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Sample records for model processed cheese

  1. Hot cheese: a processed Swiss cheese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Thimbleby, H

    2014-01-01

    James Reason's classic Swiss cheese model is a vivid and memorable way to visualise how patient harm happens only when all system defences fail. Although Reason's model has been criticised for its simplicity and static portrait of complex systems, its use has been growing, largely because of the direct clarity of its simple and memorable metaphor. A more general, more flexible and equally memorable model of accident causation in complex systems is needed. We present the hot cheese model, which is more realistic, particularly in portraying defence layers as dynamic and active - more defences may cause more hazards. The hot cheese model, being more flexible, encourages deeper discussion of incidents than the simpler Swiss cheese model permits.

  2. Applicability of bacterial growth models in spreadable processed cheese

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    Dorota Weiss

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Food spoilage is a process in which the quality parameters decrease and products are no longer edible. This is a cumulative effect of bacteria growth and their metabolite production, which is a factor limiting shelf life. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether microbiological growth models for total viable count (TVC and Clostridium strain bacteria are reliable tools for prediction of microbiological changes in spreadable processed cheese. Material and methods. Investigations were conducted for two types of bacteria: TVC and Clostridium in following temperature: 8°C, 20°C and 30°C. A total number of aerobic bacteria was determined based on standard PN-EN ISO 4833:2004 and Clostridium was detected by using microbiological procedure for sulphite-reducing anaerobic spore-bacteria with a selective nourishment. During the analysis nonlinear regression and Baranyi and Roberts primary model were used. Results. For temperatures 20°C and 30°C, Baranyi and Roberts model, for total viable count showed determination coeffi cient of 70%. The models prepared for Clostridium, in these temperatures, showed much lower R2, respectively 25% and 30%. At the abovementioned temperatures also the expiration of product shelf life was much shorter and amounted 70 days at 20°C and 7 days at 30°C. For both types of bacteria incubated at 8°C the numbers of bacteria decrease until the expiration of product shelf life. Conclusions. Models used in the analyses, Baranyi and Roberts and nonlinear regression, poorly matched the experimental data, hence they are not reliable tools. Nevertheless, they gave information about dynamic of microbiological changes in spreadable processed cheese.

  3. Modelling of sensory and instrumental texture parameters in processed cheese by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Carmen; Downey, Gerard; O'Callaghan, Donal; Howard, Vincent; Delahunty, Conor; Sheehan, Elizabeth; Everard, Colm; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the application of near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to the measurement of texture (sensory and instrumental) in experimental processed cheese samples. Spectra (750 to 2498 nm) of cheeses were recorded after 2 and 4 weeks storage at 4 degrees C. Trained assessors evaluated 9 sensory properties, a texture profile analyser (TPA) was used to record 5 instrumental parameters and cheese 'meltability' was measured by computer vision. Predictive models for sensory and instrumental texture parameters were developed using partial least squares regression on raw or pre-treated spectral data. Sensory attributes and instrumental texture measurements were modelled with sufficient accuracy to recommend the use of NIR reflectance spectroscopy for routine quality assessment of processed cheese.

  4. Genetic parameters of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is an important technological trait in the dairy industry, and the objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of cheese yield in a dairy cattle population using an individual model-cheese production procedure. A total of 1,167 Brown Swiss cows belonging to 85 herds were sampled once (a maximum of 15 cows were sampled per herd on a single test day, 1 or 2 herds per week). From each cow, 1,500 mL of milk was processed according to the following steps: milk sampling and heating, culture addition, rennet addition, gelation-time recording, curd cutting, whey draining and sampling, wheel formation, pressing, salting in brine, weighing, and cheese sampling. The compositions of individual milk, whey, and curd samples were determined. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), which represented the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding nutrient in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese versus that in the milk. For statistical analysis, a Bayesian animal model was implemented via Gibbs sampling. The effects of parity (1 to ≥4), days in milk (6 classes), and laboratory vat (15 vats) were assigned flat priors; those of herd-test-date, animal, and residual were given Gaussian prior distributions. Intra-herd heritability estimates of %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER) ranged from 0.224 to 0.267; these were larger than the estimates obtained for milk yield (0.182) and milk fat

  5. LINEAR LAYER AND GENERALIZED REGRESSION COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE MODELS FOR PREDICTING SHELF LIFE OF PROCESSED CHEESE

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    S. Goyal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significance of computational intelligence models for predicting shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8 g.C. Linear Layer and Generalized Regression models were developed with input parameters: Soluble nitrogen, pH, Standard plate count, Yeast & mould count, Spores, and sensory score as output parameter. Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, Coefficient of Determination and Nash - Sutcliffo Coefficient were used in order to compare the prediction ability of the models. The study revealed that Generalized Regression computational intelligence models are quite effective in predicting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8 g.C.

  6. Time – Delay Simulated Artificial Neural Network Models for Predicting Shelf Life of Processed Cheese

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    Sumit Goyal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significance of Time-Delay ANN models for predicting shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8o^C. Bayesian regularization algorithm was selected as training function. Number of neurons in single and multiple hidden layers varied from 1 to 20. The network was trained with up to 100 epochs. Mean square error, root mean square error, coefficient of determination and nash - Sutcliffe coefficient were used for calculating the prediction capability of the developed models. Time-Delay ANN models with multilayer are quite efficient in predicting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8o^C.

  7. Time-Delay Artificial Neural Network Computing Models for Predicting Shelf Life of Processed Cheese

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    Sumit Goyal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the capability of Time–delay artificial neural network models for predicting shelf life of processed cheese. Datasets were divided into two subsets (30 for training and 6 for validation. Models with single and multi layers were developed and compared with each other. Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, Coefficient of Determination and Nash -
    Sutcliffo Coefficient were used as performance evaluators, Time- delay model predicted the shelf life of processed cheese as 28.25 days, which is very close to experimental shelf life of 30 days.

  8. Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

  9. Understanding aroma release from model cheeses by a statistical multiblock approach on oral processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant.

  10. Evaluation of Shelf Life of Processed Cheese by Implementing Neural Computing Models

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    Sumit Goyal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For predicting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8º C, Elman single and multilayer models were developed and compared. The input variables used for developing the models were soluble nitrogen, pH; standard plate count, Yeast & mould count, and spore count, while output variable was sensory score. Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, Coefficient of Determination and Nash - Sutcliffo Coefficient were applied in order to compare the prediction ability of the developed models. The Elman models got simulated very well and showed excellent agreement between the experimental data and the predicted values, suggesting that the Elman models can be used for predicting the shelf life of processed cheese.

  11. Phenotypic analysis of cheese yields and nutrient recoveries in the curd of buffalo milk, as measured with an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2015-01-01

    Traits associated with cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery in curd are used to describe the efficiency of the cheese-making process. This is fundamental for all dairy species, including the Italian Mediterranean buffalo, which is largely used for milk production aimed at the dairy industry. To assess cheese-making traits among buffalo, a model cheese-manufacturing process was tested; it was capable of processing 24 samples per run, using 0.5-L samples of milk from individual buffalo. In total, 180 buffalo reared in 7 herds located in Northeast Italy were sampled once. Briefly, each sample was weighed and heated (35°C for 30min), inoculated with starter culture (90min), and mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk). After 10min of gelation, the curd was cut; 5min after the cut, the curd was separated from the whey, and the curd was subjected to draining (for 30min) and pressing (18h). The curd and whey were weighed, analyzed for pH and the total solid, fat, lactose, and protein contents, and subjected to estimation of the energy content. Three measures of cheese yield (%CY), %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, were computed as the ratios between the weight of the curd, the curd dry matter, and the water retained in the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. These traits were multiplied by the daily milk yield to define the 3 corresponding measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d). The milk component recoveries (REC) in the curd, RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, and RECSOLIDS, represented the ratios between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Finally, energy recovery (RECENERGY) was estimated. The values for %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, %CYWATER, RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY averaged 25.6, 12.7, 12.9, 80.4, 95.1, 66.7, and 79.3%, respectively, indicating that buffalo milk has a higher aptitude to cheese-making than bovine milk. The effect

  12. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is the most important technological trait of milk, because cheese-making uses a very high proportion of the milk produced worldwide. Few studies have been carried out at the level of individual milk-producing animals due to a scarcity of appropriate procedures for model-cheese production, the complexity of cheese-making, and the frequent use of the fat and protein (or casein) contents of milk as a proxy for cheese yield. Here, we report a high-throughput cheese manufacturing process that mimics all phases of cheese-making, uses 1.5-L samples of milk from individual animals, and allows the simultaneous processing of 15 samples per run. Milk samples were heated (35°C for 40 min), inoculated with starter culture (90 min), mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk), and recorded for gelation time. Curds were cut twice (10 and 15 min after gelation), separated from the whey, drained (for 30 min), pressed (3 times, 20 min each, with the wheel turned each time), salted in brine (for 60 min), weighed, and sampled. Whey was collected, weighed, and sampled. Milk, curd, and whey samples were analyzed for pH, total solids, fat content, and protein content, and energy content was estimated. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), representing the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese compared with that in the milk. This

  13. Use of Artificial Neural Network for Testing Effectiveness of Intelligent Computing Models for Predicting Shelf Life of Processed Cheese

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    GOYAL Kumar Gyanendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the suitability of artificial neural network (ANN models for predicting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8ºC. Soluble nitrogen, pH; standard plate count, yeast & mould count, and spore count were input variables, and sensory score was output variable. Mean square error, root mean square error, coefficient of determination and Nash - sutcliffo coefficient were used in order to test the effectiveness of the developed ANN models. Excellent agreement was found between experimental results and these mathematical parameters, thus confirming that ANN models are very effective in predicting the shelf life of processed cheese.

  14. Microstructure and textural and viscoelastic properties of model processed cheese with different dry matter and fat in dry matter content.

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    Černíková, Michaela; Nebesářová, Jana; Salek, Richardos Nikolaos; Řiháčková, Lada; Buňka, František

    2017-04-05

    The aim of this work was to examine the effect of a different dry matter (DM) contents (35 and 45% wt/wt) and fat in DM contents (40 and 50% wt/wt) on the textural and viscoelastic properties and microstructure of model processed cheeses made from real ingredients regularly used in the dairy industry. A constant DM content and constant fat in DM content were kept throughout the whole study. Apart from the basic chemical parameters, textural and viscoelastic properties of the model samples were measured and scanning electron microscopy was carried out. With increasing DM content, the rigidity of the products increased and the size of the fat globules in the model samples of the processed cheeses decreased. With increasing fat in DM content, the rigidity of the processed cheeses decreased and the size of the fat globules increased.

  15. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, H; Kruijswijk, Z; Molenaar, D; Kleerebezem, M; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E T

    2009-12-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing protocols are cumbersome. To reduce screening costs, several models have been developed to miniaturize the cheese manufacturing process. However, these models are not able to accommodate the throughputs required for systematic screening programs. Here, we describe a protocol that allows the parallel manufacturing of approximately 600 cheeses in individual cheese vats each with individual process specifications. Protocols for the production of miniaturized Gouda- and Cheddar-type cheeses have been developed. Starting with as little as 1.7 mL of milk, miniature cheeses of about 170 mg can be produced and they closely resemble conventionally produced cheese in terms of acidification profiles, moisture and salt contents, proteolysis, flavor profiles, and microstructure. Flavor profiling of miniature cheeses manufactured with and without mixed-strain adjunct starter cultures allowed the distinguishing of the different cheeses. Moreover, single-strain adjunct starter cultures engineered to overexpress important flavor-related enzymes revealed effects similar to those described in industrial cheese. Benchmarking against industrial cheese produced from the same raw materials established a good correlation between their proteolytic degradation products and their flavor profiles. These miniature cheeses, referred to as microcheeses, open new possibilities to study many aspects of cheese production, which will not only accelerate product development but also allow a more systematic approach to investigate the complex biochemistry and microbiology of cheese making.

  16. Proteolysis in soft cheese, studied on Meshanger cheese and cheese models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, A.

    1978-01-01

    Enzymes predominantly responsible for the primary degradation of protein in soft cheese and for the related changes in consistency were studied. Reconstructed Noordhollandse Meshanger cheese and preserved simulated soft cheeses of different composition were used as models in the

  17. Characterization of a processed cheese spread produced from fresh cheese (quesito antioqueño)

    OpenAIRE

    Edinson Eliecer Bejarano Toro; José Uriel Sepúlveda Valencia; Diego Alonso Restrepo Molina

    2016-01-01

    Processed products are made from mixes of fresh and ripened cheeses; the use of cheeses with a short shelf-life in the development of processed cheeses is an alternative for the dairy industry. A processed cheese spread was made using only a soft and fatty fresh cheese that had been stored for 25 days. The primary materials were the fresh cheese, water, and emulsifying salts (sodium citrate (E-331) and sodium phosphate (E-450)), using a STEPHAN® Universal Machine (UMSK 24E) with indirect vapo...

  18. The influence of fat and monoacylglycerols on growth of spore-forming bacteria in processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauerlandová, Iva; Lorencová, Eva; Buňka, František; Navrátil, Jan; Janečková, Kristýna; Buňková, Leona

    2014-07-16

    Highly undesirable microbial contaminants of processed cheese are endospore-forming bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Survival of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Clostridium butyricum and C. sporogenes was examined in model processed cheese samples supplemented with monoacylglycerols. In processed cheese samples, monoacylglycerols of undecanoic, undecenoic, lauric and adamantane-1-carboxylic acid at concentration of 0.15% w/w prevented the growth and multiplication of both Bacillus species throughout the storage period. The two species of Clostridium were less affected by monoacylglycerols in processed cheese samples and only partial inhibition was observed. The effect of milk fat content on microbial survival in processed cheese was also evaluated. The growth of Bacillus sp. was affected by the fat level of processed cheese while population levels of Clostridium sp. did not differ in processed cheese samples with 30, 40 and 50% fat in dry matter.

  19. Application of salt whey in process cheese food made from Cheddar cheese containing exopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevski, O; Hassan, A N; Metzger, L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to use salt whey in making process cheese food (PCF) from young (3-wk-old) Cheddar cheese. To maximize the level of salt whey in process cheese, low salt (0.6%) Cheddar cheese was used. Because salt reduction causes undesirable physiochemical changes during extended cheese ripening, young Cheddar cheese was used in making process cheese. An exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain (JFR) and a non-EPS-producing culture (DVS) were applied in making Cheddar cheese. To obtain similar composition and pH in the EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses, the cheese making protocol was modified in the latter cheese to increase its moisture content. No differences were seen in the proteolysis between EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses. Cheddar cheese made with the EPS-producing strain was softer, and less gummy and chewy than that made with the EPS-negative culture. Three-week-old Cheddar cheese was shredded and stored frozen until used for PCF manufacture. Composition of Cheddar cheese was determined and used to formulate the corresponding PCF (EPS-positive PCF and EPS-negative PCF). The utilization of low salt Cheddar cheese allowed up to 13% of salt whey containing 9.1% salt to be used in process cheese making. The preblend was mixed in the rapid visco analyzer at 1,000 rpm and heated at 95°C for 3 min; then, the process cheese was transferred into copper cylinders, sealed, and kept at 4°C. Process cheese foods contained 43.28% moisture, 23.7% fat, 18.9% protein, and 2% salt. No difference in composition was seen between the EPS-positive and EPS-negative PCF. The texture profile analysis showed that EPS-positive PCF was softer, and less gummy and chewy than EPS-negative PCF. The end apparent viscosity and meltability were higher in EPS-positive PCF than in EPS-negative PCF, whereas emulsification time was shorter in the former cheese. Sensory evaluation indicated that salt whey at the level used in this study did not affect

  20. Analyzing shelf life of processed cheese by soft computing

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    S. Goyal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Feedforward soft computing multilayer models were developed for analyzing shelf life of processed cheese. The models were trained with 80% of total observations and validated with 20% of the remaining data. Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, Coefficient of Determination and Nash - Sutcliffo Coefficient were used in order to compare the prediction ability of the developed models. From the study, it is concluded that feedforward multilayer models are good in predicting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8o C.

  1. Characterization of a processed cheese spread produced from fresh cheese (quesito antioqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinson Eliecer Bejarano Toro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Processed products are made from mixes of fresh and ripened cheeses; the use of cheeses with a short shelf-life in the development of processed cheeses is an alternative for the dairy industry. A processed cheese spread was made using only a soft and fatty fresh cheese that had been stored for 25 days. The primary materials were the fresh cheese, water, and emulsifying salts (sodium citrate (E-331 and sodium phosphate (E-450, using a STEPHAN® Universal Machine (UMSK 24E with indirect vapor injection and equipped with rasping and cutting blades. The resulting cheese (A was compared with a commercial cheese (B for compositional, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. The cheeses were similar except for the fat in dry matter (FDM, with values of 54.50% and 47.21%, respectively. Sensorially, there were significant differences (P0.05. Cheese A provided, in mg per 100 g of product, 935.823 for phenylalanine, 1003.070 for isoleucine, 2041.420 for leucine, 475.337 for methionine, 119.300 for tryptophan, and 758.347 for valine. Producing processed cheeses with only fresh cheese is possible, resulting in a product that is similar to others that are currently on the market with typical characteristics that are accepted by consumers.

  2. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  3. Prediction of process cheese instrumental texture and melting characteristics using dielectric spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamcharla, J K; Metzger, L E

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the potentiality of dielectric spectroscopy as a tool to predict the functional properties of process cheese. Dielectric properties of process cheese were collected over the frequency range 0.2 to 3.2GHz at 25°C. Dielectric spectra of process cheese were collected using a high-temperature, open-ended dielectric probe connected to a vector network analyzer. The present study was conducted using 2 sets of commercial process cheese formulations and a set of specially formulated process cheese. For the all the process cheese samples analyzed, a decrease in dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor was observed as the incident frequency increased. Partial least square regression (PLSR) and multilayer perceptron neural network models were developed using the dielectric spectra of process cheese to predict the hardness (gf), melting point (°C), and modified Schreiber melt diameter (mm) of process cheese. The prediction models were validated using the full cross-validation method. The ratio of prediction error to deviation was greater than 2 for melt diameter and hardness, indicating a good practical utility of the PLSR prediction models. The predictability of multilayer perceptron neural network was less than the PLSR models and could be due to the small number of training samples in the data sets. Dielectric spectroscopy coupled with PLSR could be a useful tool for the nondestructive measurement of functional properties of process cheese.

  4. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Staphylococcus aureus in natural and processed cheese in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyunga; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-09-01

    This study quantitatively assessed the microbial risk of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese in Korea. The quantitative microbial risk assessment was carried out for natural and processed cheese from factory to consumption. Hazards for S. aureus in cheese were identified through the literature. For exposure assessment, the levels of S. aureus contamination in cheeses were evaluated, and the growth of S. aureus was predicted by predictive models at the surveyed temperatures, and at the time of cheese processing and distribution. For hazard characterization, a dose-response model for S. aureus was found, and the model was used to estimate the risk of illness. With these data, simulation models were prepared with @RISK (Palisade Corp., Ithaca, NY) to estimate the risk of illness per person per day in risk characterization. Staphylococcus aureus cell counts on cheese samples from factories and markets were below detection limits (0.30-0.45 log cfu/g), and pert distribution showed that the mean temperature at markets was 6.63°C. Exponential model [P=1 - exp(7.64×10(-8) × N), where N=dose] for dose-response was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Mean temperature of home storage was 4.02°C (log-logistic distribution). The results of risk characterization for S. aureus in natural and processed cheese showed that the mean values for the probability of illness per person per day were higher in processed cheese (mean: 2.24×10(-9); maximum: 7.97×10(-6)) than in natural cheese (mean: 7.84×10(-10); maximum: 2.32×10(-6)). These results indicate that the risk of S. aureus-related foodborne illness due to cheese consumption can be considered low under the present conditions in Korea. In addition, the developed stochastic risk assessment model in this study can be useful in establishing microbial criteria for S. aureus in cheese.

  5. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Rezik Azab; Salama, Wafaa Mohammed; Farahat, Azza Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artificial, extruded, synthetic and/or filled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, flavorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). Matured Ras cheese (3 months old) was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fine paste and kept frozen until used. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and firmness of products. Feeding rats a balanced diet containing processed cheese

  6. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezik Azab Awad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artifi cial, extruded, synthetic and/or fi lled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, fl avorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA. Material and methods. Matured Ras cheese (3 months old was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fi ne paste and kept frozen until used. Results. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA. The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and fi rmness of

  7. Evaluation of salt whey as an ingredient in processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, R; Metzger, L E

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether salt whey, obtained from a traditional Cheddar cheese manufacturing process, could be used as an ingredient in processed cheese. Due to its high salinity level, salt whey is underutilized and leads to disposal costs. Consequently, alternative uses need to be pursued. The major components of salt whey (salt and water) are used as ingredients in processed cheese. Three replicates of pasteurized processed cheese (PC), pasteurized processed cheese food (PCF), and pasteurized processed cheese spread (PCS) were manufactured. Additionally, within each type of processed cheese, a control formula (CF) and a salt whey formula (SW) were produced. For SW, the salt and water in the CF were replaced with salt whey. The composition, functionality, and sensory properties of the CF and SW treatments were compared within each type of processed cheese. Mean melt diameter obtained for the CF and SW processed cheeses were 48.5 and 49.4 mm, respectively, for PC, and they were 61.6 and 63 mm, respectively, for PCF. Tube-melt results for PCS was 75.1 and 79.8 mm for CF and SW treatments, respectively. The mean texture profile analysis (TPA) hardness values obtained, respectively, for the CF and SW treatments were 126 N and 115 N for PC, 62 N and 60 N for PCF, and 12 N and 12 N for PCS. There were no significant differences in composition or functionality between the CF and SW within each variety of processed cheese. Consequently, salt whey can be used as an ingredient in PC without adversely affecting processed cheese quality.

  8. Casein peptization, functional properties, and sensory acceptance of processed cheese spreads made with different emulsifying salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Clarissa R; Viotto, Walkiria H

    2010-01-01

    "Requeijão cremoso" is a traditional Brazilian processed cheese spread, showing ample acceptance on the national market. Emulsifying salts (ES) are an important factor influencing the characteristics of processed cheeses, but the literature presents conflicting results about their action on cheese functionality. Requeijão cremoso obtained from anhydrous ingredients allows the study of the influence of each type of ES on the cheese properties, since it can be treated as a model system where the variables are limited and well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of ES (TSC-sodium citrate, SHMP-sodium hexametaphosphate, STPP-sodium tripolyphosphate, and TSPP-tetrasodium pyrophosphate) on the sensory and functional characteristics of requeijão cremoso-processed cheeses obtained from anhydrous ingredients. The physicochemical composition, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, melting index, color, texture profile, and sensory acceptance of the cheeses were determined. The functional behavior of processed cheeses was strongly influenced by the type of ES and its physicochemical properties including its ability to bind Ca, the casein dispersion during cooking, and the possible creation of cross-links with casein during cooling. The cheese made with SHMP was the one most differentiated from the others, presenting lower melting index, whiter color, and higher values for hardness, gumminess, and adhesiveness. The differences in texture had an impact on sensory acceptance: with the exception of the sample manufactured with sodium hexametaphosphate, all the samples presented good sensory acceptance.

  9. Microflora of Processed Cheese and the Factors Affecting It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Buňka, František

    2015-09-11

    The basic raw materials for the production of processed cheese are natural cheese which is treated by heat with the addition of emulsifying salts. From a point of view of the melting temperatures used (and the pH-value of the product), the course of processed cheese production can be considered "pasteurisation of cheese". During the melting process, the majority of vegetative forms of microorganisms, including bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, are inactivated. The melting temperatures are not sufficient to kill the endospores, which survive the process but they are often weakened. From a microbiological point of view, the biggest contamination problem of processed cheese is caused by gram-positive spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Geobacillus and Clostridium. Other factors affecting the shelf-life and quality of processed cheese are mainly the microbiological quality of the raw materials used, strict hygienic conditions during the manufacturing process as well as the type of packaging materials and storage conditions. The quality of processed cheese is not only dependent on the ingredients used but also on other parameters such as the value of water activity of the processed cheese, its pH-value, the presence of salts and emulsifying salts and the amount of fat in the product.

