WorldWideScience

Sample records for model production year

  1. Product modelling: '20 years of stalemate'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1998-01-01

    In a recent special issue of Design Studies Michael Ramscar, John Lee, and Helen Pain level a severe criticism against a field of research known as product modeling; a criticism that would be rather damaging if it were based on cogent arguments. I shall argue in this paper that it is not....

  2. Prices, production, and inventories over the automotive model year

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Copeland; Wendy E. Dunn; George J. Hall

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the within-model-year pricing and production of new automobiles. Using new monthly data on U.S. transaction prices, we document that for the typical new vehicle, prices typically fall over the model year at a 9.2 percent annual rate. Concurrently, both sales and inventories are hump shaped. To explain these time series, we formulate a market equilibrium model for new automobiles in which inventory and pricing decisions are made simultaneously. On the demand side, we use mic...

  3. Improved climate model evaluation using a new, 750-year Antarctic-wide snow accumulation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, B.; Thomas, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Snow that accumulates over the cold, dry grounded ice of Antarctica is an important component of its mass balance, mitigating the ice sheet's contribution to sea level. Secular trends in accumulation not only result trends in the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, but also directly and indirectly impact surface height changes. Long-term and spatiotemporally complete records of snow accumulation are needed to understand part and present Antarctic-wide mass balance, to convert from altimetry derived volume change to mass change, and to evaluate the ability of climate models to reproduce the observed climate change. We need measurements in both time and space, yet they typically sample one dimension at the expense of the other. Here, we develop a spatially complete, annually resolved snow accumulation product for the Antarctic Ice Sheet over the past 750 years by combining a newly compiled database of ice core accumulation records with climate model output. We mainly focus on climate model evaluation. Because the product spans several centuries, we can evaluate model ability in representing the preindustrial as well as present day accumulation change. Significant long-term trends in snow accumulation are found over the Ross and Bellingshausen Sea sectors of West Antarctica, the Antarctic Peninsula, and several sectors in East Antarctica. These results suggest that change is more complex over the Antarctic Ice Sheet than a simple uniform change (i.e., more snowfall in a warming world), which highlights the importance of atmospheric circulation as a major driver of change. By evaluating several climate models' ability to reproduce the observed trends, we can deduce whether their projections are reasonable or potentially biased where the latter would result in a misrepresentation of the Antarctic contribution to sea level.

  4. Demographic model of the Swiss cattle population for the years 2009-2011 stratified by gender, age and production type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Schärrer

    Full Text Available Demographic composition and dynamics of animal and human populations are important determinants for the transmission dynamics of infectious disease and for the effect of infectious disease or environmental disasters on productivity. In many circumstances, demographic data are not available or of poor quality. Since 1999 Switzerland has been recording cattle movements, births, deaths and slaughter in an animal movement database (AMD. The data present in the AMD offers the opportunity for analysing and understanding the dynamic of the Swiss cattle population. A dynamic population model can serve as a building block for future disease transmission models and help policy makers in developing strategies regarding animal health, animal welfare, livestock management and productivity. The Swiss cattle population was therefore modelled using a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was stratified by production type (dairy or beef, age and gender (male and female calves: 0-1 year, heifers and young bulls: 1-2 years, cows and bulls: older than 2 years. The simulation of the Swiss cattle population reflects the observed pattern accurately. Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (using the Powell algorithm. The fitted rates were compared with calculated rates from the AMD and differed only marginally. This gives confidence in the fitted rates of parameters that are not directly deductible from the AMD (e.g. the proportion of calves that are moved from the dairy system to fattening plants.

  5. Production models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The Project is co-financed with Nilpeter A/S and investigates the industrialization of build to order production. Project content: - Enterprise engineering - Specification processes - Mass Customization/ Build To Order - Knowledge/information management - Configuration - Supply Chain Management...

  6. Changes of net primary productivity in China during recent 11 years detected using an ecological model driven by MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibo; Ju, Weimin; He, Honglin; Wang, Shaoqiang; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Yuandong

    2013-03-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurately mapping the spatial-temporal variations of NPP in China is crucial for global carbon cycling study. In this study the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was employed to study the changes of NPP in China's ecosystems for the period from 2000 to 2010. The BEPS model was first validated using gross primary productivity (GPP) measured at typical flux sites and forest NPP measured at different regions. Then it was driven with leaf area index (LAI) inversed from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance and land cover products and meteorological data interpolated from observations at 753 national basic meteorological stations to simulate NPP at daily time steps and a spatial resolution of 500 m from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. Validations show that BEPS is able to capture the seasonal variations of tower-based GPP and the spatial variability of forest NPP in different regions of China. Estimated national total of annual NPP varied from 2.63 to 2.84Pg C·yr-1, averaging 2.74 Pg C·yr-1 during the study period. Simulated terrestrial NPP shows spatial patterns decreasing from the east to the west and from the south to the north, in association with land cover types and climate. South-west China makes the largest contribution to the national total of NPP while NPP in the North-west account for only 3.97% of the national total. During the recent 11 years, the temporal changes of NPP were heterogamous. NPP increased in 63.8% of China's landmass, mainly in areas north of the Yangtze River and decreased in most areas of southern China, owing to the low temperature freezing in early 2008 and the severe drought in late 2009.

  7. 7 CFR 983.26 - Production year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.26 Production year. Production year is synonymous with “fiscal... received in August of any year shall be applied to the subsequent production year for marketing order...

  8. Model Novaes for analysis of the productivity and efficiency of logistics operators in Brazil: a study of its applicability for the years 2005 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Rodrigues Junqueira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a proposal to upgrade the production function to evaluate the productivity and efficiency of Brazilians logistics operators, which was developed by Novaes in his study in 2000. The goal was identify if and how the variables used continued to explain the behavior of productivity of these companies. To achieve that goal, tests were performed with data of years for 2005 and 2006, provided by the Revista Tecnologística, and used the same statistical techniques developed in the previous study, the multiple regression. The previous study intended to help the competitive advantage of logistics operators attentive to the problem, through the methodology of analysis of competitors and to customers of this service along the supply chain management, interested in identifying companies with greater efficiency. The results indicate that the model developed by Novaes is not valid for the current reality of these companies. Key-words: productivity function; logistic operators; analysis of competitors and suppliers.

  9. Advanced Production Planning Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,DEAN A.; LAWTON,CRAIG R.; KJELDGAARD,EDWIN A.; WRIGHT,STEPHEN TROY; TURNQUIST,MARK A.; NOZICK,LINDA K.; LIST,GEORGE F.

    2000-12-01

    >This report describes the innovative modeling approach developed as a result of a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The overall goal of this project was to provide an effective suite of solvers for advanced production planning at facilities in the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). We focused our development activities on problems related to operations at the DOE's Pantex Plant. These types of scheduling problems appear in many contexts other than Pantex--both within the NWC (e.g., Neutron Generators) and in other commercial manufacturing settings. We successfully developed an innovative and effective solution strategy for these types of problems. We have tested this approach on actual data from Pantex, and from Org. 14000 (Neutron Generator production). This report focuses on the mathematical representation of the modeling approach and presents three representative studies using Pantex data. Results associated with the Neutron Generator facility will be published in a subsequent SAND report. The approach to task-based scheduling described here represents a significant addition to the literature for large-scale, realistic scheduling problems in a variety of production settings.

  10. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models....... These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  11. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    on the notion that reuse and encapsulation of platform elements are fundamental characteristics of a product platform. Reuse covers the desire to reuse and share certain assets across a family of products and/or across generations of products. Product design solutions and principles are often regarded...... as important assets in a product platform, yet activities, working patterns, processes and knowledge can also be reused in a platform approach. Encapsulation is seen as a process in which the different elements of a platform are grouped into well defined and self-contained units which are decoupled from each...... support decision makers during a product platform project. The reaction from stakeholders in the case companies indicates that the decision base is improved by means of visual models. Another finding is that the sometimes rather theoretical and intangible phenomena can be instantiated in models...

  12. European oil product supply modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Antonin, V.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programming model applied to the European refineries in order to determine oil product supply prices, European refining industry investments and oil product exchanges of the European Union. The first part presents the reason for our choice for a long-term aggregate multi-refineries linear programming model, based on European refineries characteristics and the objectives of our model. Its dual properties are studied in detail and we focus particularly on the European exchange modelling. In the second part, an analysis of the European refining trends leads us to identify parameters and variables of the model that are essential to the aggregate representation of the European oil product supply. The third part is devoted to the use of this model, regarding two scenarios of increasingly stringent specifications for gasoline and diesel oil. Our interest for these products is due to their important share of the European oil product consumption and the not insignificant responsibility of the transport sector for atmospheric pollution. Finally, in order to have the use of an overall picture of the European refining industry, we build a regression model summarizing, though a few equations, the main relations between the major endogenous and exogenous variables o the LP model. Based on pseudo-data, this kind of model provides a simple and robust representation of the oil product supply. But a more specialized analysis of the refining industry operations, turning on a technical assessment of processing units, is reliant on the use of an optimization model such as the model we have built. (author)

  13. Innovation Production Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamam N. Guseinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study of the models of production of innovations at enterprise and state levels. The shift towards a new technology wave induces a change in systems of division of labour as well as establishment of new forms of cooperation that are reflected both in theory and practice of innovation policy and management. Within the scope of the research question we have studied different generation of innovation process, starting with simple linear models - "technology push" and "market pull" - and ending with a complex integrated model of open innovations. There are two organizational models of innovation production at the enterprise level: start-ups in the early stages of their development and ambidextrous organizations. The former are prone to linear models of innovation process, while the latter create innovation within more sophisticated inclusive processes. Companies that effectuate reciprocal ambidexterity stand out from all the rest, since together with start-ups, research and development centres, elements of innovation infrastructure and other economic agents operating in the same value chain they constitute the core of most advanced forms of national innovation systems, namely Triple Helix and Quadruple Helix systems. National innovation systems - models of innovation production at the state level - evolve into systems with a more profound division of labour that enable "line production" of innovations. These tendencies are closely related to the advent and development of the concept of serial entrepreneurship that transforms entrepreneurship into a new type of profession. International experience proves this concept to be efficient in various parts of the world. Nevertheless, the use of above mentioned models and concepts in national innovation system should be justified by socioeconomic conditions of economic regions, since they determine the efficiency of implementation of certain innovation processes and

  14. Product Knowledge Modelling and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.; MacCallum, K. J.; Duffy, Alex

    1996-01-01

    .A scheme is presented in this paper to model, i.e. classify, structure and formalise the product knowledge for the purpose of supporting function-oriented design. The product design specification and four types of required attributes of a specific product have been identified to form the Specific Product......The term, Product Knowledge is used to refer to two related but distinct concepts; the knowledge of a specific product (Specific Product Knowledge) and the knowledge of a product domain (Product Domain Knowledge). Modelling and managing Product Knowlege is an essential part of carrying out design...... Knowledge involved in the product generation process and therefore modelled in a PDS unit and four viewpoint models. Further, product domain knowledge model consists of four types of basic product domain knowledge and product family knowledge. They are considered as necessary and sufficient to support...

  15. First-year University Students' Productive Knowledge of Collocations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study examines productive knowledge of collocations of tertiary-level second language (L2) learners of English in an attempt to make estimates of the size of their knowledge. Participants involved first-year students at North-West University who sat a collocation test modelled on that developed by Laufer and ...

  16. PRODUCT STRUCTURE DIGITAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Sineglazov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  Research results of representation of product structure made by means of CADDS5 computer-aided design (CAD system, Product Data Management Optegra (PDM system and Product Life Cycle Management Wind-chill system (PLM, are examined in this work. Analysis of structure component development and its storage in various systems is carried out. Algorithms of structure transformation required for correct representation of the structure are considered. Management analysis of electronic mockup presentation of the product structure is carried out for Windchill system.

  17. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  18. Model checking sum and product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ditmarsch, H; Ruan, H; Verbrugge, L.C.; Zhang, S.; Jarvis, R.

    2005-01-01

    We model the well-known Sum-and-Product problem in a modal logic, and verify its solution in a model checker. The modal logic is public announcement logic. The riddle is then implemented and its solution verified in the epistemic model checker DEMO.

  19. MASS CUSTOMIZATION and PRODUCT MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    to the product. Through the application of a mass customization strategy, companies have a unique opportunity to create increased customer satisfaction. In a customized production, knowledge and information have to be easily accessible since every product is a unique combination of information. If the dream......When dealing with complex product models, efficient knowledge distribution is essential to obtain success. This paper describes how product models can be applied to support the knowledge distribution. The change towards individualization will radically affect the knowledge application in relation...... of a customized alternative instead of a uniform mass-produced product shall become a reality, then the cross-organizational efficiency must be kept at a competitive level. This is the real challenge for mass customization. A radical restructuring of both the internal and the external knowledge management systems...

  20. Radioisotope production at PUSPATI - five year programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Azuddin Ali; Abdul Rahman Mohamad Ali.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the basic laboratory facilities for radioisotopes production at PUSPATI will be commissioned by September 1983. Work on setting up of production and dispensing facilities is in progress as the nuclides being worked on are those that are commonly used in medical applications, such as Tc-99m, I-131, P-32 and other nuclides such as Na-24 and K-42. Kits for compounds labelled with Tc-99m such as Stannous Pyrophosphate, Sulfur Colloid and Stannous Glucoheptonate are being prepared. The irradiation facilities available now for radioisotope production at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor include a central thimble (flux density 1 x 10 13 n.cm -2 S -1 ) and a rotary specimen rack (flux density 0.2 x 10 13 n.cm -1 S -1 ). Irradiation schedules and target handling techniqes are discussed. Plans for radioisotope production at PUSPATI over the period of 1983-1987, based on present demand for radioisotope, are also explained. (author)

  1. Productivity change of surgeons in an academic year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yuichi; Otake, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshihito; Oiso, Giichiro; Sawa, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to calculate total factor productivity of surgeons in an academic year and to evaluate the effect of surgical trainees on their productivity. We analyzed all the surgical procedures performed from April 1 through September 30, 2013 in the Teikyo University Hospital. The nonradial and nonoriented Malmquist model under the variable returns-to-scale assumptions was employed. A decision-making unit is defined as a surgeon with the highest academic rank in the surgery. Inputs were defined as the number of physicians who assisted in surgery, and the time of surgical operation from skin incision to skin closure. The output was defined as the surgical fee for each surgery. April is the beginning month of a new academic year in Japan, and we divided the study period into April to June and July to September 2013. We computed each surgeon's Malmquist index, efficiency change, and technical change. We analyzed 2789 surgical procedures that were performed by 105 surgeons. The Malmquist index of all surgeons was significantly greater than 1 (p = 0.0033). The technical change was significantly greater than 1 (p productive in the beginning months of a new academic year. The main factor of this productivity loss is considered to be surgical training. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Product Tax Modelling in INFORGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mönnig, Anke

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the application of INFORGE as an analyzing tool for fiscal policy shocks is introduced by using the example of taxes on products. In recent times, variations of tax rates on product taxes have become rather popular because it is a simple method to consolidate state budget. A detailed modelling of taxes on products is important for further two reasons: (i) they are an important component for the transition from demand at purchasers’ prices to demand at basic prices. (ii) Taxes o...

  3. Ten years of SLR production in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A.; Podestá, R.; Yin, Z.; Liu, W.; Actis, E.; Adarvez, S.; Quinteros, J.; Podestá, F.

    2017-07-01

    SLR technique is a proved astro-geodetic art with a significant power to contribute to Earth and Space Sciences. Therefore, scientific applications of SLR System are able to perform multiple tasks in the fields of Astrometry, Geodesy and Geophysics. The results we show here were obtained from satellite observations made at SLR 7406 Station of Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) in San Juan, Argentina. The telescope was installed early on 2006, in concordance with an International Cooperation Agreement between Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina and Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this abstract we show the current research being done with ILRS 7406 station: Length of day (LOD) and Angular velocity of Earth Rotation, calculated weekly; Pole Motion. ILRS7406 is daily surveying Pole coordinates x and y; Tracking SLR to GNSS constellations. SLR System contributes to the adjustment and validation of satellite GALILEO, GPS, GLONASS, and BEIDOU orbits. Our station is nowadays member of the new ITRF 2014 frame, and these past years has been one of the 3 highest producing SLR Stations on the ILRS net, composed of about 40 stations distributed all around the world. The obtained results during this first 10 years of experience are useful to enhance the traditional collaboration between OAFA and international services such as ILRS, IERS and NASA.

  4. Product State Modelling based on a Meta Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Sørensen, Christian; Langer, Gilad

    1999-01-01

    ) is a product model that contains continuously updated data regarding the outcome of the production processes. The main contribution of this paper is a definition and a description of a Production Meta Product State Model (Production Meta PSM), using the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The meta model......As products often deviate from their original design and specifications when being produced, adjustments of the product or process are required in order to meet specifications. A prerequisite for this adjustment, is appropriate and effectively collected shop floor data. The Product State Model (PSM...... incorporates a set of characteristics associated to the (1) scope or application domain of the PSM, (2) the artefact or product, and (3) the events transforming the product and trigging product state changes. Moreover, the paper provides guidelines for a specialisation of the meta model with respect...

  5. Development of a production meta Product State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Sørensen, Christian; Langer, Gilad

    1999-01-01

    ) is a product model that contains continuously updated data regarding the outcome of the production processes. The main contribution of this paper is a definition and a description of a Production Meta Product State Model (Production Meta PSM), using the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The meta model......As products often deviate from their original design and specifications when being produced, adjustments of the product or process are required in order to meet specifications. A prerequisite for this adjustment, is appropriate and effectively collected shop floor data. The Product State Model (PSM...... incorporates a set of characteristics associated to the (1) scope or application domain of the PSM, (2) the artefact or product, and (3) the events transforming the product and trigging product state changes. Moreover, the paper provides guidelines for a specialisation of the meta model with respect...

  6. Review of existing landfill leachate production models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water resources is a fundamental consideration in managing landfill operations. Landfill sites should be designed and operated so as to control leachate production and hence minimize the risk of surface and ground water pollution. A further important development is the use of computer models to estimate the production of leachate from landfill sites. It is revealed from the literature that a number of landfill leachate management model lave been development in recent years. These models allow different engineering schemes to be evaluated and are essential tools for design and operation managements of modern landfills. This paper describes a review of such models mainly focused on their theory, practicability, data requirements, suitability to real situation and usefulness. An evaluation of these models identifies. (author)

  7. Calendar Year 2008 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, GregoryK; Sanchez, Marla; Brown, RichardE; Lai, Judy

    2010-08-24

    This paper presents current and projected savings for ENERGY STAR labeled products, and details the status of the model as implemented in the September 2009 spreadsheets. ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates for ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2008, annual forecasts for 2009 and 2010, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2008 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2009 through 2015. Through 2008 the program saved 8.8 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 158 metric tones carbon (MtC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 18.1 Quads or primary energy saved and 316 MtC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 104 MtC and 213 MtC (1993 to 2008) and between 206 MtC and 444 MtC (2009 to 2015). In this report we address the following questions for ENERGY STAR labeled products: (1) How are ENERGY STAR impacts quantified; (2) What are the ENERGY STAR achievements; and (3) What are the limitations to our method?

  8. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model for a multi-product production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Wenbin; Peng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a production system that can produce multiple products alternately. Products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model is constructed, which is characterized by the delay-time concept. Two different situations are studied based on whether the unqualified products and downtime caused by the failures of the system, set-up and preventive maintenance can be ignored or not. Three cases are considered for each situation, depending on the position of the preventive maintenance epochs: the first case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at the end of each production cycle; the second case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at each set-up time of the products; and the third case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at some set-up times only, since it may not always be optimal to carry out preventive maintenance at the end of the production cycle or at each set-up time. The modeling objectives are to find the optimal number of production cycles per year and the optimal position of preventive maintenance that will maximize the expected profit per unit time. Numerical examples, using real data, are presented to illustrate the model. - Highlights: • We propose an integrated economic production quantity and preventive maintenance model. • The situation that multiple products are produced on the same system alternately is studied. • Two situations are studied based on whether the downtime and the product quality can be ignored or not. • We use enumeration method and analytical method to select the optimal preventive maintenance policy, respectively. • We use the delay-time concept to model the preventive maintenance policy

  9. Six-year beechnut production in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Raymond E. Graber; Raymond E. Graber

    1993-01-01

    Beechnut production and losses were studied over a 6-year period in 41 northern hardwood stands ranging in age from 10 to 140 years in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Beechnut production increased consistently with stand age or d.b.h. of dominant trees and percentage of basal area composed of beech. Losses to insects, rodents, and birds before the seed reached...

  10. Alternative methods of modeling wind generation using production costing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.R.; Pang, C.K.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines the methods of incorporating wind generation in two production costing models: one is a load duration curve (LDC) based model and the other is a chronological-based model. These two models were used to evaluate the impacts of wind generation on two utility systems using actual collected wind data at two locations with high potential for wind generation. The results are sensitive to the selected wind data and the level of benefits of wind generation is sensitive to the load forecast. The total production cost over a year obtained by the chronological approach does not differ significantly from that of the LDC approach, though the chronological commitment of units is more realistic and more accurate. Chronological models provide the capability of answering important questions about wind resources which are difficult or impossible to address with LDC models

  11. 40 CFR 600.512-01 - Model year report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... listing of both domestically and nondomestically produced car lines as determined in § 600.511 and the... model year report must include the following information: (1) All fuel economy data used in the labeling... economy value for each model type of the manufacturer's product line calculated according to § 600.510(b...

  12. One Hundred Years of Bohr Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this article I shall present a brief review of the hundred-year young Bohr model of the atom. In particular, I will first introduce the Thomson and the Rutherford models of atoms, their shortcom- ings and then discuss in some detail the develop- ment of the atomic model by Niels Bohr. Fur- ther, I will mention its refinements at ...

  13. A model for optimizing the production of pharmaceutical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Gospodinova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem associated with the optimal production planning is especially relevant in modern industrial enterprises. The most commonly used optimality criteria in this context are: maximizing the total profit; minimizing the cost per unit of production; maximizing the capacity utilization; minimizing the total production costs. This article aims to explore the possibility for optimizing the production of pharmaceutical products through the construction of a mathematical model that can be viewed in two ways – as a single-product model and a multi-product model. As an optimality criterion it is set the minimization of the cost per unit of production for a given planning period. The author proposes an analytical method for solving the nonlinear optimization problem. An optimal production plan of Tylosin tartrate is found using the single-product model.

  14. Challenges in validating model results for first year ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Eastwood, Steinar; Xie, Jiping; Aaboe, Signe; Bertino, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the quality of model results for the distribution of first year ice, a comparison with a product based on observations from satellite-borne instruments has been performed. Such a comparison is not straightforward due to the contrasting algorithms that are used in the model product and the remote sensing product. The implementation of the validation is discussed in light of the differences between this set of products, and validation results are presented. The model product is the daily updated 10-day forecast from the Arctic Monitoring and Forecasting Centre in CMEMS. The forecasts are produced with the assimilative ocean prediction system TOPAZ. Presently, observations of sea ice concentration and sea ice drift are introduced in the assimilation step, but data for sea ice thickness and ice age (or roughness) are not included. The model computes the age of the ice by recording and updating the time passed after ice formation as sea ice grows and deteriorates as it is advected inside the model domain. Ice that is younger than 365 days is classified as first year ice. The fraction of first-year ice is recorded as a tracer in each grid cell. The Ocean and Sea Ice Thematic Assembly Centre in CMEMS redistributes a daily product from the EUMETSAT OSI SAF of gridded sea ice conditions which include "ice type", a representation of the separation of regions between those infested by first year ice, and those infested by multi-year ice. The ice type is parameterized based on data for the gradient ratio GR(19,37) from SSMIS observations, and from the ASCAT backscatter parameter. This product also includes information on ambiguity in the processing of the remote sensing data, and the product's confidence level, which have a strong seasonal dependency.

  15. Parallel Development of Products and New Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Morten; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2014-01-01

    The perception of product development and the practical execution of product development in professional organizations have undergone dramatic changes in recent years. Many of these chances relate to introduction of broader and more cross-disciplinary views that involves new organizational functi...... and innovation management the 4th generation models are increasingly including the concept business models and business model innovation....

  16. Alignment of Product Models and Product State Models - Integration of the Product Lifecycle Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Kirkby, Lars Phillip; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the integration of the Product Model (PM) and the Product State Model (PCM). Focus is on information exchange from the PSM to the PM within the manufacturing of a single ship. The paper distinguishes between information and knowledge integration. The paper...

  17. Product Family Modelling for Manufacturing Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    dependent on the specific assembly structure of the configured product, i.e. the combination of modules. In this paper, issues of how to create manufacturing structures and related planning data in product family models are presented. Primarily, the more complicated multi-level manufacturing structures......To enable product configuration of a product family, it is important to develop a model of the selected product family. From such a model, an often performed practice is to make a product configurator from which customers can specify individual products from the family. To get further utilisation...... of the product family model, however, the model should be enriched with data for planning and execution of the manufacturing processes. The idea is that, when any individual product is specified using the product configurator, a product model can be extracted with all data necessary for planning...

  18. One Hundred Years of Bohr Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    science at school and college level. In this article I shall present a brief review of the hundred-year young Bohr model of the atom. In particular, I will first introduce the Thomson and .... This model, despite being successful, had one major problem. ... This tempted several people to look for an empirical formula which would ...

  19. 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the important programmatic outcomes from the U.N. Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was the adoption of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes (10YFP) on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP).

  20. The economic production lot size model with several production rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We study an extension of the economic production lot size model, where more than one production rate can be used during a cycle. The production rates and their corresponding runtimes are decision variables. We decompose the problem into two subproblems. First, we show that all production rates...

  1. Extending product modeling methods for integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hauksdóttir, Dagný

    2013-01-01

    Despite great efforts within the modeling domain, the majority of methods often address the uncommon design situation of an original product development. However, studies illustrate that development tasks are predominantly related to redesigning, improving, and extending already existing products...

  2. A grand model for chemical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fung, Ka Y.; Ng, Ka M.; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    , ingredients and structure. Market and competitive analysis, government policies and regulations have to be explicitly considered in product design. All these considerations are accounted for in the Grand Product Design Model, which consists of a process model, a property model, a quality model, a cost model......Chemical engineering has been expanding its focus from primarily business-to-business products (B2B) to business-to-consumer (B2C) products. The production of B2B products generally emphasizes on process design and optimization, whereas the production of B2C products focuses on product quality...... product composition changes with market conditions. Another is a hand lotion that illustrates how product quality affects the profit.(C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Modelling and using product architectures in mechatronic product development

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The objective for the paper is to determine the role of a product architecture modelling tool to support communication and to form the basis for developing and maintaining product structures for improving development practices of complex products. This paper contains descriptions, observations, and lessons learned from a case study in which the author tested a modelling tool to represent a product’s architecture during product development in a larger Danish company. The reasons leading to the...

  4. Consumption of major petroleum products down last year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsten, H.

    1994-01-01

    1993 will go down in the history books as probably the bleakest year for the Finnish economy in the second half of the twentieth century. It was also a bad year for oil companies. Sales of all major petroleum products fell, while tough competition in the marketplace kept prices exceptionally low. Things were not helped by large tax increases. (orig.)

  5. A procedure for Building Product Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    1999-01-01

    activities. A basic assumption is that engineers have to take the responsability for building product models to be used in their domain. To do that they must be able to carry out the modeling task on their own without any need for support from computer science experts. This paper presents a set of simple......The application of product modeling in manufacturing companies raises the important question of how to model product knowledge in a comprehensible and efficient way. An important challenge is to qualify engineers to model and specify IT-systems (product models) to support their specification......, easily adaptable concepts and methods from data modeling (object oriented analysis) and domain modeling (product modeling). The concepts are general and can be used for modeling all types of specifications in the different phases in the product life cycle. The modeling techniques presented have been...

  6. Large yearly production of phytoplankton in the Western bering strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrotto, R N; Goering, J J; McRoy, C P

    1984-09-14

    Production in the western Bering Strait is estimated at 324 grams of carbon per square meter per year over 2.12x 10(4) square kilometers. An ice-reduced growing season makes this large amount of primary production unexpected, but it is consistent with the area's large upper trophic level stocks. The productivity is fueled by a cross-shelf flow of nutrient-rich water from the Bering Sea continental slope. This phytoplankton production system from June through September is analogous to a laboratory continuous culture.

  7. Small oilfield integrated production management model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Dušan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the concept of integrated oil production management model. The model's main objective is to provide more efficient tool for oil production process management in terms of the technological and economical aspects. Integrated oil production management model implies multidisciplinary approach which connects oil reservoir development and production with application of risk analysis. Model's task is to simulate behavior of the whole production system, enabling overcoming the weaknesses of conventional deterministic analysis and significantly enhancing oil production, as well as an investment decision making. In the article is presented shortly the application of integrated oil production management model at the oilfield 'K'. The ultimate goal was techno-economic analysis of managing production process, i.e. determination of production economic limit based on production history data, decline analysis and operating costs.

  8. Modelling Product Families for Product Configuration Systems with Product Variant Master

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    -cards for modelling and visualising the parts and properties of a complete product family. The modelling techniques include: Customer, engineering and part views on the product assortment to model the properties, functions and structure of the product family. This also makes it possible to map the links between......This article presents an evaluation of applying a suggested method for modelling product families for product configuration based on theory for modelling mechanical products,systems theory and object-oriented modelling. The modelling technique includes a so-called product variant master and CRC...... the three views. Modelling of characteristics of the product variants in a product family Modelling of constraints between parts in the product family Visualisation of the entire product family on a poster e.g. 1x2 meters The product variant master and CRC-cards are means to bridge the gap between domain...

  9. Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2013 capability development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-17

    This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.

  10. Production economic models of fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Levring

    The overall purpose of this PhD thesis is to investigate different aspects of fishermen’s behaviour using production economic models at the individual and industry levels. Three parts make up this thesis. The first part provides an overview of the thesis. The second part consists of four papers a...... in relation to an ITQ system, including concentration, specialisation, market activity and price changes. Finally, plausible consequences of exogenous chocks and changes in management practice in the form of mesh size increases are considered....... via individual learning and adjustments in output mix. All the papers included in Part II: Modelling and Evaluating Fishermen’s Behaviour consider factors influencing fishermen’s behaviour. Knowledge about these factors is important to give a correct description of fishermen’s behaviour. However....... They concern the ability to learn best-practice (catch-up) and the ability to change the input and output composition (mix). The framework is then adapted to a dataset from the Danish fishery. Not surprisingly, the gains rise with increased behavioural flexibility. Under the most restrictive assumptions...

  11. Current status of radioisotope production in the year of 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C

    2004-02-01

    The RIPF(Radio Isotope Production Facility) is the unique facility in Korea which has been used for the isotope production. Through the survey on the radioisotope quantities of production and consumption in the domestic industry, we were trying to show the trend of isotope production. The quantities of Tc-99m, Mo-99, Cr-51, I-131 solution and I-131 capsule produced in the hot cell and clean room of RIPF were compared with the quantities at the previous year. Also the output of the labeling compound such as Hippuran, MIBG, RIHSA, Phytate, MDP, DISIDA, DTPA, etc was compared with the previous year by the radioactivity and the vial. We treated the sum of selling amount of industrial isotopes and tracer isotopes and the status of technical supports also.

  12. Modelling and using product architectures in mechatronic product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    The objective for the paper is to determine the role of a product architecture modelling tool to support communication and to form the basis for developing and maintaining product structures for improving development practices of complex products. This paper contains descriptions, observations...... product system, will lead to better decision making. Moreover, it is discussed how the sometimes intangible product structures within a architecture can be visually modeled based on the assumption that knowledge about a product’s architecture has to be tangibly instantiated, in order for people......, and lessons learned from a case study in which the author tested a modelling tool to represent a product’s architecture during product development in a larger Danish company. The reasons leading to the use of the specific model and it’s terminology is described and illustrated. The paper supports two...

  13. Modeling Consumer Learning from Online Product Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zhao; Sha Yang; Vishal Narayan; Ying Zhao

    2013-01-01

    We propose a structural model to study the effect of online product reviews on consumer purchases of experiential products. Such purchases are characterized by limited repeat purchase behavior of the same product item (such as a book title) but significant past usage experience with other products of the same type (such as books of the same genre). To cope with the uncertainty in quality of the product item, we posit that consumers may learn from their experience with the same type of product...

  14. A procedure for building product models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Malis, Martin

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a procedure for building product models to support the specification processes dealing with sales, design of product variants and production preparation. The procedure includes, as the first phase, an analysis and redesign of the business processes, which are to be supported...... with product models. The next phase includes an analysis of the product assortment, and the set up of a so-called product master. Finally the product model is designed and implemented using object oriented modelling. The procedure is developed in order to ensure that the product models constructed are fit...... for the business processes they support, and properly structured and documented, in order to facilitate that the systems can be maintained continually and further developed. The research has been carried out at the Centre for Industrialisation of Engineering, Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Technical...

  15. Modelling shape distortions in composite products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, E.A.D.; Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Akkerman, Remko; Storen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Shape distortions often occur after the forming of woven fabric reinforced composite products. The thermomechanical behaviour of the product must be known in order to predict these product distortions. A two-step strategy is proposed to model the thermomechanical behaviour of a product. First, the

  16. Proactive Modeling of Market, Product and Production Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an operational model that allows description of market, products and production architectures. The main feature of this model is the ability to describe both structural and functional aspect of architectures. The structural aspect is an answer to the question: What constitutes...... the architecture, e.g. standard designs, design units and interfaces? The functional aspect is an answer to the question: What is the behaviour or the architecture, what is it able to do, i.e. which products at which performance levels can be derived from the architecture? Among the most important benefits...... of this model is the explicit ability to describe what the architecture is prepared for, and what it is not prepared for - concerning development of future derivative products. The model has been applied in a large scale global product development project. Among the most important benefits is contribution to...

  17. An Optimization Model for Product Placement on Product Listing Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Kwang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of product listing pages is a key component of Website design because it has significant influence on the sales volume on a Website. This study focuses on product placement in designing product listing pages. Product placement concerns how venders of online stores place their products over the product listing pages for maximization of profit. This problem is very similar to the offline shelf management problem. Since product information sources on a Web page are typically communicated through the text and image, visual stimuli such as color, shape, size, and spatial arrangement often have an effect on the visual attention of online shoppers and, in turn, influence their eventual purchase decisions. In view of the above, this study synthesizes the visual attention literature and theory of shelf-space allocation to develop a mathematical programming model with genetic algorithms for finding optimal solutions to the focused issue. The validity of the model is illustrated with example problems.

  18. Architecture of the Product State Model Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Larsen, Michael; Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of using product models to support product lifecycle activities withparticular focus on the production phase. The motivation of the research is that products are producedmore costly and with longer lead-time than necessary.The paper provides a review of product...... modelling technologies and approaches, and the overallarchitecture for the Product State Model (PSM) Environment as a basis for quality monitoring.Especially, the paper focuses on the circumstances prevailing in a one-of-a-kind manufacturingenvironment like the shipbuilding industry, where product modelling...... technologies already haveproved their worth in the design and engineering phases of shipbuilding and in the operation phase.However, the handling of product information on the shop floor is not yet equally developed.The paper reports from the Brite-Euram project (No. BE97-4510) QualiGlobe focusing...

  19. BOREAS TE-17 Production Efficiency Model Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A BOREAS version of the Global Production Efficiency Model(www.inform.umd.edu/glopem) was developed by TE-17 to generate maps of gross and net primary production,...

  20. Hanford Atomic Products Operation Five-Year Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priode, C.A.; Benoliel, R.W.; Gilbert, W.D.; McGrath, R.E.; Tomlinson, R.E.; Zuhr, H.F. [comps.

    1958-05-19

    The General Electric Company has prepared in past years numerous documents for the Atomic Energy Commission outlining in some detail its current and proposed programs at Hanford. Last year, at the request of the commission, program types of information were consolidated into one document, the HAPO Five Year Program. That document was well received and useful to an extent that the General Electric Company was requested by the Commission to prepare another covering the fiscal years 1959 through 1963. In outlining the five year program for the Hanford Atomic Products Operation, the General Electric Company has made assumptions regarding the US Atomic Energy Commission`s current and future programs and Hanford`s relationship to these programs. Two major objectives of the Commission were considered basic for future planning: first, to provide adequate atomic weapons for national defense; and second, to encourage and assist in the development of atomic energy for peaceful uses. The Hanford contributions to these objectives are conceived to include the acquisition and potential application of new technology in support of: (1) Increased production of plutonium, as nitrate solution, buttons, and as current and future shapes. (2) A program that will provide the technological capability to implement broad changes in the Commission`s programs such as conversion of Hanford reactors to tritium production, the separation and packaging of mixed and specific fission products, the recovery of transuranic elements, the processing of power reactor fuels, and the provision of weapons assembly capability. (3) Optimum costs, operating and capital. (4) New production reactor designs and concepts. (5) Use of plutonium as power reactor fuel. (6) Operation of nuclear reactors and associated plants with assured radiological protection of both workers and people and other forms of life in the environs.

  1. CRC-cards for Product Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    2003-01-01

    , transportation, service and decommissioning. A main challenge when building product models is to collect and document the product related data, information and knowledge in a structured way. CRC cards are index cards (or computerized versions of these) which are used to record proposed classes, the behavior...... of the classes, their responsibilities, and their relationship to other classes (collaboration). CRC modelling gives an effective, low-tech method for domain-experts, programmers and users to work closely together to identify, structure, understand and document a product model. CRC cards were originally......This paper describes the CRC (class, responsibility, collaboration) modelling process for building product models. A product model is normally represented in an IT system which contains data, information and knowledge on industrial products and their life cycle properties e.g. manufacturing...

  2. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC MODELS OF POTATO PRODUCTION IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miomir JOVANOVIC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The northern region of Montenegro represents a very important resource for agricultural production. However, the depopulation of the analysed area, pronounced in-kind character of production without significant participation of market producers, lack of market research, stronger vertical and horizontal connection between primary production and processing sectors have significant impacts causing the low level of competitiveness of agricultural production. Potato production in the analysed area has recorded positive trends in last ten years. This paper presents economic models of agriculture households on the analysed area from the potatoes production point of view.

  3. Brazilian chicken meat production chain:a 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.

  4. Marketing Modeling for New Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hernández-Mireles (Carlos)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis addresses the analysis of new or very recent marketing data and the introduction of new marketing models. We present a collection of models that are useful to analyze (1) the optimal launch time of new and dominant technologies, (2) the triggers, speed and timing of new

  5. Order and disorder in product innovation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pina e Cunha, Miguel; Gomes, Jorge F.S.; Gomes, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that the conceptual development of product innovation models goes hand in hand with paradigmatic changes in the field of organization science. Remarkable similarities in the change of organizational perspectives and product innovation models are noticeable. To illustrate how

  6. A model for estimating carbon accumulation in cork products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aims to develop a calculation model for estimating carbon accumulation in cork products, both whilst in use and when in landfills, and to apply the model to Portugal as an example.Area of study: The model is applicable worldwide and the case-study is Portugal.Material and methods: The model adopts a flux-data method based on a lifetime analysis and quantifies carbon accumulation in cork products according to three approaches that differ on how carbon stocks (or emissions are allocated to cork product consuming and producing countries. These approaches are: stock-change, production and atmospheric-flow. The effect on carbon balance of methane emissions from the decay of cork products in landfills is also evaluated.Main results: The model was applied to Portugal and the results show that carbon accumulation in cork products in the period between 1990 and 2010 varied between 24 and 92 Gg C year-1. The atmospheric-flow approach provided the highest carbon accumulation over the whole period due to the net export of carbon in cork products. The production approach ranked second because exported cork products were mainly manufactured from domestically produced cork. The net carbon balance in cork products was also a net carbon accumulation with all the approaches, ranging from 5 to 81 Gg C eq year-1.Research highlights: The developed model can be applied to other countries and may be a step forward to consider carbon accumulation in cork products in national greenhouse gas inventories, as well as in future climate agreements.Keywords: Atmospheric-flow approach; Greenhouse gas balance; Modelling; Production approach; Stock-change approach.

