brain and eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyeye, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    The amino acids composition of the brain and eyes of the mature Turkey-hen (Meleagris gallopavo L.), were determined on dry weight basis. Total essential amino acids ranged from 35.1-36.0 g/100 g as 49.5-49.8% of the total amino acids. The amino acid score showed that lysine ranged from 0.76-0.91 (on whole hen.s egg comparison), 0.85-1.03 (on provisional essential amino acid scoring pattern), and 0.81-0.98 (on suggested requirement of the essential amino acid of a preschool child). The predicted protein efficiency ratio was 1.94-2.41, whilst essential amino acid index range was 1.06-1.08 and the calculated isoelectric point range was 3.97-4.18. The correlation coefficient (rxy) was positively high and significant at r = 0.01 for the total amino acids, amino acid scores (on the whole hen.s egg comparisons made) and the isoelectric point. On the whole, the eyes were better in 12/18 or 66.7% parameters of the amino acids than the brain of Turkey-Hen. (author)

  20. Oral food desensitization in children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy: a new protocol with raw hen's egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, Paolo; Giampietro, Paolo G; Carello, Rossella; Gabriele, Ida; Avitabile, Simona; Galli, Elena

    2013-02-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects young children and can cause severe allergic reactions. Avoidance results in dietary limitations and can affect the quality of life, especially in cases where potentially life-threatening reactions exist. Our objective was to desensitize children with moderate-severe IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy over a 6-month period, by introducing increasing and very gradual daily doses of raw hen's egg in order to enable the children to assume 25ml of this food, or to induce tolerance to the highest possible dose. The protocol foresaw the egg reintroduction in the home setting. In this randomized, controlled open study, 20 hen's egg allergic children (10 in the active group) were admitted. A convincing history or a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge confirmed the diagnosis. Oral desensitization was performed with increasing doses starting from 0.27 mg of hen's egg proteins (1 drop of raw hen's egg diluted 1:100). We adopted an original, mathematically calculated protocol in order to ensure a constant, daily increment of doses. 8/10 children (80%) in the active group achieved the daily intake of 25ml over a 6-month period. One child (10%) could tolerate up to 2ml/day while another child (10%) failed the desensitization. Six months after enrolment only 2 children in the control group (20%) could tolerate hen's egg. We successfully desensitized 8/10 children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy in a 6-month period. The partial outcome in the child who could tolerate 2ml/day reduced the risk of severe reactions after unnoticed introduction of egg. A regular protocol that ensures a daily constant increase of doses helps to reduce possible adverse events, thus improving safety and effectiveness. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. The PMDB Protein Model Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrignanò, Tiziana; De Meo, Paolo D'Onorio; Cozzetto, Domenico; Talamo, Ivano Giuseppe; Tramontano, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Protein Model Database (PMDB) is a public resource aimed at storing manually built 3D models of proteins. The database is designed to provide access to models published in the scientific literature, together with validating experimental data. It is a relational database and it currently contains >74 000 models for ∼240 proteins. The system is accessible at and allows predictors to submit models along with related supporting evidence and users to download them through a simple and intuitive interface. Users can navigate in the database and retrieve models referring to the same target protein or to different regions of the same protein. Each model is assigned a unique identifier that allows interested users to directly access the data. PMID:16381873

  2. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: radio-frequency identification of impacts on range use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Dyall, T R; Warin, L; Little, B A; Lee, C

    2017-01-01

    The number and size of free-range laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) production systems are increasing within Australia in response to consumer demand for perceived improvement in hen welfare. However, variation in outdoor stocking density has generated consumer dissatisfaction leading to the development of a national information standard on free-range egg labelling by the Australian Consumer Affairs Ministers. The current Australian Model Code of Practice for Domestic Poultry states a guideline of 1500 hens/ha, but no maximum density is set. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking technology was used to measure daily range usage by individual ISA Brown hens housed in six small flocks (150 hens/flock - 50% of hens tagged), each with access to one of three outdoor stocking density treatments (two replicates per treatment: 2000, 10 000, 20 000 hens/ha), from 22 to 26, 27 to 31 and 32 to 36 weeks of age. There was some variation in range usage across the sampling periods and by weeks 32 to 36 individual hens from the lowest stocking density on average used the range for longer each day (Prange with 2% of tagged hens in each treatment never venturing outdoors and a large proportion that accessed the range daily (2000 hens/ha: 80.5%; 10 000 hens/ha: 66.5%; 20 000 hens/ha: 71.4%). On average, 38% to 48% of hens were seen on the range simultaneously and used all available areas of all ranges. These results of experimental-sized flocks have implications for determining optimal outdoor stocking densities for commercial free-range laying hens but further research would be needed to determine the effects of increased range usage on hen welfare.

  3. Assessment of welfare and egg production of laying hens moravia ssl in small-scale breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2015-10-01

    . The laying hens had unlimited access to feed and water. The commercial feed mixture was available ad libitum and fresh kitchen remnants were added in a small amount, provided that they fed in the short term, so that not subject to harmful degradation process. The management of our experiment was scheduled at age of laying hens 30 to 90 weeks. The egg laying intensity was observed 50% in a moment of the experimental 1st week (age of laying hens 30 weeks. High egg laying intensity of laying hens was at their age between 39 to 63 weeks. At the end of the experiment, at age of laying hens 90 weeks was decreased egg laying intensity at 26.19%, which represents almost half of egg laying intensity recorded at the beginning of the experiment. An indicator of egg production in the our experiment was studied under defined conditions for small-scale breeding, i.e. in alternative production system with free range, under defined conditions of nutrition and timing of investigation more than one year, from the end of October to the end of December of the following year. The results of our experiment can be related to the season, months of the year. The laying hens laid the eggs by individual weeks 33-90 weeks of age about average weight from 57.5 to 75.0 g. The fat content of an egg mass was 11.3 g.100-1 and protein 12.39.g.100-1. The table eggs from conditions of small-scale breeding are an important source of foodstuffs for the population, especially in rural areas. It must be given to this source of table eggs for human nutrition the highest quality and health safety too.

  4. Modelling of proteins in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; May, S.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review describes some recent theories and simulations of mesoscopic and microscopic models of lipid membranes with embedded or attached proteins. We summarize results supporting our understanding of phenomena for which the activities of proteins in membranes are expected to be significantly ...

  5. Coarse-grain modelling of protein-protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaden, Marc; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review recent advances towards the modelling of protein-protein interactions (PPI) at the coarse-grained (CG) level, a technique that is now widely used to understand protein affinity, aggregation and self-assembly behaviour. PPI models of soluble proteins and membrane proteins are

  6. Henning Bergenholtz: Bibliovita

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Tarp, Sven

    2009-01-01

    of languages include books and papers on the development of theories and principles for the compilation of dictionaries as well as reviews of dictionaries and monographs in a constant quest to learn from other scholars. The dictionaries he has authored and co-authored cover the spectrum from monolingual...... contributed to research and therefore influenced both national and international research communities. Not only has Henning Bergenholtz published theoretical works on lexicography and other topics, but he is also the author and co-author of a range of dictionaries. His theoretical publications in a variety...... general dictionaries to bilingual specialised dictionaries with languages such as Danish, Dutch, English, Malagasy and Spanish within fields as diverse as microbiology and accounting. In addition, he has been the editor of several books and academic journals, e.g. Hermes and LexicoNordica (he is one...

  7. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the response of broiler breeder hens to feeds supplemented with synthetic lysine and methionine when fed once or twice daily during peak production. Replacing intact protein with increasing amounts of free lysine and methionine, up to 2.3 g/kg feed, had no effect on feed intake, ...

  8. The effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) to laying hens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) to laying hens. M.D. Olver. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, lrene. One hundred and twenty 4-month-old, single-combed, brown. Hy-Line pullets were fed two isocaloric diets containing 16 or. 13,5o/o protein with and without 5% clinoptilolite in four.

  9. Automated protein structure modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Comparative protein structure modeling is a computational approach to build three-dimensional structural models for proteins using experimental structures of related protein family members as templates. Regular blind assessments of modeling accuracy have demonstrated that comparative protein structure modeling is currently the most reliable technique to model protein structures. Homology models are often sufficiently accurate to substitute for experimental structures in a wide variety of applications. Since the usefulness of a model for specific application is determined by its accuracy, model quality estimation is an essential component of protein structure prediction. Comparative protein modeling has become a routine approach in many areas of life science research since fully automated modeling systems allow also nonexperts to build reliable models. In this chapter, we describe practical approaches for automated protein structure modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal.

  10. Automated Protein Structure Modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Comparative protein structure modeling is a computational approach to build three-dimensional structural models for proteins using experimental structures of related protein family members as templates. Regular blind assessments of modeling accuracy have demonstrated that comparative protein structure modeling is currently the most reliable technique to model protein structures. Homology models are often sufficiently accurate to substitute for experimental structures in a wide variety of appl...

  11. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler breeding hens. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, R.; Gruhn, K.; Hennig, A.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolization of the straw N and the influence of the straw on N excretion in urine were studied in 2 experiments with colostomized broiler hens and with 15 N-labelled wheat straw as well as 15 N-labelled wheat. In experiment 1 the test animals divided up into 4 groups received 0 g, 20 g, 30 g and 40 g straw meal per animal and day in addition to 120 g mixed feed. The daily 15 N excess ( 15 N') intake from the straw was 18.4 mg, 27.5 mg and 36.7 mg. The amount of 15 N' daily consumed with the labelled wheat in experiment 2 was 119.7 mg. 40 g straw meal resulted in a significantly increased amount of urine (p 15 N' of the labelled wheat was not influenced by the straw meal supplement. The productive 15 N' of the straw increased from 3.8 mg/animal and day (20 g straw) to 13.4 mg/animal and day (40 g straw). In contrast to 15 N wheat, straw as a 15 N source resulted in a lower labelling of uric acid N in comparison with urine N. It can be assumed that the changed metabolization of the straw N is influenced by microbial processes in the intestines. (author)

  12. Production, crystallization and X-ray characterization of chemically glycosylated hen egg-white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Jaramillo, F. J.; Pérez-Banderas, F.; Hernández-Mateo, F.; Santoyo-González, F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of glycosylation post-purification has been demonstrated by introducing glucose into the model protein lysozyme via a novel reaction that is compatible with biological samples. The crystallization of glycoproteins is one of the challenges to be confronted by the crystallographic community in the frame of what is known as glycobiology. The state of the art for the crystallization of glycoproteins is not promising and removal of the carbohydrate chains is generally suggested since they are flexible and a source of heterogeneity. In this paper, the feasibility of introducing glucose into the model protein hen egg-white lysozyme via a post-purification glycosylation reaction that may turn any protein into a model glycoprotein whose carbohydrate fraction can be manipulated is demonstrated

  13. Anaphylactic reaction to probiotics. Cow's milk and hen's egg allergens in probiotic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, María Flora; Fortuni, Monserrat; Caminoa, Magdalena; Belver, Teresa; Quirce, Santiago; Caballero, Teresa

    2012-12-01

    Probiotics are used in the treatment of allergic diseases. We investigated the safety of probiotics for subjects with food allergy. Labels of probiotics commercially available in Spain were examined to assess their content of cow's milk or hen's egg. Skin prick tests with these compounds (20 mg/ml) were performed in five children allergic to cow's milk, five children allergic to hen's white egg, and five control subjects non-allergic to food. Three serum pools: I (positive-specific IgE to cow's milk and hen's egg white proteins), II (positive-specific IgE to cow's milk and negative to hen's egg white proteins), and III (negative-specific IgE to cow's milk and positive to hen's egg white proteins) were used to detect cow's milk and hen's egg white allergens in probiotics. ImmunoCAP(®) (Phadia), in-house ELISA, SDS-PAGE immunoblotting, and inhibition studies of these assays were performed. Proteins were quantified by enzyme-immunoassay. Eleven probiotics were studied. No label advertised about egg content, eight labels warned about lactose, lactic acid or cow's milk, one label claimed to be milk-free, and two gave no information. Cow's milk proteins were detected, by at least one lab technique, in 10/11 probiotics, three over 2.5 mg/kg (21, 52, 112 mg/kg). Hen's egg white proteins were detected in 3/11 probiotics, only one had more than 2.5 mg/kg (47 mg/kg). Probiotic compounds may contain hidden allergens of food and may not be safe for subjects with allergy to cow's milk or hen's egg. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas-Duran, Catalina; Chacon-Villalobos, Alejandro; Zamora-Sanchez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The effect of shrimp meal (SM) was measure in commercial laying hen diets. Pleuroncodes planipes was used in Costa Rica, from April to September 2013, to obtain a meal (SM) with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40,67%), ether extract (11,05%), crude fiber (7,12%), ash (27,48%), calcium (9,03%), phosphorus (2,66%), amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84%) and acidity (8,34). Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p [es

  15. The effect of composition feed mixtures on curve of hens laying intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mareček

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was done in the experimental station ÚKZÚZ Havlíčkův Brod. There were four experimental groups (N1, N2, N3, N4 of laying hens and weekly laying intensity was observed. Hybrid ISA BROWN was used in the experiment, 405 hens in each group. The laying intensity was observed from the start of laying for 44 weeks. During laying four different diets were fed to laying hens (N1 – control group with fish meal, N2 – control group containing only of plant protein sources, N3 – experimental group with higher content of rapeseed, N4 – experimental group containing treated rapeseed. Yang model was used for the evaluation of laying curves and we found following parameters of the curves:Yang model N1: y = 97.28 * e – 0.004 * t / [1 + e – 2.054 (t – 2.549]\tR2 = 0.97Yang model N2: y = 98.29 * e – 0.006 * t / [1 + e – 2.071 (t – 2.668]\tR2 = 0.96Yang model N3: y = 98.49 * e – 0.005 * t / [1 + e – 1.856 (t – 2.568]\tR2 = 0.97Yang model N4: y = 98.55 * e – 0.005 * t / [1 + e – 2.251 (t – 2.615].\tR2 = 0.97The results document that experimental treatments had small effect on the parameters of laying curves. It means that rapeseed had only small effect on the laying intensity and also the elimination of animal protein from the diet for laying hens had not effect on laying intensity. On the base of our results we estimated the standard equation for evaluation of laying curve:Yang model: y = 98.15 * e – 0.005 * t / [1 + e – 2.058 (t – 2.601].\tR2 = 0.99This equation can be used as standard for evaluation of laying intensity after experimental treatments or for evaluation of laying intensity of different hybrids.

  16. Nutrient digestibility and mass balance in laying hens fed a commercial or acidifying diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W J; Angel, C R; Hale, C E; Applegate, T J

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of an acidifying diet (gypsum) combined with zeolite and slightly reduced crude protein (R) vs. a control diet (C) on nutrient retention in laying hens and compare 3 approaches to estimating nutrient excretion from hens: 1) mass balance calculation (feed nutrients - egg nutrient), 2) use of an indigestible marker with analyzed feed and excreta nutrient content, and 3) an environmental chamber that allowed for capturing all excreted and volatilized nutrients. Hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental chambers for 3-wk periods. Excreta samples were collected at the end of each trial to estimate apparent retention of N, S, P, and Ca. No diet effects on apparent retention of N were observed (53.44%, P > 0.05). Apparent retention of S, P, and Ca decreased in hens fed R diet (18.7, - 11.4, and 22.6%, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (40.7, 0.3, and 28.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). Total N excretion from hens fed the C and R diet was not different (1.16 g/hen/d); however, mass of chamber N remaining in excreta following the 3-wk period was less from hens fed the C diet (1.27 kg) than from hens fed the R diet (1.43 kg). Gaseous emissions of NH(3) over the 3-wk period from hens fed the C diet (0.74 kg per chamber) were greater than emissions from hens fed the R diet (0.45 kg). The 3-wk S excretion mass (estimated using the calculation, indigestible marker, and environmental chamber methods, respectively) was greater from hens fed the R diet (1.85, 1.54, and 1.27 kg, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (0.24, 0.20, and 0.14 kg, respectively). The 3-wk P excretion was similar between diets (0.68 kg). Results demonstrate that feeding the acidified diet resulted in decreased N emissions, but because of the acidulant fed, greatly increased S excretion and emissions.

  17. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  18. Phosphorus requirement in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, W.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Star, L.

    2014-01-01

    It was hypothesized that P supply by feed in alternative housing systems can be lowered without negative effects on bone quality and production performance. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were 1) to update the retainable phosphorus (rP) needs of two modern laying hen breeds from 36

  19. Kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we study the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of two model proteins widely used in the food industry -b-lactoglobulin (b-lg) and hen

  20. The influence of different single dietary sources on moult induction in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Behzad; Modirsanei, Mehrdad; Farkhoy, Mohsen; Kiaei, Mohammad-Mehdi; Honarzad, Jila

    2007-11-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the possibility of using single dietary sources as alternatives to feed deprivation for the induction of moult in commercial laying hens. The study involved six dietary groups of 29 laying hens: unmoulted, dried tomato pomace, alfalfa meal, rice bran, cumin seed meal and feed withdrawal. The birds received the above diets during the moulting period (11 days), and body weight loss and ovary weight regression were measured. Post-moult production parameters (number of eggs produced per hen per day, egg weight, shell weight, yolk colour and Haugh unit) were measured for 12 weeks. Results showed that all dietary sources were as effective as feed withdrawal in causing ovary weight regression in birds. Birds provided with tomato pomace or alfalfa showed lower weight losses than feed-deprived birds at the end of the moulting period. Hens moulted by tomato pomace or alfalfa exhibited post-moult levels of egg production over a 12 week period that were superior to those of hens moulted by feed withdrawal. Post-moult eggs laid by hens moulted by all dietary sources were of comparable quality to eggs from feed-deprived hens and superior to those from unmoulted hens. As fibrous feeds with low metabolisable energy and an appreciable amount of protein, dried tomato pomace and alfalfa meal may be fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for effective moult induction while reducing the stress of severe starvation and retaining comparable egg quality and production. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF LYSOZYME FROM THE HEN EGG WHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the development of the method of lysozyme isolation from hen egg proteins. Lysozyme was isolated by differential heat denaturation of proteins with changing of the medium pH value, followed by neutralization, dialysis and additional purification by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Activity was determined by bacteriolytic method (with Micrococcus lysodeikticus 4698 as a substrate. The enzyme purity and molecular mass were determined using SDS-electrophoresis and massspectrometry. The method of lysozyme isolation from hen egg proteins with the enzyme yield of 3.2 ± 0.2% and bacteriolytic activity of 22 025 ± 1 500 U/mg is modified. According to electrophoresis data, the isolated enzyme is characterized by high degree of purity (~95–98% and is comparable with lysozyme of AppliChem company by main physical and chemical characteristics. The obtaining product is stored in a crystalline form at low temperature (–24 оC for 9 months. The proposed method allows obtaining active and stable lysozyme with high purity from hen egg protein in laboratory conditions for the usage in biotechnology.

  2. Effect of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on quality of egg, cholesterol level, production performance, serum total protein and blood biochemical parameters were evaluated in laying hens. A total of 300 commercial Lohmann LSL hens (30 weeks of age were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments which consisted of a normal corn diet containing corn–soy and 2 diets containing 5% and 10% sugar syrup. Each treatment was replicated 5 times (n = 20. Egg production, feed intake, body weight and egg weight of laying hens fed different diets were recorded. The experiment lasted for 20 weeks. The Haugh unit scores of hens fed diets with sugar syrup were significantly increased (P < 0.05 compared with the control treatment. The sugar syrup had no significant effect on liver enzymes, total protein, blood glucose and creatinine in all treatments. The eggs laid by hens fed sugar syrup diets had lower cholesterol level (P < 0.05 compared with those laid by hens fed the control diet. Electrophoresis analysis showed that comparable electrophoretic patterns were noticed between serum proteins of treatment groups. From the results, it can be concluded that sugar syrup diets and corn diets have similar effects on feed intake, body weight, production of eggs and blood biochemical parameters in layer hens, which suggests sugar syrup can be used as an energy source for replacing part of corn in poultry layer diets. Keywords: Cholesterol, Sugar syrup diet, Egg, Egg quality, Protein

  3. Early-life sensitization to hen's egg predicts asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis at 14 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben

    2017-01-01

    to groups of and to individual allergens and asthma and RC at 6 and 14 years compared to a reference group with no sensitization. RESULTS: Both transient and persistent early-life sensitization to cow's milk or hen's egg proteins were associated with asthma (aOR 3.99(1.41-11.32) and 5.95(1.78-19.92)) and RC...... (aOR 2.94(1.19-7.28) and 6.18(1.86-20.53)) at 14 years, this association being driven mainly by sensitization to hen's egg. Transient early-life sensitization to HDM had increased risk of asthma (aOR 3.80(1.17-12.41)) at 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Early transient and persistent IgE sensitization to hen......'s egg was associated with asthma and RC at 14 years. Furthermore, sensitization to HDM was associated with asthma at 14 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. A Mesoscopic Model for Protein-Protein Interactions in Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Mikael; Jönsson, Bo

    2003-01-01

    Protein self-association may be detrimental in biological systems, but can be utilized in a controlled fashion for protein crystallization. It is hence of considerable interest to understand how factors like solution conditions prevent or promote aggregation. Here we present a computational model describing interactions between protein molecules in solution. The calculations are based on a molecular description capturing the detailed structure of the protein molecule using x-ray or nuclear ma...

  5. Modellierung dreidimensionaler Strahlungsfelder im frühen Universum %t Modelling three dimensional radiation fields in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinköhn, Erik

    2002-11-01

    The present work aims at the modelling of three-dimensional radiation fields in gas clouds from the early universe, in particular as to the influence of varying distributions of density and velocity. In observations of high-redshift gas clouds, the Lyα transition from the first excited energy level to the ground state of the hydrogen atom is usually found to be the only prominent emission lines in the entire spectrum. It is a well-known assumption that high-redshifted hydrogen clouds are the precursors of present-day galaxies. Thus, the investigation of the Lyα line is of paramount importance of the theory of galaxy formation and evolution. The observed Lyα line - or rather, to be precise, its profile - reveals both the complexity of the spatial distribution and of the kinematics of the interstellar gas, and also the nature of the photon source. In this thesis we have developed a code which is capable of solving the three-dimensional frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation for arbitrarily nonrelativistically moving media. The numerical treatment of the associated partial integro-differential equation is an extremely challenging task, since radiation intensity depends on 6 variables, namely 3 space variables, 2 variables describing the direction of photon propagation, and the frequency. With the goal of a quantitative comparison with observational data in mind, the implementation of very efficient methods for a sufficiently accurate solution of the complex radiative transfer problems turned out to be a necessity. The size of the resulting linear system of equations makes the use of parallelization techniques and grid refinement strategies indispensable.

  6. The effect of dietary protein and lysine on egg quality and production of laying hens during 28-42 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammadi Emarat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and lysine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets consisted of 3 levels of protein (14, 15 and 16% and 5 levels of lysine (0.71, 0.74, 0.77, 0.80 and 0.83 % in a 35 factorial arrangement were provided. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 12 birds, during four periods of 4 weeks (28-44wks of age. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined for each period. Eggs from each replicate were weighed at the end of three consecutive days of each period and six eggs were used to measure the egg quality characteristics. Although the feed intake did not affected by dietary protein but the egg production, egg mass and feed conversion were improved significantly (p

  7. Effect of corticosterone on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Song, Zhigang; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two groups: one received subcutaneous injection of CORT (2mg/kg body weight, CORT-exposed) and the other received sham-treatment (Control). Treatment of hens with CORT stimulated an increase (P0.05) on the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), melanocortin receptor 4 and 5 (MCR-4 and MCR-5) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the hypothalamus when compared with control hens. However, the expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and melanocortin recepter 1 (MCR-1) were significantly (Phens. Treatment of laying hens with CORT had no significant (P>0.05) effect on the mRNA levels of CCK in the glandular stomach and the duodenum, and those of ghrelin in the glandular stomach, the duodenum and the jejunum. However, the mRNA levels of CCK in the jejunum and the ileum, and those of ghrelin in the ileum were significantly (Pfeeding status of CORT-exposed laying hens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamics of hydration in hen egg white lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpone, F; Ceccarelli, M; Marchi, M

    2001-08-10

    We investigate the hydration dynamics of a small globular protein, hen egg-white lysozyme. Extensive simulations (two trajectories of 9 ns each) were carried out to identify the time-scales and mechanism of water attachment to this protein. The location of the surface and integral water molecules in lysozyme was also investigated. Three peculiar temporal scales of the hydration dynamics can be discerned: two among these, with sub-nanosecond mean residence time, tau(w), are characteristic of surface hydration water; the slower time-scale (tau(w) approximately 2/3 ns) is associated with buried water molecules in hydrophilic pores and in superficial clefts. The computed tau(w) values in the two independent runs fall in a similar range and are consistent with each other, thus adding extra weight to our result. The tau(w) of surface water obtained from the two independent trajectories is 20 and 24 ps. In both simulations only three water molecules are bound to lysozyme for the entire length of the trajectories, in agreement with nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion estimates. Locations other than those identified in the protein crystal are found to be possible for these long-residing water molecules. The dynamics of the hydration water molecules observed in our simulations implies that each water molecule visits a multitude of residues during the lifetime of its bound with the protein. The number of residues seen by a single water molecule increases with the time-scale of its residence time and, on average, is equal to one only for the water molecules with shorter residence time. Thus, tau(w) values obtained from inelastic neutron scattering and based on jump-diffusion models are likely not to account for the contribution of water molecules with longer residence time. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs;Efeito da radiacao gama em proteina alergenica de ovos de galinhas poedeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia Nalesso Costa

    2009-07-01

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of {sup 60}Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation

  10. Laying hen performance in different production systems; why do they differ and how to close the gap? Results of discussions with groups of farmers in The Netherlands, Switzerland and France, benchmarking and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Maurer, V.; Galea, F.; Bestman, M.W.P.; Amsler, Z.; Visscher, J.; Vermeij, I.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Free range and organic systems expose the laying hen more to unexpected events and adverse climatic conditions than barn and cage systems. In France, The Netherlands and Switzerland the requirements for a hen suitable to produce in free range and organic systems were discussed with farmers. The

  11. THE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN AMINO-ACIDS SUPPLEMENTATION OF THE LAYING HEN`S FODDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA SIMIZ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment has been carried out on 69 Tetra SL hens, 27-36 weeks old, distributed into 3 groups consisted of 23 hens. They were fed with fodder recipes with different protein levels (17, 16 and respectively 15%. These recipes have been supplemented with DL-methionine and L-lysine up to the level of 0.80% lysine and 0.38% methionine. Fish flour has participated in a proportion of 3% in group 1, 1.5% in group 2 and it was absent from the fodder structure used in group 3. The reduction of crude protein with 1-2p% compared to the available commercial products, but with an amino acid supplementation, has led to the improvement of the economic criteria regarding egg production, generating savings of 7.7% in the group with 16% CP and of 12.8% in the group with 15% CP. The egg mass has not been affected significantly (p>0.05, the best yield being achieved from the hens fed with a 16%CP recipe.

  12. COMPARISON OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY QUALITY OF SAUSAGES PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the comparative quality of sausages prepared from different combination of spent duck and spent hen meats in terms of physico-chemical and sensory attributes. Sausages from 75% spent duck and 25% spent hen (T1 , 50% spent duck and 50% spent hen (T2 and 25% spent duck and 75% spent hen (T3 meats were prepared by standard methods. The quality parameter studies included pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture (%, protein (%, fat (% and sensory attributes. Results revealed that pH, TV, and protein showed insignificant differences between the treatments whereas TBA, moisture and fat varied significantly (p T2 > T1.

  13. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (pmeat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (pmeat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (pgame hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice.

  14. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying hens 27 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and five replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet without CNM and others with the inclusion of this food at levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Upon regression analysis, a linear increase in nitrogen metabolism, crude energy and apparently metabolizable energy was seen. The dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy corrected for rations were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM. Feed intake and egg weight were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM; however, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and yolk color worsened linearly with inclusion of CNM. Compared to control diet, the inclusion of CNM worsened the egg mass and feed conversion from 15%, and yolk color from 20%. As a result, it is recommended the inclusion of the CNM in the diet of laying hens at a maximum level of 10%.

  15. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.

  16. Adding value to the meat of spent laying hens manufacturing sausages with a healthy appeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KMR de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of the use of spent laying hens' meat in the manufacturing of mortadella-type sausages with healthy appeal by using vegetable oil instead of animal fat. 120 Hy-line® layer hens were distributed in a completely randomized design into two treatments of six replicates with ten birds each. The treatments were birds from light Hy-line® W36 and semi-heavy Hy-line® Brown lines. Cold carcass, wing, breast and leg fillets yields were determined. Dry matter, protein, and lipid contents were determined in breast and leg fillets. The breast and legg fillets of three replicates per treatment were used to manufacture mortadella. After processing, sausages were evaluated for proximal composition, objective color, microbiological parameters, fatty acid profile and sensory acceptance. The meat of light and semi-heavy spent hens presented good yield and composition, allowing it to be used as raw material for the manufacture of processed products. Mortadellas were safe from microbiological point of view, and those made with semi-heavy hens fillets were redder and better accepted by consumers. Values for all sensory attributes were evaluated over score 5 (neither liked nor disliked. Both products presented high polyunsaturated fatty acid contents and good polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. The excellent potential for the use of meat from spent layer hens of both varieties in the manufacturing of healthier mortadella-type sausage was demonstrated.

  17. Digestible threonine to lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 24-40 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cristina da Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-hundred sixteen white laying hens were used to assess the ideal ratio of digestible threonine:lysine in diets for laying hens at 24 to 40 weeks of age. Birds were assigned to a randomized block design, with six treatments, six replicates per treatment and six birds per experimental unit. The cage was used as the blocking criterion. Experimental diets contained different digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratios (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90% with 142 g/kg of crude protein. Experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric with different contents of L-glutamic acid. Feed intake (g/hen/d, egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/hen/d, feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen and kg/kg egg, eggshell weight (g, albumen weight (g, yolk weight (g and body weight gain (g were assessed. The maximum egg production was observed at 78% digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio, while the best values of feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen egg and feed conversion ratio (kg/kg of egg were observed at 77.6% and 75%, respectively. Feed intake, egg mass and egg contents (yolk, albumen and eggshell were not affected by treatments. The estimated digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of Hy-Line W36 laying hens at 24 to 40 weeks of age is 78%, corresponding to 5.70 g/kg of dietary digestible threonine.

  18. preservation of irradiated mechanically separated turkey hen meat based Vienna sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abderabba, N.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of growing doses of irradiation on the microbiological quality (pathogenic bacteria, faecal contaminants, total germs) and the physical and chemical characteristics (pH, humidity, total free fat materials, chloride and protein) of mechanically separated turkey hen meat. This study also permitted the measuring of the effects of incorporation of mechanical y separated turkey hen meat irradiated at 5 KGy on the microbiological, physical, chemical and structural qualities of Vienna sausages, as manufactured in a private company in Tunis (author)

  19. 'As I told Henning the other day'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Møller

    2008-01-01

    En analyse af sætningen 'Som jeg også sagde til Henning forleden dag' ud fra henholdsvis en klassisk argumentationsanalytisk synsvinkel, en sproghandlingsanalytisk synsvinkel og en dialogisk sysnvinkel (BAchtin)......En analyse af sætningen 'Som jeg også sagde til Henning forleden dag' ud fra henholdsvis en klassisk argumentationsanalytisk synsvinkel, en sproghandlingsanalytisk synsvinkel og en dialogisk sysnvinkel (BAchtin)...

  20. Does enhancement of specific immune responses predispose laying hens for feather pecking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parmentier, H.K.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Beerda, B.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    To mimic airborne immune challenges, layer hens were intratracheally and concurrently challenged with various doses of the protein antigen human serum albumin (HuSA) and the pathogen-associated molecular pattern lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 7 and 13 wk of age. All groups received 1 similar dose of

  1. improving performance of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted in order to study the effect of the supplementation of Avizyme 1500® (Danisco Animal Nutrition, Marlborough, UK on the performance of laying hens for one year. A control diet based on corn – soybean meal was formulated to meet nutrient requirement of ISA Brown laying hens. Two treatments, the control diet (C and C + 1000 g Avizyme/tonne diet were tested. Each diet was fed to 80 birds (20 replicates of 4 birds from 20 to 72 weeks of age, and performances of birds (feed intake, egg production, egg size, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg quality were measured. All data were subject to analyses of variance following the t-test. Results showed that the addition of Avizyme 1500 to the feed reduced feed intake by 4% (P < 0.01, mortality by 75 % or from 15% to 3.75% (P < 0.01 and improved the feed conversion ratio by 3 % (P < 0.05. The high mortality of the control treatment (15% is explained by an E.coli infection that was observed following the post-mortem examination of dead birds. The egg production (HD and HH, egg size and egg mass however were not significantly affected by the Avizyme supplementation. Egg quality (HU, yolk colour score, yolk weight and shell thickness was not significantly affected by Avizyme supplementation. It can be concluded that the supplementation of 1000 g Avizyme /tonne of diet improved feed efficiency and this was mediated via a reduction in feed intake.

  2. Concentração de proteínas em gemas de ovos de poedeiras (Gallus gallus nos diferentes ciclos de postura e sua interferência na disponibilidade do ferro Protein concentration (phosvitin and lipovitelin in egg yolks of Laying Hens (Gallus gallus in different posture cycles and its interference in the iron availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vidal Sartori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é o produto de eficiente transformação biológica feita pela galinha (Gallus gallus de postura, com alta qualidade nutricional para o consumo humano. Na gema do ovo encontra-se a proteína denominada fosvitina, que atua como carreadora do ferro se ligando a ele. A deficiência de ferro ocorre normalmente devido ao consumo insuficiente de alimentos fontes de ferro ou à baixa biodisponibilidade. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a concentração de proteínas, em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina presente em gemas de ovos crus e cozidos nos diferentes ciclos de postura (inicial, intermediário e final e avaliar a interferência desta proteína na disponibilidade do micronutriente ferro. Os tratamentos foram realizados em diferentes períodos e utilizaram ovos crus e cozidos, sendo gemas cruas de poedeiras em início, meio e fim de postura e gemas cozidas nos três ciclos de postura. Foram realizadas as análises de composição centesimal, concentração de ferro total e dialisável, concentração de proteínas em gemas e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Houve diferença na concentração de proteínas e diferentes níveis de ferro dialisável nos três ciclos de postura, porém em gemas cruas e cozidas. Com o passar dos ciclos (inicial, intermediário e final, as poedeiras mais velhas, apresentaram ovos (gemas com um teor mais elevado de ferro disponível, porém uma quantidade inferior de proteínas em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina, comparando-se com os ciclos inicial e intermediário. A disponibilidade de ferro foi mais elevada em gemas que passaram pelo processo de cocção, porém em poedeiras de postura final.The egg is the product of efficient biological transformation made by a laying hen. It has high nutritional value for human consumption. Most of the iron in egg yolk is bound by phosvitin, a major protein present in the egg yolk. Iron deficiency normally occurs due to insufficient intake of dietary iron

  3. Cooled perch effects on performance and well-being traits in caged White Leghorn hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J Y; Hester, P Y; Makagon, M M; Vezzoli, G; Gates, R S; Xiong, Y J; Cheng, H W

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the effects of chilled water cooling perches on hen performance and physiological and behavioral parameters under "natural" high temperatures during the 2013 summer with a 4-hour acute heating episode. White Leghorns at 16 wk of age (N = 162) were randomly assigned to 18 cages (n = 9) arranged into 3 units. Each unit was assigned to one of the 3 treatments through 32 wk of age: 1) cooled perches, 2) air perches, and 3) no perches. Chilled water (10°C) was circulated through the cooled perches when cage ambient temperature exceeded 25°C. At the age of 27.6 wk, hens were subjected to a 4-hour acute heating episode of 33.3°C and plasma corticosterone was determined within 2 hours. Egg production was recorded daily. Feed intake and egg and shell quality were measured at 5-week intervals. Feather condition, foot health, adrenal and liver weights, plasma corticosterone, and heat shock protein 70 mRNA were determined at the end of the study at 32 wk of age. The proportion of hens per cage perching, feeding, drinking, panting, and wing spreading was evaluated over one d every 5 wks and on the d of acute heat stress. There were no treatment effects on the measured physiological and production traits except for nail length. Nails were shorter for cooled perch hens than control (P = 0.002) but not air perch hens. Panting and wing spread were observed only on the day of acute heat stress. The onset of both behaviors was delayed for cooled perch hens, and they perched more than air perch hens following acute heat stress (P = 0.001) and at the age 21.4 wk (P = 0.023). Cooled perch hens drank less than control (P = 0.019) but not air perch hens at the age 21.4 wk. These results indicate that thermally cooled perches reduced thermoregulatory behaviors during acute heat stress, but did not affect their performance and physiological parameters under the ambient temperature imposed during this study. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  4. Impact of supplementing diets with propolis on productive performance, egg quality traits and some haematological variables of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, A A A; El-Sheikh, T M

    2017-06-01

    One hundred and twenty eight, 28-weeks-old Lohmann LSL hybrid layers were used in this experiment, which lasted 12 weeks to investigate the effect of propolis supplementation on the productive performance, egg quality traits and haematological variables of laying hens. All hens were randomly classified into four equal experimental groups, eight replicates (4 birds/each). Hens in group 1 were fed on a commercial diet and considered as control group, while those in groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed on the same commercial diet and supplemented with 250, 500 and 1000 mg propolis/kg diet. The obtained results revealed that daily feed consumption/hen increased insignificantly with increasing propolis level than that of the control group. Regarding the means of egg mass and egg production rate, it was observed that the laying hens fed diets containing 250 and 1000 mg propolis/kg significantly (p hens as compared to those in the control. Concerning the haematological parameters, the results showed that the levels of total protein and globulin increased significantly with increasing propolis level, while cholesterol and liver enzymes were significantly decreased (p hens in the treated groups significantly decreased, whereas the lymphocyte count significantly increased, resulting in a decreased H/L ratio than that of the control group. Thus, it could be concluded that the supplementation of 250 mg propolis/kg diet is highly recommended to improving egg production, blood constituent and haematological parameters of the commercial laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Porous concrete block as an environmental enrichment device increases activity of laying hens in cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, A; Gorjanc, G; Stuhec, I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the influence of simple and cheap environmental enrichment such as porous concrete on the behavior of laying hens in conventional cages. Forty brown laying hens were housed in individual wire mesh cages: 20 in experimental cages with porous concrete block provided for pecking and 20 in a control group without concrete block provided. Porous concrete block (5 cm length x 5 cm width x 5 cm height) was mounted on the side wall at the height of the hen's head. Behavior was studied from 42 to 48 wk of age. A group of 8 hens was filmed for 24 h, and the camera was moved each day so that all 40 hens were recorded over 5 d each wk. Videotaping was performed in wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the experiment. States (long-term behavior) were observed with 5-min interval recording (feeding, preening, resting, and remaining inactive), whereas events (short-term activities) were observed with instantaneous recording (drinking, pecking concrete, pecking neighbors, pecking cage, and attempting to escape). Data were analyzed with generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution for states, and Poisson distribution for events. Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods were used to estimate model parameters. Because posterior distributions of quantities of interest were skewed, medians and standard errors are reported. Hens in experimental cages were more active in long-term behavior than controls (64.9 +/- 1.9 and 59.3 +/- 1.9% of the light period, respectively). Correspondingly, hens in the control group showed more long-term inactivity. In addition to pecking the porous concrete block, hens in experimental cages also showed other short-term activities with greater frequency (4.10 +/- 0.31 and 3.51 +/- 0.25 events per h, respectively). Our hypothesis that hens in enriched cages would have a greater level of activity was confirmed. Provision of a piece of porous concrete block as a pecking substrate enriched the environment of the birds at negligible

  6. Effect of Quantum phytase on nutrient digestibility and bone ash in White Leghorn laying hens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A L; Dahiya, J P; Wyatt, C L; Classen, H L

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of an Escherichia coli 6-phytase supplementation (Quantum) on nutrient digestibility-retention and bone ash in laying hens fed corn-soybean meal (CSM) diets was investigated. White Leghorn hens (Shaver and Bovan strains) were fed CSM diets containing 0.35% (positive control, PC), 0.25% (negative control 1, NC1), or 0.15% (negative control 2, NC2) nonphytate P from 21 to 61 wk of age. Six more diets were manufactured by supplementing the negative control diets with 200, 400, and 600 units per kilogram of exogenous phytase resulting in a total of 9 treatments. Each dietary treatment x strain subclass was replicated twice with 6 hens per replication. Fecal and ileal digesta samples were collected at 42 wk of age to determine apparent nutrient digestibility or retention. Left tibiae were collected at 42 and 61 wk of age to determine bone ash. The coefficients for ileal digestibility and fecal retention for protein were higher (P ash percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in 61-wk-old hens fed 200 or 400 units per kilogram of phytase-supplemented NC2 diets. Significantly higher diet AME and fecal protein retention were demonstrated for Shaver hens in comparison to the Bovan hens. Overall, the Quantum phytase was not efficacious at improving nutrient digestibility-retention in laying hens fed CSM diets deficient in nonphytate P.

  7. Evaluation of production parameters and nutrient utilization of hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and fifty Babcock hens in their 10th week of lay were divided into 5 groups of 50 hens each and randomly assigned to the 5 treatment rations in a completely randomized design (CRD). Data were collected on average final weight, body weight change, average feed intake, average hen-day lay, average egg ...

  8. Biochemical Parameters and Histopathological Findings in the Forced Molt Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mert

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of forced molting using biochemical parameters and histopathological findings in laying hens. 36 Hyline W36 strain laying hens, 90 weeks old were chosen for this research. Eight of these chickens were randomly selected and placed in a cage as the control group before the molting program began. All the others 28 chickens were used for the forced molting program. Eight laying hens were slaughtered at the end of the molting program named as molting group. The remaining 20 hens were fed for 37 days, weighted and slaughtered when they reached the maximum egg production (80% as postmolting group. Then, blood was analyzed for malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, albumin, globulin, total protein, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and Vitamin C. The malondialdehyde and glutathione levels of the thyroid and liver tissues were also analyzed along with an examination of the histopathological changes of the liver, ovarium and thyroid glands; and live body, liver, ovarium, thyroid weights and thyroid lengths. In conclusion, it was found that forced molting produces stress and notable side effects in hens, like the oxidant and antioxidant status of the organs, tissue weights and sizes, hormon profiles, blood biochemical and histopathological parameter changes. The activities of thyroid malondialdehyde (p<0.05, liver glutathione (p<0.01, plasma catalase (p<0.001 were significantly decreased in molting group compared to control values, while liver malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased (p<0.001 and thyroid glutathione levels had nonsignificant effect. These levels in molting hens were the first study for veterinary science.

  9. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Hen Survival: Effects of Raptors, Anthropogenic and Landscape Features, and Hen Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Conover, Michael R.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Frey, S. Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Survival of breeding-age hens has been identified as the demographic rate with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte, 1827); hereafter “Sage-Grouse”). During 2008–2011, we collected summer survival data from 427 Sage-Grouse hens in southern Wyoming, USA. We assessed the effects of raptor densities, anthropogenic features, landscape features, and Sage-Grouse hen behavior on Sage-Grouse hen survival. Survival of Sage-G...

  10. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Therapeutic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Harvey; Chow, Timothy W

    2017-09-01

    Biologics or therapeutic proteins are becoming increasingly important as treatments for disease. The most common class of biologics are monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Recently, there has been an increase in the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. We review PBPK models for therapeutic proteins with an emphasis on mAbs. Due to their size and similarity to endogenous antibodies, there are distinct differences between PBPK models for small molecules and mAbs. The high-level organization of a typical mAb PBPK model consists of a whole-body PBPK model with organ compartments interconnected by both blood and lymph flows. The whole-body PBPK model is coupled with tissue-level submodels used to describe key mechanisms governing mAb disposition including tissue efflux via the lymphatic system, elimination by catabolism, protection from catabolism binding to the neonatal Fc (FcRn) receptor, and nonlinear binding to specific pharmacological targets of interest. The use of PBPK modeling in the development of therapeutic proteins is still in its infancy. Further application of PBPK modeling for therapeutic proteins will help to define its developing role in drug discovery and development. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE EVALUATION OF NUGGETS PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.

  12. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yung Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range. The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (p<0.05. The crude protein, total collagen, zinc and iron contents in thigh meat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (p<0.05. The meat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (p<0.05 better than those of the other two groups. Moreover, the current findings also indicate that the Taiwan game hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice.

  13. Hot Electron Nanoscopy and Spectroscopy (HENs)

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea; Torre, Bruno; Allione, Marco; Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter includes a brief description of different laser coupling methods with guided surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at the surface of a cone. It shows some devices, their electromagnetic simulations, and their optical characterization. A theoretical section illustrates the optical and quantum description of the hot charge generation rate as obtained for the SPP propagation along the nanocone in adiabatic compression. The chapter also shows some experimental results concerning the application of the hot electron nanoscopy and spectroscopy (HENs) in the so-called Schottky configuration, highlighting the sensitivity and the nanoscale resolution of the technique. The comparison with Kelvin probe and other electric atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques points out the intrinsic advantages of the HENs. In the end, some further insights are given about the possibility of exploiting HENs with a pulsed laser at the femtosecond time scale without significant pulse broadening and dispersion.