  10. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing prot

  11. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing

  12. Development of volatile compounds in processed cheese during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work teas to study tire impact of storage conditions, such as light and temperature, on the development of volatile compounds to processed cheese. Cheese in glass containers was stored at 5, 20 or 37 degreesC in light or darkness for up to 1 yr. Dynamic headspace and gas...

  13. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “American cheese” as prescribed in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section. Such mixtures are considered as one... granular cheese or any mixture of two or more of these, it may be designated “Pasteurized process American... cheeses or such mixture may be designated as “American cheese”. The full name of the food shall appear...

  14. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Clostridium perfringens in Natural and Processed Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model (r = 1.82×10(-11)) was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were 12.40±19.43 g and 19.46±14.39 g, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g) and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g) were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (α 1 = 1, α 2 = 91; α 1 = 1, α 2 = 309)×uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8) to be -2.35 and -2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were 9.57×10(-14) and 3.58×10(-14), respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness

  15. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solids is not less than 49 percent. (b) The cheese ingredient is cheddar cheese, washed curd cheese... purposes of this section, cheddar cheese for manufacturing, washed curd cheese for manufacturing, colby..., washed curd cheese, colby cheese, and granular cheese, respectively. (d) The only fruit, vegetable,...

  16. Effect of acidulants on the recovery of milk constituents and quality of Mozzarella processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Karuna; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-03-01

    The investigation was undertaken to study the effect of acidulants on the recovery of milk constituents and composition of Mozzarella pre-cheese and physical, chemical and sensory characteristics and texture profile analysis (TPA) of processed cheese prepared there from. The pre-cheese was made by direct acidification technique using citric, acetic and lactic acid and processed with 1 % tri-sodium citrate. The acidulants significantly (p cheese. These also had a significant (p processed cheese.

  17. The effect of natural cheddar cheese ripening on the functional and textural properties of the processed cheese manufactured therefrom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickley, C A; Auty, M A E; Piraino, P; McSweeney, P L H

    2007-11-01

    Cheddar cheese ripened at 8 degrees C was sampled at 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, and 168 d and subsequently used for the manufacture of processed cheese. The cheddar cheese samples were analyzed throughout ripening for proteolysis while the textural and rheological properties of the processed cheeses (PCs) were studied. The rate of proteolysis was the greatest in the first 28 d of cheddar cheese ripening but began to slow down as ripening progressed from 28 to 168 d. A similar trend was observed in changes to the texture of the PC samples, with the greatest decrease in hardness and increase in flowability being in the first 28 d of ripening. Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed that the degree of emulsification in the PC samples increased as the maturity of the cheddar cheese ingredient increased from 7 to 168 d. This increased emulsification resulted in a reduction in the rate of softening in the PC in samples manufactured from cheddar cheese bases at later ripening times. Multivariate data analysis was performed to summarize the relationships between proteolysis in the cheddar cheese bases and textural properties of the PC made therefrom. The proportion of alpha(s)(1)-casein (CN) in the cheddar cheese base was strongly correlated with hardness, adhesiveness, fracturability, springiness, and storage modulus values for the corresponding PC. Degradation of alpha(s) (1)-CN was the proteolytic event with the strongest correlation to the softening of PC samples, particularly those manufactured from cheddar cheese in the first 28 d of ripening.

  18. Flavor profiles of full-fat and reduced-fat cheese and cheese fat made from aged Cheddar with the fat removed using a novel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Drake, M A; Nelson, B K; Barbano, D M

    2006-02-01

    Many consumers are concerned with fat intake. However, many reduced-fat foods, including reduced-fat cheese, lack robust flavors. The objectives of this study were to characterize the flavors found in full-fat cheese, cheese fat, and reduced-fat cheese made from aged Cheddar using a novel process to remove the fat (Nelson and Barbano, 2004). Two full-fat, aged cheeses (9 and 39 mo) were selected, and the fat was removed using the novel fat removal process. Full-fat cheeses, shredded and reformed full-fat cheeses, corresponding reduced-fat cheeses, and cheese fats were then analyzed using descriptive sensory and instrumental analysis followed by consumer acceptance testing. Cheeses were extracted with diethyl ether followed by isolation of volatile material by high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/ olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Selected compounds were quantified. The 39-mo cheese was characterized by fruity and sulfur notes, and the 9-mo-old cheese was characterized by a spicy/brothy flavor. Reduced-fat cheeses had similar flavor profiles with no difference in most sensory attributes to corresponding full-fat cheeses. Sensory profiles of the cheese fats were characterized by low intensities of the prominent flavors found in the full-fat cheeses. Instrumental analysis revealed similar trends. Consistent with sensory analysis, there were lower concentrations and log(3) flavor dilution factors for most compounds in the cheese fats compared with both the reduced- and full-fat cheeses, regardless of compound polarity. Consumers found the intensity of flavor in the reduced-fat cheese to be equal to the full-fat cheeses. This study demonstrated that when fat was removed from aged full-fat Cheddar cheese, most of the flavor and flavor compounds remained in the cheese and were not removed with the fat.

  19. Effect of proteolysis and calcium equilibrium on functional properties of natural cheddar cheese during ripening and the resultant processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoying; Luo, Jie; Guo, Huiyuan; Zeng, Steve S; Ren, Fazheng

    2011-04-01

    The changes in proteolysis, calcium (Ca) equilibrium, and functional properties of natural Cheddar cheeses during ripening and the resultant processed cheeses were investigated. For natural Cheddar cheeses, the majority of the changes in pH 4.6 soluble nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen (pH 4.6 SN/TN) and the soluble Ca content occurred in the first 90 d of ripening, and subsequently, the changes were slight. During ripening, functional properties of natural Cheddar cheeses changed, that is, hardness decreased, meltability was improved, storage modulus at 70 °C (G'T=70) decreased, and the maximum tan delta (TDmax) increased. Both pH 4.6 SN/TN and the soluble Ca were correlated with changes in functional properties of natural Cheddar cheeses during ripening. Kendall's partial correlation analysis indicated that pH 4.6 SN/TN was more significantly correlated with changes in hardness and TDmax. For processed cheeses manufactured from natural Cheddar cheeses with different ripening times, the soluble Ca content did not show significant difference, and the trends of changes in hardness, meltability, G'T=70, and TDmax were similar to those of natural Cheddar cheeses. Kendall's partial correlation analysis suggested that only pH 4.6 SN/TN was significantly correlated with the changes in functional properties of processed cheeses.

  20. 40 CFR 405.60 - Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... natural and processed cheese subcategory. 405.60 Section 405.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Natural and Processed Cheese Subcategory § 405.60 Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  1. In vitro salt release from model cheeses varying in texture and aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Syarifuddin, Adiansyah, T. Thomas-Danguin, C.Septier, E. Semon and C. Salles

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Health authorities recommend a reduction in salt (NaCl) and fat contents in food. Reducing such components without affecting food acceptability is a major challenge because of their multi functional properties. A strategy to compensate for salt reduction sensorially is to improve in-mouth salt release. We performed a study to evaluate salt release in cheese-like products in conditions that mimic food oral processing. Model cheeses were prepared according to a full-factorial desig...

  2. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation.

  3. Ripening process of Cascaval cheese: compositional and textural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronoiu, Doina Georgeta; Botez, Elisabeta; Nistor, Oana Viorela; Mocanu, Gabriel Dănuţ

    2015-08-01

    Two textural characteristics, elasticity modulus and firmness, were determined during the ripening process of Cascaval cheese, using both instrumental and sensorial techniques. Uniaxial compression was used to determine the textural characteristics and the results were compared with the ones obtained by sensorial analysis, revealing a good correlation. The chemical composition of cheese was also determined, including the nitrogen fractions (total nitrogen, water soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen). The data thus obtained were statistically processed in order to find the differences between the samples, as well as to find the correlation between the techniques of analysis. The study showed that the ripening process of the Cascaval cheese is similar to the ripening of other pasta filata cheese. The moisture content decreases during maturation as a result of water evaporation. The concentration of nitrogen fractions increases during the ripening stage, and so do the firmness and elasticity modulus. The biochemical processes that occur during maturation largely influence the textural parameters and this is proved by both instrumental and sensorial analyses.

  4. Model cheese aroma perception is explained not only by in vivo aroma release but also by salivary composition and oral processing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, E; Repoux, M; Qannari, E M; Laboure, H; Feron, G

    2017-02-22

    The aim of the present paper was to determine, from four model cheeses differing in fat content and firmness and consumed by fourteen well characterised subjects, the respective impacts of in vivo aroma release, bolus rheology, chewing activity, mouth coating and salivary composition on dynamic aroma perception. The originality of the approach is that it considers all the parameters together and is able to evaluate their relative contribution using multi-block partial least square (MB-PLS) regression. The fruity aroma perception of the more hydrophilic compound (ethyl propanoate) was related to its dynamic release parameters before swallowing whereas the blue cheese aroma perception of the more hydrophobic compound (nonan-2-one) was related to its dynamic release parameters after swallowing and was highly impacted by mouth coating. Moreover the MB-PLS approach made it possible to evidence the combined effects of saliva composition and cross-modal interactions to understand why in some cases dynamic aroma perception could not be explained by dynamic in vivo aroma release data. Subjects with a low sodium content in saliva perceived fruity aroma which is not congruent with saltiness as less intense and salt- congruent (blue cheese) aroma as more intense, which was explained by their higher sensitivity to salt. Subjects with high lipolysis activity perceived fruity aroma which is not congruent to fat as less intense and fat-congruent (blue cheese) aroma as more intense, which should be explained by the link between lipolysis activity and fat sensitivity. These results could be considered for the reformulation of foods towards specific populations taking into account nutritional recommendations.

  5. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... milkfat, dehydrated cream, albumin from cheese whey, and skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (e) The other...-milk cheese for manufacturing, and except that hard grating cheese, semisoft part skim cheese, and part...) The optional dairy ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are cream, milk, skim...

  6. High-pressure processing of Gorgonzola cheese: influence on Listeria monocytogenes inactivation and on sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, D; Gatti, M; Bonvini, B; Neviani, E; Mucchetti, G

    2004-08-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes on the rind of Gorgonzola cheese is difficult to avoid. This contamination can easily occur as a consequence of handling during ripening. The aims of this study were to determine the efficiency of high-pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of L. monocytogenes on cheese rind and to evaluate the influence of HPP treatments on sensory characteristics. Gorgonzola cheese rinds, after removal, were inoculated (about 7.0 log CFU/g) with L. monocytogenes strains previously isolated from other Gorgonzola cheeses. The inoculated cheese rinds were processed with an HPP apparatus under conditions of pressure and time ranging from 400 to 700 MPa for 1 to 15 min. Pressures higher than 600 MPa for 10 min or 700 MPa for 5 min reduced L. monocytogenes more than 99%. A reduction higher than 99.999% was achieved pressurizing cheese rinds at 700 MPa for 15 min. Lower pressure or time treatments were less effective and varied in effectiveness with the cheese sample. Changes in sensory properties possibly induced by the HPP were evaluated on four different Gorgonzola cheeses. A panel of 18 members judged the treated and untreated cheeses in a triangle test. Only one of the four pressurized cheeses was evaluated as different from the untreated sample. HPP was effective in the reduction of L. monocytogenes on Gorgonzola cheese rinds without significantly changing its sensory properties. High-pressure technology is a useful tool to improve the safety of this type of cheese.

  7. [Examination of Staphylococcus aureus survival and growth during cheese-making process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Kenji; Takahashi, Chitose; Yamauchi, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Fumihiko; Igarashi, Hideo; Yanahira, Syuichi; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2008-04-01

    Inoculation tests of Staphylococcus aureus were performed to evaluate the risk of toxic hazard in cheese manufacturing processes. S. aureus was inoculated into pasteurized milk or cheese curd, and the survival and growth were examined. S. aureus grew only slightly or decreased in cell number under the manufacturing condition of semi-hard type cheese or soft-type cheese. Under the conditions of the fresh cheese making process, S. aureus slightly increased in cell number, though no enterotoxin was detected. In processed cheese, S. aureus did not grow at all. Growth inhibition of S. aureus by lactic acid produced from starter culture was suggested to be the cause of growth inhibition in the natural cheese.

  8. Yeast profile in Gouda cheese during processing and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welthagen, J J; Viljoen, B C

    1998-06-16

    The yeasts present in Gouda cheese during processing were monitored in a single cheese factory during a 32 day ripening period. Despite the predominance of lactic acid bacteria during Gouda making, yeasts played a significant role in the ripening process in reaching counts as high as 10(5) cfu g(-1) at the later stages of ripening. The increase in the number of yeasts corresponded with the depletion in lactose content and the simultaneous stabilization of lactic acid bacteria numbers. The sources of yeast contamination which may lead to contamination of the curd were also determined. The brine and equipment surfaces were responsible for the highest yield of contaminating yeasts. A diverse variety of 23 yeast species representing 13 genera were present in the factory environment, during processing and ripening. Samples were taken at critical control points in the manufacturing process and analysed after incubation at 25 degrees C for 96 h. Although a broad spectrum of yeasts were found in Gouda cheese, Debaryomyces hansenii was the most abundant yeast isolated. Other species encountered were Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Rhodotorula glutinis, Cryptococcus albidus and Candida catenulata.

  9. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Ţibulcă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  10. The influence of ripening process on moisture in fat-free matter and fat content of the Trappist cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of ripening proces on moisture in fat-freematter and fat content of Trappist cheese has been investigated. In dairy company (Lura, Bjelovar the natural ripening process of rind Trappist cheese occurs. Afterwards, the cheese is packaged into shrinkable plastic pouch and the rindless cheese is produced. The obtained results are statistically processed. The above mentioned ripening process has a significant influence on moisture content of the fat-free matter and is 5.34 % higher for the Trappist cheese in plastic pouch in comparison to rind Trappist cheese, while the fat content is 6.13 higher for the rind Trappist cheese.

  11. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  12. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    Full Text Available Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all

  13. Potential of artificial neural network technology for predicting shelf life of processed cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    Full Text Available Radial basis (fewer neurons artificial neural network (ANN models were developed for predicting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8o C. Mean square error, root mean square error, coefficient of determination and nash - sutcliffo coefficient were applied in order to compare the prediction ability of the developed models. Soluble nitrogen, pH; standard plate count, yeast & mouldcount, and spore count were the input parameters, while sensory score was output parameter for the developed model. The developed model showed very good correlation between actual data and predicted data with high coefficient of determination and nash - sutcliffo coefficient besides low root mean square error, suggesting that the developed model is quite efficient in predicting the shelf life of processed cheese.

  14. Monitoring the ripening process of Cheddar cheese based on hydrophilic component profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, H; Sakai, Y; Koishihara, H; Abe, F; Bamba, T; Fukusaki, E

    2013-01-01

    We proposed an application methodology that combines metabolic profiling with multiple appropriate multivariate analyses and verified it on the industrial scale of the ripening process of Cheddar cheese to make practical use of hydrophilic low-molecular-weight compound profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to design optimal conditions and quality monitoring of the cheese ripening process. Principal components analysis provided an overview of the effect of sodium chloride content and kind of lactic acid bacteria starter on the metabolic profile in the ripening process of Cheddar cheese and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis unveiled the difference in characteristic metabolites. When the sodium chloride contents were different (1.6 and 0.2%) but the same lactic acid bacteria starter was used, the 2 cheeses were classified by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis from their metabolic profiles, but were not given perfect discrimination. Not much difference existed in the metabolic profile between the 2 cheeses. Compounds including lactose, galactose, lactic acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, and phosphate were identified as contents that differed between the 2 cheeses. On the other hand, in the case of the same salt content of 1.6%, but different kinds of lactic acid bacteria starter, an excellent distinctive discrimination model was obtained, which showed that the difference of lactic acid bacteria starter caused an obvious difference in metabolic profiles. Compounds including lactic acid, lactose, urea, 4-aminobutyric acid, galactose, phosphate, proline, isoleucine, glycine, alanine, lysine, leucine, valine, and pyroglutamic acid were identified as contents that differed between the 2 cheeses. Then, a good sensory prediction model for "rich flavor," which was defined as "thick and rich, including umami taste and soy sauce-like flavor," was constructed based on the metabolic profile during ripening using partial least

  15. The Manufacturing Process and Quality Control of a Holland Type Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of storage time on physicochemical shelf-life of Holland type cheese. Cheese samples were stored in ripening room for up to 30 days. Physicochemical parameters of cheese were assessed at 19 and 30 days of storage. Samples were analyzed for titratable acidity, fat in dry matter content, protein and salt content. No significant changes were observed in physicochemical properties during the ripening process.

  16. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... spread and related products. Shall conform to the applicable provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Spreads, Food and Drug Administration. The pH of... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products...

  17. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  18. Swiss cheese model with the superstring dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Kološ, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The Swiss cheese model of the Universe with the superstring dark energy is constructed. The junction conditions are shown to be fulfilled and time evolution of the matching hypersurface of the internal Schwarzschild spacetime and homogeneous external Friedman Universe is studied.

  19. Effect of emulsifying salts on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese made from Mozzarella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Liu, H

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types and concentrations of emulsifying salts (trisodium citrate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and disodium orthophosphate) on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese. The physicochemical composition, texture profile, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, color, and nuclear magnetic resonance profile (NMR) of processed cheese were determined. Hardness, degree of casein dissociation, and pH increased as the concentration of emulsifying salts increased. The fat particle size of processed cheese was significantly influenced by the type of emulsifying salts, with processed cheese made with sodium hexametaphosphate having larger particles (4.68 µm) than cheeses made with the other salts (from 2.71 to 3.30 µm). The processed cheese prepared with trisodium citrate was whiter than those prepared with the other emulsifying salts. The NMR analysis showed that the relaxation time of processed cheese of 10 to 100 ms accounted for a major proportion, indicating that the moisture in processed cheese was mainly bound water combined with the fat globule and hydrated casein.

  20. THE STUDY OF FISH SUPPLEMENT AND BUTTERFAT SUBSTITUTE EFFECT ON EXPIRY DATE OF PROCESSED CHEESE PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIYA LOTYSH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sector of functional products has top-priority meaning – it is the most convenient and natural form of introduction and enrichment of the human organism with vitamins, mineral substances, microelements and other components. Attraction into the branch of raw materials of non-milk origin – fish supplements and substitutes of butterfat – served the basis of technology development of processed cheese products of combined content, which in accordance with acting terminology are called processed cheese products. The technology of processed cheese products allows easily regulating their content by introduction of corresponding supplement that facilitates obtainment of product with set properties and content. Inclusion of meat and fish as the raw materials in the processed cheese content results in enrichment of the product with macro- and microelements, unsaturated fatty acids, except for regulation of fatty acid content of cheese products is executed by substitution of butterfat by butterfat substitute.

  1. The influence of ripening process on moisture in fat-free matter and fat content of the Trappist cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the influence of ripening proces on moisture in fat-freematter and fat content of Trappist cheese has been investigated. In dairy company (Lura, Bjelovar) the natural ripening process of rind Trappist cheese occurs. Afterwards, the cheese is packaged into shrinkable plastic pouch and the rindless cheese is produced. The obtained results are statistically processed. The above mentioned ripening process has a significant influence on moisture content of the fat-free matter and is ...

  2. Small-scale manufacture of process cheese using a rapid visco analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, R; Metzger, L E

    2005-10-01

    Numerous formulation and processing parameters influence the functional properties of process cheese. Recently, a small-scale (25 g) manufacturing and analysis method was developed using a rapid visco analyzer (RVA), which was designed to evaluate the functional properties of process cheese when subjected to various formulations and processing conditions. Although this method successfully manufactured process cheese, there was a significant difference in the functional properties of the process cheese compared with process cheese manufactured on a pilot scale. In the present study, adjustments in the RVA methodology involving the RVA processing conditions, preblend preparation, and texture profile analysis (TPA) techniques for the final process cheese were investigated. Fourteen samples of pasteurized processed cheese food (PCF) were manufactured from 14 different preblends. Each pre-blend was prepared using 1 of the 14 different natural cheeses and was balanced for moisture, fat, and salt. Each of these 14 preblends was split into 3 portions and each portion was subjected to 3 different manufacturing treatments. The first treatment was manufactured in a pilot-scale Blentech twin screw (BTS) cooker, and the remaining 2 treatments were manufactured in an RVA with different processing profiles. The RVA treatments were produced in triplicate. The resulting process cheeses were analyzed for moisture and functional properties. Texture profile analysis and RVA melt analyses were performed on all PCF treatments. Additionally, for the RVA treatments, the data for time of emulsification and end apparent viscosity during RVA manufacture were collected and recorded. The functional properties of the PCF manufactured using the RVA treatments showed good correlation with the functional properties of the PCF produced on the pilot scale. Additionally, the end apparent viscosity during RVA manufacture was correlated with the functional properties of the process cheese. Consequently

  3. Monitoring the ripening process of Cheddar cheese based on hydrophilic component profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ochi, H; Sakai, Y; Koishihara, H; Abe, F; Bamba, T; Fukusaki, E

    2013-01-01

    ... cheese to make practical use of hydrophilic low-molecular-weight compound profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to design optimal conditions and quality monitoring of the cheese ripening process...

  4. Development of technology for production of reduced fat processed cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Torres Silva e Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing share of foods with reduced fat has been observed in the diet of the Brazilian population, a trend also seen in many other countries. In this context, our-aim was to study the manufacturing parameters and to develop a process to produce a spreadable processed cheese (requeijão cremoso with reduced fat content. In the first stage of this study, modifications were performed in the traditional manufacturing process of requeijão cremoso with regular fat content to produce a reduced fat product. During the second stage of this study, two reduced fat cheeses, with and withoutthe addition of whey protein concentrate (WPC were developed, both using JOHA S9 and JOHA PZ as emulsifying salts, resulting in four different formulations. The amounts of cream and water used in both products were calculated in order to obtain a final product with 10% fat and 33% total solids. The product which presented the best results was produced with curd obtained by direct acidification of skimmed milk heated at 68-70 ºC, using 1,3% emulsifying salt JOHA S9 in the melting process and 2% WPC 34% as a partial fat substitute, both calculated as a percentage of the amountof curd used as raw material. It was also important to add WPC 34% to the product at the first cooking step of the process (70 ºC, in order to obtain a final product withthe typical spreadable texture of the traditional requeijão cremoso.

  5. Valuation of milk composition and genotype in cheddar cheese production using an optimization model of cheese and whey production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H A; Parvin, L; Garnett, I; DePeters, E J; Medrano, J F; Fadel, J G

    2007-02-01

    A mass balance optimization model was developed to determine the value of the kappa-casein genotype and milk composition in Cheddar cheese and whey production. Inputs were milk, nonfat dry milk, cream, condensed skim milk, and starter and salt. The products produced were Cheddar cheese, fat-reduced whey, cream, whey cream, casein fines, demineralized whey, 34% dried whey protein, 80% dried whey protein, lactose powder, and cow feed. The costs and prices used were based on market data from March 2004 and affected the results. Inputs were separated into components consisting of whey protein, ash, casein, fat, water, and lactose and were then distributed to products through specific constraints and retention equations. A unique 2-step optimization procedure was developed to ensure that the final composition of fat-reduced whey was correct. The model was evaluated for milk compositions ranging from 1.62 to 3.59% casein, 0.41 to 1.14% whey protein, 1.89 to 5.97% fat, and 4.06 to 5.64% lactose. The kappa casein genotype was represented by different retentions of milk components in Cheddar cheese and ranged from 0.715 to 0.7411 kg of casein in cheese/kg of casein in milk and from 0.7795 to 0.9210 kg of fat in cheese/kg of fat in milk. Milk composition had a greater effect on Cheddar cheese production and profit than did genotype. Cheese production was significantly different and ranged from 9,846 kg with a high-casein milk composition to 6,834 kg with a high-fat milk composition per 100,000 kg of milk. Profit (per 100,000 kg of milk) was significantly different, ranging from $70,586 for a high-fat milk composition to $16,490 for a low-fat milk composition. However, cheese production was not significantly different, and profit was significant only for the lowest profit ($40,602) with the kappa-casein genotype. Results from this model analysis showed that the optimization model is useful for determining costs and prices for cheese plant inputs and products, and that it can

  6. Protein oxidation in processed cheese slices treated with pulsed light technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M; Ganan, M; Guerra, C; Hierro, E

    2014-09-15

    The effect of pulsed light technology on protein oxidation was studied in sliced processed cheese by measuring the protein-bound carbonyls with a spectrophotometric DNPH assay. Bovine serum albumin was also tested as a protein standard. Fluences of 0.7, 2.1, 4.2, 8.4 and 11.9 J/cm(2) were applied to vacuum-packaged cheese slices and to an aqueous solution of the protein. Treatments up to 4.2 J/cm(2) did not promote protein oxidation immediately after flashing either in cheese or in the standard. Samples treated with 8.4 and 11.9 J/cm(2) showed significantly higher carbonyl amounts than non-treated ones. Protein oxidation increased along cheese storage at 4°C, and differences among treatments remained. Further studies on the sensory properties will be needed to clarify the impact of pulsed light on processed cheese quality.