  7. The standard model 30 years of glory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefrancois, J.

    2001-03-01

    In these 3 lectures the author reviews the achievements of the past 30 years, which saw the birth and the detailed confirmation of the standard model. The first lecture is dedicated to quantum chromodynamics (QCD), deep inelastic scattering, neutrino scattering results, R(e + ,e - ), scaling violation, Drell-Yan reactions and the observation of jets. The second lecture deals with weak interactions and quark and lepton families, the discovery of W and Z bosons, of charm, of the tau lepton and B quarks are detailed. The third lecture focuses on the stunning progress that have been made in accuracy concerning detectors, the typical level of accuracy of previous e + e - experiments was about 5-10%, while the accuracy obtained at LEP/SLC is of order 0.1% to 0.5%. (A.C.)

  8. Calendar Year 2009 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Gregory K; Sanchez, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-11-15

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates from the use ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2009, annual forecasts for 2010 and 2011, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2009 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2010 through 2015. Through 2009 the program saved 9.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 170 million metric tons carbon (MMTC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 11.5 Quads or primary energy saved and 202 MMTC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 110 MMTC and 231 MMTC (1993 to 2009) and between 130 MMTC and 285 MMTC (2010 to 2015).

  9. Batch Cultivation Model for Biopolymer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Torres-Cerna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model to evaluate the kinetics of two different Pseudomonas putida strains, wild and mutant-type for the microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs. Model parameters were estimated to represent adequately experimental data from the batch reactor using the differential evolution algorithm. Based on the mathematical model with the best-fit parameter values, simulations suggested that the high production of PHA by the mutant strain can be attributed not only to the higher production of PHA but also to a reduction in the consumption rate of the substrates of approximately 66 %. Remarkably, the cell growth rate value is higher for the wild type than the mutant type, suggesting that the PHA increase is not only to an increase in the production rate but also to the metabolism of the cells. This mathematical model advances comprehension of the PHA production capacity by P. putida paving the road towards environmentally friendly plastics.

  10. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - II. Model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke

    2010-01-01

    In the second part of this two-part article on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, we estimate the number of committed assets in water depth less than 1000 ft that are expected to be marginal over a 60-year time horizon. We compute the expected quantity and value of the production and gross revenue streams of the gulf's committed asset inventory circa. January 2007 using a probabilistic model framework. Cumulative hydrocarbon production from the producing inventory is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas. Marginal production from the committed asset inventory is expected to contribute 4.1% of total oil production and 5.4% of gas production. A meta-evaluation procedure is adapted to present the results of sensitivity analysis. Model results are discussed along with a description of the model framework and limitations of the analysis. (author)

  11. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - II. Model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    In the second part of this two-part article on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, we estimate the number of committed assets in water depth less than 1000 ft that are expected to be marginal over a 60-year time horizon. We compute the expected quantity and value of the production and gross revenue streams of the gulf's committed asset inventory circa. January 2007 using a probabilistic model framework. Cumulative hydrocarbon production from the producing inventory is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas. Marginal production from the committed asset inventory is expected to contribute 4.1% of total oil production and 5.4% of gas production. A meta-evaluation procedure is adapted to present the results of sensitivity analysis. Model results are discussed along with a description of the model framework and limitations of the analysis. (author)

  12. World coal production, consumption and trade for year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P. (Coal Chemistry Research Institute, Beijing (China))

    1992-06-01

    By the year 2000, coal production will increase at a slow rate, and because supply is greater than demand, it will be a buyer's market. In general, prices will not rise steeply in the international markets, and Europe and Asia will continue to be the major trading centres. World exports may reach 510 Mt; Australia and the USA will continue to be the major producers. Although China is an important coal producing country, its exports form just 4-5% of global trade volume. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  14. Modelling Configuration Knowledge in Heterogeneous Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queva, Matthieu Stéphane Benoit; Männistö, Tomi; Ricci, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    the variability in such heterogeneous product families. Our approach is based on a framework that aims to cater for the different stakeholders involved in the modelling and management of the product family. The modelling approach is centred around the concepts of views, types and constraints and is illustrated...... by a motivation example. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, a prototype has been implemented for configuring a non-trivial heterogeneous product family.......Product configuration systems play an important role in the development of Mass Customisation. The configuration of complex product families may nowadays involve multiple design disciplines, e.g. hardware, software and services. In this paper, we present a conceptual approach for modelling...

  15. Organic production in a dynamic CGE model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about the impact of modern agriculture on the environment have in recent years led to an interest in supporting the development of organic farming. In addition to environmental benefits, the aim is to encourage the provision of other “multifunctional” properties of organic farming...... agricultural sector and each secondary food industry has been split into two separate industries: one producing organic products, the other producing conventional products. The substitution nests in private consumption have also been altered to emphasise the pair wise substitution between organic...... and conventional products. One of the most important regulations regarding organic production concerns the conversion period, that is the period where the farmer starts to use organic production methods until the farmland and the production are considered organic. Currently organic production methods have...

  16. Models and Modelling Tools for Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    -process design. Illustrative examples highlighting the need for efficient model-based systems will be presented, where the need for predictive models for innovative chemical product-process design will be highlighted. The examples will cover aspects of chemical product-process design where the idea of the grand......The design, development and reliability of a chemical product and the process to manufacture it, need to be consistent with the end-use characteristics of the desired product. One of the common ways to match the desired product-process characteristics is through trial and error based experiments......, which can be expensive and time consuming. An alternative approach is the use of a systematic model-based framework according to an established work-flow in product-process design, replacing some of the time consuming and/or repetitive experimental steps. The advantages of the use of a model...

  17. Formal Information Model for Representing Production Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Siltala, Niko; Järvenpää, Eeva; Lanz, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Part 2: Intelligent Manufacturing Systems; International audience; This paper introduces a concept and associated descriptions to formally describe physical production resources for modular and reconfigurable production systems. These descriptions are source of formal information for (automatic) production system design and (re-)configuration. They can be further utilized during the system deployment and execution. The proposed concept and the underlying formal resource description model is c...

  18. Hybrid simulation models of production networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kouikoglou, Vassilis S

    2001-01-01

    This book is concerned with a most important area of industrial production, that of analysis and optimization of production lines and networks using discrete-event models and simulation. The book introduces a novel approach that combines analytic models and discrete-event simulation. Unlike conventional piece-by-piece simulation, this method observes a reduced number of events between which the evolution of the system is tracked analytically. Using this hybrid approach, several models are developed for the analysis of production lines and networks. The hybrid approach combines speed and accuracy for exceptional analysis of most practical situations. A number of optimization problems, involving buffer design, workforce planning, and production control, are solved through the use of hybrid models.

  19. Statistical Model Checking for Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Beek, Maurice H.; Legay, Axel; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We report on the suitability of statistical model checking for the analysis of quantitative properties of product line models by an extended treatment of earlier work by the authors. The type of analysis that can be performed includes the likelihood of specific product behaviour, the expected...... average cost of products (in terms of the attributes of the products’ features) and the probability of features to be (un)installed at runtime. The product lines must be modelled in QFLan, which extends the probabilistic feature-oriented language PFLan with novel quantitative constraints among features...... behaviour converge in a discrete-time Markov chain semantics, enabling the analysis of quantitative properties. Technically, a Maude implementation of QFLan, integrated with Microsoft’s SMT constraint solver Z3, is combined with the distributed statistical model checker MultiVeStA, developed by one...

  20. 49 CFR 537.7 - Pre-model year and mid-model year reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) of this section for the manufacturer's passenger automobiles for the current model year. (2) After...) State the projected average fuel economy for the manufacturer's automobiles determined in accordance with § 537.9 and based upon the fuel economy values and projected sales figures provided under...

  1. Measuring productivity differences in equilibrium search models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanot, Gauthier; Neumann, George R.

    1996-01-01

    Equilibrium search models require unobserved heterogeneity in productivity to fit observed wage distribution data, but provide no guidance about the location parameter of the heterogeneity. In this paper we show that the location of the productivity heterogeneity implies a mode in a kernel density...

  2. Mathematical modeling of fructose production by immobilised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of fructose from glucose isomerisation process using commercial immobilized glucose isomerase (IGI) was conducted in a batch type of stirred tank bioreactor. A mathematical model was developed to describe the effect of temperature and pH on the kinetic parameters of fructose production. Modified Santos ...

  3. A model for persistency of egg production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve

  4. Framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which supports product modelling for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    and personalization. The framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge is based on the following theories: axiomatic design, technical systems, theory of domains, theory of structuring, theory of properties and the framework for the content of product and product related models. The framework is built...... and product related knowledge which should be or should not be included in the model. This demarcation will have a large influence on the structure of the IT systems (for example the configurator system, the CAD system or the PDM system). • The use of the framework can help achieve more structured models......The article presents a framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which can be used to support the product modelling process which is needed for developing IT systems. These IT systems are important tools for many companies when they aim at achieving mass customization...

  5. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Allen, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission products

  6. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-04-08

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission

  7. World oil production. [Demand to overshadow supplies before year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flower, A.R.

    1978-03-01

    The supply of oil will fail to meet increasing demand before the year 2000. As oil production inevitably levels off and then falls, alternative fuels will have to meet the demand for energy, which will continue to grow in the face of even vigorous attempts at conservation. The oil-importing countries have perhaps as few as five years or perhaps as many as 20 in which to accomplish a transition from dependence on oil to greater reliance on other fossil fuels, on nuclear energy and eventually on renewable energy sources. Because large investments and long lead times are required for developing new energy resources the effort must begin immediately. These are among the major conclusions of a two-year international study, the Workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies. The workshop participants came from the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, the United Kingdom, France, West Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Italy, Iran, and Japan. The workshop developed projections of energy supply and demand under various assumptions, notably concerning economic growth and the price of energy. Two basic scenarios were formulated, one assuming a high economic growth rate and high energy prices and the other a low growth rate and constant prices. The high-growth, high-price scenario assumed that economic growth in the non-Communist world would average 5.2% per year between 1976 and 1985 and 4% between 1985 and 2000, and that energy prices would remain constant (in real terms) until 1985 and increase 50% by 2000. The low-growth, constant-price scenario assumed that economic growth would average 3.4% per year until 1985 and then 2.8% until 2000, and that real energy prices would remain constant during the entire period. Within that framework energy-demand forecasts were prepared for the various regions for each fuel and were aggregated to project the total energy demand in 1985 and 2000.

  8. Three-dimensional decomposition models for carbon productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Ming; Niu, Dongxiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents decomposition models for the change in carbon productivity, which is considered a key indicator that reflects the contributions to the control of greenhouse gases. Carbon productivity differential was used to indicate the beginning of decomposition. After integrating the differential equation and designing the Log Mean Divisia Index equations, a three-dimensional absolute decomposition model for carbon productivity was derived. Using this model, the absolute change of carbon productivity was decomposed into a summation of the absolute quantitative influences of each industrial sector, for each influence factor (technological innovation and industrial structure adjustment) in each year. Furthermore, the relative decomposition model was built using a similar process. Finally, these models were applied to demonstrate the decomposition process in China. The decomposition results reveal several important conclusions: (a) technological innovation plays a far more important role than industrial structure adjustment; (b) industry and export trade exhibit great influence; (c) assigning the responsibility for CO 2 emission control to local governments, optimizing the structure of exports, and eliminating backward industrial capacity are highly essential to further increase China's carbon productivity. -- Highlights: ► Using the change of carbon productivity to measure a country's contribution. ► Absolute and relative decomposition models for carbon productivity are built. ► The change is decomposed to the quantitative influence of three-dimension. ► Decomposition results can be used for improving a country's carbon productivity.

  9. A 12-year analysis of Malmquist total factor productivity in dialysis facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2006-10-01

    This study examined total factor productivity of dialysis facilities in Greece over a 12-year period, using nationally representative panel data. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to compute Malmquist productivity indices, which were decomposed into technical efficiency change and technological change. The sample consisted of 73 dialysis facilities operating throughout the entire study period (1993-2004), corresponding to 97.3% and 58.9% of all facilities in the first and last study years respectively. Production variables were nursing staff and dialysis machines (inputs) and dialysis sessions (output). The DEA model was input-oriented allowing for constant returns to scale (CRS). Technical efficiency change was decomposed into scale efficiency change and variable returns to scale (VRS) "pure" technical efficiency change. Mean overall efficiency, throughout the study years, ranged from 39.6 to 63.1% with an all-time average of 56.7%, and only 2-4% of the facilities were fully efficient in each study year. Productivity indices indicated year-by-year progress or regress up to 5%, but the efficiency and technological components differed, in some cases, by as much as 30%. Although interesting subperiod effects were observed, conclusions could not be generalized for the entire study period due to alternating trends. We suggest that preliminary insight to productivity in this sector has been obtained, but particular subperiods must be isolated and further investigated.

  10. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550...

  11. A deterministic aggregate production planning model considering quality of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madadi, Najmeh; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2013-01-01

    Aggregate Production Planning (APP) is a medium-term planning which is concerned with the lowest-cost method of production planning to meet customers' requirements and to satisfy fluctuating demand over a planning time horizon. APP problem has been studied widely since it was introduced and formulated in 1950s. However, in several conducted studies in the APP area, most of the researchers have concentrated on some common objectives such as minimization of cost, fluctuation in the number of workers, and inventory level. Specifically, maintaining quality at the desirable level as an objective while minimizing cost has not been considered in previous studies. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model that serves those companies aiming to incur the minimum level of operational cost while maintaining quality at an acceptable level. In order to obtain the solution to the multi-objective model, the Fuzzy Goal Programming approach and max-min operator of Bellman-Zadeh were applied to the model. At the final step, IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio software was used to obtain the experimental results based on the data collected from an automotive parts manufacturing company. The results show that incorporating quality in the model imposes some costs, however a trade-off should be done between the cost resulting from producing products with higher quality and the cost that the firm may incur due to customer dissatisfaction and sale losses.

  12. Oxygen production System Models for Lunar ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) seeks to make human space exploration feasible; by using available resources from a planet or the moon to produce consumables, parts, and structures that otherwise would be brought from Earth. Producing these in situ reduces the mass of such that must be launched and doing so allows more payload mass' for each mission. The production of oxygen from lunar regolith, for life support and propellant, is one of the tasks being studied under ISRU. NASA is currently funding three processes that have shown technical merit for the production of oxygen from regolith: Molten Salt Electrolysis, Hydrogen Reduction of Ilmenite, and Carbothermal Reduction. The ISRU program is currently developing system models of, the , abovementioned processes to: (1) help NASA in the evaluation process to select the most cost-effective and efficient process for further prototype development, (2) identify key parameters, (3) optimize the oxygen production process, (4) provide estimates on energy and power requirements, mass and volume.of the system, oxygen production rate, mass of regolith required, mass of consumables, and other important parameters, and (5) integrate into the overall end-to-end ISRU system model, which could be integrated with mission architecture models. The oxygen production system model is divided into modules that represent unit operations (e.g., reactor, water electrolyzer, heat exchanger). Each module is modeled theoretically using Excel and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), and will be validated using experimental data from on-going laboratory work. This modularity (plug-n-play) feature of each unit operation allows the use of the same model on different oxygen production systems simulations resulting in comparable results. In this presentation, preliminary results for mass, power, volume will be presented along with brief description of the oxygen production system model.

  13. Motor vehicle MPG and market shares report: model year 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.

    1986-02-01

    Sales of automobiles jumped dramatically from 10,211,058 units in model year 1984 to 10,968,515 units in model year 1985, an incease of 7.4%. Light trucks had an even more striking increase in sales, rising 17.2% from the previous model year. The sales-weighted fuel economy for the entire automobile fleet continued to climb in model year 1985, from 26.3 mpg in model year 1984 to 27.0 mpg in this model year. The sales-weighted fuel economies in light trucks have remained relatively constant since model year 1979. The trends of various vehicle characteristics from model year 1978 through 1985 are illustrated. 34 figs., 45 tabs.

  14. A neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helie, Sebastien; Roeder, Jessica L; Vucovich, Lauren; Rünger, Dennis; Ashby, F Gregory

    2015-07-01

    Most behaviors unfold in time and include a sequence of submovements or cognitive activities. In addition, most behaviors are automatic and repeated daily throughout life. Yet, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of automatic sequence production. Past research suggests a gradual transfer from the associative striatum to the sensorimotor striatum, but a number of more recent studies challenge this role of the BG in automatic sequence production. In this article, we propose a new neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production in which the main role of the BG is to train cortical-cortical connections within the premotor areas that are responsible for automatic sequence production. The new model is used to simulate four different data sets from human and nonhuman animals, including (1) behavioral data (e.g., RTs), (2) electrophysiology data (e.g., single-neuron recordings), (3) macrostructure data (e.g., TMS), and (4) neurological circuit data (e.g., inactivation studies). We conclude with a comparison of the new model with existing models of automatic sequence production and discuss a possible new role for the BG in automaticity and its implication for Parkinson's disease.

  15. Conceptual Modelling of Complex Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Perši

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex system dynamics, structure and behaviour performances call for a wide range of methods, algorithms and tools to reach a model capable of finding optimal performing parameters. In the modelling process, it is up to the analyst to select the appropriate combination of methods, algorithms and tools to express significant system performances. Such a methodology for designing complex systems should be based upon conceptual modelling to perform a sensitive analysis of different system levels and views, allowing system representations for developing computer models.Complex systems, such as business systems with a continuous-discrete production process, require a well organised supply chain highly reactive to production assortment changes. Aligning two different production components distinctive in their behaviour is especially delicate at the production parameters transition point. Such system performances require distinctive designing methods that can follow the double nature of the production process behaviour in accordance with their entities dynamics caused by assortment changes. Consequently, such systems need different conceptual presentations for their purpose to be realized from different views and aspects.

  16. Modelling climate change impacts on crop production for food security

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bindi, M.; Palosuo, T.; Trnka, Miroslav; Semenov, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, SEP (2015), s. 3-5 ISSN 0936-577X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Crop production Upscaling * Climate change impact and adaptation assessments * Upscaling * Model ensembles Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.690, year: 2015

  17. Modelling spray drying processes for dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, Ruud E.M.; Straatsma, Han; Verschueren, Maykel; van Haren, Jan; Smit, Erik; Bargeman, Gerrald; de Jong, Peter

    2002-01-01

    NIZO food research (The Netherlands) has been working for the food industry, the dairy industry in particular, for over 50 years. During the past 15 years NIZO food research has put a lot of effort into developing predictive computer models for the food industry. Nowadays the main challenges in the

  18. Modelling preparation and consumption of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Arno; Nauta, Maarten; Evers, Eric

    This poster describes the retail and consumer phase of the EFSA Salmonella in Pork QMRA (Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment, funded under an Article 36 grant to support the scientific opinion required by EFS). The food chain is modelled from retail to ingestion by the consumer. Three...... on daily life food handling practices are hard to obtain. We performed a literature survey and parametrised the model including the inherent variability in consumer behaviour. The output is the number of Salmonellae ingested per person per day, for each pig meat product. This output will in feed...... into the final model, where the risk of illness is modelled using a dose-response relation....

  19. Forecasting Rice Productivity and Production of Odisha, India, Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting of rice area, production, and productivity of Odisha was made from the historical data of 1950-51 to 2008-09 by using univariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models and was compared with the forecasted all Indian data. The autoregressive (p and moving average (q parameters were identified based on the significant spikes in the plots of partial autocorrelation function (PACF and autocorrelation function (ACF of the different time series. ARIMA (2, 1, 0 model was found suitable for all Indian rice productivity and production, whereas ARIMA (1, 1, 1 was best fitted for forecasting of rice productivity and production in Odisha. Prediction was made for the immediate next three years, that is, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10, using the best fitted ARIMA models based on minimum value of the selection criterion, that is, Akaike information criteria (AIC and Schwarz-Bayesian information criteria (SBC. The performances of models were validated by comparing with percentage deviation from the actual values and mean absolute percent error (MAPE, which was found to be 0.61 and 2.99% for the area under rice in Odisha and India, respectively. Similarly for prediction of rice production and productivity in Odisha and India, the MAPE was found to be less than 6%.

  20. STEP - Product Model Data Sharing and Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri

    1998-01-01

    - Product Data Representation and Exchange", featuring at present some 30 released parts, and growing continuously. Many of the parts are Application Protocols (AP). This article presents an overview of STEP, based upon years of involvement in three ESPRIT projects, which contributed to the development...

  1. Educational productivity in higher education : An examination of part of the Walberg Educational Productivity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.

    Several factors in the H. J. Walberg Educational Productivity Model, which assumes that 9 factors affect academic achievement, were examined with a limited sample of 1st-year students in the University of Groningen. Information concerning 8 of these factors - grades, motivation, age, prior

  2. Multi-scale modeling for sustainable chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Kai; Bakshi, Bhavik R.; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    associated with the development and implementation of a su stainable biochemical industry. The temporal and spatial scales of modeling approaches for sustainable chemical production vary greatly, ranging from metabolic models that aid the design of fermentative microbial strains to material and monetary flow...... and predictions at every other scale. In addition, the development of this multi-scale framework would promote cohesive collaborations across multiple traditionally disconnected modeling disciplines to achieve sustainable chemical production.......With recent advances in metabolic engineering, it is now technically possible to produce a wide portfolio of existing petrochemical products from biomass feedstock. In recent years, a number of modeling approaches have been developed to support the engineering and decision-making processes...

  3. 20 years of ultrasound contrast agent modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faez, T.; Emmer, M.; Kooiman, K.; Versluis, Michel; van der Steen, A.F.W.; de Jong, N.

    2013-01-01

    The merits of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) were already known in the 1960s. It was, however, not until the 1990s that UCAs were clinically approved and marketed. In these years, it was realized that the UCAs are not just efficient ultrasound scatterers, but that their main constituent, the

  4. Kinetic model for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A kinetic model that describes microbial growth, biopolymer production and substrate consumption is used to predict the performance of batch fermentation of Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. H. pseudoflava DSMZ 1034 is useful in synthesizing polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs).The experimental data was also fitted with the ...

  5. Design, product structuring and modelling of mechatronic products and systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Information Technology offers software and hardware for improvement of the engineering design, structuring and control systems, and industrial applications. The latest progress in IT makes integration of an overall design and manufacturing IT- concept feasible and commercially attractive. An IT......-tool concept for modelling, simulation and design of mechatronic products and systems is proposed in this paper. It built on results from a Danish mechatronic research program on intelligent motion control as well as from the Esprit project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components...

  6. Pebble Bed Reactor Dust Production Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Joshua J. Cogliati

    2008-09-01

    The operation of pebble bed reactors, including fuel circulation, can generate graphite dust, which in turn could be a concern for internal components; and to the near field in the remote event of a break in the coolant circuits. The design of the reactor system must, therefore, take the dust into account and the operation must include contingencies for dust removal and for mitigation of potential releases. Such planning requires a proper assessment of the dust inventory. This paper presents a predictive model of dust generation in an operating pebble bed with recirculating fuel. In this preliminary work the production model is based on the use of the assumption of proportionality between the dust production and the normal force and distance traveled. The model developed in this work uses the slip distances and the inter-pebble forces computed by the authors’ PEBBLES. The code, based on the discrete element method, simulates the relevant static and kinetic friction interactions between the pebbles as well as the recirculation of the pebbles through the reactor vessel. The interaction between pebbles and walls of the reactor vat is treated using the same approach. The amount of dust produced is proportional to the wear coefficient for adhesive wear (taken from literature) and to the slip volume, the product of the contact area and the slip distance. The paper will compare the predicted volume with the measured production rates. The simulation tallies the dust production based on the location of creation. Two peak production zones from intra pebble forces are predicted within the bed. The first zone is located near the pebble inlet chute due to the speed of the dropping pebbles. The second peak zone occurs lower in the reactor with increased pebble contact force due to the weight of supported pebbles. This paper presents the first use of a Discrete Element Method simulation of pebble bed dust production.

  7. Rice production model based on the concept of ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, S. A.; Wicaksono, A. D.; Dinanti, D.

    2017-06-01

    Pursuant to what had been stated in Region Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Malang Regency for period 2010-2030, Malang Regency was considered as the center of agricultural development, including districts bordered with Malang City. To protect the region functioning as the provider of rice production, then the policy of sustainable food farming-land (LP2B) was made which its implementation aims to protect rice-land. In the existing condition, LP2B system was not maximally executed, and it caused a limited extend of rice-land to deliver rice production output. One cause related with the development of settlements and industries due to the effect of Malang City that converted land-function. Location of research focused on 30 villages with direct border with Malang City. Review was conducted to develop a model of relation between farming production output and ecological footprint variables. These variables include rice-land area (X1), built land percentage (X2), and number of farmers (X3). Analysis technique was regression. Result of regression indicated that the model of rice production output Y=-207,983 + 10.246X1. Rice-land area (X1) was the most influential independent variable. It was concluded that of villages directly bordered with Malang City, there were 11 villages with higher production potential because their rice production yield was more than 1,000 tons/year, while 12 villages were threatened with low production output because its rice production yield only attained 500 tons/year. Based on the model and the spatial direction of RTRW, it can be said that the direction for the farming development policy must be redesigned to maintain rice-land area on the regions on which agricultural activity was still dominant. Because rice-land area was the most influential factor to farming production. Therefore, the wider the rice-land is, the higher rice production output is on each village.

  8. Productivity Costs Associated With Breast Cancer Among Survivors Aged 18-44 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwueme, Donatus U; Trogdon, Justin G; Khavjou, Olga A; Guy, Gery P

    2016-02-01

    No study has quantified productivity losses associated with breast cancer in younger women aged 18-44 years. This study estimated productivity costs, including work and home productivity losses, among younger women who reported ever receiving a breast cancer diagnosis. A two-part regression model and 2000-2010 National Health Interview Survey data were used to estimate the number of work and home productivity days missed because of breast cancer, adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics and comorbidities. Estimates for younger women were compared with those for women aged 45-64 years. Data were analyzed in 2013-2014. Per capita, younger women with breast cancer had annual losses of $2,293 (95% CI=$1,069, $3,518) from missed work and $442 (95% CI=$161, $723) from missed home productivity. Total annual breast cancer-associated productivity costs for younger women were $344 million (95% CI=$154 million, $535 million). Older women with breast cancer had lower per capita work loss productivity costs of $1,407 (95% CI=$899, $1,915) but higher total work loss productivity costs estimated at $1,072 million (95% CI=$685 million, $1,460 million) than younger women. Younger women with a history of breast cancer face a disproportionate share of work and home productivity losses. Although older women have lower per capita costs, total productivity costs were higher for older women because the number of older women with breast cancer is higher. The results underscore the importance of continued efforts by the public health community to promote and support the unique needs of younger breast cancer survivors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Coordinated supply chain dynamic production planning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Charu; Grabis, Janis

    2001-10-01

    Coordination of different and often contradicting interests of individual supply chain members is one of the important issues in supply chain management because the individual members can not succeed without success of the supply chain and vice versa. This paper investigates a supply chain dynamic production planning problem with emphasis on coordination. A planning problem is formally described using a supply chain kernel, which defines supply chain configuration, management policies, available resources and objectives both at supply chain or macro and supply chain member or micro levels. The coordinated model is solved in order to balance decisions made at the macro and micro levels and members' profitability is used as the coordination criterion. The coordinated model is used to determine inventory levels and production capacity across the supply chain. Application of the coordinated model distributes costs burden uniformly among supply chain members and preserves overall efficiency of the supply chain. Influence of the demand series uncertainty is investigated. The production planning model is a part of the integrated supply chain decision modeling system, which is shared among the supply chain members across the Internet.

  10. Prognostic modeling of total global steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this publication was to present the results of prognoses for steel production volume in the world. This work was created on the basis of statistical data. The volume of total steel production in the world from 2000 to 2015 was used in order to create the prognosis. The prognoses were created until 2020 – for a period of 5 years. Econometric methods were used to execute the prognoses. The minimum value of error (square root was assumed as optimisation criterion of the point value of a prognosis. Individual prognoses were grouped according to change scenarios for the studied phenomenon, taking into account the trend nature.

  11. Reference model for apparel product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Moretti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to develop a reference model for the implementation of the process of product development (PDP for apparel. The tool was developed through an interactive process of comparison between theoretical. Managers in companies and professionals working in this market can utilize the reference model as a source for the organization and improvement of the PDP for apparel and the universities as a reference source for systematized teaching of this process. This model represents the first comprehensive attempt to develop an instrument at a detailed level (macro phases, phases, activities, inputs and outputs at each stage and at the gates to systematize the PDP process for fashion products and to consider its particularities.

  12. MAYAK production association ``the fifty year old secret''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikshov, A. I.; Glagolenko, Y. V.; Malykh, Y. A.; Langley, Roger; Latham, Ian

    1998-06-01

    This paper details the history, production capability, facilities and capacity of MAYAK Production Association. The paper also gives technical details of reactors, storage ponds and handling facilities used for fabrication of Co-60 and Cs-137 sources for Gamma Irradiation Plants and other applications, and describes the quality assurance system and methods.

  13. Testing Software Development Project Productivity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, Ilya

    Software development is an increasingly influential factor in today's business environment, and a major issue affecting software development is how an organization estimates projects. If the organization underestimates cost, schedule, and quality requirements, the end results will not meet customer needs. On the other hand, if the organization overestimates these criteria, resources that could have been used more profitably will be wasted. There is no accurate model or measure available that can guide an organization in a quest for software development, with existing estimation models often underestimating software development efforts as much as 500 to 600 percent. To address this issue, existing models usually are calibrated using local data with a small sample size, with resulting estimates not offering improved cost analysis. This study presents a conceptual model for accurately estimating software development, based on an extensive literature review and theoretical analysis based on Sociotechnical Systems (STS) theory. The conceptual model serves as a solution to bridge organizational and technological factors and is validated using an empirical dataset provided by the DoD. Practical implications of this study allow for practitioners to concentrate on specific constructs of interest that provide the best value for the least amount of time. This study outlines key contributing constructs that are unique for Software Size E-SLOC, Man-hours Spent, and Quality of the Product, those constructs having the largest contribution to project productivity. This study discusses customer characteristics and provides a framework for a simplified project analysis for source selection evaluation and audit task reviews for the customers and suppliers. Theoretical contributions of this study provide an initial theory-based hypothesized project productivity model that can be used as a generic overall model across several application domains such as IT, Command and Control

  14. Analysis of ten years production trends of a Nigerian University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual feed allowances of the pigs were far below the annual feed requirements in quantitative and qualitative terms over the ten-year period. The highest feed consumption deficit was recorded in the 10th year and the least deficit in the first year. Because of continued increase in the cost of feeds coupled with ...

  15. Streamlining environmental product declarations: a stage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Louis A.; Talbot, Stephane; Le Hen, Gael

    2001-02-01

    General public environmental awareness and education is increasing, therefore stimulating the demand for reliable, objective and comparable information about products' environmental performances. The recently published standard series ISO 14040 and ISO 14025 are normalizing the preparation of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) containing comprehensive information relevant to a product's environmental impact during its life cycle. So far, only a few environmentally leading manufacturing organizations have experimented the preparation of EPDs (mostly from Europe), demonstrating its great potential as a marketing weapon. However the preparation of EPDs is a complex process, requiring collection and analysis of massive amounts of information coming from disparate sources (suppliers, sub-contractors, etc.). In a foreseeable future, the streamlining of the EPD preparation process will require product manufacturers to adapt their information systems (ERP, MES, SCADA) in order to make them capable of gathering, and transmitting the appropriate environmental information. It also requires strong functional integration all along the product supply chain in order to ensure that all the information is made available in a standardized and timely manner. The goal of the present paper is two fold: first to propose a transitional model towards green supply chain management and EPD preparation; second to identify key technologies and methodologies allowing to streamline the EPD process and subsequently the transition toward sustainable product development

  16. Model of the Product Development Lifecycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Sunny L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roe, Natalie H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wood, Evan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nachtigal, Noel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helms, Jovana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    While the increased use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf information technology equipment has presented opportunities for improved cost effectiveness and flexibility, the corresponding loss of control over the product's development creates unique vulnerabilities and security concerns. Of particular interest is the possibility of a supply chain attack. A comprehensive model for the lifecycle of hardware and software products is proposed based on a survey of existing literature from academic, government, and industry sources. Seven major lifecycle stages are identified and defined: (1) Requirements, (2) Design, (3) Manufacturing for hardware and Development for software, (4) Testing, (5) Distribution, (6) Use and Maintenance, and (7) Disposal. The model is then applied to examine the risk of attacks at various stages of the lifecycle.

  17. Constraining supergravity models from gluino production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.; Gamberini, G.; Giudice, G.F.; Ridolfi, G.

    1988-01-01

    The branching ratios for gluino decays g tilde → qanti qΧ, g tilde → gΧ into a stable undetected neutralino are computed as functions of the relevant parameters of the underlying supergravity theory. A simple way of constraining supergravity models from gluino production emerges. The effectiveness of hadronic versus e + e - colliders in the search for supersymmetry can be directly compared. (orig.)

  18. Product with service, technology with business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakao, Tomohiko; McAloone, Tim C.

    2011-01-01

    Looking back over the last decade, the importance of an expanded understanding of engineering design has been shared within the engineering design community. Presented concepts and methods to support such expansion include Functional Product Development, Service Engineering, and Product/Service-S...... promising concept beyond PSS design; via an integrated development of technology and business model. This can be of particular interest for further research, especially due to its high freedom for designers.......Looking back over the last decade, the importance of an expanded understanding of engineering design has been shared within the engineering design community. Presented concepts and methods to support such expansion include Functional Product Development, Service Engineering, and Product....../Service-Systems (PSS) design. This paper first explains PSS design as a type of an expansion of the engineering design of a physical product. Secondly, it gives a review of PSS research and a projection of future research issues, also ranging out into untraditional fields of research. Finally, it presents a new...

  19. Multi-scale modeling for sustainable chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kai; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Herrgård, Markus J

    2013-09-01

    With recent advances in metabolic engineering, it is now technically possible to produce a wide portfolio of existing petrochemical products from biomass feedstock. In recent years, a number of modeling approaches have been developed to support the engineering and decision-making processes associated with the development and implementation of a sustainable biochemical industry. The temporal and spatial scales of modeling approaches for sustainable chemical production vary greatly, ranging from metabolic models that aid the design of fermentative microbial strains to material and monetary flow models that explore the ecological impacts of all economic activities. Research efforts that attempt to connect the models at different scales have been limited. Here, we review a number of existing modeling approaches and their applications at the scales of metabolism, bioreactor, overall process, chemical industry, economy, and ecosystem. In addition, we propose a multi-scale approach for integrating the existing models into a cohesive framework. The major benefit of this proposed framework is that the design and decision-making at each scale can be informed, guided, and constrained by simulations and predictions at every other scale. In addition, the development of this multi-scale framework would promote cohesive collaborations across multiple traditionally disconnected modeling disciplines to achieve sustainable chemical production. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. TECHNICAL PRODUCT RISK ASSESSMENT: STANDARDS, INTEGRATION IN THE ERM MODEL AND UNCERTAINTY MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Djapic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union has accomplished, through introducing New Approach to technical harmonization and standardization, a breakthrough in the field of technical products safety and in assessing their conformity, in such a manner that it integrated products safety requirements into the process of products development. This is achieved by quantifying risk levels with the aim of determining the scope of the required safety measures and systems. The theory of probability is used as a tool for modeling uncertainties in the assessment of that risk. In the last forty years are developed new mathematical theories have proven to be better at modeling uncertainty when we have not enough data about uncertainty events which is usually the case in product development. Bayesian networks based on modeling of subjective probability and Evidence networks based on Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions proved to be an excellent tool for modeling uncertainty when we do not have enough information about all events aspect.

  1. An inventory control model for biomass dependent production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grado, S.C.; Strauss, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The financial performance of a biomass dependent production system was critiqued based on the development and validation of an inventory control model. Dynamic programming was used to examine the constraints and capabilities of producing ethanol from various biomass crops. In particular, the model evaluated the plantation, harvest, and manufacturing components of a woody biomass supply system. The optimum wood to ethanol production scheme produced 38 million litres of ethanol in the harvest year, at 13.6 million litre increase over the least optimal policy as demonstrated in the dynamic programming results. The system produced ethanol at a delivered cost of $0.38 L -1 which was consistent with the unit costs from other studies. Nearly 60% of the delivered costs were in ethanol production. The remaining costs were attributed to growing biomass (14%), harvest and shipment of the crop (18%), storage of the raw material and finished product (7%) and open-quotes lost salesclose quotes (2%). Inventory control, in all phases of production, proved to be an important cost consideration throughout the model. The model also analyzed the employment of alternative harvesting policies and the use of different or multiple feedstocks. A comparison between the least cost wood system and an even cut wood system further revealed the benefits of using an inventory control system

  2. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas

  3. Global cropland monthly gross primary production in the year 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Werf, van der G.R.; Gobron, N.; Moors, E.J.; Dolman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Croplands cover about 12% of the ice-free terrestrial land surface. Compared with natural ecosystems, croplands have distinct characteristics due to anthropogenic influences. Their global gross primary production (GPP) is not well constrained and estimates vary between 8.2 and 14.2 Pg C yr-1. We

  4. Satellite-based terrestrial production efficiency modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obersteiner Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production efficiency models (PEMs are based on the theory of light use efficiency (LUE which states that a relatively constant relationship exists between photosynthetic carbon uptake and radiation receipt at the canopy level. Challenges remain however in the application of the PEM methodology to global net primary productivity (NPP monitoring. The objectives of this review are as follows: 1 to describe the general functioning of six PEMs (CASA; GLO-PEM; TURC; C-Fix; MOD17; and BEAMS identified in the literature; 2 to review each model to determine potential improvements to the general PEM methodology; 3 to review the related literature on satellite-based gross primary productivity (GPP and NPP modeling for additional possibilities for improvement; and 4 based on this review, propose items for coordinated research. This review noted a number of possibilities for improvement to the general PEM architecture - ranging from LUE to meteorological and satellite-based inputs. Current PEMs tend to treat the globe similarly in terms of physiological and meteorological factors, often ignoring unique regional aspects. Each of the existing PEMs has developed unique methods to estimate NPP and the combination of the most successful of these could lead to improvements. It may be beneficial to develop regional PEMs that can be combined under a global framework. The results of this review suggest the creation of a hybrid PEM could bring about a significant enhancement to the PEM methodology and thus terrestrial carbon flux modeling. Key items topping the PEM research agenda identified in this review include the following: LUE should not be assumed constant, but should vary by plant functional type (PFT or photosynthetic pathway; evidence is mounting that PEMs should consider incorporating diffuse radiation; continue to pursue relationships between satellite-derived variables and LUE, GPP and autotrophic respiration (Ra; there is an urgent need for

  5. Satellite-based terrestrial production efficiency modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Ian; Wagner, Wolfgang; Schmullius, Christiane; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Obersteiner, Michael; Fritz, Steffen; Nilsson, Sten

    2009-09-18

    Production efficiency models (PEMs) are based on the theory of light use efficiency (LUE) which states that a relatively constant relationship exists between photosynthetic carbon uptake and radiation receipt at the canopy level. Challenges remain however in the application of the PEM methodology to global net primary productivity (NPP) monitoring. The objectives of this review are as follows: 1) to describe the general functioning of six PEMs (CASA; GLO-PEM; TURC; C-Fix; MOD17; and BEAMS) identified in the literature; 2) to review each model to determine potential improvements to the general PEM methodology; 3) to review the related literature on satellite-based gross primary productivity (GPP) and NPP modeling for additional possibilities for improvement; and 4) based on this review, propose items for coordinated research.This review noted a number of possibilities for improvement to the general PEM architecture - ranging from LUE to meteorological and satellite-based inputs. Current PEMs tend to treat the globe similarly in terms of physiological and meteorological factors, often ignoring unique regional aspects. Each of the existing PEMs has developed unique methods to estimate NPP and the combination of the most successful of these could lead to improvements. It may be beneficial to develop regional PEMs that can be combined under a global framework. The results of this review suggest the creation of a hybrid PEM could bring about a significant enhancement to the PEM methodology and thus terrestrial carbon flux modeling.Key items topping the PEM research agenda identified in this review include the following: LUE should not be assumed constant, but should vary by plant functional type (PFT) or photosynthetic pathway; evidence is mounting that PEMs should consider incorporating diffuse radiation; continue to pursue relationships between satellite-derived variables and LUE, GPP and autotrophic respiration (Ra); there is an urgent need for satellite-based biomass

  6. An analytical framework for handling production time variety at workstations of mixed-model assembly lines

    OpenAIRE

    Keckl, Stefan; Kern, Wolfgang; Abou-Haydar, A.; Westkämper, Engelbert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years market demands have shifted towards customized products. As a result many manufacturing companies face an increasing variety of their product range. As it is not profitable to install new assembly lines for each product, assembly lines have to be able to handle different products in batch size one. In literature these lines are called mixed-model lines. They follow the logical principal of flow production but are capable of producing different products while needing minimal mo...