  14. Hot Electron Nanoscopy and Spectroscopy (HENs)

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2017-08-17

    This chapter includes a brief description of different laser coupling methods with guided surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at the surface of a cone. It shows some devices, their electromagnetic simulations, and their optical characterization. A theoretical section illustrates the optical and quantum description of the hot charge generation rate as obtained for the SPP propagation along the nanocone in adiabatic compression. The chapter also shows some experimental results concerning the application of the hot electron nanoscopy and spectroscopy (HENs) in the so-called Schottky configuration, highlighting the sensitivity and the nanoscale resolution of the technique. The comparison with Kelvin probe and other electric atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques points out the intrinsic advantages of the HENs. In the end, some further insights are given about the possibility of exploiting HENs with a pulsed laser at the femtosecond time scale without significant pulse broadening and dispersion.

  15. Fast loop modeling for protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiong; Nguyen, Son; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong; Kosztin, Ioan

    2015-03-01

    X-ray crystallography is the main method for determining 3D protein structures. In many cases, however, flexible loop regions of proteins cannot be resolved by this approach. This leads to incomplete structures in the protein data bank, preventing further computational study and analysis of these proteins. For instance, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of structure-function relationship require complete protein structures. To address this shortcoming, we have developed and implemented an efficient computational method for building missing protein loops. The method is database driven and uses deep learning and multi-dimensional scaling algorithms. We have implemented the method as a simple stand-alone program, which can also be used as a plugin in existing molecular modeling software, e.g., VMD. The quality and stability of the generated structures are assessed and tested via energy scoring functions and by equilibrium MD simulations. The proposed method can also be used in template-based protein structure prediction. Work supported by the National Institutes of Health [R01 GM100701]. Computer time was provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.

  16. Effect of perches on liver health of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Hester, P Y; Hu, J Y; Yan, F F; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

    2014-07-01

    Fatty liver is a common energy metabolic disorder in caged laying hens. Considering that the egg industry is shifting from conventional cages to alternative housing systems such as enriched cages, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of perches on fat deposition and liver health in laying hens. Three hundred twenty-four 17-wk-old White Leghorn hens were housed in 1 of 4 treatments with 9 hens per cage. Treatment 1 hens never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 hens had access to perches during the pullet phase only. Treatment 3 hens had access to perches during the laying phase only. Treatment 4 hens always had access to perches. Liver weight, abdominal fat pad weight, BW, liver fat, and circulating alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and adiponectin were determined. Provision of perches during either the rearing or laying phase did not affect liver health in 71-wk-old hens. However, perch access compared with no perch access during the egg laying phase reduced relative fat pad weight. These results suggest that providing perches as a means of stimulating activity reduced abdominal fat deposition in caged hens during the laying period. However, perch access in caged hens was ineffective in reducing fat deposition in the liver and altering enzyme activities related to improved liver function. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Models of crk adaptor proteins in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emily S; Park, Morag

    2012-05-01

    The Crk family of adaptor proteins (CrkI, CrkII, and CrkL), originally discovered as the oncogene fusion product, v-Crk, of the CT10 chicken retrovirus, lacks catalytic activity but engages with multiple signaling pathways through their SH2 and SH3 domains. Crk proteins link upstream tyrosine kinase and integrin-dependent signals to downstream effectors, acting as adaptors in diverse signaling pathways and cellular processes. Crk proteins are now recognized to play a role in the malignancy of many human cancers, stimulating renewed interest in their mechanism of action in cancer progression. The contribution of Crk signaling to malignancy has been predominantly studied in fibroblasts and in hematopoietic models and more recently in epithelial models. A mechanistic understanding of Crk proteins in cancer progression in vivo is still poorly understood in part due to the highly pleiotropic nature of Crk signaling. Recent advances in the structural organization of Crk domains, new roles in kinase regulation, and increased knowledge of the mechanisms and frequency of Crk overexpression in human cancers have provided an incentive for further study in in vivo models. An understanding of the mechanisms through which Crk proteins act as oncogenic drivers could have important implications in therapeutic targeting.

  18. Effects of housing system and age of laying hens on egg performance in fresh pasta production: pasta cooking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamprese, Cristina; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Rossi, Margherita

    2011-03-30

    Very few studies concern the effects of layer housing systems and age on egg technological properties. Thus the aim of this work was to study the influence of these two factors on egg performance in fresh pasta production, focusing on pasta cooking behaviour. Samples of pasta subjected to analysis were prepared with eggs laid by Hy-Line Brown hens (from 27 to 68 weeks old) housed in cage, barn and organic systems. Higher average values of weight increase and matter loss during pasta cooking were observed for samples prepared with eggs laid by older hens. Such cooking behaviour indicated the development of a weaker pasta protein network, resulting from a decrease in the quantity of albumen protein and an increase in fat content, which is due to the reduction in albumen/yolk ratio during hen aging. The housing system had a significant effect only on matter loss in cooking water, but differences between samples were so small as to be unlikely perceived by consumers. Both hen age and housing system significantly affected pasta cooking behaviour, but the greatest effect was exerted by the hen age. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. EFFICACY OF PROBIOTICS INTAKE ON INTERNAL MILIEU OF HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mellen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the functional efficiency of probiotic preparation on selected blood biochemical parameters of ISA Brown hens. Feed in the experimental group of hens was enriched with a probiotic preparation in the dose of 500g.t-1 consisted of freeze-dried cultures: Lactobacillus bulgaricus LAT 187, L. acidophilus LAT 180, L. helveticus LAT 179, L. delbrueckii ssp. Lactis LAT 182, Streptococcus thermophiles LAT 205, Enterococcus faecium E-253 with concentration of 5.109 (CFU LAB living organisms in 1 gram. Blood samples were collected in 25 and 48 week of hens’ age. Biochemical parameters of mineral profile (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorides, energetic profile (plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, bilirubin, glucose, and activities of serum liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase AST, alanine aminotransferase ALT, alkaline phosphatase ALP were analysed using Ecoline kits and a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyser Microlab 300 (Vilat Scientific, Dieren, The Nederland. Probiotic preparation reduced (P<0.05 serum cholesterol and triglycerides content. No significant effects of probiotic on remaining parameters were confirmed.

  20. Effect of light-emitting diode vs. fluorescent lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 1 - Operational characteristics of lights and production traits of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Ning, Z; Xin, H

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lights are becoming more affordable for agricultural applications. Despite many lab-scale studies concerning impact of LED on poultry, little research has been documented under field production conditions, especially for laying hens. This 15-month field study was carried out to evaluate the effects of LED vs. fluorescent (FL) lights on laying hens (Dekalb white breed) using 4 (2 pairs) aviary hen houses each at a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The evaluation was done regarding operational characteristics of the lights and hen production traits. The results show that spatial distribution of the LED light was less uniform than that of the FL light. Light intensity of the LED light decreased by 27% after 3,360 h use but remained quite steady from 3,360 to 5,760 h use. Eleven out of 762 (1.44%) LED lamps (new at onset of the study) in the 2 houses failed during the 15-month experiment period. The neck area of the LED lamp was hottest, presumably the primary reason for the lamp failure as cracks were noticed in the neck region of all failed LED lamps. No differences were observed in egg weight, hen-day egg production, feed use, and mortality rate between LED and FL regimens. However, hens under the FL had higher eggs per hen housed and better feed conversion than those under the LED during 20 to 70 wk production (P Hens under the LED tended to have less feather uniformity and insulation than those under the FL (P hens under the LED showed a larger median avoidance distance than those under the FL at 36 wk age (P hens under the LED were more alert; but no difference at 60 wk age. More comparative research to quantify behavioral and production responses of different breeds of hens to LED vs. FL lighting seems warranted. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Dietary tea polyphenol supplementation improved egg production performance, albumen quality, and magnum morphology of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Cui; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Shu-Geng; Qi, Guang-Hai

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary supplementation of tea polyphenols (TP) and tea catechins (TC) affect laying performance, albumen quality, ovomucin composition, and magnum morphology of laying hens in the late phase of production. Two hundred seventy Hy-Line Brown laying hens (64 wk old) were assigned to a basal diet (the control), the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg tea polyphenols (TP200) or 200 mg/kg tea catechins (TC200). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens each. The feeding trial lasted 10 wks. Over the course of the trial, dietary supplementation with TP200 significantly increased the egg production (EP) and improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in wk 6 to 10 and wk 1 to 10 (P hens fed TP200 were higher than those of hens fed the control diet at wks 8 and 10 (P 0.05). The SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that bands of the ovomucin fractions in the TP200 group had the highest intensity compared with those of the control and TC200 groups. Compared with the control, there was a significant increase in protein sulfhydryl (SH) content of the albumen in the TP200 group at the end of experiment, while a significant decrease in protein carbonyl content and protein surface hydrophobicity (P hens. In addition, TP rather than TC could improve the health status of the magnum for aged layers.

  2. Effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy on laying hens in barn system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan Ku; Park, Seong Bok; Jeon, Jin Joo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Sang Ho; Hong, Eui Chul; Kim, Chan Ho

    2018-04-12

    This experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) on the laying performance, egg quality, blood parameter, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to laying hens. A total of three-hundred twenty 33-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were evenly assigned to four experimental diets of 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal AMEn/kg in floor with deep litter of rice hulls. There were four replicates of each treatment, each consisting of 20 birds in a pen. AMEn intake was increased (linear, p Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were improved (linear, p hen-day egg production tended to be increased as increasing level of AMEn in diets increased. During the experiment, leukocyte concentration and blood biochemistry (total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, calcium, asparate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) were not influenced by increasing level of AMEn in diets. Gross energy and ether extract were increased (linear, p hens fed high AMEn diet (i.e., 3,050 kcal/kg in the current experiment) tended to overconsume energy with a positive effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology but not in egg production and egg mass.

  3. The Protein Model Portal--a comprehensive resource for protein structure and model information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Juergen; Roth, Steven; Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Schmidt, Tobias; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The Protein Model Portal (PMP) has been developed to foster effective use of 3D molecular models in biomedical research by providing convenient and comprehensive access to structural information for proteins. Both experimental structures and theoretical models for a given protein can be searched simultaneously and analyzed for structural variability. By providing a comprehensive view on structural information, PMP offers the opportunity to apply consistent assessment and validation criteria to the complete set of structural models available for proteins. PMP is an open project so that new methods developed by the community can contribute to PMP, for example, new modeling servers for creating homology models and model quality estimation servers for model validation. The accuracy of participating modeling servers is continuously evaluated by the Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) project. The PMP offers a unique interface to visualize structural coverage of a protein combining both theoretical models and experimental structures, allowing straightforward assessment of the model quality and hence their utility. The portal is updated regularly and actively developed to include latest methods in the field of computational structural biology. Database URL: http://www.proteinmodelportal.org.

  4. The Protein Model Portal—a comprehensive resource for protein structure and model information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Juergen; Roth, Steven; Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Schmidt, Tobias; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The Protein Model Portal (PMP) has been developed to foster effective use of 3D molecular models in biomedical research by providing convenient and comprehensive access to structural information for proteins. Both experimental structures and theoretical models for a given protein can be searched simultaneously and analyzed for structural variability. By providing a comprehensive view on structural information, PMP offers the opportunity to apply consistent assessment and validation criteria to the complete set of structural models available for proteins. PMP is an open project so that new methods developed by the community can contribute to PMP, for example, new modeling servers for creating homology models and model quality estimation servers for model validation. The accuracy of participating modeling servers is continuously evaluated by the Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) project. The PMP offers a unique interface to visualize structural coverage of a protein combining both theoretical models and experimental structures, allowing straightforward assessment of the model quality and hence their utility. The portal is updated regularly and actively developed to include latest methods in the field of computational structural biology. Database URL: http://www.proteinmodelportal.org PMID:23624946

  5. Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs | Henning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs. Michael A Henning, Sinclair A Marcon. Abstract. A dominating set in a graph G is a set S of vertices of G such that every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex of S. The domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G. For a positive integer b, ...

  6. Hydration dynamics near a model protein surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of water dynamics from dilute to very high concentration solutions of a prototypical hydrophobic amino acid with its polar backbone, N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA), is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation for both the completely deuterated and completely hydrogenated leucine monomer. We observe several unexpected features in the dynamics of these biological solutions under ambient conditions. The NALMA dynamics shows evidence of de Gennes narrowing, an indication of coherent long timescale structural relaxation dynamics. The translational water dynamics are analyzed in a first approximation with a jump diffusion model. At the highest solute concentrations, the hydration water dynamics is significantly suppressed and characterized by a long residential time and a slow diffusion coefficient. The analysis of the more dilute concentration solutions takes into account the results of the 2.0M solution as a model of the first hydration shell. Subtracting the first hydration layer based on the 2.0M spectra, the translational diffusion dynamics is still suppressed, although the rotational relaxation time and residential time are converged to bulk-water values. Molecular dynamics analysis shows spatially heterogeneous dynamics at high concentration that becomes homogeneous at more dilute concentrations. We discuss the hydration dynamics results of this model protein system in the context of glassy systems, protein function, and protein-protein interfaces

  7. Modeling protein structures: construction and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, C S; Cohen, F E

    1993-06-01

    Although no general solution to the protein folding problem exists, the three-dimensional structures of proteins are being successfully predicted when experimentally derived constraints are used in conjunction with heuristic methods. In the case of interleukin-4, mutagenesis data and CD spectroscopy were instrumental in the accurate assignment of secondary structure. In addition, the tertiary structure was highly constrained by six cysteines separated by many residues that formed three disulfide bridges. Although the correct structure was a member of a short list of plausible structures, the "best" structure was the topological enantiomer of the experimentally determined conformation. For many proteases, other experimentally derived structures can be used as templates to identify the secondary structure elements. In a procedure called modeling by homology, the structure of a known protein is used as a scaffold to predict the structure of another related protein. This method has been used to model a serine and a cysteine protease that are important in the schistosome and malarial life cycles, respectively. The model structures were then used to identify putative small molecule enzyme inhibitors computationally. Experiments confirm that some of these nonpeptidic compounds are active at concentrations of less than 10 microM.

  8. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  9. Predicting Protein Secondary Structure with Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Larsen, Simon; Thomsen, Claus

    2004-01-01

    we are considering here, is to predict the secondary structure from the primary one. To this end we train a Markov model on training data and then use it to classify parts of unknown protein sequences as sheets, helices or coils. We show how to exploit the directional information contained...... in the Markov model for this task. Classifications that are purely based on statistical models might not always be biologically meaningful. We present combinatorial methods to incorporate biological background knowledge to enhance the prediction performance....

  10. Protein Folding: Search for Basic Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Y. Torshin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How a unique three-dimensional structure is rapidly formed from the linear sequence of a polypeptide is one of the important questions in contemporary science. Apart from biological context of in vivo protein folding (which has been studied only for a few proteins, the roles of the fundamental physical forces in the in vitro folding remain largely unstudied. Despite a degree of success in using descriptions based on statistical and/or thermodynamic approaches, few of the current models explicitly include more basic physical forces (such as electrostatics and Van Der Waals forces. Moreover, the present-day models rarely take into account that the protein folding is, essentially, a rapid process that produces a highly specific architecture. This review considers several physical models that may provide more direct links between sequence and tertiary structure in terms of the physical forces. In particular, elaboration of such simple models is likely to produce extremely effective computational techniques with value for modern genomics.

  11. 1H NMR studies of human lysozyme: Spectral assignment and comparison with hen lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfield, C.; Dobson, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Complete main-chain (NH and αCH) 1 H NMR assignments are reported for the 130 residues of human lysozyme, along with extensive assignments for side-chain protons. Analysis of 2-D NOESY experiments shows that the regions of secondary structure for human lysozyme in solution are essentially identical with those found previously in a similar study of hen lysozyme and are in close accord with the structure of the protein reported previously from x-ray diffraction studies in the crystalline state. Comparison of the chemical shifts, spin-spin coupling constants, and hydrogen exchange behavior are also consistent with closely similar structures for the two proteins in solution. In a number of cases specific differences in the NMR parameters between hen and human lysozymes can be correlated with specific differences observed in the crystal structures

  12. Increase of hepatic nitric oxide levels in a nutritional model of fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC), and also nitric oxide (NO) in over fed broiler breeder hens, 198 hens. (30 weeks old) .... The total protein in the liver tissue was determined by a method ... Table 1. Egg production and LHS in broiler breeder hens .... trations of nitric oxide metabolites (nitrates-nitrites) in rat.

  13. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Agrawal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry,viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05 among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p0.05 difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63- 5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No significant difference in the rate of transfer of IgY was observed in four breeds studied (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and moderate seropositivity was detected for Salmonella-specific antibodies in progeny chicks.

  15. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerkens, Jasper L T; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-09-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage housing systems known as aviaries. Factors tested included type of system flooring, degree of red mite infestation, and access to free-range areas. Information on housing characteristics, management, and performance in Belgian aviaries (N=47 flocks) were obtained from a questionnaire, farm records, and farm visits. Plumage condition and pecking wounds were scored in 50 randomly selected 60-week-old hens per flock. Associations between plumage condition, wounds, performance, mortality, and possible risk factors were investigated using a linear model with a stepwise model selection procedure. Many flocks exhibited a poor plumage condition and a high prevalence of wounds, with considerable variation between flocks. Better plumage condition was found in wire mesh aviaries (Pfeather cover had lower levels of mortality (Pnest perches. Wire mesh flooring in particular seems to have several health, welfare, and performance benefits in comparison to plastic slats, possibly related to decreased feather pecking, better hygiene, and fewer red mite infestations. This suggests that adjustments to the aviary housing design may further improve laying hen welfare and performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Modeling disordered regions in proteins using Rosetta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Yu-Ruei Wang

    Full Text Available Protein structure prediction methods such as Rosetta search for the lowest energy conformation of the polypeptide chain. However, the experimentally observed native state is at a minimum of the free energy, rather than the energy. The neglect of the missing configurational entropy contribution to the free energy can be partially justified by the assumption that the entropies of alternative folded states, while very much less than unfolded states, are not too different from one another, and hence can be to a first approximation neglected when searching for the lowest free energy state. The shortcomings of current structure prediction methods may be due in part to the breakdown of this assumption. Particularly problematic are proteins with significant disordered regions which do not populate single low energy conformations even in the native state. We describe two approaches within the Rosetta structure modeling methodology for treating such regions. The first does not require advance knowledge of the regions likely to be disordered; instead these are identified by minimizing a simple free energy function used previously to model protein folding landscapes and transition states. In this model, residues can be either completely ordered or completely disordered; they are considered disordered if the gain in entropy outweighs the loss of favorable energetic interactions with the rest of the protein chain. The second approach requires identification in advance of the disordered regions either from sequence alone using for example the DISOPRED server or from experimental data such as NMR chemical shifts. During Rosetta structure prediction calculations the disordered regions make only unfavorable repulsive contributions to the total energy. We find that the second approach has greater practical utility and illustrate this with examples from de novo structure prediction, NMR structure calculation, and comparative modeling.

  17. Protein Simulation Data in the Relational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Andrew M; Daggett, Valerie

    2012-10-01

    High performance computing is leading to unprecedented volumes of data. Relational databases offer a robust and scalable model for storing and analyzing scientific data. However, these features do not come without a cost-significant design effort is required to build a functional and efficient repository. Modeling protein simulation data in a relational database presents several challenges: the data captured from individual simulations are large, multi-dimensional, and must integrate with both simulation software and external data sites. Here we present the dimensional design and relational implementation of a comprehensive data warehouse for storing and analyzing molecular dynamics simulations using SQL Server.

  18. Evaluation of aflatoxicosis in hens fed with commercial poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    DHANASEKARAN, Dharumadurai; PANNEERSELVAM, Annamalai; THAJUDDIN, Noorudin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of aflatoxin in the growth of hens was histopathologically analyzed. Mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated and characterized as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. The aflatoxin was extracted from Aspergillus flavus and their impact on the growth pattern of hens was evaluated. The histopathological analysis reveals that more lesions were found in the vital organs of hens in comparison with the control chick group. In the present study, it is concluded that the quality of poultry ...

  19. Nest sharing under semi-natural conditions in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    problems to laying hens, and egg production may also be negatively affected. Understanding what causes this difference in nest location selection may provide solutions to the problems associated with simultaneous nest sharing. The aims were to investigate whether a commercial strain of laying hens normally...... daily of each nest with regard to number of eggs, position, and materials used. On five mornings nesting behaviour was observed. Nest sharing occurred on all but the first 5 days of egg-laying. The majority of hens (n = 14) chose to visit an occupied nest at least once, but no hens exclusively used...

  20. Gregarious nesting - An anti-predator response in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting can be defined as a behaviour that occurs when a laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site. It occurs frequently in flocks of laying hens kept under commercial conditions, contrasting...... the behaviour displayed by feral hens that isolate themselves from the flock during nesting activities. What motivates laying hens to perform gregarious nesting is unknown. One possibility is that gregarious nesting is an anti-predator response to the risk of nest predation emerging from behavioural flexibility...

  1. Arsenic in Eggs and Excreta of Laying Hens in Bangladesh: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, M. A.; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M. Z.; Rao, D. Ramkishan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n=248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (pBangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens. PMID:23304904

  2. The preference for high-fiber feed in laying hens divergently selected on feather pecking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmendal, R; Bessei, W

    2012-08-01

    Earlier studies in laying hens have demonstrated a negative correlation between feather pecking and the dietary fiber content of the feed. However, the factors underlying this relationship are not fully understood. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that birds prone to feather pecking would prefer a diet supplemented with dietary fiber. Thus, the aim was to investigate the voluntary consumption of a wheat-soy control diet (CON) and a diet supplemented with 8% spelt hulls (FIB) on the expense of wheat in 20 individually caged hens selected for high feather pecking (HFP) behavior and 20 individually caged hens selected for low feather pecking (LFP) behavior. The proportional intake of FIB was 0.39 and significantly different from 0.50 (Phens (0.36; Phens had inferior plumage condition (Pfeed intake (Phens plucked more feathers from a simple inanimate feather-pecking model, but the number of feathers being pulled out did not correlate with the proportional intake of FIB. It was concluded that the preference for feed supplemented with spelt hulls was different between hens displaying different feather-pecking behavior. The underlying reason for such a difference needs further investigation.

  3. Paul Henning Krogh on Soil Ecotoxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning

    2008-01-01

    In a recent analysis of data from Essential Science Indicators SM from Thomson Reuters , Dr. Paul Henning Krogh was named a Rising Star in the field of Environment & Ecology. His current record in this field includes 48 papers cited a total of 410 times. Dr. Krogh is a Senior Scientist in the Dep......In a recent analysis of data from Essential Science Indicators SM from Thomson Reuters , Dr. Paul Henning Krogh was named a Rising Star in the field of Environment & Ecology. His current record in this field includes 48 papers cited a total of 410 times. Dr. Krogh is a Senior Scientist...... in the Department of Terrestrial Ecology at the National Environmental Research Institute, part of the University of Aarhus in Silkeborg, Denmark. This month, he talks with ScienceWatch.com correspondent Simon Mitton about his highly cited work. View Article...

  4. Vold, svensk uro og Henning Mankell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    Paperet undersøger den fiktionelle repræsentation af vold hos Henning Mankell med fokus på Innan frosten fra 2002 og filmatiseringen heraf fra 2005, men med fyldige udblik til såvel andre af Mankells fortællinger og ikke mindst sociologiske og filosofiske diskussioner af volden, voldens forstyrre......Paperet undersøger den fiktionelle repræsentation af vold hos Henning Mankell med fokus på Innan frosten fra 2002 og filmatiseringen heraf fra 2005, men med fyldige udblik til såvel andre af Mankells fortællinger og ikke mindst sociologiske og filosofiske diskussioner af volden, voldens...

  5. Markov state models of protein misfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirur, Anshul; De Sancho, David; Best, Robert B.

    2016-02-01

    Markov state models (MSMs) are an extremely useful tool for understanding the conformational dynamics of macromolecules and for analyzing MD simulations in a quantitative fashion. They have been extensively used for peptide and protein folding, for small molecule binding, and for the study of native ensemble dynamics. Here, we adapt the MSM methodology to gain insight into the dynamics of misfolded states. To overcome possible flaws in root-mean-square deviation (RMSD)-based metrics, we introduce a novel discretization approach, based on coarse-grained contact maps. In addition, we extend the MSM methodology to include "sink" states in order to account for the irreversibility (on simulation time scales) of processes like protein misfolding. We apply this method to analyze the mechanism of misfolding of tandem repeats of titin domains, and how it is influenced by confinement in a chaperonin-like cavity.

  6. Phosphorus and phytase levels for layer hens

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Cristina Ramos Rezende; Antonio Carlos de Laurentiz; Rosemeire da Silva Filardi; Vitor Barbosa Fascina; Daniella Aparecida Berto; Sérgio Turra Sobrane Filho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance and bone quality of laying hens after peak production fed diets containing phosphorus levels and phytase. An experiment was conducted with 384 Hy-line distributed in a completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 3 with 4 levels of available phosphorus and 3 levels of phytase. The experimental period was divided into four periods of 28 days, at the end of each cycle were determined experimental feed intake, egg production, egg weight,...

  7. Distracting laying hens with a 'toy'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of a commercially available plastic device, intended to distract laying hens, was investigated and found not to have the claimed effect. ... table for the white birds, 15 week egg production. Source of variation df2. SS3. MS4. F ratio. SLs. East. Blocks. 35. 67627.61. 1932.22. Treatments. I. 1233.39. 1233.39. 0.7104. 0.4050.

  8. Sleep in the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijtelaar, E L; van der Grinten, C P; Blokhuis, H J; Coenen, A M

    1987-01-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were made of five closely observed hens, all permanently implanted with both EEG and EMG electrodes. Five behavioural postures were distinguished and percentages of wakefulness, sleep and presumably paradoxical sleep (PS) were determined during the third and sixth hour of the dark period. Substantial agreement was generally found between behaviour and sleep with the exception of sitting or standing motionless with at least one eye open. During two thirds of this behavioural posture, the EEG showed large amplitude slow waves undistinguishable from slow wave sleep. Characteristics of PS were determined: periods were short, whereas its percentage increased during the night. Furthermore, EMG atonia was never found. An all night recording was made, and delta activity (2-5 Hz) was filtered and plotted against time for three of the hens. A significant decrease in delta activity across the night was found. Differences and similarities between sleep in hens and in mammals are discussed. Although large similarities exist it is concluded that some properties of birds' sleep make it unique and are a challenge for further study.

  9. Chlorinated drinking water for lightweight laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of chlorine in drinking water of laying hens on zootechnical performance, eggs shell quality, hemogasometry levels and calcium content in tibia. 144 Hy-Line laying hens, 61 weeks old, were used distributed in 24 metabolism cages. They were subjected to water diets, for a period of 28 days, using sodium hypochlorite as a chlorine source in order to obtain the following concentrations: 5ppm (control, 20ppm, 50ppm, and 100ppm. Their performance was evaluated through water consumption, feed intake, egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion. Shell quality was measured by specific gravity. At the end of the experiment, arterial blood was collected for blood gas level assessment and a poultry of each replicate was sacrificed to obtain tibia and calcium content measurement. There was a water consumption reduction from 20ppm of chlorine and feed intake reduction in poultry receiving water with 100ppm of chlorine. The regression analysis showed that the higher the level of chlorine in water, the higher the reduction in consumption. There were no differences in egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion, specific gravity, tibia calcium content, and hemogasometry levels (hydrogenionic potential, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide total concentration, anion gap and oxygen saturation. The use of levels above 5ppm of chlorine is not recommended in the water of lightweight laying hens.

  10. Equations of prediction for abdominal fat in brown egg-laying hens fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, C; Jaimes, J J B; Gewehr, C E

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each. Sixteen hens per treatment of 92 wk age were utilized to evaluate body weight, bird length, tarsus and sternum, greater and lesser diameter of the tarsus, and abdominal fat weight, after slaughter. The equations were obtained by using measures evaluated with regressors through simple and multiple linear regression with the stepwise method of indirect elimination (backward), with P abdominal fat as predicted by the equations and observed values for each bird were subjected to Pearson's correlation analysis. The equations generated by energy levels showed coefficients of determination of 0.50 and 0.74 for 2,800 and 2,550 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.84, with a highly significant correlation between the calculated and observed values of abdominal fat. For protein levels of 150, 160, and 170 g/kg in the diet, it was possible to obtain coefficients of determination of 0.75, 0.57, and 0.61, with correlation coefficients of 0.86, 0.75, and 0.78, respectively. Regarding the general equation for predicting abdominal fat weight, the coefficient of determination was 0.62; the correlation coefficient was 0.79. The equations for predicting abdominal fat weight in laying hens, based on external measurements of the birds, showed positive coefficients of determination and correlation coefficients, thus allowing researchers to determine abdominal fat weight in vivo.

  11. Peningkatan Produktivitas Ayam Petelur Melalui Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kemangi (INCREASED LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KEMANGI LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirically, kemangi leaves reported to increase health quality in human and livestock. Thepreliminary study was designed to explore the potency of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves to increaselaying hens performance. Sixteen laying hens (pullet were divided into 4 groups and repeated 4 times.Control group was laying hen administered aquadest orally, treated group was laying hen administeredextract of kemangi leaves orally at a dose of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg BW, respectively. Every day, the experimentallaying hens were fed for 3 times and drinking water was provided ad libitum. Variables observed were thenumber of eggs, egg weight, time of first laying, egg laying intervals, egg quality ( water content, crudeprotein, and crude fat, and liver function (SGPT and SGOT values . Results of this research showed thatadministration of kemangi leaves extract at a dose of 3 mg/kg BW significantly increased the number ofegg production and egg weight (p<0.05. Time of first laying and laying interval did not show any significantdifference among treatments. Examination of moisture, crude protein, and crude fat content of the eggindicated that the administration of kemangi leaves extract did not affect egg quality. Extract of kemangileaves decreased SGPT and SGOT values that indicated improvement of liver function. It was concludedthat administration of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves could increase laying hens productivity byimprovement of liver function that is critical in vitellogenesis.

  12. Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marono, S; Loponte, R; Lombardi, P; Vassalotti, G; Pero, M E; Russo, F; Gasco, L; Parisi, G; Piccolo, G; Nizza, S; Di Meo, C; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal. Feed intake, number of eggs produced, and egg weight were recorded weekly along the trial. At 45 wk of age, blood samples were collected from 2 hens per replicate. The use of HIML led to a more favorable (P meal produced a higher percentage of eggs from small (S), medium (M), and extra-large (XL) classes (P meal, while creatinine was higher (P meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for laying hens even if the complete replacement of soybean meal needs further investigation to avoid the negative effects on feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. The changes of nutrient composition of piled laying hen manure and anaerobic fermentation for recycling as a dietary ingredient for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianlong; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yanming; Zhang, Jun; Han, Dongsheng; Lv, Ning; Han, Xiaohua; Zhao, Guoqiang; Wang, Min

    2018-01-15

    This study investigated the changes of nutrient compositions of piled laying hen manure, detected the physical and chemical components of laying hen manure fermented by mixed strains, and analysed its application effects on feeding ruminants. The results showed that with increasing of piling time, the contents of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) in laying hen manure were reduced, while the contents of crude ash (CA), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) were increased. Fermentation could effectively decrease pH value, reduce Ca/P ratio, lessen the total bacterial counts, and maintain the organisms contents in laying hen manure. The results of ruminants feeding test indicated that replacing 20% diet with laying hen manure fermentation products (MFP), the weight gain and reproductive rate were respectively decreased by 9.99% and 2% compared with the control group, and the differences were not statistically significant. This technology could recycle laying hen manures as ruminant feeds, for the purpose of reducing environmental pollution and improving economic efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Response analysis of the dynamic excitation of hen eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Severa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially produced hen eggs have been tested by means of dynamic excitation of the egg-shells with following analysis of their response. The falling steel ball have been chosen as a exciting instrument and the laser vibrometer have been used as a measuring device for the egg response. The reproductibility of the experiments has been relatively high and the surface velocity has been found to be significantly dependent on the position around the meridian. Analysed frequency spectrum has shown the peak frequency and frequency history. Proposed numerical model has demonstrated reasonable agreement with experimental results and can be used as an effective tool in modelling of analogous or similar experiments.

  15. APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF RHODE ISLAND RED HEN DIETS CONTAINING Leucaena leucocephala AND Moringa oleifera LEAF MEALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abouelezz Fouad Mohammed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study consisted of two trials aimed to evaluate the dietary digestibility by Rhode Island Red (RIR hens' fed on different levels of Leucaena leucocephala (LLM or Moringa oleifera (MOLM. In each experiment, thirty six Rhode Island Red hens at 36 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups each of nine birds which were allocated in individual cages. The four groups were corresponded to four dietary treatments containing 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15 % of LLM (Exp 1 or MOLM (Exp 2. All groups received smashed diets containing similar metabolizable energy and crude protein (16% CP and 2900 kcal ME/kg diet, as fed basis. The hens were fed the experimental diets for six weeks and during the last four days, feed intake was individually recorded every day and excreta was totally collected twice daily and weighed individually. Considerable amounts of CP were found in LLM (23.61% DM and MOLM (19.76% DM. The dietary treatments had no significant effect on the intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, gross energy (GE, crude protein (CP or neutral detergent fiber (NDF in both experiments, while the acid detergent fibers (ADF consumption increased linearly (P

  16. Structural insights into mechanisms of the small RNA methyltransferase HEN1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Ji, Lijuan; Huang, Qichen; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Jin-Biao; (UAB); (UCR)

    2010-02-22

    RNA silencing is a conserved regulatory mechanism in fungi, plants and animals that regulates gene expression and defence against viruses and transgenes. Small silencing RNAs of {approx}20-30 nucleotides and their associated effector proteins, the Argonaute family proteins, are the central components in RNA silencing. A subset of small RNAs, such as microRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants, Piwi-interacting RNAs in animals and siRNAs in Drosophila, requires an additional crucial step for their maturation; that is, 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal nucleotide. A conserved S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent RNA methyltransferase, HUA ENHANCER 1 (HEN1), and its homologues are responsible for this specific modification. Here we report the 3.1 {angstrom} crystal structure of full-length HEN1 from Arabidopsis in complex with a 22-nucleotide small RNA duplex and cofactor product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. Highly cooperative recognition of the small RNA substrate by multiple RNA binding domains and the methyltransferase domain in HEN1 measures the length of the RNA duplex and determines the substrate specificity. Metal ion coordination by both 2' and 3' hydroxyls on the 3'-terminal nucleotide and four invariant residues in the active site of the methyltransferase domain suggests a novel Mg{sup 2+}-dependent 2'-O-methylation mechanism.

  17. Accelerated shelf-life testing of quality loss for a commercial hydrolysed hen egg white powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Labuza, Theodore P

    2012-11-15

    In recent years, due to the specific health benefits associated with bioactive peptides and the reduction of protein allergenicity by enzymatic hydrolysis, the utilisation of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages for both protein supplementation and clinical use has significantly increased. However, few studies have explored the moisture-induced effects on food protein hydrolysates, and the resulting changes in the structure and texture of the food matrix as well as the loss in functional properties of bioactive peptides during storage. The main purpose of this study is to determine the influence of water activity (a(w)) on the storage quality of a commercial spray-dried hydrolysed hen egg white powder (HEW). During storage at 45 °C for two months at different a(w)s (0.05-0.79), the selected physicochemical properties of the HEW samples were analysed. Overall, the effect of a(w) on the colour change of HEW at 45 °C for one month was similar to that of HEW after four months at 23 °C due to the presence of a small amount of glucose in HEW. Several structural changes occurred at a(w)s from 0.43 to 0.79 including agglomeration, stickiness and collapse. Kinetic analysis showed a first-order hyperbolic model fit for the change in the L(∗) value, the total colour difference (ΔE(∗)) and the fluorescence intensity (FI). There was a high correlation between colour change and fluorescence, as expected for the Maillard reaction. The reduction in the remaining free amino groups was about 5% at a(w) 0.50 and 6% at a(w) 0.79 after one month storage. In summary, during storage, the Maillard reaction and/or its resulting products could decrease the nutritional value and the quality of HEW. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Applying the principles of welfare and quality of production in the organic farm of the laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zdechovanová

    2013-07-01

    monitored on the base of  collecting eggs two and several times a day, which was recorded daily on an organic farm. Chemical analyzes of samples of eggs were conducted according to the methodology for analytical laboratories (2009. In the farm were application welfare principles.  The laying hens had unlimited access to feed and water, ad libitum, free movement in the stable hall on the litter and perches. The laying hens rummaged and ashed in the free-range are of clay. In the free-range area of grassland where was a shelter, they free ranged and explorated environment. The microclimatic conditions, a construction of the perches, nests in the hall and location of the feedersand drinkers in the hall and in the free-range were solution in the accordance with the needs of improved living conditions of the laying hens. The laying hens achieved an intensity of egg-laying 84.60% in the all laying cycle. An egg weight was 62.30 g at laying hens old 42 weeks. The average dry mater contents was in the table eggs 26.21 g per 100 g of egg mass, the proteins 12.34 g per 100 g of egg mass, a fat 11.63 g per 100 g of egg mass and a cholesterol 1.27 g per 100 g of egg yolk. On the base of achivied the results, further research was recommended in the field the welfare of the laying hens intendent for the production of the table eggs.

  19. Brazil nut meal and spray-dried egg powders as alternatives to synthetic methionine in organic laying hen diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, H K; Patterson, P H

    2017-09-01

    The United States organic poultry industry is currently facing a limitation on dietary inclusion of synthetic methionine (Met). This study investigated Brazil nut protein powder (BNPP), spray-dried egg white (SDEW), and spray-dried egg blend (70:30 albumen: yolk) (SDEB) as alternatives to synthetic Met in organic laying hen diets. A total of 270 Hy-Line Brown laying hens was fed 5 diets from 22 to 38 wk of age, with 6 replicates of 3 adjacent cages per diet and 3 hens per cage. Diets included a commercial control (COM) (non-organic with standard CP and synthetic Met), an organic control (ORG) (with no synthetic Met, but higher CP to meet Met requirements), and 3 organic treatment diets with no synthetic Met, but including BNPP, SDEW, or SDEB at levels to meet Met requirements. Egg production and quality, body weight (BW), feed intake, and manure nutrients and ammonia were assessed. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS, with Tukey's test used for multiple mean comparisons, and P ≤ 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. Body weight was greatest for the COM diet, and feed conversion improved for hens fed egg-based diets compared to controls. Egg weight and production did not differ between COM and treatment diets. The SDEW diet had greater albumen height and Haugh units compared to ORG and BNPP diets and greater percent albumen compared to COM and BNPP diets. Specific gravity was greatest for BNPP fed hens. Manure DM and potash were highest from COM and BNPP diets, respectively. Both egg-based diets increased ammonia flux relative to the COM diet. The BNPP and egg-based diets were lower in cost for $/metric tonne, $/dozen eggs, and $/kg of eggs compared to the ORG diet. The ingredients assessed herein could, therefore, cost-effectively replace synthetic Met in organic hen diets without negatively impacting egg production. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for Cefovecin in hens and green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, L R; Bertelsen, M F; Brimer, L; Skaanild, M T

    2009-12-01

    The third generation cephalosporin cefovecin has been shown to have an exceptionally long elimination half-life in dogs and cats, making it suitable for antibacterial treatment with a 14-day dosing interval in these species. Pharmacokinetic parameters for cefovecin were investigated in juvenile hens and green iguanas, following subcutaneous injections with 10 mg cefovecin/kg bodyweight. Preliminary studies in eight additional species of birds and reptiles were performed and results were compared with the parameters found in hens and green iguanas. The kinetics were characterized by rapid absorption with peak plasma concentration of 6 +/- 2 microg/mL in hens and 35 +/- 12 microg/mL in green iguanas. The mean plasma half-life for cefovecin was 0.9 +/- 0.3 h for hens and 3.9 h in green iguanas. Volume of distribution was 1.6 +/- 0.5 L/kg for hens and 0.3 L/kg for green iguanas and clearance was 1252 +/- 185 mL.h/kg for hens and 53 mL.h/kg for green iguanas. Results from preliminary studies did not differ notably from those seen in hens and green iguanas. Cefovecin is not suitable for the treatment of bacterial infections with a 14-day dosing interval in hens or green iguanas and seems not to be in a number of other bird and retile species either.

  1. Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs from conventional and alternative farming systems. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... This study was carried out to investigate the effect of conventional farming systems for laying hens (standard cage batteries) and new alternative systems ...

  2. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for cefovecin in hens and green iguanas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Line Risager; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Brimer, Leon

    2009-01-01

    hens and green iguanas, following subcutaneous injections with 10 mg cefovecin / kg bodyweight. Preliminary studies in eight additional species of birds and reptiles were performed and results were compared with the parameters found in hens and green iguanas. The kinetics were characterized by rapid...

  3. Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    van Krimpen, M.M.; van Diepen, J.T.M; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; van Harn, J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table. Laying hens, organic feed raw materials, digestibility, nutritive value

  4. Genetic analysis of feather pecking behavior in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the genetic analysis of feather pecking behavior in laying hens. Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens.In the European

  5. Statistical model and first-principles simulation on concentration of HenV cluster and He bubble formation in α-Fe and W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yue-Lin; Yu, Yang; Dai, Zhen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the stabilities of He and He n -vacancy (He n V) clusters in α-Fe and W. Vacancy formation energies are 2.08 eV in α-Fe and 3.11 eV in W, respectively. Single He in both α-Fe and W prefers to occupy the tetrahedral interstitial site. We recalculated the He solution energy considering the effect of zero-point energy (ZPE). The ZPEs of He in α-Fe and W at the tetrahedral (octahedral) interstitial site are 0.072 eV (0.031 eV) and 0.078 eV (0.034 eV), respectively. The trapping energies of single He at vacancy in α-Fe and W are −2.39 eV and −4.55 eV, respectively. By sequentially adding He into vacancy, a monovacancy trap up to 10 He atoms distributing in the vacancy vicinity. Based on the above results combined with statistical model, we evaluate the concentrations of all relevant He n V clusters as a function of He chemical potential. The critical He n V concentration is found to be ∼10 −40 (atomic) at the critical temperature T = 600 K in α-Fe and T = 1600 K in W, respectively. Beyond the critical He n V concentrations, considerable He n V aggregate to form He n V m clusters. By further growing of He n V m , the He n V m clusters grow bigger resulting in the larger He bubble formation

  6. Overall welfare assessment of laying hens: Comparing science-based, environmental-based and animal-based assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimmura, T.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Mol, de R.M.; Hirahara, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2011-01-01

    To increase the validity of evaluations and facilitate expansion and maintenance of assessment systems, we constructed a database of studies on the welfare of laying hens around the world. On the basis of this database, we devised a science-based welfare assessment model. Our model includes

  7. Response of shaver brown hens to feeds of different sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve-week study was conducted to determine the effect of feed type on performance of Shaver brown hens in the humid tropical environment. One hundred and twenty (120) Shaverbrown hens of 28 weeks of age were used for the study.The hens were divided into five groups of 24 hens each and each group was ...

  8. Feather-pecking and injurious pecking in organic laying hens in 107 flocks from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestman, M.; Verwer, Cynthia; Brenninkmeyer, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Feather-pecking and cannibalism may reduce the potential of organic husbandry to enhance the welfare of laying hens. We report risk factors for these issues based on a large survey of 107 commercial flocks in eight European countries. Information was collected regarding housing, management...... and flock characteristics (age, genotype). Near the end of lay, 50 hens per flock were assessed for plumage condition and wounds. Potential influencing factors were screened and submitted to a multivariate model. The majority of the flocks (81%) consisted of brown genotypes and were found in six countries...

  9. Development of performance, behavior and gut health in laying hens in relation to dietary protein source = Ontwikkeling van technische resultaten, gedrag en darmgezondheid van leghennen in relatie tot eiwitbron in het voer

    OpenAIRE

    Krimpen, van, M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de, R.

    2010-01-01

    From this study, it can be concluded that addition of protein of animal origin to a layer diet will not guarantee for a reduction in feather pecking behavior and an improvement of gut health. Despite this, feather pecking behavior and percentage of wet litter area were reduced in two (Daka-40 and Sonac-50) of four treatments with protein of animal origin.