  7. One approach in using multivariate statistical process control in analyzing cheese quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Djekic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate possibility of using multivariate statistical process control in analysing cheese quality parameters. Two cheese types (white brined cheeses and soft cheese from ultra-filtered milk were selected and analysed for several quality parameters such as dry matter, milk fat, protein contents, pH, NaCl, fat in dry matter and moisture in non-fat solids. The obtained results showed significant variations for most of the quality characteristics which were examined among the two types of cheese. The only stable parameter in both types of cheese was moisture in non-fat solids. All of the other cheese quality characteristics were characterized above or below control limits for most of the samples. Such results indicated a high instability and variations within cheese production. Although the use of statistical process control is not mandatory in the dairy industry, it might provide benefits to organizations in improving quality control of dairy products.

  8. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: fleury@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis, boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  9. Use of immobilised biocatalysts in the processing of cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseva, Maria R; Panesar, Parmjit S; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kennedy, John F

    2009-12-01

    Food processing industry operations need to comply with increasingly more stringent environmental regulations related to the disposal or utilisation of by-products and wastes. These include growing restrictions on land spraying with agro-industrial wastes, and on disposal within landfill operations, and the requirements to produce end products that are stabilised and hygienic. Much of the material generated as wastes by the dairy processing industries contains components that could be utilised as substrates and nutrients in a variety of microbial/enzymatic processes, to give rise to added-value products. A good example of a waste that has received considerable attention as a source of added-value products is cheese whey. The carbohydrate reservoir of lactose (4-5%) in whey and the presence of other essential nutrients make it a good natural medium for the growth of microorganisms and a potential substrate for bioprocessing through microbial fermentation. Immobilised cell and enzyme technology has also been applied to whey bioconversion processes to improve the economics of such processes. This review focuses upon the elaboration of a range of immobilisation techniques that have been applied to produce valuable whey-based products. A comprehensive literature survey is also provided to illustrate numerous immobilisation procedures with particular emphasis upon lactose hydrolysis, and ethanol and lactic acid production using immobilised biocatalysts.

  10. The viscoelastic properties of processed cheeses depend on their thermal history and fat polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliguem, Hela; Lopez, Christelle; Michon, Camille; Lesieur, Pierre; Ollivon, Michel

    2011-04-13

    Both the composition and the thermal kinetics that are applied to processed cheeses can affect their texture. This study investigated the effect of the storage conditions and thermal history on the viscoelastic properties of processed cheese and the physical properties of the fat phase. The microstructure of processed cheese has been characterized. Using a combination of physical techniques such as rheometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, the partial crystallization of fat and the polymorphism of triacylglycerols (TG; main constituents of milk fat) were related to changes in the elastic modulus and tan δ as a function of temperature. In the small emulsion droplets (processed cheeses, the solid fat phase was studied at a molecular level and showed differences as a function of the thermal history. Storage of processed cheese at 4 °C and its equilibration at 25 °C lead to partial crystallization of the fat phase, with the formation of a β' 2 L (40.9 Å) structure; on cooling at 2 °C min(-1), the formation of an α 3 L (65.8 Å) structure was characterized. The cooling of processed cheese from 60 to -10 °C leads to the formation of a single type of crystal: α 3 L (72 Å). Structural reorganizations of the solid fat phase characterized on heating allowed the interpretation of the elastic modulus evolution of processed cheese. This study evidenced polymorphism of TG in a complex food product such as processed cheese and allowed a better understanding of the viscoelastic properties as a function of the thermal history.

  11. Application of fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometrics in the evaluation of processed cheese during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J; Povlsen, V T; Sørensen, J

    2003-04-01

    Front face fluorescence spectroscopy is applied for an evaluation of the stability of processed cheese during storage. Fluorescence landscapes with excitation from 240 to 360 nm and emission in the range of 275 to 475 nm were obtained from cheese samples stored in darkness and light in up to 259 d, at 5, 20 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis of the fluorescence landscapes exhibits four fluorophores present in the cheese, all related to the storage conditions. The chemometric analysis resolves the fluorescence signal into excitation and emission profiles of the pure fluorescent compounds, which are suggested to be tryptophan, vitamin A and a compound derived from oxidation. Thus, it is concluded that fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics has a potential as a fast method for monitoring the stability of processed cheese.

  12. Sodium content in retail Cheddar, Mozzarella, and process cheeses varies considerably in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S; McCoy, D; Graves, W; Gerard, P D; Clark, S

    2011-03-01

    Reducing the sodium content in cheese is expected to contribute to reducing the overall intake of sodium by US consumers. The purpose of this study was to measure the sodium levels in cheeses that are most commonly purchased by US consumers in the retail market, including brand and private label. A secondary purpose of the study was to generate data that can enable the dairy industry to adopt best practices regarding sodium levels in cheeses. The sodium content of a total of 1,665 samples of Cheddar (650 samples), low moisture part skim (LMPS) Mozzarella (746 samples), and process cheese singles (269 samples) from 4 geographical regions were collected over a period of 3 wk, and were analyzed over a 1-mo period. Process cheese contained the highest mean level of sodium (1,242 mg/100g), followed by string cheese (724 mg/100g). Across Cheddar cheese forms and brands, the mean analytical sodium was 615 mg/100g, with 95% between 474 and 731 mg/100g; label sodium ranged from 600 to 800 mg/100g (mean 648 mg). Across all LMPS Mozzarella forms and brands, the mean analytical sodium was 666 mg/100g, with 95% between 452 and 876 mg/100g; label sodium ranged from 526 to 89 3mg/100g (mean 685 mg). Across all process cheese forms and brands, the mean analytical sodium was 1,242 mg/100g, with 95% between 936 and 1,590 mg/100g; label sodium ranged from 1,185 to 1,740 mg/100g (mean 1,313 mg/100g). These findings demonstrate that manufacturers tended to be conservative with their reporting of sodium on labels. Manufacturers need to reduce variability to better target desired sodium levels, which is an opportunity for better process control, and will enable them to label sodium more accurately.

  13. Bacterial dynamics in model cheese systems, aiming at safety and quality of Portuguese-style traditional ewe's cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cláudia I; Graça, João A; Ogando, Natacha S; Gomes, Ana M P; Malcata, F Xavier

    2009-11-01

    An experiment using model ewe's milk cheeses was designed to characterize microbial interactions that arise in actual raw milk cheese environments. These model cheeses were manufactured according to Portuguese artisanal practices, except that the microbial load and biodiversity were fully controlled: single potential pathogens and spoilage bacteria, or a combination thereof, were combined at various initial inoculum levels in sterilized raw ewe's milk with several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) normally found in traditional cheeses. Viable microbial counts were monitored throughout a 60-day ripening period. Two alternative mathematical approaches were used to fit the experimental data generated in terms of population dynamics: percent of inhibition and D-values. These were able to explain the complex competitive interactions between the contaminant microorganisms and the LAB adventitious populations. In general, the tested LAB were less able to inhibit contaminants present in combination and in higher concentrations. Lactococcus lactis, with its strong acidifying potential, was the most effective factor in controlling the unwanted bacterial population, especially single Staphylococcus aureus. The two lactobacilli studied, especially Lactobacillus brevis, were shown to be less effective; Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua were the contaminants least inhibited by the LAB.

  14. Growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. during ripening in a cheese model medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetae, Pawinee; Spinnler, Henry-Eric; Bonnarme, Pascal; Helinck, Sandra

    2009-02-01

    The growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., some common but rarely mentioned cheese bacteria, were investigated in a cheese model deacidified by Debaryomyces hansenii during the ripening process. Our results show that these bacteria had distinct growth and cheese flavour production patterns during the ripening process. P. vulgaris had the greatest capacity to produce not only the widest variety but also the highest quantities of volatile compounds with low olfactive thresholds, e.g. volatile sulphur compounds and branched-chain alcohols. Such compounds produced by P. vulgaris increased after 21 days of ripening and reached a maximum at 41 days. The three bacteria studied exhibited various degrees of caseinolytic, aminopeptidase and deaminase activities. Moreover, P. vulgaris had a greater capacity for hydrolysing casein and higher deaminase activity. Our results show that P. vulgaris, a Gram-negative bacterium naturally present on the surface of ripened cheeses, could produce high concentrations of flavour compounds from amino acid degradation during the ripening process. Its flavouring role in cheese cannot be neglected. Moreover, it could be a useful organism for producing natural flavours as dairy ingredients.

  15. 天然奶酪对再制奶酪理化性质的影响%Influence of cheese on physicochemical properties of processed cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈苓; 刘会平

    2012-01-01

    研究了天然干酪的添加量及其成熟度对再制奶酪理化性质及功能特性的影响.结果表明:再制奶酪的完整酪蛋白质量分数、储能模量、损耗模量和硬度均随着天然奶酪的添加量及其成熟度的增加而呈现下降趋势,而再制干酪的风味及组织状态则不然;成熟度为1月和4月的天然Mozzarella干酪配比为2:1时,产品的功能特性及口感最佳.%Effects of the natural cheese addition and maturity to physicochemical properties and functional properties of processed cheese were studied. The results showed that the storage (G') modulus, loss (G") modulus, and hardness of die processed cheese decreased as the content of intact casein content of the mature cheese raw material increased, but not the taste of die processed cheese. When the proportion between young and mature Mozzarella cheese were 2:1 ,the function properties and taste of the products were best.

  16. Development of Yeast Populations during Processing and Ripening of Blue Veined Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Knox

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of blue veined cheese were analyzed regularly during different stages of manufacturing and ripening to determine the origin of contaminating the yeasts present in them, their population diversity and development until the end of the storage. Yeast diversity and development in the inner and outer core of the cheeses during ripening were also compared. Air samples revealed few if any yeasts whereas the samples in contact with the equipment and the surroundings revealed high number of yeasts, implicating it as the possible main source of post-pasteurization contamination, as very few yeasts were isolated from the milk and cheese making process itself. Samples from the inner and outer core of the maturing cheeses had typical survival curves. The number of yeasts on the outer core was about a 100-fold more than of those in the inner core. The most abundant yeasts isolated from the environment and ripening cheeses were identified as Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Trichosporon beigelii, Candida versatilis and Cryptococcus albidus, while the yeasts Candida zeylanoides and Dekkera anomala were additionally isolated from the environment. Yeasts were present in high number, making their occurrence in blue-veined cheeses meaningful.

  17. Characterization of Clostridium spp. isolated from spoiled processed cheese products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycken, Lena; Borch, Elisabeth

    2006-08-01

    Of 42 spoiled cheese spread products, 35 were found to harbor Clostridium spp. Typical signs of spoilage were gas production and off-odor. The identity was determined for about half of the isolates (n = 124) by Analytab Products (API), Biolog, the RiboPrinter System, 16S rDNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid analysis, or some combination of these. The majority of isolates were identified as Clostridium sporogenes (in 33% of products), but Clostridium cochlearium (in 12% of products) and Clostridium tyrobutyricum (in 2% of products) were also retrieved. Similarity analysis of the riboprint patterns for 21 isolates resulted in the identification of 10 ribogroups. A high degree of relatedness was observed between isolates of C. sporogenes originating from products produced 3 years apart, indicating a common and, over time, persistent source of infection. The spoilage potential of 11 well-characterized isolates and two culture collection strains was analyzed by inoculating shrimp cheese spread with single cultures and then storing them at 37 degrees C. Tubes inoculated with C. tyrobutyricum did not show any visible signs of growth (e.g., coagulation, discoloration, gas formation) in the cheese spread. After 2 weeks of incubation, tubes inoculated with C. cochlearium or C. sporogenes showed gas-holes, syneresis with separation of coagulated casein and liquid, and a change in color of the cheese. The amount of CO2 produced by C. cochlearium strains was approximately one-third that produced by the majority of C. sporogenes strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study to isolate and identify C. cochlearium as a spoilage organism in cheese spread.

  18. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. It aims to study the CMB temperature fluctuations by the means of the exact inhomogeneous Szekeres model. So far the impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations has been almost exclusively studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast of cosmic structures is larger than 1 this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without approximations such as small amplitude of the density contrast. This will allow us to examine the impact of light propagation effects on the CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities introduce - via light propagation effect...

  19. Debaryomyces hansenii strains differ in their production of flavor compounds in a cheese-surface model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Sørensen, Louise Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin;

    2012-01-01

    higher than their sensory threshold values, and thus seemed more important than alcohols for cheese flavor. These results show that D. hansenii strainsmay have potential to be applied as cultures for increasing the nutty/malty flavor of cheese due to their production of aldehydes. However, due to large...... strain variations, production of flavor compounds has to be taken into consideration for selection of D. hansenii strains as starter cultures for cheese production.......Flavor production among12 strains of Debaryomyces hansenii when grown on a simple cheese model mimicking a cheese surface was investigated by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present study confirmed that D. hansenii possess the ability to produce...

  20. First mass spectrometry metabolic fingerprinting of bacterial metabolism in a model cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boucher, C; Courant, F; Jeanson, S; Chereau, S; Maillard, M-B; Royer, A-L; Thierry, A; Dervilly-Pinel, G; Le Bizec, B; Lortal, S

    2013-11-15

    Metabolic fingerprinting is an untargeted approach which has not yet been undertaken to investigate cheese. This study is a proof of concept, concerning the ability of mass spectrometry (MS) metabolic fingerprinting to investigate modifications induced by bacterial metabolism in cheese over time. An ultrafiltrated milk concentrate was used to manufacture model cheeses inoculated with Lactococcus lactis LD61. Metabolic fingerprints were acquired after 0, 8 and 48h from two different fractions of the metabolome: the water-soluble fraction using liquid chromatography-high resolution-MS and a volatile fraction using gas chromatography-MS. Metabolic fingerprints differed significantly over time. Forty-five metabolites were identified, including well-known cheese metabolites, such as 12 amino acids and 25 volatile metabolites, and less studied ones, such as four vitamins, uric acid, creatine and l-carnitine. These results showed the relevance of cheese MS fingerprinting to generate new findings and to detect even slight differences between two conditions.

  1. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese.

  2. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Rosshaug, Per Sand;

    Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth model...... was developed based on growth in broth. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameter (μref at 25 °C) was fitted to a total of 35 growth rates from cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. Growth rate models for milk and cottage cheese were evaluated by comparison with data from literature and new...... experiments. Growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in heat-treated milk resulted in a bias factor (Bf) of 1.08 and an accuracy factor (Af) of 1.32, whereas the calibrated model for growth rates in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing and in raw milk resulted in Bf of 1.08 and Af of 1...

  3. Modelling and predicting growth of psycrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Rosshaug, Per Sand;

    2015-01-01

    /Bioscreen C model included the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl/aw, lactic, sorbic acid and their interaction (Le Marc et al., 2002). Then, the reference growth rate parameter (μref) was fitted to a total of 35 μmax-values from cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. Results: The new models were...... temperature storage conditions. Conclusions: The present study developed and validated mathematical models to predict growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The cottage cheese model can be used to evaluate the effect of product reformulations...... successfully validated, based on bias and accuracy factor, for 59 growth curves of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in dairy products. The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new model for cottage cheese to successfully predict growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads at both constant and dynamic...

  4. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Rosshaug, Per Sand;

    experiments. Growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in heat-treated milk resulted in a bias factor (Bf) of 1.08 and an accuracy factor (Af) of 1.32, whereas the calibrated model for growth rates in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing and in raw milk resulted in Bf of 1.08 and Af of 1......Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth model...... was developed based on growth in broth. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameter (μref at 25 °C) was fitted to a total of 35 growth rates from cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. Growth rate models for milk and cottage cheese were evaluated by comparison with data from literature and new...

  5. Evaluating mid-infrared spectroscopy as a new technique for predicting sensory texture attributes of processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, C C; Everard, C; O'Donnell, C P; Downey, G; Sheehan, E M; Delahunty, C M; O'Callaghan, D J

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of mid-infrared spectroscopy for determination of selected sensory attributes in a range of experimentally manufactured processed cheese samples. This study also evaluates mid-infrared spectroscopy against other recently proposed techniques for predicting sensory texture attributes. Processed cheeses (n = 32) of varying compositions were manufactured on a pilot scale. After 2 and 4 wk of storage at 4 degrees C, mid-infrared spectra (640 to 4,000 cm(-1)) were recorded and samples were scored on a scale of 0 to 100 for 9 attributes using descriptive sensory analysis. Models were developed by partial least squares regression using raw and pretreated spectra. The mouth-coating and mass-forming models were improved by using a reduced spectral range (930 to 1,767 cm(-1)). The remaining attributes were most successfully modeled using a combined range (930 to 1,767 cm(-1) and 2,839 to 4,000 cm(-1)). The root mean square errors of cross-validation for the models were 7.4 (firmness; range 65.3), 4.6 (rubbery; range 41.7), 7.1 (creamy; range 60.9), 5.1 (chewy; range 43.3), 5.2 (mouth-coating; range 37.4), 5.3 (fragmentable; range 51.0), 7.4 (melting; range 69.3), and 3.1 (mass-forming; range 23.6). These models had a good practical utility. Model accuracy ranged from approximate quantitative predictions to excellent predictions (range error ratio = 9.6). In general, the models compared favorably with previously reported instrumental texture models and near-infrared models, although the creamy, chewy, and melting models were slightly weaker than the previously reported near-infrared models. We concluded that mid-infrared spectroscopy could be successfully used for the nondestructive and objective assessment of processed cheese sensory quality.

  6. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in soft blue-white cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosshaug, Per Sand; Detmer, Ann; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model simulating growth over time of the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes in a soft blue-white cheese. The physicochemical properties in a matrix such as cheese are essential controlling factors influencing the growth of L. monocytogenes....... We developed a predictive tertiary model of the bacterial growth of L. monocytogenes as a function of temperature, pH, NaCl, and lactic acid. We measured the variations over time of the physicochemical properties in the cheese. Our predictive model was developed based on broth data produced...... production and retail conditions showed that the number of L. monocytogenes cells increases 3 to 3.5 log within the shelf life of the cheese....

  7. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (2) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain...

  8. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or... fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method prescribed for the...

  9. Biohydrogen Production from Cheese Processing Wastewater by Anaerobic Fermentation Using Mixed Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen (H2) production from simulated cheese processing wastewater via anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under mesophilic conditions. In batch H2 fermentation experiments H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g-COD fed were achieved at food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of ...

  10. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of smear- or mold-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartzman, M Sol; Gonzalez-Barron, Ursula; Butler, Francis; Jordan, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Surface-ripened cheeses are matured by means of manual or mechanical technologies posing a risk of cross-contamination, if any cheeses are contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. In predictive microbiology, primary models are used to describe microbial responses, such as growth rate over time and secondary models explain how those responses change with environmental factors. In this way, primary models were used to assess the growth rate of L. monocytogenes during ripening of the cheeses and the secondary models to test how much the growth rate was affected by either the pH and/or the water activity (aw) of the cheeses. The two models combined can be used to predict outcomes. The purpose of these experiments was to test three primary (the modified Gompertz equation, the Baranyi and Roberts model, and the Logistic model) and three secondary (the Cardinal model, the Ratowski model, and the Presser model) mathematical models in order to define which combination of models would best predict the growth of L. monocytogenes on the surface of artificially contaminated surface-ripened cheeses. Growth on the surface of the cheese was assessed and modeled. The primary models were firstly fitted to the data and the effects of pH and aw on the growth rate (μmax) were incorporated and assessed one by one with the secondary models. The Logistic primary model by itself did not show a better fit of the data among the other primary models tested, but the inclusion of the Cardinal secondary model improved the final fit. The aw was not related to the growth of Listeria. This study suggests that surface-ripened cheese should be separately regulated within EU microbiological food legislation and results expressed as counts per surface area rather than per gram.

  11. Kinetic modeling of lactic acid production from batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tango, M.S.A.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1999-12-01

    A kinetic model for the production of lactic acid through batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey using Lactobacillus helveticus was developed. The model accounts for the effect of substrate limitation, substrate inhibition, lactic acid inhibition, maintenance energy and cell death on the cell growth, substrate utilization, and lactic acid production during the fermentation process. The model was evaluated using experimental data from Tango and Ghaly (1999). The predicted results obtained from the model compared well with experimental (R{sup 2} = 0.92--0.98). The model was also used to investigate the effect of the initial substrate concentration on the lag period, fermentation time, specific growth rate, and cell productivity during batch fermentation. The maximum specific growth rate ({micro}{sub m}), the saturation constant (K{sub S}), the substrate inhibition constant (K{sub IS}), and the lactic acid inhibition constant (K{sub IP}) were found to be 0.25h{sup {minus}1}, 0.9 g/L, 250.0 g/L, and 60.0 g/L, respectively. High initial lactose concentration in cheese whey reduced both the specific growth rate and substrate utilization rate due to the substrate inhibition phenomenon. The maximum lactic acid production occurred at about 100 g/L initial lactose concentration after 40 h of fermentation. The maximum lactic acid concentration above which Lactobacillus helveticus did not grow was found to be 80.0 g/L.

  12. Study on Processing Conditions of Cheese Sauce Made with Cream Cheese%用Cream Cheese 生产芝士酱的工艺条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐吉祥; 楚炎沛

    2015-01-01

    Take cream cheese as raw material,the cream cheese fermented broth is obtained by lactic bacteria fermentation using fermentation accelerator.The fermented broth is mixed with some additive materials including milk powder,modified starch to produce a new type of cheese sauce.The sensory and texture of the cheese sauce are investigated by single factor experiment for material ratio, fermentation time,sugar amount and cooking time.The optimum formula is determined as follows:when the ratio of cream cheese to fermented broth with sugar additive amount of 5% is 20∶5 ,the fermentation time is 1 hour,the flavor of cheese can be improved obviously,and the ideal cream cheese fermented broth can be obtained.When the ratio of fermented broth to other materials is 20∶80,the sugar additive amount is 5%,the cooking time is 40 min,the ideal cheese sauce can be made.%以 cream cheese 为原料,利用原料自身特性,借助于发酵促进剂先进行乳酸发酵,形成 cream cheese发酵液。然后与奶粉、变性淀粉等添加物溶液混合后,升温熬制,开发出一种新型芝士酱。通过对cream cheese等物料配比、发酵时间、加糖量及熬制时间进行对比实验,并主要从感官和质构上进行评价,最终确定出理想的工艺配方为:cream cheese与浓度5%含糖量的发酵促进液的质量比为20∶5,进行发酵1 h可明显改善芝士风味,获得理想的cream cheese 发酵液。该发酵液与其他物料的配比为20∶80,白砂糖添加量为总物料重量比的5%,熬煮时间为40 min,可制得理想的芝士酱。

  13. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to the analysis of observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations is in most cases studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast and the Weyl curvature within the cosmic structures are large, this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without such approximations as small amplitude of the density contrast. This allows to examine in more realistic manner the contribution of the light propagation effect to the measured CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities induce, via Rees-Sciama effect, temperature fluctuations of amplitude 10-7-10-5 on angular scale ϑ 750). This is still much smaller than the measured temperature fluctuations on this angular scale. However, local and uncompensated inhomogeneities can induce temperature fluctuations of amplitude as large as 10-3, and thus can be responsible the low multipoles anomalies observed in the angular CMB power spectrum.