  7. Production of stable isotopes at Urenco. 10 years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, C.A.; Rakhorst, H.

    2003-01-01

    In the last ten years, Urenco has built its spin-off activity of stable isotopes in a multi-million dollar business. It is a high quality, ISO certified, client oriented and profitable European business with further growth potential. (author)

  8. Modeling Hourly Resident Productivity in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua W; Henning, Daniel J; Strouse, Connie S; Chiu, David T; Nathanson, Larry A; Sanchez, Leon D

    2017-08-01

    Resident productivity, defined as new patients per hour, carries important implications for emergency department operations. In high-volume academic centers, essential staffing decisions can be made on the assumption that residents see patients at a static rate. However, it is unclear whether this model mirrors reality; previous studies have not rigorously examined whether productivity changes over time. We examine residents' productivity across shifts to determine whether it remained consistent. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in an urban academic hospital with a 3-year emergency medicine training program in which residents acquire patients ad libitum throughout their shift. Time stamps of all patient encounters were automatically logged. A linear mixed model was constructed to predict productivity per shift hour. A total of 14,364 8- and 9-hour shifts were worked by 75 residents between July 1, 2010, and June 20, 2015. This comprised 6,127 (42.7%) postgraduate year (PGY) 1 shifts, 7,236 (50.4%) PGY-2 shifts, and 998 (6.9%) PGY-3 nonsupervisory shifts (Table 1). Overall, residents treated a mean of 10.1 patients per shift (SD 3.2), with most patients at Emergency Severity Index level 3 or more acute (93.8%). In the initial hour, residents treated a mean of 2.14 patients (SD 1.2), and every subsequent hour was associated with a significant decrease, with the largest in the second, third, and final hours. Emergency medicine resident productivity during a single shift follows a reliable pattern that decreases significantly hourly, a pattern preserved across PGY years and types of shifts. This suggests that resident productivity is a dynamic process, which should be considered in staffing decisions and studied further. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Next Generation Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, John M.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural system models have become important tools to provide predictive and assessment capability to a growing array of decision-makers in the private and public sectors. Despite ongoing research and model improvements, many of the agricultural models today are direct descendants of research investments initially made 30-40 years ago, and many of the major advances in data, information and communication technology (ICT) of the past decade have not been fully exploited. The purpose of this Special Issue of Agricultural Systems is to lay the foundation for the next generation of agricultural systems data, models and knowledge products. The Special Issue is based on a 'NextGen' study led by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  10. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  11. Community use of XALT in its first year in production

    KAUST Repository

    Budiardja, Reuben

    2015-11-15

    XALT collects accurate, detailed, and continuous job-level and link-time data and stores that data in a database; all the data collection is transparent to the users. The data stored can be mined to generate a picture of the compilers, libraries, and other software that users need to run their jobs successfully, highlighting the products that researchers use. We showcase how data collected by XALT can be easily mined into a digestible format by presenting data from four separate HPC centers. XALT is already used by many HPC centers around the world due to its usefulness and complementariness to existing logs and databases. Centers with XALT have a much better understanding of library and executable usage and patterns. We also present new functionality in XALT - namely the ability to anonymize data and early work in providing seamless access to provenance data.

  12. A 100-Year Review: Cheese production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M E

    2017-12-01

    In the beginning, cheese making in the United States was all art, but embracing science and technology was necessary to make progress in producing a higher quality cheese. Traditional cheese making could not keep up with the demand for cheese, and the development of the factory system was necessary. Cheese quality suffered because of poor-quality milk, but 3 major innovations changed that: refrigeration, commercial starters, and the use of pasteurized milk for cheese making. Although by all accounts cold storage improved cheese quality, it was the improvement of milk quality, pasteurization of milk, and the use of reliable cultures for fermentation that had the biggest effect. Together with use of purified commercial cultures, pasteurization enabled cheese production to be conducted on a fixed time schedule. Fundamental research on the genetics of starter bacteria greatly increased the reliability of fermentation, which in turn made automation feasible. Demand for functionality, machinability, application in baking, and more emphasis on nutritional aspects (low fat and low sodium) of cheese took us back to the fundamental principles of cheese making and resulted in renewed vigor for scientific investigations into the chemical, microbiological, and enzymatic changes that occur during cheese making and ripening. As milk production increased, cheese factories needed to become more efficient. Membrane concentration and separation of milk offered a solution and greatly enhanced plant capacity. Full implementation of membrane processing and use of its full potential have yet to be achieved. Implementation of new technologies, the science of cheese making, and the development of further advances will require highly trained personnel at both the academic and industrial levels. This will be a great challenge to address and overcome. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical modelling of fine red wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Producing wine is a very important economic activity in the province of San Juan in Argentina; it is therefore most important to predict production regarding the quantity of raw material needed. This work was aimed at obtaining a model relating kilograms of crushed grape to the litres of wine so produced. Such model will be used for predicting precise future values and confidence intervals for determined quantities of crushed grapes. Data from a vineyard in the province of San Juan was thus used in this work. The sampling coefficient of correlation was calculated and a dispersion diagram was then constructed; this indicated a li- neal relationship between the litres of wine obtained and the kilograms of crushed grape. Two lineal models were then adopted and variance analysis was carried out because the data came from normal populations having the same variance. The most appropriate model was obtained from this analysis; it was validated with experimental values, a good approach being obtained.

  14. Yarrowia lipolytica: a model yeast for citric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ema; Charreau, Hernán; Cerrutti, Patricia; Foresti, María Laura

    2017-12-01

    Every year more than 2 million tons of citric acid (CA) are produced around the world for industrial uses. Although initially extracted from citrus, the low profitability of the process and the increasing demand soon stimulated the search for more efficient methods to produce CA. Currently, most world CA demand (99%) is satisfied by fermentations with microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi and yeasts. CA production with yeasts has certain advantages over molds (e.g. higher productivity and easier cultivation), which in the last two decades have triggered a clear increase in publications and patents devoted to the use of yeasts in this field. Yarrowia lipolytica has become a model yeast that proved to be successful in different production systems. Considering the current interest evidenced in the literature, the most significant information on CA production using Y. lipolytica is summarized. The relevance on CA yields of key factors such as strains, media formulation, environmental conditions and production regimes is thoroughly discussed, with particular focus on increasing CA productivity. Besides, the possibility of tuning the mentioned variables to reduce concomitant isocitric acid production-the biggest disadvantage of using yeasts-is analyzed. Available methods for CA purification/quantification are also discussed. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Modeling of Kefir Production with Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Nail Akgül

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation is ended with pH 4.6 values in industrial production of kefir. In this study, the incubation temperature, the incubation time and inoculums of culture were chose as variable parameters of kefir. In conventional control systems, the value of pH can be found by trial method. In these systems, if the number of input parameters is greater, the method of trial and error creates a system dependent on the person as well as troublesome. Fuzzy logic can be used in such cases. Modeling studies with this fuzzy logic control are examined in two portions. The first part consists of fuzzy rules and membership functions, while the second part consists of clarify. Kefir incubation temperature between 20 and 25°C, the incubation period between 18 to 22 hours and the inoculum ratio of culture between 1-5% are selected for optimum production conditions. Three separate fuzzy sets (triangular membership function are used to blur the incubation temperature, the incubation time and the inoculum ratio of culture. Because the membership function numbers belonging to the the input parameters are 3 units, 3x3x3=27 line rule is obtained by multiplying these numbers. The table of fuzzy rules was obtained using the method of Mamdani. The membership function values were determined by the method of average weight using three trapezoidal area of membership functions created for clarification. The success of the system will be found, comparing the numerical values obtained with pH values that should be. Eventually, to achieve the desired pH value of 4.6 in the production of kefir, with the using of fuzzy logic, the workload of people will be decreased and the productivity of business can be increased. In this case, it can be provided savings in both cost and time.

  16. Generic modeling propositions for configuring, sale, product and production

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , L.; Vareilles , Élise; Aldanondo , Michel; Helo , P.

    2012-01-01

    IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), HONG KONG, DEC 10-13, 2012; International audience; Facilitating product customization, configuration has attracted much attention from both academia and industry alike. However, the available studies and the reported systems focus on sales or product configuration while leaving other important issues in developing customized products unaddressed. In this study, we propose a new configuration concept: i...

  17. MODIS/Terra Net Primary Production Yearly L4 Global 500m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD17A3H Version 6 product provides information about annual (yearly) Net Primary Production at 500 meter pixel resolution. Annual NPP is derived from the sum of...

  18. MODIS/Aqua Net Primary Production Yearly L4 Global 500m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD17A3H Version 6 product provides information about annual (yearly) Net Primary Production at 500 meter pixel resolution. Annual NPP is derived from the sum of...

  19. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard

    2008-10-31

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2007, the program saved 7.1 Quads of primary energy and avoided 128 MtC equivalent. The forecast shows that the program is expected to save 21.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 375 MtC equivalent over the period 2008-2015. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 84 MtC and 172 MtC (1993 to 2007) and between 243 MtC and 519 MtC (2008 to 2015).

  20. Tendencies in changes of certain brands of animal production in Poland in the years 2003 - 2009

    OpenAIRE

    BALCERAK MAREK; ŚMIGIELSKA DOROTA

    2011-01-01

    Popularity of given brands of animal production is influenced by profitability. Low income forces farmers to reduce or even liquidate the breeding. Animal production constitutes over half of the whole rural production of goods. Changes in the agricultural sector in the years 2003 2009 influenced the stabilization of dairy production. With the growth of the population by 231 395 pieces compared to year 2003, unit performance is also systematically growing. Such growth can also be observed in c...

  1. Pion production model - connection between dynamics and quark models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.-S. H.; Sato, T.

    2000-05-17

    The authors discuss the difficulties in testing the hadron models by using the N{sup *} parameters extracted from the empirical amplitude analyses of the {pi}N and {gamma}N reaction data. As an alternative or perhaps a more advantageous approach, they present a Hamiltonian formulation that can relate the pion production dynamics and the constituent quark models of N{sup *} structure. The application of the approach in investigating the {Delta} and N{sup *}(S{sub 11}) excitations is reviewed. It is found that while the {Delta} excitation can be described satisfactory, the {pi}N scattering in S{sub 11} channel can not be described by the constituent quark models based on either the one-gluon-exchange or one-meson-exchange mechanisms. A phenomenological quark-quark potential has been constructed to reproduce the S{sub 11} amplitude.

  2. Proposal for product development model focused on ce certification methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Marcia Goulart Pinheiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis comparing 21 product development models in order to identify whether these structures meet the demands Product Certification of the European Community (CE. Furthermore, it presents a product development model, comprising the steps in the models analyzed, including improvements in activities for referred product certification. The proposed improvements are justified by the growing quest for the internationalization of products and processes within companies.

  3. ISRU System Model Tool: From Excavation to Oxygen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Linne, Diane L.

    2007-01-01

    In the late 80's, conceptual designs for an in situ oxygen production plant were documented in a study by Eagle Engineering [1]. In the "Summary of Findings" of this study, it is clearly pointed out that: "reported process mass and power estimates lack a consistent basis to allow comparison." The study goes on to say: "A study to produce a set of process mass, power, and volume requirements on a consistent basis is recommended." Today, approximately twenty years later, as humans plan to return to the moon and venture beyond, the need for flexible up-to-date models of the oxygen extraction production process has become even more clear. Multiple processes for the production of oxygen from lunar regolith are being investigated by NASA, academia, and industry. Three processes that have shown technical merit are molten regolith electrolysis, hydrogen reduction, and carbothermal reduction. These processes have been selected by NASA as the basis for the development of the ISRU System Model Tool (ISMT). In working to develop up-to-date system models for these processes NASA hopes to accomplish the following: (1) help in the evaluation process to select the most cost-effective and efficient process for further prototype development, (2) identify key parameters, (3) optimize the excavation and oxygen production processes, and (4) provide estimates on energy and power requirements, mass and volume of the system, oxygen production rate, mass of regolith required, mass of consumables, and other important parameters. Also, as confidence and high fidelity is achieved with each component's model, new techniques and processes can be introduced and analyzed at a fraction of the cost of traditional hardware development and test approaches. A first generation ISRU System Model Tool has been used to provide inputs to the Lunar Architecture Team studies.

  4. The Structured Intuitive Model for Product Line Economics (SIMPLE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clements, Paul C; McGregor, John D; Cohen, Sholom G

    2005-01-01

    .... This report presents the Structured Intuitive Model of Product Line Economics (SIMPLE), a general-purpose business model that supports the estimation of the costs and benefits in a product line development organization...

  5. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land Product covering a year V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Component Global Land Product covering a year contains a statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR), photosynthetically...

  6. Do Years of Experience With Electronic Health Records Matter for Productivity in Community Health Centers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frogner, Bianca K; Wu, Xiaoli; Ku, Leighton; Pittman, Patricia; Masselink, Leah E

    This study investigated how years of experience with an electronic health record (EHR) related to productivity in community health centers (CHCs). Using data from the 2012 Uniform Data System, we regressed average annual medical visits, weighted for service intensity, as a function of full-time equivalent medical staff controlling for CHC size and location. Physician productivity significantly improved. Although the productivity of all other staff types was not significantly different by years of EHR experience, the trends showed lower productivity among nurses and other medical staff in CHCs with fewer years of EHR experience versus more years of experience.

  7. Vermont travel model 2010-2011 (year 3) report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is being prepared under Task 1 of the Maintenance, Operation and Evaluation of the VTrans Statewide Transportation Model contract with the Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) in the 2010-2011 year of the contract. The objectiv...

  8. Research on the Development of E-commerce Model of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic commerce of agricultural products has developed rapidly. In the development process of electronic commerce of agricultural products,many classic cases and business models have emerged. Such as tootoo industrial commune model (product drive type, Original life model (marketing driven type, Suichang model (service platform type. The author analyzes and compares each model from 7 aspects, and summarizes their differences and links. Finally, The author puts forward suggestions on the development of electronic commerce of agricultural products in china.

  9. Kanban simulation model for production process optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchev Riste

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A long time has passed since the KANBAN system has been established as an efficient method for coping with the excessive inventory. Still, the possibilities for its improvement through its integration with other different approaches should be investigated further. The basic research challenge of this paper is to present benefits of KANBAN implementation supported with Discrete Event Simulation (DES. In that direction, at the beginning, the basics of KANBAN system are presented with emphasis on the information and material flow, together with a methodology for implementation of KANBAN system. Certain analysis on combining the simulation with this methodology is presented. The paper is concluded with a practical example which shows that through understanding the philosophy of the implementation methodology of KANBAN system and the simulation methodology, a simulation model can be created which can serve as a basis for a variety of experiments that can be conducted within a short period of time, resulting with production process optimization.

  10. A model of northern pintail productivity and population growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.; Rockwell, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    Our objective was to synthesize individual components of reproductive ecology into a single estimate of productivity and to assess the relative effects of survival and productivity on population dynamics. We used information on nesting ecology, renesting potential, and duckling survival of northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, 1991-95, to model the number of ducklings produced under a range of nest success and duckling survival probabilities. Using average values of 25% nest success, 11% duckling survival, and 56% renesting probability from our study population, we calculated that all young in our population were produced by 13% of the breeding females, and that early-nesting females produced more young than later-nesting females. Further, we calculated, on average, that each female produced only 0.16 young females/nesting season. We combined these results with estimates of first-year and adult survival to examine the growth rate (X) of the population and the relative contributions of these demographic parameters to that growth rate. Contrary to aerial survey data, the population projection model suggests our study population is declining rapidly (X = 0.6969). The relative effects on population growth rate were 0.1175 for reproductive success, 0.1175 for first-year survival, and 0.8825 for adult survival. Adult survival had the greatest influence on X for our population, and this conclusion was robust over a range of survival and productivity estimates. Given published estimates of annual survival for adult females (61%), our model suggested nest success and duckling survival need to increase to approximately 40% to achieve population stability. We discuss reasons for the apparent discrepancy in population trends between our model and aerial surveys in terms of bias in productivity and survival estimates.

  11. Cupola modeling research: Phase 2 (Year one), Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-20

    Objective was to develop a mathematical model of the cupola furnace (cast iron production) in on-line and off-line process control and optimization. In Phase I, the general structure of the heat transfer, fluid flow, and chemical models were laid out, providing reasonable descriptions of cupola behavior with a one-dimensional representation. Work was also initiated on a two-dimensional model. Phase II was focused on perfecting the one-dimensional model. The contributions include these from MIT, Michigan University, and GM.

  12. Product modeling standards for the building and construction industry : Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, F.P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past ten years most sectors of industry have been developing standards for the electronic sharing and exchange of product model data. While several related industries, such as automotive and shipbuilding manufacturing have been relatively successful in integrating electronic product models

  13. Year clustering analysis for modelling olive flowering phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, J.; García-Mozo, H.; Hervás-Martínez, C.; Galán, C.

    2013-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that weather conditions occurring several months prior to the onset of flowering have a major influence on various aspects of olive reproductive phenology, including flowering intensity. Given the variable characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, we analyse its influence on the registered variations in olive flowering intensity in southern Spain, and relate them to previous climatic parameters using a year-clustering approach, as a first step towards an olive flowering phenology model adapted to different year categories. Phenological data from Cordoba province (Southern Spain) for a 30-year period (1982-2011) were analysed. Meteorological and phenological data were first subjected to both hierarchical and "K-means" clustering analysis, which yielded four year-categories. For this classification purpose, three different models were tested: (1) discriminant analysis; (2) decision-tree analysis; and (3) neural network analysis. Comparison of the results showed that the neural-networks model was the most effective, classifying four different year categories with clearly distinct weather features. Flowering-intensity models were constructed for each year category using the partial least squares regression method. These category-specific models proved to be more effective than general models. They are better suited to the variability of the Mediterranean climate, due to the different response of plants to the same environmental stimuli depending on the previous weather conditions in any given year. The present detailed analysis of the influence of weather patterns of different years on olive phenology will help us to understand the short-term effects of climate change on olive crop in the Mediterranean area that is highly affected by it.

  14. Seed production of native forbs shows little response to irrigation in a wet year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton C. Shock; Erik B. G. Feibert; Lamont D. Saunders; Nancy Shaw; Ann DeBolt

    2007-01-01

    Native forb seed is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production of native forb seed is stable and consistent seed productivity over years. Variations in spring rainfall and soil moisture...

  15. Integrate System Modeling for Design and Production Planning of High Quality Products Considering Failure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Kazuhiro; Koga, Tsuyoshi

    2009-07-01

    Since the product recall problem is recently observed, realizing design and production activities that can prevent occurrences of a product failure has been becoming a serious issue. This paper proposes "the Synthetic design approach of a product and a production process which enables to reduce occurrences of a product failure from the initial stage of a product development." In order to realize this proposed concept as a specific system, the integrated model of the failure information in the design and production is introduced. This paper shows some examples of design and production for a circuit breaker and an automobile with considering a design error and a production failure using developed prototype system.

  16. 40 CFR 600.512-86 - Model year report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) A listing of both domestically and nondomestically produced car lines as determined in § 600.511 and... must include the following information: (1) All fuel economy data used in the labeling calculations and... fuel economy value for each model type of the manufacturer's product line calculated according to § 600...

  17. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Classified Marketing of Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Fengying

    2014-01-01

    Classified marketing of agricultural products was analyzed using the Logistic Regression Model. This method can take full advantage of information in agricultural product database, to find factors influencing best selling degree of agricultural products, and make quantitative analysis accordingly. Using this model, it is also able to predict sales of agricultural products, and provide reference for mapping out individualized sales strategy for popularizing agricultural products.

  18. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Third year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared by the Applied Research Corporation (ARC), College Station, Texas, under subcontract to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate studies task. The task supports site characterization work required for the selection of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository and is part of the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL. The work is under the overall direction of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), US Department of Energy Headquarters, Washington, DC. The scope of the report is to present the results of the third year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain several studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.

  19. GEM1: First-year modeling and IT activities for the Global Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Giardini, D.; Wiemer, S.

    2009-04-01

    components are in the planning stages, such as the developments of a unified active fault database and earthquake catalog. The flagship activity of GEM's first year is GEM1, a focused pilot project to develop GEM's first hazard and risk modeling products and initial IT infrastructure, starting in January 2009 and ending in March 2010. GEM1 will provide core capabilities for the present and key knowledge for future development of the full GEM computing Environment and product set. We will build GEM1 largely using existing tools and datasets, connected through a unified IT infrastructure, in order to bring GEM's initial capabilities online as rapidly as possible. The Swiss Seismological Service at ETH-Zurich is leading the GEM1 effort in cooperation with partners around the world. We anticipate that GEM1's products will include: • A global compilation of regional seismic source zone models in one or more common representations • Global synthetic earthquake catalogs for use in hazard calculations • Initial set of regional and global catalogues for validation • Global hazard models in map and database forms • First compilation of global vulnerabilities and fragilities • Tools for exposure and loss assessment • Validation of results and software for existing risk assessment tools to be used in future GEM stages • Demonstration risk scenarios for target cities • First version of GEM IT infrastructure All these products will be made freely available to the greatest extent possible. For more information on GEM and GEM1, please visit http://www.globalquakemodel.org.

  20. Haemorrhage of gross domestic product from disability-adjusted-life-years among 15-59 year olds in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joses Muthuri Kirigia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article estimates non-health gross domestic product (GDP losses associated with Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY lost among 15-59 year olds (most productive age bracket in Kenya in 2015. Methods: This study employs the lost output or human capital approach (HCA to convert the DALYs lost from all causes into their monetary equivalents. The magnitude economic haemorrhage from each disease was obtained by multiplying the per capita non-health GDP in International Dollars by the total number of DALYs lost in a specific age group (15-29 years, 30-49 years, 50-59 years. Per capita non-health GDP equals per capita GDP minus total health expenditure in 2015. Data on DALYs and per capita total health expenditure were obtained from the World Health Organization and per capita GDP data was from IMF databases. Results: Kenya lost 9,405,184 DALYs among 15-59 years olds in 2015. That DALY loss caused a haemorrhage in GDP of Int$ 29,788,392,419. Approximately 48.6% of the GDP haemorrhage resulted from communicable diseases and nutritional conditions, 37.4% from non-communicable diseases, and 14.0% from injuries. Conclusion: There is need to augment domestic and external investments into national health systems and other systems that meet basic needs (education, food, water, sanitation, shelter to reduce disease burden. Key words: Non-health GDP, economic haemorrhage, disability-adjusted life year (DALY

  1. Luttinger model the first 50 years and some new directions

    CERN Document Server

    Mattis, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    The Luttinger Model is the only model of many-fermion physics with legitimate claims to be both exactly and completely solvable. In several respects it plays the same role in many-body theory as does the 2D Ising model in statistical physics. Interest in the Luttinger model has increased steadily ever since its introduction half a century ago. The present volume starts with reprints of the seminal papers in which it was originally introduced and solved, and continues with several contributions setting out the landscape of the principal advances of the last fifty years and of prominent new dire

  2. Description, Modelling and Design of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Rudolph, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    Design of production systems are rarely an activity in which decision makers in most production companies have much experience. In future, this activity is to be more recurrent due to more and more frequent changes in the production task. Consequently, the decision makers are in need of better ma...

  3. CHANGES IN PRODUCTIVITY OF SELECTED BRANCHES OF THE POLISH FOOD SECTOR IN THE YEARS 2004–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Baran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to specify changes in productivity of the Polish food sector as a whole and its selected branches in the years 2004–2013. Analyses were conducted based on the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI. In the MPI model the following variables were adopted: the output – sold production (million PLN, inputs – average number of employees (thous and gross value of fi xed assets (million PLN. It was confi rmed that productivity of the Polish food sector improved in the years 2004–2013. Results of analyses showed that changes in technical effi ciency had a greater eff ect on changes in food sector productivity in Poland – particularly in the fi rst period following Poland’s accession to the EU and starting from 2009, i.e. the outbreak of the economic crisis. Technical change had a considerable eff ect on the improvement of productivity in the food sector only in the years 2006– 2008. The greatest mean annual improvement in productivity in the analysed period was observed in meat and milk processing and beverage production

  4. Information Sharing In Shipbuilding based on the Product State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    The paper provides a review of product modelling technologies and the overall architecture for the Product State Model (PSM) environment as a basis for how dynamically updated product data can improve control of production activities. Especially, the paper focuses on the circumstances prevailing...... in a one-of-a-kind manufacturing environment like the shipbuilding industry, where product modelling technologies already have proved their worth in the design and engineering phases of shipbuilding and in the operation phase. However, the handling of product information on the shop floor is not yet...

  5. A Model for the Evaluation of Educational Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Charles L.

    A model for the evaluation of educational products based on experience with development of three such products is described. The purpose of the evaluation model is to indicate the flow of evaluation activity as products undergo development. Evaluation is given Stufflebeam's definition as the process of delineating, obtaining, and providing useful…

  6. development of an integrated production inventory model for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... production inventory system is extended for non-instantaneous production and integrated with concept of inventory models with cost changes. Integer multiple parameters are used as a check factor for cost minimization. A numerical example is also presented. KeyWords Inventory, Production, Optimization, Modeling

  7. Product Trial Processing (PTP): a model approach from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Product Trial Processing (PTP): a model approach from theconsumer's perspective. ... Global Journal of Social Sciences ... Among the constructs used in the model of consumer's processing of product trail includes; experiential and non- experiential attributes, perceived validity of product trial, consumer perceived expertise, ...

  8. Wind farm electrical power production model for load flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Heras, Isidoro; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy increases in activities relating to new forms of managing and operating electrical power: especially wind power. Wind generation is increasing its share in the electricity generation portfolios of many countries. Wind power production in Spain has doubled over the past four years and has reached 20 GW. One of the greatest problems facing wind farms is that the electrical power generated depends on the variable characteristics of the wind. To become competitive in a liberalized market, the reliability of wind energy must be guaranteed. Good local wind forecasts are therefore essential for the accurate prediction of generation levels for each moment of the day. This paper proposes an electrical power production model for wind farms based on a new method that produces correlated wind speeds for various wind farms. This method enables a reliable evaluation of the impact of new wind farms on the high-voltage distribution grid. (author)

  9. Computable General Equilibrium Model Fiscal Year 2013 Capability Development Report - April 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC); Rivera, Michael K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC)

    2014-04-01

    This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.

  10. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  11. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme D. Coles

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  12. Property Modelling for Applications in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Physical-chemical properties of pure chemicals and their mixtures play an important role in the design of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Although, the use of experimental data in design and analysis of chemicals based products and their processes is desirable...... such as database, property model library, model parameter regression, and, property-model based product-process design will be presented. The database contains pure component and mixture data for a wide range of organic chemicals. The property models are based on the combined group contribution and atom...... modeling tools in design and analysis of chemical product-process design, including biochemical processes will be highlighted....

  13. A Model to Improve the Quality Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan GOKKAYA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is to present a solution who can improve product qualityfollowing the idea: “Unlike people who have verbal skills, machines use "sign language"to communicate what hurts or what has invaded their system’. Recognizing the "signs"or symptoms that the machine conveys is a required skill for those who work withmachines and are responsible for their care and feeding. The acoustic behavior of technical products is predominantly defined in the design stage, although the acoustic characteristics of machine structures can be analyze and give a solution for the actual products and create a new generation of products. The paper describes the steps intechnological process for a product and the solution who will reduce the costs with the non-quality of product and improve the management quality.

  14. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  15. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    We study an extension of the economic production lot size model, where more than one production rate can be used during a cycle. Moreover, the production rates, as well as their corresponding runtimes are decision variables. First, we show that all production rates should be choosen in the interval...

  16. Modeling annual Coffee production in Ghana using ARIMA time series Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Harris

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the international commodity trade, coffee, which represents the world’s most valuable tropical agricultural commodity, comes next to oil. Indeed, it is estimated that about 40 million people in the major producing countries in Africa derive their livelihood from coffee, with Africa accounting for about 12 per cent of global production. The paper applied Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA time series model to study the behavior of Ghana’s annual coffee production as well as make five years forecasts. Annual coffee production data from 1990 to 2010 was obtained from Ghana cocoa board and analyzed using ARIMA. The results showed that in general, the trend of Ghana’s total coffee production follows an upward and downward movement. The best model arrived at on the basis of various diagnostics, selection and an evaluation criterion was ARIMA (0,3,1. Finally, the forecast figures base on Box- Jenkins method showed that Ghana’s annual coffee production will decrease continuously in the next five (5 years, all things being equal

  17. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The success and profitability of aquaculture production is highly dependent on the proper management employed during the culture period. This management is synonymous with water management since water of suitable quality and quantity is a pre-requisite for any successful aquacultural production. The knowledge of ...

  18. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success and profitability of aquaculture production is highly dependent on the proper management employed during the culture period. This management is synonymous with water management since water of suitable quality and quantity is a pre-requisite for any successful aquacultural production. The knowledge of ...

  19. Modelling production system architectures in the early phases of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    on – leading to an improved basis for prioritizing activities in the project. Requirements for the contents of the framework are presented, and literature on production and system models is reviewed. The production system architecture modelling framework is founded on methods and approaches in literature......This article suggests a framework for modelling a production system architecture in the early phases of product development.The challenge in these phases is that the products to be produced are not completely defined and yet decisions need to be made early in the process on what investments...... are needed and appropriate to enable determination of obtainable product quality. In order to meet this challenge, it is suggested that a visual modelling framework be adopted that clarifies which product and production features are known at a specific time of the project and which features will be worked...

  20. Model optimizing production structure of coal enterprise and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Business and Adminsitration

    2000-05-01

    The models which optimize the product structure and maximize the profit of a coal enterprise were established. These models are mainly the increment and total analysis model for determining the optimum coal preparation scheme, the model of management risk analysis, and the linear plan model for deciding the optimum product structure under the condition of a given technology. They have been applied to coal enterprise in practice and obtained obvious economic benefit. This shows that the models are scientifically reasonable and efficient, and are valuable in designing preparation plant and in planning production under the condition of market economy. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Design models in the development of mechatronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    In view of widespread application of mechatronic systems and the competition to offer customized products at high quality and low cost, there has been considerable attention to introduce new methods and models in this regard. This paper explores design process of mechatronic product development...... with the aid of models. The role of software not only as part of the product but also in the development process. These models contribute to product structuring and evaluation of design process by reducing the complexity and their use for product customization....

  2. Predicting Longitudinal Change in Language Production and Comprehension in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Hierarchical Linear Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robin S.; Hesketh, Linda J.; Kistler, Doris J.

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinal change in syntax comprehension and production skill, measured over six years, was modeled in 31 individuals (ages 5-20) with Down syndrome. The best fitting Hierarchical Linear Modeling model of comprehension uses age and visual and auditory short-term memory as predictors of initial status, and age for growth trajectory. (Contains…

  3. A combined model of sediment production, supply and transport

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fujita; K. Yamanoi; H. Izumiyama

    2015-01-01

    In previous sediment-runoff models, the sediment production rates of mountain slopes, and the sediment supply rates to streams typically have been developed using empirical methods. A process-based model for sediment production and supply is, however, required for more exact simulations of sediment runoff. In this study, we develop a method to calculate the sediment production rate due to both freeze-thaw action and the sediment supply rate (i.e. erosion rate of talus). These numerical models...

  4. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the…

  5. Modeling the potential effects of new tobacco products and policies: a dynamic population model for multiple product use and harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Vugrin

    Full Text Available Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products.We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors.Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity

  6. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies: A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health

  7. Modeling the potential effects of new tobacco products and policies: a dynamic population model for multiple product use and harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugrin, Eric D; Rostron, Brian L; Verzi, Stephen J; Brodsky, Nancy S; Brown, Theresa J; Choiniere, Conrad J; Coleman, Blair N; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity and disability.

  8. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukoulaki, Theoni

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Petroleum and natural gas: exploration and production in France during the last ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combaz, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents petroleum and natural gas exploration in France, during the last ten years. Statistical data on production, petroleum and natural gas deposits and forecasting are also given. 4 refs., 11 figs

  10. MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector yearly Product in netCDF format V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Yearly Cloud Motion Vector Product contains retrievals of cloud motion determined by geometrically triangulating the position and motion of cloud...

  11. NASA Web-Enabled Landsat Data 5 year Land Cover Land Use Change Product V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) 5-year Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) is a composite of 30 m land use land change product for the contiguous United States...

  12. Product modelling in the seafood industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    The paper addresses the aspects of Concurrent Engineering (CE) as a means to obtain integrated product development in the seafood industry. It is assumed that the future New Product Development (NPD) in seafood industry companies will shift from being retailer driven and reactive to be more company...... driven and proactive to comply with the increasing competition, in such a way that the fish processor issues new products covering both the current and especially latent future consumer demands. This implies a need for new systematic approaches in the NPD as procedures and tools, which integrate...

  13. Patients amputated by work accidents: characteristics and years accumulated of potential productive life lost

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Conchucos, Herminio Teófilo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the accumulated years of potential productive life lost in amputated patients by work accidents. Design: Descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Setting: Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, Callao, Peru. Participants: Amputated patients by work accidents. Interventions: Review of 1 290 medical records of amputated patients attended from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2007, 108 due to work accidents. The accumulated years of potential productive life los...

  14. Modeling methane emissions by cattle production systems in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Ku Vera, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    4 emission per region was calculated by multiplying the number of heads of cattle in each region by their corresponding simulated emission factor, either COW or OTHE, as predicted by the ISM. The total CH4 emissions from the Mexican cattle population was then calculated by adding up the daily emissions from each region. The predicted total emission of methane produced by the 23.3 million heads of cattle in Mexico is approximately 2.02 Tg/year, from which 1.28 Tg is produced by cattle in temperate regions and the rest by cattle in the tropics. It was concluded that the modeling approach was suitable in producing a better estimate of the national methane inventory for cattle. It is flexible enough to incorporate more cattle groups or classification schemes and productivity levels.

  15. An economic production model for time dependent demand with rework and multiple production setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a model for time dependent demand with multiple productions and rework setups. Production is demand dependent and greater than the demand rate. Production facility produces items in m production setups and one rework setup (m, 1 policy. The major reason of reverse logistic and green supply chain is rework, so it reduces the cost of production and other ecological problems. Most of the researchers developed a rework model without deteriorating items. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis is shown to describe the model.

  16. Kinetic model for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Key words: Kinetic model, polyhydroxyalkanoates, Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava, logistic model, Monod, biopolymer. INTRODUCTION. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biopolymer that can be used as a biodegradable thermoplastic material for waste management strategies and biocompatibility in medical.

  17. Speech-Production Skills in Children Aged 3-7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Maggie; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bills

    2005-01-01

    Background: In recent years, clinicians have been using a psycholinguistic approach to the assessment and remediation of children's developmental speech disorders. This requires the comparison of a child's performance across a range of speech-production tasks. Aims: To describe the profile of performance across different speech-production tasks in…

  18. Music Education Faculty Research Publication Productivity Covering the Years 1989-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Geoffrey A.; Hamann, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine author productivity by faculty rank (e.g., assistant, associate, full professor) and assess author output in terms of single or coauthorship. We examined author productivity from three prominent national journals within the field of music education across a 15-year period, 1989 through 2003, and…

  19. Outdoor Cultivation of Marine Diatoms for Year-Round Production of Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nojima, Daisuke; Nonoyama, Tomomi; Ikeda, Kiichi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-25

    Biofuel production using microalgae is believed to have the advantage of continuous year-round production over crop plants, which have strong seasonality. However, actual year-round production of microalgal lipids using outdoor mass cultivation has rarely been demonstrated. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the oleaginous diatom, Fistulifera solaris , was culturable in outdoor bioreactors from spring to autumn, whereas biomass and lipid production in winter failed because F. solaris did not grow below 15 °C. Therefore, another candidate strain that is culturable in winter is required. In this study, a cold-tolerant diatom, Mayamaea sp. JPCC CTDA0820, was selected as a promising candidate for biofuel production in winter. Laboratory-scale characterization revealed that this diatom was culturable at temperatures as low as 10 °C. Subsequently, F. solaris (April-October) and Mayamaea sp. JPCC CTDA0820 (November-March) were cultured in outdoor open-pond bioreactors, wherein year-round production of diatom lipids was successfully demonstrated. The maximal values of areal productivities of biomass and lipids reached to 9.79 and 1.80 g/(m² day) for F. solaris , and 8.62 and 0.92 g/(m² day) for Mayamaea sp. JPCC CTDA0820, respectively. With the combined use of these two diatom species, stable year-round production of microalgal lipids became possible.

  20. Modeling intermediate product selection under production and storage capacity limitations in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur Alper; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs...... with production and inventory planning, thereby considering the production and storage capacity limitations. The resulting model can be used to solve an important practical problem typical for many food processing industries....

  1. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  2. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  3. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  4. Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  5. Model Year 2018 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-12-07

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  6. 15 years of food-chain modeling in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, R.; Galeriu, D.; Apostoaie, I.; Gheorghe, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the very begin of Chernobyl accident, the high contamination of food, the large variability and the unexpected behavior posed many problems in order to assess the radiological consequences. A simple dynamic food-chain model was built in early May and used for our first assessment on future food contamination and overall impact of Chernobyl in Romania. This quite primitive model show remarkable performance when compared in late 86 and 87 with measurements and our projection of dose was close to a factor two with 10 years later post assessment. After the slowing down of radiological stress we developed a more advanced, process level model of food chain, using not only all literature available but also all local measurements with quality assurance. This model, named LINDOZ, was first internationally applied in the frame of A4 scenario in BIOMOVS 1. and presented in the 1990 Stockholm conference. It was the first time when fallout solubility and foliar absorption were introduced in such a model, explaining very well the dynamics of grass and milk contamination. Upgrades of the model were done concerning deposition and retention and LINDOZ91 was successfully applied in international comparisons VAMP and BIOMOVS 2., including blind tests. Using local expertise and certified data, correlation between probability distribution of deposition and food contamination were used and successfully applied to predict Cs body content distribution in VAMP scenario. Extension to lake-fish was done and tested with excellent results in BIOMOVS 2. In 1994, the model was applied in the first attempt to assess food contamination in Iput region and this old results have been compared recently with those obtained last year by other modelers using updated scenario information. The key points in LINDOZ and its performances in international comparison exercises are presented. In 90'years the German model ECOSYS was spread in Europe and a variant (FDMT) was developed as a food-chain model for

  7. Integrated modelling of crop production and nitrate leaching with the Daisy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevski, Kiril; Børgesen, Christen D; Li, Xiaoxin; Andersen, Mathias N; Abrahamsen, Per; Hu, Chunsheng; Hansen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    An integrated modelling strategy was designed and applied to the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model Daisy for simulation of crop production and nitrate leaching under pedo-climatic and agronomic environment different than that of model original parameterisation. The points of significance and caution in the strategy are: •Model preparation should include field data in detail due to the high complexity of the soil and the crop processes simulated with process-based model, and should reflect the study objectives. Inclusion of interactions between parameters in a sensitivity analysis results in better account for impacts on outputs of measured variables.•Model evaluation on several independent data sets increases robustness, at least on coarser time scales such as month or year. It produces a valuable platform for adaptation of the model to new crops or for the improvement of the existing parameters set. On daily time scale, validation for highly dynamic variables such as soil water transport remains challenging. •Model application is demonstrated with relevance for scientists and regional managers. The integrated modelling strategy is applicable for other process-based models similar to Daisy. It is envisaged that the strategy establishes model capability as a useful research/decision-making, and it increases knowledge transferability, reproducibility and traceability.