  10. Effects of organic and inorganic dietary selenium supplementation on gene expression profiles in oviduct tissue from broiler-breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K M; Crowdus, C A; Cantor, A H; Pescatore, A J; Barger, J L; Horgan, K; Xiao, R; Power, R F; Dawson, K A

    2011-05-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential component of at least 25 selenoproteins involved in a multitude of physiological functions, including reproduction. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms by which Se exerts its physiological effects in reproductive tissue. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of long-term inorganic Se (sodium selenite, SS) and organic yeast-derived Se (Sel-Plex(®), SP) supplementations on tissue Se content and gene expression patterns in the oviduct of broiler-breeder hens. Hens were randomly assigned at 6 weeks of age to one of the three treatments: basal semi-purified diet (control), basal diet+0.3 ppm Se as SP or basal diet+0.3 ppm Se as SS. At 49 weeks, oviduct tissue from hens randomly selected from each treatment (n=7) was analyzed for Se content and gene expression profiles using the Affymetrix Chicken genome array. Gene expression data were evaluated using GeneSpring GX 10.0 (Silicon Genetics, Redwood, CA) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software (Ingenuity Systems, Redwood City, CA). Oviduct Se concentration was greater with Se supplementation compared with the control (P≤0.05) but did not differ between SS- and SP-supplemented groups. Gene expression analysis revealed that the quantity of gene transcripts associated with energy production and protein translation were greater in the oviduct with SP but not SS supplementation. Targets up-regulated by SP, but not SS, included genes encoding several subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes, ubiquinone production and ribosomal subunits. SS hens showed a decrease in transcripts of genes involved in respiratory complexes, ATP synthesis and protein translation and metabolism in oviduct relative to control hens. In this study, although tissue Se concentrations did not differ between hens fed SS- and SP-supplemented diets, expression patterns of genes involved in energy production and protein synthesis pathways differed between treatments. These

  11. Microwave-radiation-induced molecular structural rearrangement of hen egg-white lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anang K.; Burada, P. S.; Bhattacharya, Susmita; Bag, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Amitabha; Dasgupta, Swagata; Roy, Anushree

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated the nonthermal effect of 10 GHz/22 dBm microwave radiation on hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) over different irradiation times, ranging from 2 min to 1 h. To ensure a control over the radiation parameters, a pair of microwave rectangular waveguides is used to irradiate the samples. Optical spectroscopic measurements, which include UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and far UV CD spectroscopy, reveal the exposure of the buried tryptophan (Trp) residues of the native molecule between 15 and 30 min of radiation. The higher duration of the perturbation leads to a compact structure of the protein and Trp residues are buried again. Interestingly, we do not find any change in the secondary structure of the protein even for 1 h duration of radiation. The relaxation dynamics of the irradiated molecules also has been discussed. We have shown that the molecules relax to their native configuration in 7-8 h after the radiation field is turned off. The structural rearrangement over the above timescale has further been probed by a model calculation, based on a modified Langevin equation. Our coarse-grained simulation approach utilizes the mean of atomic positions and net atomic charge of each amino acid of native HEWL to mimic the initial conformation of the molecule. The modified positions of the residues are then calculated for the given force fields. The simulation results reveal the nonmonotonous change in overall size of the molecule, as observed experimentally. The radiation parameters used in our experiments are very similar to those of some of the electronic devices we often come across. Thus, we believe that the results of our studies on a simple protein structure may help us in understanding the effect of radiation on complex biological systems as well.

  12. A hidden markov model derived structural alphabet for proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Gautier, R; Tufféry, P

    2004-06-04

    Understanding and predicting protein structures depends on the complexity and the accuracy of the models used to represent them. We have set up a hidden Markov model that discretizes protein backbone conformation as series of overlapping fragments (states) of four residues length. This approach learns simultaneously the geometry of the states and their connections. We obtain, using a statistical criterion, an optimal systematic decomposition of the conformational variability of the protein peptidic chain in 27 states with strong connection logic. This result is stable over different protein sets. Our model fits well the previous knowledge related to protein architecture organisation and seems able to grab some subtle details of protein organisation, such as helix sub-level organisation schemes. Taking into account the dependence between the states results in a description of local protein structure of low complexity. On an average, the model makes use of only 8.3 states among 27 to describe each position of a protein structure. Although we use short fragments, the learning process on entire protein conformations captures the logic of the assembly on a larger scale. Using such a model, the structure of proteins can be reconstructed with an average accuracy close to 1.1A root-mean-square deviation and for a complexity of only 3. Finally, we also observe that sequence specificity increases with the number of states of the structural alphabet. Such models can constitute a very relevant approach to the analysis of protein architecture in particular for protein structure prediction.

  13. Model for calculation of electrostatic contribution into protein stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrotas, Petras; Karshikoff, Andrey

    2003-03-01

    Existing models of the denatured state of proteins consider only one possible spatial distribution of protein charges and therefore are applicable to a limited number of cases. In this presentation a more general framework for the modeling of the denatured state is proposed. It is based on the assumption that the titratable groups of an unfolded protein can adopt a quasi-random distribution, restricted by the protein sequence. The model was tested on two proteins, barnase and N-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9. The calculated free energy of denaturation, Δ G( pH), reproduces the experimental data essentially better than the commonly used null approximation (NA). It was demonstrated that the seemingly good agreement with experimental data obtained by NA originates from the compensatory effect between the pair-wise electrostatic interactions and the desolvation energy of the individual sites. It was also found that the ionization properties of denatured proteins are influenced by the protein sequence.

  14. Phosphorus and phytase levels for layer hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Ramos Rezende

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance and bone quality of laying hens after peak production fed diets containing phosphorus levels and phytase. An experiment was conducted with 384 Hy-line distributed in a completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 3 with 4 levels of available phosphorus and 3 levels of phytase. The experimental period was divided into four periods of 28 days, at the end of each cycle were determined experimental feed intake, egg production, egg weight, feed conversion, mortality, and average egg weight, shell thickness, Haugh units and specific gravity. At the end of the experimental period were determined amounts of calcium and phosphorus excreted by the method of total excreta collection and a fowl per experimental unit was sacrificed for collection of bones and evaluation of width, length and level of robustness from femur and tibia. There was interaction between phosphorus levels and phytase on feed intake, feed conversion and percentage of posture. For inclusion levels of phytase all egg quality variables showed no significant differences. The treatments did not affect bone characteristics of laying hens.

  15. In silico modeling of the yeast protein and protein family interaction network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, K.-I.; Kahng, B.; Kim, D.

    2004-03-01

    Understanding of how protein interaction networks of living organisms have evolved or are organized can be the first stepping stone in unveiling how life works on a fundamental ground. Here we introduce an in silico ``coevolutionary'' model for the protein interaction network and the protein family network. The essential ingredient of the model includes the protein family identity and its robustness under evolution, as well as the three previously proposed: gene duplication, divergence, and mutation. This model produces a prototypical feature of complex networks in a wide range of parameter space, following the generalized Pareto distribution in connectivity. Moreover, we investigate other structural properties of our model in detail with some specific values of parameters relevant to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, showing excellent agreement with the empirical data. Our model indicates that the physical constraints encoded via the domain structure of proteins play a crucial role in protein interactions.

  16. Development of furnished cages for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A

    2002-09-01

    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in

  17. Biochemical attributes of Hens Fed Irradiated Aflatoxin B1 Contamination Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.E.H.; Abdul Azeem, A.M.; Abdalla, E.A.; Ahmed, N.A.H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of feeding diet artificially contaminated with aflatoxin B 1(AFB1) at level 0.2 mg kg"-"1 AFB1, and gamma (γ) irradiated (10, 20, and 30 kGy) on reducing the deleterious effects of laying hens Golden Montaza (GM) biochemical attributes. These include liver weight, AFB1 liver residue content, AST, ALT, ALP, creatinine, total proteins, albumin and globulin, as well as, the levels of T3, T4, TSH, FSH, LH, progesterone hormone and hepatic histology. At 38 week of age, groups of laying hens were fed on a normal non-contaminated diet (G1), aflatoxin-contaminated diet (G2), and irradiated contaminated diets (G3, G4 and G5) for 3 weeks, as a duration period. When the hens reached 42 weeks of age, they were fed on normal diet for 3 weeks, as a recovery period. Results showed that AST, ALT, ALP, and creatinine significantly increased in AFs treated groups in comparison with those received AFs-containing diet and irradiated up to 30 kGy. Layers fed contaminated diet of AFB1 suffered from a lower level of total proteins, albumin and globulin. Meanwhile, the results showed that the level of serum T4 was lower, but conversely the levels of FSH were higher for those fed on diets contaminated with AFB1 compared to those fed irradiated contaminated diets with AFB1, no significant change occurred in serum blood T3, TSH, LH and progesterone in all tested groups. Treated contaminated diets with γ-irradiation at 30 kGy reduced the incidence and severity of hepatic histology. The 30 kGy radiation dose was more effective, in this respect, in all biochemical indices. For recovery period diets non-contaminated with AFB1, the results showed improvements in all biochemical indices and recovered the hepatic structure with increasing the recovery period especially for those fed on irradiated diets through the experimental duration. In conclusion, feeding of diets contaminated with AFB1 altered the blood profiles, and damaged the liver

  18. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (pmeat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (pmeat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (pmeat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice. PMID:25050027

  19. Prediction of protein-protein interactions between viruses and human by an SVM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Guangyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several computational methods have been developed to predict protein-protein interactions from amino acid sequences, but most of those methods are intended for the interactions within a species rather than for interactions across different species. Methods for predicting interactions between homogeneous proteins are not appropriate for finding those between heterogeneous proteins since they do not distinguish the interactions between proteins of the same species from those of different species. Results We developed a new method for representing a protein sequence of variable length in a frequency vector of fixed length, which encodes the relative frequency of three consecutive amino acids of a sequence. We built a support vector machine (SVM model to predict human proteins that interact with virus proteins. In two types of viruses, human papillomaviruses (HPV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, our SVM model achieved an average accuracy above 80%, which is higher than that of another SVM model with a different representation scheme. Using the SVM model and Gene Ontology (GO annotations of proteins, we predicted new interactions between virus proteins and human proteins. Conclusions Encoding the relative frequency of amino acid triplets of a protein sequence is a simple yet powerful representation method for predicting protein-protein interactions across different species. The representation method has several advantages: (1 it enables a prediction model to achieve a better performance than other representations, (2 it generates feature vectors of fixed length regardless of the sequence length, and (3 the same representation is applicable to different types of proteins.

  20. Equação de predição da exigência de proteína bruta para aves reprodutoras pesadas na fase de produção Prediction equation of crude protein requirements for broiler breeders hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bôa-Viagem Rabello

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar as exigências de proteína para aves reprodutoras pesadas através do método fatorial. A exigência de proteína bruta para mantença (PBm foi determinada por intermédio da técnica do balanço de nitrogênio por meio de ensaio de metabolismo com aves submetidas a quatro dietas com níveis decrescentes de proteína, proporcionando balanço positivo, próximo a zero e negativo. Para determinar a exigência de proteína bruta para o ganho de peso (PBg dois experimentos foram conduzidos, sendo que em um, determinou-se as exigências líquidas de nitrogênio e no outro, a eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio para o ganho, por meio de abates semanais de aves no período de 26 a 33 semanas de idade. A exigência de proteína bruta para produção de ovos (PBo foi determinada através de análises semanais de proteína bruta dos ovos coletados, no período de 31 a 37 semanas de idade, considerando a eficiência de deposição da proteína no ovo. A exigência e eficiência de utilização da proteína para mantença foram 2.282 mg PB/kg0,75/dia e 60,79%; respectivamente. As exigências de PBg e PBo determinadas foram: 356 mg PB/g e 262 mg PB/g, respectivamente, e as eficiências de utilização do nitrogênio, 40 e 46,80%, respectivamente. A equação de predição elaborada para aves reprodutoras pesadas na fase de produção foi: PB=2,282.P0,75+0,356.G+0,262.MO, onde PB é a exigência de proteína bruta (g/ave/dia, P o peso corporal (kg, G o ganho de peso (g/dia e MO a massa de ovos (g/dia.The objective of this study was to determine the protein requirement for broiler breeder hens using factorial method. The requirement of crude protein for maintenance (CPm was determined using nitrogen balance technique in metabolism assay. The birds were fed with four protein levels in order to get a positive, a close to zero and a negative nitrogen balance. To determine the crude protein weight gain

  1. The research methods and model of protein turnover in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xilin; Yang Feng

    2002-01-01

    The author discussed the concept and research methods of protein turnover in animal body. The existing problems and the research results of animal protein turnover in recent years were presented. Meanwhile, the measures to improve the models of animal protein turnover were analyzed

  2. Mechanical Modeling and Computer Simulation of Protein Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigozhin, Maxim B.; Scott, Gregory E.; Denos, Sharlene

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, science education and modern technology are bridged to teach students at the high school and undergraduate levels about protein folding and to strengthen their model building skills. Students are guided from a textbook picture of a protein as a rigid crystal structure to a more realistic view: proteins are highly dynamic…

  3. Completion of autobuilt protein models using a database of protein fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowtan, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Two developments in the process of automated protein model building in the Buccaneer software are described: the use of a database of protein fragments in improving the model completeness and the assembly of disconnected chain fragments into complete molecules. Two developments in the process of automated protein model building in the Buccaneer software are presented. A general-purpose library for protein fragments of arbitrary size is described, with a highly optimized search method allowing the use of a larger database than in previous work. The problem of assembling an autobuilt model into complete chains is discussed. This involves the assembly of disconnected chain fragments into complete molecules and the use of the database of protein fragments in improving the model completeness. Assembly of fragments into molecules is a standard step in existing model-building software, but the methods have not received detailed discussion in the literature

  4. Development of performance, behavior and gut health in laying hens in relation to dietary protein source = Ontwikkeling van technische resultaten, gedrag en darmgezondheid van leghennen in relatie tot eiwitbron in het voer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    From this study, it can be concluded that addition of protein of animal origin to a layer diet will not guarantee for a reduction in feather pecking behavior and an improvement of gut health. Despite this, feather pecking behavior and percentage of wet litter area were reduced in two (Daka-40 and

  5. Discrete persistent-chain model for protein binding on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2011-04-01

    We describe and solve a discrete persistent-chain model of protein binding on DNA, involving an extra σ(i) at a site i of the DNA. This variable takes the value 1 or 0, depending on whether or not the site is occupied by a protein. In addition, if the site is occupied by a protein, there is an extra energy cost ɛ. For a small force, we obtain analytic expressions for the force-extension curve and the fraction of bound protein on the DNA. For higher forces, the model can be solved numerically to obtain force-extension curves and the average fraction of bound proteins as a function of applied force. Our model can be used to analyze experimental force-extension curves of protein binding on DNA, and hence deduce the number of bound proteins in the case of nonspecific binding. ©2011 American Physical Society

  6. Protein adsorption on nanoparticles: model development using computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Qing; Hall, Carol K

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption of proteins on nanoparticles results in the formation of the protein corona, the composition of which determines how nanoparticles influence their biological surroundings. We seek to better understand corona formation by developing models that describe protein adsorption on nanoparticles using computer simulation results as data. Using a coarse-grained protein model, discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to investigate the adsorption of two small proteins (Trp-cage and WW domain) on a model nanoparticle of diameter 10.0 nm at protein concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5 mM. The resulting adsorption isotherms are well described by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Kiselev models, but not by the Elovich, Fowler–Guggenheim and Hill–de Boer models. We also try to develop a generalized model that can describe protein adsorption equilibrium on nanoparticles of different diameters in terms of dimensionless size parameters. The simulation results for three proteins (Trp-cage, WW domain, and GB3) on four nanoparticles (diameter  =  5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 nm) illustrate both the promise and the challenge associated with developing generalized models of protein adsorption on nanoparticles. (paper)

  7. Henning Witte : Estonia-film tuleb / Villem Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Villem, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et "Estonia" uppus maffiavandenõu tõttu. Stsenaristideks on Juta Rabe, Henning Witte ja Kaj Holmberg. Ka : Nädal nr. 47, lk. 5

  8. EGG QUALITY AND HATCHABILITY OF In situ - REARED KEDU AND CEMANI HENS FED DIET OF FARMER FORMULATION SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Wahyuni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation in Kedu andCemani hens reraed in situ and given farmer-formulated diet on egg performances. A total of 120 femaleand 24 male birds were equally divided into two groups of Kedu and Cemani, with average body weightof 1890+216.79 and 1830+396.23 g, respectively. Basal ration was based on the diet formulated by thefarmer (R1 consisting of corn (30%, rice bran (50%, protein concentrate (15%, and premix (5%.Dietary treatments evaluated were R1 (without additional vitamin E, and the other three were theinclusion of DL α-tocopheryl acetate into the R1 diet up to 2 (R2, 4 (R3 and 6 IU (R4. The experimentwas arranged in a Randomized Block Design with 4 treatments, and 2 different groups of hen (Kedu andCemani were assigned as block. Parameters observed were feed consumption, hen day production, feedconversion ratio, egg quality, fertility, and hatchability. The result showed that vitamin Esupplementation did not affect whatever parameters, except egg fertility. Egg hatchability between Keduand Cemani hens was significantly different (p<0.05. Trend comparison test indicated significantlylinear (p<0.05 for fertility and hatchability. In conclusion, vitamin E supplementation up to 6 IUincreased linearly egg fertility and hatchability of about 5-8%, and egg hatchability of Kedu hens washigher (11% than that of Cemani.

  9. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P digestibility values for broilers were higher (P digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of DDGS and BBP. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Oral sensitization to food proteins: A Brown Norway rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Spanhaak, S.; Houben, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Although several in vivo antigenicity assays using parenteral immunization are operational, no adequate enteral sensitization models are available to study food allergy and allergenicity of food proteins. Objective: This paper describes the development of an enteral model for food

  11. Models of protein-ligand crystal structures: trust, but verify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, Marc C; Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    X-ray crystallography provides the most accurate models of protein-ligand structures. These models serve as the foundation of many computational methods including structure prediction, molecular modelling, and structure-based drug design. The success of these computational methods ultimately depends on the quality of the underlying protein-ligand models. X-ray crystallography offers the unparalleled advantage of a clear mathematical formalism relating the experimental data to the protein-ligand model. In the case of X-ray crystallography, the primary experimental evidence is the electron density of the molecules forming the crystal. The first step in the generation of an accurate and precise crystallographic model is the interpretation of the electron density of the crystal, typically carried out by construction of an atomic model. The atomic model must then be validated for fit to the experimental electron density and also for agreement with prior expectations of stereochemistry. Stringent validation of protein-ligand models has become possible as a result of the mandatory deposition of primary diffraction data, and many computational tools are now available to aid in the validation process. Validation of protein-ligand complexes has revealed some instances of overenthusiastic interpretation of ligand density. Fundamental concepts and metrics of protein-ligand quality validation are discussed and we highlight software tools to assist in this process. It is essential that end users select high quality protein-ligand models for their computational and biological studies, and we provide an overview of how this can be achieved.

  12. Characterization of Egg Laying Hen and Broiler Fecal Microbiota in Poultry Farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR an...

  13. Mallard Use of Hen HousesTM in Eastern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan Zimmerling

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesting structures for ground-nesting waterfowl may be an effective technique for increasing nesting success in regions in which nest success is below the 15% threshold needed to maintain a stable population. We studied the occupancy rate of artificial nesting structures called hen housesTM by Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos nesting in two different wetland habitats, beaver ponds and sewage lagoons, in eastern Ontario during 1999-2001. We hypothesized that, because natural cover was sparse on sewage lagoons, Mallards would occupy hen houses at a higher rate on sewage lagoons than on beaver ponds. However, of the 248 hen houses distributed between beaver ponds and sewage lagoons, none was occupied by waterfowl. Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula were the only avian species that nested in hen houses. However, Mallards successfully nested directly under several structures (n = 6 when water levels were low enough to expose the ground beneath them. Mayfield daily nest survival estimates for Mallards nesting in natural cover were similar on sewage lagoons and beaver ponds for all years (mean = 0.99 and were higher than most published estimates. Factors such as nesting cover, predation pressures, and structure design and material may influence the use of artificial hen houses and should be considered when planning a hen house program outside of the Prairie Pothole Region.

  14. Dietary menhaden oil contributes to hepatic lipidosis in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Elswyk, M E; Hargis, B M; Williams, J D; Hargis, P S

    1994-05-01

    Clinical and epidemiological investigations have indicated that there may be substantial human cardiovascular benefits associated with increased consumption of n-3 fatty acids commonly found in fish oils. Recent studies have indicated that egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content is significantly increased when hens are fed diets enriched with selected fish oils such as menhaden oil (MO). In the present study, reproductively active females but not males exhibited increased hepatic lipidosis following 6 mo of feeding 3% MO. Hens fed 3% animal-vegetable oil (AV) did not exhibit hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were reduced (P < or = .05) in hens fed MO. Subsequently, yolk and total egg weights of hens fed MO were decreased as compared with those of hens fed AV. A significant interaction of dietary MO and exogenous 17 beta-estradiol was noted among chick liver and gallbladder weights. These data suggest that dietary MO and estradiol may interact in a manner that enhances the lipogenic activity of the liver, thereby inducing hepatic lipidosis in laying hens.

  15. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P eggs with significantly different (P eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  16. Predicting nucleic acid binding interfaces from structural models of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Iris; Shazman, Shula; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2012-02-01

    The function of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins can be inferred from the characterization and accurate prediction of their binding interfaces. However, the main pitfall of various structure-based methods for predicting nucleic acid binding function is that they are all limited to a relatively small number of proteins for which high-resolution three-dimensional structures are available. In this study, we developed a pipeline for extracting functional electrostatic patches from surfaces of protein structural models, obtained using the I-TASSER protein structure predictor. The largest positive patches are extracted from the protein surface using the patchfinder algorithm. We show that functional electrostatic patches extracted from an ensemble of structural models highly overlap the patches extracted from high-resolution structures. Furthermore, by testing our pipeline on a set of 55 known nucleic acid binding proteins for which I-TASSER produces high-quality models, we show that the method accurately identifies the nucleic acids binding interface on structural models of proteins. Employing a combined patch approach we show that patches extracted from an ensemble of models better predicts the real nucleic acid binding interfaces compared with patches extracted from independent models. Overall, these results suggest that combining information from a collection of low-resolution structural models could be a valuable approach for functional annotation. We suggest that our method will be further applicable for predicting other functional surfaces of proteins with unknown structure. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Composition of some botanical mixtures as potential feed additives for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varzaru Iulia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional quality of four botanical mixtures (AFC: AFC 1 (containing red corn, pumpkin pulp and marigold, AFC 2 (containing alfalfa meal, pumpkin pulp and marigold, AFC 3 (containing kale, alfalfa meal, marigold and spinach leaves, AFC 4 (containing buckthorn, red corn, pumpkin pulp and marigold, in terms of proximate analysis (crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, amino acid (AA profile, vitamin E concentration and lutein and zeaxanthin content, in order to determine the potential of AFCs as feed additives in laying hens nutrition. The crude protein content for the analysed botanical mixtures ranged between 9.07-18.18% DM, and crude fiber between 10.41-30.83% DM. The amino acid profile of the mixture AFC 4 revealed a content of limiting essential amino acids required for laying hens: lysine 5.719% CP, methionine 1.058% CP and threonine 4.415% CP. The highest content of lutein and zeaxanthin was found in the mixture AFC 4 (66.659 mg/100 g, which also had the highest amount of vitamin E (640.93 mg/kg. With regard to safety of the botanical mixtures, lead and cadmium concentrations were determined. Concentration of lead ranged from 0.28-0.75 µg/g DM and 0.06-0.09 µg/g DM for concentration of cadmium, which was within the legislation of maximal limits of EU regulations. It can be concluded that the botanical mixture AFC 4 had the highest concentration of lutein, zeaxanthin and vitamin E, with an adequate content of essential amino acids. Furthermore, all four botanical mixtures had high amounts of xantophylls and should be tested in laying hens trials in order to establish their effects on lutein and zeaxanthin concentration in egg yolk.

  18. Knowledge of Chemical Indicators of Eggs from Hens Reared in Conventional and Free Range System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Iuliana Cotfas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many consumers prefer nowadays eggs from alternative production systems because of their concerns about its own food safety and welfare of laying hens (Anderson. K. E., 2009. According to the regulations, a free range egg is obtained in poultry farms were laying hens have access to outdoor paddock, where they can show all the instincts of physiological and ethological (Usturoi M.G., 2004. Aims: The aim of this research was the correct information on the quality of these products and comparative study of chemical characteristics of eggs obtain from different production systems (conventional and free range. Materials and Methods: Chemical indicators’ determination was made through specific methods, in according with actual standards and consists in establishing of water, proteins, fats, ash and non-nitrogenous extractive substances contents. The biological material was represented by 90 eggs produced by Lohmann Brown laying hens aged 33 weeks: 45 gathered from birds exploited in free range system and 45 from birds reared in cages agreed by EU. Results: Egg obtained from free range system have a slightly higher content of protein (10.35±0.12 % vs. 9.97±0.03 % compared with conventional system, from albumen and from yolk (17.46±0.00 % vs. 17.19±0.01 %, this fact was happened because of aport of green grass from the outside paddock (Morris T.R., 2004. Comparative with conventional system, eggs from free range system have a higher content of lipids of yolk with 2.23%.Chemical analysis of melange from studied eggs showed a higher rate of dry matter at free range eggs (23.374% vs. 22.969%, but also for proteins (12.952% vs. 12.520% and lipids (7.676% vs. 7.398%. Conclusions: The increase in freedom of laying hens (free range caused a qualitative improvement of dry components of both the egg components (yolk and albumen but also the quantitative one, and eggs obtained has a high nutritional value  

  19. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, Joachim [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  20. Modelling Protein Dynamics on the Microsecond Time Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siuda, Iwona Anna

    Recent years have shown an increase in coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics simulations, providing structural and dynamic details of large proteins and enabling studies of self-assembly of biological materials. It is not easy to acquire such data experimentally, and access is also still limited...... in atomistic simulations. During her PhD studies, Iwona Siuda used MARTINI CG models to study the dynamics of different globular and membrane proteins. In several cases, the MARTINI model was sufficient to study conformational changes of small, purely alpha-helical proteins. However, in studies of larger......ELNEDIN was therefore proposed as part of the work. Iwona Siuda’s results from the CG simulations had biological implications that provide insights into possible mechanisms of the periplasmic leucine-binding protein, the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium pump, and several proteins from the saposin-like proteins...

  1. Enhancement of nucleation during hanging drop protein crystallization using HF treatment of cover glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yun-Zhu; Yin, Da-Chuan; Lu, Qin-Qin; Wang, Xi-Kai; Liu, Jun [Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China)

    2010-02-15

    We examined a simple approach, i.e., etching cover glasses using hydrofluoric acid (HF), to determine whether cover glass treatment enhances nucleation in hanging drop protein crystallization. Hen egg white lysozyme and proteinase K were used as the model proteins. We found that the treatment increased the success rate of crystallization. The results indicated that the simple treatment, which is easy to adopt without changing much in the hanging drop method, can be utilized as an alternative method to enhance protein crystallization screens (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Modeling of axonal endoplasmic reticulum network by spastic paraplegia proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, Belgin; Zhao, Lu; Stofanko, Martin; O'Sullivan, Niamh C; Kang, Zi Han; Roost, Annika; Thomas, Matthew R; Zaessinger, Sophie; Blard, Olivier; Patto, Alex L; Sohail, Anood; Baena, Valentina; Terasaki, Mark; O'Kane, Cahir J

    2017-07-25

    Axons contain a smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network that is thought to be continuous with ER throughout the neuron; the mechanisms that form this axonal network are unknown. Mutations affecting reticulon or REEP proteins, with intramembrane hairpin domains that model ER membranes, cause an axon degenerative disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We show that Drosophila axons have a dynamic axonal ER network, which these proteins help to model. Loss of HSP hairpin proteins causes ER sheet expansion, partial loss of ER from distal motor axons, and occasional discontinuities in axonal ER. Ultrastructural analysis reveals an extensive ER network in axons, which shows larger and fewer tubules in larvae that lack reticulon and REEP proteins, consistent with loss of membrane curvature. Therefore HSP hairpin-containing proteins are required for shaping and continuity of axonal ER, thus suggesting roles for ER modeling in axon maintenance and function.

  3. Ochratoxicosis in White Leghorn breeder hens: Production and breeding performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ul Hassan*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed1, Umer Sadique2 and Aisha Khatoon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ochratoxin A (OTA upon production and breeding parameters in White Leghorn (WL breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 WL breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. The hens in these groups were maintained on feed contaminated with OTA @ 0.0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg, respectively for 21 days. These hens were artificially inseminated with semen obtained from healthy roosters kept on OTA free feed. Egg production and their quality parameters were recorded. Fertile eggs obtained from each group were set for incubation on weekly basis. At the end of the experiment, hens in each group were killed to determined gross and microscopic lesions in different organs. OTA residue concentrations were determined in extracts of liver, kidneys and breast muscles by immunoaffinity column elution and HPLC-Fluorescent detection techniques. Feeing OTA contaminated diet resulted in a significant decrease in egg mass and egg quality parameters. Liver and kidneys showed characteristic lesions of ochratoxicosis. Residue concentration (ng/g of OTA in the hens fed 10 mg/kg OTA, was the highest in liver (26.336±1.16 followed by kidney (8.223±0.85 and were least in breast muscles (1.235±0.21. Embryonic mortalites were higher, while hatachabilites of the chicks were lower in the groups fed higher doses of OTA. Feeding OTA contaminated diets to breeder hen resulted in residues accumulation in their tissues along with significantly reduced production and breeding performance.

  4. An Integrated Framework Advancing Membrane Protein Modeling and Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca F Alford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins are critical functional molecules in the human body, constituting more than 30% of open reading frames in the human genome. Unfortunately, a myriad of difficulties in overexpression and reconstitution into membrane mimetics severely limit our ability to determine their structures. Computational tools are therefore instrumental to membrane protein structure prediction, consequently increasing our understanding of membrane protein function and their role in disease. Here, we describe a general framework facilitating membrane protein modeling and design that combines the scientific principles for membrane protein modeling with the flexible software architecture of Rosetta3. This new framework, called RosettaMP, provides a general membrane representation that interfaces with scoring, conformational sampling, and mutation routines that can be easily combined to create new protocols. To demonstrate the capabilities of this implementation, we developed four proof-of-concept applications for (1 prediction of free energy changes upon mutation; (2 high-resolution structural refinement; (3 protein-protein docking; and (4 assembly of symmetric protein complexes, all in the membrane environment. Preliminary data show that these algorithms can produce meaningful scores and structures. The data also suggest needed improvements to both sampling routines and score functions. Importantly, the applications collectively demonstrate the potential of combining the flexible nature of RosettaMP with the power of Rosetta algorithms to facilitate membrane protein modeling and design.

  5. Hen på bibliotek : En diskursanalys av genusintresserade bibliotekariers tal om begreppet hen

    OpenAIRE

    Almström, Vera Henrika

    2013-01-01

    This master’s thesis looks at discourses that use the pronoun ”hen”. The media debate in Sweden over this pronoun in 2012 started in connection with the publishing of a children’s picture book: Kivi och monsterhund, by Jesper Lundqvist and Bettina Jansson. The essay investigates how eight librarians, who take an interest in and work with gender issues, talk about the pronoun hen and about this picture book and other books that have characters which are not named as a sex/gender. The essay tak...

  6. Model systems for understanding absorption tuning by opsin proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial review reports on model systems that have been synthesised and investigated for elucidating how opsin proteins tune the absorption of the protonated retinal Schiff base chromophore. In particular, the importance of the counteranion is highlighted. In addition, the review advocates...... is avoided, and it becomes clear that opsin proteins induce blueshifts in the chromophore absorption rather than redshifts....

  7. Comparative Study of Elastic Network Model and Protein Contact Network for Protein Complexes: The Hemoglobin Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall topology and interfacial interactions play key roles in understanding structural and functional principles of protein complexes. Elastic Network Model (ENM and Protein Contact Network (PCN are two widely used methods for high throughput investigation of structures and interactions within protein complexes. In this work, the comparative analysis of ENM and PCN relative to hemoglobin (Hb was taken as case study. We examine four types of structural and dynamical paradigms, namely, conformational change between different states of Hbs, modular analysis, allosteric mechanisms studies, and interface characterization of an Hb. The comparative study shows that ENM has an advantage in studying dynamical properties and protein-protein interfaces, while PCN is better for describing protein structures quantitatively both from local and from global levels. We suggest that the integration of ENM and PCN would give a potential but powerful tool in structural systems biology.

  8. Digestibility and physico-chemical characteristics of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarina de Souza Batalha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens on apparent digestibility and energy metabolism. Seventy-two Hisex White hens with 71 weeks of age were assigned to a completely randomized with two treatments (control diet and diet with 3% pirarucu waste acid silage with six replicates of six birds each. The ensiled biomass was light brown in color, showing acidified aroma; creamy consistency; 4.38±0.11 pH; 84.16% dry matter; 40.06% crude protein; 26.82% ether extract; 9.31% mineral matter, 65.16 g kg-1 calcium and 22.90 g kg-1 phosphorus. Differences (p > 0.05 were detected in digestibility of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates (soluble carbohydrates, etherextract, mineral matter, metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy coefficient. Our results indicate that the acid silage mealmade of pirarucu waste can be included up to 3% in diets for laying hens, showing satisfactory nutrient digestibility and potential to be used as an energy source.

  9. Stable isotopes as a tool to differentiate eggs laid by caged, barn, free range, and organic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2009-05-27

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of whole yolk, delipidized yolk, albumen, and egg membrane were analyzed from 18 different brands of chicken eggs laid under caged, barn, free range, and organic farming regimes. In general, free range and organic egg components showed enrichment of (15)N values up to 4‰ relative to caged and barn laid eggs, suggesting a higher animal protein (trophic) contribution to the chicken's diet than pure plant-based foods and/or that the feed was organically manufactured. One sample of free range and two samples of organic eggs had δ(15)N values within the range of caged or barn laid eggs, suggesting either that these eggs were mislabeled (the hens were raised under "battery" or "barn" conditions, and not permitted to forage outside) or that there was insufficient animal protein gained by foraging to shift the δ(15)N values of their primary food source. δ(13)C values of potential food sources are discussed with respect to dietary intake and contribution to the isotopic signature of the eggs to determine mixing of C(3) and C(4) diets, although they did not elucidate laying regimen. The study finds that stable nitrogen isotope analysis of egg components is potentially a useful technique to unravel dietary differences between caged or barn hens and free range hens (both conventional and organic) and could be further developed as an authentication tool in the egg industry.

  10. Embryonic protein undernutrition by albumen removal programs the hepatic amino acid and glucose metabolism during the perinatal period in an avian model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Willems

    Full Text Available Different animal models have been used to study the effects of prenatal protein undernutrition and the mechanisms by which these occur. In mammals, the maternal diet is manipulated, exerting both direct nutritional and indirect hormonal effects. Chicken embryos develop independent from the hen in the egg. Therefore, in the chicken, the direct effects of protein deficiency by albumen removal early during incubation can be examined. Prenatal protein undernutrition was established in layer-type eggs by the partial replacement of albumen by saline at embryonic day 1 (albumen-deprived group, compared to a mock-treated sham and a non-treated control group. At hatch, survival of the albumen-deprived group was lower compared to the control and sham group due to increased early mortality by the manipulation. No treatment differences in yolk-free body weight or yolk weight could be detected. The water content of the yolk was reduced, whereas the water content of the carcass was increased in the albumen-deprived group, compared to the control group, indicating less uptake of nutrients from the yolk. At embryonic day 16, 20 and at hatch, plasma triiodothyronine (T3, corticosterone, lactate or glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen content were not affected by treatment. At embryonic day 20, the plasma thyroxine (T4 concentrations of the albumen-deprived embryos was reduced compared to the control group, indicating a decreased metabolic rate. Screening for differential protein expression in the liver at hatch using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed not only changed abundance of proteins important for amino acid metabolism, but also of enzymes related to energy and glucose metabolism. Interestingly, GLUT1, a glucose transporter, and PCK2 and FBP1, two out of three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis were dysregulated. No parallel differences in gene expressions causing the differences in protein abundance could be detected

  11. An Efficient Null Model for Conformational Fluctuations in Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Tim Philipp; Borg, Mikael; Bottaro, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Protein dynamics play a crucial role in function, catalytic activity, and pathogenesis. Consequently, there is great interest in computational methods that probe the conformational fluctuations of a protein. However, molecular dynamics simulations are computationally costly and therefore are often...... limited to comparatively short timescales. TYPHON is a probabilistic method to explore the conformational space of proteins under the guidance of a sophisticated probabilistic model of local structure and a given set of restraints that represent nonlocal interactions, such as hydrogen bonds or disulfide...... on conformational fluctuations that is in correspondence with experimental measurements. TYPHON provides a flexible, yet computationally efficient, method to explore possible conformational fluctuations in proteins....

  12. Immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins: the use of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinks, Vera; Jiskoot, Wim; Schellekens, Huub

    2011-10-01

    Immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins lowers patient well-being and drastically increases therapeutic costs. Preventing immunogenicity is an important issue to consider when developing novel therapeutic proteins and applying them in the clinic. Animal models are increasingly used to study immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins. They are employed as predictive tools to assess different aspects of immunogenicity during drug development and have become vital in studying the mechanisms underlying immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins. However, the use of animal models needs critical evaluation. Because of species differences, predictive value of such models is limited, and mechanistic studies can be restricted. This review addresses the suitability of animal models for immunogenicity prediction and summarizes the insights in immunogenicity that they have given so far.

  13. Comparison of hen preference for nesting substrate material, and performance in a free range production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project consisted of 200 Hy-Line Brown hens and was conducted utilizing the brood-grow-lay range huts at the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Piedmont Research Station. Fifty hens were placed in each pen/paddock providing 1338 cm2/hen of floor space in the hut an...

  14. Mineral content of eggs differs with hens strain, age and rearing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg nutrient quality is strongly influenced by hen diet but is also affected by rearing environment, hen strain and hen age. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of: 1) conventional battery cages 2) enrichable cage systems 3) enriched colony housing 4) cage free and 5) free...

  15. Effects of organometallic chelates and inulin in diets for laying hens on Mn and Fe absorption coefficients and their content in egg and tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornescu Gabriela Maria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of organic sources of manganese (Mn and iron (Fe and inulin in diets for laying hens on absorption of these minerals and their deposition in egg and tissue. The study was conducted on 90 Lohmann Brown laying hens in the period from 46-52 weeks of age, assigned to 3 groups with 30 hens/group and 3 hens/cage. The hens from the control group (C received a diet based on corn, rice bran and soybean meal with 16% of crude protein, as well as 60 mg Fe/kg and 71.9 mg Mn/kg of diet in form of inorganic salts. The formulation of the experimental diets (E1 and E2 differed from C group diet by the replacement of inorganic Fe and Mn salts by organometallic chelates of these elements, at a level of 25% lower than in the premix for group C. As source of inulin, group E1 diet also included 0.5% of dry Jerusalem artichoke, while group E2 diet included 0.5% of a product based on chicory root extract. At the end of the experiment, 6 hens from each group were slaughtered and blood serum and liver samples were collected and assayed for concentration of Fe and Mn. In the final week of the experiment, 18 eggs/group were collected for determination of Fe and Mn concentration in egg yolk. Concentration of measured blood serum parameters (haemoglobin, haematocrit, Fe and Mn in experimental (E groups were lower than in group C, but no significant differences (P>0.05 were registered. Absorption coefficients of Mn had higher values in E groups than in group C, with significant increase (P0.05 between groups were observed for Mn and Fe concentration in egg yolk.

  16. Protein buffering in model systems and in whole human saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamanda

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and alpha-amylase, were shown to provide, in combination with hydrogencarbonate and di-hydrogenphosphate, almost identical buffer attributes as whole human resting saliva. It was further demonstrated that changes in the protein concentration as small as 0.1% may change the buffer value of a buffer solution up to 15 times. Additionally, it was shown that there was a protein concentration change in the same range (0.16% between saliva samples collected at the time periods of 13:00 and others collected at 9:00 am and 17:00. The mode of the protein expression changed between these samples corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the change of the buffer value at pH 6.7. Finally, SDS Page and Ruthenium II tris (bathophenantroline disulfonate staining unveiled a constant protein expression in all samples except for one 50 kDa protein band. As the change in the expression pattern of that 50 kDa protein band corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the buffer value at pH 6.7, it was reasonable to conclude that this 50 kDa protein band may contain the protein(s belonging to the protein buffer system of human saliva.

  17. Binding free energy analysis of protein-protein docking model structures by evERdock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kazuhiro; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Kitao, Akio

    2018-03-14

    To aid the evaluation of protein-protein complex model structures generated by protein docking prediction (decoys), we previously developed a method to calculate the binding free energies for complexes. The method combines a short (2 ns) all-atom molecular dynamics simulation with explicit solvent and solution theory in the energy representation (ER). We showed that this method successfully selected structures similar to the native complex structure (near-native decoys) as the lowest binding free energy structures. In our current work, we applied this method (evERdock) to 100 or 300 model structures of four protein-protein complexes. The crystal structures and the near-native decoys showed the lowest binding free energy of all the examined structures, indicating that evERdock can successfully evaluate decoys. Several decoys that show low interface root-mean-square distance but relatively high binding free energy were also identified. Analysis of the fraction of native contacts, hydrogen bonds, and salt bridges at the protein-protein interface indicated that these decoys were insufficiently optimized at the interface. After optimizing the interactions around the interface by including interfacial water molecules, the binding free energies of these decoys were improved. We also investigated the effect of solute entropy on binding free energy and found that consideration of the entropy term does not necessarily improve the evaluations of decoys using the normal model analysis for entropy calculation.

  18. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enriched Hen Eggs Consumption Enhances Microvascular Reactivity in Young Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupin, Ana; Rasic, Lidija; Matic, Anita; Stupin, Marko; Kralik, Zlata; Kralik, Gordana; Grcevic, Manuela; Drenjancevic, Ines

    2018-04-10

    Whilst the beneficial effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation on cardiovascular (CV) system is well supported in CV patients, the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched functional food in healthy individuals is still not fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched hen eggs on microvascular reactivity (primary outcome), blood pressure (BP) and serum lipid profile in young healthy individuals. Control group (N=16) ate three ordinary hen eggs (277 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day), and OMEGA-3 group (N=20) ate three omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs containing 259 mg of omega-3 PUFAs/egg daily (ALA 167 mg/egg, EPA 7 mg/egg, DHA 84 mg/egg) for 3 weeks (777 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in skin microcirculation assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and arterial BP were measured in all subjects before and after the protocol. PORH was significantly enhanced, and triglycerides, hsCRP and BP were significantly decreased in OMEGA-3 group compared to baseline measurement, while there was no significant difference in Control group after the protocol compared to baseline. This is the first study to demonstrate that consumption of a mixture of omega-3 PUFAs (ALA+EPA+DHA), provided via enriched hen eggs, elicits changes in microvascular reactivity, BP and triglycerides level in healthy subjects that are associated with CV benefits, thus suggesting that daily consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs in healthy individuals may potentially contribute to CV risk factors attenuation and disease prevention.