  14. Debaryomyces hansenii strains differ in their production of flavor compounds in a cheese-surface model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Sørensen, Louise Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2012-01-01

    Flavor production among12 strains of Debaryomyces hansenii when grown on a simple cheese model mimicking a cheese surface was investigated by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present study confirmed that D. hansenii possess the ability to produce...... important cheese flavor compounds, primarily branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols, and thus important for the final cheese flavor. Quantification of representative aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) and alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol, 3-Methyl-1-butanol, and 3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol) showed...... that the investigated D. hansenii strains varied significantly with respect to production of these flavor compounds. Contrary to the alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol,3-Methyl-1-butanol, and3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol), the aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) were produced by the D. hansenii strains in concentrations...

  15. Effect of sodium reduction and flavor enhancer addition on probiotic Prato cheese processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H L A; Balthazar, C F; Esmerino, E A; Vieira, A H; Cappato, L P; Neto, R P C; Verruck, S; Cavalcanti, R N; Portela, J B; Andrade, M M; Moraes, J; Franco, R M; Tavares, M I B; Prudencio, E S; Freitas, M Q; Nascimento, J S; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Cruz, A G

    2017-09-01

    The effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl and the flavor enhancers addition (arginine, yeast extract and oregano extract) on Probiotic Prato cheese processing with (L. casei 01, 7logCFU/mL) was investigated. Microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and probiotic counts), physicochemical (proximate composition, pH, proteolysis), bioactivity (antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity), rheological (uniaxial compression and creep tests), water mobility (time domain low field magnetic resonance), microstructure (scanning electron microscopy) and sensory evaluation (consumer test) were performed. Sodium reduction and flavor enhancers addition did not constitute an obstacle to the survival of lactic and probiotic bacteria. Proximate composition, antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, and the rheological parameters were affected by the addition of flavor enhancer. No change in the fatty acid profile of cheeses was observed while good performance in the consumer test was obtained by the addition of yeast extract and oregano extract. Prato cheese can be an adequate carrier of probiotics and the addition of different flavor enhancers can contribute developing this functional product in the cheese industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  17. Spectral Action Models of Gravity on Packed Swiss Cheese Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the Packed Swiss Cheese Cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its asymptotic expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of 3-dimensional spheres inside a 4-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we show that the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing, which accounts for the contribution of the points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is also an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant. It detects the fractality of t...

  18. Association between a case study of asymptomatic ovine listerial mastitis and the contamination of soft cheese and cheese processing environment with Listeria monocytogenes in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado, Cristina M B S; Grant, Kathie A; Halford-Maw, Robin; Hampton, Mike D; Ferreira, Maria A S S; McLauchlin, Jim

    2009-06-01

    For 5 months, the udders of milking ewes, raw ewe's milk, cheese, and the plant and environment of a cheese manufacturer in Portugal were investigated using standard methods for the presence of Listeria spp. An association between subclinical mastitis and Listeria monocytogenes in a single lactating sheep was investigated by visual inspection of udders for signs of inflammation, application of somatic cell counts, the California mastitis test, pH measurement to milk, and culture of L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus spp. To track the routes of contamination by L. monocytogenes, 103 isolates were characterized by molecular serotyping and amplified fragment length polymorphism, and a selection was further tested by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This study provides molecular and epidemiological evidence tracking the persistence of a single L. monocytogenes strain causing a subclinical udder infection without obvious inflammation in a single ewe. This infection was the likely source of contamination of raw milk that was subsequently used to produce unpasteurised milk cheese and resulted in a single strain of this bacterium colonizing the processing environment and the final cheese product.

  19. Toward the integration of expert knowledge and instrumental data to control food processes: application to Camembert-type cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Baudrit, C; Corrieu, G

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the cheese ripening process remains a challenge because of its complexity. We still lack the knowledge necessary to understand the interactions that take place at different levels of scale during the process. However, information may be gathered from expert knowledge. Combining this expertise with knowledge extracted from experimental databases may allow a better understanding of the entire ripening process. The aim of this study was to elicit expert knowledge and to check its validity to assess the evolution of organoleptic quality during a dynamic food process: Camembert cheese ripening. Experiments on a pilot scale were carried out at different temperatures and relative humidities to obtain contrasting ripening kinetics. During these experiments, macroscopic evolution was evaluated from an expert's point of view and instrumental measurements were carried out to simultaneously monitor microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical kinetics. A correlation of 76% was established between the microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical data and the sensory phases measured according to expert knowledge, highlighting the validity of the experts' measurements. In the future, it is hoped that this expert knowledge may be integrated into food process models to build better decision-aid systems that will make it possible to preserve organoleptic qualities by linking them to other phenomena at the microscopic level.

  20. Assessing environmental impacts using a comparative LCA of industrial and artisanal production processes: "Minas Cheese" case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Muller Nigri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology to evaluate and compare the environmental impacts caused by both the artisanal and the industrial manufacturing processes of "Minas cheese". This is a traditional cheese produced in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil, and it is considered a "cultural patrimony" in the country. The high participation of artisanal producers in the market justifies this research, and this analysis can help the identification of opportunities to improve the environmental performance of several stages of the production system. The environmental impacts caused were also assessed and compared. The functional unit adopted was 1 kilogram (Kg of cheese. The system boundaries considered were the production process, conservation of product (before sale, and transport to consumer market. The milk production process was considered similar in both cases, and therefore it was not included in the assessment. The data were collected through interviews with the producers, observation, and a literature review; they were ordered and processed using the SimaPro 7 LCA software. According to the impact categories analyzed, the artisanal production exerted lower environmental impacts. This can be justified mainly because the industrial process includes the pasteurization stage, which uses dry wood as an energy source and refrigeration.

  1. Development and Validation of Pathogen Environmental Monitoring Programs for Small Cheese Processing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beno, Sarah M; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Andrus, Alexis D; Ralyea, Robert D; Kent, David J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2016-12-01

    Pathogen environmental monitoring programs (EMPs) are essential for food processing facilities of all sizes that produce ready-to-eat food products exposed to the processing environment. We developed, implemented, and evaluated EMPs targeting Listeria spp. and Salmonella in nine small cheese processing facilities, including seven farmstead facilities. Individual EMPs with monthly sample collection protocols were designed specifically for each facility. Salmonella was detected in only one facility, with likely introduction from the adjacent farm indicated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis data. Listeria spp. were isolated from all nine facilities during routine sampling. The overall Listeria spp. (other than Listeria monocytogenes ) and L. monocytogenes prevalences in the 4,430 environmental samples collected were 6.03 and 1.35%, respectively. Molecular characterization and subtyping data suggested persistence of a given Listeria spp. strain in seven facilities and persistence of L. monocytogenes in four facilities. To assess routine sampling plans, validation sampling for Listeria spp. was performed in seven facilities after at least 6 months of routine sampling. This validation sampling was performed by independent individuals and included collection of 50 to 150 samples per facility, based on statistical sample size calculations. Two of the facilities had a significantly higher frequency of detection of Listeria spp. during the validation sampling than during routine sampling, whereas two other facilities had significantly lower frequencies of detection. This study provides a model for a science- and statistics-based approach to developing and validating pathogen EMPs.

  2. DETERMINATION OF SELECTED SPECIES TEXTURE PROCESSED CHEESE AND PROCESSED PRODUCTS DIFFERENT BATCHES UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS KEEP THEM FOR EATING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čapla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated the texture of processed cheese and processed products. The products we have retained as it is assumed that they kept and used by ordinary consumers. This means that the product purchased certain period has elapsed, we included in our test conditions. Texture analysis help provide the basic methods and explaining procedures for analysis, also provide for the initiation of new types of tests or review new products and therefore be dealt with differences in the products according to specific requirements. Sensory panels also play an important role in the evaluation of food products, but the use of texture analyzer eliminates human error and tests carried out are consistent and accurate. Analysis of texture help manufacturers monitor and analyze the texture characteristics of their products. From the producers can modify the product key factors such as characteristics of the milk into cheese and can also modify manufacturing processes to the functional properties of cheese. Fulfilling the basic requirements to maintain their properties and cheese functionality.

  3. Variations in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of processed cheese by lactation time, feeding regimen, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, O-Jun; Choi, Nag-Jin; Oh, Se Jong; Jeong, Ha-Yeon; Song, Man-Kang; Jeong, Inhye; Kim, Young Jun

    2009-04-22

    Dairy products are major sources of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); thus, an increase in CLA content can improve the quality value of dairy products. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of lactation time, feeding regimen, and ripening period on the level of CLA in processed cheese. CLA content in milk varied with the period of lactation; high in spring (April and May, about 6.8 mg CLA/g fat) and relatively low in mid summer and winter (about 4.3 mg CLA/g fat). The effects of dietary regimen and ripening period were determined in milk, which was obtained from March to May. After aging for 4 months, the cheese made from milk obtained from cows fed on pasture contained relatively higher levels of CLA compared to cheese made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors (8.12 mg CLA/g fat vs 6.76 mg CLA/g fat), but there was no difference in 7 month-aged cheeses. In both pasture and indoor feeding, 7 month-aged cheeses showed higher CLA content than 4 month-aged cheeses. The contents of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3) were significantly higher in cheese from pasture fed cows compared to those in cows fed indoors. These findings should be helpful for the efficient production of functional dairy products with high CLA contents.

  4. Use of sodium polyphosphates with different linear lengths in the production of spreadable processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagyová, G; Buňka, F; Salek, R N; Černíková, M; Mančík, P; Grůber, T; Kuchař, D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the dependence of textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, and relative adhesiveness) of processed cheese spreads on the proportion of disodium phosphate (DSP), tetrasodium diphosphate (TSPP), and sodium salts of polyphosphate in ternary mixtures of emulsifying salts. Sodium salts of polyphosphate with different mean lengths (n ≈ 5, 9, 13, 20, and 28) were used. Pentasodium triphosphate (PSTP) was used instead of TSPP in the second part of the study. Products with and without pH adjustment were tested (the target pH value was 5.60-5.80). Textural properties of the processed cheese were observed after 2, 9, and 30 d of storage at 6°C. Hardness of the processed cheese with a low content of polyphosphate increased at a specific DSP:TSPP ratio (~1:1 to 3:4). This trend was the same for all the polyphosphates used; only the absolute values of texture parameters were different. The same trends were observed in the ternary mixtures with PSTP, showing lower final values of hardness compared with samples containing TSPP. Hardness and cohesiveness decreased and relative adhesiveness increased in the samples with increased pH values and vice versa; the main trend remained unchanged.

  5. [Microbiological assessment of the Gouda-type cheese-making process in a Venezuelan industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dáivila, Jacqueline; Reyes, Genara; Corzo, Otoniel

    2006-03-01

    The adoption of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is necessary to assure the safety of the product in the cheese-making industry. The compliment of pre-requisite programs as Good Manufacture Practices (GMPs) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) are required before the implementation of the HACCP plan. GMPs are the standards related to equipments, tools, personnel, etc. SSOPs are the procedures related to hygiene and sanitation of the plant and workers. The aim of this study was to assess the compliment of the pre-requisite programs and the microbiological conditions of the Gouda type cheese-making process in a Venezuelan processing plant before designing a HACCP plan. Samples were: (a) raw milk, pasteurized milk, curd and ripened cheese, (b) water, (c) environment of the production areas and ripening premises, (d) equipments before and after sanitation, (e) food handlers. Microbiological analyses were done according to COVENIN standards. This study showed that even though pasteurization process was effective to kill pathogen bacteria of the raw milk and the water was safe, however there are deficient manufacture practices in the hygiene as well as in sanitation of the plant and food handlers. Prerequisite programs (GMP-SSOP) of this industry need to be well established, controlled and evaluated.

  6. Development of a reference material for Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A in cheese: feasibility study, processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleny, R; Emteborg, H; Charoud-Got, J; Schimmel, H; Nia, Y; Mutel, I; Ostyn, A; Herbin, S; Hennekinne, J-A

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is caused by enterotoxins excreted into foods by strains of staphylococci. Commission Regulation 1441/2007 specifies thresholds for the presence of these toxins in foods. In this article we report on the progress towards reference materials (RMs) for Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in cheese. RMs are crucial to enforce legislation and to implement and safeguard reliable measurements. First, a feasibility study revealed a suitable processing procedure for cheese powders: the blank material was prepared by cutting, grinding, freeze-drying and milling. For the spiked material, a cheese-water slurry was spiked with SEA solution, freeze-dried and diluted with blank material to the desired SEA concentration. Thereafter, batches of three materials (blank; two SEA concentrations) were processed. The materials were shown to be sufficiently homogeneous, and storage at ambient temperature for 4weeks did not indicate degradation. These results provide the basis for the development of a RM for SEA in cheese.

  7. Effect of the type of emulsifying salt on microstructure and rheological properties of "requeijão cremoso" processed cheese spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Clarissa R; Alcântara, Maria Regina; Viotto, Walkiria H

    2012-08-01

    The role of different types of emulsifying salts-sodium citrate (TSC), sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP)-on microstructure and rheology of "requeijão cremoso" processed cheese was determined. The cheeses manufactured with TSC, TSPP, and STPP behaved like concentrated solutions, while the cheese manufactured with SHMP exhibited weak gel behavior and the lowest values for the phase angle (G"/G'). This means that SHMP cheese had the protein network with the largest amount of molecular interactions, which can be explained by its highest degree of fat emulsification. Rotational viscometry indicated that all the spreadable cheeses behaved like pseudoplastic fluids. The cheeses made with SHMP and TSPP presented low values for the flow behavior index, meaning that viscosity was more dependent on shear rate. Regarding the consistency index, TSPP cheese showed the highest value, which could be attributed to the combined effect of its high pH and homogeneous fat particle size distribution.

  8. A mathematical model of ethanol fermentation from cheese whey. II. Simulation and comparison with experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chen-Jen; Bajpai, R.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A cybernetic model for microbial growth on mixed substrates was used to simulate the anaerobic fermentation of cheese whey and multiple sugars in semisynthetic media by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397. The model simulations quite successfully predicted the observed behavior in batch and during transients in continuous operation, in single-substrate systems as well as in media involving multiple substrates, and in semisynthetic and reconstituted cheese whey solutions. The results of simulations and their comparison with the experimental data are presented. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Model for Formation of Martian Residual Cap Depressions (Swiss Cheese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    In an effort for explain the formation of the `Swiss-cheese' terrain visible on the southern residual cap of Mars (Thomas et al., Nature, 404,2000); we have developed a radiative model to follow the growth/decay of an initial depression due to sublimation/condensation of carbon dioxide. The pits making up this terrain have many distinctive features; they are shallow (~10m deep), with steep walls and flat floors and contain an interior moat that runs along the bottom of the walls. Their diameters range from a few 10's of meters to a kilometer. The model accounts for incident sunlight, emitted thermal radiation, and scattered short and long wave radiation. We have included the effects of a layer of water ice placed under the carbon dioxide at adjustable depth. The water ice layer is free to store heat during the summer (when the carbon dioxide has been removed) through subsurface diffusion of heat. Release of this heat at the end of the summer can inhibit frost formation. We have investigated many cases involving pure dry ice with constant albedo, albedo as a function of insolation, and differing albedo for fresh and residual frost (the latter has lower albedo). In most cases the initial depressions heal themselves and disappear into the surrounding terrain. Cases involving the layer of water ice provide a much closer approximation to the shape of the observed features (especially the flat bottoms). A problem arises of how much exposed water ice we can have during the summer season and still have temperatures averaged over the footprint of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer be close to the carbon dioxide sublimation temperatures. The depth to the water ice layer is a strong controlling factor of the evolution of depression shape and depth in our model. Matching this shape with observations yields important information regarding the depth to any putative water ice layer within the residual cap itself. It is known from laboratory measurements that carbon dioxide is too

  10. The Swiss cheese model of safety incidents: are there holes in the metaphor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reason's Swiss cheese model has become the dominant paradigm for analysing medical errors and patient safety incidents. The aim of this study was to determine if the components of the model are understood in the same way by quality and safety professionals. Methods Survey of a volunteer sample of persons who claimed familiarity with the model, recruited at a conference on quality in health care, and on the internet through quality-related websites. The questionnaire proposed several interpretations of components of the Swiss cheese model: a slice of cheese, b hole, c arrow, d active error, e how to make the system safer. Eleven interpretations were compatible with this author's interpretation of the model, 12 were not. Results Eighty five respondents stated that they were very or quite familiar with the model. They gave on average 15.3 (SD 2.3, range 10 to 21 "correct" answers out of 23 (66.5% – significantly more than 11.5 "correct" answers that would expected by chance (p Conclusion The interpretations of specific features of the Swiss cheese model varied considerably among quality and safety professionals. Reaching consensus about concepts of patient safety requires further work.

  11. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Gkogka, Elissavet;

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth...... rate model was developed based on growth in broth. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameter μref25°C-broth of 1.031/h was calibrated by fitting the model to a total of 35 growth rates from cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. This resulted in a μref25°C-cottage cheese value of 0.621/h...... with cultured cream dressing and in non-heated milk (n=26) resulted in Bf of 1.08 and Af of 1.43 (μref25°C-cottage cheese). Lag phase models were developed by using relative lag times and data from both the present study and from literature. The acceptable simulation zone method showed the developed models...

  12. Evaluation of the parameters effects on the bio-ethanol production process from Ricotta Cheese Whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Curcio, Stefano; Calabrò, Vincenza

    2010-01-01

    The work consists of an experimental analysis to evaluate the effects of the variables temperature (T), pH, agitation rate (K) and initial lactose concentration (L) on the batch fermentation process of Ricotta Cheese Whey (RCW) into bio-ethanol by using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. A central...... composite design, constituted by 26 runs, has been carried out, and the effects of the parameters have been evaluated. Eventually, once eliminated the negligible effects, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been applied to optimize the four parameters values in RCW fermentation process. After...

  13. The effect of individual phosphate emulsifying salts and their selected binary mixtures on hardness of processed cheese spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of this work was to observe the effects of emulsifying salts composed of trisodium citrate and sodium phosphates with different chain length (disodium phosphate (DSP, tetrasodium diphosphate (TSPP, pentasodium triphosphate (PSTP and sodium salts of polyphosphates with 5 different mean length (n ≈ 5, 9, 13, 20, 28 on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Hardness of processed cheese spreads with selected binary mixtures of the above mentioned salts were also studied. Measurements were performed after 2, 9 and 30 days of storage at 6 °C. Hardness of processed cheese increased with increase in chain length of individually used phosphates.  Majority of applied binary mixtures of emulsifying salts had not significant influence on hardness charges in processed cheese spreads. On the other hand, a combination of phosphates salts (DSP with TSPP was found, which had specific effect on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Textural properties of samples with trisodium citrate were similar compared to samples with DSP.

  14. L. monocytogenes in a cheese processing facility: Learning from contamination scenarios over three years of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückerl, I; Muhterem-Uyar, M; Muri-Klinger, S; Wagner, K-H; Wagner, M; Stessl, B

    2014-10-17

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changing patterns of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in a cheese processing facility manufacturing a wide range of ready-to-eat products. Characterization of L. monocytogenes isolates included genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Disinfectant-susceptibility tests and the assessment of L. monocytogenes survival in fresh cheese were also conducted. During the sampling period between 2010 and 2013, a total of 1284 environmental samples were investigated. Overall occurrence rates of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes were 21.9% and 19.5%, respectively. Identical L. monocytogenes genotypes were found in the food processing environment (FPE), raw materials and in products. Interventions after the sampling events changed contamination scenarios substantially. The high diversity of globally, widely distributed L. monocytogenes genotypes was reduced by identifying the major sources of contamination. Although susceptible to a broad range of disinfectants and cleaners, one dominant L. monocytogenes sequence type (ST) 5 could not be eradicated from drains and floors. Significantly, intense humidity and steam could be observed in all rooms and water residues were visible on floors due to increased cleaning strategies. This could explain the high L. monocytogenes contamination of the FPE (drains, shoes and floors) throughout the study (15.8%). The outcome of a challenge experiment in fresh cheese showed that L. monocytogenes could survive after 14days of storage at insufficient cooling temperatures (8 and 16°C). All efforts to reduce L. monocytogenes environmental contamination eventually led to a transition from dynamic to stable contamination scenarios. Consequently, implementation of systematic environmental monitoring via in-house systems should either aim for total avoidance of FPE colonization, or emphasize a first reduction of L. monocytogenes to sites where

  15. Mycelial cultivation of Phellinus linteus using cheese-processing waste and optimization of bioconversion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changsoo; Lee, Seungyong; Cho, Kyung-Jin; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2011-02-01

    A medicinal mushroom, Phellinus linteus, was successfully cultivated using a cheese-processing waste, whey, and the optimal bioconversion conditions for the maximum mycelial growth rate was also estimated through solid-state cultivation experiments. Response surface analysis with a face-centered design (center point replication = 5) was applied to statistically approximate the simultaneous effects of the three variables, i.e., substrate concentration (10-30 g lactose l⁻¹), temperature (20-30°C), and pH (4-6), on the mycelial growth rate of P. linteus. The following is a partial cubic model where η is the mycelial growth rate (K(r)) and x(k) is the corresponding variable term (k = substrate concentration, temperature, and pH in order): η = -23.8 + 8.67 × 10⁻² x₁ + 1.48x₂ + 1.77x₃ + 8.00 × 10⁻⁴ x₁x₂ + 7.25 × 10⁻² x₁x₃ + 5.13 × 10⁻² x₂x₃ -1.28 × 10⁻² x₁² -3.18 × 10⁻² x²₂. -2.64 × 10⁻¹ x₃² -3.28 × 10⁻³ x₁x₂ x₃ + 4.68 × 10⁻⁴ x₁²x₂. The produced response surface model proved to be significant (r² > 0.99, P-value linteus mycelia. This may provide another potential for managing this nutrient-rich waste in a cost-effective way.

  16. Influence of cooking time and cooling rate on the functionality and microstructure of processed cheese spreads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaodong; WU Han; LIU Huaiwei

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence of cooking time and cooling rate on functionality and microstructure of processed cheese spreads. When the cooking time was 20 min, the hardness and apparent viscosity were increased, and formed a homogenous, dense, and three-dimensional protein network, and a stronger gel was formed at this time. The slow cooling can increase the hardness and apparent viscosity of products, protein wall was thicker, and network was closer, so products can formed a stronger gel structure. The influence of cooking time on the functional properties was more significant than the influence of rapid cooling.

  17. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE SOMATIC CELLS NUMBER FROM RAW MILK USED IN TELEMEA CHEESE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA SULER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that by milk production hygiene must be assure: milk microbiological security, increase the sensorial and nutritive properties, increase term of availability and consumption. The milk hygienic national strategies involved: raw material risk contamination avoiding and reducing as can is possible and the microorganisms destroying or stopping development of those. In this paper it is presented the results of somatic cells number determination by raw milk used in Telemea cheese technological processes within 5 research stations. Determinations were effectuated on 2 series with 57 samples each of them, prelevated in reception phase in summer and winter seasons.

  18. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MICROBIOLOGIC PARAMETERS VALUE FROM RAW MILK USED IN TELEMEA CHEESE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA SULER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important faze for food quality control is verification of microbiological parameters of food products. In this way is assuring the prevention of alimentation toxicological infections to consumer, avoiding the technological and economical losses as well as increasing the products conservation period. In this paper are presents the microbiological exam results from raw milk used in Telemea cheese technological process, for 5 stations studied. The determinations were made on 2 series with 57 samples each of them, prelevated in reception fase, in summer and winter season.

  19. Transport phenomena in a model cheese: the influence of the charge and shape of solutes on diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J V C; Peixoto, P D S; Lortal, S; Floury, J

    2013-10-01

    During cheese ripening, microorganisms grow as immobilized colonies, metabolizing substrates present in the matrix and generating products from enzymatic reactions. Local factors that limit the rates of diffusion, either within the general cheese matrix or near the colonies, may influence the metabolic activity of the bacteria during ripening, affecting the final quality of the cheese. The objective of this study was to determine the diffusion coefficients of solutes as a function of their different physicochemical characteristics (size, charge, and shape) in an ultrafiltrate (UF) model cheese (based on ultrafiltered milk) to enable better understanding of the ripening mechanisms. Diffusion coefficients of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4 kDa to 2 MDa) and FITC-labeled dairy proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and BSA) were measured using the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). This study showed that macromolecules up to 2 MDa and proteins could diffuse through the UF model cheese. The larger FITC-dextrans were not more hindered by the structure of the UF model cheese compared with the smaller ones. Any decrease in the diffusion coefficients of solutes was related only to their hydrodynamic radii. The FITC-dextran diffusion data were fitted to an obstruction model, resulting in a constant obstruction factor (k ~0.42). Diffusion in the model cheese was sensitive to the physicochemical characteristics of the solute. The FITC-dairy proteins studied (rigid and negatively charged molecules) were hindered to a greater degree than the FITC-dextrans (flexible and charge-neutral molecules) in the UF model cheese. The existence of steric and electrostatic interactions between the protein matrix of the UF model cheese and the FITC-dairy proteins could explain the decrease in diffusion compared with FITC-dextrans.