  8. Criteria Assessment Model for Sustainable Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    The instability in today's market and the ever increasing and emerging demands for mass customized and hybrid products by customers, are driving companies and decision makers to seek for cost effective and time efficient improvements in their product development process. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points in product development. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. This has led to real pressure for the adaptation of new developmental architecture and operational parameters to remain competitive in the market. In this paper, a new integrated design concept evaluation based on fuzzy-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (Fuzzy-TOPSIS) is presented, and it also attempts to incorporate sustainability practices in assessing the criteria. Prior to Fuzzy-TOPSIS, a new scale of “Weighting criteria” for survey process is developed to quantify the evaluation criteria. This method will help engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable product development. Case example from industry is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. The result of the example shows that the new integrated method provides an alternative to existing methods of design concept evaluation.

  9. Models for estimating photosynthesis parameters from in situ production profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, Žarko; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Antunović, Suzana

    2017-12-01

    The rate of carbon assimilation in phytoplankton primary production models is mathematically prescribed with photosynthesis irradiance functions, which convert a light flux (energy) into a material flux (carbon). Information on this rate is contained in photosynthesis parameters: the initial slope and the assimilation number. The exactness of parameter values is crucial for precise calculation of primary production. Here we use a model of the daily production profile based on a suite of photosynthesis irradiance functions and extract photosynthesis parameters from in situ measured daily production profiles at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station Aloha. For each function we recover parameter values, establish parameter distributions and quantify model skill. We observe that the choice of the photosynthesis irradiance function to estimate the photosynthesis parameters affects the magnitudes of parameter values as recovered from in situ profiles. We also tackle the problem of parameter exchange amongst the models and the effect it has on model performance. All models displayed little or no bias prior to parameter exchange, but significant bias following parameter exchange. The best model performance resulted from using optimal parameter values. Model formulation was extended further by accounting for spectral effects and deriving a spectral analytical solution for the daily production profile. The daily production profile was also formulated with time dependent growing biomass governed by a growth equation. The work on parameter recovery was further extended by exploring how to extract photosynthesis parameters from information on watercolumn production. It was demonstrated how to estimate parameter values based on a linearization of the full analytical solution for normalized watercolumn production and from the solution itself, without linearization. The paper complements previous works on photosynthesis irradiance models by analysing the skill and consistency of

  10. 100 Years of Cotton Production, Harvesting and Ginning Systems Engineering: 1907 - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) celebrated its centennial year during 2007. As part of the ASABE centennial, the authors were asked to describe agricultural engineering accomplishments in U.S. cotton production, harvesting and ginning over the past 100 years. ...

  11. Maximum entropy production: Can it be used to constrain conceptual hydrological models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Westhoff; E. Zehe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, optimality principles have been proposed to constrain hydrological models. The principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) is one of the proposed principles and is subject of this study. It states that a steady state system is organized in such a way that entropy production is maximized. Although successful applications have been reported in...

  12. Product Trial Processing (PTP): a model approach from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Product trial is described as consumer's first usage experience with a company's brand or product that is most important in determining brand attributes and the intention to make a purchase. Among the constructs used in the model of consumer's processing of product trail includes; experiential and non- experiential ...

  13. Predictive ability of egg production models | Oni | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The monthly egg production data of a strain of Rhode Island chickens were used to compare three mathematical models (the Parabolic exponential, Wood's Gamma and modified Gamma by McNally) on their ability to predict 52 week total egg production from part-production at 16, 20, and 24 weeks, on a hen-housed basis.

  14. Concurrent engineering and product models in seafood companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan; Børresen, Torger

    1998-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering (CE) can provide an improved approach to product development for extending the lines of seafood products. Information technology (IT) support tools based on product models can provide an integrated and simultaneous approach for specifying new recipes. The seafood industry c...

  15. Applying linear programming model to aggregate production planning of coated peanut products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmah, W. G.; Purwaningsih, I.; Santoso, EF S. M.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to set the overall production level for each grade of coated peanut product to meet market demands with a minimum production cost. The linear programming model was applied in this study. The proposed model was used to minimize the total production cost based on the limited demand of coated peanuts. The demand values applied to the method was previously forecasted using time series method and production capacity aimed to plan the aggregate production for the next 6 month period. The results indicated that the production planning using the proposed model has resulted a better fitted pattern to the customer demands compared to that of the company policy. The production capacity of product family A, B, and C was relatively stable for the first 3 months of the planning periods, then began to fluctuate over the next 3 months. While, the production capacity of product family D and E was fluctuated over the 6-month planning periods, with the values in the range of 10,864 - 32,580 kg and 255 – 5,069 kg, respectively. The total production cost for all products was 27.06% lower than the production cost calculated using the company’s policy-based method.

  16. Modeling pure culture heterotrophic production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, Md Salatul Islam; Goormachtigh, Laurens; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; De Wever, Heleen; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution a mechanistic model describing the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) through pure-culture fermentation was developed, calibrated and validated for two different substrates, namely glucose and waste glycerol. In both cases, non-growth-associated PHB production was triggered by applying nitrogen limitation. The occurrence of some growth-associated PHB production besides non-growth-associated PHB production was demonstrated, although it is inhibited in the presence of nitrogen. Other phenomena observed experimentally and described by the model included biomass growth on PHB and non-linear product inhibition of PHB production. The accumulated impurities from the waste substrate negatively affected the obtained maximum PHB content. Overall, the developed mathematical model provided an accurate prediction of the dynamic behavior of heterotrophic biomass growth and PHB production in a two-phase pure culture system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing and modelling of ohmic heating for solid food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Frosch, Stina

    Heating of solid foods using the conventional technologies is time-consuming due to the fact that heat transfer is limited by internal conduction within the product. This is a big challenge to food manufactures who wish to heat the product faster to the desired core temperature and to ensure more...... uniform quality across the product. Ohmic heating is one of the novel technologies potentially solving this problem by allowing volumetric heating of the product and thereby reducing or eliminating temperature gradients within the product. However, the application of ohmic heating for solid food products...... and current were continuously measured inside the product. The model has been validated using the experimental data. Good agreement was achieved between model predictions and the experimental values. The model has been utilized to predict the temperature distribution and to control the process by tracking...

  18. Conceptual Development af a 3D Product Configuration Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skauge, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Paper. This project deals with 3D product configuration of a digital building element which has been developed as a prototype in cooperation between a product manufacturer and a research institution in Denmark. The project falls within the concept of product modelling which is more and more used ......’s production of steel fire sliding doors. The development of the 3D digital model is based on practical rather than theoretical research. The result of the research is a prototype digital 3D model to be presented live....

  19. Application of Total Productivity Model within Croatia Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Radačić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available By defining and selecting adequate factors of the total productivitymodel and by assigning specific relevance of each factor,the initial preconditions for the analysis and monitoring ofthe model application efficiency within the Croatia Airlinesbusiness policy have been established. Since the majority of theanalyzed factors have realized a more intensive growth thanplanned, the business year 2004 can be assessed as the mostsuccessful one in the Croatia Airlines history. Consequently,the difference related to the productivity indicators of the Associationof European Airlines has been reduced, particularly theaircraft productivity with remnant of 5 to 10 percent, and theproductivity of the employees with a remnant of 15 to 20 percent,and the productivity of fuel expressed as quantity at AEAlevel, and expressed as value below that level. Finally, althoughthere is no expressed correlation between the quantitative productivityindicators and business profitability, the highest realizednet profit since the foundation of Croatia Airlines fullysupplements the solid level of the comparison indicators, confirmingits complete readiness and maturity to join the Star Alliance.

  20. Model based process-product design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper gives a perspective on modelling and the important role it has within product-process design and analysis. Different modelling issues related to development and application of systematic model-based solution approaches for product-process design is discussed and the need for a hybrid......, forms and complexity, together with their associated parameters. An example of a model-based system for design of chemicals based formulated products is also given....... model-based framework is highlighted. This framework should be able to manage knowledge-data, models, and associated methods and tools integrated with design work-flows and data-flows for specific product-process design problems. In particular, the framework needs to manage models of different types...

  1. A model for marketing planning of new products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne

    1994-01-01

    incorporates a special model to explain consumer awareness of the new product. 3. Consumer awareness is explained by distribution (shelf facings and in-store promotion), advertising and giving away free samples. 4. The trial model incorporates the total market potential, the probability of being in a buying......Executive Summary: 1. A model for forecasting the sales of a new product is presented. This model allows to predict the sales development of a new product before it is actually launched on the market. 2. The model makes separate forecasts for the volume of trial and repeat purchases. It also...... the product after some time. 6. The model requires three types of data input: market data, market research data, and marketing plan data. Using these data, prediction can be made by a user-friendly PC programme. 7. An example is shown demonstrating that the predictions made by the model were in good...

  2. A combined model of sediment production, supply and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fujita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In previous sediment-runoff models, the sediment production rates of mountain slopes, and the sediment supply rates to streams typically have been developed using empirical methods. A process-based model for sediment production and supply is, however, required for more exact simulations of sediment runoff. In this study, we develop a method to calculate the sediment production rate due to both freeze-thaw action and the sediment supply rate (i.e. erosion rate of talus. These numerical models were then connected to an existing sediment transport model. The integrated model presented here was applied to a small mountainous watershed. We found that the calculated sediment production rate was within the range of values typically observed for this region. Additionally, the estimated annual sediment discharge using the model agreed with observational results. Lastly, we found that the model can be used to qualitatively characterize typical features of the actual sediment routine in mountainous watersheds.

  3. Characteristics of the water footprint of rice production under different rainfall years in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Qin, Lijie; He, Hongshi

    2017-11-28

    Rice is a special crop, and its production differs from that of other crops because it requires a thin layer of water coverage for a long period. The calculation of the water footprint of rice production should differ from that of other crops owing to the rice growing process. This study improved the calculation of blue and grey water footprints of rice production and analyzed the variations in the water footprints for rice production under different rainfall years in Jilin Province. In the drought year, the green water footprint was the lowest and the blue water footprint was the highest among the three years, while in the humid year, the green water footprint was the highest and the blue water footprint was not the lowest. The areas with higher water footprints were found in the east and west regions of Jilin Province, while the areas with lower water footprints were found in the middle east and middle regions of Jilin Province. Blue water was the primary water resource for rice production, although more precipitation provided the highest green water in the humid year; also, the spatial distributions of water footprints were not the same under different rainfall years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Modelling heat processing of dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotrum, N.; Fox, M.B.; Lieverloo, H.; Smit, E.; Jong, de P.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses the application of computer modelling to optimise the heat processing of milk. The chapter first reviews types of heat processing equipment used in the dairy industry. Then, the types of objectives that can be achieved using model-based process optimisation are discussed.

  5. A proposed computer system on Kano model for new product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study is conducted for system verification by an attractive attribute regarding Kano model about an automobile. Keywords: Kano Model, Attributes of Product, New Product Development and Innovation, Monte-Carlo Simulation International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 9, 2010, pp. 1-12 ...

  6. Economic modelling of pork production-marketing chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den M.

    1996-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of economic simulation and optimization computer models to support decision making with respect to pork production- marketing chains. The models include three production stages: pig farrowing, pig fattening and pig slaughtering

  7. A continuous-time control model on production planning network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A continuous-time control model on production planning network. DEA Omorogbe, MIU Okunsebor. Abstract. In this paper, we give a slightly detailed review of Graves and Hollywood model on constant inventory tactical planning model for a job shop. The limitations of this model are pointed out and a continuous time ...

  8. Interannual variability of plant phenology in tussock tundra: modelling interactions of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Laundre, J.A.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a linked model of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw in order to estimate interannual variability of arctic plant phenology and its effects on plant productivity. The model is tested using 8 years of soil temperature data, and three years of bud break data of

  9. Fertilization of Willow Coppice Over Three Consecutive 2-Year Rotations—Effects on Biomass Production, Soil Nutrients and Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Sevel, Lisbeth; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    high yields, reducing risks of nutrient leaching and maintaining the soil nutrient stocks in SRC willow on a former arable land. Ten different fertilization treatments were applied, with different application frequencies, fertilizer types and doses over three consecutive 2-year rotations. The biomass...... production was determined at harvest, soil solution samples were collected monthly, water fluxes were modelled using CoupModel and nutrient budgets were calculated. The unfertilized control had a mean biomass production of 8.3, 8.3 and 9.5 odt ha−1 year−1, respectively, in the three rotations. This indicated...... with one-time addition of 240 and 360 kg N ha−1 rotation−1 had significantly higher nitrogen leaching than all other treatments. Organic fertilizers did not increase biomass production nor N leaching significantly compared to the control, but nutrient budgets indicated a nutrient build-up in the soil. We...

  10. Using the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM version 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to enable users of the Global Forest Products Model to: • Install and run the GFPM software • Understand the input data • Change the input data to explore different scenarios • Interpret the output The GFPM is an economic model of global production, consumption and trade of forest products (Buongiorno et al. 2003). The GFPM2012 has data...

  11. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  12. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We study an extension of the economic production lot size model, where more than one production rate can be used during a cycle. Moreover, the production rates, as well as their corresponding runtimes are decision variables. We decompose the problem into two subproblems. First, we show that all...

  13. A 1000-year simulation with the IPSL ocean-atmosphere coupled model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Conil

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 1000-year climate simulation is run with the ocean-atmosphere coupled model developed at the Institute Pierre- Simon Laplace (IPSL, Paris. No flux adjustment is used. The drift of the model is analyzed in terms of the seasurface temperature and deep ocean temperature. When the model's own equilibrium is reached, it is found that the Antarctic bottom water production experiences large-amplitude variation, oscillating between strong and weak episodes. This can yield oceanic temperature variation in the Southern Hemisphere and for the global mean.

  14. Conceptual Modelling for Product Configuration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara

    Product Configuration Systems (PCS), have been proposed as the solution both by researchers and practitioners and various benefits are mentioned from utilizing PCSs. Based on the latest literature, there are challenges reported in all phases of PCS projects including planning, development......, and documentation. Moreover, the challenges become more serious when it involves complicated products/processes in engineer-to-order (ETO) companies. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the existing knowledge of managing PCS projects by proposing frameworks and tools to address some of the main...... challenges. First, this research focuses on the reported benefits and challenges in different phases of PCS projects aligned with the gaps in the current literature. Second, the study presents a survey in order to have a comprehensive overview to assess the most important challenges in the area. Third...

  15. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets - Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. Covered fleets may meet their EPAct requirements through one of two compliance methods: Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. For model year (MY) 2015, the compliance rate with this program for the more than 3011 reporting fleets was 100%. More than 294 fleets used Standard Compliance and exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 acquisition requirements by 8% through acquisitions alone. The seven covered fleets that used Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 petroleum use reduction requirements by 46%.

  16. A Simple Economic Model of Cocaine Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    production, over half the work force at the 95 percent level. There would obviously be social issues associated with such kinds of changes, and the...William Walker, Drug Control in the Americas, University of New Mexico Press: Albuquerque [revised edition], 1988. 11. "Plan de Ejecucion del Proyecto ...de Desarrollo Rural Integral del Alto Huallaga," USAID. Washington, D.C., 1981. 12. "Huallaga Valley Agribusiness and Marketing Study," IRI Research

  17. Lattice Model for Production of Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Marder, M.

    2017-12-01

    We define a lattice model for rock, absorbers, and gas that makes it possible to examine the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. The motivation is to deduce the geometry of the boundary from the time history of gas absorption. We find a solution to this model using Green\\'s function techniques, and apply the solution to three absorbing networks of increasing complexity.

  18. Sustainability Assessment Model in Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Omar, Badrul

    2017-08-01

    Faster and more efficient development of innovative and sustainable products has become the focus for manufacturing companies in order to remain competitive in today’s technologically driven world. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. Furthermore, consumers, investors, shareholders and even competitors are basing their decisions on what to buy or invest in, from whom, and also on what company report, and sustainability is one of a critical component. In this research, a new methodology of sustainability assessment in product development for Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of green project management, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This method will help design engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable design concept evaluation, enable them to make better-informed decisions before finalising their choice and consequently create value to the company or industry. The new framework is expected to provide an alternative to existing methods.

  19. Ensemble modeling for aromatic production in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Rizk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble Modeling (EM is a recently developed method for metabolic modeling, particularly for utilizing the effect of enzyme tuning data on the production of a specific compound to refine the model. This approach is used here to investigate the production of aromatic products in Escherichia coli. Instead of using dynamic metabolite data to fit a model, the EM approach uses phenotypic data (effects of enzyme overexpression or knockouts on the steady state production rate to screen possible models. These data are routinely generated during strain design. An ensemble of models is constructed that all reach the same steady state and are based on the same mechanistic framework at the elementary reaction level. The behavior of the models spans the kinetics allowable by thermodynamics. Then by using existing data from the literature for the overexpression of genes coding for transketolase (Tkt, transaldolase (Tal, and phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (Pps to screen the ensemble, we arrive at a set of models that properly describes the known enzyme overexpression phenotypes. This subset of models becomes more predictive as additional data are used to refine the models. The final ensemble of models demonstrates the characteristic of the cell that Tkt is the first rate controlling step, and correctly predicts that only after Tkt is overexpressed does an increase in Pps increase the production rate of aromatics. This work demonstrates that EM is able to capture the result of enzyme overexpression on aromatic producing bacteria by successfully utilizing routinely generated enzyme tuning data to guide model learning.

  20. Enriching step-based product information models to support product life-cycle activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigecili, Mehmet Ilteris

    The representation and management of product information in its life-cycle requires standardized data exchange protocols. Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is such a standard that has been used widely by the industries. Even though STEP-based product models are well defined and syntactically correct, populating product data according to these models is not easy because they are too big and disorganized. Data exchange specifications (DEXs) and templates provide re-organized information models required in data exchange of specific activities for various businesses. DEXs show us it would be possible to organize STEP-based product models in order to support different engineering activities at various stages of product life-cycle. In this study, STEP-based models are enriched and organized to support two engineering activities: materials information declaration and tolerance analysis. Due to new environmental regulations, the substance and materials information in products have to be screened closely by manufacturing industries. This requires a fast, unambiguous and complete product information exchange between the members of a supply chain. Tolerance analysis activity, on the other hand, is used to verify the functional requirements of an assembly considering the worst case (i.e., maximum and minimum) conditions for the part/assembly dimensions. Another issue with STEP-based product models is that the semantics of product data are represented implicitly. Hence, it is difficult to interpret the semantics of data for different product life-cycle phases for various application domains. OntoSTEP, developed at NIST, provides semantically enriched product models in OWL. In this thesis, we would like to present how to interpret the GD & T specifications in STEP for tolerance analysis by utilizing OntoSTEP.

  1. Centennial-scale variations in diatom productivity off Peru over the last 3000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Sophie; Crosta, Xavier; Schneider, Ralph; Blanz, Thomas; Ther, Olivier; Martinez, Philippe; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The Peruvian coastal upwelling is one of the most productive systems in the global ocean, with important impacts on the carbon cycle. Primary productivity there displays strong variations at the inter-annual to decadal timescales. However, down-core investigations rarely reach sufficient temporal resolution to assess the response of productivity to climatic variations at these timescales beyond the instrumental and historical periods. We here analyzed diatom assemblages, sea-surface temperatures, nitrogen and organic carbon contents on a laminated sediment core from the Peruvian continental shelf to trace variations in regional productivity over the last 3000 years. Our record provides evidence for different climatic and oceanic conditions with more humid and less productive conditions older than 2500 Cal years BP and drier and more productive conditions younger than 2500 Cal years BP. The last 2500 years also present much stronger centennial-scale variability with the occurrence of six intervals with higher total diatom abundances and stronger percentages in upwelling-related diatom species, representative of intensified productivity, congruent to lower percentages in benthic diatoms, indicative of reduced rainfall. These six periods were synchronous to intervals of enhanced Walker circulation, suggesting a strong imprint of the Pacific zonal circulation on productivity variations off Peru. Our record also demonstrates that SSTs did not vary in phase with productivity, arguing against the idea of regional SSTs controlled by the upwelling intensity, but were rather in agreement to SST records off southern Chile, suggesting that Peruvian SSTs variations were largely controlled by oceanic currents at southern high latitudes.

  2. A stochastic surplus production model in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2017-01-01

    surplus production model in continuous time (SPiCT), which in addition to stock dynamics also models the dynamics of the fisheries. This enables error in the catch process to be reflected in the uncertainty of estimated model parameters and management quantities. Benefits of the continuous-time state......Surplus production modelling has a long history as a method for managing data-limited fish stocks. Recent advancements have cast surplus production models as state-space models that separate random variability of stock dynamics from error in observed indices of biomass. We present a stochastic...... and improve estimation of reference points relative to discrete-time analysis of aggregated annual data. Finally, subannual data from five North Sea stocks are analysed with particular focus on using residual analysis to diagnose model insufficiencies and identify necessary model extensions such as robust...

  3. A model for analyzing influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Olof; Sandewall, Mats; Wilhelmsson, Erik

    1987-01-01

    A model for long-term analysis of the influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing (Cladina, Alectoria, Bryoria spp and others) in Sweden is presented. The annual production of and demand for lichens are estimated and compared. Production of these lichens is presumed to set the upper limit for the reindeer population. Reindeer graze on both ground and tree lichens, which both must be accessible in sufficient amounts and at the right times of the year if reindeer husbandry is...

  4. Fuzzy production planning models for an unreliable production system with fuzzy production rate and stochastic/fuzzy demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Halim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider a single-unit unreliable production system which produces a single item. During a production run, the production process may shift from the in-control state to the out-of-control state at any random time when it produces some defective items. The defective item production rate is assumed to be imprecise and is characterized by a trapezoidal fuzzy number. The production rate is proportional to the demand rate where the proportionality constant is taken to be a fuzzy number. Two production planning models are developed on the basis of fuzzy and stochastic demand patterns. The expected cost per unit time in the fuzzy sense is derived in each model and defuzzified by using the graded mean integration representation method. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the optimal results of the proposed fuzzy models.

  5. Lessons Learned from 20 Years of Production in the Barnett Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R.; Middleton, R. S.; Carey, J. W.; Currier, R.; Karra, S.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze a 22 years of shale gas production, from more than 18,000 wells, in the Barnett formation to better characterize and understand shale gas production. The Barnett Shale formation has a relatively long history of exploration and shale gas production using both hydraulic fracturing and horizontal wells. The original Barnett well, a vertical well that used a nitrogen foam working fluid, dates back to 1981, and the first horizontal wells were drilled in 1991. However, the first "successful" production wells were not drilled until around 1997-1998. Gas production data for the Barnett is publicly available dating back to 1993. Here, we analyze gas production from ~18,000 individual wells (data collected in July 2014) in order to understand and quantify how shale gas has been produced in the Barnett. This includes understanding how and when shale gas production techniques have improved resulting in enhanced gas production. Several key trends and hypotheses emerge from this analysis. For example, the data shows a distinct and strong pattern of "learning by doing", whereby per-well gas production rates have notably increased over time. For example, a typical well drilled in 2011 takes three years to produce 1,000 MMcf, whereas a typical 2007 well takes seven years to produce the same quantity. The data can also be differentiated by parameters such as depth and well type (principally vertical vs. horizontal); we show a clear link between drilling techniques and production. The analysis also reveals unexpected outcomes. For instance, wells drilled in the period 1994-1999 have greater cumulative production than wells drilled in the period 2000-2006. We hypothesize that the older wells often performed poorly when first drilled and were thus subsequently re-fractured one or more times, whereas the later wells were re-fractured much less frequently. Finally, we compare shale gas production from the Barnett formation with more recent production from the Hayneville

  6. Particle production in string cosmology models

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram; Brustein, Ram; Hadad, Merav

    1998-01-01

    We compute spectra of particles produced during a dilaton-driven kinetic inflation phase within string cosmology models. The resulting spectra depend on the parameters of the model and on the type of particle and are quite varied, some increasing and some decreasing with frequency. We use an approximation scheme in which all spectra can be expressed in a nice symmetric form, perhaps hinting at a deeper symmetry of the underlying physics. Our results may serve as a starting point for detailed studies of relic abundances, dark matter candidates, and possible sources of large scale anisotropy.

  7. [Vigilance for veterinary medicinal products: Reports of adverse reactions in the year 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntener, C R; Müntener, C; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H; Gassner, B

    2017-11-01

    A total of 253 reports of adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products were received during the year 2016 representing a decrease of 13% compared to the previous year (292 reports). The majority of the reports described reactions affecting companion animals (178 dogs and 32 cats) as well as cattle (17 reports) and horses (10 reports). Most of the reactions reported were linked to the use of antiparasitics (145 reports), hormone products (26 reports) and antiinfectives (10 reports). 32 reports were generated from consultations with Tox Info Suisse in Zürich and involved mainly the excessive intake of flavoured tablets and, in some cases, the use of reconverted products (applied to another species than that authorized). Five signals were identified from the reports, which resulted in revisions of the product information in the sections addressing contraindications or adverse reactions.

  8. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  9. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  10. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  11. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  12. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  13. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  15. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  17. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for U.S. EPA Energy Star Labeled Products: Expanded Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard

    2009-09-24

    This report provides a top-level summary of national savings achieved by the Energy Star voluntary product labeling program. To best quantify and analyze savings for all products, we developed a bottom-up product-based model. Each Energy Star product type is characterized by product-specific inputs that result in a product savings estimate. Our results show that through 2007, U.S. EPA Energy Star labeled products saved 5.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided 100 MtC of emissions. Although Energy Star-labeled products encompass over forty product types, only five of those product types accounted for 65percent of all Energy Star carbon reductions achieved to date, including (listed in order of savings magnitude)monitors, printers, residential light fixtures, televisions, and furnaces. The forecast shows that U.S. EPA?s program is expected to save 12.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 215 MtC of emissions over the period of 2008?2015.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Rotary Kiln Productivity Increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero-Valle, M.A.; Pisaroni, M.; Van Puyvelde, D.; Lahaye, D.J.P.; Sadi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Rotary kilns are used in many industrial processes ranging from cement manufacturing to waste incineration. The operating conditions vary widely depending on the process. While there are many models available within the literature and industry, the wide range of operating conditions justifies

  19. [Vigilance for veterinary medicinal products: Reports of adverse reactions in the year 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntener, C; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H; Gassner, B

    2016-11-01

    A total of 292 adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products were reported during the year 2015. This represents an increase of 9% compared to the previous year (268 reports). Similar to previous years, most of the reactions reported were linked to the use of antiparasitics (55.1%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory products (8.9%) or antiinfectives (9.3%). The affected animal species were primarily dogs (198 reports) and cats (42 reports), followed by cattle (31 reports) and horses (8 reports). Additional 42 reports were provided within the frame of consultations with Tox Info Suisse in Zürich and involved mainly the excessive intake of flavored tablets. Eight signals were identified from the reports received or the periodic safety update reports. They resulted in revisions of the product information in sections addressing contraindications, adverse reactions or withdrawal times.

  20. Equations of state for explosive detonation products: The PANDA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, G.I.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses a thermochemical model for calculating equations of state (EOS) for the detonation products of explosives. This model, which was first presented at the Eighth Detonation Symposium, is available in the PANDA code and is referred to here as ``the Panda model``. The basic features of the PANDA model are as follows. (1) Statistical-mechanical theories are used to construct EOS tables for each of the chemical species that are to be allowed in the detonation products. (2) The ideal mixing model is used to compute the thermodynamic functions for a mixture of these species, and the composition of the system is determined from assumption of chemical equilibrium. (3) For hydrocode calculations, the detonation product EOS are used in tabular form, together with a reactive burn model that allows description of shock-induced initiation and growth or failure as well as ideal detonation wave propagation. This model has been implemented in the three-dimensional Eulerian code, CTH.

  1. Model-driven and software product line engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Royer, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Many approaches to creating Software Product Lines have emerged that are based on Model-Driven Engineering. This book introduces both Software Product Lines and Model-Driven Engineering, which have separate success stories in industry, and focuses on the practical combination of them. It describes the challenges and benefits of merging these two software development trends and provides the reader with a novel approach and practical mechanisms to improve software development productivity.The book is aimed at engineers and students who wish to understand and apply software product lines

  2. A model for marketing planning for new products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne

    1993-01-01

    awareness model. The model can be used to generate improved marketing plans. In this connection, it is important that the model includes the marketing variables, for it is only in this way that the model can be used for marketing plan optimization. It is predicted that a future direction of development...... and use of sales forecasting models for new products will be within optimization of the marketing plan for launching a new product, and not only as a tool for forecasting sales for just one marketing plan....

  3. New commercial dairy products in the feeding of children aged 1 to 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Abramova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is of particular importance in young children who are characterized by exceptionally high growth rates in conjunction with scare resources of nutrients in their body. The physiological features of infants suggest that this active life period in the child requires adequate attitude towards his nutrition that largely differs from that during the first year of life. The paper considers the issues of organizing the nutrition of children aged 1 to 3 years, by using commercial infant dairy products — new combined products — sterilized milk- and fruit-milk-based desserts and milk cocktails for infant feeding. 

  4. Technology Model of Aquaculture Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, K. W.; Salleh, S. M.; Abdullah; Ezree, Mohd; Zaman, I.; Hatta, M. H.; Ahmad, S.; Ismail, A. E.; Mahmud, W. A. W.

    2017-10-01

    The high market demand has led to the rapid growth in fish farming. The young generation are inexperienced in determining the estimated results of fish farming and the preparation of fish pond during the period of fish farming. These need a complete guide as their reference which includes the knowledge of fish farming. The main objective of this project is to develop a practical design of real pond appropriate with aquaculture technology and fish farming production. There are three parts of study in this project which include fish farming cage, growth of fish and water quality of fish farming pond. Few of experiments were carried out involved the collection data in terms of growth of fish and parameters of water quality.

  5. Pion production models and neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collot, Johann; Kirk, Harold G.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.

    2000-01-01

    Scenarios for the building of muon colliders or storage rings suitable for the generation of robust neutrino beams call for the generation of a prodigious quantity of pions. These pions are then conducted into a decay channel where the resulting muon decay products can be collected for cooling and subsequent acceleration. Central to this concept is the design and construction of a target which will be highly efficient in producing pions of both signs while mitigating the absorption of these pions before they decay. This design effort is being facilitated by using two computer codes FLUKA and MARS. We present comparisons of the two computer codes and also present a comparison of these codes with available data

  6. PION PRODUCTION MODELS AND NEUTRINO FACTORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COLLOT, J.; KIRK, H.G.; MOKHOV, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    Scenarios for the building of muon colliders or storage rings suitable for the generation of robust neutrino beams call for the generation of a prodigious quantity of pions. These pions are then conducted into a decay channel where the resulting muon decay products can be collected for cooling and subsequent acceleration. Central to this concept is the design and construction of a target which will be highly efficient in producing pions of both signs while mitigating the absorption of these pions before they decay. This design effort is being facilitated by using two computer codes FLUKA and MARS. The authors present comparisons of the two computer codes and also present a comparison of these codes with available data

  7. The Rethinking of “the Year of Women���s Domestic Products Movement”

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohong Zhu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the rethinking of “the year of Women’s Domestic Products Movement”. The “Women’s Domestic Products Movement” which was launched in 1934 has been denied by people now and before because of failing to reach the country’s intended purpose. From the angle of economic history, “Women’s Domestic Products Movement” played a positive role in promoting the domestic sales growth, reducing the index of export and import value. After carefully referring to the related...

  8. A kinetic model for flavonoid production in tea cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Iizuka, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2017-02-01

    As one of the strategies for efficient production of a metabolite from cell cultures, a kinetic model is very useful tool to predict productivity under various culture conditions. In this study, we propose a kinetic model for flavonoid production in tea cell culture based on the cell life cycle and expression of PAL, the gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)-the key enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis. The flavonoid production rate was considered to be related to the amount of active PAL. Synthesis of PAL was modelled based on a general gene expression/translation mechanism, including the transcription of DNA encoding PAL into mRNA and the translation of PAL mRNA into the PAL protein. The transcription of DNA was assumed to be promoted at high light intensity and suppressed by a feedback regulatory mechanism at high flavonoid concentrations. In the model, mRNA and PAL were considered to self-decompose and to be lost by cell rupture. The model constants were estimated by fitting the experimental results obtained from tea cell cultures under various light intensities. The model accurately described the kinetic behaviors of dry and fresh cell concentrations, glucose concentration, cell viability, PAL specific activity, and flavonoid content under a wide range of light intensities. The model simulated flavonoid productivity per medium under various culture conditions. Therefore, this model will be useful to predict optimum culture conditions for maximum flavonoid productivity in cultured tea cells.

  9. Dynamic Modelling and Simulation of Citric Acid Production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The modelling of batch production of citric acid from corn starch hydrolysate using Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 was carried out in this work. A validated mathematical model was developed to describe the process. Four kinetic models, Monod, Haldane, logistic and hyperbolic for simulating the growth of the Aspergillus ...

  10. A 10-year prognostic model for patients with suspected angina attending a chest pain clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Neha; Perel, Pablo; Clayton, Tim; Feder, Gene S; Hemingway, Harry; Timmis, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Diagnostic models used in the management of suspected angina provide no explicit information about prognosis. We present a new prognostic model of 10-year coronary mortality in patients presenting for the first time with suspected angina to complement the Diamond-Forrester diagnostic model of disease probability. A multicentre cohort of 8762 patients with suspected angina was followed up for a median of 10 years during which 233 coronary deaths were observed. Developmental (n=4412) and validation (n=4350) prognostic models based on clinical data available at first presentation showed good performance with close agreement and the final model utilised all 8762 patients to maximise power. The prognostic model showed strong associations with coronary mortality for age, sex, chest pain typicality, smoking status, diabetes, pulse rate, and ECG findings. Model discrimination was good (C statistic 0.83), patients in the highest risk quarter accounting for 173 coronary deaths (10-year risk of death: 8.7%) compared with a total of 60 deaths in the three lower risk quarters. When the model was simplified to incorporate only Diamond-Forrester factors (age, sex and character of symptoms) it underestimated coronary mortality risk, particularly in patients with reversible risk factors. For the first time in patients with suspected angina, a prognostic model is presented based on simple clinical factors available at the initial cardiological assessment. The model discriminated powerfully between patients at high risk and lower risk of coronary death during 10-year follow-up. Clinical utility was reflected in the prognostic value it added to the updated Diamond-Forrester diagnostic model of disease probability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Diboson resonant production in non-custodial composite Higgs models

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, Adrian; Quirós, Mariano; Santiago, Jose

    2015-01-01

    We show that the recently reported excess in resonant diboson production can be explained in the context of non-custodial composite Higgs models. Dibosons are generated via the s-channel exchange of massive vector bosons present in these models. We discuss the compatibility of the signal excess with other diboson experimental searches. We also discuss the tension between diboson production and other experimental tests of the model that include electroweak precision data, dilepton, dijet and top pair production and show that there is a region of parameter space in which they are all compatible with the excess.

  12. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  13. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  14. PREPARATION OF THE DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL FOR ORTHOPHOTO CR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Švec

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Orthophoto CR is produced in co-operation with the Land Survey Office and the Military Geographical and Hydrometeorological Office. The product serves to ensure a defence of the state, integrated crisis management, civilian tasks in support of the state administration and the local self-government of the Czech Republic as well. It covers the whole area of the Republic and for ensuring its up-to-datedness is reproduced in the biennial period. As the project is countrywide, it keeps the project within the same parameters in urban and rural areas as well. Due to economic reasons it can´t be produced as a true ortophoto because it requires large side and forward overlaps of the aerial photographs and a preparation of the digital surface model instead of the digital terrain model. Use of DTM without some objects of DSM for orthogonalization purposes cause undesirable image deformations in the Orthophoto. There are a few data sets available for forming a suitable elevation model. The principal source should represent DTMs made from data acquired by the airborne laser scanning of the entire area of the Czech Republic that was carried out in the years 2009-2013, the DMR4G in the grid form and the DMR5G in TIN form respectively. It can be replenished by some vector objects (bridges, dams, etc. taken from the geographic base data of the Czech Republic or obtained by new stereo plotting. It has to be taken into account that the option of applying DSM made from image correlation is also available. The article focuses on the possibilities of DTM supplement for ortogonalization. It looks back to the recent transition from grid to hybrid elevation models, problems that occurred, its solution and getting some practical remarks. Afterwards it assesses the current state and deals with the options for updating the model. Some accuracy analysis are included.

  15. Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Charlie C L

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend in user-customized product design requires the shape of products to be automatically adjusted according to the human body’s shape, so that people will feel more comfortable when wearing these products.  Geometric approaches can be used to design the freeform shape of products worn by people, which can greatly improve the efficiency of design processes in various industries involving customized products (e.g., garment design, toy design, jewel design, shoe design, and design of medical devices, etc.). These products are usually composed of very complex geometric shapes (represented by free-form surfaces), and are not driven by a parameter table but a digital human model with free-form shapes or part of human bodies (e.g., wrist, foot, and head models).   Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products introduces the algorithms of human body reconstruction, freeform product modeling, constraining and reconstructing freeform products, and shape optimization for improving...

  16. Analysis of a yearly multi-round, multi-period, multi-product transmission rights auction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziogos, N.P.; Bakirtzis, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A yearly multi-round, multi-period, multi-product transmission rights (TR) auction issuing both point-to-point Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) and Flow-Gate Rights (FGRs) is studied in this paper. In each round the TR market participants (buyers or sellers) submit their bid or offer prices based on past energy market performance. A Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) based energy market is assumed. The TR market participants' bid or offer prices reflect their expectation of the average annual LMP differences between withdrawal and injections points for FTRs and of the transmission link capacity prices for FGRs. The TR auction is performed in four rounds; in each round 25% of the entire system capability is awarded. TRs that are awarded in one round are modeled as fixed injections in subsequent rounds. Market participants that have acquired TRs in one round can sell them in subsequent rounds. A market participant can submit bids or offers for on-peak, off-peak or 24-h TRs. A three-area, nine-bus test system with six TR market participants is used for the analysis of the TR auction. (author)

  17. Sustainability Product Properties in Building Information Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Pset_Material_Sustainability_US ThermalResistance Thermal resistance of the element, hr-CuFt-F/Btu (K-Cu m/W) 0 hr-CuFt-F/Btu Pset_Material_Sustainability_US Asphalt ...Model Checker, the sustainable information properties associated with the toilet fixture were visible by selecting the “Private 1.6 LPF” folder in...Performance - Required to be a minimum of 30% better than ASH RAE 90.1-2004 - The key strategies for conserving energy include energy efficiency in

  18. Aspect-Oriented Model-Driven Software Product Line Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groher, Iris; Voelter, Markus

    Software product line engineering aims to reduce development time, effort, cost, and complexity by taking advantage of the commonality within a portfolio of similar products. The effectiveness of a software product line approach directly depends on how well feature variability within the portfolio is implemented and managed throughout the development lifecycle, from early analysis through maintenance and evolution. This article presents an approach that facilitates variability implementation, management, and tracing by integrating model-driven and aspect-oriented software development. Features are separated in models and composed of aspect-oriented composition techniques on model level. Model transformations support the transition from problem to solution space models. Aspect-oriented techniques enable the explicit expression and modularization of variability on model, template, and code level. The presented concepts are illustrated with a case study of a home automation system.

  19. Systems Engineering Metrics: Organizational Complexity and Product Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mog, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    Innovative organizational complexity and product quality models applicable to performance metrics for NASA-MSFC's Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory (SAIL) missions and objectives are presented. An intensive research effort focuses on the synergistic combination of stochastic process modeling, nodal and spatial decomposition techniques, organizational and computational complexity, systems science and metrics, chaos, and proprietary statistical tools for accelerated risk assessment. This is followed by the development of a preliminary model, which is uniquely applicable and robust for quantitative purposes. Exercise of the preliminary model using a generic system hierarchy and the AXAF-I architectural hierarchy is provided. The Kendall test for positive dependence provides an initial verification and validation of the model. Finally, the research and development of the innovation is revisited, prior to peer review. This research and development effort results in near-term, measurable SAIL organizational and product quality methodologies, enhanced organizational risk assessment and evolutionary modeling results, and 91 improved statistical quantification of SAIL productivity interests.