  19. Effect of the Feed Additive Clinoptilolite (ZeoFeed on Nutrient Metabolism and Production Performance of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Macháček

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two levels of clinoptilolite administered in feed (2% and 4% on some selected performance indicators, metabolic utilization of basic nutrients and the health status of laying hens. The selected 24 Bovans Goldline hybrid laying hens were divided into three equal groups, two experimental groups (E1 and E2 and one control group (C. The laying hens were housed individually in cages with an automatic supply of drinking water, manual feeding, in a setting with controlled light and temperature regimens. Hens from individual groups were all fed a complete feed mix of the same composition and the only difference was in clinoptilolite supplementation: feed mixes for E1 and E2 groups contained 2% and 4% of clinoptilolite (commercial additive ZeoFeed respectively, replacing the same amounts of wheat. The hens received feed mixes and drinking water ad libitum. During this 28-day experiment, feed consumption and the number and weight of eggs laid were monitored individually for each hen. At the end of the experiment, the balance test using the indicator method (Cr2O3 was performed in all eight hens in each of the groups. The results of balance tests were then used to calculate the metabolic utilization of selected nutrients (nitrogen, fat, ash, nitrogen-free extracts, starch, gross energy, Ca, P. After the balance tests, blood samples for haematological and biochemical examinations were collected via puncture of the vena basilica. The addition of 2% clinoptilolite to feed mix resulted in a highly significant (P ⪬ 0.01 increase in mean egg weight to 64.69 g, but the addition of 4% clinoptilolite in group E2 resulted in a highly significant (P ⪬ 0.01 decrease in mean egg weight to 62.20 g compared to the control (63.73 g. Moreover, daily feed mix consumption in group E1 decreased to 114 g per one laying hen/day compared to the controls (118 g per one laying hen/day. In group E2 (4% clinoptilolite, daily

  20. A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models.

    KAUST Repository

    Carbajo, Daniel

    2012-08-02

    BACKGROUND: Increasingly, biologists and biochemists use computational tools to design experiments to probe the function of proteins and/or to engineer them for a variety of different purposes. The most effective strategies rely on the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the protein of interest. However it is often the case that an experimental structure is not available and that models of different quality are used instead. On the other hand, the relationship between the quality of a model and its appropriate use is not easy to derive in general, and so far it has been analyzed in detail only for specific application. RESULTS: This paper describes a database and related software tools that allow testing of a given structure based method on models of a protein representing different levels of accuracy. The comparison of the results of a computational experiment on the experimental structure and on a set of its decoy models will allow developers and users to assess which is the specific threshold of accuracy required to perform the task effectively. CONCLUSIONS: The ModelDB server automatically builds decoy models of different accuracy for a given protein of known structure and provides a set of useful tools for their analysis. Pre-computed data for a non-redundant set of deposited protein structures are available for analysis and download in the ModelDB database. IMPLEMENTATION, AVAILABILITY AND REQUIREMENTS: Project name: A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models. Project home page: http://bl210.caspur.it/MODEL-DB/MODEL-DB_web/MODindex.php.Operating system(s): Platform independent. Programming language: Perl-BioPerl (program); mySQL, Perl DBI and DBD modules (database); php, JavaScript, Jmol scripting (web server). Other requirements: Java Runtime Environment v1.4 or later, Perl, BioPerl, CPAN modules, HHsearch, Modeller, LGA, NCBI Blast package, DSSP, Speedfill (Surfnet) and PSAIA. License: Free. Any restrictions to use by

  1. A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo, Daniel; Tramontano, Anna

    2012-08-02

    Increasingly, biologists and biochemists use computational tools to design experiments to probe the function of proteins and/or to engineer them for a variety of different purposes. The most effective strategies rely on the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the protein of interest. However it is often the case that an experimental structure is not available and that models of different quality are used instead. On the other hand, the relationship between the quality of a model and its appropriate use is not easy to derive in general, and so far it has been analyzed in detail only for specific application. This paper describes a database and related software tools that allow testing of a given structure based method on models of a protein representing different levels of accuracy. The comparison of the results of a computational experiment on the experimental structure and on a set of its decoy models will allow developers and users to assess which is the specific threshold of accuracy required to perform the task effectively. The ModelDB server automatically builds decoy models of different accuracy for a given protein of known structure and provides a set of useful tools for their analysis. Pre-computed data for a non-redundant set of deposited protein structures are available for analysis and download in the ModelDB database. IMPLEMENTATION, AVAILABILITY AND REQUIREMENTS: Project name: A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models. Project home page: http://bl210.caspur.it/MODEL-DB/MODEL-DB_web/MODindex.php.Operating system(s): Platform independent. Programming language: Perl-BioPerl (program); mySQL, Perl DBI and DBD modules (database); php, JavaScript, Jmol scripting (web server). Other requirements: Java Runtime Environment v1.4 or later, Perl, BioPerl, CPAN modules, HHsearch, Modeller, LGA, NCBI Blast package, DSSP, Speedfill (Surfnet) and PSAIA. License: Free. Any restrictions to use by non-academics: No.

  2. A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models.

    KAUST Repository

    Carbajo, Daniel; Tramontano, Anna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasingly, biologists and biochemists use computational tools to design experiments to probe the function of proteins and/or to engineer them for a variety of different purposes. The most effective strategies rely on the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the protein of interest. However it is often the case that an experimental structure is not available and that models of different quality are used instead. On the other hand, the relationship between the quality of a model and its appropriate use is not easy to derive in general, and so far it has been analyzed in detail only for specific application. RESULTS: This paper describes a database and related software tools that allow testing of a given structure based method on models of a protein representing different levels of accuracy. The comparison of the results of a computational experiment on the experimental structure and on a set of its decoy models will allow developers and users to assess which is the specific threshold of accuracy required to perform the task effectively. CONCLUSIONS: The ModelDB server automatically builds decoy models of different accuracy for a given protein of known structure and provides a set of useful tools for their analysis. Pre-computed data for a non-redundant set of deposited protein structures are available for analysis and download in the ModelDB database. IMPLEMENTATION, AVAILABILITY AND REQUIREMENTS: Project name: A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models. Project home page: http://bl210.caspur.it/MODEL-DB/MODEL-DB_web/MODindex.php.Operating system(s): Platform independent. Programming language: Perl-BioPerl (program); mySQL, Perl DBI and DBD modules (database); php, JavaScript, Jmol scripting (web server). Other requirements: Java Runtime Environment v1.4 or later, Perl, BioPerl, CPAN modules, HHsearch, Modeller, LGA, NCBI Blast package, DSSP, Speedfill (Surfnet) and PSAIA. License: Free. Any restrictions to use by

  3. A computational model of the LGI1 protein suggests a common binding site for ADAM proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Leonardi

    Full Text Available Mutations of human leucine-rich glioma inactivated (LGI1 gene encoding the epitempin protein cause autosomal dominant temporal lateral epilepsy (ADTLE, a rare familial partial epileptic syndrome. The LGI1 gene seems to have a role on the transmission of neuronal messages but the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. In contrast to other genes involved in epileptic disorders, epitempin shows no homology with known ion channel genes but contains two domains, composed of repeated structural units, known to mediate protein-protein interactions.A three dimensional in silico model of the two epitempin domains was built to predict the structure-function relationship and propose a functional model integrating previous experimental findings. Conserved and electrostatic charged regions of the model surface suggest a possible arrangement between the two domains and identifies a possible ADAM protein binding site in the β-propeller domain and another protein binding site in the leucine-rich repeat domain. The functional model indicates that epitempin could mediate the interaction between proteins localized to different synaptic sides in a static way, by forming a dimer, or in a dynamic way, by binding proteins at different times.The model was also used to predict effects of known disease-causing missense mutations. Most of the variants are predicted to alter protein folding while several other map to functional surface regions. In agreement with experimental evidence, this suggests that non-secreted LGI1 mutants could be retained within the cell by quality control mechanisms or by altering interactions required for the secretion process.

  4. Molecular modeling of protein materials: case study of elastin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarakanova, Anna; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-01-01

    Molecular modeling of protein materials is a quickly growing area of research that has produced numerous contributions in fields ranging from structural engineering to medicine and biology. We review here the history and methods commonly employed in molecular modeling of protein materials, emphasizing the advantages for using modeling as a complement to experimental work. We then consider a case study of the protein elastin, a critically important ‘mechanical protein’ to exemplify the approach in an area where molecular modeling has made a significant impact. We outline the progression of computational modeling studies that have considerably enhanced our understanding of this important protein which endows elasticity and recoil to the tissues it is found in, including the skin, lungs, arteries and the heart. A vast collection of literature has been directed at studying the structure and function of this protein for over half a century, the first molecular dynamics study of elastin being reported in the 1980s. We review the pivotal computational works that have considerably enhanced our fundamental understanding of elastin's atomistic structure and its extraordinary qualities—focusing on two in particular: elastin's superb elasticity and the inverse temperature transition—the remarkable ability of elastin to take on a more structured conformation at higher temperatures, suggesting its effectiveness as a biomolecular switch. Our hope is to showcase these methods as both complementary and enriching to experimental approaches that have thus far dominated the study of most protein-based materials. (topical review)

  5. The effect of clomiphene-citrate on broody turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinzon, B; Shafir, Z; Perek, M; Snapir, N

    1984-11-01

    The effect of clomiphene-citrate (CC) on broody turkey hens was examined in three experiments. Turkey hens were categorized as broody if found in the laying nest during 6 successive checks per day, if they were reluctant to leave the nest for a period of 24 hr or more, if they had ruffled feathers, and if their cloacal orifices were contracted so as to prevent vaginal exposure by abdominal massage during artificial insemination. In each experiment, 20 hens, selected as broody from commercial breeding flocks, were treated; half were treated with CC at a dosage of 6 mg/kg body weight/day (per os) for 5 consecutive days, and the rest (control) received parallel treatment with a placebo (CaCO3). In all experiments, the CC administration alleviated brooding behavior and increased egg production.

  6. Protein Structure Classification and Loop Modeling Using Multiple Ramachandran Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Najibi, Seyed Morteza

    2017-02-08

    Recently, the study of protein structures using angular representations has attracted much attention among structural biologists. The main challenge is how to efficiently model the continuous conformational space of the protein structures based on the differences and similarities between different Ramachandran plots. Despite the presence of statistical methods for modeling angular data of proteins, there is still a substantial need for more sophisticated and faster statistical tools to model the large-scale circular datasets. To address this need, we have developed a nonparametric method for collective estimation of multiple bivariate density functions for a collection of populations of protein backbone angles. The proposed method takes into account the circular nature of the angular data using trigonometric spline which is more efficient compared to existing methods. This collective density estimation approach is widely applicable when there is a need to estimate multiple density functions from different populations with common features. Moreover, the coefficients of adaptive basis expansion for the fitted densities provide a low-dimensional representation that is useful for visualization, clustering, and classification of the densities. The proposed method provides a novel and unique perspective to two important and challenging problems in protein structure research: structure-based protein classification and angular-sampling-based protein loop structure prediction.

  7. Protein Structure Classification and Loop Modeling Using Multiple Ramachandran Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Najibi, Seyed Morteza; Maadooliat, Mehdi; Zhou, Lan; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the study of protein structures using angular representations has attracted much attention among structural biologists. The main challenge is how to efficiently model the continuous conformational space of the protein structures based on the differences and similarities between different Ramachandran plots. Despite the presence of statistical methods for modeling angular data of proteins, there is still a substantial need for more sophisticated and faster statistical tools to model the large-scale circular datasets. To address this need, we have developed a nonparametric method for collective estimation of multiple bivariate density functions for a collection of populations of protein backbone angles. The proposed method takes into account the circular nature of the angular data using trigonometric spline which is more efficient compared to existing methods. This collective density estimation approach is widely applicable when there is a need to estimate multiple density functions from different populations with common features. Moreover, the coefficients of adaptive basis expansion for the fitted densities provide a low-dimensional representation that is useful for visualization, clustering, and classification of the densities. The proposed method provides a novel and unique perspective to two important and challenging problems in protein structure research: structure-based protein classification and angular-sampling-based protein loop structure prediction.

  8. Model of a DNA-protein complex of the architectural monomeric protein MC1 from Euryarchaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Paquet

    Full Text Available In Archaea the two major modes of DNA packaging are wrapping by histone proteins or bending by architectural non-histone proteins. To supplement our knowledge about the binding mode of the different DNA-bending proteins observed across the three domains of life, we present here the first model of a complex in which the monomeric Methanogen Chromosomal protein 1 (MC1 from Euryarchaea binds to the concave side of a strongly bent DNA. In laboratory growth conditions MC1 is the most abundant architectural protein present in Methanosarcina thermophila CHTI55. Like most proteins that strongly bend DNA, MC1 is known to bind in the minor groove. Interaction areas for MC1 and DNA were mapped by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR data. The polarity of protein binding was determined using paramagnetic probes attached to the DNA. The first structural model of the DNA-MC1 complex we propose here was obtained by two complementary docking approaches and is in good agreement with the experimental data previously provided by electron microscopy and biochemistry. Residues essential to DNA-binding and -bending were highlighted and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the Arg25 side-chain was essential to neutralize the negative charge of two phosphates that come very close in response to a dramatic curvature of the DNA.

  9. Roles of beta-turns in protein folding: from peptide models to protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Anna Marie C; Gierasch, Lila M

    2008-05-01

    Reverse turns are a major class of protein secondary structure; they represent sites of chain reversal and thus sites where the globular character of a protein is created. It has been speculated for many years that turns may nucleate the formation of structure in protein folding, as their propensity to occur will favor the approximation of their flanking regions and their general tendency to be hydrophilic will favor their disposition at the solvent-accessible surface. Reverse turns are local features, and it is therefore not surprising that their structural properties have been extensively studied using peptide models. In this article, we review research on peptide models of turns to test the hypothesis that the propensities of turns to form in short peptides will relate to the roles of corresponding sequences in protein folding. Turns with significant stability as isolated entities should actively promote the folding of a protein, and by contrast, turn sequences that merely allow the chain to adopt conformations required for chain reversal are predicted to be passive in the folding mechanism. We discuss results of protein engineering studies of the roles of turn residues in folding mechanisms. Factors that correlate with the importance of turns in folding indeed include their intrinsic stability, as well as their topological context and their participation in hydrophobic networks within the protein's structure.

  10. Influence of Natural Zeolite on Performance of Laying Hens and Egg Quality

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Ergin; ERENER, Güray; SARICA, Musa

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of natural zeolite on the performance of laying hens. One hundred and eighty 37-week-old Babcock B-300 hens were fed with a diet containing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g clinoptilolite/kg in an experiment consisting of 36 hens per treatment during a 4x28 days experimental period. All feeding programs were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Hens were put at random into 5 treatment groups (12 replicates and 36 hens per treatment). No significant dietar...

  11. Computational Modeling of Complex Protein Activity Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schivo, Stefano; Leijten, Jeroen; Karperien, Marcel; Post, Janine N.; Prignet, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Because of the numerous entities interacting, the complexity of the networks that regulate cell fate makes it impossible to analyze and understand them using the human brain alone. Computational modeling is a powerful method to unravel complex systems. We recently described the development of a

  12. Exploiting conformational ensembles in modeling protein-protein interactions on the proteome scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Guray; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth; Keskin, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Cellular functions are performed through protein-protein interactions; therefore, identification of these interactions is crucial for understanding biological processes. Recent studies suggest that knowledge-based approaches are more useful than ‘blind’ docking for modeling at large scales. However, a caveat of knowledge-based approaches is that they treat molecules as rigid structures. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) offers a wealth of conformations. Here, we exploited ensemble of the conformations in predictions by a knowledge-based method, PRISM. We tested ‘difficult’ cases in a docking-benchmark dataset, where the unbound and bound protein forms are structurally different. Considering alternative conformations for each protein, the percentage of successfully predicted interactions increased from ~26% to 66%, and 57% of the interactions were successfully predicted in an ‘unbiased’ scenario, in which data related to the bound forms were not utilized. If the appropriate conformation, or relevant template interface, is unavailable in the PDB, PRISM could not predict the interaction successfully. The pace of the growth of the PDB promises a rapid increase of ensemble conformations emphasizing the merit of such knowledge-based ensemble strategies for higher success rates in protein-protein interaction predictions on an interactome-scale. We constructed the structural network of ERK interacting proteins as a case study. PMID:23590674

  13. Markov dynamic models for long-timescale protein motion.

    KAUST Repository

    Chiang, Tsung-Han

    2010-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a well-established method for studying protein motion at the atomic scale. However, it is computationally intensive and generates massive amounts of data. One way of addressing the dual challenges of computation efficiency and data analysis is to construct simplified models of long-timescale protein motion from MD simulation data. In this direction, we propose to use Markov models with hidden states, in which the Markovian states represent potentially overlapping probabilistic distributions over protein conformations. We also propose a principled criterion for evaluating the quality of a model by its ability to predict long-timescale protein motions. Our method was tested on 2D synthetic energy landscapes and two extensively studied peptides, alanine dipeptide and the villin headpiece subdomain (HP-35 NleNle). One interesting finding is that although a widely accepted model of alanine dipeptide contains six states, a simpler model with only three states is equally good for predicting long-timescale motions. We also used the constructed Markov models to estimate important kinetic and dynamic quantities for protein folding, in particular, mean first-passage time. The results are consistent with available experimental measurements.

  14. Markov dynamic models for long-timescale protein motion.

    KAUST Repository

    Chiang, Tsung-Han; Hsu, David; Latombe, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a well-established method for studying protein motion at the atomic scale. However, it is computationally intensive and generates massive amounts of data. One way of addressing the dual challenges of computation efficiency and data analysis is to construct simplified models of long-timescale protein motion from MD simulation data. In this direction, we propose to use Markov models with hidden states, in which the Markovian states represent potentially overlapping probabilistic distributions over protein conformations. We also propose a principled criterion for evaluating the quality of a model by its ability to predict long-timescale protein motions. Our method was tested on 2D synthetic energy landscapes and two extensively studied peptides, alanine dipeptide and the villin headpiece subdomain (HP-35 NleNle). One interesting finding is that although a widely accepted model of alanine dipeptide contains six states, a simpler model with only three states is equally good for predicting long-timescale motions. We also used the constructed Markov models to estimate important kinetic and dynamic quantities for protein folding, in particular, mean first-passage time. The results are consistent with available experimental measurements.

  15. Are animal models predictive for human postmortem muscle protein degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfellner, Bianca; Zissler, Angela; Steinbacher, Peter; Monticelli, Fabio C; Pittner, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    A most precise determination of the postmortem interval (PMI) is a crucial aspect in forensic casework. Although there are diverse approaches available to date, the high heterogeneity of cases together with the respective postmortal changes often limit the validity and sufficiency of many methods. Recently, a novel approach for time since death estimation by the analysis of postmortal changes of muscle proteins was proposed. It is however necessary to improve the reliability and accuracy, especially by analysis of possible influencing factors on protein degradation. This is ideally investigated on standardized animal models that, however, require legitimization by a comparison of human and animal tissue, and in this specific case of protein degradation profiles. Only if protein degradation events occur in comparable fashion within different species, respective findings can sufficiently be transferred from the animal model to application in humans. Therefor samples from two frequently used animal models (mouse and pig), as well as forensic cases with representative protein profiles of highly differing PMIs were analyzed. Despite physical and physiological differences between species, western blot analysis revealed similar patterns in most of the investigated proteins. Even most degradation events occurred in comparable fashion. In some other aspects, however, human and animal profiles depicted distinct differences. The results of this experimental series clearly indicate the huge importance of comparative studies, whenever animal models are considered. Although animal models could be shown to reflect the basic principles of protein degradation processes in humans, we also gained insight in the difficulties and limitations of the applicability of the developed methodology in different mammalian species regarding protein specificity and methodic functionality.

  16. Protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and neuronal cell death in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Anushka

    Many studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Yet, the mechanism by which oxidative stress leads to tissue damage in these disorders is unclear. Recent work from our laboratory has revealed that protein carbonylation, a major oxidative modification caused by severe and/or chronic oxidative stress conditions, is elevated in MS and EAE. Furthermore, protein carbonylation has been shown to alter protein structure leading to misfolding/aggregation. These findings prompted me to hypothesize that carbonylated proteins, formed as a consequence of oxidative stress and/or decreased proteasomal activity, promote protein aggregation to mediate neuronal apoptosis in vitro and in EAE. To test this novel hypothesis, I first characterized protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis along the spinal cord during the course of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice [Chapter 2]. The results show that carbonylated proteins accumulate throughout the course of the disease, albeit by different mechanisms: increased oxidative stress in acute EAE and decreased proteasomal activity in chronic EAE. I discovered not only that there is a temporal correlation between protein carbonylation and apoptosis but also that carbonyl levels are significantly higher in apoptotic cells. A high number of juxta-nuclear and cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing the majority of the oxidized proteins are also present during the course of EAE, which seems to be due to reduced autophagy. In chapter 3, I show that when gluthathione levels are reduced to those in EAE spinal cord, both neuron-like PC12 (nPC12) cells and primary neuronal cultures accumulate carbonylated proteins and undergo cell death (both by necrosis and apoptosis). Immunocytochemical and biochemical studies also revealed a temporal

  17. Optimal in-feed amino acid ratio for broiler breeder hens based on deletion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigam, J C P; Sakomura, N K; Sarcinelli, M F; Gonçalves, C A; de Lima, M B; Peruzzi, N J

    2017-12-01

    An ideal amino acid ratio (IAAR) for breeder hens is needed for maximum nitrogen retention (NR) taking into account nitrogen deposition in body (ND B ), feathers (ND F ) and egg mass (NEM) to improve dietary protein efficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to apply the deletion method to derive the IAAR for broiler breeder hens. The nitrogen balance trials were performed from 31 to 35 weeks and from 46 to 50 weeks. Twelve treatments with eight replicates and one hen per cage were used. A balanced diet (BD) was formulated to meet the requirement of all nutrients. The other diets were formulated diluting 55% of BD with corn starch and refilled with amino acids (AAs) and other ingredients, except the AA tested. Each trial lasted 25 days. Feather losses, egg production and egg weight were recorded daily, and the samples were stored to further determine NEM and nitrogen in feather losses (ND FL ). At the start and the end of each period, a group of birds were slaughtered to further determine ND B and ND F . The NR was calculated as the sum of ND B , ND F , ND FL , NEM and the nitrogen maintenance requirement (NMR). The deletion of valine greatly depressed the NR in peak production (31 to 35 weeks) while the deletion of the isoleucine greatly depressed the NR of the hens from 46 to 50 weeks of age. The percentual reduction in NR and the per cent of the AA to delete from the BD were used to calculate the AA requirement. The average IAAR was Lys 100, Met+Cys 86, Trp 23, Thr 80, Arg 113, Val 90, Ile 91, Leu 133, Phe+Tyr 108, Gly+Ser 94 and His 35. The IAAR was in line with the recommendation from the literature, validating deletion method with the advantages from a rapid and low-cost procedure. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

    2015-02-01

    As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of γ-HCH/α-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no

  19. Modelling responses of broiler chickens to dietary balanced protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should

  20. Níveis de proteína bruta e de aminoácidos sulfurados totais sobre o desempenho, a qualidade dos ovos e a excreção de nitrogênio de poedeiras de ovos marrons Levels of protein and sulfur amino acids on performance, egg quality and nitrogen excretion of brown egg laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Pavan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de maximizar a produção e a qualidade dos ovos e minimizar a excreção de nitrogênio nas excretas de poedeiras no final do primeiro ciclo de produção, por meio do fornecimento de aporte adequado de proteína bruta (PB e aminoácidos sulfurados totais (AAST na dieta. Foram utilizadas 432 poedeiras Isa Brown, com 52 semanas de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (PB e AAST e nove tratamentos (14 e 0,57; 14 e 0,64; 14 e 0,71; 15,5 e 0,57; 15,5 e 0,64; 15,5 e 0,71; 17 e 0,57; 17 e 0,64; 17 e 0,71 % de PB e AAST, respectivamente, com seis repetições de oito aves cada. A duração do experimento foi de 140 dias. Foram avaliadas as características de desempenho, qualidade dos ovos e excreção de nitrogênio nas excretas. A única característica de desempenho influenciada pelos tratamentos foi o peso dos ovos, que apresentou os maiores valores para as combinações de 15,5 e 0,71; 17 e 0,71; 15,5 e 0,64; 14 e 0,71 e 17 e 0,64% de PB e AAST, respectivamente. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para consumo de ração, porcentagem de postura e de ovos quebrados, massa de ovos, conversão alimentar por dúzia e por massa de ovos e mortalidade. Para os parâmetros de qualidade dos ovos, foram observadas diferenças significativas apenas para as porcentagens de gema e de albúmem. A excreção de nitrogênio foi maior nas aves alimentadas com as rações contendo 17% de PB. Pode-se sugerir que a ração contendo 14% de PB e 0,57% de AAST pode ser utilizada, sem prejuízos no desempenho e na qualidade dos ovos, e ainda contribui para a redução da excreção de nitrogênio no ambiente e do custo da ração.The aim of the study was to maximize the egg production and quality and minimize nitrogen excretion of laying hens in the end of the first production cycle through the supply of adequate levels of crude protein (CP and total sulfur amino

  1. Prediction equation of crude protein requirements for broiler breeders hens

    OpenAIRE

    Rabello, Carlos Bôa-Viagem; Sakomura, Nilva Kazue; Longo, Flavio Alves; Resende, Kleber Tomaz de; Couto, Humberto Pena

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar as exigências de proteína para aves reprodutoras pesadas através do método fatorial. A exigência de proteína bruta para mantença (PBm) foi determinada por intermédio da técnica do balanço de nitrogênio por meio de ensaio de metabolismo com aves submetidas a quatro dietas com níveis decrescentes de proteína, proporcionando balanço positivo, próximo a zero e negativo. Para determinar a exigência de proteína bruta para o ganho de peso (PBg) dois exp...

  2. Local pH at the surface of hen egg white lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otosu, Takuhiro; Kobayashi, Kaito; Yamaguchi, Shoichi

    2018-02-01

    The microenvironment at the surface of hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was examined by analyzing the change in pKa of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) upon binding to the N-terminus of HEWL. The result showed that the local pH at the HEWL surface is higher than the bulk pH. Furthermore, the data showed that the difference between the local and bulk pH becomes larger with decreasing pH, suggesting HEWL repels more protons at lower pH. Because the local pH affects the protonation states of functional amino-acids at the protein surface, the results provide the fundamental insight into the microenvironment at the protein surface.

  3. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C, imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB, and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB. The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF] compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing

  4. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  5. Effect of humic-plant feed preparations on biochemical blood parameters of laying hens in deep litter housing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubel, F; Dobrzański, Z; Gaweł, A; Pogoda-Sewerniak, K; Grela, E R

    2015-01-01

    An influence of various humic-plant feed additives based on some herbs (nettle, chamomile, yarrow, perforatum), lucerne and humic materials on biochemical indices of Lohmann Brown (LB) layers blood plasma was estimated. Hens were housed in deep litter system, 20 birds in a group. Four groups were formed: control (C - standard feeding), and experimental, supplemented with prepara- tions: E-1 herbal-humic, E-2 humic-herbal and E-3--humic-lucerne. Hens were placed in the pens on the 16th week of life, addition of preparations with standard food mixture started at the 22nd wk and lasted until 66th wk of life. Blood for analyses was collected four times in the following periods: 27, 37, 54 and 65th wk of life. The applied humic-plant preparations to a limited degree affected the values of examined biochemical parameters in serum: total protein (TP), albumins (Albs), glucose (Glu), urea, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TCh), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminot- ransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is difficult to determine based on these study, which preparation is one the most active biologically, however is seems that humic-lucerne prepara- tion affected the examined blood parameters to the highest degree. The reference values ranges in hens blood serum LB hens were proposed for: TP (43-65 g/l), Albs (15-22 g/l), urea (0.5-1.2 mmol/l), Glu 10-15 mmol/l), TCh (2.2-4.5 mmol/l), TAG (10-24 mmol/l), AST (4-12 U/l), ALT (150-280 mmol/l) and ALP (190-350 U/l).

  6. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuemei; Yu, Yang; Su, Zhuowei; Zhang, Keying

    2017-06-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark), respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks). For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks), period 2 (58 to 61 weeks), and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks). For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly improved ( P  digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased ( P  digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased ( P  digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO) in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  7. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hrabčáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P<0.05 in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P<0.05. At the end of the laying period, an increase (P<0.05 was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P<0.05 were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period.

  8. Preparation and storage stability of meat spread developed from spent hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to develop a meat spread as a healthier alternative to already existing meat products utilizing undervalued spent hen meat to add a new dimension to meat products. Materials and Methods: Carcasses were processed within 30 min of slaughter and conditioned at 4±1°C for about 24 h and then braised along with other ingredients to get the final product. The products were evaluated for proximate composition, peroxide values, pH, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: The mean percent values for moisture, crude protein, ether extract, and total ash content of developed product were 58.75±0.32, 9.12±0.44, 11.19±0.16, and 2.35±0.17, respectively. No significant difference was observed for mean coliform and the yeast and mold counts with the progression of storage period, but samples differed significantly for mean pH, thiobarbituric acid and total viable plate count during storage of meat spread. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The meat spread was found to be a good alternative to process the underutilized spent hens for its efficient utilization for product development.

  9. Pathological Responses of White Leghorn Breeder Hens Kept on Ochratoxin A Contaminated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor-ul-Hassan, M. Zargham Khan*, Ahrar Khan and Ijaz Javed1

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are among the most important environmental contaminants. In the present study, ochratoxin A (OTA was produced by propagation of Aspergillus ochraceus and fed to breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. Group A served as control, while groups B, C, D, E, F and G were fed OTA at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg feed, respectively for 3 weeks. Clinical signs, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and egg mass production were recorded on daily basis, while body weight was recorded on weekly basis. Lesions on visceral organs and serum biochemical parameters were determined. Significant decrease in feed intake, body weight and egg mass production was found in the OTA treated groups compared to control (P<0.05. Among different groups, diarrhea, unthriftiness, water intake and depression increased with increase in dietary OTA levels. Enlargement and hemorrhages on liver and kidney were more severe in birds fed higher dietary OTA levels. Serum ALT, urea, creatinine and total protein levels were significantly higher in OTA treated groups. It was concluded that production performance, pathological alterations and serum biochemical changes determined became more severe with increase in dietary levels of OTA.

  10. Mass spectrometry characterization for N-glycosylation of immunoglobulin Y from hen egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Long; He, Zhenjiao; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2018-03-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody that exists in hen egg yolk. It is a glycoprotein, not much is known about its N-glycan structures, site occupancy and site-specific N-glycosylation. In this study, purified protein from hen egg yolk was identified as IgY based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. N-glycan was released from IgY using peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase treatment, and the molecular weight of IgY was calculated using the difference between the molecular weight of IgY and deglycosylated IgY. Two potential N-Glycosylation sites (ASN 308 and ASN 409 ) were detected on IgY by nanoLC-ESI MS. Sugar chains were separated using normal phase liquid chromatography after fluorescence labeling, and 17 N-glycan structures were confirmed using ESI-MS. The sugar chain pattern contained high-mannose oligosaccharide, hybrid oligosaccharide and complex oligosaccharide. These results could lead to other important information regarding IgY glycosylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. DRY BIOMASS OF FRESH WATER ALGAE OF CHLORELLA GENUS IN THE COMBINED FORAGES FOR LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVETLANA GRIGOROVA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Dry biomass of algae is a good source of nutrients and biologically active substances, which in the last years attracted the interest of the specialists in their search for natural, ecologically and healthy sound foods for the animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition and the nutritive value of the dry biomass of fresh water algae of Chlorella genus cultivated in Bulgaria and to establish its effect on the laying hen productivity and the morphological characteristics of the table eggs. The tested product was analyzed for its crude protein content – 55 % to available wet, crude fats – 9,6 %, crude fi bres – 6,4 %, xanthophylls – 0,6 g/kg, essential amino acids: lysine – 5,5 %, methionine – 1,2 %, triptophan – 1,2 %. Adding 2 % and 10 % of dry biomass of fresh water algae of Chlorella genus to the combined forages for laying hens led to the improvement of the bird productivity and the morphological characteristics of the eggs and the egg yolk pigmentation was more intensive by 2,5 units by the Roche’s scale.

  12. The evolution of the protein synthesis system. I - A model of a primitive protein synthesis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1977-01-01

    A model is developed to describe the evolution of the protein synthesis system. The model is comprised of two independent autocatalytic systems, one including one gene (A-gene) and two activated amino acid polymerases (O and A-polymerases), and the other including the addition of another gene (N-gene) and a nucleotide polymerase. Simulation results have suggested that even a small enzymic activity and polymerase specificity could lead the system to the most accurate protein synthesis, as far as permitted by transitions to systems with higher accuracy.

  13. Laying hen movement in a commercial aviary: Enclosure to floor and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many producers in the laying hen industry, including in North America, are phasing out conventional cages in response to consumer demands and sometimes subsequent legislation. Alternative housing systems such as aviaries are being implemented in an attempt to improve hen welfare. Aviaries provide additional space and resources to groups of hens, including a litter area on the floor. However, little is known about hen movement between tiered enclosures and floor litter areas in aviary systems. Diurnal rhythms and social attraction may result in peak times of movement that could lead to overcrowding of areas, or alternatively hen preferences may lead to some areas not being fully utilized. We monitored hen movement between tiered enclosures and litter areas, including movement on and off the outer perch, across the day at peak, mid and end of lay in a commercial aviary. Hens moved onto and off of the open litter area across the day, transitioning between tiered enclosures, outer perches, open litter areas, and litter areas under tiered enclosures. At certain times of day, there were periods of greater hen movement down to the open litter area and between litter areas. For example, more hens were typically observed exiting enclosures, jumping from perches to open litter, and traveling between open litter and litter under tiered enclosures in the morning (all P ≤ 0.001). In all but one instance, more hens were observed on open litter areas in the afternoon than at other times of day (all P ≤ 0.029). However, hen re-entry to tiered enclosures showed less circadian patterning. Hen movement was observed between areas of interest at all sampled time periods, indicating hens use all areas of the system. Further research should examine whether all individual hens do move between areas equally, including within levels of the tiered enclosure, or if crowding occurs on the outer perches or in the litter during times of peak movement. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Assessment of lighting needs by W-36 laying hens via preference test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H; Xin, H; Zhao, Y; Li, B; Shepherd, T A; Alvarez, I

    2016-04-01

    Light intensity, spectrum and pattern may affect laying hen behaviors and production performance. However, requirements of these lighting parameters from the hens' standpoint are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate hens' needs for light intensity and circadian rhythm using a light tunnel with five identical compartments each at a different fluorescent light intensity of hens were able to move freely among the respective compartments. A group of four W-36 laying hens (23 to 30 weeks of age) were tested each time, and six groups or replicates were conducted. Behaviors of the hens were continuously recorded, yielding data on daily time spent, daily feed intake, daily feeding time, and eggs laid under each light intensity and daily inter-compartment movement. The results show that the hens generally spent more time in lower light intensities. Specifically, the hens spent 6.4 h (45.4%) at 5 lux, 3.0 h (22.1%) at 15 lux, 3.1 h (22.2%) at 30 lux and 1.5 h (10.3%) at 100 lux under light condition; and an accumulation of 10.0 h in darkness (feed intake (87.3 g/hen) among the different light conditions mirrored the trend of time spent in the respective light intensity, that is, highest at 5 lux (28.4 g/hen, 32.5% daily total) and lowest at 100 lux (5.8 g/hen, 6.7%). Hen-day egg production rate was 96.0%. Most of the eggs were laid in hens. Further studies to assess or verify welfare and performance responses of the hens to the preferred lighting conditions and rhythm over extended periods are recommended.

  15. Age-Related Variations in Intestinal Microflora of Free-Range and Caged Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yizhe; Wang, Qiuju; Liu, Shengjun; Sun, Rui; Zhou, Yaqiang; Li, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens' intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens' gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form. Samples of whole small intestines and cecal digesta were collected from young hens (8-weeks) and mature laying hens (30-weeks). Based on analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplicons, the microflora of all intestinal contents were affected by both feeding patterns and age of hens. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the main components. Additionally, uncultured environmental samples were found too. There were large differences between young hens and adult laying hens, the latter had more Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and bacterial community is more abundant in 30-weeks laying hens of all six phyla than 8-weeks young hens of only two phyla. In addition, the differences were also observed between free range and caged hens. Free range hens had richer Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Most of strains found were detected more abundant in small intestines than in cecum. Also the selected Lactic acid bacteria from hens gut were applied in feed and they had beneficial effects on growth performance and jejunal villus growth of young broilers. This study suggested that feeding patterns have an importance effect on the microflora composition of hens, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  16. Structure of the oligosaccharide of hen phosvitin as determined by two-dimensional 1H NMR of the intact glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockbank, R.L.; Vogel, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The major form of the oligosaccharide of hen phosvitin was studied with two-dimensional 1 H NMR of the intact glycoprotein. Its structure was determined from an analysis of the chemical shifts of the structural reporter groups, and it was further confirmed by comparison to several related model oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharide is N-linked and is present in a 1:1 stoichiometry to the protein. It has a complex type 1 triantennary structure with two NeuAcα2,6Ga1β1,4G1cNAcβ1,2 arms linked to the Man-4 and Man-4' and a third Ga1β1,4G1cNAcβ1, 4 arm attached to the Man-4. the oligosaccharide contains the common core sequence which is present in all N-linked glycoproteins [Manα1,3(Manα1,6)Manβ1,4G1cNAcβ1,4G1cNAcβ1,N]. In the course of this study, we have found that unique spin systems for the G1cNAc and NeuAc are obtained for spectra recorded in 90% H 2 O. Their NH peaks were assigned at low pH, and these assignments proved useful for confirming the identify of cross-peaks in the anomeric region. In addition, the protons of G1cNAc-1 could be correlated to the NH of the asparagine link. The cross-peak patterns determined in phase-sensitive 2D experiments for the H1,H2 protons have a different appearance for each type of monosaccharide, and this information was also used for making first-order assignments. A comparison with model compounds suggests that the solution conformation of the oligosaccharide is not affected by its attachment to the protein

  17. On the characterization of intermediates in the isodesmic aggregation pathway of hen lysozyme at alkaline pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ravi

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation leading to formation of amyloid fibrils is a symptom of several diseases like Alzheimer's, type 2 diabetes and so on. Elucidating the poorly understood mechanism of such phenomena entails the difficult task of characterizing the species involved at each of the multiple steps in the aggregation pathway. It was previously shown by us that spontaneous aggregation of hen-eggwhite lysozyme (HEWL at room temperature in pH 12.2 is a good model to study aggregation. Here in this paper we investigate the growth kinetics, structure, function and dynamics of multiple intermediate species populating the aggregation pathway of HEWL at pH 12.2. The different intermediates were isolated by varying the HEWL monomer concentration in the 300 nM-0.12 mM range. The intermediates were characterized using techniques like steady-state and nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Growth kinetics of non-fibrillar HEWL aggregates were fitted to the von Bertalanffy equation to yield a HEWL concentration independent rate constant (k = (6.6 ± 0.6 × 10(-5 s(-1. Our results reveal stepwise changes in size, molecular packing and enzymatic activity among growing HEWL aggregates consistent with an isodesmic aggregation model. Formation of disulphide bonds that crosslink the monomers in the aggregate appear as a unique feature of this aggregation. AFM images of multiple amyloid fibrils emanating radially from amorphous aggregates directly confirmed that on-pathway fibril formation was feasible under isodesmic polymerization. The isolated HEWL aggregates are revealed as polycationic protein nanoparticles that are robust at neutral pH with ability to take up non-polar molecules like ANS.

  18. Bayesian Proteoform Modeling Improves Protein Quantification of Global Proteomic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Datta, Susmita; Payne, Samuel H.; Kang, Jiyun; Bramer, Lisa M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Tardiff, Mark F.; McDermott, Jason E.; Pounds, Joel G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2014-12-01

    As the capability of mass spectrometry-based proteomics has matured, tens of thousands of peptides can be measured simultaneously, which has the benefit of offering a systems view of protein expression. However, a major challenge is that with an increase in throughput, protein quantification estimation from the native measured peptides has become a computational task. A limitation to existing computationally-driven protein quantification methods is that most ignore protein variation, such as alternate splicing of the RNA transcript and post-translational modifications or other possible proteoforms, which will affect a significant fraction of the proteome. The consequence of this assumption is that statistical inference at the protein level, and consequently downstream analyses, such as network and pathway modeling, have only limited power for biomarker discovery. Here, we describe a Bayesian model (BP-Quant) that uses statistically derived peptides signatures to identify peptides that are outside the dominant pattern, or the existence of multiple over-expressed patterns to improve relative protein abundance estimates. It is a research-driven approach that utilizes the objectives of the experiment, defined in the context of a standard statistical hypothesis, to identify a set of peptides exhibiting similar statistical behavior relating to a protein. This approach infers that changes in relative protein abundance can be used as a surrogate for changes in function, without necessarily taking into account the effect of differential post-translational modifications, processing, or splicing in altering protein function. We verify the approach using a dilution study from mouse plasma samples and demonstrate that BP-Quant achieves similar accuracy as the current state-of-the-art methods at proteoform identification with significantly better specificity. BP-Quant is available as a MatLab ® and R packages at https://github.com/PNNL-Comp-Mass-Spec/BP-Quant.

  19. The active site of hen egg-white lysozyme: flexibility and chemical bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Jeanette, E-mail: jeanette.netzel@uni-bayreuth.de; Smaalen, Sander van [University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Chemical bonding at the active site of lysozyme is analyzed on the basis of a multipole model employing transferable multipole parameters from a database. Large B factors at low temperatures reflect frozen-in disorder, but therefore prevent a meaningful free refinement of multipole parameters. Chemical bonding at the active site of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) is analyzed on the basis of Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules [QTAIM; Bader (1994 ▶), Atoms in Molecules: A Quantum Theory. Oxford University Press] applied to electron-density maps derived from a multipole model. The observation is made that the atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) of HEWL at a temperature of 100 K are larger than ADPs in crystals of small biological molecules at 298 K. This feature shows that the ADPs in the cold crystals of HEWL reflect frozen-in disorder rather than thermal vibrations of the atoms. Directly generalizing the results of multipole studies on small-molecule crystals, the important consequence for electron-density analysis of protein crystals is that multipole parameters cannot be independently varied in a meaningful way in structure refinements. Instead, a multipole model for HEWL has been developed by refinement of atomic coordinates and ADPs against the X-ray diffraction data of Wang and coworkers [Wang et al. (2007), Acta Cryst. D63, 1254–1268], while multipole parameters were fixed to the values for transferable multipole parameters from the ELMAM2 database [Domagala et al. (2012), Acta Cryst. A68, 337–351] . Static and dynamic electron densities based on this multipole model are presented. Analysis of their topological properties according to the QTAIM shows that the covalent bonds possess similar properties to the covalent bonds of small molecules. Hydrogen bonds of intermediate strength are identified for the Glu35 and Asp52 residues, which are considered to be essential parts of the active site of HEWL. Furthermore, a series of weak C

  20. The active site of hen egg-white lysozyme: flexibility and chemical bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Jeanette; Smaalen, Sander van

    2014-01-01

    Chemical bonding at the active site of lysozyme is analyzed on the basis of a multipole model employing transferable multipole parameters from a database. Large B factors at low temperatures reflect frozen-in disorder, but therefore prevent a meaningful free refinement of multipole parameters. Chemical bonding at the active site of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) is analyzed on the basis of Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules [QTAIM; Bader (1994 ▶), Atoms in Molecules: A Quantum Theory. Oxford University Press] applied to electron-density maps derived from a multipole model. The observation is made that the atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) of HEWL at a temperature of 100 K are larger than ADPs in crystals of small biological molecules at 298 K. This feature shows that the ADPs in the cold crystals of HEWL reflect frozen-in disorder rather than thermal vibrations of the atoms. Directly generalizing the results of multipole studies on small-molecule crystals, the important consequence for electron-density analysis of protein crystals is that multipole parameters cannot be independently varied in a meaningful way in structure refinements. Instead, a multipole model for HEWL has been developed by refinement of atomic coordinates and ADPs against the X-ray diffraction data of Wang and coworkers [Wang et al. (2007), Acta Cryst. D63, 1254–1268], while multipole parameters were fixed to the values for transferable multipole parameters from the ELMAM2 database [Domagala et al. (2012), Acta Cryst. A68, 337–351] . Static and dynamic electron densities based on this multipole model are presented. Analysis of their topological properties according to the QTAIM shows that the covalent bonds possess similar properties to the covalent bonds of small molecules. Hydrogen bonds of intermediate strength are identified for the Glu35 and Asp52 residues, which are considered to be essential parts of the active site of HEWL. Furthermore, a series of weak C

  1. Construction of a biodynamic model for Cry protein production studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mtz, Ana Karin; Pérez-Guevara, Fermín

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical models have been used from growth kinetic simulation to gen regulatory networks prediction for B. thuringiensis culture. However, this culture is a time dependent dynamic process where cells physiology suffers several changes depending on the changes in the cell environment. Therefore, through its culture, B. thuringiensis presents three phases related with the predominance of three major metabolic pathways: vegetative growth (Embded-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway), transition (γ-aminobutiric cycle) and sporulation (tricarboxylic acid cycle). There is not available a mathematical model that relates the different stages of cultivation with the metabolic pathway active on each one of them. Therefore, in the present study, and based on published data, a biodynamic model was generated to describe the dynamic of the three different phases based on their major metabolic pathways. The biodynamic model is used to study the interrelation between the different culture phases and their relationship with the Cry protein production. The model consists of three interconnected modules where each module represents one culture phase and its principal metabolic pathway. For model validation four new fermentations were done showing that the model constructed describes reasonably well the dynamic of the three phases. The main results of this model imply that poly-β-hydroxybutyrate is crucial for endospore and Cry protein production. According to the yields of dipicolinic acid and Cry from poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, calculated with the model, the endospore and Cry protein production are not just simultaneous and parallel processes they are also competitive processes.

  2. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P eggs (P egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Comparison of the effects of dietary supplementation of flavonoids on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg nutrient profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, H; Yenice, G; Dokumacioglu, E; Kaynar, O; Hayirli, A; Kaya, A

    2017-10-01

    1. The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of hesperidin, naringin and quercetin on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg yolk lipid and protein profiles. 2. A total of 96 Lohmann White laying hens weighing an average of 1500 g at 28 weeks of age were randomly assigned to a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented (0.5 g/kg) with either hesperidin, naringin or quercetin. Each treatment was replicated in 6 cages in an 8-week experimental period. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. 3. None of the dietary flavonoids affected laying performance and eggshell quality. Hesperidin and quercetin supplementations decreased albumen and yolk indexes. 4. As compared to the control group, egg yolk cholesterol content decreased and egg yolk protein content increased in response to dietary hesperidin and quercetin supplementation. The mean egg yolk cholesterol (mg/g) and protein (g/100 g) contents were 10.08/14.28, 16.12/14.08, 14.75/15.04 and 15.15/14.85 for the control group and groups supplemented with naringin, hesperidin and quercetin, respectively. 5. Egg yolk lipid and protein profiles were variable. 6. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of hesperidin or quercetin could be used in the diets during the early laying period to reduce egg yolk cholesterol and increase egg yolk protein, which may be attractive to consumers.