  20. Physical and processing properties of milk, butter, and cheddar cheese from cows fed supplemental fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramis, C A; Wang, H; McBride, B W; Wright, T C; Hill, A R

    2003-08-01

    Physical, chemical, sensory and processing properties of milk produced by feeding a rumen-undegradable fish meal protein supplement to Holstein cows were investigated. The supplement contained (as fed basis) 25% soft-white wheat, 60% herring meal, and 15% feather meal. The total fat level in the milk decreased to 2.43%. For both pasteurized and ultra-high temperature processed drinking milk, no difference was found between fish meal (FM) milk and control milk in terms of color, flavor and flavor stability; in particular, no oxidized flavor was observed. Cheddar cheese made from FM milk ripened faster after 3 mo of ripening and developed a more desirable texture and stronger Cheddar flavor. The yield efficiencies for FM and control cheese, 94.4 (+/- 2.44 SE) and 96.4 (+/- 2.26 SE), respectively, were not different. Relative to controls, average fat globule size was smaller in FM milk and churning time of FM cream was longer. FM butter had softer texture and better cold spreadability, and butter oils from FM enriched milk had lower dropping points compared to control butter oil (average 32.89 versus 34.06 degrees C). These differences in physical properties of butter fat were greater than expected considering that iodine values were not different. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing high quality products from milk naturally supplemented with FM, but the results also show that dietary changes affect processing properties.

  1. Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from cheese reduce biogenic amine accumulation in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Martínez, Noelia; Sánchez-Llana, Esther; Díaz, María; Fernández, María; Martin, Maria Cruz; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2012-07-02

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BAs) most commonly found in cheese, in which they appear as a result of the microbial enzymatic decarboxylation of tyrosine and histidine respectively. Given their toxic effects, their presence in high concentrations in foods should be avoided. In this work, samples of three cheeses (Zamorano, Cabrales and Emmental) with long ripening periods, and that often have high BA concentrations, were screened for the presence of BA-degrading lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Seventeen isolates were found that were able to degrade tyramine and histamine in broth culture. All 17 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Lactobacillus casei. They were typed by plasmid S1-PFGE and genomic macrorestriction-PFGE analysis. Two strains (L. casei 4a and 5b) associated with high degradation rates for both BAs were selected to test how this ability might affect histamine and tyramine accumulation in a Cabrales-like mini-cheese manufacturing model. The quantification of BAs and the monitoring of the strains' growth over ripening were undertaken by RP-HPLC and qPCR respectively. Both strains were found to reduce histamine and tyramine accumulation. These two strains might be suitable for use as adjunct cultures for reducing the presence of BAs in cheese.

  2. Comparison between genetic parameters of cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits measured from individual model cheese-making methods or predicted from unprocessed bovine milk samples using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2014-10-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to infer the genetic parameters of some cheese yield-related traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis and compare the results with those obtained using an individual model cheese-producing procedure. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were produced using 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows, and individual measurements were taken for 10 traits: 3 cheese yield traits (fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 milk nutrient recovery traits (fat, protein, total solids, and energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits per cow (fresh curd, total solids, and water weight of the curd). Each unprocessed milk sample was analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) over the spectral range, from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). The FTIR spectrum-based prediction models for the previously mentioned traits were developed using modified partial least-square regression. Cross-validation of the whole data set yielded coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation of 0.65 to 0.95 for all traits, except for the recovery of fat (0.41). A 3-fold external validation was also used, in which the available data were partitioned into 2 subsets: a training set (one-third of the herds) and a testing set (two-thirds). The training set was used to develop calibration equations, whereas the testing subsets were used for external validation of the calibration equations and to estimate the heritabilities and genetic correlations of the measured and FTIR-predicted phenotypes. The coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation results obtained from the training sets were very similar to those obtained from the whole

  3. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-01-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with freshor cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature...... cheese to improvemodel performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese....... The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias...

  4. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS FUNCTIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cottage cheese products holds a significant place among the dairy and milk-containing products. The range of products includes cheese: cheese, pastes, creams, cakes, etc. Such diversity can be attributed to their popularity among the population and benefit brought by the body from regular use. Curd protein is much better and easier to digest by the body than protein fish, meat or milk. Rich curd products lysine and methionine. Minerals contained in cheese products have a positive effect on bone formation and structure of tissues. The composition of curd products, in addition to cheese and dairy ingredients may include non-dairy ingredients origin. Today, for the production of cheese products use the most advanced technologies to further enrich its structure and significantly improve the nutritional value. Pine nut is widely used in the manufacture of many dairy products. But, in most cases, the production of dairy products as a filler used pine nut cake, which deprives the finished product valuable cedar oil. The authors proposed a technology for producing curd product with the addition of pine nuts and honey (pine nuts and fructose. Compatible with cream cheese filling insertion determined sensory organoleptic point scale. he optimum dosage of components: pine nuts – 5 %, honey – 10 % fructose – 7 %. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations training components and their introduction into the finished cheese. Identify indicators of quality of the new product. Production of curd products thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  5. The effect of long-term storage on the quality of sterilized processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubelová, Zuzana; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Buňková, Leona; Pospiech, Matej; Vítová, Eva; Buňka, František

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect three different storage temperatures (6, 23 and 40 °C) on the sterilized processed cheese quality during 24-month storage. Sterilized processed cheese (SPC) is a product with extended shelf life (up to 2 years). The samples of SPC were subjected to basic chemical analyses, i.e. pH-values, dry matter, fat, crude protein and ammonia content, and microbiological analyses, i.e. total number of microorganisms, number of coliforms, colony forming units of yeasts and/or moulds and spore-forming microorganisms. Furthermore, amino acid content (ion-exchange chromatography), protein profile (SDS-PAGE) and fat globules size (image analysis of microscopic technique) were monitored and sensory analysis (scale test and pair comparative test) was implemented, too. Increasing storage temperature and length evoked decrease of total amino acid content and protein nutrition value, increase of ammonia amount, protein changes, enlargement of fat globule size and deterioration of sensory properties of SPC. All the changes grew expressive with increasing storage temperature and time.

  6. Understanding the application niche of microbial fuel cells in a cheese wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick T; He, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Identifying proper application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology and understanding how MFCs can be effectively integrated into the existing wastewater treatment process is critical to further development of this technology. In this study, four identical MFCs were used to treat the wastes sampled from different stages of a cheese wastewater treatment process, and both treatment performance and energy balance were examined. The two MFCs treating liquid wastes achieved more than 80% removal of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), while the other two MFCs fed with sludge or cheese whey removed about 60% of TCOD. The MFC-2 treating the dissolved air flotation effluent generated the highest Coulombic efficiency of 27.2±3.6% and the highest power density of 3.2±0.3Wm(-3), and consumed the least amount of energy of 0.11kWhm(-3), indicating that MFCs may be more suitable for treating low-strength wastewater in terms of both treatment and energy performance.

  7. Growth, survival, and peptidolytic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum I91 in a hard-cheese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, C V; Peralta, G H; Milesi, M M; Hynes, E R

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we studied the growth, survival, and peptidolytic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum I91 in a hard-cheese model consisting of a sterile extract of Reggianito cheese. To assess the influence of the primary starter and initial proteolysis level on these parameters, we prepared the extracts with cheeses that were produced using 2 different starter strains of Lactobacillus helveticus 138 or 209 (Lh138 or Lh209) at 3 ripening times: 3, 90, and 180 d. The experimental extracts were inoculated with Lb. plantarum I91; the control extracts were not inoculated and the blank extracts were heat-treated to inactivate enzymes and were not inoculated. All extracts were incubated at 34°C for 21 d, and then the pH, microbiological counts, and proteolysis profiles were determined. The basal proteolysis profiles in the extracts of young cheeses made with either strain tested were similar, but many differences between the proteolysis profiles of the extracts of the Lh138 and Lh209 cheeses were found when riper cheeses were used. The pH values in the blank and control extracts did not change, and no microbial growth was detected. In contrast, the pH value in experimental extracts decreased, and this decrease was more pronounced in extracts obtained from either of the young cheeses and from the Lh209 cheese at any stage of ripening. Lactobacillus plantarum I91 grew up to 8 log during the first days of incubation in all of the extracts, but then the number of viable cells decreased, the extent of which depended on the starter strain and the age of the cheese used for the extract. The decrease in the counts of Lb. plantarum I91 was observed mainly in the extracts in which the pH had diminished the most. In addition, the extracts that best supported the viability of Lb. plantarum I91 during incubation had the highest free amino acids content. The effect of Lb. plantarum I91 on the proteolysis profile of the extracts was marginal. Significant changes in the content of free

  8. Determination of the total nitrogen content of hard, semihard, and processed cheese by the Kjeldahl method: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joanna M; Barbano, David M; Fleming, J Richard

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this collaborative study was to determine interlaboratory performance statistics for a modified and optimized version of AOAC Method 920.123 for the determination of the total nitrogen content of hard, semihard, and processed cheese by Kjeldahl analysis. Details included addressing the issues of material homogeneity, test portion size (1 g), quantitative transfer (weighing on to filter paper), ensuring system suitability (nitrogen recoveries), and using AOAC Method 991.20 as the basis for nitrogen analysis. Fifteen laboratories tested 18 pairs of blind duplicate cheese materials with a crude protein content between 18 and 36%. Materials represented hard, semihard, and processed commercial cheeses with a wide range of composition. Statistical performance parameters expressed as crude protein (nitrogen x 6.38), g/100 g, with invalid and outlier data removed were mean = 26.461, repeatability standard deviation (Sr) 0.111, reproducibility standard deviation (S(R)) = 0.153, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 0.42%, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) = 0.58%, repeatability (r) = 0.312, and reproducibility (R) = 0.428. The interlaboratory study results were acceptable and comparable to those for the milk Kjeldahl nitrogen method on a relative nitrogen basis. The Study Directors recommend that this modified method for the determination of total nitrogen in hard, semihard, and processed cheese by Kjeldahl analysis be adopted First Action as an improved method to replace Method 920.123.

  9. 高熔点再制干酪的初探%Preliminary study on high-melting processed cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗君莅; 莫蓓红; 肖杨; 高红艳; 刘振民

    2011-01-01

    研究了再制干酪基础配方中,原制干酪成熟度、水分添加量、脂肪添加量、乳化盐种类及添加量对熔点的影响,在单因素实验基础上,采用二次回归正交旋转组合的实验设计,得到的最优配方:采用6个月成熟的切达干酪,水分添加9.5%(w/w),乳化盐2%(w/w),黄油0%(w/w),该配方比普通再制干酪熔点提高30℃以上.%The effect of raw cheese materials, moisture content, fat content and emulsifying salt used in processed cheese on the melting point was studied. By dual quadratic rotary regression orthogonal design experiment, the optimum parameters of the processed cheese were 6 months mature cheddar, moisture addition 9.5% (w/w),emulsifying salt addition 2% (w/w), and butter addition 0% (w/w).The melting point was increased more than 30℃ than ordinary processed cheese.

  10. A nonlinear programming optimization model to maximize net revenue in cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatos, A; Berger, A M; Pratt, J E; Barbano, D M

    2002-11-01

    A nonlinear programming optimization model was developed to maximize net revenue in cheese manufacture and is described in this paper. The model identifies the optimal mix of milk resources together with the types of cheeses and co-products that maximize net revenue. It works in Excel while it takes the data specified by the user from a user-friendly interface created in Access. The user can specify any number of resources, cheese types, and co-products. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model, we determined the impact of variation in milk price and composition in the period 1998 to 2000 on the optimal mix of resources and optimal type of co-product for Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella. It was also desired to determine the impact of variation in protein content of nonfat dry milk (NDM) on net revenue, and examine the effect of reconstitution of NDM with water versus milk on net revenue. The optimal mix of resources and the net revenue markedly varied as milk resource prices and composition varied. The net revenue for Mozzarella was much higher than for Cheddar when the price of cream was high. Cheese plants that did not optimize the use of resources in response to variations in prices and composition missed a significant profit opportunity. Whey powder was more profitable than 34% whey protein concentrate and lactose in most months. The use of high-protein NDM led to an appreciable increase in net revenue. When the value of the nonfat portion of raw milk was high, reconstitution of NDM with water rather than milk markedly raised net revenue.

  11. Processing of soft Hispanic cheese ("queso fresco") using thermo-sonicated milk: a study of physicochemical characteristics and storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2010-01-01

    Queso fresco is a handmade cheese consumed in Latin America and some regions of the United States. However, deficient milk processing has affected its microbial quality and it has an extremely short shelf life and low yield. The objective of this work was to process queso fresco using thermo-sonicated milk; physicochemical parameters were evaluated, including microbial quality during storage (4 °C). An ultrasonic processor (UP400S, 400 W, 24 kHz, 120 μm) was used to sonicate raw milk. Seven milk systems (500 mL each) were evaluated: 1 untreated, and 6 treated at 63 °C/30 min; 63 °C/10 min + sonication; 63 °C/30 min + sonication; 72 °C/15 s; 72 °C/15 s + sonication; and 72 °C/1 min + sonication. A conventional cheese-making process was followed for all systems. The effect of sonication on milk was quite noticeable. Curdling times were reduced considerably, cheese yield (20.6%) was almost doubled, and luminosity of cheese was increased (L*). Textural properties and microstructure images matched very well. Queso fresco processed at 63 °C/120 μm/30 min had the best quality. After storage for 23 d at 4 °C mesophilic count was just 4 log; psychrophilic count, 3.5 log; and enterobacteria count, 3 log. The pH and color remained almost constant and a minor degree of syneresis was observed at end of storage. Due to microstructural rearrangement of the milk components such as fat globules and casein micelles, cheese yield was doubled compared to the traditional handmade product. Shelf life was extended considerably and the product had higher quality.

  12. Loss of viability of Listeria monocytogenes in contaminated processed cheese during storage at 4, 12 and 22 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Boutsiouki, Paraskevi; Papageorgiou, Demetrios K

    2010-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in a processed cheese product was evaluated over time by inoculating the product with three different L. monocytogenes strains (Scott A, CA and a strain isolated from processed cheese) at three different inoculation levels (ca. 6x10(5), ca. 6x10(3) and 10(2)CFU/g of cheese or less) and after storage of the contaminated products at 4, 12 or 22 degrees C. Growth of L. monocytogenes was not observed in any of the experimental trials (experiments involving different combinations of strain, inoculum level and storage temperature) throughout the storage period. L. monocytogenes populations decreased over time with a rate that was strain- and storage temperature-dependent. Nonetheless, for cheeses that had been inoculated with the higher inoculum and stored at 4 degrees C viable populations of L. monocytogenes could be detected for up to nine months post-inoculation. The L. monocytogenes survival curves obtained from the different trials were characterised by a post-inoculation phase during which the populations remained essentially unchanged (lag phase) followed by a phase of logarithmic decline. The duration of the lag phase and the rate of inactivation of L. monocytogenes in the different trials were estimated based on data from the linear descending portions of the survival curves. In addition, a non-linear Weibull-type equation was fitted to the data from each survival curve with satisfactory results. The results of the present study emphasize that, according to the definition laid down in the European Union Regulation 1441/2007, the processed cheese product tested in this work should be considered and classified as one that does not support the growth of L. monocytogenes under reasonable foreseeable conditions of distribution and storage. However, post-processing contamination of the product should be austerely avoided as the pathogen can survive in the product for extended periods of time, particularly under refrigerated

  13. Activity of 30 different cheeses on cholesterol plasma levels and Oxidative Balance Risk Index (OBRI) in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelli, Umberto; Bondiolotti, Gianpietro; Battelli, Giovanna; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Finco, Annarosa; Recchia, Martino

    2015-01-01

    Cheese is considered to increase the total cholesterol levels (CH) due to the high-saturated fat content. New models are needed to measure the relationship between cholesterol and cheese. Thirty different cheeses produced in Val Brembana, Italy ("furmai da mut", "caprino" and "stracchino"), were added to the diet of 30 groups of 4 rats. Cheeses were analyzed to differentiate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the cholesterol content (Ch(f)). The body weight, CH, urine volume and oxidative balance were measured. Three new indexes in relation to CH were calculated: OI (oxidative index), PI (protective index) and OBRI (oxidative balance risk index). None of the cheeses increased CH. Some of the "furmai de mut" were significantly decreasing CH and improved the oxidative balance. Ch(f) was not affecting the CH levels in plasma. In terms of VOCs, the acetic acid content was correlated (p < 0.05) with the CH reduction and PI improvement. OBRI was reduced mainly in the "stracchino group". The model shows that some cheese can reduce significantly CH levels and improve the antioxidant capacity.

  14. A mathematical model of ethanol fermentation from cheese whey. I: Model development and parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chen-Jen; Bajpai, R.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cybernetic approach to modeling of microbial kinetics in a mixed-substrate environment has been used in this work for the fermentative production of ethanol from cheese whey. In this system, the cells grow on multiple substrates and generate metabolic energy during product formation. This article deals with the development of a mathematical model in which the concept of cell maintenance was modified in light of the specific nature of product formation. Continuous culture data for anaerobic production of ethanol by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397 on glucose and lactose were used to estimate the kinetic parameters for subsequent use in predicting the behavior of microbial growth and product formation in new situations. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Survival and growth of foodborne microorganisms in processed and individually wrapped cheese slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Richard H; Harper, Nigel

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of the research reported here were to determine the growth, survival, or inactivation of selected microorganisms on individually wrapped processed cheese (IWC) slices stored at 5 degrees C and 22 degrees C, and to compare quality indices. IWC slices were spot-inoculated with foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp.), spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. and Lactobacillus spp.), and spoilage molds (Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp.). Each bacterium was inoculated at 10(5) CFUs/g for determination of growth, survival, or inactivation. Molds were inoculated at 10(2) spores per gram and observed for growth. Fifty percent of the inoculated product samples were held at 5 degrees C (to simulate refrigeration), and the other 50 percent were held at 22 degrees C (to simulate ambient temperature) throughout shelf life. Samples taken on days 0, 3, 7,10, 14, and 28 and after 2, 3, 6, and 9 months, and were evaluated for surviving cells (by means of appropriate selective media), color (with the cheese color guide), and lipid oxidation (by means of peroxide values). Bacterial inactivation was observed in all conditions. At 14 days, a 5-log reduction was observed for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, while a 3-log reduction was observed for Staphylococcus aureus. For Pseudomonas spp. and Lactobacillus spp., a 2-log reduction was observed within 3 days, with an additional 1-log reduction noted after several months. Mold levels showed no change during the first several weeks of storage. At 84 days, mold levels decreased at 5 degrees C, but they showed growth at 22 degrees C, to approximately 10(5) CFUs/g. Visual color was evaluated on a 10-point National Cheese Institute scale. During storage at 5 degrees C or 22 degrees C, color became darker and values increased from 4 to 5 and 4 to 7, respectively. Higher peroxide values were also obtained for the samples held at 22 degrees C versus 5 degrees C

  16. Discussion on Processing Technology of Fresh Soft Cheese%新鲜软质干酪加工工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀梅; 唐民民

    2014-01-01

    The fresh soft cheese studied in this paper is an unripened cheese. It belongs to mildly acid cheese, made from skim milk, so it should be easily accepted by consumers in our country. In this paper, processing technology of fresh soft cheese was studied, which possibly provided theoretical basis for producing fresh soft cheese.%新鲜软质干酪是以一种以脱脂牛奶为原料制成的非成熟型干酪。与普通成熟干酪相比,新鲜软质干酪具有风味柔和、口感清淡的特点,更容易被我国消费者所接受。本文对新鲜软质干酪加工工艺进行了探讨,为生产这种产品提供了理论依据。

  17. Research on the Development and Prospect of Processed Cheese in China%再制干酪在我国的研究进展及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳霞

    2012-01-01

    the analysis of process optimization, emulsifying salts selection and components of processed cheese were carried out in details, and summarized the development of processed cheese and the prospect of cheese industry.%从再制干酪的生产工艺优化、乳化盐选用、成分分析等方面对再制干酪在国内的发展状况进行了综述,并展望了其发展前景。

  18. BIOHYDROGEN FROM CHEESE WHEY TREATMENT IN AN AnSBBR: ACHIEVING PROCESS STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. F. Lima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAn AnSBBR (anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing biomass immobilized on an inert support with liquid phase recirculation, containing a 3.5 L working volume, treated 1.5 L of cheese whey wastewater in 3 and 4 h cycles at 30 ºC to produce biohydrogen. From startup the bioreactor presented process instability. To overcome this problem the following measures were taken, however without success: adaptation of the biomass with uncontaminated easily degradable substrates, pH control at very low levels, and a different form of inoculation (natural fermentation of the feed medium. The problem was solved by cooling the feed medium to 4 ºC to prevent acidification in the storage container, by eliminating nutrient supplementation to prevent possible formation of H2S by sulfate-reducing bacteria and by periodic washing of the support material to improve the food/microorganism ratio. Hence, stable hydrogen production could be achieved with minimal presence of methane (36% H2; 62% CO2; 2% CH4 and the AnSBBR fed with cheese whey (influent concentration of 4070 mgCOD.L-1 and 3240 mgCarbohydrate.L-1 and applied volumetric organic loading of 14.6 gCOD.L-1.d-1 presented improved productivity and yield indicators compared to pure lactose and other reactor configurations, reaching values of 420 NmLH2.L-1.d-1 and 0.60 molH2.molCarbohydrate-1 in the steady-state phase (conversions of carbohydrates and COD were 98% and 30%, respectively.

  19. Influence of long-chain polyphosphate and heat treatment on Clostridium cochlearium and Clostridium sporogenes isolated from processed cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Elisabeth; Lycken, Lena

    2007-03-01

    The outgrowth of Clostridium spp. spores causes spoilage in processed cheese products due to gas and off-odor formation. The present study focuses on the response of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium cochlearium at 25 degrees C to polyphosphate, both alone and in combination with heat treatment. The two strains used were isolated from spoiled cheese spread. The addition of 1.5% polyphosphate but not 0.75% polyphosphate totally inhibited the growth of C. sporogenes SIK4.3; in contrast, 0.75% polyphosphate was sufficient to totally inhibit C. cochlearium CCUG 45978. The highest polyphosphate concentration tested (1.5%) was sporicidal for C. sporogenes SIK4.3 but not for C. cochlearium CCUG 45978. When 0.75% polyphosphate Bekaplus FS was combined with a holding time of 5 min at 98 degrees C, no survival or growth of C. sporogenes SIK4.3 was detected; however, the same effect was not achieved through heating alone or through application of polyphosphate alone. C. cochlearium CCUG 45978 was more heat tolerant, as shown by higher D-values. In conclusion, the results strongly suggest that polyphosphate Bekaplus FS has the potential to restrict the growth of C. sporogenes and C. cochlearium in cheese spread stored at ambient storage temperature. Experiments with cheese are needed in order to verify this effect.