  20. Sum rule limitations of kinetic particle-production models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38; Guet, C.

    1988-04-01

    Photoproduction and absorption sum rules generalized to systems at finite temperature provide a stringent check on the validity of kinetic models for the production of hard photons in intermediate energy nuclear collisions. We inspect such models for the case of nuclear matter at finite temperature employed in a kinetic regime which copes those encountered in energetic nuclear collisions, and find photon production rates which significantly exceed the limits imposed by the sum rule even under favourable concession. This suggests that coherence effects are quite important and the production of photons cannot be considered as an incoherent addition of individual NNγ production processes. The deficiencies of present kinetic models may also apply for the production of probes such as the pion which do not couple perturbatively to the nuclear currents. (orig.)

  1. A non-linear model of economic production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.

    2003-06-01

    We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

  2. Model of high-productive varieties in forage pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kosev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A linear equation of regression was used for establishment of the influence of quantitative characteristics on the grain productivity in forage pea and for development of a model for breeding work. The model for pea plant with high productivity was characterized by average height of 60–70 cm, 8–10 formed pods, 30–40 seeds per plant and 160–260 g in regard to 1000-seed weight. The obtained results showed that the greatest effect on grain productivity had the seed number per plant, first pod height and 1000-seed weight. Kristal variety had high ecological plasticity and could be considered as close to an ideal type, suitable for growing under wide range of environments. Pleven 4 and Rezonator were determined as high-productive varieties and with low stability, Kerpo and Pikardi - as low-productive but stable varieties. Druzba was identified as unstable and low-productive variety.

  3. Pricing Participating Products under a Generalized Jump-Diffusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Kuen Siu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a model for valuing participating life insurance products under a generalized jump-diffusion model with a Markov-switching compensator. It also nests a number of important and popular models in finance, including the classes of jump-diffusion models and Markovian regime-switching models. The Esscher transform is employed to determine an equivalent martingale measure. Simulation experiments are conducted to illustrate the practical implementation of the model and to highlight some features that can be obtained from our model.

  4. Hydra, a fruitful model system for 270 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliot, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of Hydra regeneration by Abraham Trembley in 1744 promoted much scientific curiosity thanks to his clever design of experimental strategies away from the natural environment. Since then, this little freshwater cnidarian polyp flourished as a potent and fruitful model system. Here, we review some general biological questions that benefitted from Hydra research, such as the nature of embryogenesis, neurogenesis, induction by organizers, sex reversal, symbiosis, aging, feeding behavior, light regulation, multipotency of somatic stem cells, temperature-induced cell death, neuronal transdifferentiation, to cite only a few. To understand how phenotypes arise, theoricists also chose Hydra to model patterning and morphogenetic events, providing helpful concepts such as reaction-diffusion, positional information, and autocatalysis combined with lateral inhibition. Indeed, throughout these past 270 years, scientists used transplantation and grafting experiments, together with tissue, cell and molecular labelings, as well as biochemical procedures, in order to establish the solid foundations of cell and developmental biology. Nowadays, thanks to transgenic, genomic and proteomic tools, Hydra remains a promising model for these fields, but also for addressing novel questions such as evolutionary mechanisms, maintenance of dynamic homeostasis, regulation of stemness, functions of autophagy, cell death, stress response, innate immunity, bioactive compounds in ecosystems, ecotoxicant sensing and science communication.

  5. Real Exchange Rate and Productivity in an OLG Model

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Hong Thinh DOAN; Karine GENTE

    2013-01-01

    This article develops an overlapping generations model to show how demography and savings affect the relationship between real exchange rate (RER) and productivity. In high-saving (low-saving) countries and/or low-population-growth-rate countries, a rise in productivity leads to a real depreciation (appreciation) whereas the RER may appreciate or depreciate in highproduction-growth-rate. Using panel data, we conclude that a rise in productivity generally causes a real exchange rate appreciati...

  6. Selection of productivity improvement techniques via mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahassan M. Khater

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new mathematical model to select an optimal combination of productivity improvement techniques. The proposed model of this paper considers four-stage cycle productivity and the productivity is assumed to be a linear function of fifty four improvement techniques. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study of manufacturing plant. The resulted problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming which can be solved for optimality using traditional methods. The preliminary results of the implementation of the proposed model of this paper indicate that the productivity can be improved through a change on equipments and it can be easily applied for both manufacturing and service industries.

  7. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...... optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... models can be selected by operations managers depending on the manufacturer's motivation to improve service levels. We have also proposed an algorithm for determining optimum values of the decision variables for these sustainable economic production quantity models. Finally, the formulated models...

  8. What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-11-13

    Nov 13, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 5. What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of mouse embryonic stem cells. Michel Morange. Series Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 537-541. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Year-round behaviour of soil microarthropod communities under plant protection product application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaj, C.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Vighi, M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of plant protection products (PPPs) in agro-environments can lead to undesired exposure of non-target organisms in non-target compartments. A year-round field survey was conducted in a vineyard in Northern Italy, for monitoring the changes in the structure of soil microarthropod communities

  10. Twenty years of the journal of product innovation management : History, participants and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Griffin, A.; Biemans, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  11. Alcohol Fuels Production, Manpower, and Education: Where Do Two-Year Colleges Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James R.

    The Energy Communications Center (ECC) has sponsored a number of alcohol fuels activities designed to share information about alcohol fuels with two-year college faculty and administrators and to clarify the manpower and curriculum issues related to fuel production. This paper is the result of the last of these activities, a one-day meeting of…

  12. Chronicle of 65 years of wood finishing research at the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Gorman; William C. Feist

    1989-01-01

    For 65 years, the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, Wisconsin, has had a continuous and extensive program of research on finishing wood for outdoor use. The research has stressed the fundamental aspects of wood weathering and the interactions of pretreatments and finishes on wood surfaces. This report outlines the history of the FPL wood finishing research...

  13. Twenty years of the Journal of product innovation management : History, participants, and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim; Griffin, Abbie; Moenaert, Rudy

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  14. Searching for the grey swans : The next 50 years of production research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, H.A.; van Wassenhove, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    The International Journal of Production Research has successfully navigated through its first 50 years while remaining truthful to its initial editorial goals of publishing interdisciplinary work that is both relevant and rigorous. Will the journal be equally successful in the decades to come?

  15. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of 18 F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that 18 FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis

  16. Modelling production of field crops and its requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Keulen, van H.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation models are being developed that enable quantitative estimates of the growth and production of the main agricultural crops under a wide range of weather and soil conditions. For this purpose, several hierarchically ordered production situations are distinguished in such a way that the

  17. Production compilation : A simple mechanism to model complex skill acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, N.A.; Lee, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we describe production compilation, a mechanism for modeling skill acquisition. Production compilation has been developed within the ACT-Rational (ACT-R; J. R. Anderson, D. Bothell, M. D. Byrne, & C. Lebiere, 2002) cognitive architecture and consists of combining and specializing

  18. MODEL2TALK : An Intervention to Promote Productive Classroom Talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Chiel; van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van Oers, Bert; Michaels, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the MODEL2TALK intervention, which aims to promote young children's oral communicative competence through productive classroom talk. Productive classroom talk provides children in early childhood education with many opportunities to talk and think together. Results from a

  19. A Markov decision model for optimising economic production lot size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Traditional approaches towards determining the economic production lot (EPL) size in man- ufacturing applications assume deterministic demand, often at a constant rate. In this paper, an optimisation model is developed for determining the EPL size that minimises production and inventory costs of a periodic ...

  20. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G J H M; Faaij, André P C; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2016-12-06

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  1. Product Modelling for Building Design: Annotated Bibliography (2nd Edition)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1999-01-01

    This bibliography concerns research publications from 1976 to 1994-5, on product modelling in computer aided architectural design and computer aided engineering design of buildings and their surroundings. For each item of literature, full bibliographic information is given whenever available...... of literature is offered on machine interpretation of drawings, which may be relevant in the context of information exchange among different product models. Although the bibliography is fairly comprehensive as far as it goes, no completeness of coverage is claimed....

  2. Multi-year predictability in a coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Scott; Colman, Rob [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2006-02-01

    Multi-year to decadal variability in a 100-year integration of a BMRC coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (CGCM) is examined. The fractional contribution made by the decadal component generally increases with depth and latitude away from surface waters in the equatorial Indo-Pacific Ocean. The relative importance of decadal variability is enhanced in off-equatorial ''wings'' in the subtropical eastern Pacific. The model and observations exhibit ''ENSO-like'' decadal patterns. Analytic results are derived, which show that the patterns can, in theory, occur in the absence of any predictability beyond ENSO time-scales. In practice, however, modification to this stochastic view is needed to account for robust differences between ENSO-like decadal patterns and their interannual counterparts. An analysis of variability in the CGCM, a wind-forced shallow water model, and a simple mixed layer model together with existing and new theoretical results are used to improve upon this stochastic paradigm and to provide a new theory for the origin of decadal ENSO-like patterns like the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation. In this theory, ENSO-driven wind-stress variability forces internal equatorially-trapped Kelvin waves that propagate towards the eastern boundary. Kelvin waves can excite reflected internal westward propagating equatorially-trapped Rossby waves (RWs) and coastally-trapped waves (CTWs). CTWs have no impact on the off-equatorial sub-surface ocean outside the coastal wave guide, whereas the RWs do. If the frequency of the incident wave is too high, then only CTWs are excited. At lower frequencies, both CTWs and RWs can be excited. The lower the frequency, the greater the fraction of energy transmitted to RWs. This lowers the characteristic frequency of variability off the equator relative to its equatorial counterpart. Both the eastern boundary interactions and the accumulation of

  3. Predictive Models for Photovoltaic Electricity Production in Hot Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabar H. Yousif

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of finding a correct forecast equation for photovoltaic electricity production from renewable sources is an important matter, since knowing the factors affecting the increase in the proportion of renewable energy production and reducing the cost of the product has economic and scientific benefits. This paper proposes a mathematical model for forecasting energy production in photovoltaic (PV panels based on a self-organizing feature map (SOFM model. The proposed model is compared with other models, including the multi-layer perceptron (MLP and support vector machine (SVM models. Moreover, a mathematical model based on a polynomial function for fitting the desired output is proposed. Different practical measurement methods are used to validate the findings of the proposed neural and mathematical models such as mean square error (MSE, mean absolute error (MAE, correlation (R, and coefficient of determination (R2. The proposed SOFM model achieved a final MSE of 0.0007 in the training phase and 0.0005 in the cross-validation phase. In contrast, the SVM model resulted in a small MSE value equal to 0.0058, while the MLP model achieved a final MSE of 0.026 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989, which indicates a strong relationship between input and output variables. The proposed SOFM model closely fits the desired results based on the R2 value, which is equal to 0.9555. Finally, the comparison results of MAE for the three models show that the SOFM model achieved a best result of 0.36156, whereas the SVM and MLP models yielded 4.53761 and 3.63927, respectively. A small MAE value indicates that the output of the SOFM model closely fits the actual results and predicts the desired output.

  4. Improving Crop Productions Using the Irrigation & Crop Production Model Under Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Y.; Lee, T.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.; Jang, W.; Park, S.

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to improve crop productions by providing optimal irrigation water amounts (IWAs) for various soils and crops using the Irrigation & Crop Production (ICP) model under various hydro-climatic regions. We selected the Little Washita (LW 13/21) and Bangdong-ri sites in Oklahoma (United States of America) and Chuncheon (Republic of Korea) for the synthetic studies. Our results showed that the ICP model performed well for improving crop productions by providing optimal IWAs during the study period (2000 to 2016). Crop productions were significantly affected by the solar radiation and precipitation, but the maximum and minimum temperature showed less impact on crop productions. When we considerd that the weather variables cannot be adjusted by artifical activities, irrigation might be the only solution for improving crop productions under drought. Also, the presence of shallow ground water (SGW) table depths higlhy influences on crop production. Although certainties exist in the synthetic studies, our results showed the robustness of the ICP model for improving crop productions under the drought condition. Thus, the ICP model can contribute to efficient water management plans under drought in regions at where water availability is limited.

  5. Modeling of the Gross Regional Product on the Basis of Production Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovin, Nikolay S.; Kokotkina, Tatiana N.; Barkalova, Tatiana G.; Tsaregorodsev, Evgeny I.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to elaboration and construction of a static model of macroeconomics in which economics is considered as an unstructured holistic unit, the input of which receives the resources, and the output is the result of the functioning of economics in the form of gross domestic product or gross regional product. Resources are…

  6. Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV. The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  7. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J Bruce; Eggert, Susan L; Meyer, Judy L; Webster, Jackson R

    2015-05-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance, biomass, and secondary production in rockface (RF) and mixed substrates (MS) of forested headwater streams. Using a mesh canopy covering the entire treatment stream, we examined effects of litter ex'clusion, small- and large-wood removal, and addition of artificial wood (PVC) and leaves of varying quality on organic matter standing crops and invertebrate community structure and function. We assessed differences in functional feeding group distribution between substrate types as influenced by organic matter manipulations and long-term patterns of predator and prey production in manipulated vs. reference years. Particulate organic matter standing crops in MS of the treatment stream declined drastically with each successive year of litter exclusion, approaching zero after three years. Monthly invertebrate biomass and annual secondary production was positively related to benthic organic matter in the MS habitats. Rockface habitats exhibited fewer changes than MS habitats across all organic matter manipulations. With leaf addition, the patterns of functional group distribution among MS and RF habitats returned to patterns seen in reference streams. Secondary production per unit organic matter standing crop was greatest for the leaf addition period, followed by the reference streams, and significantly less for the litter exclusion and wood removal periods. These data indicate that the limited organic matter remaining in the stream following litter exclusion and wood removal was more refractory than that in the reference streams, whereas the added leaf material was more labile and readily converted into

  8. Model of high-productive varieties in forage pea

    OpenAIRE

    KOSEV, VALENTIN

    2015-01-01

    A linear equation of regression was used for establishment of the influence of quantitative characteristics on the grain productivity in forage pea and for development of a model for breeding work. The model for pea plant with high productivity was characterized by average height of 60–70 cm, 8–10 formed pods, 30–40 seeds per plant and 160–260 g in regard to 1000-seed weight. The obtained results showed that the greatest effect on grain productivity had the seed number per plant, first pod he...

  9. Ten-year operational dust forecasting - Recent model development and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallos, G; Spyrou, C; Astitha, M; Mitsakou, C; Solomos, S; Kushta, J; Pytharoulis, I; Katsafados, P; Mavromatidis, E; Papantoniou, N; Vlastou, G [University of Athens, School of Physics, Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group - UOA/AM and WFG, University Campus, Bldg. PHYS-V, Athens 15784 (Greece)], E-mail: kallos@mg.uoa.gr

    2009-03-01

    The Sahara desert is one of the major sources of mineral dust on Earth, producing up to 2x10{sup 8} t yr-{sup 1}. A combined effort has been devoted during the last ten years at the University of Athens (UOA) from the Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group (AM and WFG) to the development of an analysis and forecasting tool that will provide early warning of Saharan dust outbreaks. The developed tool is the SKIRON limited-area forecasting system, based on the Eta limited area modeling system with embedded algorithms describing the dust cycle. A new version of the model is currently available, with extra features like eight-size particle bins, radiative transfer corrections, new dust source identification and utilization of rocky soil characterization and incorporation of more accurate deposition schemes. The new version of SKIRON modeling system is coupled with the photochemical model CAMx in order to study processes like the shading effect of dust particles on photochemical processes and the production of second and third generation of aerosols. Moreover, another new development in the AM and WFG is based on the RAMS model, with the incorporation of processes like dust and sea-salt production, gas and aqueous phase chemistry and particle formation. In this study, the major characteristics of the developed (and under development) modeling systems are presented, as well as the spatiotemporal distribution of the transported dust amounts, the interaction with anthropogenically-produced particles and the potential implications on radiative transfer.

  10. Boolean models of biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Richard

    Full Text Available Cyclolipopeptides (CLPs are biosurfactants produced by numerous Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. CLP production is known to be regulated at least by the GacA/GacS two-component pathway, but the full regulatory network is yet largely unknown. In the clinical strain MFN1032, CLP production is abolished by a mutation in the phospholipase C gene (plcC and not restored by plcC complementation. Their production is also subject to phenotypic variation. We used a modelling approach with Boolean networks, which takes into account all these observations concerning CLP production without any assumption on the topology of the considered network. Intensive computation yielded numerous models that satisfy these properties. All models minimizing the number of components point to a bistability in CLP production, which requires the presence of a yet unknown key self-inducible regulator. Furthermore, all suggest that a set of yet unexplained phenotypic variants might also be due to this epigenetic switch. The simplest of these Boolean networks was used to propose a biological regulatory network for CLP production. This modelling approach has allowed a possible regulation to be unravelled and an unusual behaviour of CLP production in P. fluorescens to be explained.

  11. H2A Production Model, Version 2 User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Ramsden, T.; Zuboy, J.

    2008-09-01

    The H2A Production Model analyzes the technical and economic aspects of central and forecourt hydrogen production technologies. Using a standard discounted cash flow rate of return methodology, it determines the minimum hydrogen selling price, including a specified after-tax internal rate of return from the production technology. Users have the option of accepting default technology input values--such as capital costs, operating costs, and capacity factor--from established H2A production technology cases or entering custom values. Users can also modify the model's financial inputs. This new version of the H2A Production Model features enhanced usability and functionality. Input fields are consolidated and simplified. New capabilities include performing sensitivity analyses and scaling analyses to various plant sizes. This User Guide helps users already familiar with the basic tenets of H2A hydrogen production cost analysis get started using the new version of the model. It introduces the basic elements of the model then describes the function and use of each of its worksheets.

  12. Stochastic modeling of economic injury levels with respect to yearly trends in price commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The economic injury level (EIL) concept integrates economics and biology and uses chemical applications in crop protection only when economic loss by pests is anticipated. The EIL is defined by five primary variables: the cost of management tactic per production unit, the price of commodity, the injury units per pest, the damage per unit injury, and the proportionate reduction of injury averted by the application of a tactic. The above variables are related according to the formula EIL = C/VIDK. The observable dynamic alteration of the EIL due to its different parameters is a major characteristic of its concept. In this study, the yearly effect of the economic variables is assessed, and in particular the influence of the parameter commodity value on the shape of the EIL function. In addition, to predict the effects of the economic variables on the EIL level, yearly commodity values were incorporated in the EIL formula and the generated outcomes were further modelled with stochastic linear autoregressive models having different orders. According to the AR(1) model, forecasts for the five-year period of 2010-2015 ranged from 2.33 to 2.41 specimens per sampling unit. These values represent a threshold that is in reasonable limits to justify future control actions. Management actions as related to productivity and price commodity significantly affect costs of crop production and thus define the adoption of IPM and sustainable crop production systems at local and international levels. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  13. Modelling of wander ratios, travel speeds and productivity of cable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple regression was also used to develop prediction models for travel speeds loaded and unloaded. The study met its objectives for driving speeds and productivity, and the developed models will be used in a subsequent network analysis to provide solutions to optimise the softwood sawtimber supply chain. The study ...

  14. Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.; de Pauw, I.C.; Bakker, C.A.; van der Grinten, B.

    The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for
    companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper

  15. Testday models for production traits in dairy cattle | Mostert | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology has been developed to implement testday models in the national genetic evaluation of dairy breeds for production traits in South Africa. Positive definite covariance matrices have been estimated, using multitrait, multi-lactation, fixed regression testday BLUP animal models, including testday records of the first ...

  16. Meat consumption, production and land use : model implementation and scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses simulations with the LEITAP model about opportunities to reduce land use as a consequence of changing meat consumption and production. In order to be able to generate plausible simulation results, the LEITAP model had to be adjusted. These changes are discussed in the first

  17. Modeling new product sales; an application of cointegration analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers an econometric model for new product sales, which extends the deterministic Gompertz process by allowing the saturation level to depend on forcing variables. It turns out that this model can be written in error correction form. Given that many marketing variables

  18. Some Problems in Using Diffusion Models for New Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Irwin; Mackenzie, Kenneth D.

    This paper analyzes some of the problems of using diffusion models to formulate marketing strategies for new products. Though future work in this area appears justified, many unresolved problems limit its application. There is no theory for adoption and diffusion processes; such a theory is outlined in this paper. The present models are too…

  19. Alternative wind power modeling methods using chronological and load duration curve production cost models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M R

    1996-04-01

    As an intermittent resource, capturing the temporal variation in windpower is an important issue in the context of utility production cost modeling. Many of the production cost models use a method that creates a cumulative probability distribution that is outside the time domain. The purpose of this report is to examine two production cost models that represent the two major model types: chronological and load duration cure models. This report is part of the ongoing research undertaken by the Wind Technology Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in utility modeling and wind system integration.

  20. Spatial Mapping of Agricultural Water Productivity Using the SWAT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokal, Rajesh Tulshiram; Gorantiwar, S. D.; Kothari, Mahesh; Bhakar, S. R.; Nandwana, B. P.

    2015-03-01

    The Sina river basin is facing both episodic and chronic water shortages due to intensive irrigation development. The main objective of this study was to characterize the hydrologic processes of the Sina river basin and assess crop water productivity using the distributed hydrologic model, SWAT. In the simulation year (1998-1999), the inflow to reservoir from upstream side was the major contributor to the reservoir accounting for 92 % of the total required water release for irrigation purpose (119.5 Mm3), while precipitation accounted for 4.1 Mm3. Annual release of water for irrigation was 119.5 Mm3 out of which 54 % water was diverted for irrigation purpose, 26 % was wasted as conveyance loss, average discharge at the command outlet was estimated as 4 % and annual average ground-water recharge coefficient was in the range of 13-17 %. Various scenarios involving water allocation rule were tested with the goal of increasing economic water productivity values in the Sina Irrigation Scheme. Out of those, only most benefited allocation rule is analyzed in this paper. Crop yield varied from 1.98 to 25.9 t/ha, with the majority of the area between 2.14 and 2.78 t/ha. Yield and WP declined significantly in loamy soils of the irrigation command. Crop productivity in the basin was found in the lower range when compared with potential and global values. The findings suggested that there was a potential to improve further. Spatial variations in yield and WP were found to be very high for the crops grown during rabi season, while those were low for the crops grown during kharif season. The crop yields and WP during kharif season were more in the lower reach of the irrigation commands, where loamy soil is more concentrated. Sorghum in both seasons was most profitable. Sorghum fetched net income fivefold that of sunflower, two and half fold of pearl millet and one and half fold of mung beans as far as crop during kharif season were concerned and it fetched fourfold that of

  1. SPIE Smart Structures Product Implementation Award: a review of the first ten years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric H.; Sater, Janet M.

    2007-04-01

    The research field of smart materials and structures has been a distinct entity for two decades. Over the past ten years, the SPIE Industrial and Commercial Applications Conference has presented a Smart Structures Product Implementation Award at its annual symposium. This paper revisits the nine winning entries to date (1998-2007) and updates their status. The paper begins with a brief description of the original and current intent of the award and follows with a short overview of the evolution of smart structures, from research to products. The winning teams and their respective products are then described. The current status of the products is discussed based on publicly available information and input from the respective companies. Note however that it is not the purpose of the paper to rank the product winners in terms of success or sales. The paper concludes with an assessment of the larger trends in productization of smart structures technologies. The application "form" for the award as well as the evaluation criteria and suggestions for improving award application packages can be found in the appendix.

  2. A Deterministic Inventory/Production Model with General Inventory Cost Rate Function and Concave Production Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. Birbil (Ilker); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); Z.P. Bayindir (Pelin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe present a thorough analysis of the economic order quantity model with shortages under a general inventory cost rate function and concave production costs. By using some standard results from convex analysis, we show that the model exhibits a composite concave-convex structure.

  3. Modelling carbon stocks and fluxes in the wood product sector: a comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet-Navarro, Pau; Jochheim, Hubert; Muys, Bart

    2016-07-01

    In addition to forest ecosystems, wood products are carbon pools that can be strategically managed to mitigate climate change. Wood product models (WPMs) simulating the carbon balance of wood production, use and end of life can complement forest growth models to evaluate the mitigation potential of the forest sector as a whole. WPMs can be used to compare scenarios of product use and explore mitigation strategies. A considerable number of WPMs have been developed in the last three decades, but there is no review available analysing their functionality and performance. This study analyses and compares 41 WPMs. One surprising initial result was that we discovered the erroneous implementation of a few concepts and assumptions in some of the models. We further described and compared the models using six model characteristics (bucking allocation, industrial processes, carbon pools, product removal, recycling and substitution effects) and three model-use characteristics (system boundaries, model initialization and evaluation of results). Using a set of indicators based on the model characteristics, we classified models using a hierarchical clustering technique and differentiated them according to their increasing degrees of complexity and varying levels of user support. For purposes of simulating carbon stock in wood products, models with a simple structure may be sufficient, but to compare climate change mitigation options, complex models are needed. The number of models has increased substantially over the last ten years, introducing more diversity and accuracy. Calculation of substitution effects and recycling has also become more prominent. However, the lack of data is still an important constraint for a more realistic estimation of carbon stocks and fluxes. Therefore, if the sector wants to demonstrate the environmental quality of its products, it should make it a priority to provide reliable life cycle inventory data, particularly regarding aspects of time and

  4. A model of the supplier involvement in the product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the product innovation in a supply chain by a supplier and derive a model for a supplier’s product innovation policy. The product innovation of a supplier can contribute to the long-term competitiveness for the supply chain, and as it is for many supply chains a major factor, it should be considered in the development of strategies for a supplier. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of supplier product innovation as a strategic tool to enhance the competitiveness and viability of supply chain. This paper explores the dynamic research performance of a supplier with endogenous time preference under a given arrangement of product innovation. We find that the optimal effort level and the achieved product innovation obey a saddle point path, or show tremendous fluctuations even without introducing the stochastic nature of product innovative activity. We also find that the fluctuation frequency is largely dependent both on the supplier’s characteristics such as supplier’s product innovative ability and on the nature of product innovation process per se. Short-run analyses are also made on the effect of supply chain cooperation in the product innovation process.

  5. The model for estimation production cost of embroidery handicraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofierni; Sriwana, IK; Septriani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Embroidery industry is one of type of micro industry that produce embroidery handicraft. These industries are emerging in some rural areas of Indonesia. Embroidery clothing are produce such as scarves and clothes that show cultural value of certain region. The owner of an enterprise must calculate the cost of production before making a decision on how many products are received from the customer. A calculation approach to production cost analysis is needed to consider the feasibility of each order coming. This study is proposed to design the expert system (ES) in order to improve production management in the embroidery industry. The model will design used Fuzzy inference system as a model to estimate production cost. Research conducted based on survey and knowledge acquisitions from stakeholder of supply chain embroidery handicraft industry at Bukittinggi, West Sumatera, Indonesia. This paper will use fuzzy input where the quality, the complexity of the design and the working hours required and the result of the model are useful to manage production cost on embroidery production.

  6. Prescription patterns of enzyme-containing products in South Africa over a 2-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Truter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are traded in five categories, namely medical (intervention, diagnostic (detection and quantification, molecular biology, biofuel and industrial. Therapeutic enzymes have been investigated for different uses, for example, for the treatment of genetic disorders, blood clotting disorders, cancer and infectious diseases and for burn debridement. No studies on the prescription of enzyme-containing products in South Africa could be found. Enzymes are classified in the Monthly Index of Medical Specialities under digestants, enzymes and fibrinolytics. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the prescription patterns and cost of enzyme-containing products in South Africa. A private health-care medicines claims database for 2010 and 2011 of approximately 4.5 million records was analysed retrospectively. Enzyme-containing products constituted a small percentage of medical insurance claims (only 0.02% of approximately 4.5 million claims for products and procedures, yet they were relatively expensive. A total of 906 products was prescribed at a cost of almost ZAR2 million over the 2 years. Hyaluronidase was the most frequently prescribed (60.04%, followed by pancreatin-containing products (34.66%. Pancreatin (lipase/ protease/amylase is primarily used in the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The average cost per hyaluronidase prescription paid by the medical insurance schemes was ZAR280. Other enzyme-containing products prescribed were imiglucerase, alteplase and tenecteplase. Imiglucerase was overall the most expensive. Alteplase, tenecteplase and streptokinase are antithrombotic enzymes that are used in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke. Streptokinase, regarded as the most affordable antithrombotic enzyme, was not prescribed during the period under study. With the growing opportunities for enzymes for therapeutics, the use of enzyme-containing products which are comparatively expensive require

  7. Fish Processed Production Planning Using Integer Stochastic Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, Mawengkang, Herman

    2011-06-01

    Fish and its processed products are the most affordable source of animal protein in the diet of most people in Indonesia. The goal in production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the trade-off between economic objectives such as production cost and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model. The results which show the amount of each fish processed product and the number of workforce needed in each horizon planning are presented.

  8. Production costs of greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers in years 2004-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stachowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was determination of the level of production costs of greenhouse vegetable in years 2004-2007. The research was carried out in object having at disposal 23-29 (ha under protection surface, greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers. The production of greenhouse tomatoes was profitable in the whole period of the research. In case of late greenhouse cucumbers were cultivated there it not profitable only in 2006, in the period remaining it ran beyond profitability insignificantly. Costs of production of greenhouse tomatoes were formed at the level of 2.12 (2007-2.49 (2006 PLN•kg-1, early greenhouse cucumber: 1.32 (2006-2.25 (2007 PLN•kg-1 and greenhouse late cucumber 1.77 (2004-2.38 (2006 PLN•kg-1.

  9. Kinetic model development for biogas production from cattle dung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Manjula Das; Mahanta, P.

    2017-07-01

    Biogas is a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and traces of numerous trace of elements. It is produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matters including cattle dung which depend upon various factors affecting the population and activity of microorganisms producing biogas. Among the various factors temperature is one of them which play a significant role in biogas production from cattle dung. Biogas production from cattle dung was studied at temperatures 35°C to 55°C at a step of 5°C to study the effect of temperature on biogas production from cattle dung. In this work a mathematical model is developed for evaluating the effect of temperature on the rate of biogas production from cattle dung. The new mathematical model is derived by adding the effect of temperature on the modified Gompertz model. The new model is found to be suitable for predicting the biogas production from cattle dung in the temperature range 35°C to 55°C. The results from the new model are found to be highly correlated to the experimental data of present study.

  10. Consequences of Ingestions of Potentially Corrosive Cleaning Products, One-Year Follow-Up

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázová, K.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Pelclová, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2012), s. 1734-1748 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Czech Toxicological Information Centre * cleaning products * consequences Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2011 http://www.electrochemsci.org/papers/vol7/7031734.pdf

  11. Production and use of biogas year 2009; Produktion och anvaendning av biogas aar 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    In the present study, a total of 230 biogas-producing sites were identified. These produced a total of 1363 GWh of energy. The 230 biogas-producing plants were distributed in 136 sewage treatment plants, 57 landfills, 21 co-digestion plants, four industries and 12 farm sites. The number of upgrading plants amounted to 38 and at seven locations injection of upgraded biogas into the natural gas network took place. 44% of the biogas generated in sewage treatment plants, 25% were produced in landfills, 22% of co-digestion plants, 8% in industrial plants and 1% on farm installations. The total biogas production in 2009 was slightely higher than last year, but the division between the different plant types has changed. Production increased for co-digestion plants and farm installations, while production was relatively unchanged for sewage treatment plants. Production in landfills and industrial sites decreased compared with 2008. A larger proportion of the biogas came to use in 2009 compared with previous years. 667 GWh (49%) was used for heating, which also includes heat loss, 488 GWh (36%) were upgraded, 64 GWh (5%) of electricity was generated and 135 GWh (10%) was torched. The main substrates for biogas production were different types of waste such as sewage sludge, source separated food waste and waste from food industry. In addition to biogas, co-digestion plants and the farm plants together produced 537 403 tonnes (wet weight) biofertilizer, and the waste water treatment plants 214 000 tonnes (dry weight) sludge. The provincial breakdown shows that biogas production was greatest in metropolitan areas

  12. A study for production simulation model generation system based on data model at a shipyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Gi Back

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation technology is a type of shipbuilding product lifecycle management solution used to support production planning or decision-making. Normally, most shipbuilding processes are consisted of job shop production, and the modeling and simulation require professional skills and experience on shipbuilding. For these reasons, many shipbuilding companies have difficulties adapting simulation systems, regardless of the necessity for the technology. In this paper, the data model for shipyard production simulation model generation was defined by analyzing the iterative simulation modeling procedure. The shipyard production simulation data model defined in this study contains the information necessary for the conventional simulation modeling procedure and can serve as a basis for simulation model generation. The efficacy of the developed system was validated by applying it to the simulation model generation of the panel block production line. By implementing the initial simulation model generation process, which was performed in the past with a simulation modeler, the proposed system substantially reduced the modeling time. In addition, by reducing the difficulties posed by different modeler-dependent generation methods, the proposed system makes the standardization of the simulation model quality possible.

  13. Model year 2010 Ford Fusion Level-1 testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-23

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Ford Fusion was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles, and A/C usage cycles were conducted. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database. The major results are shown in this report. Given the benchmark nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and sought to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current/voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Fusion and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  14. European oil product supply modelling; Modelisation de l`offre de produits petroliers en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Antonin, V

    1998-12-11

    Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programming model applied to the European refineries in order to determine oil product supply prices, European refining industry investments and oil product exchanges of the European Union. The first part presents the reason for our choice for a long-term aggregate multi-refineries linear programming model, based on European refineries characteristics and the objectives of our model. Its dual properties are studied in detail and we focus particularly on the European exchange modelling. In the second part, an analysis of the European refining trends leads us to identify parameters and variables of the model that are essential to the aggregate representation of the European oil product supply. The third part is devoted to the use of this model, regarding two scenarios of increasingly stringent specifications for gasoline and diesel oil. Our interest for these products is due to their important share of the European oil product consumption and the not insignificant responsibility of the transport sector for atmospheric pollution. Finally, in order to have the use of an overall picture of the European refining industry, we build a regression model summarizing, though a few equations, the main relations between the major endogenous and exogenous variables o the LP model. Based on pseudo-data, this kind of model provides a simple and robust representation of the oil product supply. But a more specialized analysis of the refining industry operations, turning on a technical assessment of processing units, is reliant on the use of an optimization model such as the model we have built. (author) 102 refs.

  15. Surrogate reservoir models for CSI well probabilistic production forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Buitrago

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the construction and use of Surrogate Reservoir Models capable of accurately predicting cumulative oil production for every well stimulated with cyclic steam injection at any given time in a heavy oil reservoir in Mexico considering uncertain variables. The central composite experimental design technique was selected to capture the maximum amount of information from the model response with a minimum number of reservoir models simulations. Four input uncertain variables (the dead oil viscosity with temperature, the reservoir pressure, the reservoir permeability and oil sand thickness hydraulically connected to the well were selected as the ones with more impact on the initial hot oil production rate according to an analytical production prediction model. Twenty five runs were designed and performed with the STARS simulator for each well type on the reservoir model. The results show that the use of Surrogate Reservoir Models is a fast viable alternative to perform probabilistic production forecasting of the reservoir.

  16. Biotechonomy System Dynamics Modelling: Sustainability of Pellet Production

    OpenAIRE

    Andra Blumberga; Armands Gravelsins; Haralds Vigants; Dagnija Blumberga

    2017-01-01

    The paper discovers biotechonomy development analysis by use of system dynamics modelling. The research is connected with investigations of biomass application for production of bioproducts with higher added value. The most popular bioresource is wood, and therefore, the main question today is about future development and eco-design of products. The paper emphasizes and evaluates energy sector which is open for use of wood logs, wood chips, wood pellets and so on. The main aim for this resear...

  17. Habitat connectivity and ecosystem productivity: implications from a simple model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The import of resources (food, nutrients) sustains biological production and food webs in resource-limited habitats. Resource export from donor habitats subsidizes production in recipient habitats, but the ecosystem-scale consequences of resource translocation are generally unknown. Here, I use a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton model to show how dispersive connectivity between a shallow autotrophic habitat and a deep heterotrophic pelagic habitat can amplify overall system production in metazoan food webs. This result derives from the finite capacity of suspension feeders to capture and assimilate food particles: excess primary production in closed autotrophic habitats cannot be assimilated by consumers; however, if excess phytoplankton production is exported to food-limited heterotrophic habitats, it can be assimilated by zooplankton to support additional secondary production. Transport of regenerated nutrients from heterotrophic to autotrophic habitats sustains higher system primary production. These simulation results imply that the ecosystem-scale efficiency of nutrient transformation into metazoan biomass can be constrained by the rate of resource exchange across habitats and that it is optimized when the transport rate matches the growth rate of primary producers. Slower transport (i.e., reduced connectivity) leads to nutrient limitation of primary production in autotrophic habitats and food limitation of secondary production in heterotrophic habitats. Habitat fragmentation can therefore impose energetic constraints on the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems. The outcomes of ecosystem restoration through habitat creation will be determined by both functions provided by newly created aquatic habitats and the rates of hydraulic connectivity between them.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL IN PRODUCTION STRATEGY: CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND EMPIRICAL TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Chagas Rodrigues

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquire and produce what is strictly necessary are the goals of the organizations, since they aim companies more competitive and thereby reducing production costs. The research method is applied in nature, with a qualitative and quantitative approach, in which the objective of the research will be: exploratory and descriptive, with technical procedures, divided into: bibliographic, documentary, survey and concluding with a case study. On this assumption the main objective of this research is to develop and analyze a mathematical model that minimizes costs and maximizes the postponement of stocks in a company in the pulp, paper and paper products. Having been found only four papers, two articles and two theses that deal with the issue of demand management, supply chain and inventory postponement. These studies address the issue by modeling the productive time of the supply chain. For production segments this research may enable development of management practices demand and production strategy, allowing cost reductions and productivity gains possible. With the development of the mathematical model could ever analyze the behavior of demand and its influence on the productive strategy, strategy formulation regarding the purchase of raw materials and finished product storage in the last four years the company's results for the proposed model.

  19. Structural model for sustainable consumption and production adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan; Mangla, Sachin Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) patterns are becoming important in the implementation of sustainability in industrial contexts. In this sense, this study uniquely focuses on developing a structural model to evaluate the sustainable consumption and production adoption drivers...... and to improve sustainability aspects in the supply chain scenario under uncertain environments. Initially, fourteen drivers related to sustainable consumption and production adoption were selected from the literature and expert feedback. Then, the grey based Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory....... “Governmental policies and regulations to develop sustainable consumption and production focused system” and “Management support, dedication and involvement in sustainable consumption and production implementation” have been found as the most influencing drivers and “Gaining the market edge and improving...

  20. Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s Fiscal Year 1997 financial statement audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-27

    The Department of Energy Isotope Production and Distribution Program mission is to serve the national need for a reliable supply of isotope products and services for medicine, industry and research. The program produces and sells hundreds of stable and radioactive isotopes that are widely utilized by domestic and international customers. Isotopes are produced only where there is no U.S. private sector capability or other production capacity is insufficient to meet U.S. needs. The Department encourages private sector investment in new isotope production ventures and will sell or lease its existing facilities and inventories for commercial purposes. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund established by the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act and maintains financial viability by earning revenues from the sale of isotopes and services and through annual appropriations. The FY 1995 Energy and Water Appropriations Act modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Although the Isotope Program functions as a business, prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research purposes may not achieve full-cost recovery. As a result, isotopes produced by the Isotope Program for research and development are priced to provide a reasonable return to the U.S. Government without discouraging their use. Commercial isotopes are sold on a cost-recovery basis. Because of its pricing structure, when selecting isotopes for production, the Isotope Program must constantly balance current isotope demand, market conditions, and societal benefits with its determination to operate at the lowest possible cost to U.S. taxpayers. Thus, this report provides a financial analysis of this situation.