  4. A generative, probabilistic model of local protein structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter; Mardia, Kanti V.; Taylor, Charles C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant progress in recent years, protein structure prediction maintains its status as one of the prime unsolved problems in computational biology. One of the key remaining challenges is an efficient probabilistic exploration of the structural space that correctly reflects the relative...... conformational stabilities. Here, we present a fully probabilistic, continuous model of local protein structure in atomic detail. The generative model makes efficient conformational sampling possible and provides a framework for the rigorous analysis of local sequence-structure correlations in the native state...

  5. Haematology and serum biochemistry of laying hens fed red pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hematology and serum biochemistry of ISA brown laying hens fed red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as feed additive in their diet was studied. Sixty (60) laying birds (in their 32nd week) were randomly allotted to four different dietary treatments with graded levels of red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as additive.

  6. Enrichment of bifidobacteria in the hen caeca by dietary inulin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Rada, V.; Dušková, D.; Petr, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2001), s. 73-75 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/99/0480; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : bifidobacteria * hen * inulin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  7. Measuring fearfulness of hens in commercial organic egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate agreement between flock-based fear tests used in welfare assessments of laying hens in commercial organic farms, three tests were applied in 27 flocks of layers. Tests were performed at 35 and 55 weeks of age and were based on the concepts of 'novel object', 'sudden sound' and two dif...

  8. Consumers’ Preferences for Shell Eggs Regarding Laying Hen Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Yan; Peterson, Hikaru Hanawa; Li, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    DRAFT, do not cite. Please cite formally published version: Heng, Yan, Hikaru Hanawa Peterson, and Xianghong Li. "Consumer Attitudes toward Farm-Animal Welfare: The Case of Laying Hens." Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 38.3 (2013): 418-434. Available at: http://purl.umn.edu/165936

  9. Performance and economy of production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed fermented wild cocoyam corm (FWCC) as a partial replacement for maize. Two hundred and forty (240) Nera black laying birds were randomly allocated to four experimental diets formulated on 0, 10, 20 and 30% FWCC as graded replacement ...

  10. One Hen: Teaching Elementary-Level Economics for Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative case study focused on describing and analyzing the student and teacher experience with One Hen, a project-based learning unit specifically designed to teach civic engagement. In this study I address three questions: 1) Do fifth-grade students' knowledge and skills in economics change after participating in a…

  11. The Case for Bull Dogs and Mother Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Bonnie; Neugebauer, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Describes traits of effective child care team members: instigator--develops ideas; day-dream believer--suggests solutions; jester--relieves tension; mother hen--ensures fair treatment; nervous Nellie--critiques ideas; keeper of the faith--focuses on center's mission; bull dog--keeps on task; compromiser--preserves unity; and mover and…

  12. Charged Analogues of Henning Knutsen Type Solutions in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y. K.; Kumar, Sachin; Pratibha

    2011-11-01

    In the present article, we have found charged analogues of Henning Knutsen's interior solutions which join smoothly to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions are singularity free and analyzed numerically with respect to pressure, energy-density and charge-density in details. The solutions so obtained also present the generalization of A.L. Mehra's solutions.

  13. EGG QUALITY OF CREOLE HENS REARED IN THE BACKYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano Juárez-Caratachea

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The egg quality from Creole backyard hens was determined by collecting samples from 11 municipalities from the central area of Michoacan State, Mexico. It was measured: egg weight (EW, longitude diameter (LD of the egg, transversal diameter (TD of the egg, shell weight (SW, shell thickness (ST, shell index (SI, white diameter (WD, yolk diameter (YD, white high (WH, yolk high (YH, air chamber high (ACH and Haugh units (HU. The averages obtained were: EW 50.7 g; LD 5.6 cm; TD 4.2 cm; SW 4.5 g.; ST 0.28 mm; SI 8.9 %; WD 10.0 cm; YD 4.5 cm; WH 6.3 mm; YH 1.6 cm; ACH 5.4 mm; HU 73.4, YP 12.1. In conclusion, the eggs of backyard hens were smaller than commercial eggs. However, the internal quality indicators suggested that backyard hen eggs have similar quality to that of commercial hens.

  14. Variation in selection of microhabitats by Merriam's turkey brood hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1997-01-01

    We studied microhabitats of Merriam‘s turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) brood hens in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystem in South Dakota from 1986 to 1988. Cluster analysis indicated three groups of microhabitats, open-shrub, open-grasslforb and forest, based on vegetation characteristics at sites selected by brood...

  15. Welfare indicators in laying hens in relation to nest exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, M; Tauson, R; Holm, L

    2016-01-01

    Consumer concerns about the welfare of laying hens are increasing, leading to increased interest in identifying reliable ways to assess welfare. The present study evaluated invasive and non-invasive welfare indicators in relation to a stressful challenge. The study included 126 Lohmann Selected...

  16. Economic feasibility of animal welfare improvements in Dutch intensive livestock production: A comparison between broiler, laying hen, and fattening pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Voermans, G.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the economic feasibility of production systems with different levels of animal welfare (AW) in the broiler, laying hen, and fattening pig sectors. Economic feasibility over a five-year time horizon was assessed using stochastic bio-economic simulation models. The results suggest

  17. Validation of protein models by a neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantucci Piercarlo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development and improvement of reliable computational methods designed to evaluate the quality of protein models is relevant in the context of protein structure refinement, which has been recently identified as one of the bottlenecks limiting the quality and usefulness of protein structure prediction. Results In this contribution, we present a computational method (Artificial Intelligence Decoys Evaluator: AIDE which is able to consistently discriminate between correct and incorrect protein models. In particular, the method is based on neural networks that use as input 15 structural parameters, which include energy, solvent accessible surface, hydrophobic contacts and secondary structure content. The results obtained with AIDE on a set of decoy structures were evaluated using statistical indicators such as Pearson correlation coefficients, Znat, fraction enrichment, as well as ROC plots. It turned out that AIDE performances are comparable and often complementary to available state-of-the-art learning-based methods. Conclusion In light of the results obtained with AIDE, as well as its comparison with available learning-based methods, it can be concluded that AIDE can be successfully used to evaluate the quality of protein structures. The use of AIDE in combination with other evaluation tools is expected to further enhance protein refinement efforts.

  18. Fast Proton Titration Scheme for Multiscale Modeling of Protein Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andre Azevedo Reis; Lund, Mikael; da Silva, Fernando Luís Barroso

    2010-10-12

    Proton exchange between titratable amino acid residues and the surrounding solution gives rise to exciting electric processes in proteins. We present a proton titration scheme for studying acid-base equilibria in Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations where salt is treated at the Debye-Hückel level. The method, rooted in the Kirkwood model of impenetrable spheres, is applied on the three milk proteins α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin, for which we investigate the net-charge, molecular dipole moment, and charge capacitance. Over a wide range of pH and salt conditions, excellent agreement is found with more elaborate simulations where salt is explicitly included. The implicit salt scheme is orders of magnitude faster than the explicit analog and allows for transparent interpretation of physical mechanisms. It is shown how the method can be expanded to multiscale modeling of aqueous salt solutions of many biomolecules with nonstatic charge distributions. Important examples are protein-protein aggregation, protein-polyelectrolyte complexation, and protein-membrane association.

  19. DockQ: A Quality Measure for Protein-Protein Docking Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Basu

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art to assess the structural quality of docking models is currently based on three related yet independent quality measures: Fnat, LRMS, and iRMS as proposed and standardized by CAPRI. These quality measures quantify different aspects of the quality of a particular docking model and need to be viewed together to reveal the true quality, e.g. a model with relatively poor LRMS (>10Å might still qualify as 'acceptable' with a descent Fnat (>0.50 and iRMS (<3.0Å. This is also the reason why the so called CAPRI criteria for assessing the quality of docking models is defined by applying various ad-hoc cutoffs on these measures to classify a docking model into the four classes: Incorrect, Acceptable, Medium, or High quality. This classification has been useful in CAPRI, but since models are grouped in only four bins it is also rather limiting, making it difficult to rank models, correlate with scoring functions or use it as target function in machine learning algorithms. Here, we present DockQ, a continuous protein-protein docking model quality measure derived by combining Fnat, LRMS, and iRMS to a single score in the range [0, 1] that can be used to assess the quality of protein docking models. By using DockQ on CAPRI models it is possible to almost completely reproduce the original CAPRI classification into Incorrect, Acceptable, Medium and High quality. An average PPV of 94% at 90% Recall demonstrating that there is no need to apply predefined ad-hoc cutoffs to classify docking models. Since DockQ recapitulates the CAPRI classification almost perfectly, it can be viewed as a higher resolution version of the CAPRI classification, making it possible to estimate model quality in a more quantitative way using Z-scores or sum of top ranked models, which has been so valuable for the CASP community. The possibility to directly correlate a quality measure to a scoring function has been crucial for the development of scoring functions for

  20. From the Protein's Perspective: The Benefits and Challenges of Protein Structure-Based Pharmacophore Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, M.P.A.; McGuire, R; Roumen, L.; de Esch, I.J.P.; de Vlieg, J; Klomp, J.P.G; de Graaf, C.

    2011-01-01

    A pharmacophore describes the arrangement of molecular features a ligand must contain to efficaciously bind a receptor. Pharmacophore models are developed to improve molecular understanding of ligand-protein interactions, and can be used as a tool to identify novel compounds that fulfil the

  1. A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbajo Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, biologists and biochemists use computational tools to design experiments to probe the function of proteins and/or to engineer them for a variety of different purposes. The most effective strategies rely on the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the protein of interest. However it is often the case that an experimental structure is not available and that models of different quality are used instead. On the other hand, the relationship between the quality of a model and its appropriate use is not easy to derive in general, and so far it has been analyzed in detail only for specific application. Results This paper describes a database and related software tools that allow testing of a given structure based method on models of a protein representing different levels of accuracy. The comparison of the results of a computational experiment on the experimental structure and on a set of its decoy models will allow developers and users to assess which is the specific threshold of accuracy required to perform the task effectively. Conclusions The ModelDB server automatically builds decoy models of different accuracy for a given protein of known structure and provides a set of useful tools for their analysis. Pre-computed data for a non-redundant set of deposited protein structures are available for analysis and download in the ModelDB database. Implementation, availability and requirements Project name: A resource for benchmarking the usefulness of protein structure models. Project home page: http://bl210.caspur.it/MODEL-DB/MODEL-DB_web/MODindex.php. Operating system(s: Platform independent. Programming language: Perl-BioPerl (program; mySQL, Perl DBI and DBD modules (database; php, JavaScript, Jmol scripting (web server. Other requirements: Java Runtime Environment v1.4 or later, Perl, BioPerl, CPAN modules, HHsearch, Modeller, LGA, NCBI Blast package, DSSP, Speedfill (Surfnet and PSAIA. License: Free. Any

  2. Predicting protein subcellular locations using hierarchical ensemble of Bayesian classifiers based on Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eils Roland

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subcellular location of a protein is closely related to its function. It would be worthwhile to develop a method to predict the subcellular location for a given protein when only the amino acid sequence of the protein is known. Although many efforts have been made to predict subcellular location from sequence information only, there is the need for further research to improve the accuracy of prediction. Results A novel method called HensBC is introduced to predict protein subcellular location. HensBC is a recursive algorithm which constructs a hierarchical ensemble of classifiers. The classifiers used are Bayesian classifiers based on Markov chain models. We tested our method on six various datasets; among them are Gram-negative bacteria dataset, data for discriminating outer membrane proteins and apoptosis proteins dataset. We observed that our method can predict the subcellular location with high accuracy. Another advantage of the proposed method is that it can improve the accuracy of the prediction of some classes with few sequences in training and is therefore useful for datasets with imbalanced distribution of classes. Conclusion This study introduces an algorithm which uses only the primary sequence of a protein to predict its subcellular location. The proposed recursive scheme represents an interesting methodology for learning and combining classifiers. The method is computationally efficient and competitive with the previously reported approaches in terms of prediction accuracies as empirical results indicate. The code for the software is available upon request.

  3. Physical Properties of the Very Young PN Hen3-1357 (Stingray Nebula) Based on Multiwavelength Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Masaaki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU. No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Parthasarathy, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II B lock Koramangala, Bangalore 560034, Karnataka (India); Tajitsu, A. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 N Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hubrig, S., E-mail: otsuka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP) An der Sternwarte 12, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2017-03-20

    We carried out a detailed analysis of the interesting and important very young planetary nebula (PN) Hen3-1357 (Stingray Nebula) based on a unique data set of optical to far-IR spectra and photometric images. We calculated the abundances of nine elements using collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines (RLs). The RL C/O ratio indicates that this PN is O-rich, which is also supported by the detection of the broad 9/18 μ m bands from amorphous silicate grains. The observed elemental abundances can be explained by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models for initially 1–1.5 M {sub ⊙} stars with Z = 0.008. The Ne overabundance might be due to the enhancement of {sup 22}Ne isotope in the He-rich intershell. Using the spectrum of the central star synthesized by Tlusty as the ionization/heating source of the PN, we constructed the self-consistent photoionization model with Cloudy to the observed quantities and derived the gas and dust masses, dust-to-gas mass ratio, and core mass of the central star. About 80% of the total dust mass is from warm–cold dust component beyond ionization front. Comparison with other Galactic PNe indicates that Hen3-1357 is an ordinary amorphous silicate-rich and O-rich gas PN. Among other studied PNe, IC4846 shows many similarities in properties of the PN to Hen3-1357, although their post-AGB evolution is quite different from each other. Further monitoring of observations and comparisons with other PNe such as IC4846 are necessary to understand the evolution of Hen3-1357.

  4. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.

  5. Anomalous diffusion in neutral evolution of model proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik D.; Grishin, Nick V.

    2015-06-01

    Protein evolution is frequently explored using minimalist polymer models, however, little attention has been given to the problem of structural drift, or diffusion. Here, we study neutral evolution of small protein motifs using an off-lattice heteropolymer model in which individual monomers interact as low-resolution amino acids. In contrast to most earlier models, both the length and folded structure of the polymers are permitted to change. To describe structural change, we compute the mean-square distance (MSD) between monomers in homologous folds separated by n neutral mutations. We find that structural change is episodic, and, averaged over lineages (for example, those extending from a single sequence), exhibits a power-law dependence on n . We show that this exponent depends on the alignment method used, and we analyze the distribution of waiting times between neutral mutations. The latter are more disperse than for models required to maintain a specific fold, but exhibit a similar power-law tail.

  6. HIV-specific probabilistic models of protein evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Nickle

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparative sequence analyses, including such fundamental bioinformatics techniques as similarity searching, sequence alignment and phylogenetic inference, have become a mainstay for researchers studying type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1 genome structure and evolution. Implicit in comparative analyses is an underlying model of evolution, and the chosen model can significantly affect the results. In general, evolutionary models describe the probabilities of replacing one amino acid character with another over a period of time. Most widely used evolutionary models for protein sequences have been derived from curated alignments of hundreds of proteins, usually based on mammalian genomes. It is unclear to what extent these empirical models are generalizable to a very different organism, such as HIV-1-the most extensively sequenced organism in existence. We developed a maximum likelihood model fitting procedure to a collection of HIV-1 alignments sampled from different viral genes, and inferred two empirical substitution models, suitable for describing between-and within-host evolution. Our procedure pools the information from multiple sequence alignments, and provided software implementation can be run efficiently in parallel on a computer cluster. We describe how the inferred substitution models can be used to generate scoring matrices suitable for alignment and similarity searches. Our models had a consistently superior fit relative to the best existing models and to parameter-rich data-driven models when benchmarked on independent HIV-1 alignments, demonstrating evolutionary biases in amino-acid substitution that are unique to HIV, and that are not captured by the existing models. The scoring matrices derived from the models showed a marked difference from common amino-acid scoring matrices. The use of an appropriate evolutionary model recovered a known viral transmission history, whereas a poorly chosen model introduced phylogenetic

  7. Preclinical models used for immunogenicity prediction of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinks, Vera; Weinbuch, Daniel; Baker, Matthew; Dean, Yann; Stas, Philippe; Kostense, Stefan; Rup, Bonita; Jiskoot, Wim

    2013-07-01

    All therapeutic proteins are potentially immunogenic. Antibodies formed against these drugs can decrease efficacy, leading to drastically increased therapeutic costs and in rare cases to serious and sometimes life threatening side-effects. Many efforts are therefore undertaken to develop therapeutic proteins with minimal immunogenicity. For this, immunogenicity prediction of candidate drugs during early drug development is essential. Several in silico, in vitro and in vivo models are used to predict immunogenicity of drug leads, to modify potentially immunogenic properties and to continue development of drug candidates with expected low immunogenicity. Despite the extensive use of these predictive models, their actual predictive value varies. Important reasons for this uncertainty are the limited/insufficient knowledge on the immune mechanisms underlying immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins, the fact that different predictive models explore different components of the immune system and the lack of an integrated clinical validation. In this review, we discuss the predictive models in use, summarize aspects of immunogenicity that these models predict and explore the merits and the limitations of each of the models.

  8. Modelling Transcapillary Transport of Fluid and Proteins in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pietribiasi

    Full Text Available The kinetics of protein transport to and from the vascular compartment play a major role in the determination of fluid balance and plasma refilling during hemodialysis (HD sessions. In this study we propose a whole-body mathematical model describing water and protein shifts across the capillary membrane during HD and compare its output to clinical data while evaluating the impact of choosing specific values for selected parameters.The model follows a two-compartment structure (vascular and interstitial space and is based on balance equations of protein mass and water volume in each compartment. The capillary membrane was described according to the three-pore theory. Two transport parameters, the fractional contribution of large pores (αLP and the total hydraulic conductivity (LpS of the capillary membrane, were estimated from patient data. Changes in the intensity and direction of individual fluid and solute flows through each part of the transport system were analyzed in relation to the choice of different values of small pores radius and fractional conductivity, lymphatic sensitivity to hydraulic pressure, and steady-state interstitial-to-plasma protein concentration ratio.The estimated values of LpS and αLP were respectively 10.0 ± 8.4 mL/min/mmHg (mean ± standard deviation and 0.062 ± 0.041. The model was able to predict with good accuracy the profiles of plasma volume and serum total protein concentration in most of the patients (average root-mean-square deviation < 2% of the measured value.The applied model provides a mechanistic interpretation of fluid transport processes induced by ultrafiltration during HD, using a minimum of tuned parameters and assumptions. The simulated values of individual flows through each kind of pore and lymphatic absorption rate yielded by the model may suggest answers to unsolved questions on the relative impact of these not-measurable quantities on total vascular refilling and fluid balance.

  9. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164 at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i 0 mg/kg, ii 25 mg/kg, iii 50 mg/kg, and iv 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05 by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009 and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to

  10. Dietary choline and phospholipid supplementation enhanced docosahexaenoic acid enrichment in egg yolk of laying hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhang, H J; Wang, X C; Wu, S G; Wang, J; Xu, L; Qi, G H

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipid supplementation on laying hen performance, egg quality, and the fatty acid profile of egg yolks from hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder diet. Three-hundred-sixty 28-wk-old Hy-line W-36 laying hens were randomly allocated to one of the 5 dietary treatments, each treatment with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. All diets included 2% Schizochytrium powder (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 137.09 mg/g). The control group was not supplemented with any additional phospholipids, whereas the other 4 experimental diets were supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg choline (CHO), 1,000 mg/kg monoethanolamine (MEA), 1,000 mg/kg lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or 500 mg/kg LPC + 500 mg/kg MEA (LPC + MEA). The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.15 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein, 16.60%). The feeding trial lasted 28 days. Laying hen performance and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by the diets used. The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) level was reduced in the LPC group at d 28 (P egg yolks in the LPC group had a trend to increase in comparison to the control (P = 0.07). The CHO and LPC groups had higher omega-3 (n-3) PUFA and DHA levels and lower n-6/n-3 ratios than the other groups at d 28 (P egg yolk reached a plateau after the laying hens consumed the experimental diets for 14 days, and higher yolk DHA contents were observed in the CHO and LPC groups as compared with the other groups at d 14. It was concluded that dietary choline supplementation for more than 14 d enhanced egg yolk enrichment with n-3 PUFA and DHA when laying hen diets were supplemented with 2% Schizochytrium powder. All the diets had no adverse effect on hen performance, egg quality, or egg components under the experimental condition. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. The effect of different feed restriction programs on reproductive performance, efficiency, frame size, and uniformity in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, M; Coon, C N

    2007-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feed restriction programs on breeder reproductive performance. In experiment 1, every day (ED), skip-a-day (SK), 4-3, and 5-2 programs were compared. Diets did not differ, and feed intake was identical in all groups. Four hundred twenty pullets were reared on each program. At 21 wk, 80 breeders from each program were individually housed to record performance parameters. Body weight and frame size were larger in ED pullets than SK, 4-3, or 5-2 despite equal intakes. Hens fed ED reached sexual maturity at a younger age than other groups. Hens fed ED also produced more total and settable eggs than SK hens. Egg weight was heavier in 5-2 hens than in ED with 4-3 and SK intermediate. Efficiency of feed utilization was best in ED hens. In experiment 2 the same programs were tested, but pullets were reared to reach equal BW. One hundred seventy-five pullets were reared on each program, of which 60 were housed. Feed intake was greater for SK, 4-3, and 5-2 than ED pullets to reach the same BW. Frame size did not differ, indicating that BW was the cause of differences in experiment 1. In experiment 2, differences in performance were attenuated but not eliminated by feeding to reach equal BW, suggesting that metabolic factors aside from BW are altered by feeding programs. The 5-2 produced larger eggs than ED with the trend among programs being identical to that in experiment 1. These results suggest that metabolic changes such as increased lipogenesis or alterations in body composition may result in larger eggs in feeding programs that include off-feed days. Mortality, fertility, and hatchability were not affected by feeding programs in either experiment. Body composition analysis indicated the importance of total lean protein mass as a threshold for the onset of sexual maturity. Programs like SK are less efficient than ED and may result in reduced performance.

  12. DockQ: A Quality Measure for Protein-Protein Docking Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar

    2016-01-01

    The state-of-the-art to assess the structural quality of docking models is currently based on three related yet independent quality measures: Fnat, LRMS, and iRMS as proposed and standardized by CAPRI. These quality measures quantify different aspects of the quality of a particular docking model and need to be viewed together to reveal the true quality, e.g. a model with relatively poor LRMS (>10Å) might still qualify as 'acceptable' with a descent Fnat (>0.50) and iRMS (iRMS to a single score in the range [0, 1] that can be used to assess the quality of protein docking models. By using DockQ on CAPRI models it is possible to almost completely reproduce the original CAPRI classification into Incorrect, Acceptable, Medium and High quality. An average PPV of 94% at 90% Recall demonstrating that there is no need to apply predefined ad-hoc cutoffs to classify docking models. Since DockQ recapitulates the CAPRI classification almost perfectly, it can be viewed as a higher resolution version of the CAPRI classification, making it possible to estimate model quality in a more quantitative way using Z-scores or sum of top ranked models, which has been so valuable for the CASP community. The possibility to directly correlate a quality measure to a scoring function has been crucial for the development of scoring functions for protein structure prediction, and DockQ should be useful in a similar development in the protein docking field. DockQ is available at http://github.com/bjornwallner/DockQ/ PMID:27560519

  13. A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ekelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis. To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation.

  14. Effect of cadmium doses on chickens. 3. Long term influence of cadmium on feed consumption weight gain, egg performance and egg shell quality of laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suelz, M; Hardebeck, H; Krampitz, G

    1974-01-01

    In long-lasting experiments the application of Cd resulted in a decreased state of health (nephritis) of hens. Feed consumption, weight gain and egg production were reduced. Egg shell quality was not changed under practical Cd-concentrations. Studies of the ultrastructure of egg shells of animals fed with Cd did not yield any hints of damages. The protein-profiles of egg shells revealed an additional component under Cd-application. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Protein homology model refinement by large-scale energy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hahnbeom; Ovchinnikov, Sergey; Kim, David E; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David

    2018-03-20

    Proteins fold to their lowest free-energy structures, and hence the most straightforward way to increase the accuracy of a partially incorrect protein structure model is to search for the lowest-energy nearby structure. This direct approach has met with little success for two reasons: first, energy function inaccuracies can lead to false energy minima, resulting in model degradation rather than improvement; and second, even with an accurate energy function, the search problem is formidable because the energy only drops considerably in the immediate vicinity of the global minimum, and there are a very large number of degrees of freedom. Here we describe a large-scale energy optimization-based refinement method that incorporates advances in both search and energy function accuracy that can substantially improve the accuracy of low-resolution homology models. The method refined low-resolution homology models into correct folds for 50 of 84 diverse protein families and generated improved models in recent blind structure prediction experiments. Analyses of the basis for these improvements reveal contributions from both the improvements in conformational sampling techniques and the energy function.

  16. Stochastic lattice model of synaptic membrane protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwei; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2017-05-01

    Neurotransmitter receptor molecules, concentrated in synaptic membrane domains along with scaffolds and other kinds of proteins, are crucial for signal transmission across chemical synapses. In common with other membrane protein domains, synaptic domains are characterized by low protein copy numbers and protein crowding, with rapid stochastic turnover of individual molecules. We study here in detail a stochastic lattice model of the receptor-scaffold reaction-diffusion dynamics at synaptic domains that was found previously to capture, at the mean-field level, the self-assembly, stability, and characteristic size of synaptic domains observed in experiments. We show that our stochastic lattice model yields quantitative agreement with mean-field models of nonlinear diffusion in crowded membranes. Through a combination of analytic and numerical solutions of the master equation governing the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains, together with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we find substantial discrepancies between mean-field and stochastic models for the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains. Based on the reaction and diffusion properties of synaptic receptors and scaffolds suggested by previous experiments and mean-field calculations, we show that the stochastic reaction-diffusion dynamics of synaptic receptors and scaffolds provide a simple physical mechanism for collective fluctuations in synaptic domains, the molecular turnover observed at synaptic domains, key features of the observed single-molecule trajectories, and spatial heterogeneity in the effective rates at which receptors and scaffolds are recycled at the cell membrane. Our work sheds light on the physical mechanisms and principles linking the collective properties of membrane protein domains to the stochastic dynamics that rule their molecular components.

  17. Biokinetics of carbohydrate and lipid matabolism in normal laying hen; pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Y.H.; Riis, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The radiochemical purity of sup(14)C(U)-glucose solution to be injected to normal laying hen was investigated for studying biokinetics of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The liquid scintillation counter was employed for determining the activity of carbon-14. The barium hydroxide and zinc sulfate were adopted to precipitate the protein in the solution. The glucose content in the solution was observed as 0.912 mg per ml. applying Hultman's method. The specific activity of sup(14)C(U)-glucose solution was known as 31.3 nCi/mg glucose. The glucose pentaacetate was synthesized to isolate the pure glucose from the solution. The specific activity of pure glucose was measured as 28.5 nCi/mg glucose. Therefore, it was known that the radiochemical purity of the solution was 82.7%. (Author)

  18. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  19. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  20. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Prevents Ovarian Aging by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress in the Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingting Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an important inducement in ovarian aging which results in fecundity decline in human and diverse animals. As a potent antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE was investigated to ameliorate chicken ovarian aging in this study. Firstly, ovarian antioxidant capacity of hens at different ages (90, 150, 280, and 580 days old was compared to elucidate its age-related changes. Subsequently, a D-gal-induced (2.5 mg/mL aging ovarian model was established and the cultured ovarian tissues were treated with GSPE at 5 μg/mL for 72 h to evaluate the putative attenuating effects of GSPE on ovarian aging. Meanwhile, ovaries of D280 (young and D580 (old were treated with GSPE for 72 h in culture to verify the protective effects of GSPE on natural aging ovary. The results showed that GSPE could rescue the antioxidant capacity decline by increasing the antioxidase activities and their gene expression in either D-gal-induced or natural aging ovaries. Moreover, GSPE could maintain the homeostasis between cell proliferation and apoptosis in the D-gal-induced and natural aging ovaries, as well as alleviate D-gal-induced nucleus chromatin condensation in the ovarian granulosa cells. In conclusion, GSPE treatment can effectively prevent the ovarian aging process in hens by reducing oxidative stress.

  1. Spectral analysis of the binary nucleus of the planetary nebula Hen 2-428 - first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Nicolle L.; Reindl, Nicole; Barstow, Martin A.; Casewell, Sarah L.; Geier, Stephan; Bertolami, Marcelo M. Miller; Taubenberger, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Identifying progenitor systems for the double-degenerate scenario is crucial to check the reliability of type Ia supernovae as cosmological standard candles. Santander-Garcia et al. (2015) claimed that Hen 2-428 has a doubledegenerate core whose combined mass significantly exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit. Together with the short orbital period (4.2 hours), the authors concluded that the system should merge within a Hubble time triggering a type Ia supernova event. Garcia-Berro et al. (2016) explored alternative scenarios to explain the observational evidence, as the high mass conclusion is highly unlikely within predictions from stellar evolution theory. They conclude that the evidence supporting the supernova progenitor status of the system is premature. Here we present the first quantitative spectral analysis of Hen 2-428which allows us to derive the effective temperatures, surface gravities and helium abundance of the two CSPNe based on state-of-the-art, non-LTE model atmospheres. These results provide constrains for further studies of this particularly interesting system.

  2. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC, medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I, medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II, and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III and conventional cages (CC. The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens’ behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05, and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p0.05. The hens in MFC-I, −II, and −III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05. The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05. In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.

  3. PERFORMANCE AND EGGS QUALITY OF HENS OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA

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    Zdeněk Ledvinka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the performance and technological values of eggs of Czech Hen and Oravka breeds housed on litter. The assumption was that the genotype of hens affects their performance, egg weight, and parameters of yolk, albumen and eggshell quality. A total of 30 pullets of Czech Hen breed and 30 pullets of Oravka breed in the age of 17 weeks were included in to the experiment. Environmental conditions corresponded to the standard requirements for laying hens in observed type of housing system. Hen day egg production, egg yield, daily feed consumption per hen, feed consumption per egg and egg weight, egg shape index, proportion and index of yolk and albumen,yolk colour and Haugh units score were monitored in the experiment. From the parameters of eggshell, proportion, thickness, strength and colour of eggshell were observed. Performance parameters of laying hens weren't affected by the genotype of hens. Czech Hen breed showed insignificantly the higher value in all indicators. The significantly (P≤0.01 and P≤0.001 better values of eggshell quality parameters were detected in Czech Hen breed. We found out that Czech Hen breed had also statistically significantly lighter colour of eggshell. There were no significant interbreed differences in egg weight, proportion of yolk and albumen. The egg shape index was significantly higher in Oravka. Index of yolk and albumen was also significantly (P≤0.001 higher in Oravka. Haugh units score, that reflect the quality of the eggs, were found significantly (P≤0.001higher in Oravka too. On the other hand, yolk colour was detected significantly (P≤0.001 darker for the Czech Hen.

  4. A modeling strategy for G-protein coupled receptors

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    Anna Kahler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell responses can be triggered via G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs that interact with small molecules, peptides or proteins and transmit the signal over the membrane via structural changes to activate intracellular pathways. GPCRs are characterized by a rather low sequence similarity and exhibit structural differences even for functionally closely related GPCRs. An accurate structure prediction for GPCRs is therefore not straightforward. We propose a computational approach that relies on the generation of several independent models based on different template structures, which are subsequently refined by molecular dynamics simulations. A comparison of their conformational stability and the agreement with GPCR-typical structural features is then used to select a favorable model. This strategy was applied to predict the structure of the herpesviral chemokine receptor US28 by generating three independent models based on the known structures of the chemokine receptors CXCR1, CXCR4, and CCR5. Model refinement and evaluation suggested that the model based on CCR5 exhibits the most favorable structural properties. In particular, the GPCR-typical structural features, such as a conserved water cluster or conserved non-covalent contacts, are present to a larger extent in the model based on CCR5 compared to the other models. A final model validation based on the recently published US28 crystal structure confirms that the CCR5-based model is the most accurate and exhibits 80.8% correctly modeled residues within the transmembrane helices. The structural agreement between the selected model and the crystal structure suggests that our modeling strategy may also be more generally applicable to other GPCRs of unknown structure.

  5. Models of protein and amino acid requirements for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlindo Tedeschi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein supply and requirements by ruminants have been studied for more than a century. These studies led to the accumulation of lots of scientific information about digestion and metabolism of protein by ruminants as well as the characterization of the dietary protein in order to maximize animal performance. During the 1980s and 1990s, when computers became more accessible and powerful, scientists began to conceptualize and develop mathematical nutrition models, and to program them into computers to assist with ration balancing and formulation for domesticated ruminants, specifically dairy and beef cattle. The most commonly known nutrition models developed during this period were the National Research Council (NRC in the United States, Agricultural Research Council (ARC in the United Kingdom, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA in France, and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO in Australia. Others were derivative works from these models with different degrees of modifications in the supply or requirement calculations, and the modeling nature (e.g., static or dynamic, mechanistic, or deterministic. Circa 1990s, most models adopted the metabolizable protein (MP system over the crude protein (CP and digestible CP systems to estimate supply of MP and the factorial system to calculate MP required by the animal. The MP system included two portions of protein (i.e., the rumen-undegraded dietary CP - RUP - and the contributions of microbial CP - MCP as the main sources of MP for the animal. Some models would explicitly account for the impact of dry matter intake (DMI on the MP required for maintenance (MPm; e.g., Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System - CNCPS, the Dutch system - DVE/OEB, while others would simply account for scurf, urinary, metabolic fecal, and endogenous contributions independently of DMI. All models included milk yield and its components in estimating MP required for lactation

  6. Lessons from Animal Models of Cytoplasmic Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Magin, Thomas M

    Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) represent a major cytoskeletal network contributing to cell shape, adhesion and migration as well as to tissue resilience and renewal in numerous bilaterians, including mammals. The observation that IFs are dispensable in cultured mammalian cells, but cause tissue-specific, life-threatening disorders, has pushed the need to investigate their function in vivo. In keeping with human disease, the deletion or mutation of murine IF genes resulted in highly specific pathologies. Epidermal keratins, together with desmin, are essential to protect corresponding tissues against mechanical force but also participate in stabilizing cell adhesion and in inflammatory signalling. Surprisingly, other IF proteins contribute to tissue integrity to a much lesser extent than anticipated, pointing towards their role in stress situations. In support, the overexpression of small chaperones or the interference with inflammatory signalling in several settings has been shown to rescue severe tissue pathologies that resulted from the expression of mutant IF proteins. It stills remains an open issue whether the wide range of IF disorders share similar pathomechanisms. Moreover, we lack an understanding how IF proteins participate in signalling processes. Now, with a large number of mouse models in hand, the next challenge will be to develop organotypic cell culture models to dissect pathomechanisms at the molecular level, to employ Crispr/Cas-mediated genome engineering to optimize models and, finally, to combine available animal models with medicinal chemistry for the development of molecular therapies.

  7. Effects of alkoxy alkyl mercury derivative on hens in a feed test with disinfected cereal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, O; Kalliokoski, P K

    1968-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of feeding hens cereal that had been disinfected with either methoxyethyl mercury chloride or methoxyethyl mercury silicate. Two groups of hens were fed the grain and the results were compared. Both disinfectants decreased egg production and consumption of the feed. Two-thirds of the hens lost weight in the methoxyethyl mercury silicate test. The hens were not weighed in the other test. Estimated intakes of Hg were 2.5 mg for methoxyethyl mercury chloride and 0.45 mg for methoxyethyl mercury silicate.

  8. The influence of hen age on fatty acid composition of commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Lešić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional composition of commercial eggs from Lohman Brown hens through fat and fatty acid content analysis, as well as to evaluate the effect of hen age on the above parameters. Egg samples (n=108 were collected every two weeks from 21- to 55- week old hens during the 2015/2016 autumn/winter period. The results revealed significant differences in fatty acid composition dependent on hen age (p 0.05. The total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content was statistically significantly higher in eggs laid by 55- week old hens as compared to those laid by 21- week old hens. The n-6/n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratios were more favourable in the elder hens. In general, the results revealed hen ageing-based variations in fatty acid composition of their eggs, in particular in the representation of linoleic (LA, alpha-linolenic (ALA and arachidonic acid (AA, for which statistically significant hen age-based differences were found.

  9. EFFECT OF THE DIETARY PELLET:MEAL RATIO ON THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS

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    Luis Armando Sarmiento-Franco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary pellet:meal ratio on the performance of laying hens was evaluated using 60 Plymouth Barred Rock 30 week old hens. Hens were distributed at random to three treatments: 100:0, 75:25 and 50:50% of pellet:meal ratio in the diet along 49 days, with 20 replicates each. Final body weight of hens, polar and ecuatorial diameters of the egg, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, and yolk colour were not different between treatments (p>0.05. However, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, food consumption, food conversion and production cost were affected by treatments (p

  10. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: effects on behaviour and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Downing, J A; Lee, C

    2017-06-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing within Australia and research is needed to determine optimal outdoor stocking densities. Six small (n=150 hens) experimental flocks of ISA Brown laying hens were housed with access to ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities with two pen replicates per density: 2000 hens/ha, 10 000 hens/ha or 20 000 hens/ha. Birds were provided daily range access from 21 to 36 weeks of age and the range usage of 50% of hens was tracked using radio-frequency identification technology. Throughout the study, basic external health assessments following a modified version of the Welfare Quality® protocol showed most birds were in visibly good condition (although keel damage was increasingly present with age) with few differences between stocking densities. Toenail length at 36 weeks of age was negatively correlated with hours spent ranging for all pens of birds (all r⩾-0.23, P⩽0.04). At 23 weeks of age, there were no differences between outdoor stocking densities in albumen corticosterone concentrations (P=0.44). At 35 weeks of age, density effects were significant (Prange and indoors showed more dust bathing and foraging (scratching followed by ground-pecking) was performed outdoors, but more resting indoors (all Prange but the most resting outdoors, with hens from the 20 000 hens/ha densities showing the least amount of resting outdoors (all Pfree-range system management practices.

  11. A simple quantitative model of macromolecular crowding effects on protein folding: Application to the murine prion protein(121-231)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergasa-Caceres, Fernando; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2013-06-01

    A model of protein folding kinetics is applied to study the effects of macromolecular crowding on protein folding rate and stability. Macromolecular crowding is found to promote a decrease of the entropic cost of folding of proteins that produces an increase of both the stability and the folding rate. The acceleration of the folding rate due to macromolecular crowding is shown to be a topology-dependent effect. The model is applied to the folding dynamics of the murine prion protein (121-231). The differential effect of macromolecular crowding as a function of protein topology suffices to make non-native configurations relatively more accessible.

  12. Health and Welfare in Dutch Organic Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Bestman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From 2007–2008, data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Our aim was to investigate how organic egg farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which farm factors affected this performance. The flocks in our study were kept on farms with 34 to 25,000 hens (average 9,300 hens. Seventy-one percent of the flocks consisted of ‘silver hybrids’: white hens that lay brown eggs. Fifty-five percent of the flocks were kept in floor-based housing and 45% of the flocks in aviaries. No relation was found between the amount of time spent outdoors during the laying period and mortality at 60 weeks. Flocks that used their outdoor run more intensively had better feather scores. In 40% of the flocks there was mortality caused by predators. The average feed intake was 129 g/day at 30 weeks and 133 g/day at 60 weeks of age. The average percentage of mislaid eggs decreased from three at 30 weeks to two at 60 weeks. The average mortality was 7.8% at 60 weeks. Twenty-five percent of the flocks were not treated for worms in their first 50 weeks. Flubenol© was applied to the flocks that were treated. Ten percent of the flocks followed Flubenol© instructions for use and were wormed five or more times. The other 65% percent were treated irregularly between one and four times. Sixty-eight percent of the flocks showed little or no feather damage, 24% showed moderate damage and 8% showed severe damage. The feather score was better if the hens used the free-range area more intensely, the laying percentage at 60 weeks was higher, and if they were allowed to go outside sooner after arrival on the laying farm. In 69% of the flocks, hens had peck wounds in the vent area: on average this was 18% of the hens. Keel bone deformations were found in all flocks, on average in 21% of the birds. In 78% of the flocks, an average of 13% of the hens

  13. Health and Welfare in Dutch Organic Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestman, Monique; Wagenaar, Jan-Paul

    2014-06-20

    From 2007-2008, data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Our aim was to investigate how organic egg farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which farm factors affected this performance. The flocks in our study were kept on farms with 34 to 25,000 hens (average 9,300 hens). Seventy-one percent of the flocks consisted of 'silver hybrids': white hens that lay brown eggs. Fifty-five percent of the flocks were kept in floor-based housing and 45% of the flocks in aviaries. No relation was found between the amount of time spent outdoors during the laying period and mortality at 60 weeks. Flocks that used their outdoor run more intensively had better feather scores. In 40% of the flocks there was mortality caused by predators. The average feed intake was 129 g/day at 30 weeks and 133 g/day at 60 weeks of age. The average percentage of mislaid eggs decreased from three at 30 weeks to two at 60 weeks. The average mortality was 7.8% at 60 weeks. Twenty-five percent of the flocks were not treated for worms in their first 50 weeks. Flubenol(©) was applied to the flocks that were treated. Ten percent of the flocks followed Flubenol(©) instructions for use and were wormed five or more times. The other 65% percent were treated irregularly between one and four times. Sixty-eight percent of the flocks showed little or no feather damage, 24% showed moderate damage and 8% showed severe damage. The feather score was better if the hens used the free-range area more intensely, the laying percentage at 60 weeks was higher, and if they were allowed to go outside sooner after arrival on the laying farm. In 69% of the flocks, hens had peck wounds in the vent area: on average this was 18% of the hens. Keel bone deformations were found in all flocks, on average in 21% of the birds. In 78% of the flocks, an average of 13% of the hens had foot-sole wounds

  14. Medullary bone and humeral breaking strength in laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.H.; McCormack, H.A.; McTeir, L.; Whitehead, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that large amounts of medullary bone in the humeral diaphysis may increase breaking strength, various parameters of bone quality and quantity were examined in two large flocks of hens near end of lay. We conclude that the amount of medullary bone in the humerus of hens during the laying period influences bone strength. This medullary bone may not have any intrinsic strength, but may act by contributing to the fracture resistance of the surrounding cortical bone. Using a quantitative, low dose, radiographic technique, we can predict, from early in the laying period, those birds which will develop large amounts of medullary bone in their humeri by the end of the laying period. The formation of medullary bone in the humeral diaphysis is not at the expense of the surrounding radiographed cortical bone

  15. DeepQA: Improving the estimation of single protein model quality with deep belief networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Renzhi; Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Hou, Jie; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Background Protein quality assessment (QA) useful for ranking and selecting protein models has long been viewed as one of the major challenges for protein tertiary structure prediction. Especially, estimating the quality of a single protein model, which is important for selecting a few good models out of a large model pool consisting of mostly low-quality models, is still a largely unsolved problem. Results We introduce a novel single-model quality assessment method DeepQA based on deep belie...

  16. SynechoNET: integrated protein-protein interaction database of a model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woo-Yeon; Kang, Sungsoo; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Oh, Jeehyun; Cho, Seongwoong; Bhak, Jong; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2008-01-01

    Background Cyanobacteria are model organisms for studying photosynthesis, carbon and nitrogen assimilation, evolution of plant plastids, and adaptability to environmental stresses. Despite many studies on cyanobacteria, there is no web-based database of their regulatory and signaling protein-protein interaction networks to date. Description We report a database and website SynechoNET that provides predicted protein-protein interactions. SynechoNET shows cyanobacterial domain-domain interactio...

  17. Fiber level for laying hens during the growing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding management of laying hens has been focused on the direct influence of nutrient intake on weight gain, especially at growing phase. This study evaluates nutrient digestibility, performance, development of the digestive tract, body composition, and bone quality of two strains of laying hens fed with different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF during the growing phase from the 7th to the 12th week of age. A total of 1,296 birds were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two strains x three levels of NDF with four replicates of 54 birds per treatment. Semi-heavy (Hy Line Brown and light-strain (Lohman LSL pullets were allotted to dietary treatments consisting of 14.50, 16.50, and 18.50% NDF. An interaction between strains and NDF levels was observed only for feed/gain ratio and light-strain pullets had lower performance with 18.50% NDF. The increasing levels of NDF in the diet reduced the coefficients of digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy, and the values of metabolizable energy. Higher levels of NDF in the diet increased the relative weight of liver and intestines and reduced gizzard weight. It was also observed differences between bone quality and composition of the femur and tibia of light and semi-heavy hens. The increase in NDF level in ration for growing phase laying hens above 14.50% decreases the nutrient digestibility and the metabolizable energy of the diet; however, it does not affect the carcass composition, bone quality, feed intake, and weight gain, although it may impair feed conversion of light-strain pullets.