  20. Variability of bacterial biofilms of the "tina" wood vats used in the ragusano cheese-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, G; Ogier, J C; Parayre, S; Pediliggieri, C; Carnemolla, T M; Falentin, H; Madec, M N; Carpino, S; Lortal, S

    2007-11-01

    Ragusano cheese is a "protected denomination of origin" cheese made in the Hyblean region of Sicily from raw milk using traditional wooden tools, without starter. To explore the Ragusano bacterial ecosystem, molecular fingerprinting was conducted at different times during the ripening and biofilms from the wooden vats called "tinas" were investigated. Raw milks collected at two farm sites, one on the mountain and one at sea level, were processed to produce Ragusano cheese. Raw milk, curd before and after cooking, curd at stretching time (cheese 0 time), and cheese samples (4 and 7 months) were analyzed by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) and by classical enumeration microbiology. With the use of universal primers, PCR-TTGE revealed many differences between the raw milk profiles, but also notable common bands identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Enterococcus faecium. After the stretching, TTGE profiles revealed three to five dominant species only through the entire process of ripening. In the biofilms of the two tinas used, one to five species were detected, S. thermophilus being predominant in both. Biofilms from five other tinas were also analyzed by PCR-TTGE, PCR-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis, specific PCR tests, and sequencing, confirming the predominance of lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, L. lactis, and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis) and the presence of a few high-GC-content species, like coryneform bacteria. The spontaneous acidification of raw milks before and after contact with the five tinas was followed in two independent experiments. The lag period before acidification can be up to 5 h, depending on the raw milk and the specific tina, highlighting the complexity of this natural inoculation system.

  1. Innovative two-stage anaerobic process for effective codigestion of cheese whey and cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Grilli, Selene; Spagni, Alessandro; Fava, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The valorisation of agroindustrial waste through anaerobic digestion represents a significant opportunity for refuse treatment and renewable energy production. This study aimed to improve the codigestion of cheese whey (CW) and cattle manure (CM) by an innovative two-stage process, based on concentric acidogenic and methanogenic phases, designed for enhancing performance and reducing footprint. The optimum CW to CM ratio was evaluated under batch conditions. Thereafter, codigestion was implemented under continuous-flow conditions comparing one- and two-stage processes. The results demonstrated that the addition of CM in codigestion with CW greatly improved the anaerobic process. The highest methane yield was obtained co-treating the two substrates at equal ratio by using the innovative two-stage process. The proposed system reached the maximum value of 258 mL(CH4) g(gv(-1), which was more than twice the value obtained by the one-stage process and 10% higher than the value obtained by the two-stage one.

  2. Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Cheese Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Benjamin E; Dutton, Rachel J

    2013-10-01

    Cheese is an ideal environment to serve as a model for the behavior of microbes in complex communities and at the same time allow detailed genetic analysis. Linking organisms, and their genes, to their role in the environment becomes possible in the case of cheese since cheese microbial communities have been "in culture" for thousands of years, with the knowledge of how to grow these organisms passed down by generations of cheesemakers. Recent reviews have described several emerging approaches to link molecular systems biology to ecosystem-scale processes, known as ecosystems biology. These approaches integrate massive datasets now available through high-throughput sequencing technologies with measurements of ecosystem properties. High-throughput datasets uncover the "parts list" (e.g., the species and all the genes within each species) of an ecosystem as well as the molecular basis of interactions within this parts list. Novel computational frameworks make it possible to link species and their interactions to ecosystem properties. Applying these approaches across multiple temporal and spatial scales makes it possible to understand how changes in the parts lists over space and time lead to changes in ecosystems processes. By manipulating the species present within model systems, we can test hypotheses related to the role of microbes in ecosystem function. Due to the tractability of cheese microbial communities, we have the opportunity to use an ecosystems biology approach from the scale of individual microbial cells within a cheese to replicated cheese microbial communities across continents. Using cheese as a model microbial ecosystem can provide a way to answer important questions concerning the form, function, and evolution of microbial communities.

  3. Influence of system and process parameters on partitioning of cheese whey proteins in aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rito-Palomares, M; Hernandez, M

    1998-06-26

    A practical study is described to characterise some problems encountered in the application of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) to protein recovery. These factors include practical design of extraction stages and the impact of ATPS compounding methods and biological suspension upon process performance. They were addressed using the recovery of whey proteins as a model. The known effects of system parameters (i.e. tie-line length, volume ratio and system pH) were exploited to define the specific operating conditions of a two-stage ATPS process for the recovery of whey proteins. The partition of whey proteins in ATPS assembled using different methods resulted in changes in the partition coefficient of the proteins. Such changes were associated with the initial location of the proteins in the polymer or salt-rich solutions of the ATPS. Cheese whey loaded into the ATPS caused the displacement of the binodal curve from the origin. Such behaviour was attributed to the residual fat present in the whey. These findings highlight those factors perceived as negative constraints on the wider adoption of ATPS processes for protein recovery from complex biological systems.

  4. Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hee Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models.

  5. Texture profile in processed cheese: influence of the use of milk protein concentrates and whey protein concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Borges Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The techno-functional properties of proteins related with the molecular characteristics are facilitated by partial unfolding of structures. From these interactions, the medium pH is presented as a major interferer in intensity and type of reaction that takes place. The intensity of denaturation and interaction of different proteins occur in different forms and intensity accordingly to the pH value of the medium in which they are located. This study aimed to verify the influence of interactions between whey protein concentrate/milk protein concentrate on the evolution of the texture profile of processed cheese at different pH values. We have analyzed samples of commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC and milk protein concentrate (MPC using 112.5g/kg processed cheese. The results were interpreted in terms of texture profile. It was also possible to optimize the different proportions of WPC and MPC, and pH value change the parameters of texture for creamy processed cheese and the pH was also an influencing factor in this optimization.

  6. Study the optimization of oats cheese processing%燕麦奶酪加工工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 于冰兰; 杜鹏

    2012-01-01

    In order to get a unique taste, nutrient - rich, and suitable product for Chinese consumer, the cheese was made from coagulating by acid, and oats were used to enhance the flavor and nutrition. In the study, the main process parameters to determine the acid condensate oats cheese were defined, the range of starch addition, sucrose addition and oats flour addition were identified by single -factor tests. The optimal parameters were determined by the orthogonal experiments, and compared with the fermented oat cheese. The result indicated that, the addition of starch, sucrose and oats flour were 0. 6% , 4. 0% and 5. 0% . The acid coagulation of cheese in the best parameters was white, solid, with oats smell. Sensory properties and texture were compared with fermented oat cheese and the results showed that acid coagulated oats cheese could be used for industrial production.%为了得到口味独特、营养丰富,并且适合中国人口味的干酪,以酸凝乳为生产方法生产干酪,并添加燕麦增加产品的风味和营养.本实验主要确定酸凝型燕麦奶酪的主要工艺参数.以感官评定和质构测定为评价方法,通过设计单因素试验,确定淀粉添加量、蔗糖添加量、燕麦添加量的最适范围.通过正交试验确定各个最佳工艺参数,并与发酵型燕麦奶酪进行比较.试验结果表明:通过三因素三水平正交试验设计,得到最佳工艺参数分别为,淀粉添加量0.6%,蔗糖添加量4.0%,燕麦添加量5.0%.以最佳参数生产得到的酸凝型奶酪的性状为白色,呈固体,并有燕麦的香味.与发酵型燕麦奶酪综合比较感官性状和质构性质,得出酸凝型燕麦奶酪性状稳定,品质优良,工艺可以用于工业生产.

  7. The study of sodium-alginate on processed cheese%海藻酸钠在再制奶酪中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春霞; 张娟娟; 王晓梅; 范素琴; 解素花; 安丰欣

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the processing technology of process cheese of right amount sodium - alginate. Natural cheese as raw materials and according to remake cheese production steps,we optimized the quantity of natural cheese,emulsifying salt,thickening agent and determined the process parameters of sodium alginate which auxiliary remake of the cheese. As the optimum result is: sodium - alginate 0. 4% ,xanthan gum 0. 1% ,sodium polyphosphate 2% ,sodium pyrophosphate 1 %. The processed cheese is not only have a exquisite and uniform organization,but also compared with the taste of the Chinese people.%以天然奶酪为原料,添加适量海藻酸钠,根据再制奶酪的制作步骤,通过对天然奶酪、乳化盐、增稠剂的添加量进行优化研究,确定海藻酸钠辅助再制奶酪的成型配方参数:海藻酸钠0.4%,黄原胶0.1%,多聚磷酸钠2%,焦磷酸钠1%.由此制得的奶酪组织均匀细腻,既保留了奶酪本身的气味,又比较符合中国人民的口味.

  8. Metabolic fingerprinting of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector for practical sensory prediction modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Hiroshi; Bamba, Takeshi; Naito, Hiroshige; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2012-11-01

    Metabolic fingerprinting using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to generate a practical metabolomics-based tool for quality evaluation of natural cheese. Hydrophilic low molecular weight components, relating to sensory characteristics, including amino acids, fatty acids, amines, organic acids, and saccharides, were extracted and derivatized prior to the analysis. Data on 12 cheeses, six Cheddar cheeses and six Gouda cheeses, were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Prediction models for two sensory attributes relating to maturation, "Rich flavor" and "Sour flavor", were constructed with 4199 data points from GC/FID, and excellent predictability was validated. Chromatograms from GC/FID and gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS) were comparable when the same column was used. Although GC/FID alone cannot identify peaks, the mutually complementary relationship between GC/FID and GC/MS does allow peak identification. Compounds contributing significantly to the sensory predictive models included lactose, succinic acid, L-lactic acid, and aspartic acid for "Rich flavor", and lactose, L-lactic acid, and succinic acid for "Sour flavor". Since similar model precision was obtained using GC/FID and GC/TOF-MS, metabolic fingerprinting using GC/FID, which is a relatively inexpensive instrument compared with GC/MS, is easy to maintain and operate, and is a valid alternative when metabolomics (especially using GC/MS) is to be used in a practical setting as a novel quality evaluation tool for manufacturing processes or final products. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioassay for nisin in milk, processed cheese, salad dressings, canned tomatoes, and liquid egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakovirta, J; Reunanen, J; Saris, P E J

    2006-02-01

    A sensitive nisin quantification bioassay was constructed, based on Lactococcus lactis chromosomally encoding the nisin regulatory proteins NisK and NisR and a plasmid with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant gfp(uv) gene under the control of the nisin-inducible nisA promoter. This strain, LAC275, was capable of transducing the signal from extracellular nisin into measurable GFPuv fluorescence through the NisRK signal transduction system. The LAC275 cells detected nisin concentrations of 10 pg/ml in culture supernatant, 0.2 ng/ml in milk, 3.6 ng/g in processed cheese, 1 ng/g in salad dressings and crushed, canned tomatoes, and 2 ng/g in liquid egg. This method was up to 1,000 times more sensitive than a previously described GFP-based nisin bioassay. This new assay made it possible to detect significantly smaller amounts of nisin than the presently most sensitive published nisin bioassay based on nisin-induced bioluminescence. The major advantage of this sensitivity was that foods could be extensively diluted prior to the assay, avoiding potential inhibitory and interfering substances present in most food products.

  10. Crystallization and polymorphism of triacylglycerols contribute to the rheological properties of processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliguem, Hela; Ghorbel, Dorra; Lopez, Christelle; Michon, Camille; Ollivon, Michel; Lesieur, Pierre

    2009-04-22

    The thermal, rheological, and structural behaviors of a spreadable processed cheese were studied by complementary techniques including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheology, and X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature. In this product, fat is present as a dispersed phase. Thermal and rheological properties were studied at different cooling rates between 0.5 and 10 degrees C min(-1) from 60 to 3 degrees C. Crystallization properties of fat were monitored at a cooling rate of -2 degrees C min(-1) from 60 to -10 degrees C. Fat triacylglycerols (TGs) crystallized at 15 degrees C in a triple-chain length 3Lalpha (72 A) structure correlated to exothermic events and to the sudden increase in the rheological moduli G' and G''. Upon heating at 2 degrees C min(-1), the polymorphic transition of TGs evidence the melting of the 3Lalpha structure and the formation of a 2Lbeta' (36.7-41.5 A) structure. Melting of the latter follows. These transformations coincide with thermal events observed by DSC and the decrease in two steps of the rheological moduli. The influence of fat crystallization, melting, and polymorphism upon the viscoelastic properties is clearly demonstrated upon both heating and cooling.

  11. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. isolated during the ripening process of a traditional minas cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Borelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of Staphylococcus spp. was studied during the ripening of Canastra Minas cheese at three farms located in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The presence of coagulase (coa, thermonuclease (nuc, and enterotoxin (sea, seb, sec, and sed genes was investigated in Staphylococcus strains isolated during the 60-day cheese-ripening period. The presence of the staphylococcal enterotoxins A, C, and D was also investigated in the cheese samples. Cheese samples that were matured for 0, 7, 15, 30, and 45 days presented staphylococci counts from 10³ to 10(8cfu/g. All isolates considered coagulase-positive by physiological tests had the coa gene. However, no association was observed between the results obtained with biochemical tests and those obtained by PCR using gene-specific primers for coagulase-negative strains. Coagulase and thermonuclease genes occurred simultaneously in 41.3% of Staphylococcus spp. tested. None of the investigated Staphylococcus strains expressed enterotoxins SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED. Enterotoxins A, C, and D were not detected in any of the cheese samples.

  12. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  13. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  14. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WATER ACTIVITY OF TRANSFERRED CHEESE (UF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dalvi Esfahan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available on the thermophysical properties of cheese in the ripening process.The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of brining and temperature on the thermophysical properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, specific heat, density and water activity of UF cheese and finally we measure surface heat transfer coefficient .Then we develop models for thermophysical properties based on physical and multiple regression concept .

  15. The effect of different composition of ternary mixtures of emulsifying salts on the consistency of processed cheese spreads manufactured from Swiss-type cheese with different degrees of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, R N; Černíková, M; Maděrová, S; Lapčík, L; Buňka, F

    2016-05-01

    The scope of this work was to investigate the dependence of selected textural (texture profile analysis, TPA) and viscoelastic properties of processed cheese on the composition of ternary mixtures of emulsifying salts [disodium hydrogenphosphate, DSP; tetrasodium diphosphate, TSPP; sodium salt of polyphosphate (with mean length n ≈ 20), P20; and trisodium citrate, TSC] during a 60-d storage period (6±2°C). The processed cheese samples [40% wt/wt dry matter (DM) content, 50% wt/wt fat in DM content] were manufactured using Swiss-type cheese (as the main raw material) with 4 different maturity degrees (4, 8, 12, and 16 wk of ripening). Moreover, the pH of the samples was adjusted (the target values within the range of 5.60-5.80), corresponding to the standard pH values of spreadable processed cheese. With respect to the individual application of emulsifying salts (regardless of the maturity degree of the Swiss-type cheese applied), the samples prepared with P20 were the hardest, followed by those prepared with TSPP, TSC, and DSP. Furthermore, a specific ratio of DSP:TSPP (1:1) led to a significant increase in the hardness of the samples. On the whole, the hardness of all processed cheese samples increased with the prolonging storage period, whereas their hardness significantly dropped with the rising ripening stage of the raw material utilized. In all of the cases, the trends of hardness development remained analogous, and only the absolute values differed significantly. Moreover, the findings of TPA were in accordance with those of the rheological analysis. In particular, the specific ratio of DSP:TSPP (1:1) resulted in the highest gel strength and interaction factor values, followed by P20, TSPP, TSC, and DSP (used individually), reporting the same trend which was demonstrated by TPA. The monitored values of the gel strength and interaction factor decreased with the increasing maturity degree of the Swiss-type cheese used. The intensity of the rigidity of the

  16. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  17. Biohydrogen production from cheese processing wastewater by anaerobic fermentation using mixed microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Peilin [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Zhang, Ruihong [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McGarvey, Jeffery A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Benemann, John R. [Benemann Associates, Walnut Creek, CA 94595 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from simulated cheese processing wastewater via anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under mesophilic conditions. In batch H{sub 2} fermentation experiments H{sub 2} yields of 8 and 10 mM/g COD fed were achieved at food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of 1.0 and 1.5, respectively. Butyric, acetic, propionic, and valeric acids were the major volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced in the fermentation process. Continuous H{sub 2} fermentation experiments were also performed using a completely mixed reactor (CSTR). The pH of the bioreactor was controlled in a range of 4.0-5.0 by addition of carbonate in the feed material. Maximum H{sub 2} yields were between 1.8 and 2.3 mM/g COD fed for the loading rates (LRs) tested with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. Occasionally CH{sub 4} was produced in the biogas with concurrent reductions in H{sub 2} production; however, continuous H{sub 2} production was achieved for over 3 weeks at each LR. The 16S rDNA analysis of DNA extracted from the bioreactors during periods of high H{sub 2} production revealed that more than 50% of the bacteria present were members of the genus Lactobacillus and about 5% were Clostridia. When H{sub 2} production in the bioreactors decreased concurrent reductions in the genus Lactobacillus were also observed. Therefore, the microbial populations in the bioreactors were closely related to the conditions and performance of the bioreactors. (author)

  18. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making.

  19. Modeling of submerged membrane bioreactor treating cheese whey wastewater by artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Ozer; Hasar, Halil; Kinaci, Cumali

    2006-05-17

    A submerged membrane bioreactor receiving cheese whey was modeled by artificial neural network and its performance over a period of 100 days at different solids retention times was evaluated with this robust tool. A cascade-forward network was used to model the membrane bioreactor and normalization was used as a preprocessing method. The network was fed with two subsets of operational data, with two-thirds being used for training and one-third for testing the performance of the artificial neural network. The training procedure for effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, nitrate and total phosphate concentrations was very successful and a perfect match was obtained between the measured and the calculated concentrations. The results of the confirmation (or testing) procedure for effluent ammonia and nitrate concentrations were very successful; however, the results of the confirmation procedure for effluent COD and total phosphate concentrations were only satisfactory.

  20. Habit Formation in Natural Cheese Consumption An Approach Based on Dynamic Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    WAKABAYASHI, Katsufumi

    2010-01-01

    In expectation of growing cheese consumption, natural cheese production is being increased to reduce surplus milk and create high added value in raw milk. Other studies found positive trends in cheese consumption. However, those studies neither clarified recent trends, nor distinguished natural cheese from processed cheese. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structure of natural cheese consumption, focusing on habit formation. We test structural changes in cheese demand using dynamic...

  1. Habit Formation in Natural Cheese Consumption An Approach Based on Dynamic Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    WAKABAYASHI, Katsufumi

    2010-01-01

    In expectation of growing cheese consumption, natural cheese production is being increased to reduce surplus milk and create high added value in raw milk. Other studies found positive trends in cheese consumption. However, those studies neither clarified recent trends, nor distinguished natural cheese from processed cheese. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structure of natural cheese consumption, focusing on habit formation. We test structural changes in cheese demand using dynamic...

  2. Reduced growth of Listeria monocytogenes in two model cheese microcosms is not associated with individual microbial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Bré, Jean-Michel; Guéguen, Marielle; Vernoux, Jean-Paul; Desmasures, Nathalie

    2013-02-01

    Two model antilisterial microbial communities consisting of two yeasts, two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and originating from Livarot cheese smear were previously designed. They were used in the present study to analyse the impact of microbial population dynamics on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese microcosm. Specific culture media and PCR primers were developed for simultaneous culture-dependent and real-time PCR quantification of strains belonging to Marinomonas sp., Paenibacillus sp., Staphylococcus equorum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Pseudomonas putida, Serratia liquefaciens, Candida natalensis, and Geotrichum candidum, in cheese microcosms. All strains were enumerated after 3, 5, 8 and 14 days at 15 °C. They established well at high counts in all cheese microcosms. Growth dynamics for all strains in presence of L. monocytogenes WSLC 1685 were compared to those of microbial communities obtained by omitting in turn one of the six members of the initial community. The growth of the microbial strains was neither markedly disturbed by Listeria presence nor by the removal of each strain in turn. Furthermore, these communities had a significant reducing effect on growth of L. monocytogenes independently of pH, as confirmed by mathematical modelling. A barrier effect was observed, that could be explained by specific competition for nutrients.

  3. pH值对再制干酪功能特性的影响%Influence of pH on Processed Cheese Functional Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹长林; 刘佳; 赵征

    2011-01-01

    利用质构仪、流变仪、扫描电镜分析pH值对再制干酪产品功能特性的影响,揭示了pH在再制干酪生产过程中的重要作用.结果表明,pH值影响再制干酪的融化性,但是这种影响没有呈现一定的规律性;随着pH值的升高,再制干酪产品的表观黏度也随之升高;在各质构参数中,硬度和咀嚼性随着pH值的升高而降低,pH值对弹性的影响显著(P<0.05);pH值影响水和乳化的过程,pH值越高,越利于水和乳化.%The experiment studied the influence of pH on the functional properties of processed cheese by using texture analyzer, rheometer and SEM, and it described that pH played an important role in the process of making proeessed cheese. The results indicated: pH influenced the meltability of processed cheese, but the results were not regular. With increasing of pH, the apparent viscosity of processed cheese increased. Among all the parameters of processed cheese's texture, both the hardness and chewiness declined as pH increased in processed cheese, springiness were influenced significantly by pH (P <0.05); pH affected the process of emulsification, emulsification became better at higher pH value.

  4. Optimization of Preparation Process for Processed Cheese Fortified with Blueberry Pulp%蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 李浩; 田雪娇; 张建强; 张丽萍

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with process optimization for the preparation of processed cheese fortified with blueberry pulp from fast-ripened cheese and blueberry pulp using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods.The optimal formulation for processed cheese was skimmed milk powder 8%,butter 10%,blueberry pulp 20%,emulsifying salt 1.0%,xanthan gum 0.3%,salt 1.5%,and purified water 35%,which were simultaneously heated at 85 ℃ and stirred for 7 min.%以快速成熟干酪、蓝莓果浆为主要原料,通过单因素和正交试验对蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺进行优化,确定最佳配方为:加入脱脂奶粉8%、黄油10%、蓝莓果浆20%、乳化盐1.5%、黄原胶0.3%、食盐1.5%、纯净水35%、加热温度85℃、搅拌时间7min。

  5. Effect of stretching process on the composition and functional properties of Mozzarella cheese%拉伸工艺对Mozzarella干酪品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 张雪; 张健; 李常营; 马建军; 杨贞耐

    2011-01-01

    选择不同的拉伸温度和拉伸时间,研究拉伸工艺对Mozzarella干酪组成、游离水分和功能特性的影响.结果表明,随着拉伸温度的升高和拉伸时间的延长,干酪的游离水分增加,脂肪和蛋白质质量分数下降,干酪产量下降.拉伸温度为60℃时,干酪的融化性最高,油脂析出性适中,拉伸性较好.延长拉伸时间,导致干酪产量下降,功能特性没有明显提升.本研究确定的最佳拉伸工艺:拉伸温度60℃,拉伸时间10 min.%Stretching is a special technique for the processing of Mozzarella cheese, and the stretching parameters have a direct impact on the quality of cheese. In this article, the influence of stretching temperature and time on the composition, free water and functional properties of Mozzarella cheese was investigated. The results showed that with increase in stretching temperature and time, the content of free water increased, but the fat and protein contents, and the cheese yield decreased. When the stretching temperature was 60 t.the best melting, oil separation, and stretching properties of cheese were obtained. Prolonged stretching resulted in decreased cheese yield without obvious improvement of cheese functional properties. Based on the above results, the best stretching condition was at 60 ℃ for 10 min.

  6. Effect of Emulsifying Temperature on the Quality of Processed Cheese%乳化温度对融化干酪品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍建新; 李伟; 原慧艳; 白彩艳; 李明; 赵征

    2015-01-01

    研究了乳化温度对融化干酪的品质的影响。通过对融化干酪质构分析、微观结构和感官评价测定,比较了60、65、70、75、80℃五个水平温度对融化干酪品质的影响。试验结果表明,乳化温度70℃时,融化干酪具有较高的恢复性、黏聚性、黏着性和弹性,最低的硬度、咀嚼性、胶着性;融化干酪中的酪蛋白和脂肪球相对较小,分布比较均匀,新的蛋白质网络结构形成,整个体系处于一个较好的乳化状态;融化干酪的硬度适中、组织状态光滑无颗粒、口感风味良好、切片性较好。%The effect of emulsifying temperature on the quality of processed cheese was studied. Combined with texture profile analysis, electron scanning spectroscopy and sensory evaluation we investigated the effects of emulsifying temperature 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 ℃ on the quality of processed cheese, respectively. Results showed that processed cheese emulsifying at 70 ℃ has moderate resilience, cohesiveness, springiness, adhesiveness, and low hardness, chewiness, gumminess. The casein and fat globe in the processed cheese were small and were distributed evenly. The network between proteins were formed again. The effect of emulsification is good in the processed cheese. processed cheese has moderate hardness, smoother texture, uniform tissue and delicate taste.