  1. A Production Model for Construction: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antunes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The building construction industry faces challenges, such as increasing project complexity and scope requirements, but shorter deadlines. Additionally, economic uncertainty and rising business competition with a subsequent decrease in profit margins for the industry demands the development of new approaches to construction management. However, the building construction sector relies on practices based on intuition and experience, overlooking the dynamics of its production system. Furthermore, researchers maintain that the construction industry has no history of the application of mathematical approaches to model and manage production. Much work has been carried out on how manufacturing practices apply to construction projects, mostly lean principles. Nevertheless, there has been little research to understand the fundamental mechanisms of production in construction. This study develops an in-depth literature review to examine the existing knowledge about production models and their characteristics in order to establish a foundation for dynamic production systems management in construction. As a result, a theoretical framework is proposed, which will be instrumental in the future development of mathematical production models aimed at predicting the performance and behaviour of dynamic project-based systems in construction.

  2. Contribution of Health Researches in National Knowledge Production: A Scientometrics Study on 15-Year Research Products of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Sobhani, Zahra; Laali, Reza; Qorbani, Omid Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ebadifar, Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Researchers, practitioners, and policymakers call for updated valid evidence to monitor, prevent, and control of alarming trends of health problems. To respond to these needs, health researches provide the vast multidisciplinary scientific fields. We quantify the national trends of health research outputs and its contribution in total science products. We systematically searched Scopus database with the most coverage in health and biomedicine discipline as the only sources for multidisciplinary citation reports, for all total and health-related publications, from 2000 to 2014. These scientometrics analyses covered the trends of main index of scientific products, citations, and collaborative papers. We also provided information on top institutions, journals, and collaborative research centers in the fields of health researches. In Iran, over a 15-year period, 237,056 scientific papers have been published, of which 81,867 (34.53%) were assigned to health-related fields. Pearson's Chi-square test showed significant time trends between published papers and their citations. Tehran University of Medical Sciences was responsible for 21.87% of knowledge productions share. The second and the third ranks with 11.15% and 7.28% belonged to Azad University and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, respectively. In total fields, Iran had the most collaborative papers with the USA (4.17%), the UK (2.41%), and Canada (0.02%). In health-related papers, similar patterns of collaboration followed by 4.75%, 2.77%, and 1.93% of papers. Despite the ascending trends in health research outputs, more efforts required for the promotion of collaborative outputs that cause synergy of resources and the use of practical results. These analyses also could be useful for better planning and management of planning and conducting studies in these fields.

  3. Contribution of health researches in national knowledge production: A scientometrics study on 15-year research products of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers, practitioners, and policymakers call for updated valid evidence to monitor, prevent, and control of alarming trends of health problems. To respond to these needs, health researches provide the vast multidisciplinary scientific fields. We quantify the national trends of health research outputs and its contribution in total science products. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus database with the most coverage in health and biomedicine discipline as the only sources for multidisciplinary citation reports, for all total and health-related publications, from 2000 to 2014. These scientometrics analyses covered the trends of main index of scientific products, citations, and collaborative papers. We also provided information on top institutions, journals, and collaborative research centers in the fields of health researches. Results: In Iran, over a 15-year period, 237,056 scientific papers have been published, of which 81,867 (34.53% were assigned to health-related fields. Pearson's Chi-square test showed significant time trends between published papers and their citations. Tehran University of Medical Sciences was responsible for 21.87% of knowledge productions share. The second and the third ranks with 11.15% and 7.28% belonged to Azad University and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, respectively. In total fields, Iran had the most collaborative papers with the USA (4.17%, the UK (2.41%, and Canada (0.02%. In health-related papers, similar patterns of collaboration followed by 4.75%, 2.77%, and 1.93% of papers. Conclusions: Despite the ascending trends in health research outputs, more efforts required for the promotion of collaborative outputs that cause synergy of resources and the use of practical results. These analyses also could be useful for better planning and management of planning and conducting studies in these fields.

  4. Quantitative estimates of changes in marine and terrestrial primary productivity over the past 300 million years

    OpenAIRE

    Beerling, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in marine primary production over geological time have influenced a network of global biogeochemical cycles with corresponding feedbacks on climate. However, these changes continue to remain largely unquantified because of uncertainties in calculating global estimates from sedimentary palaeoproductivity indicators. I therefore describe a new approach to the problem using a mass balance analysis of the stable isotopes (18O/16O) of oxygen with modelled O2 fluxes and isotopic exchanges b...

  5. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to demonstrate the effects of changing parameter values on the optimal solution of the system.

  6. Comparison of kinetic model for biogas production from corn cob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitophyta, L. M.; Maryudi

    2018-04-01

    Energy demand increases every day, while the energy source especially fossil energy depletes increasingly. One of the solutions to overcome the energy depletion is to provide renewable energies such as biogas. Biogas can be generated by corn cob and food waste. In this study, biogas production was carried out by solid-state anaerobic digestion. The steps of biogas production were the preparation of feedstock, the solid-state anaerobic digestion, and the measurement of biogas volume. This study was conducted on TS content of 20%, 22%, and 24%. The aim of this research was to compare kinetic models of biogas production from corn cob and food waste as a co-digestion using the linear, exponential equation, and first-kinetic models. The result showed that the exponential equation had a better correlation than the linear equation on the ascending graph of biogas production. On the contrary, the linear equation had a better correlation than the exponential equation on the descending graph of biogas production. The correlation values on the first-kinetic model had the smallest value compared to the linear and exponential models.

  7. Modelling architectures in multi-product oriented technology development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir

    This thesis investigates the use of architecture modelling in a technology development context.This context presents greater uncertainties than more mature new product development. Applications—the use of products based on the technology being developed—are not fully identified and the requiremen...... frameworks in a technology development projectare presented, along with descriptive results on the context of technology development gained through active participation in the case project.......This thesis investigates the use of architecture modelling in a technology development context.This context presents greater uncertainties than more mature new product development. Applications—the use of products based on the technology being developed—are not fully identified and the requirements...... to be fulfilled are not completely defined.The products to be based on the technology are yet to be developed as the foundation for their development will be developed during the technology development. Furthermore, the production of a new technology is not defined as both the technology and derivative products...

  8. Mathematical Model for Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Natural Products and Extraction Curve Evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2005), s. 35-52 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : supercritical extraction * natural products * model Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2005

  9. Hilbert Space Inner Products for PJ-symmetric Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 11 (2015), s. 4154-4163 ISSN 0020-7748 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model * physical inner products * complete set of pseudometrics * exceptional points Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2015

  10. Vegetation-specific model parameters are not required for estimating gross primary production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yuan, W.; Cai, W.; Liu, S.; Dong, W.; Chen, J.; Altaf Arain, M.; Blanken, P. D.; Cescatti, A.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Georgiadis, T.; Genesio, L.; Gianelle, D.; Grelle, A.; Kiely, G.; Knohl, A.; Liu, D.; Marek, Michal V.; Merbold, L.; Montagnani, L.; Panferov, O.; Peltoniemi, M.; Rambal, S.; Raschi, A.; Varlagin, A.; Xia, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 292, NOV 24 2014 (2014), s. 1-10 ISSN 0304-3800 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : light use efficiency * gross primary production * model parameters Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2014

  11. Review of central exclusive production of the Higgs boson beyond the Standard Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taševský, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 28 (2014), "1446012-1"-"1446012-21" ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : LHC * Higgs boson * central exclusive production * beyond Standard Model * forward detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.699, year: 2014

  12. Hilbert Space Inner Products for PT-symmetric Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, X (2015), s. 4154-4163 ISSN 0020-7748 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model * physical inner products * complete set of pseudometrics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2015

  13. [Vigilance for veterinary medicinal products: declarations of adverse reactions in the year 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntener, C R; Bruckner, L; Stürer, A; Althaus, F R; Caduff-Janosa, P

    2010-12-01

    During the year 2009, 134 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) were received (106 in the year 2008). The distribution according to species and drug classes remained in line with previous years. Companion animals were involved in most of the reports (46 % dogs, 19 % cats), followed by cattle or calves (22 %). Antiparasitic drugs made the biggest part with 30 % of the reports, followed by antiinfectives (19 %) and hormones (13 %). Some reactions following their use are specifically discussed. 95 additional enquiries about ADRs of VMPs were received by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre in Zürich. Most of them concerned dogs or cats and antiparasitics or anti-inflammatory drugs. In the vaccinovigilance program, a total of 1020 reports were received, of which 1000 were related to the vaccination against blue tongue disease. The most frequently reported adverse reactions were aborts, mastitis or alterations of milk quality and they are specifically discussed.

  14. Towards a reference model for portfolio management for product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of portfolio management for product development at company level. Departing from a combination of explorative interviews with industry professionals and a literature review a proposal for a reference model for portfolio management is developed....... The model consists of a set of defined and interrelated concepts which forms a coherent and consistent reference model that explicate the totality of the portfolio management concept at company level in terms of structure, processes and elements. The model simultaneously pinpoints, positions and integrates...

  15. Sampling from stochastic reservoir models constrained by production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegstad, Bjoern Kaare

    1997-12-31

    When a petroleum reservoir is evaluated, it is important to forecast future production of oil and gas and to assess forecast uncertainty. This is done by defining a stochastic model for the reservoir characteristics, generating realizations from this model and applying a fluid flow simulator to the realizations. The reservoir characteristics define the geometry of the reservoir, initial saturation, petrophysical properties etc. This thesis discusses how to generate realizations constrained by production data, that is to say, the realizations should reproduce the observed production history of the petroleum reservoir within the uncertainty of these data. The topics discussed are: (1) Theoretical framework, (2) History matching, forecasting and forecasting uncertainty, (3) A three-dimensional test case, (4) Modelling transmissibility multipliers by Markov random fields, (5) Up scaling, (6) The link between model parameters, well observations and production history in a simple test case, (7) Sampling the posterior using optimization in a hierarchical model, (8) A comparison of Rejection Sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, (9) Stochastic simulation and conditioning by annealing in reservoir description, and (10) Uncertainty assessment in history matching and forecasting. 139 refs., 85 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Accounting emergy flows to determine the best production model of a coffee plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetti, B.F.; Ogura, Y.; Bonilla, S.H. [Universidade Paulista, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, R. Dr. Bacelar, 1212 Sao Paulo SP (Brazil); Almeida, C.M.V.B., E-mail: cmvbag@terra.com.br [Universidade Paulista, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, R. Dr. Bacelar, 1212 Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Cerrado, a savannah region, is Brazil's second largest ecosystem after the Amazon rainforest and is also threatened with imminent destruction. In the present study emergy synthesis was applied to assess the environmental performance of a coffee farm located in Coromandel, Minas Gerais, in the Brazilian Cerrado. The effects of land use on sustainability were evaluated by comparing the emergy indices along ten years in order to assess the energy flows driving the production process, and to determine the best production model combining productivity and environmental performance. The emergy indices are presented as a function of the annual crop. Results show that Santo Inacio farm should produce approximately 20 bags of green coffee per hectare to accomplish its best performance regarding both the production efficiency and the environment. The evaluation of coffee trade complements those obtained by contrasting productivity and environmental performance, and despite of the market prices variation, the optimum interval for Santo Inacio's farm is between 10 and 25 coffee bags/ha. - Highlights: > Emergy synthesis is used to assess the environmental performance of a coffee farm in Brazil. > The effects of land use on sustainability were evaluated along ten years. > The energy flows driving the production process were assessed. > The best production model combining productivity and environmental performance was determined.

  17. Accounting emergy flows to determine the best production model of a coffee plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannetti, B.F.; Ogura, Y.; Bonilla, S.H.; Almeida, C.M.V.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cerrado, a savannah region, is Brazil's second largest ecosystem after the Amazon rainforest and is also threatened with imminent destruction. In the present study emergy synthesis was applied to assess the environmental performance of a coffee farm located in Coromandel, Minas Gerais, in the Brazilian Cerrado. The effects of land use on sustainability were evaluated by comparing the emergy indices along ten years in order to assess the energy flows driving the production process, and to determine the best production model combining productivity and environmental performance. The emergy indices are presented as a function of the annual crop. Results show that Santo Inacio farm should produce approximately 20 bags of green coffee per hectare to accomplish its best performance regarding both the production efficiency and the environment. The evaluation of coffee trade complements those obtained by contrasting productivity and environmental performance, and despite of the market prices variation, the optimum interval for Santo Inacio's farm is between 10 and 25 coffee bags/ha. - Highlights: → Emergy synthesis is used to assess the environmental performance of a coffee farm in Brazil. → The effects of land use on sustainability were evaluated along ten years. → The energy flows driving the production process were assessed. → The best production model combining productivity and environmental performance was determined.

  18. Modeling belowground biomass of black cohosh, a medicinal forest product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Chamberlain; Gabrielle Ness; Christine Small; Simon Bonner; Elizabeth Hiebert

    2014-01-01

    Tens of thousands of kilograms of rhizomes and roots of Actaea racemosa L., a native Appalachian forest perennial, are harvested every year and used for the treatment of menopausal conditions. Sustainable management of this and other wild-harvested non-timber forest products requires the ability to effectively and reliably inventory marketable plant...

  19. A Simple Physics-Based Model Predicts Oil Production from Thousands of Horizontal Wells in Shales

    KAUST Repository

    Patzek, Tadeusz

    2017-10-18

    Over the last six years, crude oil production from shales and ultra-deep GOM in the United States has accounted for most of the net increase of global oil production. Therefore, it is important to have a good predictive model of oil production and ultimate recovery in shale wells. Here we introduce a simple model of producing oil and solution gas from the horizontal hydrofractured wells. This model is consistent with the basic physics and geometry of the extraction process. We then apply our model thousands of wells in the Eagle Ford shale. Given well geometry, we obtain a one-dimensional nonlinear pressure diffusion equation that governs flow of mostly oil and solution gas. In principle, solutions of this equation depend on many parameters, but in practice and within a given oil shale, all but three can be fixed at typical values, leading to a nonlinear diffusion problem we linearize and solve exactly with a scaling

  20. Industrial Implementation of Models for Joint Production and Maintenance Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Macchi, Marco; Pozzetti, Alessandro; Fumagalli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: Knowledge Discovery and Sharing; International audience; The paper aims at investigating the industrial applicability of models for joint production and maintenance planning. Scientific community has paid attention to this issue for decades and more recently many researchers proposed models to optimize such kind of planning. Nevertheless each scientific work is based on its peculiarities and hypothesis, which might prevent the applicability within different industrial contexts. This i...

  1. Irreducible integrable theories form tensor products of conformal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.D.; Warner, N.P.

    1991-01-01

    By using Toda field theories we show that there are perturbations of direct products of conformal theories that lead to irreducible integrable field theories. The same affine Toda theory can be truncated to different quantum integrable models for different choices of the charge at infinity and the coupling. The classification of integrable models that can be obtained in this fashion follows the classification of symmetric spaces of type G/H with rank H = rank G. (orig.)

  2. Effects of thinning intensities on transpiration and productivity of 50-year-old Pinus koraeinsis stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Kim, T.; Cho, S.; Ryu, D.; Moon, M.; Kim, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of thinning intensities on stand transpiration and productivity of 50-year-old Korean pine forests for three years. Forest thinning, which remove some fraction of trees from stand, alters the microclimatic conditions such as radiation distribution within canopy, vapor pressure deficit, and amount of available soil water. These changes influence on the tree water use, and related tree growth. Thinning was conducted on March, 2012 with two intensities (Control, Light-thinning, and Heavy-thinning). Transpiration was estimated from sap flux density, which was measured with Granier-type thermal dissipation sensors. Tree diameter growth was measured with dendrometer, and converted to tree productivity using allometric equations developed specifically in our study sites.The climatic conditions showed remarkable differences among three years. In 2012, total precipitation was highest but spring was dry. 2013 was normal year with frequent rain events. In contrast, 2014 was hot and extremely dry. Stand transpiration was initially decreased ca. 20% and 42% on light-thinning and heavy-thinning stand, respectively. In second year, it gradually recovered in both thinning intensities, and was 19% and 37% lower on light-thinning and heavy-thinning stand, respectively. However, the recovery trends were different between two thinning intensities. Transpiration of heavy-thinning stand was recovered slowly than that of light thinning stand. In 2014, heavy-thinning stand transpired ca. 5% more than control plot in early growing season, but severe drought had negative effects that caused reduction of stand transpiration in thinned stand on late growing season. The tree-level productivity was increased initially ca. 24% and 28% on light-thinning and heavy-thinning stand, respectively. During the following growing seasons, this thinning-induced enhancement of productivity was diminished in light-thinning stand (21% in 2013 and 20% in 2014), but was

  3. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part I. Wheat cereal products, vegetable products, confectionery and products for infants and children (2004 year)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Plewa, Monika; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    The testing of products of wheat cereal (310 samples), vegetable (418 samples), confectionery (439 samples) and 952 samples of products for infants and children has initiated the 5-years cycle of monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health planned to perform in 2004-2008. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection collecting samples on all over the territory of Poland, both from retail market (of domestic origin as well as imported) and directly from producers; the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene responsible for elaboration of official food control and monitoring plans to be approved by Chief Sanitary Inspectorate and for the substantive supervising of tests performance. The reported metals contents were not of health concern and generally below the levels set forth in food legislation. The health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for cadmium, which has reached 9.4% PTWI for cereal based products and 4.7% PTWI for vegetables. The cadmium content in chocolate and derived products due to contamination of cocoa beans and the levels of this element in products for infants and children originated from contamination of cereal and soybeans row materials should not be ignored. The decrease of lead contamination comparing to those reported in 1990 studies was observed.

  4. Numerical modeling of positive streamer in air in nonuniform fields: Efficiency of radicals production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikovsky, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of streamer corona depends on a number of factors such as geometry of electrodes, voltage pulse parameters, gas pressure etc. In a past 5 years a two-dimensional models of streamer in nonuniform fields in air have been developed. These models allow to simulate streamer dynamics and generation of species and to investigate the influence of external parameters on species production. In this work the influence of Laplacian field on efficiency of radicals generation is investigated

  5. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land product in netCDF format covering a year V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Yearly Component Global Land Product in netCDF contains a yearly statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR),...

  6. MISR Level 3 Global Cloud public Product in netCDF format covering a year V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level 3 Yearly Component Global Cloud Product is a global summary of the Level 1 and Level 2 cloud parameters of interest averaged over a year and reported on a...

  7. Five Years of Experimental Warming Increases the Biodiversity and Productivity of Phytoplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Yvon-Durocher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton are key components of aquatic ecosystems, fixing CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and supporting secondary production, yet relatively little is known about how future global warming might alter their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functioning. Here, we explore how the structure, function, and biodiversity of a planktonic metacommunity was altered after five years of experimental warming. Our outdoor mesocosm experiment was open to natural dispersal from the regional species pool, allowing us to explore the effects of experimental warming in the context of metacommunity dynamics. Warming of 4°C led to a 67% increase in the species richness of the phytoplankton, more evenly-distributed abundance, and higher rates of gross primary productivity. Warming elevated productivity indirectly, by increasing the biodiversity and biomass of the local phytoplankton communities. Warming also systematically shifted the taxonomic and functional trait composition of the phytoplankton, favoring large, colonial, inedible phytoplankton taxa, suggesting stronger top-down control, mediated by zooplankton grazing played an important role. Overall, our findings suggest that temperature can modulate species coexistence, and through such mechanisms, global warming could, in some cases, increase the species richness and productivity of phytoplankton communities.

  8. World Nuclear University School of Uranium Production: Eight years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojacek, J.

    2014-01-01

    The World Nuclear University School of Uranium Production was established by DIAMO, state enterprise in 2006 year under the auspices of the World Nuclear University in London in partnership with international nuclear organizations – OECD/NEA and IAEA. Using the expertise and infrastructure of DIAMO State Enterprise, in conjuction with national and international universities, scientific institutions, regulatory authorities and other individual experts, the “school” covers its mission with the aim to provide world-class training on all aspects of uranium production cycle to equip operators, regulators and executives with the knowledge and expertise needed to provide expanded, environmentally-sound uranium mining throughout the world: • to educate students on all aspects of uranium production cycle including exploration, planning, development, operation, remediation and closure of uranium production facilities; • to improve the state of the art of uranium exploration, mining and mine remediation through research and development; • to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the latest uranium mining technologies and experiences – best practices.

  9. Five Years of Experimental Warming Increases the Biodiversity and Productivity of Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Allen, Andrew P.; Cellamare, Maria; Dossena, Matteo; Gaston, Kevin J.; Leitao, Maria; Montoya, José M.; Reuman, Daniel C.; Woodward, Guy; Trimmer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton are key components of aquatic ecosystems, fixing CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and supporting secondary production, yet relatively little is known about how future global warming might alter their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functioning. Here, we explore how the structure, function, and biodiversity of a planktonic metacommunity was altered after five years of experimental warming. Our outdoor mesocosm experiment was open to natural dispersal from the regional species pool, allowing us to explore the effects of experimental warming in the context of metacommunity dynamics. Warming of 4°C led to a 67% increase in the species richness of the phytoplankton, more evenly-distributed abundance, and higher rates of gross primary productivity. Warming elevated productivity indirectly, by increasing the biodiversity and biomass of the local phytoplankton communities. Warming also systematically shifted the taxonomic and functional trait composition of the phytoplankton, favoring large, colonial, inedible phytoplankton taxa, suggesting stronger top-down control, mediated by zooplankton grazing played an important role. Overall, our findings suggest that temperature can modulate species coexistence, and through such mechanisms, global warming could, in some cases, increase the species richness and productivity of phytoplankton communities. PMID:26680314

  10. Five Years of Experimental Warming Increases the Biodiversity and Productivity of Phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Allen, Andrew P; Cellamare, Maria; Dossena, Matteo; Gaston, Kevin J; Leitao, Maria; Montoya, José M; Reuman, Daniel C; Woodward, Guy; Trimmer, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Phytoplankton are key components of aquatic ecosystems, fixing CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and supporting secondary production, yet relatively little is known about how future global warming might alter their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functioning. Here, we explore how the structure, function, and biodiversity of a planktonic metacommunity was altered after five years of experimental warming. Our outdoor mesocosm experiment was open to natural dispersal from the regional species pool, allowing us to explore the effects of experimental warming in the context of metacommunity dynamics. Warming of 4°C led to a 67% increase in the species richness of the phytoplankton, more evenly-distributed abundance, and higher rates of gross primary productivity. Warming elevated productivity indirectly, by increasing the biodiversity and biomass of the local phytoplankton communities. Warming also systematically shifted the taxonomic and functional trait composition of the phytoplankton, favoring large, colonial, inedible phytoplankton taxa, suggesting stronger top-down control, mediated by zooplankton grazing played an important role. Overall, our findings suggest that temperature can modulate species coexistence, and through such mechanisms, global warming could, in some cases, increase the species richness and productivity of phytoplankton communities.

  11. Modeling Manpower and Equipment Productivity in Tall Building Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbai Krishnaswamy, Parthasarathy; Rajiah, Murugasan; Vasan, Ramya

    2017-12-01

    Tall building construction projects involve two critical resources of manpower and equipment. Their usage, however, widely varies due to several factors affecting their productivity. Currently, no systematic study for estimating and increasing their productivity is available. What is prevalent is the use of empirical data, experience of similar projects and assumptions. As tall building projects are here to stay and increase, to meet the emerging demands in ever shrinking urban spaces, it is imperative to explore ways and means of scientific productivity models for basic construction activities: concrete, reinforcement, formwork, block work and plastering for the input of specific resources in a mixed environment of manpower and equipment usage. Data pertaining to 72 tall building projects in India were collected and analyzed. Then, suitable productivity estimation models were developed using multiple linear regression analysis and validated using independent field data. It is hoped that the models developed in the study will be useful for quantity surveyors, cost engineers and project managers to estimate productivity of resources in tall building projects.

  12. Effects of 24 Years of Conservation Tillage Systems on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24-year study was conducted in southern Illinois (USA on land similar to that being removed from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage systems on: (1 amount and rates of soil organic carbon (SOC storage and retention, (2 the long-term corn and soybean yields, and (3 maintenance and restoration of soil productivity of previously eroded soils. The no-till (NT plots did store and retain 7.8 Mg C ha−1 more and chisel plow (CP −1.6 Mg C ha−1 less SOC in the soil than moldboard plow (MP during the 24 years. However, no SOC sequestration occurred in the sloping and eroding NT, CP, and MP plots since the SOC level of the plot area was greater at the start of the experiment than at the end. The NT plots actually lost a total of −1.2 Mg C ha−1, the CP lost −9.9 Mg C ha−1, and the MP lost −8.2 Mg C ha−1 during the 24-year study. The long-term productivity of NT compared favorably with that of MP and CP systems.

  13. Inner products in integrable Richardson-Gaudin models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter W. Claeys, Dimitri Van Neck, Stijn De Baerdemacker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the inner products of eigenstates in integrable Richardson-Gaudin models from two different perspectives and derive two classes of Gaudin-like determinant expressions for such inner products. The requirement that one of the states is on-shell arises naturally by demanding that a state has a dual representation. By implicitly combining these different representations, inner products can be recast as domain wall boundary partition functions. The structure of all involved matrices in terms of Cauchy matrices is made explicit and used to show how one of the classes returns the Slavnov determinant formula. This framework provides a further connection between two different approaches for integrable models, one in which everything is expressed in terms of rapidities satisfying Bethe equations, and one in which everything is expressed in terms of the eigenvalues of conserved charges, satisfying quadratic equations.

  14. Duplication Detection When Evolving Feature Models of Software Product Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Khtira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After the derivation of specific applications from a software product line, the applications keep evolving with respect to new customer’s requirements. In general, evolutions in most industrial projects are expressed using natural language, because it is the easiest and the most flexible way for customers to express their needs. However, the use of this means of communication has shown its limits in detecting defects, such as inconsistency and duplication, when evolving the existing models of the software product line. The aim of this paper is to transform the natural language specifications of new evolutions into a more formal representation using natural language processing. Then, an algorithm is proposed to automatically detect duplication between these specifications and the existing product line feature models. In order to instantiate the proposed solution, a tool is developed to automatize the two operations.

  15. Multivariate Product-Shot-noise Cox Point Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalilian, Abdollah; Guan, Yongtao; Mateu, Jorge

    We introduce a new multivariate product-shot-noise Cox process which is useful for model- ing multi-species spatial point patterns with clustering intra-specific interactions and neutral, negative or positive inter-specific interactions. The auto and cross pair correlation functions of the process...

  16. A model for the evaluation of different production strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interactive user-friendly computer package is being developed to assist planners and managers with the evaluation of different livestock production strategies in semi-arid regions. It comprises a hierarchy of simulation models that predict over time the effects of past and present rainfall, stocking rates, milking and sales ...

  17. A semianalytic model for the productivity testing of multiple wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.; Verga, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a semianalytic method for modeling the productivity testing of vertical, horizontal, slanted, or multilateral wells. The method is applicable to both oil and gas reservoirs and automatically accounts for well interference. The use of analytic expressions ensures that short-time transient

  18. empirical model for predicting rate of biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    Rate of biogas production using cow manure as substrate was monitored in two laboratory scale batch reactors (13 liter and 108 liter capacities). Two empirical models based on the Gompertz and the modified logistic equations were used to fit the experimental data based on non-linear regression analysis using Solver tool ...

  19. Empirical Model for Predicting Rate of Biogas Production | Adamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rate of biogas production using cow manure as substrate was monitored in two laboratory scale batch reactors (13 liter and 108 liter capacities). Two empirical models based on the Gompertz and the modified logistic equations were used to fit the experimental data based on non-linear regression analysis using Solver tool ...

  20. How can Product Development Process Modelling be made more useful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynn, David C; Maier, Anja; Clarkson, John P

    2010-01-01

    A significant body of research exists in the area of Product Development (PD) process modelling. This is highlighted by Browning and Ramasesh (2007), who recently reviewed over 400 papers in this field. However, despite hundreds, probably thousands of publications in this area, few of the proposed...

  1. Revised models and genetic parameter estimates for production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters for production and reproduction traits in the Elsenburg Dormer sheep stud were estimated using records of 11743 lambs born between 1943 and 2002. An animal model with direct and maternal additive, maternal permanent and temporary environmental effects was fitted for traits considered traits of the ...

  2. Buys-Ballot Modeling of Nigerian Domestic Crude Oil Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper has examined time series analysis of Nigeria domestic crude oil production, the descriptive approach of time series analysis. Buys-Ballot table procedure was used in assessing variance stability (transformation), choice of model and seasonal effect. Inverse square root transformation was carried to stabilize the ...

  3. Product Lifecycle Management Architecture: A Model Based Systems Engineering Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Nicholas James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report is an analysis of the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) program. The analysis is centered on a need statement generated by a Nuclear Weapons (NW) customer. The need statement captured in this report creates an opportunity for the PLM to provide a robust service as a solution. Lifecycles for both the NW and PLM are analyzed using Model Based System Engineering (MBSE).

  4. The influence of fragmentation models in the production of hadron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    555–563. The influence of fragmentation models in the production of hadron jets in electron–positron annihilation. M HASHEMINIA1,∗, A MIRJALILI1, M E ZOMORRODIAN2 and. A SEPEHRI3. 1Physics Department, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd, Iran. 2Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, ...

  5. Metabolic modeling of mixed substrate uptake for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Y.; Hebly, M.; Kleerebezem, R.; Muyzer, G.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by mixed microbial communities can be established in a two-stage process, consisting of a microbial enrichment step and a PHA accumulation step. In this study, a mathematical model was constructed for evaluating the influence of the carbon substrate composition

  6. A single product perishing inventory model with demand interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper describes a single perishing product inventory model in which items deteriorate in two phases and then perish. An independent demand takes place at constant rates for items in both phases. A demand for an item in Phase I not satisfied may be satisfied by an item in Phase II, based on a probability measure.

  7. Traceability for Model Driven, Software Product Line Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anquetil, N.; Grammel, B.; Galvao, I.; Noppen, J.A.R.; Shakil Khan, S.; Arboleda, H.; Rashid, A.; Garcia, A.

    Traceability is an important challenge for software organizations. This is true for traditional software development and even more so in new approaches that introduce more variety of artefacts such as Model Driven development or Software Product Lines. In this paper we look at some aspect of the

  8. Particle production at large transverse momentum and hard collision models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.

    1977-04-01

    The majority of the presently available experimental data is consistent with hard scattering models. Therefore the hard scattering model seems to be well established. There is good evidence for jets in large transverse momentum reactions as predicted by these models. The overall picture is however not yet well enough understood. We mention only the empirical hard scattering cross section introduced in most of the models, the lack of a deep theoretical understanding of the interplay between quark confinement and jet production, and the fact that we are not yet able to discriminate conclusively between the many proposed hard scattering models. The status of different hard collision models discussed in this paper is summarized. (author)

  9. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.

    2010-04-01

    We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.

  10. Auditory-motor learning during speech production in 9-11-year-old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Shiller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hearing ability is essential for normal speech development, however the precise mechanisms linking auditory input and the improvement of speaking ability remain poorly understood. Auditory feedback during speech production is believed to play a critical role by providing the nervous system with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and subsequently fine-tune speech motor output. Surprisingly, few studies have directly investigated such auditory-motor learning in the speech production of typically developing children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we manipulated auditory feedback during speech production in a group of 9-11-year old children, as well as in adults. Following a period of speech practice under conditions of altered auditory feedback, compensatory changes in speech production and perception were examined. Consistent with prior studies, the adults exhibited compensatory changes in both their speech motor output and their perceptual representations of speech sound categories. The children exhibited compensatory changes in the motor domain, with a change in speech output that was similar in magnitude to that of the adults, however the children showed no reliable compensatory effect on their perceptual representations. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that 9-11-year-old children, whose speech motor and perceptual abilities are still not fully developed, are nonetheless capable of auditory-feedback-based sensorimotor adaptation, supporting a role for such learning processes in speech motor development. Auditory feedback may play a more limited role, however, in the fine-tuning of children's perceptual representations of speech sound categories.

  11. Sustainable crop models for fruit, vegetable and flower quality productions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inglese Paolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a paradigm that has evolved over the time, since the ideas of socially acceptable and compatible development, on which it was originally based, are now supported by the more recent notions of ecological equilibria and production process economy, both of which need to be also preserved. Environmental and health safety, rational use of the natural resources and technological tools, upkeep of high social growth rates and respect of a social equity are the basis of the sustainability for any production process, including the agriculture. The new globalization framework has penalized small farms and, at the same time, has put serious constraints to the development of stronger economic systems (medium/large farms, as well. As consequence, the EU has outlined several strategic programs to support small agricultural systems in marginal areas by: 1 strengthening all the quality- related aspects of agricultural production, including nutritional and cultural traits associated to local, typical and in some cases to neglected crops; 2 improving traditional cultural practices by adapting the cropping cycles and fomenting new partnerships between the different parts of the production chain, as for example; promotion of small horticultural chains. Specific political actions for the horticultural production sector have also been developed. Some of these policies are specifically addressed to preserve the biodiversity and to create quality labels certifying typical and/or organic products. All of these are possible strategies that may counteract and cope with the globalization process and increase the competitiveness of many production systems especially those performed by local and small entrepreneurs. New sustainable development models are required by both the market and the implicit requirements of the production system, inside a context on which Europe must face with new emerging economies with lower production costs, by increasing

  12. Modeling population exposures to silver nanoparticles present in consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S.; Alexander, Jocelyn A.; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-11-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (geographic information system) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product life cycle analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human life stage analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs probabilistic material flow analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employ screening microenvironmental modeling and intake fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters.

  13. On the Brazilian uranium production and demand: scenarios for the next 20 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, R.A.S.; Gomiero, L.A., E-mail: raul@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil, Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio, Fazenda Cachoeira, Caetite, BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian government announced in 2007 its plans to reactivate the nuclear program. As a result of this decision, a new nuclear power plant is already being built and there are studies dealing with, among other activities, the building of 5 to 9 new ones until the end of 2030. Such increase of the country's uranium demand affects INB, the Brazilian state company that's in charge of uranium supply. This paper describes scenarios predicted to impact the Brazilian nuclear industry for the next years and the INB's plans to meet the country's needs in terms of uranium exploration and production. (author)

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Probabilistic Models of Software Product Lines with Statistical Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice H. ter Beek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the suitability of statistical model checking techniques for analysing quantitative properties of software product line models with probabilistic aspects. For this purpose, we enrich the feature-oriented language FLan with action rates, which specify the likelihood of exhibiting particular behaviour or of installing features at a specific moment or in a specific order. The enriched language (called PFLan allows us to specify models of software product lines with probabilistic configurations and behaviour, e.g. by considering a PFLan semantics based on discrete-time Markov chains. The Maude implementation of PFLan is combined with the distributed statistical model checker MultiVeStA to perform quantitative analyses of a simple product line case study. The presented analyses include the likelihood of certain behaviour of interest (e.g. product malfunctioning and the expected average cost of products.

  15. Development and production of sugarcane under different levels straw after four years of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Silva de Aquino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental constraints, labour shortages and the search for greater efficiency have induced the mechanisation of sugarcane harvesting, providing a large amount of straw in the system, which provides benefits to the soil, the crop and the environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the removal of different amounts of straw from the soil surface on the development and productivity of sugarcane in eutrophic Red Latosol. The experiment was conducted in an area belonging to the Usina in Bandeirantes, PR, using a randomised block design with four replications. The effects of six treatments (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of straw and sugarcane were evaluated after four years of cultivation on the LAI (leaf area index, tillering, diameter, length and fresh mass of the stalks, in five periods: 60, 120, 180, 240 and 370 days after harvest (DAC. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the means compared by Tukey’s test. The straw on the soil surface provided benefits to the development and productivity of sugarcane. The management of sugarcane burning, total removal of the straw (0% of soil cover or 75% of straw resulted in a lower IAF and stalk diameter and a 37% decrease in final yield under conditions of water deficiency. The maintenance of 50% of straw is sufficient to favour the development and to provide greater productivity of the sugarcane, as it is possible to use the 50% surplus of the field for the production of ethanol of second generation or electric energy, without damage to the productivity of the culture.

  16. Production functions for climate policy modeling. An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Werf, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative models for climate policy modeling differ in the production structure used and in the sizes of the elasticities of substitution. The empirical foundation for both is generally lacking. This paper estimates the parameters of 2-level CES production functions with capital, labour and energy as inputs, and is the first to systematically compare all nesting structures. Using industry-level data from 12 OECD countries, we find that the nesting structure where capital and labour are combined first, fits the data best, but for most countries and industries we cannot reject that all three inputs can be put into one single nest. These two nesting structures are used by most climate models. However, while several climate policy models use a Cobb-Douglas function for (part of the) production function, we reject elasticities equal to one, in favour of considerably smaller values. Finally we find evidence for factor-specific technological change. With lower elasticities and with factor-specific technological change, some climate policy models may find a bigger effect of endogenous technological change on mitigating the costs of climate policy. (author)

  17. Local business models for district heat production; Kaukolaemmoen paikalliset liiketoimintamallit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, L.; Pesola, A.; Vanhanen, J.

    2012-12-15

    Local district heating business, outside large urban centers, is a profitable business in Finland, which can be practiced with several different business models. In addition to the traditional, local district heating business, local district heat production can be also based on franchising business model, on integrated service model or on different types of cooperation models, either between a local district heat producer and industrial site providing surplus heat or between a local district heat producer and a larger district heating company. Locally available wood energy is currently utilized effectively in the traditional district heating business model, in which a local entrepreneur produces heat to consumers in the local area. The franchising model is a more advanced version of the traditional district heating entrepreneurship. In this model, franchisor funds part of the investments, as well as offers centralized maintenance and fuel supply, for example. In the integrated service model, the local district heat producer offers also energy efficiency services and other value-added services, which are based on either the local district heat suppliers or his partner's expertise. In the cooperation model with industrial site, the local district heating business is based on the utilization of the surplus heat from the industrial site. In some cases, profitable operating model approach may be a district heating company outsourcing operations of one or more heating plants to a local entrepreneur. It can be concluded that all business models for district heat production (traditional district heat business model, franchising, integrated service model, cooperative model) discussed in this report can be profitable in Finnish conditions, as well for the local heat producer as for the municipality - and, above all, they produce cost-competitive heat for the end-user. All the models were seen as viable and interesting and having possibilities for expansion Finland

  18. A game-theoretical model of private power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, W.; Wu, F.F.

    2001-01-01

    Private power production has sprung up all over the world. The build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as one of the most important options for private power production, especially in developing countries with rapidly growing demand and financial shortages. Based on oligopoly theory, the paper proposes a Stackelberg game model between a BOT investor and an electric utility whereby they can negotiate a long-term energy contract. Asymmetric pricing schemes are taken into account such that a host utility purchases electricity from a BOT company at its ''avoided cost'', and sells its electricity to end users at its ''average cost''. Our Stackelberg game model is transferred into a two-level optimization problem, and then solved by an iterative algorithm. The game model is demonstrated by an illustrative example. (author)

  19. Modeling production functions and economic weights in intensive meat production of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Mariam; Cruz, Danny Julio; Blasco, Agustín

    2017-10-01

    A profit function for a typical commercial farm of intensive guinea pig production was designed. The simulated farm contained 86 cages with a ratio of 7:1 females/males, with continuous mating. Kits were weaned at 15 days of age and slaughtered for meat production at 90 days of age. The absolute (EW) and relative economic weights of the main traits were calculated. The highest EW were kits produced per kindling (US$25), kits weaned per kindling (US$22), kits born alive per kindling (US$20), and the number of kindlings per female and year (US$12). Profit, returns, and costs per female and year were US$15, 68, and 53, respectively. Returns came from the production of young guinea pigs and discarded reproductive adults for meat production, 90 and 10% of the total returns. The highest costs were feeding and labor, 44 and 23% of the total cost. The EW and profit did not substantially change when simulating variations of ±20% in the prices of kilograms of fattening feed and kilograms of live weight of guinea pig, showing their robustness to future variations in market prices or to variations in prices between countries. The results obtained highlight the importance of the feeding costs in the guinea pig meat production.