  18. Response analysis of the dynamic excitation of hen eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Severa

    2007-01-01

    Commercially produced hen eggs have been tested by means of dynamic excitation of the egg-shells with following analysis of their response. The falling steel ball have been chosen as a exciting instrument and the laser vibrometer have been used as a measuring device for the egg response. The reproductibility of the experiments has been relatively high and the surface velocity has been found to be significantly dependent on the position around the meridian. Analysed frequency spectrum has show...

  19. dd →3 Hen Reaction at Intermediate Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygina, N. B.

    2012-01-01

    The dd → 3 Hen reaction is considered at the energies between 200 and 520 MeV. The Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas equations are iterated up to the lowest order terms over the nucleon-nucleon t-matrix. The parameterized 3He wave function including five components is used. The angular dependence of the differential cross section and energy dependence of tensor analyzing power T 20 at the zero scattering angle are presented in comparison with the experimental data. (author)

  20. Protein model discrimination using mutational sensitivity derived from deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Bharat V; Tripathi, Arti; Sahoo, Anusmita; Bajaj, Kanika; Goswami, Devrishi; Chakrabarti, Purbani; Swarnkar, Mohit K; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2012-02-08

    A major bottleneck in protein structure prediction is the selection of correct models from a pool of decoys. Relative activities of ∼1,200 individual single-site mutants in a saturation library of the bacterial toxin CcdB were estimated by determining their relative populations using deep sequencing. This phenotypic information was used to define an empirical score for each residue (RankScore), which correlated with the residue depth, and identify active-site residues. Using these correlations, ∼98% of correct models of CcdB (RMSD ≤ 4Å) were identified from a large set of decoys. The model-discrimination methodology was further validated on eleven different monomeric proteins using simulated RankScore values. The methodology is also a rapid, accurate way to obtain relative activities of each mutant in a large pool and derive sequence-structure-function relationships without protein isolation or characterization. It can be applied to any system in which mutational effects can be monitored by a phenotypic readout. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein folding simulations: from coarse-grained model to all-atom model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Jun; Qin, Meng; Wu, Lei; Yan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Weixin; Zuo, Guanghong; Wang, Wei

    2009-06-01

    Protein folding is an important and challenging problem in molecular biology. During the last two decades, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has proved to be a paramount tool and was widely used to study protein structures, folding kinetics and thermodynamics, and structure-stability-function relationship. It was also used to help engineering and designing new proteins, and to answer even more general questions such as the minimal number of amino acid or the evolution principle of protein families. Nowadays, the MD simulation is still undergoing rapid developments. The first trend is to toward developing new coarse-grained models and studying larger and more complex molecular systems such as protein-protein complex and their assembling process, amyloid related aggregations, and structure and motion of chaperons, motors, channels and virus capsides; the second trend is toward building high resolution models and explore more detailed and accurate pictures of protein folding and the associated processes, such as the coordination bond or disulfide bond involved folding, the polarization, charge transfer and protonate/deprotonate process involved in metal coupled folding, and the ion permeation and its coupling with the kinetics of channels. On these new territories, MD simulations have given many promising results and will continue to offer exciting views. Here, we review several new subjects investigated by using MD simulations as well as the corresponding developments of appropriate protein models. These include but are not limited to the attempt to go beyond the topology based Gō-like model and characterize the energetic factors in protein structures and dynamics, the study of the thermodynamics and kinetics of disulfide bond involved protein folding, the modeling of the interactions between chaperonin and the encapsulated protein and the protein folding under this circumstance, the effort to clarify the important yet still elusive folding mechanism of protein BBL

  2. Production and purification of avian antibodies (IgYs from inclusion bodies of a recombinant protein central in NAD+ metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Moreno-González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of hens for the production of polyclonal antibodies reduces animal intervention and moreover yields a higher quantity of antibodies than other animal models.  The phylogenetic distance between bird and mammal antigens, often leads to more specific avian antibodies than their mammalian counterparts.Since a large amount of antigen is required for avian antibody production, the use of recombinant proteins for this procedure has been growing faster over the last years. Nevertheless, recombinant protein production through heterologous systems frequently prompts the protein to precipitate, forming insoluble aggregates of limited utility (inclusion bodies. A methodology for the production of avian polyclonal antibodies, using recombinant protein from inclusion bodies is presented in this article.In order to produce the antigen, a recombinant Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase from Giardia intestinalis (His-GiNMNAT was expressed in Escherichia coli.  The protein was purified through solubilization from inclusion bodies prior to its renaturalization.  Antibodies were purified from egg yolk of immunized hens by water dilution, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation and thiophilic affinity chromatography.The purified antibodies were tested against His-GiNMNAT protein in Western blot essays. From one egg yolk, 14.4 mg of highly pure IgY were obtained; this antibody was able to detect 15ng of His-GiNMNAT.  IgY specificity was improved by means of antigen affinity purification, allowing its use for parasite protein recognition.

  3. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  4. Impact of feeder space on laying hen feeding behavior and production performance in enriched colony housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J L; Xin, H; Wu, H

    2018-05-30

    Current feeder space recommendations in laying hen welfare guidelines are inconsistent among and within countries. One determining criterion forming the recommendations (e.g. 12.0 cm/hen for the EU guideline) is that all birds can feed simultaneously. However, if there are other resources in the environment, as in enriched colony housing (ECH), it is unknown whether group-housed hens will choose to feed simultaneously. This study assesses the impact of feeder space on feeding behavior of 60 laying hens (W-36) in ECH using a ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification-based tracking system. The feeder spaces investigated were 12.0, 9.5, 8.5 and 6.5 cm/hen, achieved by blocking portions of the overall feeder access to keep hens at the same stocking density. Each feeder space treatment, randomly assigned over the course of the experiment, lasted for 7 consecutive days. Feeding behaviors were characterized as daily time spent at the feeder (TS, min/hen-day), daily frequency of visits to the feeder (FV, #/hen-day), and maximum or average percentage of hens feeding simultaneously (MPB, APB, %). Group-average daily feed intake (FI, g/hen-day), water use (WU, g/hen-day), and hen-day egg production (HDEP, %) were also measured. The results revealed that at 12.0 cm/hen, where unoccupied feeder space was present, a maximum of 59.0±1.4% (average of 31.7±0.3%) hens fed simultaneously. No significant differences were detected among 12.0, 9.5 and 8.5 cm/hen in TS (293±10, 286±10 and 281±10 min/hen-day) and MPB (59.0±1.4, 57.3±1.4 and 53.3±1.4%) (P>0.05). The outcome of no significant differences also held true between 12.0 and 9.5 cm/hen in APB (31.7±0.3 v. 30.8±0.3%) and between 9.5 and 8.5 cm/hen in all response variables measured (P>0.05). However, there were significant differences in APB between 6.5 cm/hen and all other treatments; in TS and FV between 6.5 and 9.5 cm/hen; and in MPB between 6.5 and 12 cm/hen (P0.05). The results revealed that synchronous

  5. Predicting turns in proteins with a unified model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Song

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Turns are a critical element of the structure of a protein; turns play a crucial role in loops, folds, and interactions. Current prediction methods are well developed for the prediction of individual turn types, including α-turn, β-turn, and γ-turn, etc. However, for further protein structure and function prediction it is necessary to develop a uniform model that can accurately predict all types of turns simultaneously. RESULTS: In this study, we present a novel approach, TurnP, which offers the ability to investigate all the turns in a protein based on a unified model. The main characteristics of TurnP are: (i using newly exploited features of structural evolution information (secondary structure and shape string of protein based on structure homologies, (ii considering all types of turns in a unified model, and (iii practical capability of accurate prediction of all turns simultaneously for a query. TurnP utilizes predicted secondary structures and predicted shape strings, both of which have greater accuracy, based on innovative technologies which were both developed by our group. Then, sequence and structural evolution features, which are profile of sequence, profile of secondary structures and profile of shape strings are generated by sequence and structure alignment. When TurnP was validated on a non-redundant dataset (4,107 entries by five-fold cross-validation, we achieved an accuracy of 88.8% and a sensitivity of 71.8%, which exceeded the most state-of-the-art predictors of certain type of turn. Newly determined sequences, the EVA and CASP9 datasets were used as independent tests and the results we achieved were outstanding for turn predictions and confirmed the good performance of TurnP for practical applications.

  6. Building alternate protein structures using the elastic network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingyi; Sharp, Kim A

    2009-02-15

    We describe a method for efficiently generating ensembles of alternate, all-atom protein structures that (a) differ significantly from the starting structure, (b) have good stereochemistry (bonded geometry), and (c) have good steric properties (absence of atomic overlap). The method uses reconstruction from a series of backbone framework structures that are obtained from a modified elastic network model (ENM) by perturbation along low-frequency normal modes. To ensure good quality backbone frameworks, the single force parameter ENM is modified by introducing two more force parameters to characterize the interaction between the consecutive carbon alphas and those within the same secondary structure domain. The relative stiffness of the three parameters is parameterized to reproduce B-factors, while maintaining good bonded geometry. After parameterization, violations of experimental Calpha-Calpha distances and Calpha-Calpha-Calpha pseudo angles along the backbone are reduced to less than 1%. Simultaneously, the average B-factor correlation coefficient improves to R = 0.77. Two applications illustrate the potential of the approach. (1) 102,051 protein backbones spanning a conformational space of 15 A root mean square deviation were generated from 148 nonredundant proteins in the PDB database, and all-atom models with minimal bonded and nonbonded violations were produced from this ensemble of backbone structures using the SCWRL side chain building program. (2) Improved backbone templates for homology modeling. Fifteen query sequences were each modeled on two targets. For each of the 30 target frameworks, dozens of improved templates could be produced In all cases, improved full atom homology models resulted, of which 50% could be identified blind using the D-Fire statistical potential. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Relationship between welfare and individual ranging behaviour in commercial free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, H; Hemsworth, P H; Cronin, G M; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Smith, C L; Rault, J-L

    2018-01-24

    Laying hens housed in free-range systems have access to an outdoor range, and individual hens within a flock differ in their ranging behaviour. Whether there is a link between ranging and laying hen welfare remains unclear. We analysed the relationships between ranging by individual hens on a commercial free-range layer farm and behavioural, physiological and health measures of animal welfare. We hypothesised that hens that access the range more will be (1) less fearful in general and in response to novelty and humans, (2) have better health in terms of physical body condition and (3) have a reduced physiological stress response to behavioural tests of fear and health assessments than hens that use the range less. Using radio frequency identification tracking across two flocks, we recorded individual hens' frequency, duration and consistency of ranging. We also assessed how far hens ventured into the range based on three zones: 0 to 2.4, 2.4 to 11.4 or >11.4 m from the shed. We assessed hen welfare using a variety of measures including: tonic immobility, open field, novel object, human approach, and human avoidance (HAV) behavioural tests; stress-induced plasma corticosterone response and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites; live weight, comb colour, and beak, plumage, footpad, and keel bone condition. Range use was positively correlated with plasma corticosterone response, faecal glucocorticoid metabolites, and greater flight distance during HAV. Hens that used the range more, moved towards rather than away from the novel object more often than hens that ranged less. Distance ranged from the shed was significantly associated with comb colour and beak condition, in that hens with darker combs and more intact beaks ranged further. Overall the findings suggest that there is no strong link between outdoor range usage and laying hen welfare. Alternatively, it may be that hens that differed in their ranging behaviour showed few differences in measures of welfare because

  8. Modeling of human factor Va inactivation by activated protein C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because understanding of the inventory, connectivity and dynamics of the components characterizing the process of coagulation is relatively mature, it has become an attractive target for physiochemical modeling. Such models can potentially improve the design of therapeutics. The prothrombinase complex (composed of the protease factor (FXa and its cofactor FVa plays a central role in this network as the main producer of thrombin, which catalyses both the activation of platelets and the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the main substances of a clot. A key negative feedback loop that prevents clot propagation beyond the site of injury is the thrombin-dependent generation of activated protein C (APC, an enzyme that inactivates FVa, thus neutralizing the prothrombinase complex. APC inactivation of FVa is complex, involving the production of partially active intermediates and “protection” of FVa from APC by both FXa and prothrombin. An empirically validated mathematical model of this process would be useful in advancing the predictive capacity of comprehensive models of coagulation. Results A model of human APC inactivation of prothrombinase was constructed in a stepwise fashion by analyzing time courses of FVa inactivation in empirical reaction systems with increasing number of interacting components and generating corresponding model constructs of each reaction system. Reaction mechanisms, rate constants and equilibrium constants informing these model constructs were initially derived from various research groups reporting on APC inactivation of FVa in isolation, or in the presence of FXa or prothrombin. Model predictions were assessed against empirical data measuring the appearance and disappearance of multiple FVa degradation intermediates as well as prothrombinase activity changes, with plasma proteins derived from multiple preparations. Our work integrates previously published findings and through the cooperative

  9. Protein-protein interaction networks identify targets which rescue the MPP+ cellular model of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Harriet; Ryan, Brent J.; Jackson, Brendan; Whitmore, Alan; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are complex multifactorial disorders characterised by the interplay of many dysregulated physiological processes. As an exemplar, Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves multiple perturbed cellular functions, including mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation in preferentially-sensitive dopamine neurons, a selective pathophysiology recapitulated in vitro using the neurotoxin MPP+. Here we explore a network science approach for the selection of therapeutic protein targets in the cellular MPP+ model. We hypothesised that analysis of protein-protein interaction networks modelling MPP+ toxicity could identify proteins critical for mediating MPP+ toxicity. Analysis of protein-protein interaction networks constructed to model the interplay of mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation (key aspects of MPP+ toxicity) enabled us to identify four proteins predicted to be key for MPP+ toxicity (P62, GABARAP, GBRL1 and GBRL2). Combined, but not individual, knockdown of these proteins increased cellular susceptibility to MPP+ toxicity. Conversely, combined, but not individual, over-expression of the network targets provided rescue of MPP+ toxicity associated with the formation of autophagosome-like structures. We also found that modulation of two distinct proteins in the protein-protein interaction network was necessary and sufficient to mitigate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings validate our network science approach to multi-target identification in complex neurological diseases.

  10. Trade-off between positive and negative design of protein stability: from lattice models to real proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Noivirt-Brik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different strategies for stabilizing proteins are (i positive design in which the native state is stabilized and (ii negative design in which competing non-native conformations are destabilized. Here, the circumstances under which one strategy might be favored over the other are explored in the case of lattice models of proteins and then generalized and discussed with regard to real proteins. The balance between positive and negative design of proteins is found to be determined by their average "contact-frequency", a property that corresponds to the fraction of states in the conformational ensemble of the sequence in which a pair of residues is in contact. Lattice model proteins with a high average contact-frequency are found to use negative design more than model proteins with a low average contact-frequency. A mathematical derivation of this result indicates that it is general and likely to hold also for real proteins. Comparison of the results of correlated mutation analysis for real proteins with typical contact-frequencies to those of proteins likely to have high contact-frequencies (such as disordered proteins and proteins that are dependent on chaperonins for their folding indicates that the latter tend to have stronger interactions between residues that are not in contact in their native conformation. Hence, our work indicates that negative design is employed when insufficient stabilization is achieved via positive design owing to high contact-frequencies.

  11. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule-motor-protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  12. Modeling of allergen proteins found in sea food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Galán-Freyle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish are a source of food allergens, and their consumption is the cause of severe allergic reactions in humans. Tropomyosins, a family of muscle proteins, have been identified as the major allergens in shellfish and mollusks species. Nevertheless, few experimentally determined three-dimensional structures are available in the Protein Data Base (PDB. In this study, 3D models of several homologous of tropomyosins present in marine shellfish and mollusk species (Chaf 1, Met e1, Hom a1, Per v1, and Pen a1 were constructed, validated, and their immunoglobulin E binding epitopes were identified using bioinformatics tools. All protein models for these allergens consisted of long alpha-helices. Chaf 1, Met e1, and Hom a1 had six conserved regions with sequence similarities to known epitopes, whereas Per v1 and Pen a1 contained only one. Lipophilic potentials of identified epitopes revealed a high propensity of hydrophobic amino acids in the immunoglobulin E binding site. This information could be useful to design tropomyosin-specific immunotherapy for sea food allergies.

  13. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule–motor-protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate–consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation. PMID:26764729

  14. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule-motor-protein assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A; Betterton, M D; Shelley, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  15. Adding of ascorbic acid to the culture medium influences the antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters in the hen granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capcarova, M; Kolesarova, A; Kalafova, A; Bulla, J; Sirotkin, A V

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) of the hen granulosa cells, and selected biochemical parameters, including calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, glucose, cholesterol, proteins, in the culture medium of granulosa cells after exposing them to ascorbic acid in vitro conditions. Ovarian granulosa cells of hens were incubated with various doses of ascorbic acid (E1 0.09 mg/ml, E2 0.13 mg/ml, E3 0.17 mg/ml, E4 0.33 mg/ml, E5 0.5 mg/ml). Ascorbic acid did not manifest antioxidant potential and higher doses of ascorbic acid (0.17; 0.33 and 0.5 mg/ml) decreased the activity of SOD in granulosa cells. Vitamin application resulted in a significantly (pascorbic acid might be involved in the regulation of selected biochemical and physiological processes in ovarian granulosa cells.

  16. A feature-based approach to modeling protein-protein interaction hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-il; Kim, Dongsup; Lee, Doheon

    2009-05-01

    Identifying features that effectively represent the energetic contribution of an individual interface residue to the interactions between proteins remains problematic. Here, we present several new features and show that they are more effective than conventional features. By combining the proposed features with conventional features, we develop a predictive model for interaction hot spots. Initially, 54 multifaceted features, composed of different levels of information including structure, sequence and molecular interaction information, are quantified. Then, to identify the best subset of features for predicting hot spots, feature selection is performed using a decision tree. Based on the selected features, a predictive model for hot spots is created using support vector machine (SVM) and tested on an independent test set. Our model shows better overall predictive accuracy than previous methods such as the alanine scanning methods Robetta and FOLDEF, and the knowledge-based method KFC. Subsequent analysis yields several findings about hot spots. As expected, hot spots have a larger relative surface area burial and are more hydrophobic than other residues. Unexpectedly, however, residue conservation displays a rather complicated tendency depending on the types of protein complexes, indicating that this feature is not good for identifying hot spots. Of the selected features, the weighted atomic packing density, relative surface area burial and weighted hydrophobicity are the top 3, with the weighted atomic packing density proving to be the most effective feature for predicting hot spots. Notably, we find that hot spots are closely related to pi-related interactions, especially pi . . . pi interactions.

  17. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks. For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks, period 2 (58 to 61 weeks, and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks. For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05 at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05 at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  18. Analysis and Ranking of Protein-Protein Docking Models Using Inter-Residue Contacts and Inter-Molecular Contact Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Oliva, Romina; Chermak, Edrisse; Cavallo, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    In view of the increasing interest both in inhibitors of protein-protein interactions and in protein drugs themselves, analysis of the three-dimensional structure of protein-protein complexes is assuming greater relevance in drug design. In the many cases where an experimental structure is not available, protein-protein docking becomes the method of choice for predicting the arrangement of the complex. However, reliably scoring protein-protein docking poses is still an unsolved problem. As a consequence, the screening of many docking models is usually required in the analysis step, to possibly single out the correct ones. Here, making use of exemplary cases, we review our recently introduced methods for the analysis of protein complex structures and for the scoring of protein docking poses, based on the use of inter-residue contacts and their visualization in inter-molecular contact maps. We also show that the ensemble of tools we developed can be used in the context of rational drug design targeting protein-protein interactions.

  19. Analysis and Ranking of Protein-Protein Docking Models Using Inter-Residue Contacts and Inter-Molecular Contact Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Oliva, Romina

    2015-07-01

    In view of the increasing interest both in inhibitors of protein-protein interactions and in protein drugs themselves, analysis of the three-dimensional structure of protein-protein complexes is assuming greater relevance in drug design. In the many cases where an experimental structure is not available, protein-protein docking becomes the method of choice for predicting the arrangement of the complex. However, reliably scoring protein-protein docking poses is still an unsolved problem. As a consequence, the screening of many docking models is usually required in the analysis step, to possibly single out the correct ones. Here, making use of exemplary cases, we review our recently introduced methods for the analysis of protein complex structures and for the scoring of protein docking poses, based on the use of inter-residue contacts and their visualization in inter-molecular contact maps. We also show that the ensemble of tools we developed can be used in the context of rational drug design targeting protein-protein interactions.

  20. Letrozole induced low estrogen levels affected the expressions of duodenal and renal calcium-processing gene in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao; Zhao, Xingkai; Wang, Shujie; Zhou, Zhenlei

    2018-01-01

    Estrogen regulates the calcium homeostasis in hens, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear fully. In this study, we investigated whether letrozole (LZ) induced low estrogen levels affected the calcium absorption and transport in layers. In the duodenum, we observed a significant decrease of mRNA expressions of Calbindin-28k (CaBP-28k) and plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA 1b) while CaBP-28k protein expression was declined in birds with LZ treatment, and the mRNA levels of duodenal transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) and Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) were not affected. Interestingly, we observed the different changes in the kidney. The renal mRNA expressions of TRPV6 and NCX1 were unregulated while the PMCA1b was down-regulated in low estrogen layers, however, the CaBP-28k gene and protein expressions were no changed in the kidney. Furthermore, it showed that the duodenal estradiol receptor 2 (ESR2) transcripts rather than parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) and calcitonin receptor (CALCR) played key roles to down-regulate calcium transport in LZ-treated birds. In conclusion, CaBP-28k, PMCA 1b and ESR2 genes in the duodenum may be primary targets for estrogen regulation in order to control calcium homeostasis in hens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The physicochemical quality and meat microstructure of post laying hen with addition of Biduri (Calotropis gigantea) latex extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Hertanto, B. S.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Swastike, W.; Cahyadi, M.; Rasid, S.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extract level of Biduri latex on the meat quality of laying hens. The materials of this research were Biduri latex and thigh meat from hens strain Lohman. The latex was tapped from a young tissue stem and centrifuged for its supernatant. Meats were smeared with latex, punctured and incubated for 30 minutes. Concentrations of latex were 0, 3, 6 and 9% from the weight of meat (w/w). The variables were water, dissolved protein, crude fat content, tenderness and microstructure of meat. The statistical analysis method using ANOVA and if there was a mean difference, Duncan test was used. Descriptive analysis was used for microstructures of meat by comparing its hydrolysis conditions. The study showed that fat had significant difference (P meat structure. The fat content increased with addition of 3% latex. The value of dissolved protein increased but tenderness decreased by addition extract of 6% latex. The addition of Biduri latex extract showed that hydrolysis in the microstructure of meat. The addition of 6% latex was the best meat quality.

  2. Mixed housing of different genetic lines of laying hens negatively affects feather pecking and fear related behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, K.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Decuypere, E.; Komen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Adult laying hens from Rhode Island Red (RIR) origin both express lower levels of feather pecking and lower fear responses towards a novel object than laying hens from White Leghorn (WL) origin. The present study investigated whether mixed housing of RIR and WL laying hens would affect their

  3. Examination of egg number and egg weight variables and their effects on daily management in aviary systems for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.; Keen, A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Characteristics of egg numbers and mean egg weight were examined for their usefulness in the daily management of aviary systems for laying hens. 2. A number of 3238 brown Isabrown/Warren hens were housed in 1 compartment, a separated part of the house where the hens could move around freely, of a

  4. Habitat selection of Merriam's turkey (Meleagris gallopavo Merriami) hens with poults in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1993-01-01

    We studied habitat selection patterns of Merriam's Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) hens with poults in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystem. Thirty-six radio-marked hens produced 19 broods, and we obtained 230 locations of hens with poults. We described vegetation of habitats using criteria from the Rocky...

  5. Simulation studies of protein-induced bilayer deformations, and lipid-induced protein tilting, on a mesoscopic model for lipid bilayers with embedded proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturoli, M.; Smit, B.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2005-01-01

    membranes. Here we present a mesoscopic model for lipid bilayers with embedded proteins, which we have studied with the help of the dissipative particle dynamics simulation technique. Because hydrophobic matching is believed to be one of the main physical mechanisms regulating lipid-protein interactions......-induced protein tilt, with the hydrophobic mismatch ( positive and negative) between the protein hydrophobic length and the pure lipid bilayer hydrophobic thickness. The protein-induced bilayer perturbation was quantified in terms of a coherence length, xi(P), of the lipid bilayer hydrophobic thickness pro. le...... for positive values of mismatch; a dependence on the protein size appears as well. In the case of large model proteins experiencing extreme mismatch conditions, in the region next to the so-called lipid annulus, there appears an undershooting ( or overshooting) region where the bilayer hydrophobic thickness...

  6. A study of quality measures for protein threading models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlewski Leszek

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of protein structures is one of the fundamental challenges in biology today. To fully understand how well different prediction methods perform, it is necessary to use measures that evaluate their performance. Every two years, starting in 1994, the CASP (Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction process has been organized to evaluate the ability of different predictors to blindly predict the structure of proteins. To capture different features of the models, several measures have been developed during the CASP processes. However, these measures have not been examined in detail before. In an attempt to develop fully automatic measures that can be used in CASP, as well as in other type of benchmarking experiments, we have compared twenty-one measures. These measures include the measures used in CASP3 and CASP2 as well as have measures introduced later. We have studied their ability to distinguish between the better and worse models submitted to CASP3 and the correlation between them. Results Using a small set of 1340 models for 23 different targets we show that most methods correlate with each other. Most pairs of measures show a correlation coefficient of about 0.5. The correlation is slightly higher for measures of similar types. We found that a significant problem when developing automatic measures is how to deal with proteins of different length. Also the comparisons between different measures is complicated as many measures are dependent on the size of the target. We show that the manual assessment can be reproduced to about 70% using automatic measures. Alignment independent measures, detects slightly more of the models with the correct fold, while alignment dependent measures agree better when selecting the best models for each target. Finally we show that using automatic measures would, to a large extent, reproduce the assessors ranking of the predictors at CASP3. Conclusions We show that given a

  7. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  8. Characterizing the histopathology of natural co-infection with Marek's disease virus and subgroup J avian leucosis virus in egg-laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yawen; Huang, Qi; Yang, Chengcheng; Pan, Ling; Wang, Guijun; Qi, Kezong; Liu, Hongmei

    2018-02-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) and avian leucosis virus (ALV) are known to cause tumours in egg-laying hens. Here, we investigated the aetiology of tumours in a flock of egg-laying hens vaccinated against MDV. We carried out gross pathology and histopathological examinations of the diseased tissues, identified virus antigen and sequenced viral oncogenes to elucidate the cause of death in 21-22-week-old hens. At necropsy, diseased hens had distinctly swollen livers, spleens, and proventriculus, and white tumour nodules in the liver. The spleen and liver had been infiltrated by lymphoid tumour cells, while the proventriculus had been infiltrated by both lymphoid tumour cells and myeloblastic cells. Subtype J ALV (ALV-J) and MDV were widely distributed in the proventricular gland cells, and the lymphoid tumour cells in the liver and the spleen. In addition, positive ALV-J signals were also observed in parts of the reticular cells in the spleen. MDV and ALV-J antigens were observed in the same foci of the proventricular gland cells; however, the two antigens were not observed in the same foci from the spleen and liver. The amino acid sequence of the AN-1 (the representative liver tumour tissue that was positive for both ALV-J and MDV) Meq protein was highly similar to the very virulent MDV QD2014 from China. Compared to the ALV-J HPRS-103 reference strain, 10 amino acids (224-CTTEWNYYAY-233) were deleted from the gp85 protein of AN-1. We concluded that concurrent infection with MDV and ALV-J contributed to the tumorigenicity observed in the flock.

  9. Scoring predictive models using a reduced representation of proteins: model and energy definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Pieri, Lidia; Dovier, Agostino; Bortolussi, Luca; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro; Viglino, Paolo

    2007-03-23

    Reduced representations of proteins have been playing a keyrole in the study of protein folding. Many such models are available, with different representation detail. Although the usefulness of many such models for structural bioinformatics applications has been demonstrated in recent years, there are few intermediate resolution models endowed with an energy model capable, for instance, of detecting native or native-like structures among decoy sets. The aim of the present work is to provide a discrete empirical potential for a reduced protein model termed here PC2CA, because it employs a PseudoCovalent structure with only 2 Centers of interactions per Amino acid, suitable for protein model quality assessment. All protein structures in the set top500H have been converted in reduced form. The distribution of pseudobonds, pseudoangle, pseudodihedrals and distances between centers of interactions have been converted into potentials of mean force. A suitable reference distribution has been defined for non-bonded interactions which takes into account excluded volume effects and protein finite size. The correlation between adjacent main chain pseudodihedrals has been converted in an additional energetic term which is able to account for cooperative effects in secondary structure elements. Local energy surface exploration is performed in order to increase the robustness of the energy function. The model and the energy definition proposed have been tested on all the multiple decoys' sets in the Decoys'R'us database. The energetic model is able to recognize, for almost all sets, native-like structures (RMSD less than 2.0 A). These results and those obtained in the blind CASP7 quality assessment experiment suggest that the model compares well with scoring potentials with finer granularity and could be useful for fast exploration of conformational space. Parameters are available at the url: http://www.dstb.uniud.it/~ffogolari/download/.

  10. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a retrospective ...

  11. Egg fertility and hatchability in Avians broiler-breeder hens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of temperature and humidity in different month of lay was evaluated on fertility and hatchability in broiler breeder hens reared in Sapele, Nigeria. Six million, six hundred and nineteen thousand, seven hundred and forty six eggs from flocks of Avians broiler-breeder hens reared between 2005 and 2006 in a farm ...

  12. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  13. Immune response of laying hens exposed to 30 ppm ammonia for 25 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is one of the most prominent aerial pollutants inside poultry production facilities, affecting chicken health and well-being based on its levels and exposure durations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 30 ppm ammonia on the immune response of laying hens. Hens at 18 wk ...

  14. The value of feed consumption data for breeding in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiting, P.

    1991-01-01

    The results of statistical and experimental analyses of residual feed consumption (RFC) in White Leghorn laying hens are presented. RFC is defined as the difference between the observed feed consumption of a hen and its feed consumption predicted from its egg mass production, body weight

  15. Ammonia emission from aviary housing systems for laying hens : inventory, characteristics and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    1998-01-01

    The development and practical application of welfare friendly aviary housing systems for laying hens, that generally emit more ammonia per hen than battery cage housing systems, would conflict with the Dutch policy to substantially reduce the total emission of ammonia from animal

  16. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, J.L.T.; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T.B.; Tuyttens, F.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage

  17. Heritability of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Ask, B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Koene, P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate heritabilities. (h(2)) of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages. An F-2 cross, originating from a high and a low feather pecking line of laying hens, was used for the experiment. Each of the 630 birds of the

  18. Performance And Egg Quality Of Hens Fed Cocoa Husk Based Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lowman Brown hens, 37 - week - old, were used to study the effect of dietary inclusion of 10 and 20% cocoa husk meal (CHM) at the expense of maize on hen performance and egg quality. The trial was conducted for 10 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed consumption (FC), and feed ...

  19. The layering and physical characteristics of Shaver Brown Hens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were collected from 120 Shaver Brown hens for a period of 56 days in order to determine their oviposition time, sequence of laying, lag time, laying intensity and egg weight. The hens were subsequently divided into three classes on the basis of their laying performance namely: good layers, intermediate layers and ...

  20. The prevention and control of feather pecking in laying hens : identifying the underlying principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T. B.; van Krimpen, M. M.; de Jong, I. C.; de Haas, E. N.; Kops, M. S.; Riedstra, B. J.; Nordquist, R. E.; Wagenaar, J. P.; Bestman, M.; Nicol, C. J.

    Feather pecking (FP) in laying hens remains an important economic and welfare issue. This paper reviews the literature on causes of FP in laying hens. With the ban on conventional cages in the EU from 2012 and the expected future ban on beak trimming in many European countries, addressing this

  1. Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Kwakernaak, C.; Kan, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14¿32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems

  2. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg damage and dirty, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the damage and dirty eggs and egg weight, depending on two different breeding systems and different ages of laying hens. Object of investigation were table eggs, their damage and dirty in the laying hens of the final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and the free range system.  In both rearing systems were ensured the conditions for laying hens in accordance with legislation establishing minimum standards for the laying hens minimum standards for the protection of laying hens, protection of animals kept for farming purposes in accordance with the principles of the so-called five freedoms. That was used to feed a complete feed mixture HYD 10 in both breeding systems. The feeders were supplemented with feed by hand every day and the same day were supplemented water to drinking troughs.  Egg collection was hand in both breeding systems. This paper is a contribution to the solution of optimal breeding hens and production of high quality and safe of table eggs. Based on the results was formulated conclusion, which shows that to the damage and dirty eggs are not affected by the age of the breeding system and age of laying hens. Statistically significant difference     (p ≤ 0.05 in the egg weight was observed between breeding cage system and breeding free range system and   between age 30 and 40 weeks of laying hens.

  3. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a ...

  4. Effects of enzyme supplementation on diets of medium-heavy laying hens at 28 to 40 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina de Souza Resende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to verify the effect of the addition of an enzyme complex on performance (feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass, and feed conversion per dozen eggs, and on egg quality (% of shell, albumen and yolk, shell thickness, specific gravity, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen index, in medium-heavy laying hens at 28 to 40 weeks of age. A total of 240 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were used in a randomised block design with 10 replications of six birds per lot and four treatments: positive control (basal feed, negative control (with a reduction in metabolisable energy, crude protein, calcium and phosphorus, negative control + enzymes, and positive control + enzymes. The enzyme complex, composed of β-glucanases, β-xylanase, cellulase and phytase, was added to the feed at a ratio of 50 g t-1. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with the mean values compared by Tukey's test at 5%. There was no difference in feed intake or egg weight between treatments. However, the addition of the enzyme complex to the negative control diet gave results similar to the remaining performance variables when compared to the positive control group. For the external and internal quality of the eggs, there was no difference between treatments for the variables under evaluation, except for the albumin index. It was concluded that use of the enzyme complex in the diet of medium-heavy laying hens gives a reduction in nutritional density without compromising production performance or egg quality.

  5. Feed addition of curcumin to laying hens showed anticoccidial effect, and improved egg quality and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Gabriela M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Biazus, Angelisa H; Reis, João H; Boiago, Marcel M; Topazio, Josué P; Migliorini, Marcos J; Guarda, Naiara S; Moresco, Rafael N; Ourique, Aline F; Santos, Cayane G; Lopes, Leandro S; Baldissera, Matheus D; Stefani, Lenita M

    2018-01-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of curcumin in the diet of commercial laying hens could have an anticoccidial action and improve egg quality. For this, 60 laying hens were divided into three groups: T0 (the control group); T30 and T50 (30 and 50 mg/kg of curcumin in the feed, respectively). Eggs recently laid were collected on days 14 and 21 of the experiment, and stored for 21 days. It was observed increased specific gravity and yolk index in stored eggs of the groups T30 and T50 compared to T0. The yolk color reduced in the eggs stored from groups T30 and T50 compared to T0. Moreover, TBARS levels were lower in fresh and stored eggs from groups T30 and T50. It was observed increased TAC levels in fresh eggs from groups T30 and T50 and in stored eggs from the group T50. The presence of curcumin was not detected by HPLC in the yolk and albumen. Seric levels of albumin and uric acid did not differ between groups, while seric levels of total proteins increased on day 21 on groups T30 and T50. Finally, it was observed a significant reduction on the number of oocysts in fecal samples on days 14 and 21 of T30 and T50 compared to T0. Based on these evidences, it is possible to conclude that the addition of curcumin in the diet of laying hens has an anticoccidial effect and improves egg quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells.

  7. Simulation of heat exchanger network (HEN) and planning the optimum cleaning schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad

    2007-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of heat exchanger networks for estimating the amount of fouling, variations in overall heat transfer coefficient, and variations in outlet temperatures of hot and cold streams has a significant effect on production analysis. In this analysis, parameters such as the exchangers' types and arrangements, their heat transfer surface areas, mass flow rates of hot and cold streams, heat transfer coefficients and variations of fouling with time are required input data. The main goal is to find the variations of the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams with time to plan the optimum cleaning schedule of heat exchangers that provides the minimum operational cost or maximum amount of savings. In this paper, the simulation of heat exchanger networks is performed by choosing an asymptotic fouling function. Two main parameters in the asymptotic fouling formation model, i.e. the decay time of fouling formation (τ) and the asymptotic fouling resistance (R f ∼ ) were obtained from empirical data as input parameters to the simulation relations. These data were extracted from the technical history sheets of the Khorasan Petrochemical Plant to guaranty the consistency between our model outputs and the real operating conditions. The output results of the software program developed, including the variations with time of the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams, the heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer rate in the exchangers, are presented for two case studies. Then, an objective function (operational cost) was defined, and the optimal cleaning schedule of the HEN (heat exchanger network) in the Urea and Ammonia units were found by minimizing the objective function using a numerical search method. Based on this minimization procedure, the decision was made whether a heat exchanger should be cleaned or continue to operate. The final result was the most cost effective plan for the HEN cleaning schedule. The corresponding savings by

  8. Simulation of heat exchanger network (HEN) and planning the optimum cleaning schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanaye, Sepehr [Energy Systems Improvement Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran 16488 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: sepehr@iust.ac.ir; Niroomand, Behzad [Energy Systems Improvement Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran 16488 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    Modeling and simulation of heat exchanger networks for estimating the amount of fouling, variations in overall heat transfer coefficient, and variations in outlet temperatures of hot and cold streams has a significant effect on production analysis. In this analysis, parameters such as the exchangers' types and arrangements, their heat transfer surface areas, mass flow rates of hot and cold streams, heat transfer coefficients and variations of fouling with time are required input data. The main goal is to find the variations of the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams with time to plan the optimum cleaning schedule of heat exchangers that provides the minimum operational cost or maximum amount of savings. In this paper, the simulation of heat exchanger networks is performed by choosing an asymptotic fouling function. Two main parameters in the asymptotic fouling formation model, i.e. the decay time of fouling formation ({tau}) and the asymptotic fouling resistance (R{sub f}{sup {approx}}) were obtained from empirical data as input parameters to the simulation relations. These data were extracted from the technical history sheets of the Khorasan Petrochemical Plant to guaranty the consistency between our model outputs and the real operating conditions. The output results of the software program developed, including the variations with time of the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams, the heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer rate in the exchangers, are presented for two case studies. Then, an objective function (operational cost) was defined, and the optimal cleaning schedule of the HEN (heat exchanger network) in the Urea and Ammonia units were found by minimizing the objective function using a numerical search method. Based on this minimization procedure, the decision was made whether a heat exchanger should be cleaned or continue to operate. The final result was the most cost effective plan for the HEN cleaning schedule. The

  9. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; Hoffman, John; Stringfellow, Kendre; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Zhao, Dan; Caldwell, David; Lee, Jason; Styles, Darrel; Berghman, Luc; Byrd, James; Farnell, Yuhua; Archer, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Reportable diseases, such as avian influenza, spread rapidly among poultry, resulting in the death of a large number of birds. Once such a disease has been diagnosed at a farm, infected and susceptible birds are rapidly killed to prevent the spread of the disease. The methods to eliminate infected caged laying hens are limited. An experiment was conducted to study the effectiveness of foam made from compressed air, water, and soap to kill laying hens in cages. The study found that stress levels of the hens killed using compressed air foam in cages to be similar to the hens killed by carbon dioxide or the negative control. Hens exposed to carbon dioxide died earlier as compared to the foam methods. The authors conclude that application of compressed air foam in cages is an alternative to methods such as gas inhalation and ventilation shutdown to rapidly and humanely kill laying hens during epidemics. Abstract During the 2014–2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO2 inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO2 added to a chamber, a CO2 pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO2 added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly

  10. Using the Relevance Vector Machine Model Combined with Local Phase Quantization to Predict Protein-Protein Interactions from Protein Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yong An

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel computational method known as RVM-LPQ that combines the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM model and Local Phase Quantization (LPQ to predict PPIs from protein sequences. The main improvements are the results of representing protein sequences using the LPQ feature representation on a Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM, reducing the influence of noise using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and using a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM based classifier. We perform 5-fold cross-validation experiments on Yeast and Human datasets, and we achieve very high accuracies of 92.65% and 97.62%, respectively, which is significantly better than previous works. To further evaluate the proposed method, we compare it with the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM classifier on the Yeast dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that our RVM-LPQ method is obviously better than the SVM-based method. The promising experimental results show the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed method, which can be an automatic decision support tool for future proteomics research.

  11. Mass Spectrometry Coupled Experiments and Protein Structure Modeling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sael

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the accumulation of next generation sequencing data, there is increasing interest in the study of intra-species difference in molecular biology, especially in relation to disease analysis. Furthermore, the dynamics of the protein is being identified as a critical factor in its function. Although accuracy of protein structure prediction methods is high, provided there are structural templates, most methods are still insensitive to amino-acid differences at critical points that may change the overall structure. Also, predicted structures are inherently static and do not provide information about structural change over time. It is challenging to address the sensitivity and the dynamics by computational structure predictions alone. However, with the fast development of diverse mass spectrometry coupled experiments, low-resolution but fast and sensitive structural information can be obtained. This information can then be integrated into the structure prediction process to further improve the sensitivity and address the dynamics of the protein structures. For this purpose, this article focuses on reviewing two aspects: the types of mass spectrometry coupled experiments and structural data that are obtainable through those experiments; and the structure prediction methods that can utilize these data as constraints. Also, short review of current efforts in integrating experimental data in the structural modeling is provided.

  12. Application of Paracoccus marcusii as a potential feed additive for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradie, Tersia A; Pieterse, Elsje; Jacobs, Karin

    2018-03-01

    Carotenoids have been used for many years as an added pigment to enhance egg yolk color. One such carotenoid, astaxanthin, has a strong antioxidant activity and is produced by several microorganisms, including the bacterium Paracoccus marcusii, which has shown promise to be used as a feed additive. Therefore, this study investigated the use of P. marcusii as a possible source of pigmentation in layer hen feed to enhance egg yolk color. Paracoccus marcusii was fed to hens in a sucrose solution (10% m/v). The hens were fed daily and all eggs were collected for analysis. Dilutions of egg contents were plated onto selective media to detect the presence of known food pathogens (E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella). In the feeding trial, there was no negative effect on hen body weight, egg production, or overall egg quality. There was a significant increase (P feed additive for laying hens.

  13. Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-06-01

    Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P hens. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y Z; Cheng, J L; Ren, M; Yin, L; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (pGABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (plevel was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed hens.

  15. Volume properties and spectroscopy: A terahertz Raman investigation of hen egg white lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Paola; Perticaroli, Stefania; Comez, Lucia; Giugliarelli, Alessandra; Paolantoni, Marco; Fioretto, Daniele; Morresi, Assunta

    2013-12-01

    The low frequency depolarized Raman spectra of 100 mg/ml aqueous solutions of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) have been collected in the 25-85 °C range. Short and long exposures to high temperatures have been used to modulate the competition between the thermally induced reversible and irreversible denaturation processes. A peculiar temperature evolution of spectra is evidenced under prolonged exposure of the protein solution at temperatures higher than 65 °C. This result is connected to the self-assembling of polypeptide chains and testifies the sensitivity of the technique to the properties of both protein molecule and its surrounding. Solvent free spectra have been obtained after subtraction of elastic and solvent components and assigned to a genuine vibrational contribution of hydrated HEWL. A straight similarity is observed between the solvent-free THz Raman feature and the vibrational density of states as obtained by molecular dynamics simulations; according to this, we verify the relation between this spectroscopic observable and the effective protein volume, and distinguish the properties of this latter respect to those of the hydration shell in the pre-melting region.

  16. Motivation of hens to obtain feed during a molt induced by feed withdrawal, wheat middlings, or melengestrol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J M; Lay, D C; McMunn, K A; Moritz, J S; Wilson, M E

    2007-04-01

    Traditionally, molting was initiated by withdrawing feed. However, public criticism of feed deprivation, based on the perception that it inhumanely increases hunger, has led the poultry industry to ban the practice. Thus far, alternatives have not been demonstrated to ameliorate the increase in hunger that led to the ban on inducing molting by feed deprivation. Incorporating melengestrol acetate (MGA), an orally active progestin, into a balanced layer diet induces molting and increases postmolt egg quality. Hy-Line W-98 hens (n = 60) were randomly assigned to a balanced layer ration (control), a balanced layer ration containing MGA, or a 94% wheat middlings diet (wheat) for 20 d, or were feed deprived for 8 d. Hens were trained to peck a switch to receive a feed reward based on a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule. Motivation of hens to acquire feed was measured as the total number of pecks recorded in 15 min on d 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20. On d 20, abdominal fat pad and digesta-free gizzards were weighed. The number of pecks in the feed-deprived group was greater than controls by d 4 and remained greater at d 8, when these hens were removed from the experiment. Hens in the wheat group that were rewarded with a layer diet pecked more than controls from d 8 to 20. Hens in the MGA group pecked for a reward at the same rate as control hens throughout the experiment. Hens fed the wheat diet had heavier gizzards compared with control and MGA-fed hens. Hens fed MGA had greater abdominal fat pad compared with wheat and control hens. Hens molted using a diet containing MGA have a similar motivation to obtain feed as control hens; therefore, this alternative does not appear to increase hunger. However, hens molted with a wheat middling diet appear to be as motivated to obtain feed as did the feed-deprived hens.