  7. Flavour compound production by Yarrowia lipolytica, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Debaryomyces hansenii in a cheese-surface model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Gori, Klaus; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2011-01-01

    produced sulphides, furanes and short-chain ketones; Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 primarily produced esters and Debaryomyces hansenii D18335 primarily produced branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols. For several of the detected flavour compounds, an increase in production was observed upon exposure to dairy......A simple cheese model mimicking a cheese surface was developed for the detection of cheese flavour formation of yeasts. A total of 56 flavour compounds were detected by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis. Yarrowia lipolytica CBS2075 primarily...

  8. 模拟Mozzarella干酪工艺参数优化的研究%Study on optimization of process parameters of imitation Mozzarella cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 李晓东; 刘滨城

    2011-01-01

    模拟Mozzarella干酪是一种类似天然干酪的产品.为使其品质更接近于天然Mozzarella干酪,研究了以干酪的质构、融化性、拉伸性和油脂析出性为指标,对生产工艺中的几个关键工艺参教进行优化.结果表明,融化温度、搅拌时间和搅拌速度对模拟Mozzarella干酪未融化时的物理特性和融化时的主要功能特性都有极显著性影响(P<0.01);融化温度为85℃,搅拌时间(加柠檬酸前)为5min,搅拌速度为250r/min时加工的模拟干酪的品质最接近于天然Mozzarella干酪.因此.在模拟Mozzarella干酪的加工工艺中选择融化温度85℃,搅拌时间5min,搅拌速度250r/min.%Imitation Mozzarella cheese is defined a cheese-like product. The key process parameters of imitation cheese were studied by TPA, meltability, stretchability and free oil of cheese, in order to let the properties close to nature Mozzarella cheese. The results indicated, the cooking temperature, stirring time and stirring speed pious significantly(P <0.01 )affected the no-melt and melt properties of imitation Mozzarella cheese. When the cooking temperature was 85℃, the stirring time was 5min, the stirring speed was 250r/min, the properties of imitation cheese was most closing to nature Mozzarella cheese. Therefore, the cooking temperature, the stirring time and stirring speed chose 85℃,5min and 250r/min in the processing of imitation Mozzarella cheese, respectively.

  9. Physicochemical, microbiological and spoilage analysis of probiotic processed cheese analogues with reduced emulsifying salts during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsannia, Sheida; Sanjabi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-02-01

    Microbial quality of low-salt processed cheeses supplemented with Bacillus coagulans spores (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) relying on their physicochemical characteristics during 60 day-cold storage was evaluated. A reduction in moisture content, water activity and pH value and a significant enhancement in proteolytic index of control and probiotic samples were obtained by prolonging storage time. Survival rate of the probiotic cells significantly decreased up to day 30, while total count of the viable cells increased by increasing storage time. A 20 and 67 % increase in total counts of coliforms and mold-yeast of the control sample were respectively observed after 60 days of cold storage. A considerable decrease in the total counts of coliforms and mold-yeast was also found in the processed cheeses containing probiotic supplement. According to the macroscopic and sensory assessment, off-odors and off-flavors in the control sample were diagnosed after day 1 of cold-storage. Noticeably, the resistance to spoilage was more prominent in samples containing the probiotic cells.

  10. Biofilm Formation and Disinfectant Susceptibility of Persistent and Nonpersistent Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Gorgonzola Cheese Processing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Annalisa; Bertolotti, Luigi; Brito, Luisa; Civera, Tiziana

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the biofilm-forming ability and/or the disinfectant susceptibility accounted for the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in Gorgonzola cheese processing plants. For this purpose, a set of 16 L. monocytogenes isolates collected in the 2004-2007 period was analyzed, including 11 persistent isolates collected in different years, within the collection period, and displaying identical or highly correlated pulsotypes. The evaluation of biofilm-forming ability was assessed using crystal violet (CV) staining and the enumeration of viable cells on stainless steel coupons (SSC). Absorbance values obtained with CV staining for persistent and nonpersistent isolates were not significantly different (rm-ANOVA p > 0.05) and the cell counts from nonpersistent isolates showed to be higher compared with persistent isolates (rm-ANOVA p  0.05). A greater influence of organic matter on MS could explain why P3 was efficient in reducing to effective levels the majority of the isolates at the lowest concentration suggested by the manufacturer (0.2% [v/v]), while the same purpose required a higher concentration (1% [v/v]) of MS. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the persistence of these isolates in Gorgonzola cheese processing plants was linked neither to the biofilm-forming ability nor to their susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants; therefore, other factors should contribute to the persistent colonization of the dairies.

  11. Microbiological safety of Minas Frescal Cheese (MFC) and tracking the contamination of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in MFC processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosangela; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Nero, Luís Augusto; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2013-11-01

    Minas Frescal cheese (MFC) is a traditional food produced and consumed in Brazil, characterized by its soft texture, low sodium, and high moisture content. This study characterized the microbiological contamination by coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, in 99 MFC samples obtained in retail sale and produced by three distinct industrial procedures. Dairy processors were selected to investigate the key points of E. coli and S. aureus contamination during cheese processing. MFC samples produced by the addition of lactic culture presented higher counts of coliforms and E. coli, when compared to other samples (pculture presented E. coli counts higher than 5 × 10(2) colon-forming units/g. The processing steps after pasteurization were identified as the main sources of E. coli and S. aureus contamination of MFC. Based on the results, MFC was characterized as a potential hazard for consumers due to the high frequency of samples contaminated with E. coli and S. aureus counts in noncompliance with Brazilian standards for sanitary quality and safety.

  12. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk.

  13. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-07-02

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0 CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes as reported in literature. Comparably good predictions were obtained as for the simulations performed using lag time data for individual cells of L. monocytogenes. Therefore, when lag time data for individual cells are not available, it was suggested that relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes can be used as a qualified default assumption when simulating growth of low concentrations of L. monocytogenes.

  14. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Tales of Mold-Ripened Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino O S B, Sister Noëlla; Benson, David R

    2013-10-01

    The history of cheese manufacture is a "natural history" in which animals, microorganisms, and the environment interact to yield human food. Part of the fascination with cheese, both scientifically and culturally, stems from its ability to assume amazingly diverse flavors as a result of seemingly small details in preparation. In this review, we trace the roots of cheesemaking and its development by a variety of human cultures over centuries. Traditional cheesemakers observed empirically that certain environments and processes produced the best cheeses, unwittingly selecting for microorganisms with the best biochemical properties for developing desirable aromas and textures. The focus of this review is on the role of fungi in cheese ripening, with a particular emphasis on the yeast-like fungus Geotrichum candidum. Conditions that encourage the growth of problematic fungi such as Mucor and Scopulariopsis as well as Arachnida (cheese mites), and how such contaminants might be avoided, are discussed. Bethlehem cheese, a pressed, uncooked, semihard, Saint-Nectaire-type cheese manufactured in the United Sates without commercial strains of bacteria or fungi, was used as a model for the study of stable microbial succession during ripening in a natural environment. The appearance of fungi during a 60-day ripening period was documented using light and scanning electron microscopy, and it was shown to be remarkably reproducible and parallel to the course of ripening of authentic Saint-Nectaire cheese in the Auvergne region of France. Geotrichum candidum, Mucor, and Trichothecium roseum predominate the microbiotas of both cheese types. Geotrichum in particular was shown to have high diversity in different traditional cheese ripening environments, suggesting that traditional manufacturing techniques selected for particular fungi. This and other studies suggest that strain diversity arises in relation to the lore and history of the regions from which these types of cheeses arose.

  15. Performance of two commercial rapid methods for sampling and detection of Listeria in small-scale cheese producing and salmon processing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Bjørn C T; Langsrud, Solveig; Møretrø, Trond; Hagtvedt, Therese; Heir, Even

    2012-11-01

    Two commercially available all-in-one swab rapid detection systems for Listeria spp. (InSite Listeria Test and Path-Chek hygiene Listeria) were tested for performance in cheese production environments and salmon processing facilities. Sampling was conducted both on clean surfaces and during production. A total of 338 samples were taken using the swabs (175 in cheese environments, 163 in salmon environments). Conventional sampling using sterile cloths and standardized qualitative detection of Listeria spp. according to NMKL method no. 136 was performed in parallel from 64 sampling sites in the salmon processing facilities and 40 sampling sites in the cheese production facilities. Results showed that both rapid swab tests detected Listeria spp.; however, they returned significant amounts of false positives. Presence of Listeria spp. was indicated in 47% and 41% of all swabs in the cheese and salmon environments, respectively. Enrichment followed by selective plating and Listeria specific PCR confirmed none of the 82 presumptive positive swabs from the cheese environment and 16 of 67 presumptive positive swabs from the salmon environments, respectively. Further analysis showed that several other bacteria, including Enterococcus spp. and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, were the source of false positive swab results. From salmon processing facilities, using cloth sampling and standard analyses, 22% Listeria positive sampling sites were confirmed compared to 9% and 11% positives obtained using InSite or Path-Chek detection systems. From the cheese production environments, no Listeria positive sites were confirmed using either swab or cloth sampling. In conclusion, the use of these rapid detection methods was not suited in the selected environments due to large numbers of false positives, caused by the background flora.

  16. 聚丙烯筒子纱染色工艺%Cheese dyeing process of polypropylene fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会青

    2011-01-01

    针对聚丙烯纯纺筒子纱染色工艺中的松式络筒、前处理和染色等容易产生色差色花的关键工序,从筒子纱密度、前处理工艺、染色温度的控制等方面采取改进措施.结果表明,采用净洗剂和纯碱进行煮练清洗,用托拉司WW型分散染料在130°C进行染色,可获较好的匀染效果和色牢度.%In cheese dyeing process of polypropylene yarn, color difference and dyeing defects are often appeared in tube loosing, pretreatment and dyeing .The improving methods are presented in terms of the cheese density, pretreatment and dyeing temperature, etc..The results show that good levelness and color fastness can be achieved if the polypropylene package is first scoured with detergent and soda, followed by dyed at 130 ℃ with Terasil WW disperse dyes.

  17. Biohydrogen production from cheese whey wastewater in a two-step anaerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pankaj K; Singh, S P; Asthana, R K

    2012-07-01

    Cheese whey-based biohydrogen production was seen in batch experiments via dark fermentation by free and immobilized Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 2822 followed by photofermentation of VFAs (mainly acetic and butyric acid) in the spent medium by Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01 strain. E. aerogenes free cells grown on cheese whey diluted to 10 g lactose/L, had maximum lactose consumption (∼79%), high production of acetic acid (1,900 mg/L), butyric acid (537.2 mg/L) and H(2) yield (2.04 mol/mol lactose; rate,1.09 mmol/L/h). The immobilized cells improved lactose consumption (84%), production of acetic acid (2,100 mg/L), butyric acid (718 mg/L) and also H(2) yield (3.50 mol/mol lactose; rate, 1.91 mmol/L/h). E. aerogenes spent medium (10 g lactose/L) when subjected to photofermentation by free Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01 cells, the H(2) yield reached 1.63 mol/mol acetic acid (rate, 0.49 mmol/L/h). By contrast, immobilized Rhodopseudomonas cells improved H(2) yield to 2.69 mol/mol acetic acid (rate, 1.87 mmol/L/h). The cumulative H(2) yield for free and immobilized bacterial cells was 3.40 and 5.88 mol/mol lactose, respectively. Bacterial cells entrapped in alginate, had a sluggish start of H(2) production but outperformed the free cells subsequently. Also, the concomitant COD reduction for free cells (29.5%) could be raised to 36.08% by immobilized cells. The data suggest that two-step fermentative H(2) production from cheese whey involving immobilized bacterial cells, offers greater substrate to- hydrogen conversion efficiency, and the effective removal of organic load from the wastewater in the long-term.

  18. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  19. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Low addition of grated Mozzarella cheese (13.4 g/100 g dough) resulted after baking for 20 min at 200 degrees C in a moderate increase of acrylamide from 4 ppb in buns without cheese to 7 ppb in the cheese buns as analyzed by a LCMS/MS technique. The effect was strongly dependent on the amount...... of cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  20. Sensitivity analysis for critical control points determination and uncertainty analysis to link FSO and process criteria: application to Listeria monocytogenes in soft cheese made from pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboni, Matieyendou; Sanaa, Moez; Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny

    2014-04-01

    Microbiological food safety is an important economic and health issue in the context of globalization and presents food business operators with new challenges in providing safe foods. The hazard analysis and critical control point approach involve identifying the main steps in food processing and the physical and chemical parameters that have an impact on the safety of foods. In the risk-based approach, as defined in the Codex Alimentarius, controlling these parameters in such a way that the final products meet a food safety objective (FSO), fixed by the competent authorities, is a big challenge and of great interest to the food business operators. Process risk models, issued from the quantitative microbiological risk assessment framework, provide useful tools in this respect. We propose a methodology, called multivariate factor mapping (MFM), for establishing a link between process parameters and compliance with a FSO. For a stochastic and dynamic process risk model of Listeriamonocytogenes in soft cheese made from pasteurized milk with many uncertain inputs, multivariate sensitivity analysis and MFM are combined to (i) identify the critical control points (CCPs) for L.monocytogenes throughout the food chain and (ii) compute the critical limits of the most influential process parameters, located at the CCPs, with regard to the specific process implemented in the model. Due to certain forms of interaction among parameters, the results show some new possibilities for the management of microbiological hazards when a FSO is specified. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. The Neural Bases of Disgust for Cheese: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royet, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, David; Torquet, Nicolas; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Jiang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The study of food aversion in humans by the induction of illness is ethically unthinkable, and it is difficult to propose a type of food that is disgusting for everybody. However, although cheese is considered edible by most people, it can also be perceived as particularly disgusting to some individuals. As such, the perception of cheese constitutes a good model to study the cerebral processes of food disgust and aversion. In this study, we show that a higher percentage of people are disgusted by cheese than by other types of food. Functional magnetic resonance imaging then reveals that the internal and external globus pallidus and the substantia nigra belonging to the basal ganglia are more activated in participants who dislike or diswant to eat cheese (Anti) than in other participants who like to eat cheese, as revealed following stimulation with cheese odors and pictures. We suggest that the aforementioned basal ganglia structures commonly involved in reward are also involved in the aversive motivated behaviors. Our results further show that the ventral pallidum, a core structure of the reward circuit, is deactivated in Anti subjects stimulated by cheese in the wanting task, highlighting the suppression of motivation-related activation in subjects disgusted by cheese. PMID:27799903

  2. Thermal properties of selected cheeses samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BOŽIKOVÁ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermophysical parameters of selected cheeses (processed cheese and half hard cheese are presented in the article. Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese goes during processing through the thermal and mechanical manipulation, so thermal properties are one of the most important. Knowledge about thermal parameters of cheeses could be used in the process of quality evaluation. Based on the presented facts thermal properties of selected cheeses which are produced by Slovak producers were measured. Theoretical part of article contains description of cheese and description of plane source method which was used for thermal parameters detection. Thermophysical parameters as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volume specific heat were measured during the temperature stabilisation. The results are presented as relations of thermophysical parameters to the temperature in temperature range from 13.5°C to 24°C. Every point of graphic relation was obtained as arithmetic average from measured values for the same temperature. Obtained results were statistically processed. Presented graphical relations were chosen according to the results of statistical evaluation and also according to the coefficients of determination for every relation. The results of thermal parameters are in good agreement with values measured by other authors for similar types of cheeses.

  3. The Effects of Emulsifying Salts on Processed Cheese's Physicochemical and Functional Properties%乳化盐对再制干酪品质的影响概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建强; 马锦延; 张丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Process cheese is produced by blending natural cheese in the presence of emulsifying salts and other dairy and nondairy ingredients followed by heating and continuous mixing to forma homogeneous product with an extended shelf life. Emulsifying salt is a major ingredient in process cheese manufacture. The present review is an attempt to cover the effect of emulsifying salts on the physicochemical and functional properties of processed cheese, and there are calcium sequestration, emulsification, displacement and stabilization (buffering) of pH, dispersion and water binding of paracasein.%乳化盐是再制干酪中添加的重要辅料之一,其对再制干酪品质的影响显著.乳化盐对再制干酪主要有以下影响作用:钙的螯合作用、乳化作用、pH值调节和缓冲作用、对蛋白质的分散和水合作用等方面,本文将会对以上作用做一些阐述,同时综述了再制干酪中常用的乳化盐的性质.

  4. Optimization of "Serpa" cheese whey nanofiltration for effluent minimization and by-products recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhalma, Miguel; Magueijo, Vítor; Queiroz, Denise P; de Pinho, Maria Norberta

    2007-01-01

    Second cheese whey (SCW) is a by-product of cheese and curd cheese production that is usually not recovered and therefore substantially contributes to the negative environmental impact of the cheese manufacture plants. Membrane technology, namely nanofiltration (NF), is used in this work for the recovery of SCW organic nutrients, resulting from "Serpa" cheese and curd production. The SCW is processed by NF to recover a rich lactose fraction in the concentrate and a process water with a high salt content in the permeate. The permeation experiments were carried out in a plate & frame NF unit, where two NF membranes (NFT50 and HR-95-PP) were characterized and tested. The NF permeation experiments were performed accordingly with two different operation modes: total recirculation and concentration. In order to select the best membrane and operating pressure for the SCW fractionation, total recirculation experiments were carried out. The NF modeling was also performed, in terms of permeate fluxes and rejection coefficients using the resistances-in-series model and the solution-diffusion model, respectively. After the membrane selection, the concentration experiments showed that the selected membrane (NFT50) at 3.0MPa allows a water recovery of approximately 80%, concentrating the SCW nutrients approximately 5 times. Therefore, the NF operation can successfully reduce the wastewater organic load and simultaneously contributes to the valorization of the cheese and curd cheese manufacture by-products.

  5. Thermo-fluid-dynamic modelling of a cold store for cheese maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruccio Giametta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, drying tests on fresh cheeses were carried out in a cold store equipped with a Munters MG90 dehumidifier that controls the humidity of the room air. In this system, the condensation/drainage stage is omitted since the humid room air is directed out of the cold store (process air and the dried air is introduced by the dehumidifier inside the cold store. Eight air temperature probes were introduced in the store; two probes (HOBO U12-012, 1 HOBO – Onset Computer Corporation, Cape Cod, MA, USA were also introduced and used to measure relative humidity and temperature together with an anemometer to analyse any changes in thermal and fluid dynamics in the cell environment. COMSOL multiphysics software (Comsol Group, Stockolm, Sweden was used to simulate the store environment based on the finite elements method. This allowed us to compare and discuss the experimental data collected and the results obtained by the thermo- fluid-dynamic simulation.

  6. Biogenic amine production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains in the model system of Dutch-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasarová, Radka; Pachlová, Vendula; Buňková, Leona; Menšíková, Anna; Georgová, Nikola; Dráb, Vladimír; Buňka, František

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biogenic amine production of two starter strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (strains from the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms - CCDM 824 and CCDM 946) with decarboxylase positive activity in a model system of Dutch-type cheese during a 90-day ripening period at 10°C. During ripening, biogenic amine and free amino acid content, microbiological characteristics and proximate chemical properties were observed. By the end of the ripening period, the putrescine content in both samples with the addition of the biogenic amine producing strain almost evened out and the concentration of putrescine was >800mg/kg. The amount of tyramine in the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 824 approached the limit of 400mg/kg by the end of ripening. In the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 946 it even exceeded 500mg/kg. In the control samples, the amount of biogenic amines was insignificant.

  7. Manufacture and Incorporation of Liposome-Entrapped Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid into Model Miniature Gouda-Type Cheese and Subsequent Effect on Starter Viability, pH, and Moisture Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Lisa N; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Sheehan, Jeremiah J; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2016-10-25

    Liposome-encapsulated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was incorporated into a model miniature Gouda-type cheese (20 g) in order to assess its effect on rennet gelation, starter viability, pH, and moisture content. EDTA was encapsulated within 2 different food-grade proliposome preparations, Pro-Lipo Duo and Pro-Lipo C (50% and 40% unsaturated soybean phospholipids and 50% and 60% aqueous medium, respectively), using the following high-shear technologies: Ultra-Turrax (5000 rpm), 2-stage homogenization (345 bar), or microfluidization (690 bar). Liposome size distribution was affected by the high-shear technology employed with the proportion of large vesicles (>100 nm) decreasing in the order microfluidization Gouda-type cheese. Addition of liposome-encapsulated EDTA to milk during cheese making did not impact pH or rennet gel formation. No differences in composition or pH were evident in liposome-treated cheeses. The results of this study show that the incorporation of liposome-encapsulated EDTA into milk during cheese manufacture did not affect milk fermentation, moisture content, or pH, suggesting that this approach may be suitable for studying the effects of calcium equilibrium on the texture of brine-salted cheeses. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Application of high pressure processing for controlling Clostridium tyrobutyricum and late blowing defect on semi-hard cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Marta; Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Delgado, David; Gaya, Pilar; Garde, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the application of different high pressure (HP) treatments (200-500 MPa at 14 °C for 10 min) to industrial sized semi-hard cheeses on day 7, with the aim of controlling two Clostridium tyrobutyricum strains causing butyric acid fermentation and cheese late blowing defect (LBD). Clostridium metabolism and LBD appearance in cheeses were monitored by sensory (cheese swelling, cracks/splits, off-odours) and instrumental analyses (organic acids by HPLC and volatile compounds by SPME/GC-MS) after 60 days. Cheeses with clostridial spores HP-untreated and HP-treated at 200 MPa showed visible LBD symptoms, lower concentrations of lactic, citric and acetic acids, and higher levels of pyruvic, propionic and butyric acids and of 1-butanol, ethyl and methyl butanoate, and ethyl pentanoate than cheeses without spores. However, cheeses with clostridial spores and HP-treated at ≥ 300 MPa did not show LBD symptoms and their organic acids and volatile compounds profiles were comparable to those of their respective HP-treated control cheeses, despite HP treatments caused a low spore reduction. A decrease in C. tyrobutyricum spore counts was observed after curd pressing, which seems to indicate an early spore germination, suggesting that HP treatments ≥300 MPa were able to inactivate the emerged C. tyrobutyricum vegetative cells and, thereby, prevent LBD.

  9. Tracing and inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus in barbecue cheese production after product recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johler, S; Zurfluh, K; Stephan, R

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of enterotoxins formed by Staphylococcus aureus during growth in the food matrix. Following a recall of barbecue cheese due to the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Switzerland in July 2015, we analyzed the production process of the respective dairy. Although most cheese-making processes involve acidification to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, barbecue cheese has to maintain a pH >6.0 to prevent undesired melting of the cheese. In addition, the dairy decided to retain the traditional manual production process of the barbecue cheese. In this study, therefore, we aimed to (1) trace Staph. aureus along the barbecue cheese production process, and (2) develop a sustainable strategy to inhibit growth of Staph. aureus and decrease the risk of staphylococcal food poisoning without changing the traditional production process. To this end, we traced Staph. aureus in a step-wise blinded process analysis on 4 different production days using spa (Staphylococcus protein A gene) typing, DNA microarray profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. We subsequently selected a new starter culture and used a model cheese production including a challenge test assay to assess its antagonistic effect on Staph. aureus growth, as well as its sensory and technological implications. We detected Staph. aureus in 30% (37/124) of the collected samples taken from the barbecue cheese production at the dairy. This included detection of Staph. aureus in the final product on all 4 production days, either after enrichment or using quantitative detection. We traced 2 enterotoxigenic Staph. aureus strains (t073/CC45 and t282/CC45) colonizing the nasal cavity and the forearms of the cheesemakers to the final product. In the challenge test assay, we were able to show that the new starter culture inhibited growth of Staph. aureus while meeting

  10. Fed-batch bioreactor process with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rech

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303 was transformed with two yeast integrative plasmids containing Kluyveromyces lactis LAC4 and LAC12 genes that codify beta-galactosidase and lactose permease respectively. The BLR030 recombinant strain was selected due to its growth and beta-galactosidase production capacity. Different culture media based on deproteinized cheese whey (DCW were tested and the best composition (containing DCW, supplemented with yeast extract 1 %, and peptone 3 % (w/v was chosen for bioreactor experiments. Batch, and fed-batch cultures with linear ascending feeding for 25 (FB25, 35 (FB35, and 50 (FB50 hours, were performed. FB35 and FB50 produced the highest beta-galactosidase specific activities (around 1,800 U/g cells, and also the best productivities (180 U/L.h. Results show the potential use of fed-batch cultures of recombinant S. cerevisiae on industrial applications using supplemented whey as substrate.