  20. Mathematical model of rhamnolipid production using E.coli bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Muhammad Fariduddin; Apri, Mochamad; Moeis, Maelita Ramdani

    2018-03-01

    Rhamnolipid is one of biosurfactants that is widely used in many industries. Despite its wide use, production of rhamnolipid usually involves a pathogen that may endanger our health. To tackle this issue, in iGEM (International Genetically Engineered Machine) competition 2015, our team engineered Escherichia coli (E.coli) to produce rhamnolipid. The bacteria were then put into medium containing glucose and lactose. It turned out that bacteria E. coli produced lower rhamnolipid than that by pseudomonas, therefore a good strategy is required to improve their productivity. We present a mathematical model to describe the production of rhamnolipid by the engineered E coli. Using bifurcation analysis, the equilibrium points of the model and their stabilities were analyzed as the amount of lactose was varied. We show that the system produces bistability behavior for some interval values of lactose. From this analysis we found that to guarantee a high production of rhamnolipid, a high level of lactose is required. To maintain the productivity, however, it is sufficient to maintain the lactose level above a certain threshold value.

  1. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  2. Modeling crop water productivity using a coupled SWAT-MODSIM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the water productivity of irrigated wheat and maize yields in Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in the semi-arid region of Iran using a coupled modeling approach consisting of the hydrological model (SWAT) and the river basin water allocation model (MODSIM). Dynamic irrigation requireme...

  3. 77 FR 301 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea: Institution of Five-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ...)] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea: Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing Duty Order on Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Korea and the Antidumping Duty Orders on Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea AGENCY...

  4. Product Data Model for Performance-driven Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Zhong; Xu, Xin-Jian; Xiao, Shou-Ne; Yang, Guang-Wu; Pu, Fan

    2017-09-01

    When designing large-sized complex machinery products, the design focus is always on the overall performance; however, there exist no design theory and method based on performance driven. In view of the deficiency of the existing design theory, according to the performance features of complex mechanical products, the performance indices are introduced into the traditional design theory of "Requirement-Function-Structure" to construct a new five-domain design theory of "Client Requirement-Function-Performance-Structure-Design Parameter". To support design practice based on this new theory, a product data model is established by using performance indices and the mapping relationship between them and the other four domains. When the product data model is applied to high-speed train design and combining the existing research result and relevant standards, the corresponding data model and its structure involving five domains of high-speed trains are established, which can provide technical support for studying the relationships between typical performance indices and design parameters and the fast achievement of a high-speed train scheme design. The five domains provide a reference for the design specification and evaluation criteria of high speed train and a new idea for the train's parameter design.

  5. Modeling Electric Discharges with Entropy Production Rate Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Under which circumstances are variational principles based on entropy production rate useful tools for modeling steady states of electric (gas discharge systems far from equilibrium? It is first shown how various different approaches, as Steenbeck’s minimum voltage and Prigogine’s minimum entropy production rate principles are related to the maximum entropy production rate principle (MEPP. Secondly, three typical examples are discussed, which provide a certain insight in the structure of the models that are candidates for MEPP application. It is then thirdly argued that MEPP, although not being an exact physical law, may provide reasonable model parameter estimates, provided the constraints contain the relevant (nonlinear physical effects and the parameters to be determined are related to disregarded weak constraints that affect mainly global entropy production. Finally, it is additionally conjectured that a further reason for the success of MEPP in certain far from equilibrium systems might be based on a hidden linearity of the underlying kinetic equation(s.

  6. Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2014 capability development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-05-11

    This report provides an overview of the development of the NISAC CGE economic modeling capability since 2012. This capability enhances NISAC's economic modeling and analysis capabilities to answer a broader set of questions than possible with previous economic analysis capability. In particular, CGE modeling captures how the different sectors of the economy, for example, households, businesses, government, etc., interact to allocate resources in an economy and this approach captures these interactions when it is used to estimate the economic impacts of the kinds of events NISAC often analyzes.

  7. Hydraulic Fracturing and Production Optimization in Eagle Ford Shale Using Coupled Geomechanics and Fluid Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppachoknirun, Theerapat; Tutuncu, Azra N.

    2017-12-01

    With increasing production from shale gas and tight oil reservoirs, horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing processes have become a routine procedure in unconventional field development efforts. Natural fractures play a critical role in hydraulic fracture growth, subsequently affecting stimulated reservoir volume and the production efficiency. Moreover, the existing fractures can also contribute to the pressure-dependent fluid leak-off during the operations. Hence, a reliable identification of the discrete fracture network covering the zone of interest prior to the hydraulic fracturing design needs to be incorporated into the hydraulic fracturing and reservoir simulations for realistic representation of the in situ reservoir conditions. In this research study, an integrated 3-D fracture and fluid flow model have been developed using a new approach to simulate the fluid flow and deliver reliable production forecasting in naturally fractured and hydraulically stimulated tight reservoirs. The model was created with three key modules. A complex 3-D discrete fracture network model introduces realistic natural fracture geometry with the associated fractured reservoir characteristics. A hydraulic fracturing model is created utilizing the discrete fracture network for simulation of the hydraulic fracture and flow in the complex discrete fracture network. Finally, a reservoir model with the production grid system is used allowing the user to efficiently perform the fluid flow simulation in tight formations with complex fracture networks. The complex discrete natural fracture model, the integrated discrete fracture model for the hydraulic fracturing, the fluid flow model, and the input dataset have been validated against microseismic fracture mapping and commingled production data obtained from a well pad with three horizontal production wells located in the Eagle Ford oil window in south Texas. Two other fracturing geometries were also evaluated to optimize

  8. Scientific production in Colombian medical schools during the last 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Fernanda Sánchez-Bello

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growth of medical schools in Colombia has been rapid, although State control is not strict; therefore, many questionable aspects can be found, among them, the ability to generate research and new knowledge. Objective: To describe scientific production related to Medicine between 2001 and 2015 in Colombian universities. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study in which scientific production incorporated in the SCOPUS database in the last 15 years was reviewed, including all work done by the 62 medical schools registered before the Ministry of National Education. Results: The total number of scientific publications made during the observation period was 14 167. The five institutions with the highest number of publications were Universidad de Antioquia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Valle, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana and Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario. The first 10 faculties generated 78.5% of the total publications. Conclusions: The volume of identified scientific production is produced by a few medical schools. The results of this study can be taken as an approach to the way how quality in Colombian higher education institutions is currently measured, especially in medicine schools.

  9. Soil and groundwater contamination after 60 years of oil production in Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallnischkies, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 the Post-Conflict and Disaster Management Branch of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) carried out an investigation of the environmental contamination caused by the production of crude oil in Ogoniland in the Niger Delta. Oil production in the Niger-Delta has been a cause of conflicts between the local population of this under-developed region and the oil producing companies (OPCs) since the mid-1950s. The objective of the project was to quantify environmental damage, determine transfer pathways and to assess institutional and technical capacities. The assessment showed that considerable environmental damages have been caused by spilled crude oil and distilled product during more than half a century. On the other hand, most remediation efforts carried out by OPCs turned out to be insufficient. Changes on all levels of legislation, administration, law enforcement and technical implementation are necessary to remediate oil contamination and mitigate the effects in the region or even in the whole of Niger Delta according to international standards. UNEP estimates that future remediation activities may take as long as 25-30 years. UNEP recommends setting up an Environmental Restoration Fund for Ogoniland with an initial capital of 1 billion US dollars, to be contributed by the OPCs and the Nigerian Government. Remediation of Ogoniland could be an example for the rest of Niger Delta.

  10. Modelling of the granular products vacuum freeze-dried process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work reviewed and simulated the process of vacuum freeze-drying of granular products with the destruction of the dried layer. As development of this direction serves the method based on removal of the dried product layer from a surface of a granule, formed in the form of spherical bodies and placed in the punched drum. After process of preliminary freezing of a granule get to the punched drum located in the vacuum drying chamber. In case of fixed hashing of granules of a product due to their friction among themselves and about drum walls a dry part of a product undergoes destruction and regularly separates from the refrigerated remaining balance. Process comes to an end when all product in a granule turns into dry powder. For creation of adequate model of process of drying, it is reasonable to consider a separate granule, but not a layer of granules in general, but taking into account influence of granules at each other in the course of drying. For this purpose, the scheme and mathematical description of radiation heat flux of the individual granules of the product. To account for the intermittent nature of exposure to granules suggested ratio and its two alternative approaches to its definition. As well as an algorithm for determining the coefficient that takes into account the one-sided irradiation of the pellets. Formulated mathematical model of the process the vacuum - freeze-drying of granular products, which is a one-dimensional parabolic boundary value problem with moving boundary. It includes the unsteady heat conduction equation, initial condition, boundary conditions and defining a movable boundary conditions. The sought quantities are the temperature field and the free boundary. Explained the origin of the functions of internal heat sources present in the equations of heat conduction.

  11. Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.; Hwa, R.C.; Matsuda, S.

    1978-05-01

    Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references

  12. An Efficiency Model For Hydrogen Production In A Pressurized Electrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoglie, Cecilia; Lauretta, Ricardo

    2010-09-15

    The use of Hydrogen as clean fuel at a world wide scale requires the development of simple, safe and efficient production and storage technologies. In this work, a methodology is proposed to produce Hydrogen and Oxygen in a self pressurized electrolyzer connected to separate containers that store each of these gases. A mathematical model for Hydrogen production efficiency is proposed to evaluate how such efficiency is affected by parasitic currents in the electrolytic solution. Experimental set-up and results for an electrolyzer are also presented. Comparison of empirical and analytical results shows good agreement.

  13. Application of product modelling - seen from a work preparation viewpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    the specification work. The theoretical fundament of the project include four elements. The first element (work preparation) consider methods for analysing and preparing the direct work in the production, pointing to an analogy between analysing the direct work in the production and the work in the planning systems......, over building a model, and to the final programming of an application. It has been stressed out to carry out all the phases in the outline of procedure in the empirical work, one of the reasons being to prove that it is possible, with a reasonable consumption of resources, to build an application...

  14. Modeling productivity and transpiration of Pinus radiata: climatic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheriff, D. W.; Mattay, J. P. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, ACT (Australia). Div. of Forestry and Forest Products; McMurtrie, R. E. [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1996-01-01

    Using a process-based forest growth model, BIOMASS, the climatic effect on annual net carbon gain, stem biomass and annual transpiration were simulated for Pinus radiata. Regional variation in climate between Canberra and Mt. Gambier resulted in a 20 per cent difference in simulated annual transpiration rate, but only a relatively small difference in simulated productivity. Simulated carbon gain values averaged about 1.4 per cent; this result was not consistent with the predicted 8 per cent annual carbon assimilation difference between the two sites, based on differences in climate. These results suggest that climatic differences do not account for differences in productivity. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. The problem of nucleon production in the quark parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, J.; Ranft, G.

    1977-06-01

    Quark fragmentation into hadrons, esp. nucleons, is studied fitting empirical fragmentation functions to e + e - annihilation data. We find fragmentation functions deviating from counting rule predictions as well as from scaling due to the threshold in kaon and nucleon production. Using these fragmentation functions we study particle production ratios in ep and large transverse momentum hadronic reactions. In both cases we find the ratios p/π + and antip/π - to agree roughly in magnitude with the measured ratios. The model is however inconsistent with the transverse momentum -12 behaviour of large transverse momentum proton spectra. (author)

  16. Saints, Cops and Camorristi. Editorial Policies and Production Models of Italian TV Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Barra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Italian TV fiction production is the result of both a long historical tradition and a complex broadcasting scenario. In recent years, three different models clearly emerged, following the divergent goals and needs of public service broadcaster Rai, commercial television Mediaset and pay-TV operator Sky Italia: respectively, with a pedagogical approach resulting in hagiographic miniseries, socially committed fiction and relevant comedies; with procedural and legal dramas following the US commercial models and romance-filled prime time soaps; and with a cable-oriented tension towards anti-heroes, high-budget productions and “quality television”. The paper reconstructs the main traits of each model, focusing on their main titles and most emblematic genres, as well as on the national production companies that helped the broadcasters in defining and establishing peculiar “fiction styles” and editorial policies.

  17. Modeling of coal bed methane (CBM) production and CO{sub 2} sequestration in coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Ekrem [Izmir Institute of Technology, Chemical Engineering Department, 35420-Urla/Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-01-07

    A mathematical model was developed to predict the coal bed methane (CBM) production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in a coal seam accounting for the coal seam properties. The model predictions showed that, for a CBM production and dewatering process, the pressure could be reduced from 15.17 MPa to 1.56 MPa and the gas saturation increased up to 50% in 30 years for a 5.4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 2} of coal formation. For the CO{sub 2} sequestration process, the model prediction showed that the CO{sub 2} injection rate was first reduced and then slightly recovered over 3 to 13 years of injection, which was also evidenced by the actual in seam data. The model predictions indicated that the sweeping of the water in front of the CO{sub 2} flood in the cleat porosity could be important on the loss of injectivity. Further model predictions suggested that the injection rate of CO{sub 2} could be about 11 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} per day; the injected CO{sub 2} would reach the production well, which was separated from the injection well by 826 m, in about 30 years. During this period, about 160 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of CO{sub 2} could be stored within a 21.4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 2} of coal seam with a thickness of 3 m. (author)

  18. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement: intervention model fiscal year 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), in cooperation with the researcher, has developed an analytic model to measure the effectiveness of roadside inspections and traffic enforcements in terms of crashes avoided, injuries avoided, ...

  19. Effect of Using Extreme Years in Hydrologic Model Calibration Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, R. K.; Tezel, U.; Kargi, P. G.; Ayvaz, T.; Tezyapar, I.; Mesta, B.; Kentel, E.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological models are useful in predicting and developing management strategies for controlling the system behaviour. Specifically they can be used for evaluating streamflow at ungaged catchments, effect of climate change, best management practices on water resources, or identification of pollution sources in a watershed. This study is a part of a TUBITAK project named "Development of a geographical information system based decision-making tool for water quality management of Ergene Watershed using pollutant fingerprints". Within the scope of this project, first water resources in Ergene Watershed is studied. Streamgages found in the basin are identified and daily streamflow measurements are obtained from State Hydraulic Works of Turkey. Streamflow data is analysed using box-whisker plots, hydrographs and flow-duration curves focusing on identification of extreme periods, dry or wet. Then a hydrological model is developed for Ergene Watershed using HEC-HMS in the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) environment. The model is calibrated for various time periods including dry and wet ones and the performance of calibration is evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), correlation coefficient, percent bias (PBIAS) and root mean square error. It is observed that calibration period affects the model performance, and the main purpose of the development of the hydrological model should guide calibration period selection. Acknowledgement: This study is funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Project Number 115Y064.

  20. Intelligent decision-making models for production and retail operations

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of intelligent decision-making techniques and discusses their application in production and retail operations. Manufacturing and retail enterprises have stringent standards for using advanced and reliable techniques to improve decision-making processes, since these processes have significant effects on the performance of relevant operations and the entire supply chain. In recent years, researchers have been increasingly focusing attention on using intelligent techniques to solve various decision-making problems. The opening chapters provide an introduction to several commonly used intelligent techniques, such as genetic algorithm, harmony search, neural network and extreme learning machine. The book then explores the use of these techniques for handling various production and retail decision-making problems, such as production planning and scheduling, assembly line balancing, and sales forecasting.

  1. Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water. The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.

  2. Modeling productivity and transpiration of Pinus radiata: climatic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, D. W.; Mattay, J. P.; McMurtrie, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Climatic effects on annual net carbon gain, stem biomass and annual transpiration were simulated for Pinus radiata D. Don at Canberra and Mt. Gambier. Simulations were conducted with an existing process-based forest growth model (BIOMASS, Model 1) and with a modified version of the BIOMASS model (Model 2) in which response functions for carbon assimilation and leaf conductance were replaced with those derived from field gas exchange data collected at Mt. Gambier. Simulated carbon gain was compared with a published report stating that mean annual stem volume increment (MAI) at Mt. Gambier was 1.8 times greater than at Canberra and that the difference could be the result solely of differences in climate. Regional differences in climate resulted in a 20% greater simulated annual transpiration at Canberra than at Mt. Gambier but only small differences in simulated productivity, indicating that climatic differences did not account for the reported differences in productivity. With Model 1, simulated annual net carbon gain and annual increase in stem biomass were greater at Canberra than at Mt. Gambier, whereas Model 2 indicated a similar annual net carbon gain and annual stem biomass increase in both regions.

  3. Changes in asthma control, work productivity, and impairment with omalizumab: 5-year EXCELS study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzali, James L; Raimundo, Karina P; Trzaskoma, Benjamin; Rosén, Karin E; Schatz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Asthma poses a significant disease burden worldwide. Current guidelines emphasize achieving and maintaining asthma control. To describe longitudinal changes of asthma control and asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment for patients with moderate-to-severe asthma treated with omalizumab and those who did not receive omalizumab in a real-world setting. This study used 5 years of data from patients ages ≥12 years old with moderate-to-severe persistent allergic asthma who were enrolled in the Evaluating Clinical Effectiveness and Long-term Safety in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Asthma observational study. Asthma control was assessed with the Asthma Control Test for 5 years, and asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment was measured with the Work Productivity/Activity Impairment-Asthma questionnaire for the first 2 years. The percentage of patients treated with omalizumab (n = 4930) and with well-controlled asthma (Asthma Control Test score, >20) increased from 45% at baseline to 61% at month 60, and it was 49% (baseline) and 67% (month 60) for the non-omalizumab-treated cohort (n = 2779). For new starters to omalizumab (n = 576), the percentage with well-controlled asthma increased from 25% at baseline to 51% at month 6, and to 60% at month 60. Patients in the omalizumab-treated cohort and those in the non-omalizumab-treated cohort experienced a reduction in asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment. The amount of improvement in asthma control achieved and the reduction in asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment were similar, regardless of asthma severity. On average, patients in the Evaluating Clinical Effectiveness and Long-term Safety in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Asthma observational study who initiated omalizumab experienced clinically significant improvement in asthma control, which was observed within 6 months and persisted for 5 years.

  4. An Innovative Learning Model for Computation in First Year Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkes, E. J.; Loch, B. I.; Stace, A. W.

    2005-01-01

    MATLAB is a sophisticated software tool for numerical analysis and visualization. The University of Queensland has adopted Matlab as its official teaching package across large first year mathematics courses. In the past, the package has met severe resistance from students who have not appreciated their computational experience. Several main…

  5. Two-Year Apprenticeships--A Successful Model of Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammermann, Marlise; Stalder, Barbara E.; Hattich, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Educational policy is asked to support young people in their successful transition from education to employment. In Switzerland, a two-year apprenticeship with Federal VET Certificate was established in 2002 aimed at increasing the employability of low-achieving school leavers. It is a low-threshold VET programme offering standardised vocational…

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Probabilistic Models of Software Product Lines with Statistical Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Beek, Maurice H.; Legay, Axel; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the suitability of statistical model checking techniques for analysing quantitative properties of software product line models with probabilistic aspects. For this purpose, we enrich the feature-oriented language FLAN with action rates, which specify the likelihood of exhibiting...... particular behaviour or of installing features at a specific moment or in a specific order. The enriched language (called PFLAN) allows us to specify models of software product lines with probabilistic configurations and behaviour, e.g. by considering a PFLAN semantics based on discrete-time Markov chains....... The Maude implementation of PFLAN is combined with the distributed statistical model checker MultiVeStA to perform quantitative analyses of a simple product line case study. The presented analyses include the likelihood of certain behaviour of interest (e.g. product malfunctioning) and the expected average...

  7. Models for new particle production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, A.; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1986-04-01

    Following up our earlier work and also stimulated by recent experimental results on positron production in heavy ion collisions we investigate various mechanisms for the production of a light, previously unknown particle in such collisions. As more conventional mechanisms seem to be inadequate we concentrate on processes directly or indirectly connected with the strong electric or magnetic fields and quark degrees of freedom in nuclei. We also consider modifications of the color confinement scheme. Our analysis is confined to schemes staying within the framework of the standard SU(3)sub(C) x SU(2) x U(1) model. Since most of the possibilities discussed can be rejected, severe modifications of basic concepts of particle physics seem to be required if the production of a new particle is confirmed. (orig.)

  8. Optimization of tobacco variety model to increase seed productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Савіна

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a tobacco variety model with optimal inflorescence traits such as size and shape that will allow to increase seed productivity of the crop. Methods. Statistical and mathematical (correlative, regressive ones. Results. Basic collection consisting of 282 variety samples registered in the National Genetics Center was evaluated, optimal parameters of inflorescence were defined that can provide a high seed yield. During statistical analysis, correlation matrix was developed with the purpose to highlight traits that correlate with inflorescence productivity. According to the results of correlation analysis, a strong relationship between the width and height of inflorescence (r = 0,773±0,038 was established. Somewhat weaker correlation was observed when modeling regressive relation between inflorescence height and width, where regression showed the medium relationship. Regression equation of these traits is as follows: y = 0,5585x + 8,4649. Inflorescence density (r = 0,646, height (r = 0,556 and width (r = 0,527 also had quite a high positive effect on seed productivity. The results of regression analysis pointed to the fact that there were a linear relationship between inflorescence size and seed productivity. Conclusions. Among 282 samples of basic tobacco collection, 29 varieties with high seed productivity was defined which can be used in the breeding process, and ‘Sobolchskyi 15/21’, ‘Ergo 23’, ‘C-11’, ‘Sygarnyi 99’ varieties were selected for large-scale implementation into the production of raw material of cigar type.

  9. Property Modelling and Databases in Product-Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Sansonetti, Sascha

    development, however, it is necessary to have a large database of measured property data that has been checked for consistency and accuracy. The presentation will first introduce a database, in terms of its knowledge representation structure, the type and range of properties and chemical systems covered......, and their internal consistency-accuracy checks. The database includes properties of organic chemicals, polymers and ionic liquids. There are also chemical class specific database sections, such as for solvents, aroma-chemicals, surfactants and emulsifiers. The use of this property database for model development...... of the PC-SAFT is used. The developed database and property prediction models have been combined into a properties-software that allows different product-process design related applications. The presentation will also briefly highlight applications of the software for virtual product-process design...

  10. Product State Models in Holonic shop floor control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Sørensen, Christian; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the concepts of the product state models as an integrated database for Holonic Shop Floor Control. One of the requirements of agility is to be able to realise real-time control of manufacturing systems based on the actual state of the system and especially the state of its...... workpieces. The Product State Model (PSM) is an integrated object oriented database, which contains the dynamic data concerning the actual state of the workpieces during the manufacturing processing. It is integrated in the HoMuCS architecture by aggregating a PSM in each order holon. The paper outlines...... this as well as the general concepts of the PSM and the important parts of the HoMuCS system architecture. Finally the integration of a PSM is illustrated in a case study based on an industrial case at the Odense Steel Shipyard Ltd....

  11. Predictive Model of Energy Consumption in Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiecheng Pu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The predictive model of energy consumption is presented based on subtractive clustering and Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (for short ANFIS in the beer production. Using the subtractive clustering on the historical data of energy consumption, the limit of artificial experience is conquered while confirming the number of fuzzy rules. The parameters of the fuzzy inference system are acquired by the structure of adaptive network and hybrid on-line learning algorithm. The method can predict and guide the energy consumption of the factual production process. The reducing consumption scheme is provided based on the actual situation of the enterprise. Finally, using concrete examples verified the feasibility of this method comparing with the Radial Basis Functions (for short RBF neural network predictive model.

  12. A New Product Development Partnership Model for Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, John K

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotics have prevented countless deaths from common infections and have made possible many modern medical procedures. Over the past few decades, antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a global threat, spreading between healthcare facilities and throughout communities worldwide at an alarming pace. Antibiotic overuse and misuse in humans, animals, and the environment accelerate resistance by selecting for bacteria with antibiotic-resistant traits, which then become predominant and infect others. Meanwhile, few antibiotics remain active against the most resistant bacteria. There is an urgent need for new antibiotics and other antibacterial products to replace second-line and last resort therapies when they no longer work. This Article proposes a new U.S.-based, non-governmental, not-for-profit product development partnership (PDP) model specifically designed for antibacterial development. This new model should both supplement and complement existing government-led efforts and should be built with mechanisms in place to balance the values of innovation, access, and conservation.

  13. Modeling and Analysis of New Products Diffusion on Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a heterogeneous networks model with the awareness stage and the decision-making stage to explain the process of new products diffusion. If mass media is neglected in the decision-making stage, there is a threshold whether the innovation diffusion is successful or not, or else it is proved that the network model has at least one positive equilibrium. For networks with the power-law degree distribution, numerical simulations confirm analytical results, and also at the same time, by numerical analysis of the influence of the network structure and persuasive advertisements on the density of adopters, we give two different products propagation strategies for two classes of nodes in scale-free networks.

  14. Bayesian non parametric modelling of Higgs pair production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpa Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical classification models are commonly used to separate a signal from a background. In this talk we face the problem of isolating the signal of Higgs pair production using the decay channel in which each boson decays into a pair of b-quarks. Typically in this context non parametric methods are used, such as Random Forests or different types of boosting tools. We remain in the same non-parametric framework, but we propose to face the problem following a Bayesian approach. A Dirichlet process is used as prior for the random effects in a logit model which is fitted by leveraging the Polya-Gamma data augmentation. Refinements of the model include the insertion in the simple model of P-splines to relate explanatory variables with the response and the use of Bayesian trees (BART to describe the atoms in the Dirichlet process.

  15. A Hybrid Fuzzy Model for Lean Product Development Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osezua Aikhuele, Daniel; Mohd Turan, Faiz

    2016-02-01

    In the effort for manufacturing companies to meet up with the emerging consumer demands for mass customized products, many are turning to the application of lean in their product development process, and this is gradually moving from being a competitive advantage to a necessity. However, due to lack of clear understanding of the lean performance measurements, many of these companies are unable to implement and fully integrated the lean principle into their product development process. Extensive literature shows that only few studies have focus systematically on the lean product development performance (LPDP) evaluation. In order to fill this gap, the study therefore proposed a novel hybrid model based on Fuzzy Reasoning Approach (FRA), and the extension of Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-TOPSIS methods for the assessment of the LPDP. Unlike the existing methods, the model considers the importance weight of each of the decision makers (Experts) since the performance criteria/attributes are required to be rated, and these experts have different level of expertise. The rating is done using a new fuzzy Likert rating scale (membership-scale) which is designed such that it can address problems resulting from information lost/distortion due to closed-form scaling and the ordinal nature of the existing Likert scale.

  16. Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sremac

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products. Electrical cable structure (wire, insulation, filling and mantle is in accordance with the technical specifications of individual cable components in terms of the incorporated materials. Materials used in cable manufacture are copper, aluminum, rubber and polyvinyl chloride. One of the key issues in managing the flow of goods pertains to the timing of procurement. The combination of the two concepts can take advantage of individual strengths of fuzzy logic and neural networks in hybrid systems of homogeneous structure. The model has high practical significance, as, with minor modifications, it can be applied in any enterprise responsible for managing the goods flows.

  17. Modeling the spatial structure of hog production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larue, Solène; Abildtrup, Jens; Schmitt, Bertrand

    , the interaction between the location of hog production and slaughterhouses. It is the assumption that the location of slaughterhouses is influenced by the location of the primary producers, implying that this variable is endogenous, whereas the location of primary producers is independent of the location...... of slaughterhouses. This is due to the fact that transportation costs of pigs are paid by the cooperatives owning the slaughterhouses. This assumption is tested applying a spatial econometric model. The model is estimated for 1989, 1999 and 2004. In the latter period, it is the hypothesis that the demand for export...

  18. Mechanistic Modelling of Biodiesel Production using a Liquid Lipase Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Hofmann, Björn; Silva, Vanessa T. L.

    2014-01-01

    , with respect to the industrial production of biodiesel. The developed kinetic model, coupled with a mass balance of the system, was fitted to and validated on experimental results for the fed-batch transesterification of rapeseed oil. The confidence intervals of the parameter estimates, along...... that constrains the amount of methanol in the reactor was computed and the predictions experimentally validated. Monte-Carlo simulations were then used to characterize the effect of the parameter uncertainty on the model outputs, giving a biodiesel yield, based on the mass of oil, of 90.8 ± 0.55 mass %. © 2014...

  19. Medium Term Hydroelectric Production Planning - A Multistage Stochastic Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BITA ANALUI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multistage stochastic programming is a key technology for making decisions over time in an uncertain environment. One of the promising areas in which this technology is implementable, is medium term planning of electricity production and trading where decision makers are typically faced with uncertain parameters (such as future demands and market prices that can be described by stochastic processes in discrete time. We apply this methodology to hydrosystem operation assuming random electricity prices and random inflows to the reservoir system. After describing the multistage stochastic model a simple case study is presented. In particular we use the model for pricing an electricity delivery contract in the framework of indifference pricing.

  20. Theoretical models in the development of advertising for food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Stacey, Julia

    2005-01-01

    the advertisement influences the target may serve as creative inspiration and as a common frame of reference for those involved in the development of advertisements. The means-end-chain model says that an advertisement is effective by connecting the product's attributes (means) and the target's personal values...... apples. One proposal, which is based on the meansendchain model, tries to establish a connection between the vitamin and energy content of apples and the personal value: quality of life. The other one is made in the traditional fashion, ie without the use of theoreticalmodels. Its message is that apples...

  1. The Model of the Production Process for the Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alot Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of the research on the models of the production processes for the quality management and their identification. It discusses the classical model and the indicators for evaluating the capabilities by taking as its starting point the assumption of the normal distribution of the process characteristics. The division of the process types proposed by ISO 21747:2006 standard introducing models for non-stationary processes is presented. A general process model that allows in any real case to precisely describe the statistical characteristics of the process is proposed. It gives the opportunity for more detailed description, in comparison to the model proposed by ISO 21747:2006 standard, of the process characteristics and determining its capability. This model contains the type of process, statistical distribution, and the method for determining the capability and performance (long-term capability of the process. One of the model elements is proposed, own classification and resulting set of process types. The classification follows the recommendations of ISO 21747:2006 introducing models for the non-stationary processes. However, the set of the process types allows, beyond a more precise description of the process characteristics, its usage to monitor the process.

  2. Carbon budget over 12 years in a production crop under temperate climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Pauline; Bodson, Bernard; Debacq, Alain; De Ligne, Anne; Heinesch, Bernard; Manise, Tanguy; Moureaux, Christine; Aubinet, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) exchanges between crops and the atmosphere are influenced by both climatic and crop management drivers. The investigated crop, situated at the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO, candidate ICOS site) in Belgium and managed for more than 70 years using conventional farming practices, was monitored over three complete sugar beet (or maize)/winter wheat/potato/winter wheat rotation cycles from 2004 to 2016. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements and regular biomass samplings were performed in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity, Total Ecosystem Respiration, Net Primary Productivity, and Net Biome Production (NBP). Meteorological data and crop management practices were also recorded. The main objectives were to analyze the CO2 flux responses to climatic drivers and to establish the C budget of the cropland. Crop type significantly influenced the measured CO2 fluxes. In addition to crop season duration, which had an obvious impact on cumulated NEE values for each crop type, the CO2 flux response to photosynthetic photon flux density, vapor pressure deficit and temperature differed between crop types, while no significant response to soil water content was observed in any of them. Besides, a significant positive relationship between crop residue amount and ecosystem respiration was observed. Over the 12 years, NEE was negative (-4.34 ± 0.21 kg C m-2) but NBP was positive (1.05 ± 0.30 kg C m-2), i.e. as soon as all lateral carbon fluxes - dominated by carbon exportation - are included in the budget, the site behaves as a carbon source. Intercrops were seen to play a major role in the carbon budget, being mostly due to the long time period it represented (59 % of the 12 year time period). An in-depth analysis of intercrop periods and, more specifically, growing cover crops (mustard in the case of our study), is developed in a companion poster (ref. abstract EGU2017-12216, session SSS9

  3. Diffractive open charm production from the dipole model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszczak, A.; Golec-Biernat, K.

    2009-01-01

    The most promising QCD based approach to DIS diffraction is formulated in terms of dipole models. In this analysis, we consider two important parameterizations of the dipole scattering amplitude, called GBW and CGC in which parton saturation results are built in. We present a precise comparison of the results of the dipole models using these two parameterizations with the newest data from HERA. The comparison we performed prompt us to discuss some subtle points of the dipole models, mostly related to the qqg component, and connect them to the approach based on the diffractive parton distributions evolved with the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) equations. Within the latter approach, the diffractive open charm production, which is the main goal of this analysis, is particularly interesting since it is sensitive to a diffractive gluon distribution. Thus, we extracted the diffractive gluon distribution from the dipole model formulae to use it for the computation of the charm contribution to F 2 D . We found good agreement with the HERA data on the diffractive open charm production both for the the gluon distributions from the considered dipole models and the DGLAP fits to HERA data from our earlier analysis for diffractive parton distributions with higher twist. (authors)

  4. The early years of string theory: The dual resonance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1987-10-01

    This paper reviews the past quantum mechanical history of the dual resonance model which is an early string theory. The content of this paper is listed as follows: historical review, the Veneziano amplitude, the operator formalism, the ghost story, and the string story

  5. Linear programming model can explain respiration of fermentation products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Möller

    Full Text Available Many differentiated cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for generating energy in the form of ATP needed for cellular metabolism. In contrast most tumor cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis leading to lactate to about the same extent as on respiration. Warburg found that cancer cells to support oxidative phosphorylation, tend to ferment glucose or other energy source into lactate even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, which is an inefficient way to generate ATP. This effect also occurs in striated muscle cells, activated lymphocytes and microglia, endothelial cells and several mammalian cell types, a phenomenon termed the "Warburg effect". The effect is paradoxical at first glance because the ATP production rate of aerobic glycolysis is much slower than that of respiration and the energy demands are better to be met by pure oxidative phosphorylation. We tackle this question by building a minimal model including three combined reactions. The new aspect in extension to earlier models is that we take into account the possible uptake and oxidation of the fermentation products. We examine the case where the cell can allocate protein on several enzymes in a varying distribution and model this by a linear programming problem in which the objective is to maximize the ATP production rate under different combinations of constraints on enzymes. Depending on the cost of reactions and limitation of the substrates, this leads to pure respiration, pure fermentation, and a mixture of respiration and fermentation. The model predicts that fermentation products are only oxidized when glucose is scarce or its uptake is severely limited.

  6. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 389, č. 8 (2010), s. 1708-1720 ISSN 0378-4371 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : EPC * Agent based model * Phase transition Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2010

  7. Year-Round Schools: The Star of the Sea Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    Star of the Sea School, located in the Wai'alae-kahala area of Honolulu, implemented year-round schooling (YRS) in 1991. This publication describes the history of YRS, the status of YRS in the Pacific region, and outcomes of the Star of the Sea's program. The private Catholic K-8 school adheres to a 45-10 plan, which includes 180 regular school…

  8. The ways of enhancement and optimization of production by separate types of meat on the basis of modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaymanova D.K.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available in this article the ways of optimization and enhancement of production of meat in the Kyrgyz Republic are considered. And also on the basis of statistical data and economic-mathematical modeling forecast calculations for the predicted years (2016–2020 are performed. Questions to increase the production volume by separate types of meat in the country are considered.

  9. Productivity simulation model for optimization of maritime container terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen TWRDY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a proposed productivity simulation model enabling container terminal operators to find optimization possibilities. A research of more than forty terminals has been done, in order to provide a helping tool for maritime container terminals. By applying an adequate simulation model, it is possible to measure and increase the productivity in all subsystem of the maritime container terminal. Management of a maritime container terminal includes a vast number of different financial and operational decisions. Financial decisions are often in a direct connection with investments in infrastructure and handling equipment. Such investments are very expensive. Therefore, they must give back the invested money as soon as possible. On the other hand, some terminals are limited by the physical extension and are forced to increase annual throughput only with sophisticated equipment on the berth side and on the yard as well. Considering all these important facts in container and shipping industry, the proposed simulation model gives a helping tool for checking the productivity and its time variation and monitoring competitiveness of a certain maritime terminal with terminals from the same group.

  10. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  11. A cost prediction model for machine operation in multi-field production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sopegno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Capacity planning in agricultural field operations needs to give consideration to the operational system design which involves the selection and dimensioning of production components, such as machinery and equipment. Capacity planning models currently onstream are generally based on average norm data and not on specific farm data which may vary from year to year. In this paper a model is presented for predicting the cost of in-field and transport operations for multiple-field and multiple-crop production systems. A case study from a real production system is presented in order to demonstrate the model’s functionalities and its sensitivity to parameters known to be somewhat imprecise. It was shown that the proposed model can provide operation cost predictions for complex cropping systems where labor and machinery are shared between the various operations which can be individually formulated for each individual crop. By so doing, the model can be used as a decision support system at the strategic level of management of agricultural production systems and specifically for the mid-term design process of systems in terms of labor/machinery and crop selection conforming to the criterion of profitability.

  12. The "Biopsychosocial Model": 40 years of application in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, G

    2017-01-01

    In 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "TheIn 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "Theneed for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine", introducing the term Biopsychosocial Model. This model basedon the results of Engel's studies in ulcerative colitis, depression and psychogenic pain, constituted a challenge for biomedicineand the biomedical model. The basic principles of the model included the biological, psychological and social dimensions of the person's life and theperception that the person suffers as a whole and not as isolated organs. The doctor should use a holistic approach regardingillness and should consider his/her relation with the patient socially equal. The personality and the emotional reserves of thepatient, as well as the particular environmental conditions in which the person lives in should be taken into account. There is no doubt that the biopsychosocial model has established a more empathetic and compassionate approach in medical practice. Already since 1936, the general adaptation syndrome had been proposed by the Austrian-Canadian endocrinologist HansSeley (1907-1982), who emphasized that psychological stressful factors may have injurious consequences on health, while theresponse systems to stress may be dysregulated not only by genetic factors, but also from experiences and stressful life events,as well as by harmful behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and lack of physical exercise. Psychosocial factors may co-determine the patient's vulnerability and the illness's severity and course. The biopsychosocialmodel consider the interactions with genetic susceptibility, personality, stressful events and, generally, with the patient's socialcontext. Environmental factors increase the probability of the clinical expression of a mental disorder, play a role in the time

  13. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  14. Aggressive symbolic model identification in 13 year-old youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a great amount of research has been carried out about the effects of media on the audience, few studies deal with the process that determines why the viewers identify with a specific symbolic model instead of choosing any other. In this descriptive study we try to highlight similarity identification, focusing on aggressive model identification. A sample of 203 participants, both male and female, aged 13, and with a high socioeconomic level viewed different films sequences. They were asked to answer to a questionnaire both before and after watching the clip. This questionnaire included an adjective list about the traits that best defined themselves, their favorite characters, and characters they didn’t like. Results show a clear correspondence between the participants’ self-perceived traits and those perceived for the main characters in the film. Self-perceived traits were opposed to those perceived in the main characters opponents.

  15. Production of healthy cloned mice from bodies frozen at -20 degrees C for 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Sayaka; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Iwaki, Takamasa; Kanagawa, Osami; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-11-11

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides an opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, it has been suggested that the "resurrection" of frozen extinct species (such as the woolly mammoth) is impracticable, as no live cells are available, and the genomic material that remains is inevitably degraded. Here we report production of cloned mice from bodies kept frozen at -20 degrees C for up to 16 years without any cryoprotection. As all of the cells were ruptured after thawing, we used a modified cloning method and examined nuclei from several organs for use in nuclear transfer attempts. Using brain nuclei as nuclear donors, we established embryonic stem cell lines from the cloned embryos. Healthy cloned mice were then produced from these nuclear transferred embryonic stem cells by serial nuclear transfer. Thus, nuclear transfer techniques could be used to "resurrect" animals or maintain valuable genomic stocks from tissues frozen for prolonged periods without any cryopreservation.