  17. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etterlin Pernille

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P P P Conclusion The results of the present study indicated that during 2001–2004 laying hens housed in litter-based housing systems, with or without access to outdoor areas, were at higher risk of infectious diseases and cannibalistic behaviour compared to laying hens in cages. Future research should focus on finding suitable prophylactic

  18. Laying hens behave differently in artificially and naturally sourced ammoniated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, B B; Dos Santos, V M; Wood, D; Van Heyst, B; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2017-12-01

    Laying hens are chronically exposed to high levels of ammonia (NH3), one of the most abundant aerial pollutants in poultry houses. Tests for aversion to NH3 in laying hens have used artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures (i.e., from a gas cylinder) showing that birds prefer fresh air to NH3. However, artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures may not accurately reflect barn air conditions, where manure emits a variety of gases. Herein, we investigated whether laying hens differentiate between artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures and how exposure to NH3 affects foraging and aversive behavior. A total of 20 laying hens was exposed to artificially sourced [A] (from an anhydrous NH3 cylinder) and naturally sourced [N] (from conspecific laying hen excreta) gas mixtures. Hens were exposed to A and N mixtures with NH3 concentrations of 25 and 45 ppm, as well as fresh air [FA]. During the experiment, all birds were exposed to each treatment 3 times using a custom-built polycarbonate chamber, containing a foraging area (containing raisins, mealworms, and feed mix) and a gas delivery system. All testing sessions were video recorded, analyzed with INTERACT® software, and subjected to a GLIMMIX procedure in SAS. Our results showed that the laying hens spent less time foraging overall (P hens were more likely to forage for a longer time (with fewer interruptions) in N than in A treatments (P hens also reacted with greater aversion towards treatment A compared to treatment N (P hens of our study preferred fresh to ammoniated air and that they behaved differently in artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures, possibly due to the presence of familiar stimuli from the excreta. These findings have implications for new developments in methodological approaches for behavioral testing and for recommendations regarding NH3 levels inside poultry barns. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Obesity-associated cardiac pathogenesis in broiler breeder hens: Development of metabolic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Huang, Y F; Ko, Y J; Liu, Y J; Chen, Y H; Walzem, R L; Chen, S E

    2017-07-01

    Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate metabolic cardiomyopathies underlying the etiology of obesity-associated cardiac pathology. Metabolic measurements were made in hens continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding after 7 d and 21 days. AL feeding increased plasma insulin, glucose, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations by 21 d (P hens was confirmed by cardiac triacylglycerol (TG) and ceramide accumulation consistent with up-regulation of related enzyme gene expressions, and by increased indices of oxidation stress (P hens, cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity and glucose transporter (GLUT) gene expressions increased progressively while carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) transcript levels in AL hens declined from 7 d to 21 d (P hens was further indicated by increased leukocyte infiltrates, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 production, cellular apoptosis, interstitial fibrosis, and expression of the heart failure marker myosin heavy chain (MHC-β; cardiac muscle beta) (P hens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens’ behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (phens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, −II, and −III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (phens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (phens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs. PMID:26954171

  1. Dietary genistein supplementation in laying broiler breeder hens alters the development and metabolism of offspring embryos as revealed by hepatic transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zengpeng; Fan, Hao; Zhang, Beibei; Ning, Chao; Xing, Kun; Guo, Yuming

    2018-03-08

    Genistein (GEN) is a type of isoflavone mainly derived from soy products. In this experiment, we added 40 and 400 mg/kg GEN to the diet of laying broiler breeder hens to clarify the maternal effects of GEN on the development and metabolism of chick embryos. GEN treatment at 40 mg/kg increased embryonic length, weight, and liver index, as well as the width of the proliferative zone in the tibial growth plate of chick embryos. Gene ontology (GO) cluster analysis of the hepatic transcriptome showed that GEN treatment promoted embryonic development and cell proliferation. Low-dose GEN treatment increased insulin growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)3 mRNA expression in the embryonic liver, whereas high-dose GEN treatment increased IGFBP5 expression and activated the apoptosis and protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Furthermore, adding supplemental GEN to the diet of hens promoted the glycolysis process in the embryonic liver through the insulin-signaling pathway, upregulated target genes (phosphoglucomutase-2, hexokinase 1, dihydroxyacetone phosphate by aldolase, phosphofructokinase, platelet, and enolase 2), and enhanced the transport of carboxylic acids and cholesterol and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid (arachidonic acid) in the embryonic liver through upregulation of liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, and patatin-like phospholipase A. Additionally, GEN treatment increased fatty acid β-oxidation and Na + /K + -ATPase activity in the embryonic liver through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs; PPARα and PPARδ) and the AMPK signaling pathway, which could provide energy for embryonic development. In addition, GEN treatment in hens increased superoxide dismutase activity and metallothionein expression in the chick embryonic liver and promoted lymphocyte proliferation through upregulation of mRNA expression of CDKN1A, IL12RB1, Sox11, PRKAR1A, PRKCQ, and TCF3. The improved immunity and antioxidant

  2. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  3. Recent (t,p) and (3He,n) studies of elementary excitations in the lead region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    A number of experiments involving two-nucleon transfer reactions were recently carried out in the region of 208 Pb to explore the limits of the pairing vibration model. ( 3 He,n) studies revealed that the proton pairing elementary excitations give a reasonably simple vibrational picture after corrections for important particle--hole terms. These data are also described accurately by microscopic calculations of the 0 + pairing phonon. (t,p) results on a 204 Hg target reveal a pairing vibrational state in 206 Hg near the predicted energy, after various interactions are taken into account. 14 figures

  4. Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model for Protein Crystal Growth Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, Sabine; Smith, Lori; Karr, Laurel; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea Victoria has become a popular marker for e.g. mutagenesis work. Its fluorescent property, which originates from a chromophore located in the center of the molecule, makes it widely applicable as a research too]. GFP clones have been produced with a variety of spectral properties, such as blue and yellow emitting species. The protein is a single chain of molecular weight 27 kDa and its structure has been determined at 1.9 Angstrom resolution. The combination of GFP's fluorescent property, the knowledge of its several crystallization conditions, and its increasing use in biophysical and biochemical studies, all led us to consider it as a model material for macromolecular crystal growth studies. Initial preparations of GFP were from E.coli with yields of approximately 5 mg/L of culture media. Current yields are now in the 50 - 120 mg/L range, and we hope to further increase this by expression of the GFP gene in the Pichia system. The results of these efforts and of preliminary crystal growth studies will be presented.

  5. Model to predict inhomogeneous protein-sugar distribution in powders prepared by spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Niels; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2016-01-01

    A protein can be stabilized by spray drying an aqueous solution of the protein and a sugar, thereby incorporating the protein into a glassy sugar matrix. For optimal stability, the protein should be homogeneously distributed inside the sugar matrix. The aim of this study was to develop a model that

  6. Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenstra, F; Maurer, V; Bestman, M; van Sambeek, F; Zeltner, E; Reuvekamp, B; Galea, F; van Niekerk, T

    2012-01-01

    1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes (brands) were present on the farms. In France, all birds were brown feathered hens laying brown eggs. In Switzerland and The Netherlands, there were brown, white (white feathered hens laying white eggs) and silver (white feathered hens laying brown eggs) hens. In Switzerland, mixed flocks were also present. 3. The overall effect of system (organic vs. conventional free range) on egg production and mortality was significant, with higher mortality and lower egg production among organic hens. In pair wise comparisons within country, the difference was highly significant in The Netherlands, and showed a non-significant tendency in the same direction in Switzerland and France. 4. White hens tended to perform better than brown hens. Silver hens appeared to have a higher mortality and lower production per hen housed at 60 weeks of age. 5. There were no significant relationships between production, mortality, feather condition and use of outside run or with flock size. 6. There was more variation in mortality and egg production among farms with a small flock size than among farms with a large flock size.

  7. Model test on the relationship feed energy and protein ratio to the production and quality of milk protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, R.; Jantra, M. A. C.; Santosa, S. A. B.; Purnomoadi, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find an appropriate relationship model between the feed energy and protein ratio with the amount of production and quality of milk proteins. This research was conducted at Getasan Sub-district, Semarang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia using 40 samples (Holstein Friesian cattle, lactation period II-III and lactation month 3-4). Data were analyzed using linear and quadratic regressions, to predict the production and quality of milk protein from feed energy and protein ratio that describe the diet. The significance of model was tested using analysis of variance. Coefficient of determination (R2), residual variance (RV) and root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) were reported for the developed equations as an indicator of the goodness of model fit. The results showed no relationship in milk protein (kg), milk casein (%), milk casein (kg) and milk urea N (mg/dl) as function of CP/TDN. The significant relationship was observed in milk production (L or kg) and milk protein (%) as function of CP/TDN, both in linear and quadratic models. In addition, a quadratic change in milk production (L) (P = 0.003), milk production (kg) (P = 0.003) and milk protein concentration (%) (P = 0.026) were observed with increase of CP/TDN. It can be concluded that quadratic equation was the good fitting model for this research, because quadratic equation has larger R2, smaller RV and smaller RMSPE than those of linear equation.

  8. Effects of parenteral gibberellic acid and dietary supplementaion of vitamin D3 on egg quality and physiological characteristics in aged laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Razuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parenteral gibberellic acid (GA3 and/or vitamin D3 supplementation in diet on egg quality and blood physiological characteristics in aged laying hens. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens aging 73-week were randomly assigned to equal three treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3 with equal 3 replicas in each group. The birds of group T1 (control group were injected subcutaneously (SC with sesame oil at 0.2 mL/kg body weight. The birds of group T2 were given with GA3 at 400 µg/kg b.wt., SC, whereas group T3 had diet containing vitamin D3 at 500 IU/kg feed. Relative weight of albumen and egg shell, Haugh unit, shell thickness, serum glucose, serum calcium, serum phosphorous, serum estradiol, and bone calcium absorption were significantly increased in the birds of group T2 and T3. On the other hand, relative weight of yolk, yolk cholesterol, and serum cholesterol were significantly decreased in group T2 and T3 as compared to group T1. However, serum protein and albumen were unaffected in the treatments. In conclusion, the parenteral GA3 and vitamin D3 supplementation in diet could improve egg quality traits and serum blood biochemical perperties in agend laying hens.

  9. Digestibility, productive performance, and egg quality of laying hens as affected by dried cassava pulp replacement with corn and enzyme supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khempaka, Sutisa; Maliwan, Prapot; Okrathok, Supattra; Molee, Wittawat

    2018-02-24

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the potential use of dried cassava pulp (DCP) supplemented with enzymes as an alternative feed ingredient in laying hen diets. In experiment 1, 45 laying hens (Isa Brown) aged 45 weeks were placed in individual cages to measure nutrient digestibility for 10 days. Nine dietary treatments were control and DCP as a replacement for corn at 20, 25, 30, and 35% supplemented with mixed enzymes (cellulase, glucanase, and xylanase) at 0.10 and 0.15%. Results showed that the use of DCP at 20-35% added with mixed enzymes had no negative effects on dry matter digestibility, while organic matter digestibility and nitrogen retention decreased with increased DCP up to 30-35% in diets. Both enzyme levels (0.10 and 0.15%) showed similar results on nutrient digestibility and retention. In experiment 2, a total of 336 laying hens aged 32 weeks were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatments (control and DCP-substituted diets at 20, 25, and 30%) supplemented with mixed enzymes (0.10 and 0.15%). Diets incorporated with 20-30% of DCP and supplemented with mixed enzymes at both levels had no significant effects on egg production, egg weight, feed intake, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, or egg quality, except for egg yolk color being decreased with an increase of DCP in diets (P digestibility, productive performance, or egg quality.

  10. Identification of Potential Plasma Biomarkers for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Integrating Transcriptomics and Proteomics in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Tsz; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chen, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Han, Chia-Li; Chen, Yu-Ju; Mersmann, Harry J; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2017-03-01

    Background: Prevalent worldwide obesity is associated with increased incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome. The identification of noninvasive biomarkers for NAFLD is of recent interest. Because primary de novo lipogenesis occurs in chicken liver as in human liver, adult chickens with age-associated steatosis resembling human NAFLD is an appealing animal model. Objective: The objective of this study was to screen potential biomarkers in the chicken model for NAFLD by transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Methods: Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were fed standard feed from 25 to 45 wk of age to induce fatty liver. They were killed every 4 wk, and liver and plasma were collected at each time point to assess fatty liver development and for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Next, selected biomarkers were confirmed in additional experiments by providing supplements of the hepatoprotective nutrients betaine [300, 600, or 900 parts per million (ppm) in vivo; 2 mM in vitro] or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 1% in vivo; 100 μM in vitro) to 30-wk-old Hy-Line W-36 laying hens for 4 mo and to Hy-Line W-36 chicken primary hepatocytes with oleic acid-induced steatosis. Liver or hepatocyte lipid contents and the expression of biomarkers were then examined. Results: Plasma acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AACS), dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4), glutamine synthetase (GLUL), and glutathione S -transferase (GST) concentrations are well-established biomarkers for NAFLD. Selected biomarkers had significant positive associations with hepatic lipid deposition ( P steatosis accompanied by the reduced expression of selected biomarkers in vivo and in vitro ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study used adult laying hens to identify biomarkers for NAFLD and indicated that AACS, DPP4, GLUL, and GST could be considered to be potential diagnostic indicators for NAFLD in the future. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Hidden Markov model-derived structural alphabet for proteins: the learning of protein local shapes captures sequence specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Tufféry, P

    2005-08-05

    Understanding and predicting protein structures depend on the complexity and the accuracy of the models used to represent them. We have recently set up a Hidden Markov Model to optimally compress protein three-dimensional conformations into a one-dimensional series of letters of a structural alphabet. Such a model learns simultaneously the shape of representative structural letters describing the local conformation and the logic of their connections, i.e. the transition matrix between the letters. Here, we move one step further and report some evidence that such a model of protein local architecture also captures some accurate amino acid features. All the letters have specific and distinct amino acid distributions. Moreover, we show that words of amino acids can have significant propensities for some letters. Perspectives point towards the prediction of the series of letters describing the structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence.

  12. Effect of rearing factors on the prevalence of floor eggs, cloacal cannibalism and feather pecking in commercial flocks of loose housed laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, S; Keeling, L J; Svedberg, J

    1999-03-01

    1. Effects of rearing conditions on behavioural problems were investigated in a cohort study of commercial flocks of laying hens housed in 2 different loose housing systems. The sample population was 120 385 laying hens from 59 flocks of various hybrids at 21 different farms. 2. Logistic regression modelling was used to test the effects of selected factors on floor eggs, cloacal cannibalism and feather pecking. In addition to early access to perches or litter, models included hybrid, stocking density, group size, housing system, age at delivery, identical housing system at the rearing farm and at the production farm and, in models for floor eggs and cloacal cannibalism, nest area per hen. Odds ratios were calculated from the results of the models to allow risk assessment. 3. No significant correlations were found between the prevalence of floor eggs, cloacal cannibalism and feather pecking. 4. Access to perches from not later than the 4th week of age decreased the prevalence of floor eggs during the period from start-of-lay until 35 weeks of age, odds ratio 0-30 (Pfeather pecking.

  13. Nutritional levels of digestible methionine + cystine to brown-egg laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauber Polese

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the requirement of digestible methionine + cystine of brown-eggs laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks age at the end of the first production cycle. The design was completely randomized, with 150 Brown Shaver hens, which were distributed in five treatments with six replications of five birds each. Birds received a basal diet with 2857 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 15.97% crude protein, supplemented with 0.132; 0.174, 0.215, 0.256 and 0.298% DL-methionine (98%, in order to provide 0.572, 0.613, 0.653, 0.693 and 0.734% digestible methionine + cystine. The levels of digestible methionine + digestible cystine followed, respectively, the relations of 67, 72, 77, 81 and 86% with lysine fixed at 0.851%. Feed intake, methionine + cystine intake, feed conversion per dozen eggs, egg weigth and mass, percentage of egg components, internal egg quality and weight gain were evaluated. Methionine + cystine levels showed a quadratic effect on feed conversion per dozen eggs and egg weight, a linear effect on feed conversion per kilogram of eggs and percentage of albumen. There was also a positive linear effect on yolk percentage. The methionine + cystine requirement was estimated at 0.572%, corresponding to 682 mg of digestible methionine + cystine/bird/day.

  14. Dynamics of nutrient utilization, heat production, and body composition in broiler breeder hens during egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Justina V; Hilton, Katie; Boonsinchai, Nirun; England, Judith A; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Coon, Craig N

    2018-04-24

    Changes in heat production (HP) and body composition (BC) in modern broiler breeders can provide means to understand nutrient utilization. Twelve Cobb 500 breeders were evaluated 10 times from 26 to 59 wk of age. The same wired caged breeders were moved to respiratory chambers connected to an indirect calorimetry to obtain oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2), HP, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). The same hens were evaluated for BC using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Data were analyzed during light (16 h) and dark (8 h) period using a mixed model to evaluate calorimetry parameters, a factorial design 2 × 10 for normalized calorimetry parameters, and Complete Randomized Design (CRD)-one way ANOVA for BC. Means were separated by Tukey-Honest Significant difference (HSD). HP increased with age (d) in 0.152 kcal/d, VO2 and VCO2 were 0.031 and 0.024 L/d per each increase in age (d), respectively. In the light period, hens consumed +17.4 L/d VO2 and produced +18.9 L/d VCO2 (P production. Lean body mass ranged from 642 to 783 g/kg during the whole study reaching the lowest at 37 and 50 wk and the highest at 26 to 33 wk (P production is reduced, and HP increased at 54 and 59 wk (P lean mass structure. Broiler breeders change nutrient fuel use during egg production. Indirect calorimetry and DEXA can be used to pursue further feed strategies to maximize egg production and maintain a healthy breeder.

  15. Analysis of correlations between sites in models of protein sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.G.; Lapedes, A.; Liu, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    A criterion based on conditional probabilities, related to the concept of algorithmic distance, is used to detect correlated mutations at noncontiguous sites on sequences. We apply this criterion to the problem of analyzing correlations between sites in protein sequences; however, the analysis applies generally to networks of interacting sites with discrete states at each site. Elementary models, where explicit results can be derived easily, are introduced. The number of states per site considered ranges from 2, illustrating the relation to familiar classical spin systems, to 20 states, suitable for representing amino acids. Numerical simulations show that the criterion remains valid even when the genetic history of the data samples (e.g., protein sequences), as represented by a phylogenetic tree, introduces nonindependence between samples. Statistical fluctuations due to finite sampling are also investigated and do not invalidate the criterion. A subsidiary result is found: The more homogeneous a population, the more easily its average properties can drift from the properties of its ancestor. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  16. Denatured state is critical in determining the properties of model proteins designed on different folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amatori, Andrea; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Tiana, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The thermodynamics of proteins designed on three common folds (SH3, chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 [CI2], and protein G) is studied with a simplified C alpha, model and compared with the thermodynamics of proteins designed on random-generated folds. The model allows to design sequences to fold within a...

  17. Protein modelling of triterpene synthase genes from mangrove plants using Phyre2 and Swiss-model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Wati, R.; Sulistiyono, N.; Hayati, R.; Sumardi; Oku, H.; Baba, S.; Sagami, H.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular cloning of five oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) genes from Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Kandelia candel, and Rhizophora stylosa had previously been cloned, characterized, and encoded mono and -multi triterpene synthases. The present study analyzed protein modelling of triterpene synthase genes from mangrove using Phyre2 and Swiss-model. The diversity was noted within protein modelling of triterpene synthases using Phyre2 from sequence identity (38-43%) and residue (696-703). RsM2 was distinguishable from others for template structure; it used lanosterol synthase as a template (PDB ID: w6j.1.A). By contrast, other genes used human lanosterol synthase (1w6k.1.A). The predicted bind sites were correlated with the product of triterpene synthase, the product of BgbAS was β-amyrin, while RsM1 contained a significant amount of β-amyrin. Similarly BgLUS and KcMS, both main products was lupeol, on the other hand, RsM2 with the outcome of taraxerol. Homology modelling revealed that 696 residues of BgbAS, BgLUS, RsM1, and RsM2 (91-92% of the amino acid sequence) had been modelled with 100% confidence by the single highest scoring template using Phyre2. This coverage was higher than Swiss-model (85-90%). The present study suggested that molecular cloning of triterpene genes provides useful tools for studying the protein modelling related regulation of isoprenoids biosynthesis in mangrove forests.

  18. Ghrelin plasma concentration does not covary with energy demand in adult laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, A; Schrader, L; Weigend, S; Petow, S

    2017-10-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is suggested to be involved in food intake regulation in young growing chicken. Whether ghrelin is involved in the regulation of energetic balance associated with laying performance in adult laying hens was studied by use of 4 chicken lines that differ in laying performance and phylogeny (4 lines; 16 hens per line). As housing conditions are also known to affect energy demand, half of the hens per line were housed in single cages and the other half of hens were maintained in a floor housing system. Plasma samples were collected at 17 to 19, 33 to 35, 49 to 51, and 72 wk of age and analyzed with a chicken ghrelin ELISA Kit. From caged hens, individual food consumption and laying performance additionally was recorded. Due to its function in growth and its relationship with ghrelin, also GH plasma concentrations were analyzed. Ghrelin concentrations did not differ between the 4 lines at any of the test periods (all P > 0.05). Ghrelin was negatively related to food consumption only in the growing period of the high-performing lines (both P ghrelin concentrations compared with caged hens (P ghrelin is not involved in regulating energy intake related to laying performance but rather seems to be related to body growth and housing condition before start of lay, the latter possibly due to differences in hens' behavioral activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of nanocalcium carbonate on egg production performance and plasma calcium of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjigohari, S; Ziaei, N; Ramzani Ghara, A; Tasharrofi, S

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nanocalcium carbonate (NCC) instead of calcium carbonate (CC) on egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR, blood calcium and egg quality characteristics in laying hens. A total of 120 laying hens were used in a 10-weeks trial, from week 23 to 33 of age. Laying hens were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replications, five hens each. The experimental treatments involved replacing 50% of the CC in the diet by decreasing amounts of NCC and were T1 Basal diet (BD) with 8.06% CC; T2 (6.045% of CC as a negative control); T3 (4.03% of CC replaced by 2.015% NCC); T4 (4.03% of CC replaced by 1.01% NCC); T5 (4.03% of CC replaced by 0.252% NCC) and T6 (4.03 of CC replaced with 0.126%NCC).Egg weight was unaffected by dietary treatments (p > .05). However, the egg production percentage and egg mass in T6 were less than that of other treatments (p hens in the control group had the best average feed conversion ratio (p hens' blood was recorded for birds fed T6 (p hens. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Effect of thermal processing on retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Héryka M M; Santos, Videanny V A; Medeiros, Vanessa P Q; Silva, Keith H D; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Eggs are a food item of high nutritional value, a source of vitamin A and readily accessible to the general population. Methods This paper analysed the effect of cooking on the retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The retinol levels of hen and quail eggs were also compared. Results The raw egg yolk retinol concentrations of free-range and caged hen eggs were 476.53+/-39.44 and 474.93+/-41.10 microg/100 g and cooked egg yolk concentrations were 393.53+/-24.74 and 379.01+/-30.78 microg/100 g, respectively; quail egg concentration was 636.56+/-32.71 microg retinol/100 g. No significant difference was found between the retinol of free-range and caged hen egg yolks; however, cooking diminished retinol levels, causing a loss of 17 and 20% in the free-range and caged hen egg yolks, respectively. Quail egg retinol concentration was significantly higher than that of the hens. Conclusion The retinol found in 100 g of hen and quail egg yolks could supply around 42 and 70.7% of the vitamin A requirements of an adult man, and is accordingly considered an excellent source of this vitamin.

  1. Self-organized critical model for protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    The major factor that drives a protein toward collapse and folding is the hydrophobic effect. At the folding process a hydrophobic core is shielded by the solvent-accessible surface area of the protein. We study the fractal behavior of 5526 protein structures present in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. Power laws of protein mass, volume and solvent-accessible surface area are measured independently. The present findings indicate that self-organized criticality is an alternative explanation for the protein folding. Also we note that the protein packing is an independent and constant value because the self-similar behavior of the volumes and protein masses have the same fractal dimension. This power law guarantees that a protein is a complex system. From the analyzed data, q-Gaussian distributions seem to fit well this class of systems.

  2. Classification of proteins: available structural space for molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Antonina

    2012-01-01

    The wealth of available protein structural data provides unprecedented opportunity to study and better understand the underlying principles of protein folding and protein structure evolution. A key to achieving this lies in the ability to analyse these data and to organize them in a coherent classification scheme. Over the past years several protein classifications have been developed that aim to group proteins based on their structural relationships. Some of these classification schemes explore the concept of structural neighbourhood (structural continuum), whereas other utilize the notion of protein evolution and thus provide a discrete rather than continuum view of protein structure space. This chapter presents a strategy for classification of proteins with known three-dimensional structure. Steps in the classification process along with basic definitions are introduced. Examples illustrating some fundamental concepts of protein folding and evolution with a special focus on the exceptions to them are presented.

  3. Utilization of 15N-labelled urea in laying hens. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.

    1985-01-01

    In an N metabolism experiment 3 colostomized laying hybrids received 2870 mg 15 N excess ( 15 N') per animal in 6 days in the form of urea with their conventional feed rations. During the 8-day experiment the 21 eggs laid were separated into egg-shell, white of egg and yolk. Weight, N content and 15 N' of the individual fractions of the eggs were determined. On an average 4.6% of the heavy nitrogen was in the egg-shells, 50% in the white of egg and 45.5% in the yolk. 2.8%, 4.5% and 5.5% (hens 1 - 3) of the 15 N' consumed were detected in the eggs. The maximum 15 N' output in the white of egg was reached on the 6th day, whereas 15 N' output in the yolk showed a nearly linear increase in the time of the experiment. The results show that labelled nitrogen from urea is incorporated into the egg to a lower degree than after the feeding of 15 N-labelled proteins and that the development of its incorporation into the white of egg and the yolk differ from that after the feeding of 15 N-labelled native proteins. (author)

  4. Feeding ecology of pintail hens during reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Food supply has been acknowledged as one of eight major external factors regulating the sexual cycles of birds (Marshall 1961). Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the role of food supply as an ultimate factor regulating breeding (Marshall 1951; Lack 1954, 1968; Wynne-Edwards 1962; and others). Another potential influence of food is its being a proximate stimulus to breeding. When certain foods become available they may act as a stimulus as the female requires them to meet her dietary needs during egg formation. Lack (1966a: 24) suggested that the average date of laying by the Great Tit (Parus major) probably resulted from a correlation between spring temperatures and the time of appearance of the insect foods the adult females need to form eggs. He also cited other passerines whose breeding was affected by food supply available to the female. In waterfowl it has been suggested that laying females require invertebrate foods (Moyle 1961, Leitch 1964). If true, this implies that the timing of laying is influenced by those environmental changes that affect food supply.The Pintail (Anas acuta) lives primarily on plant foods during much of the year (Martin et al. 1951); thus a study of feeding ecology during the nesting season provided an opportunity to evaluate the significance of an invertebrate food source to females during the period of egg formation. Marshall (1951) stated that essentially vegetarian species appear compelled to switch at least partially to a heavier protein diet when feeding their developing young. Production of a clutch of eggs, like tissue growth in the young, requires a special dietary need that presumably should be reflected in the diet of vegetarian species during the period that eggs are being formed. This paper describes the diet of the female Pintail prior to, during, and after laying and discusses the impact of certain environmental and physiological changes on Pintail breeding.

  5. A Practical Teaching Course in Directed Protein Evolution Using the Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruller, Roberto; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Ward, Richard John

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool, which correlates protein structure with specific functions, both in applied biotechnology and in basic research. Here, we present a practical teaching course for engineering the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from "Aequorea victoria" by a random mutagenesis strategy using error-prone polymerase…

  6. A model in which heat shock protein 90 targets protein-folding clefts: rationale for a new approach to neuroprotective treatment of protein folding diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, William B; Morishima, Yoshihiro; Gestwicki, Jason E; Lieberman, Andrew P; Osawa, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    In an EBM Minireview published in 2010, we proposed that the heat shock protein (Hsp)90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery played a major role in determining the selection of proteins that have undergone oxidative or other toxic damage for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The proposal was based on a model in which the Hsp90 chaperone machinery regulates signaling by modulating ligand-binding clefts. The model provides a framework for thinking about the development of neuroprotective therapies for protein-folding diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and the polyglutamine expansion disorders, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Major aberrant proteins that misfold and accumulate in these diseases are "client" proteins of the abundant and ubiquitous stress chaperone Hsp90. These Hsp90 client proteins include tau (AD), α-synuclein (PD), huntingtin (HD), and the expanded glutamine androgen receptor (polyQ AR) (SBMA). In this Minireview, we update our model in which Hsp90 acts on protein-folding clefts and show how it forms a rational basis for developing drugs that promote the targeted elimination of these aberrant proteins. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  7. Visualization of protein folding funnels in lattice models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B Oliveira

    Full Text Available Protein folding occurs in a very high dimensional phase space with an exponentially large number of states, and according to the energy landscape theory it exhibits a topology resembling a funnel. In this statistical approach, the folding mechanism is unveiled by describing the local minima in an effective one-dimensional representation. Other approaches based on potential energy landscapes address the hierarchical structure of local energy minima through disconnectivity graphs. In this paper, we introduce a metric to describe the distance between any two conformations, which also allows us to go beyond the one-dimensional representation and visualize the folding funnel in 2D and 3D. In this way it is possible to assess the folding process in detail, e.g., by identifying the connectivity between conformations and establishing the paths to reach the native state, in addition to regions where trapping may occur. Unlike the disconnectivity maps method, which is based on the kinetic connections between states, our methodology is based on structural similarities inferred from the new metric. The method was developed in a 27-mer protein lattice model, folded into a 3×3×3 cube. Five sequences were studied and distinct funnels were generated in an analysis restricted to conformations from the transition-state to the native configuration. Consistent with the expected results from the energy landscape theory, folding routes can be visualized to probe different regions of the phase space, as well as determine the difficulty in folding of the distinct sequences. Changes in the landscape due to mutations were visualized, with the comparison between wild and mutated local minima in a single map, which serves to identify different trapping regions. The extension of this approach to more realistic models and its use in combination with other approaches are discussed.

  8. High, low, or familiar? Nest site preferences of experienced laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, E T; Schrader, L

    2018-05-22

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate which nest heights are preferred by laying hens in the absence of familiar nest locations and whether preferred nest heights are more attractive than a familiar location. In two experiments, a total of 108 hens of four different layer breeds, which were at least 50 weeks of age, were studied. 2. In the first experiment, hens were given individual free choice between nests for 1-week at four different heights (0 cm, 39 cm, 78 cm, and 117 cm above ground). Hens of the four breeds differed in their nest height preferences (P = 0.0013). However, hens of three breeds preferred ground level nests (P < 0.007) and the fourth line showed an equal preference for the ground level and level three, the latter level corresponding to the height of the nests in their home compartments. 4. In the second experiment, hens from the four breeds were given a choice between ground level nests and nests at a familiar location, i.e. at the same location as in their home compartment. Hens of all strains preferred the familiar nest location (P = 0.002) and preferences did not differ between strains (P = 0.77). 5. Laying hens seem to prefer nests at ground level in the absence of a familiar nest. However, if possible, experienced 50 week old hens continue to use a familiar nest location instead of a ground nest location. The results are discussed with respect to a potential primary preference that may be modifiable by experience and with respect to possible relevance in commercial housing.

  9. The effect of space allowance and cage size on laying hens housed in furnished cages, Part II: Behavior at the feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowski, T. M; Caston, L. J; Casey-Trott, T. M; Hunniford, M. E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Standards for feeder (a.k.a. feed trough) space allowance (SA) are based primarily on studies in conventional cages where laying hens tend to eat simultaneously, limiting feeder space. Large furnished cages (FC) offer more total space and opportunities to perform a greater variety of behaviors, which may affect feeding behavior and feeder space requirements. Our objective was to determine the effects of floor/feeder SA on behavior at the feeder. LSL-Lite hens were housed in FC equipped with a nest, perches, and a scratch mat. Hens with SA of either 520 cm2 (Low; 8.9 cm feeder space/hen) or 748 cm2 (High; 12.8 cm feeder space/hen) per bird resulted in groups of 40 vs. 28 birds in small FC (SFC) and 80 vs. 55 in large FC (LFC). Chain feeders ran at 0500, 0800, 1100, 1400, and 1700 with lights on at 0500 and off at 1900 hours. Digital recordings of FC were scanned at chain feeder onset and every 15 min for one h after (5 scans × 5 feeding times × 2 d) to count the number of birds with their head in the feeder. All occurrences of aggressive pecks and displacements during 2 continuous 30-minute observations at 0800 h and 1700 h also were counted. Mixed model repeated analyses tested the effects of SA, cage size, and time on the percent of hens feeding, and the frequency of aggressive pecks and displacements. Surprisingly, the percent of birds feeding simultaneously was similar regardless of cage size (LFC: 23.0 ± 0.9%; SFC: 24.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.44) or SA (Low: 23.8 ± 0.9%; High: 23.3 ± 1.0%; P = 0.62). More birds were observed feeding at 1700 h (35.3 ± 0.1%) than any at other time (P < 0.001). Feeder use differed by cage area (nest, middle, or scratch) over the d (P < 0.001). The frequency of aggressive pecks was low overall and not affected by SA or cage size. Frequency of displacements was also low but greater at Low SA (P = 0.001). There was little evidence of feeder competition at the Low SA in this study. PMID:29050409

  10. The effect of space allowance and cage size on laying hens housed in furnished cages, Part II: Behavior at the feeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowski, T M; Caston, L J; Casey-Trott, T M; Hunniford, M E

    2017-09-01

    Standards for feeder (a.k.a. feed trough) space allowance (SA) are based primarily on studies in conventional cages where laying hens tend to eat simultaneously, limiting feeder space. Large furnished cages (FC) offer more total space and opportunities to perform a greater variety of behaviors, which may affect feeding behavior and feeder space requirements. Our objective was to determine the effects of floor/feeder SA on behavior at the feeder. LSL-Lite hens were housed in FC equipped with a nest, perches, and a scratch mat. Hens with SA of either 520 cm2 (Low; 8.9 cm feeder space/hen) or 748 cm2 (High; 12.8 cm feeder space/hen) per bird resulted in groups of 40 vs. 28 birds in small FC (SFC) and 80 vs. 55 in large FC (LFC). Chain feeders ran at 0500, 0800, 1100, 1400, and 1700 with lights on at 0500 and off at 1900 hours. Digital recordings of FC were scanned at chain feeder onset and every 15 min for one h after (5 scans × 5 feeding times × 2 d) to count the number of birds with their head in the feeder. All occurrences of aggressive pecks and displacements during 2 continuous 30-minute observations at 0800 h and 1700 h also were counted. Mixed model repeated analyses tested the effects of SA, cage size, and time on the percent of hens feeding, and the frequency of aggressive pecks and displacements. Surprisingly, the percent of birds feeding simultaneously was similar regardless of cage size (LFC: 23.0 ± 0.9%; SFC: 24.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.44) or SA (Low: 23.8 ± 0.9%; High: 23.3 ± 1.0%; P = 0.62). More birds were observed feeding at 1700 h (35.3 ± 0.1%) than any at other time (P Feeder use differed by cage area (nest, middle, or scratch) over the d (P feeder competition at the Low SA in this study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  11. Modelos de regressão aleatória para avaliação da curva de crescimento em matrizes de codorna de corte Random regression models for growth evaluation of meat-type quail hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bastos Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar diferentes modelos de regressão aleatória por meio de funções polinomiais de Legendre de diferentes ordens, para avaliar o que melhor se ajusta ao estudo genético da curva de crescimento de codornas de corte. Foram avaliados dados de 2136 matrizes de codorna de corte, dos quais 1026 pertenciam ao grupo genético UFV1 e 1110 ao grupo UFV2. As codornas foram pesadas nos 1°, 7°, 14°, 21°, 28°, 35°, 42°, 77°, 112° e 147° dias de idade e seus pesos utilizados para a análise. Foram testadas duas possíveis modelagens de variância residual heterogênea, sendo agrupadas em 3 e 5 classes de idade. Após, foi realizado o estudo do modelo de regressão aleatória que melhor aplica-se à curva de crescimento das codornas. A comparação entre os modelos foi feita pelo Critério de Informação de Akaike (AIC, Critério de Informação Bayesiano de Schwarz (BIC, Logaritmo da função de verossimilhança (Log e L e teste da razão de verossimilhança (LRT, ao nível de 1%. O modelo que considerou a heterogeneidade de variância residual CL3 mostrou-se adequado à linhagem UFV1, e o modelo CL5 à linhagem UFV2. Uma função polinomial de Legendre com ordem 5, para efeito genético aditivo direto e 5 para efeito permanente de animal, para a linhagem UFV1 e, com ordem 3, para efeito genético aditivo direto e 5 para efeito permanente de animal para a linhagem UFV2, deve ser utilizada na avaliação genética da curva de crescimento das codornas de corte.The objective was to compare different random regression models using Legendre polynomial functions of different orders, to evaluate what best fits the genetic study of the growth curve of meat quails. It was evaluated data from 2136 cut dies quail, of which 1026 belonged to genetic group UFV1 and 1110 the group UFV2. Quail were weighed at 10, 70, 140, 210, 280, 350, 420, 770, 1120 and 1470 days of age, and weights used for the analysis. It was tested two possible modeling

  12. Influence of age and housing systems on properties of tibia and humerus of Lohmann White hens1: Bone properties of laying hens in commercial housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, P; Nelson, N; Haut, R C; Orth, M W; Karcher, D M

    2017-10-01

    This study was aimed at analyzing bone properties of Lohmann White hens in different commercial housing systems at various points throughout production. Pullets reared in conventional cages (CC) were either continued in CC or moved to enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. Pullets reared in cage-free aviaries (AV) were moved to AV hen houses. Bone samples were collected from 60 hens at each of 18 and 72 wk and 30 hens at 26 and 56 wk from each housing system. Left tibiae and humeri were broken under uniform bending to analyze mechanical properties. Cortical geometry was analyzed using digital calipers at the fracture site. Contralateral tibiae and humeri were used for measurement of ash percentage. AV pullets' humeri had 41% greater cortical areas, and tibiae had 19% greater cortical areas than the CC pullets (P < 0.05). Average humeri diameter was greater in AV pullets than in CC pullets (P < 0.05), whereas the tibiae outer dimensions were similar. Aviary pullet bones had greater stiffness (31 and 7% greater for tibiae and humeri, respectively) and second moment of inertia (43 and 13% greater for tibiae and humeri, respectively) than CC pullets (P < 0.05). The differences between bones of AV and CC hens persisted throughout the laying cycle. Moving CC pullets to EN resulted in decreased endosteal resorption in humeri, evident by a 7.5% greater cortical area in the EN hens (P < 0.05). Whole-bone breaking strength did not change with age. Stiffness increased with age, while energy to failure decreased in both the tibiae and humeri. These results indicated that tibiae and humeri of laying hens become stiffer but lose toughness and become brittle with age. Furthermore, AV and EN systems can bring positive changes in mechanical and structural properties that are more pronounced in the humerus than the tibia. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Membrane Compartmentalization Reducing the Mobility of Lipids and Proteins within a Model Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Reddy, Tyler; Fowler, Philip W; Duncan, Anna L; Sansom, Mark S P

    2016-09-01

    The cytoskeleton underlying cell membranes may influence the dynamic organization of proteins and lipids within the bilayer by immobilizing certain transmembrane (TM) proteins and forming corrals within the membrane. Here, we present coarse-grained resolution simulations of a biologically realistic membrane model of asymmetrically organized lipids and TM proteins. We determine the effects of a model of cytoskeletal immobilization of selected membrane proteins using long time scale coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. By introducing compartments with varying degrees of restraints within the membrane models, we are able to reveal how compartmentalization caused by cytoskeletal immobilization leads to reduced and anomalous diffusional mobility of both proteins and lipids. This in turn results in a reduced rate of protein dimerization within the membrane and of hopping of membrane proteins between compartments. These simulations provide a molecular realization of hierarchical models often invoked to explain single-molecule imaging studies of membrane proteins.

  14. Effect of heat exposure on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhigang; Liu, Lei; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of heat stress on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two circumstances: high (31 ± 1.5°C; relative humidity, 82.0 ± 2.2%) or normal (20 ± 2°C, control; relative humidity, 60.1 ± 4.5%) ambient environment. Heat stress decreased body weight gain (P feed intake (P feed efficiency (P feed intake in laying hens under high ambient temperature.

  15. Effects of perch on feed consumption and behaviour of caged laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    E. VALKONEN; R. RINNE; J. VALAJA

    2008-01-01

    This experiment studied the effects of perches in furnished cages on behaviour and feed consumption of laying hens. The study used 352 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) hens. The hens were housed at 16 weeks of age in furnished cages in groups of 8 birds. The experiment lasted for 205 days. The treatments were: perches present from 16 weeks of age (P16), perches present from 19 weeks of age (P19), and no perches present (NP). Feed consumption and egg production were measured over the pre-laying ...

  16. Both feather peckers and victims are more asymmetrical than control hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado Tahamtani, Fernanda; Forkman, Björn; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2017-01-01

    Feather pecking is the major welfare issue facing the egg farming industry worldwide. Previous research has found a relationship between cannibalistic behaviour, fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral traits (FA) and body weight in laying hens. As cannibalism is linked to severe feather pecking......, it could be suggested that a relationship between feather pecking, FA and body weight also exists. The purpose of this study was to analyse the association between feather pecking behaviour and a) FA, b) body weight and c) comb size in laying hens. Sixty-four laying hens were categorised as feather peckers...

  17. Global optimization of proteins using a dynamical lattice model: Ground states and energy landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Dressel, F.; Kobe, S.

    2004-01-01

    A simple approach is proposed to investigate the protein structure. Using a low complexity model, a simple pairwise interaction and the concept of global optimization, we are able to calculate ground states of proteins, which are in agreement with experimental data. All possible model structures of small proteins are available below a certain energy threshold. The exact lowenergy landscapes for the trp cage protein (1L2Y) is presented showing the connectivity of all states and energy barriers.

  18. Toward a rigorous network of protein-protein interactions of the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, S.R.; Joachimiak, M.P.; Petzold, C.J.; Zane, G.M.; Price, M.N.; Gaucher, S.; Reveco, S.A.; Fok, V.; Johanson, A.R.; Batth, T.S.; Singer, M.; Chandonia, J.M.; Joyner, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Arkin, A.P.; Wall, J.D.; Singh, A.K.; Keasling, J.D.

    2011-05-01

    Protein–protein interactions offer an insight into cellular processes beyond what may be obtained by the quantitative functional genomics tools of proteomics and transcriptomics. The aforementioned tools have been extensively applied to study E. coli and other aerobes and more recently to study the stress response behavior of Desulfovibrio 5 vulgaris Hildenborough, a model anaerobe and sulfate reducer. In this paper we present the first attempt to identify protein-protein interactions in an obligate anaerobic bacterium. We used suicide vector-assisted chromosomal modification of 12 open reading frames encoded by this sulfate reducer to append an eight amino acid affinity tag to the carboxy-terminus of the chosen proteins. Three biological replicates of the 10 ‘pulled-down’ proteins were separated and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Replicate agreement ranged between 35% and 69%. An interaction network among 12 bait and 90 prey proteins was reconstructed based on 134 bait-prey interactions computationally identified to be of high confidence. We discuss the biological significance of several unique metabolic features of D. vulgaris revealed by this protein-protein interaction data 15 and protein modifications that were observed. These include the distinct role of the putative carbon monoxide-induced hydrogenase, unique electron transfer routes associated with different oxidoreductases, and the possible role of methylation in regulating sulfate reduction.

  19. Towards a rigorous network of protein-protein interactions of the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil R Chhabra

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions offer an insight into cellular processes beyond what may be obtained by the quantitative functional genomics tools of proteomics and transcriptomics. The aforementioned tools have been extensively applied to study Escherichia coli and other aerobes and more recently to study the stress response behavior of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a model obligate anaerobe and sulfate reducer and the subject of this study. Here we carried out affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry to reconstruct an interaction network among 12 chromosomally encoded bait and 90 prey proteins based on 134 bait-prey interactions identified to be of high confidence. Protein-protein interaction data are often plagued by the lack of adequate controls and replication analyses necessary to assess confidence in the results, including identification of potential false positives. We addressed these issues through the use of biological replication, exponentially modified protein abundance indices, results from an experimental negative control, and a statistical test to assign confidence to each putative interacting pair applicable to small interaction data studies. We discuss the biological significance of metabolic features of D. vulgaris revealed by these protein-protein interaction data and the observed protein modifications. These include the distinct role of the putative carbon monoxide-induced hydrogenase, unique electron transfer routes associated with different oxidoreductases, and the possible role of methylation in regulating sulfate reduction.