  16. Results of periodic radiohygienic survey of some agricultural products originated in Slovakia in the year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missik, J.; Puskeiler, L.; Miklas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Among other periodic monitoring and surveillance programs of the State Veterinary and Food Administration of Slovak Republic there is also the program Radiohygienic surveillance of agricultural raw, semi-, and final products made in Slovakia. In the year 2005 six commodities were sampled giving a total of 160 samples analysed by HPGe spectrometry for the abundance of man-made radionuclides. Besides 137 Cs no other anthropogenic radionuclide was found in the samples of raw cow milk, raw sheep milk, beef, pork, wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wheat. Highest level of 137 Cs activity was found in the sample of wild boar (32.71 ± 1.88) Bq · kg -1 from the surroundings of Maly Sulin in the district Stara Lubovna. (authors)

  17. Global Multi-Year O3-CO Correlation Patterns from Models and TES Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgarakis, A.; Telford, P. J.; Aghedo, A. M.; Braesicke, P.; Faluvegi, G.; Abraham, N. L.; Bowman, K. W.; Pyle, J. A.; Shindell, D. T.

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between measured tropospheric ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) has been used extensively in tropospheric chemistry studies to explore the photochemical characteristics of different regions and to evaluate the ability of models to capture these characteristics. Here, we present the first study that uses multi-year, global, vertically resolved, simultaneous and collocated O3 and CO satellite (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) measurements, to determine this correlation in the middle/lower free troposphere for two different seasons, and to evaluate two chemistry-climate models. We find results that are fairly robust across different years, altitudes and timescales considered, which indicates that the correlation maps presented here could be used in future model evaluations. The highest positive correlations (around 0.8) are found in the northern Pacific during summer, which is a common feature in the observations and the G-PUCCINI model. We make quantitative comparisons between the models using a single-figure metric (C), which we define as the correlation coefficient between the modeled and the observed O3-CO correlations for different regions of the globe. On a global scale, the G-PUCCINI model shows a good performance in the summer (C =0.71) and a satisfactory performance in the winter (C = 0.52). It captures midlatitude features very well, especially in the summer, whereas the performance in regions like South America or Central Africa is weaker. The UKCA model (C = 0.46/0.15 for July-August/December-January on a global scale) performs better in certain regions, such as the tropics in winter, and it captures some of the broad characteristics of summer extratropical correlations, but it systematically underestimates the O3-CO correlations over much of the globe. It is noteworthy that the correlations look very different in the two models, even though the ozone distributions are similar. This demonstrates that this technique provides a powerful

  18. Modelling loans and deposits during electoral years i n Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae - Marius JULA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of electoral years on loans and deposits for population in Romania. Using monthly data regarding the total loans and deposits, we identify the significance of the electoral timing on population´s behavior regarding financial decisions. We estimate that there are small changes in population´s affinity for increase in the indebtedness or for savings. We use dummy variables for electoral periods, and when these are econometrically significant there is an evidence of the influence of the electoral timings in population´s financial decisions.

  19. Evaluation of Aqua crop Model to Predict Crop Water Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noor Hidayat Adenan; Faiz Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Abdul Rahim Harun; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Water and nutrient are critical inputs for crop production, especially in meeting challenges from increasing fertilizer cost and irregular water availability associated with climate change. The Land and Water Division of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed Aqua Crop, an integrated application software to simulate the interactions between plant, water and soil. Field management and irrigation management are the factors that need to be considered since it affects the interactions. Four critical components are needed in the Aqua Crop model, viz. climate, crop, field management and soil conditions. In our case study, climate data from rice field in Utan Aji, Kangar, Perlis was applied to run a simulation by using AquaCrop model. The rice crop was also assessed against deficit irrigation schedules and we found that use of water at optimum level increased rice yield. Results derived from the use of the model corresponded conventional assessment. This model can be adopted to help farmers in Malaysia in planning crop and field management to increase the crop productivity, especially in areas where the water is limited. (author)

  20. Evolution Model and Simulation of Profit Model of Agricultural Products Logistics Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Agricultural products logistics financial warehousing business mainly involves agricultural production and processing enterprises, third-party logistics enterprises and financial institutions tripartite, to enable the three parties to achieve win-win situation, the article first gives the replication dynamics and evolutionary stability strategy between the three parties in business participation, and then use NetLogo simulation platform, using the overall modeling and simulation method of Multi-Agent, established the evolutionary game simulation model, and run the model under different revenue parameters, finally, analyzed the simulation results. To achieve the agricultural products logistics financial financing warehouse business to participate in tripartite mutually beneficial win-win situation, thus promoting the smooth flow of agricultural products logistics business.

  1. Assimilation of LAI time-series in crop production models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Rijk, Bert; Nannes, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is worldwide a large consumer of freshwater, nutrients and land. Spatial explicit agricultural management activities (e.g., fertilization, irrigation) could significantly improve efficiency in resource use. In previous studies and operational applications, remote sensing has shown to be a powerful method for spatio-temporal monitoring of actual crop status. As a next step, yield forecasting by assimilating remote sensing based plant variables in crop production models would improve agricultural decision support both at the farm and field level. In this study we investigated the potential of remote sensing based Leaf Area Index (LAI) time-series assimilated in the crop production model LINTUL to improve yield forecasting at field level. The effect of assimilation method and amount of assimilated observations was evaluated. The LINTUL-3 crop production model was calibrated and validated for a potato crop on two experimental fields in the south of the Netherlands. A range of data sources (e.g., in-situ soil moisture and weather sensors, destructive crop measurements) was used for calibration of the model for the experimental field in 2010. LAI from cropscan field radiometer measurements and actual LAI measured with the LAI-2000 instrument were used as input for the LAI time-series. The LAI time-series were assimilated in the LINTUL model and validated for a second experimental field on which potatoes were grown in 2011. Yield in 2011 was simulated with an R2 of 0.82 when compared with field measured yield. Furthermore, we analysed the potential of assimilation of LAI into the LINTUL-3 model through the 'updating' assimilation technique. The deviation between measured and simulated yield decreased from 9371 kg/ha to 8729 kg/ha when assimilating weekly LAI measurements in the LINTUL model over the season of 2011. LINTUL-3 furthermore shows the main growth reducing factors, which are useful for farm decision support. The combination of crop models and sensor

  2. Industrial production of acetone and butanol by fermentation-100 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Microbial production of acetone and butanol was one of the first large-scale industrial fermentation processes of global importance. During the first part of the 20th century, it was indeed the second largest fermentation process, superseded in importance only by the ethanol fermentation. After a rapid decline after the 1950s, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation has recently gained renewed interest in the context of biorefinery approaches for the production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. The availability of new methods and knowledge opens many new doors for industrial microbiology, and a comprehensive view on this process is worthwhile due to the new interest. This thematic issue of FEMS Microbiology Letters, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the first industrial exploitation of Chaim Weizmann's ABE fermentation process, covers the main aspects of old and new developments, thereby outlining a model development in biotechnology. All major aspects of industrial microbiology are exemplified by this single process. This includes new technologies, such as the latest developments in metabolic engineering, the exploitation of biodiversity and discoveries of new regulatory systems such as for microbial stress tolerance, as well as technological aspects, such as bio- and down-stream processing. © FEMS 2016.

  3. On the Cutting Edge Professional Development Program - An effective model built from years of experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; Macdonald, H.; Beane, R. J.; Manduca, C. A.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wiese, K.; Wysession, M. E.; Iverson, E. A. R.; Fox, S.

    2015-12-01

    The On the Cutting Edge (CE) program offers a successful model for designing and convening professional development events. Information about the model is now available on the CE website. The program model has evolved from more than 12 years of experience, building with input from strong leaders and participants. CE offers face-to-face, virtual, and hybrid events, and features a rich website that supports these professional development events as well as a growing community with a shared interest in effective geoscience teaching. Data from national surveys, participant feedback, and self-report data indicate the program's success in improving undergraduate geoscience education. Successes are also demonstrated in classroom observations using RTOP, indicating a significant difference in teaching style among participants and non-participants. A suite of web pages, with a planning timeline, provides guidance to those interested in designing and convening face-to-face or virtual events based on the CE model. The pages suggest ways to develop robust event goals and evaluation tools, how to choose strong leaders and recruit diverse participants, advice for designing effective event programs that utilize participant expertise, websites, and web tools, and suggestions for effectively disseminating event results and producing useful products. The CE model has been successfully transferred to projects that vary in scale and discipline. Best practices from the CE model include (1) thinking of the workshop as shared enterprise among conveners and participants; (2) incorporating conveners and participants who bring diverse viewpoints and approaches; (3) promoting structured discussions that utilize participants' expertise; (4) emphasizing practical strategies to effect change; and (5) using the website as a platform to prepare for the workshop, share ideas, and problem-solve challenges. Learn more about how to utilize this model for your project at:serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/workshops/convene

  4. Net community production and calcification from 7 years of NOAA Station Papa Mooring measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2016-02-01

    Seven years of near-continuous observations from the Ocean Station Papa (OSP) surface mooring were used to evaluate drivers of marine carbon cycling in the eastern subarctic Pacific. Processes contributing to mixed layer carbon inventory changes throughout each deployment year were quantitatively assessed using a time-dependent mass balance approach in which total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon were used as tracers. By using two mixed layer carbon tracers, it was possible to isolate the influences of net community production (NCP) and calcification. Our results indicate that the annual NCP at OSP is 2 ± 1 mol C m-2 yr-1 and the annual calcification is 0.3 ± 0.3 mol C m-2 yr-1. Piecing together evidence for potentially significant dissolved organic carbon cycling in this region, we estimate a particulate inorganic carbon to particulate organic carbon ratio between 0.15 and 0.25. This is at least double the global average, adding to the growing evidence that calcifying organisms play an important role in carbon export at this location. These results, coupled with significant seasonality in the NCP, suggest that carbon cycling near OSP may be more complex than previously thought and highlight the importance of continuous observations for robust assessments of biogeochemical cycling.

  5. Ten-year trends in family medicine residency productivity and staffing: impact of electronic health records, resident duty hours, and the medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Sarah; Hughes, Lauren; Fitch, Wes; Pauwels, Judith

    2012-02-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs), resident duty hour restrictions, and Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) innovations have all impacted the clinical practices of residency programs over the past decade. The University of Washington Family Medicine Network (UWFMN) residencies have collaborated for 10 years in collecting and comparing data regarding the productivity and operations of their training programs to identify the program-level effects of such changes. Based on five survey results from 2000 to 2010, this study examines changes in faculty and resident productivity and staffing models of UWFMN residency training clinics using a standardized methodology, specifically describing the productivity impact of EHR changes and duty hour restrictions and the implementation of the PCMH by residencies. Data were systematically collected via standardized questionnaire, evaluated for quality, clarified, and then analyzed. Resident productivity decreased over the 10-year interval, with resident total yearly patient visits down 17.2%. Core family medicine faculty productivity was highly variable among programs, and nonphysician provider visits increased. Faculty part-time status increased. Front office, medical assistant, and nursing staffing grew significantly, but other administrative staff decreased, resulting in minimal change in total non-provider staffing. A majority of programs engaged in PCMH initiatives in 2010 and had implemented an EHR. Physician productivity in UWFMN residency programs decreased for all resident physicians from 2000 to 2010, likely due to a combination of decreased resident duty hours and other clinical practice changes. Productivity trends have implications for the structure and training requirements for family medicine residency programs.

  6. One thousand years of fires: Integrating proxy and model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrwald, Natalie; Aleman, Julie C.; Coughlan, Michael; Courtney Mustaphi, Colin J.; Githumbi, Esther N.; Magi, Brian I.; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Power, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    The current fires raging across Indonesia are emitting more carbon than the annual fossil fuel emissions of Germany or Japan, and the fires are still consuming vast tracts of rainforest and peatlands. The National Interagency Fire Center (www.nifc.gov) notes that 2015 is one worst fire years on record in the U.S., where more than 9 million acres burned -- equivalent to the combined size of Massachusetts and New Jersey. The U.S. and Indonesian fires have already displaced tens of thousands of people, and their impacts on ecosystems are still unclear. In the case of Indonesia, the burning peat is destroying much of the existing soil, with unknown implications for the type of vegetation regrowth. Such large fires result from a combination of fire management practices, increasing anthropogenic land use, and a changing climate.

  7. Gallium‐68 DOTATATE Production with Automated PET Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System: A Three Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aslani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gallium‐68 (Ga‐68 is an ideal research and hospital‐based PET radioisotope. Currently, the main form of Ga‐68 radiopharmaceutical that is being synthesised in‐house is Ga‐68 conjugated with DOTA based derivatives. The development of automated synthesis systems has increased the reliability, reproducibility and safety of radiopharmaceutical productions. Here we report on our three year, 500 syntheses experience with an automated system for Ga‐68 DOTATATE. Methods: The automated synthesis system we use is divided into three parts of a servomotor modules, b single use sterile synthesis cassettes and, c a computerized system that runs the modules. An audit trail is produced by the system as a requirement for GMP production. The required reagents and chemicals are made in‐. The Germanium breakthrough is determined on a weekly basis. Production yields for each synthesis are calculated to monitor the performance and efficiency of the synthesis. The quality of the final product is assessed after each synthesis by ITLC‐SG and HPLC methods. Results: A total of 500 Ga‐68 DOTATATE syntheses (>800 patient doses were performed between March 2011 and February 2014. The average generator yield was 81.3±0.2% for 2011, 76.7±0.4% for 2012 and 75.0±0.3% for 2013. Ga‐68 DOTATATE yields for 2011, 2012, and 2013 were 81.8±0.4%, 82.2±0.4% and 87.9±0.4%, respectively. These exceed the manufacturer’s expected value of approximately 70%. Germanium breakthrough averaged 8.6×10‐6% of total activity which is well below the recommended level of 0.001%. The average ITLC‐measured radiochemical purity was above 98.5% and the average HPLC‐measured radiochemical purity was above 99.5%. Although there were some system failures during synthesis, there were only eight occasions where the patient scans needed to be rescheduled. Conclusion: In our experience the automated synthesis system performs reliably with a relatively low incident

  8. Implementation of unused production factors in agriculture by means of dynamic optimization models with random constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Zaród

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The farms of Western Pomerania province possess a large surplus of manpower. The dynamic optimization models with random constraints served the investigation of the possibilities of implementation of the unused man-hours. Those models regarded four successive years 2003-2006. The solution proceeded in two steps. The first step let us construct the assumption of the surplus or the deficiency of production factors. In the next step additional variables regarding the lease of arable grounds were introduced while the unused man-hours were implemented with various probability. The optimal solutions indicated the area of particular crops, the quantity of livestock and the farm income dependent on the use of the existing employment. This study aims at the presentation of the possibility of implementation of unused man-hours in farms dealing solely with the crop production and also the production of crop and livestock.

  9. Transition towards Sustainable Solutions: Product, Service, Technology, and Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Nasiri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the horse industry can be considered as an important industry in European countries and has a major role in agricultural industry throughout the world. Although today the diversity of the horse-related companies provides new markets and business opportunities, there are also some sustainable issues which needs to be addressed. Therefore, this study contributes to this research gap by reviewing the concept of sustainability and existing approaches to find sustainable solutions for companies. These sustainable approaches can be applied to products, services and technologies as well as business models, such as the product-service-system (PSS, circular economy (CE and industrial symbiosis (IS. Although there seems to be a growing understanding of sustainable approaches and their role in sustainable development, there is a lack of research at the empirical level regarding the types of sustainability approaches (i.e., technologies, services, products and business models that evolve in specific industries. The empirical data in this research have been collected from a cross-section of Finnish horse industry operators to determine how willing companies are to exploit approaches to sustainable solutions, as well as what the existing sustainable solutions are in this industry. The response rate of this study is approximately 24 percent, including 139 received valid responses among the sample of 580 operators.

  10. A review of forecasting models for new products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mas-Machuca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The main objective of this article is to present an up-to-date review of new product forecasting techniques. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic review of forecasting journals was carried out using the ISI-Web of Knowledge database. Several articles were retrieved and examined, and forecasting techniques relevant to this study were selected and assessed. Findings: The strengths, weaknesses and applications of the main forecasting models are discussed to examine trends and set future challenges. Research limitations/implications: A theoretical reference framework for forecasting techniques classified into judgmental, consumer/market research, cause-effect and artificial intelligence is proposed. Future research can assess these models qualitatively. Practical implications: Companies are currently motivated to launch new products and thus attract new customers to expand their market share.  In order to reduce uncertainty and risk, many companies go to extra lengths to forecast sales accurately using several techniques. Originality/value: This article outlines new lines of research on the improvement of new product performance which will aid managers in decision making and allow companies to sustain their competitive advantages in this challenging world.

  11. Modelling demand for crude oil products in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedregal, D.J. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales and Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la Ingenieria (IMACI), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Dejuan, O.; Gomez, N.; Tobarra, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    This paper develops an econometric model for the five most important crude oil products demand in Spain. The aim is the estimation of a range of elasticities of such demands that would serve as the basis for an applied general equilibrium model used for forecasting energy demand in a broader framework. The main distinctive features of the system with respect to previous literature are (1) it takes advantage of monthly information coming from very different information sources and (2) multivariate unobserved components (UC) models are implemented allowing for a separate analysis of long- and short-run relations. UC models decompose time series into a number of unobserved though economic meaningful components mainly trend, seasonal and irregular. A module is added to such structure to take into account the influence of exogenous variables necessary to compute price, cross and income elasticities. Since all models implemented are multivariate in nature, the demand components are allowed to interact among them through the system noises (similar to a seemingly unrelated equations model). The results show unambiguously that the main factor driving demand is real income with prices having little impact on energy consumption. (author)

  12. Mathematical analysis of intermittent gas injection model in oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmi, Silvya, D. R.; Pudjo, S.; Leksono, M.; Edy, S.

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent gas injection is a method to help oil production process. Gas is injected through choke in surface and then gas into tubing. Gas forms three areas in tubing: gas column area, film area and slug area. Gas column is used to propel slug area until surface. A mathematical model of intermittent gas injection is developed in gas column area, film area and slug area. Model is expanding based on mass and momentum conservation. Using assume film thickness constant in tubing, model has been developed by Tasmi et. al. [14]. Model consists of 10 ordinary differential equations. In this paper, assumption of pressure in gas column is uniform. Model consist of 9 ordinary differential equations. Connection of several variables can be obtained from this model. Therefore, dynamics of all variables that affect to intermittent gas lift process can be seen from four equations. To study the behavior of variables can be analyzed numerically and mathematically. In this paper, simple mathematically analysis approach is used to study behavior of the variables. Variables that affect to intermittent gas injection are pressure in upstream valve and in gas column. Pressure in upstream valve will decrease when gas mass in valve greater than gas mass in choke. Dynamic of the pressure in the gas column will decrease and increase depending on pressure in upstream valve.

  13. Feasibility model study for Blumbangreksa product model based on lean startup method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpahan, A. K.; Dewobroto, W. S.; Pratama, R. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the data from Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries in 2015, the productivity of shrimp farmers in Indonesia is still below China, India and Thailand, because of the low survival rate of shrimp seeds were planted in Indonesia. Water quality factors become a significant factor that increasesthe survival rate of shrimp seeds plantation, therefore team of PT. Atnic EkoteknoWicaksana create a tool called Blumbangreksa that able to monitor water quality of shrimp farms, measure temperature, salinity, pH, DO (dissolved oxygen), TDS (total dissolve solid) in water and moist air over the surface of the water and GSM -based and Internet of things. Based on the research results, unique value proposition of Blumbangreksa products is the measurement result of water quality are accurate, real-time measurements, based on Internet of things and have the ability measurements at once. Based on the feasibility study using the opportunity assessment of Marty Cagan, it can be seen that the product has fulfilled ten elements of assessment opportunity, so Blumbangreksa products are considered feasible. Initial investment fund of Blumbangreksa products is Rp 1,369,856,574, with profitability index of 1:51 and average breakeven products each year as many as 18 products are sold, and the payback period for 4 years and 2 months, therefore the business of Blumbangreksa product is feasible.

  14. Possibilities of microscopic detection of isolated porcine proteins in model meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Petrášová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various protein additives intended for manufacture of meat products have increasing importance in the food industry. These ingredients include both, plant-origin as well as animal-origin proteins. Among animal proteins, blood plasma, milk protein or collagen are used most commonly. Collagen is obtained from pork, beef, and poultry or fish skin. Collagen does not contain all the essential amino acids, thus it is not a full protein in terms of essential amino acids supply for one's organism. However, it is rather rich in amino acids of glycine, hydroxyproline and proline which are almost absent in other proteins and their synthesis is very energy intensive. Collagen, which is added to the soft and small meat products in the form of isolated porcine protein, significantly affects the organoleptic properties of these products. This work focused on detection of isolated porcine protein in model meat products where detection of isolated porcine protein was verified by histological staining and light microscopy. Seven model meat products from poultry meat and 7 model meat products from beef and pork in the ratio of 1:1, which contained 2.5% concentration of various commercially produced isolated porcine proteins, were examined. These model meat products were histologically processed by means of cryosections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin staining, toluidine blue staining and Calleja. For the validation phase, Calleja was utilized. To determine the sensitivity and specificity, five model meat products containing the addition of isolated porcine protein and five model meat products free of it were used. The sensitivity was determined for isolated porcine protein at 1.00 and specificity was determined at 1.00. The detection limit of the method was at the level of 0.001% addition. Repeatability of the method was carried out using products with addition as well as without addition of isolated porcine protein and detection was repeated

  15. A PRODUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT MODEL FOR HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Oke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduced several decades ago, productivity has rapidly developed into a powerful and versatile tool for both service and manufacturing sectors. Service represents the largest and fastest growing sector of developing economies. Yet, issues surrounding performance measurement in higher education institutions (HEI presents an interesting and important research challenge often ignored. Rapid advances made during the past decade on problems associated with productivity have brought into an ever-sharper focus the need for a comprehensive and competent treatment of service productivity in HEI. The need for a treatment of this type has been long felt in research institutions, governments, and universities. This work investigates the feasibility of measuring the productivity of an academic department of a university using the NPC/NIIE model.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Produktiwiteitsmeting het oor die afgelope dekades snel ontwikkel tot ‘n kragtige alomtoepaslike gereedskap vir die diens- en vervaardigingsektore. Die meet van produktiwiteit van dienslewering by hoër onderwysinstansies is ‘n navorsingsuitdaging wat dikwels onaangeraak gelaat word. Ontwikkelings op die gebied van produktiwiteitsmeting beklemtoon die belangrikheid van die bogenoemde vraagstuk. Die resultate van die studie is bemoedigend. Onder andere toon dit hoedat produktiwiteitsdoelwitte bereik kan word en hoedat potensiële probleemareas aangespreek behoort te word.

  16. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  17. Fungal Morphology in Industrial Enzyme Production - Modelling and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla, D.; Hagemann, T.; Hansen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are widely used in the biotechnology industry for the production of industrial enzymes. Thus, considerable work has been done with the purpose of characterizing these processes. The ultimate goal of these efforts is to be able to control and predict fermentation performance......, and on the way the data is interpreted-i.e. which models were applied. The main filamentous fungi used in industrial fermentation are introduced, ranging from Trichoderma reesei to Aspergillus species. Due to the fact that secondary metabolites, like antibiotics, are not to be considered bulk products, organisms...... that spans across strains and scales, as most studies indeed conclude that their respective results might be strain specific and not necessarily valid across scales....

  18. Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production.

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-600 GeV. The solid curve reflects the observed experimental limits for the production of a Higgs of each possible mass value (horizontal axis). The region for which the solid curve dips below the horizontal line at the value of 1 is excluded with a 95% confidence level (CL). The dashed curve shows the expected limit in the absence of the Higgs boson, based on simulations. The green and yellow bands correspond (respectively) to 68%, and 95% confidence level regions from the expected limits. Higgs masses in the narrow range 123-130 GeV are the only masses not excluded at 95% CL

  19. Optimal Control of Production and Remanufacturing in a Reverse Logistics Model with Backlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Konstantaras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse logistics activities have received increasing attention within logistics and operations management during the last years, both from a theoretical and a practical point of view. The field of reverse logistics includes all logistics processes starting with the take-back of used products from customers up to the stage of making them reusable products or disposing them. In this paper, a single-product recovery system is studied. In such system, used products are collected from customers and are kept at the recoverable inventory warehouse in view to be recovered. The constant demand rate can be satisfied either by newly produced products or by recovered ones (serviceable inventory, which are regarded as perfectly as the new ones. Excess demand is completely backlogged. Following an exact analytical approach, the optimal set-up numbers and the optimal lot sizes for the production of new products and for the recovery of returned products are obtained. A numerical cost comparison of this model with the corresponding one without backordering is also performed.

  20. Estimation of Import Demand for Fishery Products in the U.S. Using the Source-Differentiated AIDS Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojin; Reed, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Fishery product imports by the U.S. have been gradually increasing in recent years. The leading exporting countries include Canada, Chile, China, Ecuador, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam. A source-differentiated Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model and its Error Correction Model (ECM) version are employed to investigate the static and dynamic U.S. import demand for fishery products from the top seven countries using monthly data from January 1999 to September 2012. Long-run and short-run ...

  1. Chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with matrix product operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Saito, Hana [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences

    2016-03-15

    Tensor network (TN) methods, in particular the Matrix Product States (MPS) ansatz, have proven to be a useful tool in analyzing the properties of lattice gauge theories. They allow for a very good precision, much better than standard Monte Carlo (MC) techniques for the models that have been studied so far, due to the possibility of reaching much smaller lattice spacings. The real reason for the interest in the TN approach, however, is its ability, shown so far in several condensed matter models, to deal with theories which exhibit the notorious sign problem in MC simulations. This makes it prospective for dealing with the non-zero chemical potential in QCD and other lattice gauge theories, as well as with real-time simulations. In this paper, using matrix product operators, we extend our analysis of the Schwinger model at zero temperature to show the feasibility of this approach also at finite temperature. This is an important step on the way to deal with the sign problem of QCD. We analyze in detail the chiral symmetry breaking in the massless and massive cases and show that the method works very well and gives good control over a broad range of temperatures, essentially from zero to infinite temperature.

  2. Production optimisation in the petrochemical industry by hierarchical multivariate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Magnus; Furusjoe, Erik; Jansson, Aasa

    2004-06-01

    This project demonstrates the advantages of applying hierarchical multivariate modelling in the petrochemical industry in order to increase knowledge of the total process. The models indicate possible ways to optimise the process regarding the use of energy and raw material, which is directly linked to the environmental impact of the process. The refinery of Nynaes Refining AB (Goeteborg, Sweden) has acted as a demonstration site in this project. The models developed for the demonstration site resulted in: Detection of an unknown process disturbance and suggestions of possible causes; Indications on how to increase the yield in combination with energy savings; The possibility to predict product quality from on-line process measurements, making the results available at a higher frequency than customary laboratory analysis; Quantification of the gradually lowered efficiency of heat transfer in the furnace and increased fuel consumption as an effect of soot build-up on the furnace coils; Increased knowledge of the relation between production rate and the efficiency of the heat exchangers. This report is one of two reports from the project. It contains a technical discussion of the result with some degree of detail. A shorter and more easily accessible report is also available, see IVL report B1586-A.

  3. Forms and Factors of Animal Products Marketing in the early post-Meiji Years

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Seishi

    1982-01-01

    As far as the period after the Meiji era is concerned, at its begining marketing of animal products was formed in conlpliance with the properties of products as a public commodity and the amount of investment needed. The former factor depends basically on the divisibility and the preservation possibilities of the products. The latter is the capital needed for marketing and production. 1) Eggs are the most divisible and preservable of all the animal products. Also, hens can be kept with sm...

  4. [Revista de Saúde Pública: forty years of Brazilian scientific production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Júlio Cesar Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    To recognize the characteristics and path taken by the through analysis of the scientific production it has published over the period from 1967 to 2005. Scientometric methods were used to analyze reference data on the articles published in the Revista, retrieved from the databases ISI/Thomson Scientific (Web of Science), National Library of Medicine (PubMed) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). The Revista is the only Brazilian publication in the field of public health that is indexed by ISI/Thomson Scientific. It is prominent as a medium for publishing Brazilian scientific production in public health and is displaying a geometric increase in publication and citation, with annual rates of 4.4% and 12.7%, respectively. The mean number of authors per paper has risen from 2 to 3.5 over recent years. Although original research articles predominate, the numbers of reviews, multicenter studies, clinical trials and validation studies have been increasing. The number of articles published in foreign languages has also increased, accounting for 13% of the total, and the leading countries originating these are the UK, USA, Argentina and Mexico. The number and diversity of journals citing the Journal has been increasing, many of which are non-Brazilian. Authorship per author shows good fit to Lotka's Law, but the parameters suggest greater concentration and less dispersion than would be expected. Among the fields of interest of published papers, the following topics account for more than 50% of the total volume: infectious-parasitic diseases and vectors; health promotion, policies and administration; and epidemiology, surveillance and disease control. The Revista shows great dynamism, without signs of abating or reaching a plateau any time soon. There are signs of progressively increasing complexity in the studies published, and more multidisciplinary work. The Revista seems to be widening its outreach and recognition, while remaining faithful to the field of

  5. Survey of the Frequency of Electronic Media Production in Kansas Senior High Schools During 1972-73 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel J.

    One hundred and sixty of the 375 Kansas senior high schools returned questionnaires indicating frequency of electronic media production during the 1972-73 school year. The survey provided data on the whole sample and on the enrollment categories of media staff, teachers, and students, for the production areas of slide-tape, 8mm film, video-tape,…

  6. Structure and biomass production of one- to seven-year-old intensively cultured jack pine plantation in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Zavitkovski; David H. Dawson

    1978-01-01

    Spacing and rotation length effects were studied for 7 years in intensively cultured jack pine stands. Production culminated at age 5 in the densest planting and progressively later in more open spacing. Biomass production was two to several times higher than in jack pine plantations grown under traditional silvicultural systems.

  7. Greening the Grid: Advances in Production Cost Modeling for India Renewable Energy Grid Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-12

    The Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid study uses advanced weather and power system modeling to explore the operational impacts of meeting India's 2022 renewable energy targets and identify actions that may be favorable for integrating high levels of renewable energy into the Indian grid. The study relies primarily on a production cost model that simulates optimal scheduling and dispatch of available generation in a future year (2022) by minimizing total production costs subject to physical, operational, and market constraints. This fact sheet provides a detailed look at each of these models, including their common assumptions and the insights provided by each.

  8. Fission product core release model evaluation in MELCOR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y. M.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    The fission product core release in the MELCOR code is based on the CORSOR models developed by Battelle Memorial Institute. Release of radionuclides can occur from the fuel-cladding gap when a failure temperature criterion exceeds or intact geometry is lost, and various CORSOR empirical release correlations based on fuel temperatures are used for the release. Released masses into the core may exist as aerosols and/or vapors, depending on the vapor pressure of the radionuclide class and the surrounding temperature. This paper shows a release analysis for selected representative volatile and non-volatile radionuclides during conservative high and low pressure sequences in the APR1400 plant. Three core release models (CORSOR, CORSOR-M, CORSOR-Booth) in the latest MELCOR 1.8.5 version are used. In the analysis, the option of the fuel component surface-to-volume ratio in the CORSOR and CORSOR-M models and the option of the high and low burn-up in the CORSOR-Booth model are considered together. As the results, the CORSOR-M release rate is high for volatile radionuclides, and the CORSOR release rate is high for non-volatile radionuclides with insufficient consistency. As the uncertainty range for the release rate expands from several times (volatile radionuclides) to more than maximum 10,000 times (non-volatile radionuclides), user's careful choice for core release models is needed

  9. 25 Years of Natural Product R&D with New South Wales Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Southwell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Following recent NSW Government restructuring, the Department of Agriculture now exists in a composite form along with Forestry, Fisheries and Minerals in the new NSW Department of Primary Industries. This paper outlines some of the highlights of secondary metabolite R&D accomplished in the 25 years since the essential oil research unit was transferred from the Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, Sydney to NSW Agriculture’s Wollongbar Agricultural Institute on the NSW north coast. The essential oil survey was continued, typing the Australian flora as a suitable source of isolates such as myrtenal (Astartea, myrtenol (Agonis, methyl chavicol (Ochrosperma, α-phellandren-8-ol (Prostanthera, methyl myrtenate (Darwinia, methyl geranate (Darwinia, kessane (Acacia, cis-dihydroagarofuran (Prosthanthera, protoanemonin (Clematis, isoamyl isovalerate (Micromyrtus, methyl cinnamate (Eucalyptus and bornyl acetate (Boronia. Many of these components are used, or have potential use in the fragrance, flavour, medicinal plant or insect attraction fields. Two weeds toxic to livestock in the Central West of the State are also harvested commercially as medicinal plants. Measurement of hypericin concentrations in the various plant parts of St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum over two seasons has shown that the weed can be effectively managed by grazing sheep during the winter months when toxin levels are low. Syntheses of β-carbolines tribulusterine and perlolyrine have shown that the former alkaloid was misidentified in the literature and hence not the toxic principle responsible for Tribulus staggers in sheep. Poor quality (high 1,8-cineole – low terpinen-4-ol oil bearing tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia plantations have been established to the detriment of many a tea tree farmer. Analytical methods developed to check leaf quality at an early age indicated precursor sabinene constituents that convert to the

  10. Suprasegmental Features Are Not Acquired Early: Perception and Production of Monosyllabic Cantonese Lexical Tones in 4- to 6-Year-Old Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Tsz-Tin Leung, Carrie

    2018-04-27

    Previous studies reported that children acquire Cantonese tones before 3 years of age, supporting the assumption in models of phonological development that suprasegmental features are acquired rapidly and early in children. Yet, recent research found a large disparity in the age of Cantonese tone acquisition. This study investigated Cantonese tone development in 4- to 6-year-old children. Forty-eight 4- to 6-year-old Cantonese-speaking children and 28 mothers of the children labeled 30 pictures representing familiar words in the 6 tones in a picture-naming task and identified pictures representing words in different Cantonese tones in a picture-pointing task. To control for lexical biases in tone assessment, tone productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Five judges categorized the tones in filtered stimuli. Tone production accuracy, tone perception accuracy, and correlation between tone production and perception accuracy were examined. Children did not start to produce adultlike tones until 5 and 6 years of age. Four-year-olds produced none of the tones with adultlike accuracy. Five- and 6-year-olds attained adultlike productions in 2 (T5 and T6) to 3 (T4, T5, and T6) tones, respectively. Children made better progress in tone perception and achieved higher accuracy in perception than in production. However, children in all age groups perceived none of the tones as accurately as adults, except that T1 was perceived with adultlike accuracy by 6-year-olds. Only weak association was found between children's tone perception and production accuracy. Contradicting to the long-held assumption that children acquire lexical tone rapidly and early before the mastery of segmentals, this study found that 4- to 6-year-old children have not mastered the perception or production of the full set of Cantonese tones in familiar monosyllabic words. Larger development was found in children's tone perception than tone production. The higher tone perception

  11. The Knowledge Production Model of the New Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    2016-01-01

    performance is the slow adaption of the scientific system to the novel research technologies made available by the progress in the life sciences – rather than resistance of practitioners. We interpret the changes in the organization of medical research through the lenses of the theory of New Sciences, which......, coexists with the standard model of knowledge production in clinical medicine. Our comparison of the two approaches finds that Translational Research allows investigations across diverse and cognitively distant knowledge bases, thanks to the intensive use of research technologies that emerge from...

  12. Constrained optimization via simulation models for new product innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujowidianto, Nugroho A.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of constrained optimization where the decision makers aim to optimize the primary performance measure while constraining the secondary performance measures. This paper provides a brief overview of stochastically constrained optimization via discrete event simulation. Most review papers tend to be methodology-based. This review attempts to be problem-based as decision makers may have already decided on the problem formulation. We consider constrained optimization models as there are usually constraints on secondary performance measures as trade-off in new product development. It starts by laying out different possible methods and the reasons using constrained optimization via simulation models. It is then followed by the review of different simulation optimization approach to address constrained optimization depending on the number of decision variables, the type of constraints, and the risk preferences of the decision makers in handling uncertainties.

  13. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Bi; Jianbo, Gao

    2016-07-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  14. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Sheng; Gao Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification. (paper)

  15. Performance modelling for product development of advanced window systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David

    The research presented in this doctoral thesis shows how the product development (PD) of Complex Fenestration Systems (CFSs) can be facilitated by computer-based analysis to improve the energy efficiency of fenestration systems as well as to improve the indoor environment. The first chapter defines...... and methods,which can address interrelated performance parameters of CFS, are sought. It is possible to evaluate such systems by measurements, however the high cost and complexity of the measurements are limiting factors. The studies in this thesis confirmed that the results from the performance measurements...... of CFSs can be interpreted by simulations and hence simulations can be used for the performance analysis of new CFSs. An advanced simulation model must be often developed and needs to be validated by measurements before the model can be reused. The validation of simulations against the measurements proved...

  16. Fuzzy economic production quantity model with time dependent demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Indrajitsingha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper, an economic production quantity model is considered under a fuzzy environment. Both the demand cost and holding cost are considered using fuzzy pentagonal numbers. The Signed Distance Method is used to defuzzify the total cost function. Methods: The results obtained by these methods are compared with the help of a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to explore the effect of changes in the values of some of the system parameters. Results and conclusions: The fuzzy EPQ model with time dependent demand rate was presented together with the possible implementation. The behavior of changes in parameters was analyzed. The possible extension of the implementation of this method was presented.

  17. Multi-Year Combination of Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Analysis Center Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunegnaw, A.; Teferle, F. N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 the International GNSS Service (IGS) Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) started their reprocessing campaign, which proposes to re-analyze all relevant Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1994 to 2013. This re-processed dataset will provide high quality estimates of land motions, enabling regional and global high-precision geophysical/geodetic studies. Several of the individual TIGA Analysis Centers (TACs) have completed processing the full history of GPS observations recorded by the IGS global network, as well as, many other GPS stations at or close to tide gauges, which are available from the TIGA data centre at the University of La Rochelle (www.sonel.org). The TAC solutions contain a total of over 700 stations. Following the recent improvements in processing models and strategies, this is the first complete reprocessing attempt by the TIGA WG to provide homogeneous position time series. The TIGA Combination Centre (TCC) at the University of Luxembourg (UL) has computed a first multi-year weekly combined solution using two independent combination software packages: CATREF and GLOBK. These combinations allow an evaluation of any effects from the combination software and of the individual TAC contributions and their influences on the combined solution. In this study we will present the first UL TIGA multi-year combination results and discuss these in terms of geocentric sea level changes

  18. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  19. Modelling Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxins production in pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Sonia; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, V

    2012-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are the main contaminants in pistachio nuts. AFs production in pistachio has been attributed to Aspergillus flavus. The aim of this study was to apply existing models to predict growth and AFs production by an A. flavus isolated from pistachios as a function of moisture content and storage temperature of pistachios in order to test their usefulness and complementarities. A full factorial design was used: the moisture content levels assayed were 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% and incubation temperatures were 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 42 °C. Both kinetic and probability models were built to predict growth of the strain under the assayed conditions. Among the assayed models, cardinal ones gave a good quality fit for radial growth rate data. Moreover, the progressive approach, which was developed based on a reduced number of experimental points led to an improved prediction in the validation step. This is quite significant as may allow for improved experimental designs, less costly than full factorial ones. Probability model proved to be concordant in 91% of the calibration set observations. Even though the validation set included conditions around the growth/no-growth interface, there was a 100% agreement in the predictions from the data set (n = 16, cut off = 0.5) after 60 days. Similarly, the probability for AF presence was rightly predicted in 89% of the cases. According to our results EC maximum aflatoxin levels would be surpassed in a period as short as 1 month if pistachio nuts reach 20 °C, unless %mc is ≤10%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling black spruce primary production and carbon allocation in the Quebec boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaretti, Fabio; Guiot, Joel; Berninger, Frank; Boucher, Etienne; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    Boreal ecosystems are crucial carbon stores that must be urgently quantified and preserved. Their future evolution is extremely important for the global carbon budget. Here, we will show the progresses achieved with the MAIDEN forest ecophysiological model in simulating carbon fluxes of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests, the most representative ecosystem of the North American boreal biome. Starting from daily minimum-maximum air temperature, precipitation and CO2 atmospheric concentration, MAIDEN models the phenological (5 phenological phases are simulated each year) and meteorological controls on gross primary production (GPP) and carbon allocation to stem. The model is being calibrated on eddy covariance and tree-ring data. We will discuss the model's performance and the modifications introduced in MAIDEN to adapt the model to temperature sensitive forests of the boreal region.