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex on absorption and metabolism of calcium of laying hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazim Sahin

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex (ASI; 49.5-8.2-25 g/kg, respectively to laying hens were investigated with respect to eggshell quality, calcium (Ca balance, and expression of duodenal proteins related to Ca metabolism (calbindin and tight junction proteins. A total of 360 laying hens, 25 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate of cages, 20 birds per cage. The groups were fed a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with 500 or 1000 mg ASI complex per kilogram for 90 days. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA using data during the first week of the adaptation period as covariates. As the ASI complex supplementation level increased, there were increases in feed intake (P < 0.0001, egg production (P < 0.001, egg weight (P < 0.0001 and eggshell weight (P < 0.001 weight, and shell thickness (P < 0.001 and decreases in feed conversion ratio and cracked egg percentage (P < 0.0001 for both. Concentrations of serum osteocalcin (P < 0.0001, vitamin D (P < 0.0001, calcium (P < 0.001, phosphorus (P < 0.001, and alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.008 as well as amounts of calcium retention (P < 0.0001 and eggshell calcium deposition (P < 0.001, and Ca balance (P < 0.0001 increased, whereas amount of calcium excretion (P < 0.001 decreased linearly in a dose-dependent manner. The ASI complex supplementation increased expressions of calcium transporters (calbindin-D28k, N sodium-calcium exchanger, plasma membrane calcium ATPase, and vitamin D receptor and tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1 and occludin in the duodenum in a linear fashion (P < 0.0001 for all. In conclusion, provision of dietary ASI complex to laying hens during the peak laying period improved eggshell quality through improving calcium utilization as reflected by upregulation of genes related to the calcium metabolism. Further studies are needed to elucidate the contribution of each of the ASI complex ingredients.

  1. A finite element model for protein transport in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montas Hubert J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological mass transport processes determine the behavior and function of cells, regulate interactions between synthetic agents and recipient targets, and are key elements in the design and use of biosensors. Accurately predicting the outcomes of such processes is crucial to both enhancing our understanding of how these systems function, enabling the design of effective strategies to control their function, and verifying that engineered solutions perform according to plan. Methods A Galerkin-based finite element model was developed and implemented to solve a system of two coupled partial differential equations governing biomolecule transport and reaction in live cells. The simulator was coupled, in the framework of an inverse modeling strategy, with an optimization algorithm and an experimental time series, obtained by the Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP technique, to estimate biomolecule mass transport and reaction rate parameters. In the inverse algorithm, an adaptive method was implemented to calculate sensitivity matrix. A multi-criteria termination rule was developed to stop the inverse code at the solution. The applicability of the model was illustrated by simulating the mobility and binding of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor in the nucleoplasm of mouse adenocarcinoma. Results The numerical simulator shows excellent agreement with the analytic solutions and experimental FRAP data. Detailed residual analysis indicates that residuals have zero mean and constant variance and are normally distributed and uncorrelated. Therefore, the necessary and sufficient criteria for least square parameter optimization, which was used in this study, were met. Conclusion The developed strategy is an efficient approach to extract as much physiochemical information from the FRAP protocol as possible. Well-posedness analysis of the inverse problem, however, indicates that the FRAP protocol provides insufficient

  2. Folding 19 proteins to their native state and stability of large proteins from a coarse-grained model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Abhijeet; Travesset, Alex

    2014-03-01

    We develop an intermediate resolution model, where the backbone is modeled with atomic resolution but the side chain with a single bead, by extending our previous model (Proteins (2013) DOI: 10.1002/prot.24269) to properly include proline, preproline residues and backbone rigidity. Starting from random configurations, the model properly folds 19 proteins (including a mutant 2A3D sequence) into native states containing β sheet, α helix, and mixed α/β. As a further test, the stability of H-RAS (a 169 residue protein, critical in many signaling pathways) is investigated: The protein is stable, with excellent agreement with experimental B-factors. Despite that proteins containing only α helices fold to their native state at lower backbone rigidity, and other limitations, which we discuss thoroughly, the model provides a reliable description of the dynamics as compared with all atom simulations, but does not constrain secondary structures as it is typically the case in more coarse-grained models. Further implications are described. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Elevated pressure improves the extraction and identification of proteins recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol B Fowler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing.In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%. Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates.These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form suitable for proteomic analysis.

  4. Elevated Pressure Improves the Extraction and Identification of Proteins Recovered from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol B.; Chesnick, Ingrid E.; Moore, Cedric D.; O'Leary, Timothy J.; Mason, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing. Principal Findings In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%). Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis) of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form

  5. Programas de alimentação para matrizes pesadas após o pico de postura, com base em modelos para predizer a exigência energética Feeding programs for broiler breeder hens after peak production based on models to predict energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilva Kazue Sakomura

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de matrizes pesadas, submetidas a diferentes programas de alimentação estabelecidos pela aplicação de modelos para predizer as exigências energéticas, após o pico de postura. O experimento foi conduzido no setor de avicultura da UNESP Campus Jaboticabal, com duração de 84 dias (três períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 740 matrizes de corte Hubbard Hy-Yield e 80 machos Petterson, com 55 semanas de idade. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições de 37 aves por repetição (box e um modelo fatorial 4´3 (quatro tratamentos ´ três períodos. Os programas de alimentação avaliados foram: T1 - Fornecimento de ração de acordo com o padrão da linhagem (428 kcal/ave/dia de 55 a 66 semanas de idade; T2 - Redução semanal de energia (2 kcal de EM/ave em cada semana; T3 - Fornecimento de ração de acordo com o modelo de exigência de EM, UNESP (2000; e T4 - Fornecimento de ração de acordo com o modelo, NRC (1994. O programa de alimentação com redução semanal de energia foi adequado para manter os desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo das aves, indicando a possibilidade de redução de 2 kcal/ave/dia, em cada semana, na alimentação de matrizes pesadas após 55 semanas de idade. Os modelos UNESP e NRC proporcionaram estimativas mais elevadas das exigências energéticas que o modelo padrão, provavelmente em decorrência do ganho de peso das matrizes, que esteve acima do recomendado para a linhagem, promovendo maiores exigências de energia para mantença.This research was carried out to evaluate the performance of broiler breeder hens submitted to different feeding programs applying models to predict the metabolizable energy requirements after peak production. The experiment was conducted during 84 days (three periods of 28 days, at the Sao Paulo State University - Jaboticabal. Seven hundred and forty female broiler

  6. Interpretation of protein quantitation using the Bradford assay: comparison with two calculation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hyung-Keun; Lim, Hyuk-Min; Oh, Kyong-Hwa; Yang, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Kim, Sook-Kyung

    2013-03-01

    The Bradford assay is a simple method for protein quantitation, but variation in the results between proteins is a matter of concern. In this study, we compared and normalized quantitative values from two models for protein quantitation, where the residues in the protein that bind to anionic Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 comprise either Arg and Lys (Method 1, M1) or Arg, Lys, and His (Method 2, M2). Use of the M2 model yielded much more consistent quantitation values compared with use of the M1 model, which exhibited marked overestimations against protein standards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rheological characterization of plasticized corn proteins for fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunier, Laurent; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Della Valle, Guy; Lourdin, Denis; Marion, Didier; Leroy, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) of tailored natural biopolymer-based objects by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) opens new perspectives for applications such as biomedical temporary devices, or pharmaceutical tablets. This exploits the biocompatibility, resorbability and edibility properties of biopolymers. When adequately plasticized, zeins, storage proteins from endosperm of maize kernels, displayed thermomechanical properties possibly matching FDM processing requirements at a convenient temperature Tprinting=130°C. Indeed, with 20% glycerol added (Tg=42°C), plasticized zeins present a high modulus, E'>1GPa, at ambient conditions, which drops below 0.6 MPa at the processing temperature T=130°C, before flowing in the molten state. The rheological characterization shows that the processing window is limited by a progressive increase of viscosity linked to proteins aggregation and crosslinking by S-S bonding between cysteine amino acid residues, which can lead to gelation. However, for short residence time typical of FDM, the viscosity of plasticized zeins is comparable to the one of standard polymers, like ABS or PLA in their FDM processing conditions: indeed, in presence of glycerol, the molten zeins show a shear-thinning behavior with |η*|≈3kPa.s at 1s-1, decreasing to |η*|≈0.3kPa.s at 100s-1, at 130°C. Moreover, zeins presenting both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, amphiphilic plasticizers can be used supplementary to tune their rheological behavior. With 20% oleic acid added to the previous composition, the viscosity is divided down to a ratio about 1/2 at 100s-1 at 130°C, below the value of a standard polymer as PLA at its printing temperature. These results show the possible enhancement of the printability of zein-based materials in the molten state, by combining polar and amphiphilic plasticizers.

  8. Distribution, transition and thermodynamic stability of protein conformations in the denaturant-induced unfolding of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Liujiao; Ji, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Extensive and intensive studies on the unfolding of proteins require appropriate theoretical model and parameter to clearly illustrate the feature and characteristic of the unfolding system. Over the past several decades, four approaches have been proposed to describe the interaction between proteins and denaturants, but some ambiguity and deviations usually occur in the explanation of the experimental data. In this work, a theoretical model was presented to show the dependency of the residual activity ratio of the proteins on the molar denaturant concentration. Through the characteristic unfolding parameters ki and Δmi in this model, the distribution, transition and thermodynamic stability of protein conformations during the unfolding process can be quantitatively described. This model was tested with the two-state unfolding of bovine heart cytochrome c and the three-state unfolding of hen egg white lysozyme induced by both guanidine hydrochloride and urea, the four-state unfolding of bovine carbonic anhydrase b induced by guanidine hydrochloride and the unfolding of some other proteins induced by denaturants. The results illustrated that this model could be used accurately to reveal the distribution and transition of protein conformations in the presence of different concentrations of denaturants and to evaluate the unfolding tendency and thermodynamic stability of different conformations. In most denaturant-induced unfolding of proteins, the unfolding became increasingly hard in next transition step and the proteins became more unstable as they attained next successive stable conformation. This work presents a useful method for people to study the unfolding of proteins and may be used to describe the unfolding and refolding of other biopolymers induced by denaturants, inducers, etc.

  9. The distribution of carotenoids in hens fed on biofortified maize is influenced by feed composition, absorption, resource allocation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose Antonio; Díaz-Gómez, Joana; Nogareda, Carmina; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Serrano, José C E; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-10-14

    Carotenoids are important dietary nutrients with health-promoting effects. The biofortification of staple foods with carotenoids provides an efficient delivery strategy but little is known about the fate and distribution of carotenoids supplied in this manner. The chicken provides a good model of human carotenoid metabolism so we supplemented the diets of laying hens using two biofortified maize varieties with distinct carotenoid profiles and compared the fate of the different carotenoids in terms of distribution in the feed, the hen's livers and the eggs. We found that after a period of depletion, pro-vitamin A (PVA) carotenoids were preferentially diverted to the liver and relatively depleted in the eggs, whereas other carotenoids were transported to the eggs even when the liver remained depleted. When retinol was included in the diet, it accumulated more in the eggs than the livers, whereas PVA carotenoids showed the opposite profile. Our data suggest that a transport nexus from the intestinal lumen to the eggs introduces bottlenecks that cause chemically-distinct classes of carotenoids to be partitioned in different ways. This nexus model will allow us to optimize animal feed and human diets to ensure that the health benefits of carotenoids are delivered in the most effective manner.

  10. Immunogenic and protective efficacy of recombinant protein GtxA-N against Gallibacterium anatis challenge in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ida J; Pors, Susanne E; Bager Skjerning, Ragnhild J; Nielsen, Søren S; Bojesen, Anders M

    2015-10-01

    Gallibacterium anatis is a major cause of reproductive tract infections in chickens. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the recombinant protein GtxA-N at protecting hens, by addressing three objectives; (i) evaluating the antibody response following immunization (ii) scoring and comparing lesions, following challenge with G. anatis, in immunized and non-immunized hens and (iii) investigating if the anti-GtxA-N antibody titre in individual hens correlated with the observed lesions. Two consecutive experiments were performed in hens. In the first experiment hens were immunized with GtxA-N on day 0 and day 14, infected with G. anatis on day 28 and euthanized on day 56. The GtxA-N antibody response was assessed in pooled serum samples throughout the experiment, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the second experiment the GtxA-N antibody titres were assessed in individual hens before and after immunization. Subsequently, the hens were inoculated with G. anatis and finally all hens where euthanized and submitted for post mortem examination 48 h after inoculation. Immunization elicited strong antibody responses that lasted at least 8 weeks (P scores following G. anatis infection were significantly lower in immunized hens compared to non-immunized hens (P = .004). Within the immunized group, no correlation was found between the individual antibody titres and the lesion scores. This study clearly demonstrated GtxA-N as a vaccine antigen able of inducing protective immunity against G. anatis.

  11. Verteerbaarheid van biologisch geteelde veevoedergrondstoffen bij leghennen = Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Harn, van J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table.

  12. Spatial Cognition and Range Use in Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dana L M; Talk, Andrew C; Loh, Ziyang A; Dyall, Tim R; Lee, Caroline

    2018-02-08

    Radio-frequency identification tracking shows individual free-range laying hens vary in range use, with some never going outdoors. The range is typically more environmentally complex, requiring navigation to return to the indoor resources. Outdoor-preferring hens may have improved spatial abilities compared to indoor-preferring hens. Experiment 1 tested 32 adult ISA Brown hens in a T-maze learning task that showed exclusively-indoor birds were slowest to reach the learning success criterion ( p 0.05), the age that coincided with the onset of lay. Enriched birds that were faster to learn the maze task showed more range visits in the first 4 weeks of range access. Enriched and non-enriched birds showed no differences in telencephalon or hippocampal volume ( p > 0.05). Fear may reduce spatial abilities but further testing with more pen replicates per early rearing treatments would improve our understanding of the relationship between spatial cognitive abilities and range use.

  13. Keel-bone damage and foot injuries in commercial laying hens in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2016-01-01

    . There was no difference between barn and organic production systems in the risk of having keel-bone fractures and foot injuries, except that barn hens were more likely to have foot-pad lesions than organic hens(32 weeks: 16.1 vs 3.1%). Hens in multi-tiered systems were more likely to have keel-bone fractures compared...... to hens in single-tiered systems (62 weeks: 11.6 vs 4.9 %). Of the four hybrids, Lohmann Brown Lite had a higher risk of keel-bone fractures, whereas bumble feet were found more frequently in Lohmann LSL. Keel-bone damage and foot injuries are less common in Danish non-cage systems compared to most...

  14. Genome-scale metabolic model of Pichia pastoris with native and humanized glycosylation of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Zahra Azimzadeh; Kerkhoven, Eduard J; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-05-01

    Pichia pastoris is used for commercial production of human therapeutic proteins, and genome-scale models of P. pastoris metabolism have been generated in the past to study the metabolism and associated protein production by this yeast. A major challenge with clinical usage of recombinant proteins produced by P. pastoris is the difference in N-glycosylation of proteins produced by humans and this yeast. However, through metabolic engineering, a P. pastoris strain capable of producing humanized N-glycosylated proteins was constructed. The current genome-scale models of P. pastoris do not address native nor humanized N-glycosylation, and we therefore developed ihGlycopastoris, an extension to the iLC915 model with both native and humanized N-glycosylation for recombinant protein production, but also an estimation of N-glycosylation of P. pastoris native proteins. This new model gives a better prediction of protein yield, demonstrates the effect of the different types of N-glycosylation of protein yield, and can be used to predict potential targets for strain improvement. The model represents a step towards a more complete description of protein production in P. pastoris, which is required for using these models to understand and optimize protein production processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Characterization of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is an estrogen induced egg yolk and white protein. Eggs from hens which have a splice mutation in RCP gene fail to hatch, indicating an absolute requirement of RCP for the transport of riboflavin to the oocyte. In order to understand the mechanism of regulation of this gene by ...

  16. Conformational Sampling in Template-Free Protein Loop Structure Modeling: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yaohang

    2013-01-01

    Accurately modeling protein loops is an important step to predict three-dimensional structures as well as to understand functions of many proteins. Because of their high flexibility, modeling the three-dimensional structures of loops is difficult and is usually treated as a “mini protein folding problem” under geometric constraints. In the past decade, there has been remarkable progress in template-free loop structure modeling due to advances of computational methods as well as stably increas...

  17. Formulation of probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail using the reference ratio method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Jan B.; Andreetta, Christian; Boomsma, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to formulate probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail, for a given amino acid sequence, based on Bayesian principles, while retaining a close link to physics. We start from two previously developed probabilistic models of protein structure on a local length s....... The results indicate that the proposed method and the probabilistic models show considerable promise for probabilistic protein structure prediction and related applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  18. A tensegrity model for hydrogen bond networks in proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Bywater, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonding networks in proteins considered as structural tensile elements are in balance separately from any other stabilising interactions that may be in operation. The hydrogen bond arrangement in the network is reminiscent of tensegrity structures in architecture and sculpture. Tensegrity has been discussed before in cells and tissues and in proteins. In contrast to previous work only hydrogen bonds are studied here. The other interactions within proteins are either much stronger − c...

  19. Quantitative chemogenomics: machine-learning models of protein-ligand interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Claes R; Gustafsson, Mats G; Strömbergsson, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Chemogenomics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that lies in the interface of biology, chemistry, and informatics. Most of the currently used drugs are small molecules that interact with proteins. Understanding protein-ligand interaction is therefore central to drug discovery and design. In the subfield of chemogenomics known as proteochemometrics, protein-ligand-interaction models are induced from data matrices that consist of both protein and ligand information along with some experimentally measured variable. The two general aims of this quantitative multi-structure-property-relationship modeling (QMSPR) approach are to exploit sparse/incomplete information sources and to obtain more general models covering larger parts of the protein-ligand space, than traditional approaches that focuses mainly on specific targets or ligands. The data matrices, usually obtained from multiple sparse/incomplete sources, typically contain series of proteins and ligands together with quantitative information about their interactions. A useful model should ideally be easy to interpret and generalize well to new unseen protein-ligand combinations. Resolving this requires sophisticated machine-learning methods for model induction, combined with adequate validation. This review is intended to provide a guide to methods and data sources suitable for this kind of protein-ligand-interaction modeling. An overview of the modeling process is presented including data collection, protein and ligand descriptor computation, data preprocessing, machine-learning-model induction and validation. Concerns and issues specific for each step in this kind of data-driven modeling will be discussed. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers

  20. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; Hoffman, John; Stringfellow, Kendre; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Zhao, Dan; Caldwell, David; Lee, Jason; Styles, Darrel; Berghman, Luc; Byrd, James; Farnell, Yuhua; Archer, Gregory; Farnell, Morgan

    2018-01-11

    During the 2014-2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO₂) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO₂ inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO₂ added to a chamber, a CO₂ pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO₂ added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly different among the CAF in cages, CAF in a chamber, NEG control, and CO₂ inhalation treatments. However, spent hens subjected to the CAF in a chamber had significantly higher CORT levels than birds in the rest of the treatments. Times to COM of spent hens subjected to CAF in cages and aspirated foam were significantly greater than of birds exposed to the CO₂ in a chamber treatment. These data suggest that applying CAF in cages is a viable alternative for layer hen depopulation during a reportable disease outbreak.

  1. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Gurung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2014–2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO2 inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT and time to cessation of movement (COM of hens subjected to CAF, CO2 inhalation, and negative control (NEG treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO2 added to a chamber, a CO2 pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO2 added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly different among the CAF in cages, CAF in a chamber, NEG control, and CO2 inhalation treatments. However, spent hens subjected to the CAF in a chamber had significantly higher CORT levels than birds in the rest of the treatments. Times to COM of spent hens subjected to CAF in cages and aspirated foam were significantly greater than of birds exposed to the CO2 in a chamber treatment. These data suggest that applying CAF in cages is a viable alternative for layer hen depopulation during a reportable disease outbreak.

  2. Effect of heterogeneity of nest boxes on occurrence of gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tina; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting, where hens select already occupied nest boxes even when other nest boxes are unoccupied, is an unwanted behaviour in laying hens that may reduce animal welfare and pose a financial cost to the producer. It has been suggested that gregarious nesting is caused by the difficulties...... nesting was higher in experimental groups compared to control groups (P right were higher compared to nest boxes positioned...

  3. How does the presence of excreta affect the behavior of laying hens on scratch pads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, B B; Boecker, I; Kwon, I Y; Jeyachanthiran, L; McBride, P; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2018-03-01

    Enriched cages for laying hens provide scratch pads for foraging on the wire mesh floors. Apart from foraging on scratch pads, hens also defecate on these pads, causing them to become soiled with excreta. This study was conducted to determine the relative preference of laying hens for foraging on clean (C) scratch pads or scratch pads soiled with excreta (E), and to study the behaviors performed by hens on such pads. A total of 288 laying hens was housed in 16 enriched cages (18 hens/cage), each divided into 2 compartments. On a daily basis, half of the scratch pads (one in each compartment) were removed and cleaned, while the other half were cleaned and then covered with 550 g (0.35 g/cm2) of conspecific excreta. The C and E scratch pads were then put back into the cages in a systematic order to avoid side bias. Feed was delivered automatically onto the scratch pads as a litter substrate. The frequency of visits and the total time spent performing different behaviors on C and E pads were video-recorded [the time of video recording was relative to litter (feed) delivery on the scratch pads] for a total of 10 min/d, 3 times/wk, over a period of 4 weeks. Overall, the allocation of the time budget for different behaviors was found to be-in order of greatest to least amount of time-resting, locomotor behaviors (walking and running), foraging, and dust bathing. Laying hens showed a relative preference for E scratch pads by visiting them more frequently (P = 0.001), and spent more time (P = 0.035) foraging on them, whereas they rested for more time (P hens. Similarly, the longer use of C scratch pads for resting indicates the need for an ideal and clean resting surface in enriched cages.

  4. Traits and behaviour affecting social status in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) hens

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblom, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    Social status is commonly established among individuals within groups of animals. Despite this common characteristic of social animals it is still unclear how individuals establish their status. I investigated the relationships between morphology, posture and behaviours with social status in red junglefowl hens. The hens tested were measured (weight, comb length, comb height and tarsus length) and exposed to three different behavioural tests (novel arena, novel object and interaction test). N...

  5. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg shell quality, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the selected quality indicators of egg shell according to two different breeding systems and different age of laying hens. An object of investigation were shell weight, share of the shell, strength and thickness of the shell for table eggs. There were used the laying hens of final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and free range system. In both breeding systems were ensured the conditions with application of the welfare principles. There was used to feed a complete feed mixture HYD 10 in the both breeding systems.  The feeders were supplemented with feed by hand, daily and the same day was supplemented water to drinking troughs. Egg collection was hand in both breeding systems. This paper is a contribution to the solution of optimal breeding laying hens and production of high quality and safe production of table eggs. From the evaluation of the results was formulated conclusion, which shows that statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 higher egg shell thickness was observed in the breeding free range system compared to the thickness of the egg shell in the breeding cage system, and in age 40 weeks of laying hens in both breeding systems compared to the thickness of the egg shell in age 30 weeks of laying hens. No statistically significant difference (p ≥ 0.05 was observed in egg shell weight between breeding cage system and free range system. Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 higher egg shell weight was observed in the age 40 weeks of laying hens in both breeding  systems compared to age 30 weeks of laying hens. There no statistically significant difference (p ≥ 0.05 was observed in the share of egg shell and egg shell strength between breeding cage system and free range system, nor between age 30 and 40 weeks of laying hens.

  6. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg shell quality, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Angelovičová; Viera Ševčíková; Marek Angelovič; Ondřej Bučko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the selected quality indicators of egg shell according to two different breeding systems and different age of laying hens. An object of investigation were shell weight, share of the shell, strength and thickness of the shell for table eggs. There were used the laying hens of final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and free range system. In both breeding systems were ensured the conditions with application of the welfar...

  7. Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, J; Kwakernaak, C; Kan, C A

    2008-08-01

    Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14-32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems incompatible with high productivity. In this study laying hens were fed pelleted diets with 0%, 10%, 20%, 25% and 30% of sand addition to determine its effect on productivity. Feed intake, feed and nutrient (feed minus sand) conversion ratio, egg production, egg weight and body weight gain were measured over a 4-week period. Acid insoluble ash concentration in the faeces was measured to determine the accuracy of estimating the soil ingestion by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife as a way to determine soil ingestion of free range and organic hens under practical circumstances. The hens were able to compensate the dilution of the diet with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand by increasing their feed intake. Feed intake increased significantly and feed to egg conversion ratio decreased significantly with increasing sand levels in the diet. The nutrient to egg conversion ratio of the diet without sand tended to be worse than for the diets with sand, presumably due to the total absence of coarse material in the diet. There were no differences in egg production and egg weight between hens fed the different diets but body weight gain was significantly lower for the hens fed the diets with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand. Estimation of sand ingestion was done by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife. Provided that the actual dry matter digestibility coefficient of the nutrient part of the diet is taken into account, estimating the soil ingestion according to the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife seems an appropriate way to determine soil ingestion for free range and organic hens under practical circumstances.

  8. Effect of superdosing phytase on productive performance and egg quality in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyuk Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of superdosing phytase on productive performance and egg quality in laying hens. Methods A total of 200 42-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted into 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 5 replicates consisting of 8 hens per replicate. The positive control (PC and negative control diets (NC were prepared based on the recommended P levels in layer diets. Supplemental phytase was added to the negative control diet at 10,000 (SD10, 20,000 (SD20, or 30,000 (SD30 fytase units (FTU/kg. Productive performance was summarized for 6 weeks from 42 weeks to 47 weeks of age. Egg quality was assessed from 4 eggs per replicate randomly collected at the conclusion of the experiment. Results The SD20 treatment had greater (p<0.05 hen-day egg production than PC, NC, and SD10 treatment groups. There was no difference in hen-day egg production between SD20 and SD30 treatment groups. However, SD30 treatment had greater (p<0.05 hen-day egg production than PC treatment, but showed no difference in hen-day egg production as compared to NC and SD10 treatment groups. However, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments. Egg quality including eggshell strength, eggshell color, egg yolk color, and haugh unit was not influenced by dietary treatments. Conclusion Superdosing level of 20,000 FTU/kg phytase in diets has a positive effect on egg production rate, but no beneficial effect on egg quality in laying hens.

  9. Improving productive performance and mitigating harmful emissions from laying hen excreta via feeding on graded levels of corn DDGS with or without Bacillus subtilis probiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Mahgoub, S A; Alagawany, M; Ashour, E A

    2017-10-01

    An experiment that included some inclusions of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without supplementation of probiotic bacteria to Hi-sex Brown laying hen diets was conducted to evaluate the impacts on performance, egg quality, blood metabolites and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion in the manure. A total of 216 twenty-two-week-old Hi-sex Brown laying hens were randomly divided into eight treatment groups in a factorial design (4 × 2) experiment, which included four levels of DDGS (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg diet) plus two levels of Bacillus subtilis probiotic (0 or 1000 mg/kg diet, with a concentration of 1.5 × 108 CFU/g of dried product). The experimental period extended from 22 to 34 weeks of age. The results showed that linear increase in DDGS level up to 150 g/kg improved (p ≤ 0.01) the values of feed consumption, egg shape index and yolk colour compared to the control and other treatment groups. Inclusion of dietary DDGS up to 150 g/kg in layer diets led to a significant decrease in egg mass and a significant increase in Haugh unit score compared to other groups. In the bacillus group, the values of feed conversion, egg weight and egg mass enhanced by 6.45, 3.27 and 7.60% respectively compared with the control diet. Total protein, albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium and ammonia in serum were significantly (p ≤ 0.01) influenced by DDGS inclusion. The excreted nitrogen decreased by 8.62 and 4.31% in hens fed 50 or 100 g/kg of DDGS respectively, while excreted phosphorous decreased by 3.33, 7.22 and 10.56% in hens fed 50, 100 or 150 g/kg of DDGS respectively as compared to the control group. It could be concluded that increasing DDGS inclusion level in the diet up to 10% and the supplementation of probiotic bacteria improved the productive performance of laying hens and mitigated the harmful emissions from chicken manure; this means better production within environmentally friendly conditions. Journal of Animal

  10. A study on the reproductive endocrine mechanisms of ovulation induced by [D-Leu6,Pro9]-GnRH N-ethylamide in laying Taihe hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gongjin; Li Zhengkui; Yan Jianmin

    1994-01-01

    Ovulation induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist [GnRH-A, (D-Leu 6 , Pro 9 ]-GnRH N-ethylamide] was used as a model for studying the endocrine mechanisms of ovulation in laying Taihe hens. The results showed that: (1) GnRH-A had a great stimulating effect on development of reproductive organs of hens, and caused weight increasing of ovary, oviduct and liver in hens, whereas there was no significant weight difference between GnRH-A and control group. Admininstration of GnRH-A seven days before the end of laying could keep normal egg production of the hens. (2) Twenty days after GnRH-A administration the two releasing peaks of plasma LH were induced in GnRH-A group, and plasma LH concentrations were higher in GnRH-A group than that in control group, whereas plasma FSH did not changed significantly compared with control group. (3) After administration of GnRH-A, plasma progesterone increased, and it was higher in GnRH-A group than that in control group out of laying cycle. On contrary, plasma estriol declined obviously 8 days after GnRH-A administration, though it elevated slightly later, it was less than that in control group. It is concluded that GnRH-A induced oviduct and ovalution development is associated with changes in plasma LH, progesterone and estriol concentration and that GnRH-A may be an useful agent for inducing development of ovalution and oviduct and improving egg production

  11. Model system-guided protein interaction mapping for virus isolated from phloem tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) is an agriculturally important phloem-limited pathogen that causes significant yield loss in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and a model virus in the Luteoviridae. Encoding only a small repertoire of viral proteins, PLRV relies on carefully orchestrated protein-protein intera...

  12. Preliminary characterisation of an in vitro paradigm for the study of the delayed effects of organophosphorus compounds: hen embryo brain spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, K.M.; Kingston, S.T.; Doyle, K.M.; Purcell, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) has been studied extensively but the mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. It is generally accepted that the inhibition and ageing (dealkylation) of the B-esterase neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is integral to axonal loss. At present, the only way of detecting compounds that induce OPIDN is the hen test, an animal model. In this study, we preliminary validated hen embryo brain spheroids (HEBS) for the study of organophosphate (OP) toxicity. Hen brain spheroids have been characterised previously, although they have never been fully optimised for OP testing. We optimised the levels of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase by adapting the culture technique and using chemically defined media. Spheroid cultures were maintained for 35 days and viability and enzyme levels were monitored over this time. Levels of AChE and NTE in this system remained stable over the 35 day period. Using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown synaptogenisis within HEBS earlier than previously suggested in spheroid culture. These studies indicate that HEBS may be useful for the study of OP-induced toxicity and that the long-term stability of the cultures makes it an ideal candidate for studying OPIDN

  13. Effect of intracrystalline water on micro-Vickers hardness in tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, H; Kawamoto, H; Tachibana, M; Kojima, K

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical properties of high quality tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme single crystals which are one type of protein crystal were investigated by the indentation method. The indentation marks were clearly observed on the crystal surface and no elastic recovery of them occurred. The value of the micro-Vickers hardness in the wet condition was estimated to be about 20 MPa at room temperature. The hardness greatly depended on the amount of intracrystalline water (mobile water) contained in the crystals. The hardness increased with increasing evaporation time to air at room temperature. It reached the maximum at about 260 MPa, which is 13 times as much as that in the wet condition. The origin of such a change in hardness was explained in terms of the dislocation mechanisms in lysozyme single crystals

  14. Model for Stress-induced Protein Degradation in Lemna minor1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert J.; Roberts, Keith; Davies, David D.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer of Lemna minor fronds to adverse or stress conditions produces a large increase in the rate of protein degradation. Cycloheximide partially inhibits stress-induced protein degradation and also partially inhibits the protein degradation which occurs in the absence of stress. The increased protein degradation does not appear to be due to an increase in activity of soluble proteolytic enzymes. Biochemical evidence indicates that stress, perhaps acting via hormones, affects the permeability of certain membranes, particularly the tonoplast. A general model for stress-induced protein degradation is presented in which changes in membrane properties allow vacuolar proteolytic enzymes increased access to cytoplasmic proteins. PMID:16661588

  15. Egg production and welfare of laying hens kept in different housing systems (conventional, enriched cage, and free range).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Dikmen, B; İpek, A; Şahan, Ü; Petek, M; Sözcü, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare egg production performance and welfare traits of laying hens kept in conventional cage (CC), enriched cage (EC), and free range (FR). Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 480 with 160 per housing type) were studied across a production cycle from placement at 17 wk until depopulation at 66 wk. The hens were randomly allocated into cages or pens of housing system groups; within each system there were four replicates with 40 hens in each pen or cage. The hen day egg production (P = 0.037), feed intake (FI) (P 0.05). The hens in the FR system had additional space for optimum comfort and better feather and bone traits, but the dirty egg ratio, feed consumption, and foot lesions were higher than in CC and EC systems. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Investigation of the metabolism of colostomized laying hens with 15N-labelled wheat. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Hennig, A.

    1980-01-01

    Three colostomized laving hens received 40 g 15 N-labelled wheat with 20.13 atom-% 15 N excess ( 15 N'), 19.18 atom-% 15 N'-lysine, 18.17 atom-% 15 N'-histidine and 20.43 atom-% 15 N'-arginine per day over a period of four days. After having received the same non-labelled feed ration on the following four days, the hens were slaughtered. The incorporation and distribution of 15 N' in the total nitrogen and the nitrogen of the basic amino acids was determined in liver, kidneys, muscles, bones and the remaining carcass (excluding blood, digestive tract and genital organs). The quota of nitrogen of natural isotope frequency ( 14 N) of the total 14 N of the hens' carcasses was 47% in the muscles, 14% in the bones and 20% in the feathers; the relative 15 N' values were 37%, 8% and 1%, resp. The atom-% 15 N' in the kidneys was twice as much as in the liver four days after the last 15 N' application. The average percentage of the nitrogen in the three basic amino acids of the total nitrogen in the tissues and organs (excluding feathers) is 25% concerning both 14 N and 15 N'. The 15N' balance revealed that in hen 1 100%, in hen 2 102% and in hen 3 101% of the consumed wheat 15 N' were found. (author)

  17. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupia, S; Winkler-Moser, J K; Guney, A C; Beckstead, R; Chen, C-Y O

    2016-11-01

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller's dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluated. Neither R-DDGS nor L-DDGS at up to 20% of laying hen feeds had a statistically significant impact on hen weight gain, egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg mass, or egg weight. Specific gravity was slightly lower for eggs from hens fed 10% R-DDGS or 20% L-DDGS. Eggs from layers fed DDGS had enhanced levels of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and xanthophylls in the yolk, as well as also increased yolk yellow and red color. Eggs from L-DDGS diet had higher tocopherol content, but eggs from R-DDGS diets had higher xanthophylls. Fatty acid composition in eggs was slightly altered by DDGS, but the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was very similar. Feeding DDGS to layer hens had no effect on lecithin or cholesterol content of the eggs. Thus, inclusion of DDGS in the diet of laying hens resulted in increases of several beneficial lipophilic nutrients in egg yolks with no apparent detrimental effects. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Enantioselective Characteristics and Montmorillonite-Mediated Removal Effects of α-Hexachlorocyclohexane in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueke; Shen, Zhigang; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chang; Yao, Guojun; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Donghui

    2016-06-07

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is a chiral organochlorine pesticide that is often ubiquitously detected in various environmental matrices and may be absorbed by the human body via food consumption, with serious detriments to human health. In this study, enantioselective degradation kinetics and residues of α-HCH in laying hens were investigated after a single dose of exposure to the pesticide, whereas enantioselectivity and residues of α-HCH in eggs, droppings, and various tissues were investigated after long-term exposure. Meanwhile, montmorillonite (MMT), a feed additive with high capacity of adsorption, was investigated for its ability to remove α-HCH from laying hens. Most non-brain tissues enantioselectively accumulated (-)-α-HCH, while (+)-α-HCH was preferentially accumulated in the brain. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) in most tissues gradually decreased, implying continuous depletion of (+)-α-HCH in laying hens. After 30 days of exposure and 31 days of elimination, the concentration of α-HCH in eggs and tissues of laying hens with MMT-containing feed was lower than that with MMT-free feed, indicating the removal effects of MMT for α-HCH in laying hens. The findings presented herein suggest that modified MMT may potentially be useful in reducing the enrichment of α-HCH in laying hens and eggs, thus lowering the risk of human intake of α-HCH.

  19. Food restriction but not fish oil increases fertility in hens: role of RARRES2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Namya; Ramé, Christelle; Delaveau, Joël; Rat, Christophe; Marchand, Maxime; Mercerand, Frédéric; Travel, Angélique; Brionne, Aurélien; Chartrin, Pascal; Ma, Linlin; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2018-04-01

    Overfed hens selected for their rapid growth become fatter and develop reproductive disorders. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that food restriction leading to a weight reduction and/or a supplementation with fish oil may be effective in preventing reproductive disorders through the regulation of adipokine expression in broiler hens. This study included four groups of food restricted (Rt) or ad libitum hens (Ad, feeding at a rate 1.7 times greater than Rt hens) supplemented or unsupplemented with fish oil (1%). The Rt diet significantly increased plasma chemerin (RARRES2) levels during the laying period, delayed sexual maturity by one week and improved egg quality and fertility. These effects were associated with higher progesterone production in response to IGF1 (or LH) in cultured granulosa cells and in vivo egg yolk, as compared with Ad hens. Fish oil supplementation had similar effects to the Rt diet on progesterone ( P  food restriction but not fish oil supplementation improved fertility, and this was associated with variations in RARRES2 plasma and ovarian expression in hens. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  20. Reproductive responses of white leghorn hens to graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    White Leghorn hens were maintained on diets containing 0, 4, 12 or 36 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2 from hatching in an effort to confirm (with a second species) our previously reported effects on Japanese quail reproduction. In the quail study both onset of laying and rate of egg production were accelerated by 16 and 32 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2, but ferti ity was depressed. After 1 year on diets containing HgCl2 none of the Leghorn hens manifested any observed signs of Hg poisoning. Hens fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg began ovipositing an average of 10 days earlier than the controls (P < 0.05). Young hens (< 9 months old) fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg laid significantly more eggs per hen-day than did either controls or those fed 36 p.p.m. Hg. Beyond 9 months of age there were no perceptible differences in rate of egg production among the treatments. These findings support our quail results. When the hens were inseminated with pooled semen from untreated roosters fertility, embryonic development and hatchability appeared to be unaffected by the treatments. This contrasts with our previous experiment with quail in which both sexes were fed HgCl2.

  1. Spectral analysis of the binary nucleus of the planetary nebula Hen 2-428 – first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Nicolle L.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying progenitor systems for the double-degenerate scenario is crucial to check the reliability of type Ia supernovae as cosmological standard candles. Santander-Garcia et al. (2015 claimed that Hen 2-428 has a doubledegenerate core whose combined mass significantly exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit. Together with the short orbital period (4.2 hours, the authors concluded that the system should merge within a Hubble time triggering a type Ia supernova event. Garcia-Berro et al. (2016 explored alternative scenarios to explain the observational evidence, as the high mass conclusion is highly unlikely within predictions from stellar evolution theory. They conclude that the evidence supporting the supernova progenitor status of the system is premature. Here we present the first quantitative spectral analysis of Hen 2-428which allows us to derive the effective temperatures, surface gravities and helium abundance of the two CSPNe based on state-of-the-art, non-LTE model atmospheres. These results provide constrains for further studies of this particularly interesting system.

  2. Identification of proteins in hyperglycemia and stroke animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jin-Hee; Shah, Fawad-Ali; Gim, Sang-Ah; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of disability and death in adults. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that strongly increases the risk of severe vascular diseases. This study compared changes in proteins of the cerebral cortex during ischemic brain injury between nondiabetic and diabetic animals. Adult male rats were injected with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) via the intraperitoneal route to induce diabetes and underwent surgical middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) 4 wk after streptozotocin treatment. Cerebral cortex tissues were collected 24 h after MCAO and cerebral cortex proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Several proteins were identified as differentially expressed between nondiabetic and diabetic animals. Among the identified proteins, we focused on the following metabolism-related enzymes: isocitrate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, adenosylhomocysteinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (neuroleukin). Expression of these proteins was decreased in animals that underwent MCAO. Moreover, protein expression was reduced to a greater extent in diabetic animals than in nondiabetic animals. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that the diabetic condition exacerbates the decrease in expression of metabolism-related proteins after MCAO. These results suggest that the diabetic condition may exacerbate brain damage during focal cerebral ischemia through the downregulation of metabolism-related proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pushing the frontiers of atomic models for protein tertiary structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as an NP complete or NP hard problem.4,5 This notwith- standing, the dire need for tertiary structures of proteins in drug discovery and other areas6–8 has propelled the development of a multitude of computational recipes. In this article, we focus on ab initio/de novo strategies,. Bhageerath in particular, for protein tertiary ...

  4. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  5. A tensegrity model for hydrogen bond networks in proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Bywater

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen-bonding networks in proteins considered as structural tensile elements are in balance separately from any other stabilising interactions that may be in operation. The hydrogen bond arrangement in the network is reminiscent of tensegrity structures in architecture and sculpture. Tensegrity has been discussed before in cells and tissues and in proteins. In contrast to previous work only hydrogen bonds are studied here. The other interactions within proteins are either much stronger − covalent bonds connecting the atoms in the molecular skeleton or weaker forces like the so-called hydrophobic interactions. It has been demonstrated that the latter operate independently from hydrogen bonds. Each category of interaction must, if the protein is to have a stable structure, balance out. The hypothesis here is that the entire hydrogen bond network is in balance without any compensating contributions from other types of interaction. For sidechain-sidechain, sidechain-backbone and backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds in proteins, tensegrity balance (“closure” is required over the entire length of the polypeptide chain that defines individually folding units in globular proteins (“domains” as well as within the repeating elements in fibrous proteins that consist of extended chain structures. There is no closure to be found in extended structures that do not have repeating elements. This suggests an explanation as to why globular domains, as well as the repeat units in fibrous proteins, have to have a defined number of residues. Apart from networks of sidechain-sidechain hydrogen bonds there are certain key points at which this closure is achieved in the sidechain-backbone hydrogen bonds and these are associated with demarcation points at the start or end of stretches of secondary structure. Together, these three categories of hydrogen bond achieve the closure that is necessary for the stability of globular protein domains as well as repeating

  6. A tensegrity model for hydrogen bond networks in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Hydrogen-bonding networks in proteins considered as structural tensile elements are in balance separately from any other stabilising interactions that may be in operation. The hydrogen bond arrangement in the network is reminiscent of tensegrity structures in architecture and sculpture. Tensegrity has been discussed before in cells and tissues and in proteins. In contrast to previous work only hydrogen bonds are studied here. The other interactions within proteins are either much stronger - covalent bonds connecting the atoms in the molecular skeleton or weaker forces like the so-called hydrophobic interactions. It has been demonstrated that the latter operate independently from hydrogen bonds. Each category of interaction must, if the protein is to have a stable structure, balance out. The hypothesis here is that the entire hydrogen bond network is in balance without any compensating contributions from other types of interaction. For sidechain-sidechain, sidechain-backbone and backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds in proteins, tensegrity balance ("closure") is required over the entire length of the polypeptide chain that defines individually folding units in globular proteins ("domains") as well as within the repeating elements in fibrous proteins that consist of extended chain structures. There is no closure to be found in extended structures that do not have repeating elements. This suggests an explanation as to why globular domains, as well as the repeat units in fibrous proteins, have to have a defined number of residues. Apart from networks of sidechain-sidechain hydrogen bonds there are certain key points at which this closure is achieved in the sidechain-backbone hydrogen bonds and these are associated with demarcation points at the start or end of stretches of secondary structure. Together, these three categories of hydrogen bond achieve the closure that is necessary for the stability of globular protein domains as well as repeating elements in fibrous proteins.

  7. Differentiation of ruminal bacterial species by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using egg yolk antibodies from immunized chicken hens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ricke, S C; Schaefer, D M; Cook, M E; Kang, K H

    1988-01-01

    Cross-reactivity among four species of ruminal bacteria was examined by using egg yolk antibodies from immunized Leghorn laying hens and an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. The effects of the four species on the hens were compared on various days postimmunization. Hens injected with the same bacterial species had similar apparent antibody levels over the entire postimmunization period, but only Bacteroides ruminicola B1(4) and Selenomonas ruminantium D antigens elicited early increases in a...