  11. Optimization on of Pizza cheese process parameters by response surface optimization%响应面法优化Pizza干酪加工关键工艺参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 张建强; 冯丽蓉; 张丽萍

    2013-01-01

    By using five levels and four factors quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination design, the optimal Pizza cheese process conditions were studied. This study selected the pre-acidification pH shrinkage temperature, stretching temperature and stretching time for single-factor test, and verify its significant. The results showed that the Pizza cheese optimum conditions were as followed: the pre-acidification pH value 4.56, the shrinkage temperature 40.56℃, drawing temperature 79.70℃, and stretching time 7.62 min. Here the model predicted sensory score is 48.71, verification test results is 48.50, and fits the predicted value.%采用四因素五水平二次回归正交旋转组合试验设计,研究Pizza干酪的最佳优化工艺条件,选择预酸化pH、热收缩温度、拉伸温度和拉伸时间进行试验,建立回归模型,并验证回归模型的显著性.结果表明,Pizza干酪的最佳工艺条件:预酸化pH值6.45,热收缩温度40.56℃,拉伸温度79.70℃,拉伸时间7.62 min.该条件下模型预测感官评分值为48.71,验证实验结果为48.50,与模型预测值基本一致.

  12. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures.

  13. High-pressure processing of a raw milk cheese improved its food safety maintaining the sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco José; Delgado, Jonathan; González-Crespo, José; Cava, Ramón; Ramírez, Rosario

    2013-12-01

    The effect of high-pressure treatment (400 or 600 MPa for 7 min) on microbiology, proteolysis, texture and sensory parameters was investigated in a mature raw goat milk cheese. At day 60 of analysis, Mesophilic aerobic, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and Listeria spp. were inactivated after high-pressure treatment at 400 or 600 MPa. At day 90, mesophilic aerobic, lactic acid bacteria and Micrococacceae counts were significantly lower in high-pressure-treated cheeses than in control ones. In general, nitrogen fractions were significantly modified after high-pressure treatment on day 60 at 600 MPa compared with control cheeses, but this effect was not found in cheeses after 30 days of storage (day 90). On the other hand, high-pressure treatment caused a significant increase of some texture parameters. However, sensory analysis showed that neither trained panellists nor consumers found significant differences between control and high-pressure-treated cheeses.

  14. Amaltheys: A fluorescence-based analyzer to assess cheese milk denatured whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacotte, Pierre; Gomez, Franck; Bardeau, Floriane; Muller, Sabine; Acharid, Abdelhaq; Quervel, Xavier; Trossat, Philippe; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès

    2015-10-01

    The cheese industry faces many challenges to optimize cheese yield and quality. A very precise standardization of the cheese milk is needed, which is achieved by a fine control of the process and milk composition. Thorough analysis of protein composition is important to determine the amount of protein that will be retained in the curd or lost in the whey. The fluorescence-based Amaltheys analyzer (Spectralys Innovation, Romainville, France) was developed to assess pH 4.6-soluble heat-sensitive whey proteins (sWP*) in 5 min. These proteins are those that can be denatured upon heat-treatment and further retained in the curd after coagulation. Monitoring of sWP* in milk and subsequent adaptation of the process is a reliable solution to achieve stable cheese yield and quality. Performance of the method was evaluated by an accredited laboratory on a 0 to 7 g/L range. Accuracy compared with the reference Kjeldahl method is also provided with a standard error of 0.25 g/L. Finally, a 4-mo industrial trial in a cheese plant is described, where Amaltheys was used as a process analytical technology to monitor sWP* content in ingredients and final cheese milk. Calibration models over quality parameters of final cheese were also built from near-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopic data. The Amaltheys analyzer was found to be a rapid, compact, and accurate device to help implementation of standardization procedures in the dairy industry.

  15. Physical sample structure as predictive factor in growth modeling of Listeria innocua in a white cheese model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie M.; Bertram, Hanne C.; Andersen, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Growth of Listeria innocua at 9 °C was investigated in white cheeses manufactured from ultra-filtrate milk concentrate added varying amounts of skimmed milk powder, NaCl and glucono-delta-lactone. Characterization of the white cheese structures was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T...

  16. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese. PMID:27621695

  17. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese.

  18. Changes in the microbial composition of raw milk induced by thermization treatments applied prior to traditional Greek hard cheese processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelis, John; Lianou, Alexandra; Kakouri, Athanasia; Delbès, Céline; Rogelj, Irena; Bogovic-Matijasić, Bojana; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2009-04-01

    The microbiological quality, safety, and composition of mixtures of ewe's and goat's milk (90:10) used for cheesemaking were evaluated before and after thermization at 60 and 67 degrees C for 30 s. Such mild thermal treatments are commonly applied to reduce natural contaminants of raw milk before processing for traditional hard Greek cheeses. Raw milk samples had an average total bacterial count of 7.3 log CFU/ml; most of these bacteria were lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pseudomonads. The LAB flora of raw milk was dominated by enterococci (40.8%), followed by lactococci (20.4%), leuconostocs (18.4%), and mesophilic lactobacilli (10.2%). Enterococcus faecalis (30.1%) and Enterococcus faecium (13.7%) were the most common LAB isolates, followed by Enterococcus durans, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc lactis. Thermization at 60 degrees C for 30 s was effective for reducing raw milk contamination by enterobacteria (5.1 log CFU/ml), coagulase-positive staphylococci (3.3 log CFU/ml), and Listeria (present in 25-ml samples) to safe levels, but it also reduced mesophilic lactococci, leuconostocs, lactobacilli, and selected enterococci (72.0%) in thermized milk. Thermization at 67 degrees C for 30 s had a major inactivation effect on all bacterial groups. Two nisin-producing L. lactis subsp. lactis strains (M78 and M104) were isolated from raw milk, but neither nisin-producing nor other bacteriocin-producing LAB strains were isolated from thermized milk. Thus, thermization treatments control harmful bacteria but also may have a negative impact on milk quality by reducing desirable LAB and the biodiversity of raw milk bacteria overall, inactivating potentially protective LAB strains and enhancing the ability of potentially pathogenic enterococci to grow in fresh cheese curds.

  19. A model describing Debaryomyces hansenii growth and substrate consumption during a smear soft cheese deacidification and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, M H; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Hélias, A; Corrieu, G

    2007-05-01

    A mechanistic model for Debaryomyces hansenii growth and substrate consumption, lactose conversion into lactate by lactic acid bacteria, as well as lactose and lactate transfer from the core toward the rind was established. The model described the first step (14 d) of the ripening of a smear soft cheese and included the effects of temperature and relative humidity of the ripening chamber on the kinetic parameters. Experimental data were collected from experiments carried out in an aseptic pilot scale ripening chamber under 9 different combinations of temperature (8, 12, and 16 degrees C) and relative humidity (85, 93, and 99%) according to a complete experimental design. The model considered the cheese as a system with 2 compartments (rind and core) and included 5 state evolution equations and 16 parameters. The model succeeded in predicting D. hansenii growth and lactose and lactate concentrations during the first step of ripening (curd deacidification) in core and rind. The nonlinear data-fitting method allowed the determination of tight confidence intervals for the model parameters. The residual standard error (RSE) between model predictions and experimental data was close to the experimental standard deviation between repeated experiments.

  20. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    of cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  1. Homogenization and lipase treatment of milk and resulting methyl ketone generation in blue cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingkai; Fonseca, Leorges M; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Rankin, Scott A

    2014-06-25

    A specific range of methyl ketones contribute to the distinctive flavor of traditional blue cheeses. These ketones are metabolites of lipid metabolism by Penicillium mold added to cheese for this purpose. Two processes, namely, the homogenization of milk fat and the addition of exogenous lipase enzymes, are traditionally applied measures to control the formation of methyl ketones in blue cheese. There exists little scientific validation of the actual effects of these treatments on methyl ketone development. The present study evaluated the effects of milk fat homogenization and lipase treatments on methyl ketone and free fatty acid development using sensory methods and the comparison of selected volatile quantities using gas chromatography. Initial work was conducted using a blue cheese system model; subsequent work was conducted with manufactured blue cheese. In general, there were modest effects of homogenization and lipase treatments on free fatty acid (FFA) and methyl ketone concentrations in blue cheese. Blue cheese treatments involving Penicillium roqueforti lipase with homogenized milk yielded higher FFA and methyl ketone levels, for example, a ∼20-fold increase for hexanoic acid and a 3-fold increase in 2-pentanone.

  2. Quantitative and qualitative transitions of methanogen community structure during the batch anaerobic digestion of cheese-processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changsoo; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2010-08-01

    Qualitative and quantitative shifts in methanogen community structure, associated with process performance data, were investigated during the batch anaerobic digestion of a cheese-processing wastewater, whey permeate. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR techniques were applied to obtain qualitative and quantitative microbial data sets, respectively, based on methanogen 16S rRNA genes. Throughout the operation, dynamic variations in both qualitative and quantitative community structures were observed, with repeated shifts in dominance between the aceticlastic Methanosarcinaceae (suggested mainly by the detection of a Methanosarcina-like population) and the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales (suggested mainly by the detection of a Methanofollis-like population). This trend corresponded well to the diauxic utilization of acetate and longer-chain fatty acids (C(3)-C(6)), mainly propionate. Joint-plot non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) analysis demonstrated that the qualitative and quantitative community shifts had significant correlations with the composition of residual organic acids and the methane production rate, respectively. This suggests the potential use of microbial community shift analysis as an indicative tool for diagnosing anaerobic digestion processes. The results suggest that more attention should be directed to quantitative, as well as qualitative, approaches for a better understanding of anaerobic digestion, particularly in terms of biogas production efficiency, under dynamic and transitional conditions.

  3. Ripened Semihard Cheese Covered with Lard and Dehydrated Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Leaves: Processing, Characterization, and Quality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Marina Tolentino; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Demiate, Ivo Mottin; Bersot, Luciano dos Santos; Granato, Daniel; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to establish a manufacturing protocol and to characterize semihard cheese covered with lard and rosemary during ripening. After the manufacturing protocol was defined, the cheeses were produced with pasteurized and raw milk from Holstein cows, with and without (control) coating, and then ripened for 60 d. During this period the physicochemical properties, color, proteolysis, texture profile, and sensory acceptance were performed. The early-ripening cheeses differed from the others in terms of color and moisture content. Multivariate statistical analysis separated chesses in groups differentiated by the effects of heat treatment of milk and ripening period. The ripened cheeses obtained from raw milk were sensorially more preferred. The coating gave the final products higher moisture content and favored color and texture characteristics. Consumer testing showed that the cheese obtained from raw milk and coated with lard and rosemary was the most preferred (acceptance of 82%) due to the specific coating of rosemary (aroma and flavor). This product has potential to add value and to diversify the production of semihard cheeses.

  4. Remote engineering for a cheese whey biorefinery: an Internet-based application for process design, economic analysis, monitoring, and control of multiple plant sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gilson A; Giordano, Raquel L C; Giordano, Roberto C

    2009-01-01

    The proteolysis of cheese whey with the aid of immobilized enzymes is an attractive alternative for this by-product of the dairy industry. Among some possible applications for whey protein hydrolysates, one may cite their use as protein source for individuals with reduced capacity of digestion, or with genetic metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria patients, for instance). The multipurpose plant that processes whey is named here as a cheese whey biorefinery. This work presents the remote control and monitoring of the whey biorefineries using the Internet. In an integrated environment, the web application also enables simulation and economic analyses of the process. This technology might allow small companies to access a remote "engineering centre", with know-how on plant design and advanced control techniques. The idea can also be extended to large dairy companies, providing the remote control of geographically spread sites of production.

  5. Proteolysis of prato type cheese produced using ultrafiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Spadoti Leila Maria; Dornellas José Raimundo Ferreira; Roig Salvador Massaguer

    2005-01-01

    The application of milk ultrafiltration technology for cheese manufacture presents several advantages. However, it also influences proteolysis and, consequently, cheese ripening. The effects of five different processing methods for Prato cheese were evaluated with respect to the time evolution of the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes (EPI and DPI). The following treatments (T) for cheese production were studied: T1 - without ultrafiltration (standard); T2, T3, T4 and T5 - using milk con...

  6. Microscopic analysis of "prato", "mussarela" and "mineiro" cheese sold in street markets of the City of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Correia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cheese should be produced from ingredients of good quality and processed under hygienic conditions. Further, cheese should be transported, stored and sold in an appropriate manner in order to avoid, among other things, the incorporation of extraneous materials (filth of biological origin or otherwise, in contravention of the relevant food legislation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions of "prato", "mussarela", and "mineiro" cheeses sold at the street food markets in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Forty-seven samples of each of the three types of cheese were collected during the period from March, 1993 to February, 1994. The Latin square was used as a statistical model for sampling and random selection of the street markets from which to collect the cheese samples. The samples were analysed for the presence of extraneous matters outside for which purpose the samples were washed and filtered and inside, for which the methodology of enzymathic digestion of the sample with pancreatine, followed by filtering,was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 141 samples analysed, 75.9% exhibited at least one sort of extraneous matters. For the "prato" and "mussarela" cheeses, the high number of contaminated samples was due mainly to extraneous matters present inside the cheese, whereas in the "mineiro" cheese, besides the internal filth, 100% of the samples had external filth.

  7. Microscopic analysis of "prato", "mussarela" and "mineiro" cheese sold in street markets of the City of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Marlene

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cheese should be produced from ingredients of good quality and processed under hygienic conditions. Further, cheese should be transported, stored and sold in an appropriate manner in order to avoid, among other things, the incorporation of extraneous materials (filth of biological origin or otherwise, in contravention of the relevant food legislation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions of "prato", "mussarela", and "mineiro" cheeses sold at the street food markets in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Forty-seven samples of each of the three types of cheese were collected during the period from March, 1993 to February, 1994. The Latin square was used as a statistical model for sampling and random selection of the street markets from which to collect the cheese samples. The samples were analysed for the presence of extraneous matters outside for which purpose the samples were washed and filtered and inside, for which the methodology of enzymathic digestion of the sample with pancreatine, followed by filtering,was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 141 samples analysed, 75.9% exhibited at least one sort of extraneous matters. For the "prato" and "mussarela" cheeses, the high number of contaminated samples was due mainly to extraneous matters present inside the cheese, whereas in the "mineiro" cheese, besides the internal filth, 100% of the samples had external filth.

  8. Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almena-Aliste, Montserrat; Mietton, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Cheese is one of the most fascinating, complex, and diverse foods enjoyed today. Three elements constitute the cheese ecosystem: ripening agents, consisting of enzymes and microorganisms; the composition of the fresh cheese; and the environmental conditions during aging. These factors determine and define not only the sensory quality of the final cheese product but also the vast diversity of cheeses produced worldwide. How we define and categorize cheese is a complicated matter. There are various approaches to cheese classification, and a global approach for classification and characterization is needed. We review current cheese classification schemes and the limitations inherent in each of the schemes described. While some classification schemes are based on microbiological criteria, others rely on descriptions of the technologies used for cheese production. The goal of this review is to present an overview of comprehensive and practical integrative classification models in order to better describe cheese diversity and the fundamental differences within cheeses, as well as to connect fundamental technological, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics to contribute to an overall characterization of the main families of cheese, including the expanding world of American artisanal cheeses.

  9. Detection and characterization of Bifidobacterium crudilactis and B-mongoliense able to grow during the manufacturing process of French raw milk cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Delcenserie, Véronique; Taminiau, Bernard; Gavini, Françoise; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athenais; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Theves, Muriel; Mahieu, Melanie; Daube, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study of a production chain of raw milk cheeses (St Marcellin, Vercors area, France) led to the isolation of two Bifidobacterium populations: B. crudilactis and B. mongoliense, that were able to grow along the production chain. The aims of this study were to further detect and characterize these bacteria along the process and evaluate the ability of some strains to survive or grow in adverse conditions. Results: Using PCR coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphis...

  10. Chemometrics approach to substrate development, case: semisyntetic cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Hansen, Birgitte Vedel

    1998-01-01

    from food production facilities.The Chemometrics approach to substrate development is illustrated by the development of a semisyntetic cheese substrate. Growth, colour formation and mycotoxin production of 6 cheese related fungi were studied on 9 types of natural cheeses and 24 synthetic cheese......, the most frequently occurring contaminant on semi-hard cheese. Growth experiments on the substrate were repeatable and reproducible. The substrate was also suitable for the starter P. camemberti. Mineral elements in cheese were shown to have strong effect on growth, mycotoxin production and colour...... formation of fungi. For P. roqueforti, P. discolor, P. verrucosum and Aspergillus versicolor the substrate was less suitable as a model cheese substrate, which indicates great variation in nutritional demands of the fungi. Substrates suitable for studies of specific cheese types was found for P. roqueforti...

  11. 老北京传统江米酒奶酪的工艺探讨%Investigation the Process of Traditional Old Beijing Glutinous Rice Wine Cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗秋水; 徐其华; 蔡菁菁; 汤凯洁

    2014-01-01

    Fresh milk was used as the main raw material by means of the traditional cheese process to pro-duce a glutinous rice wine cheese.The L9 (33 ) orthogonal method was adopted to study the fermentation pa-rameters.This paper describes the effects of different fermentation agents,amounts of sugar and skim milk pow-der on the color,taste,odor,structural status,water holding capacity and texture of glutinous rice wine cheese. The results showed that the optimum amounts of ingredients for the production of glutinous rice wine cheese were as follows:rice wine at 8%, sugar at 4%, and milk powder at 6%.The best quality of products resulted from fermentation at 45℃and incubation for 72h.The sensory evaluation score of this cheese was 97.9,and the water holding capacity was 90.41%.This cheese showed better structural states of flexibility, smoothness and exquisiteness.%以新鲜牛乳为主要原料,根据传统奶酪的工艺生产了江米酒奶酪。采用L9(33)正交实验的方法,研究了不同发酵剂的添加量、糖的添加量以及脱脂乳粉的添加量对江米酒奶酪色泽、滋气味、组织状态、持水力及质构的影响。结果表明:生产江米酒奶酪的最佳工艺条件为米酒添加量为8%,糖添加量为4%,奶粉添加量为6%,恒温45℃培养72 h产品质量最佳。此时奶酪感官评定评分为97.9,持水力为90.41%。组织状态弹性、滑爽性及细腻度都比较好。

  12. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes...... single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P....... 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different...

  13. HACCP在山羊乳软质干酪加工中的应用%HACCP in Goat Milk Soft Cheese Processing Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝战斌; 马兆瑞; 姚瑞祺

    2012-01-01

    The basic principle of HACCP was used on goat milk soft cheese production and the potential risk factors in the process were analyzed.Determined the critical control point in the goat milk soft cheese production,and ensured critical control points,critical limits and monitoring measures,developed HACCP control table,verified the HACCP system test by the food safety inspection method,guaranteed the quality and safety of goat milk soft cheese production in the process.%运用HACCP基本原理对山羊乳软质干酪生产过程中潜在的危险因素进行了分析,确定了山羊乳软质干酪生产中的关键控制点,并确定了能保证关键控制点临界限度和监控措施,制定了HACCP控制表,最后用食品安全性检验方法对HACCP体系检验查证,确保山羊乳软质干酪生产过程中的质量和安全性。

  14. Recovery of residual soluble protein by two-step precipitation process with concomitant COD reduction from the yeast-cultivated cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J S S; Yan, S; More, T T; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to recover the residual soluble protein after cultivation of yeast (K. marxianus) in cheese whey. Cheese whey continuous fermentation with cell recycle system was carried out at 40 °C and pH 3.5. The yeast biomass was separated from the fermented broth by centrifugation and residual soluble protein from fermented whey supernatant was precipitated by heat treatment (at 100 °C, pH 4.5 and 10 min incubation). The maximum soluble protein recovery up to 53 % was achieved at pH 4.5 with 54 % residual COD removal. However, gravity sedimentable precipitates were obtained at pH 3.5 with 47 % protein recovery. Therefore, the reactor (scale up) study was conducted at pH 3.5 with agitation, which resulted in 68 % of residual soluble protein recovery and simultaneously residual COD removal of 62 %. Further precipitation/coagulation of soluble protein was also evaluated using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and then two precipitation (thermal followed by CMC precipitation) processes were combined to increase the protein precipitation, which finally reached up to 81 % of total soluble protein recovery from the supernatant. This optimized process could be applied to recover the residual protein left after fermentation of cheese whey without centrifugation.

  15. Selection of Mozzarella Processed Cheese Ingredients and Process Conditions%Mozzarella再制干酪辅料及其工艺条件的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈苓; 刘会平

    2012-01-01

    研究了利用Mozzarella天然干酪制备再制干酪的工艺.通过单因素试验和正交试验,确定了最佳辅料配方和工艺条件:成熟期为1个月和4个月的Mozzarella干酪以2∶1混合,复配乳化盐(添加柠檬酸钠量0.80%、多聚磷酸钠为0.08%、焦磷酸钠为0.15%),乳清浓缩蛋白用量6%,黄油用量15%,加水量20%,乳化水浴温度100℃,乳化时间7 min,乳化转速1000 r/min.利用GC-MS法对再制干酪中主要挥发性风味化合物进行分析共鉴定出23种风味物质其中烃类7.8%;醇类9.56%;醛类4.81%;酮类5.82%;酸类22.91%;酯类41.1%;酚类0.269%及二甲基砜7.73%.%A method was developed for preparing processed cheese by using Mozzarella. The optimum ingredients formulation and process conditions were determined through the single factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment. The best ratio of two kinds of cheese with their mutartion periods of one-month and four-month, respectively, was 2:1. The optimum addition amonts of trisodium citrate, pentasodium tripolyphosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate.whey protein concentrate, butter and water were 0.8%, 0.08%, 0.15%, 6%, 15%, and 20% , respectively. The best melting temperature, thawing time and mixing speed were 100 癈, 7 min and 1000 r/min, respectively. GC-MS method was used to analyze the volatile flavor compounds of cheese flavorings and 23 kinds of flavor compounds were identified in total. The contents of hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters, phenols and dimethyl sulfoxide were determined as 7.8%, 9.56%, 4.81%, 5.82%, 22.91%, 41.1%, 0.269% and 7.73%, respectively.

  16. The language of cheese-ripening cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Microbial interactions are of importance for the establishment and growth of cheese ripening cultures. An interesting aspect of microbial interactions is cell-cell communication, often referred to as quorum sensing; the process in which micro-organisms communicate with signalling molecules and co......-based and ammonia signalling in the dairy-relevant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii. Furthermore, the influence of cheese matrices on quorum sensing systems is briefly mentioned. Finally, we discuss how knowledge on quorum sensing systems in cheese ripening cultures may be used for optimisation of the ripening processes....... be of importance is surface ripened cheeses. The present review focuses on our findings on quorum sensing systems in cheese ripening cultures. The main focus is on the group of bacterial non-species-specific signalling molecules referred to as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in smear bacteria as well as alcohol...

  17. Traditional cheeses: rich and diverse microbiota with associated benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montel, Marie-Christine; Buchin, Solange; Mallet, Adrien; Delbes-Paus, Céline; Vuitton, Dominique A; Desmasures, Nathalie; Berthier, Françoise

    2014-05-02

    The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in

  18. Major technological advances and trends in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2006-04-01

    Over the last 25 yr, cheese production in the United States has more than doubled with most of the increase due to production in the western states. Processing large volumes of milk into cheese has necessitated changes in vat size and design, reliance on computer software, and milk standardization, including use of membrane concentration of milk either at the cheese plant or on the farm. There has been increased interest in specialty cheeses including cheese made from sheep, goat, and organic milks. In addition, membrane processing of whey into various value-added components has become routine. Changes in cheese manufacturing protocols have resulted in a reduction of the manufacturing time and the necessity for consistent and reliable starter activity. Major advances in the genetics of microorganisms have not only resulted in widespread use of fermentation-produced chymosin but also in starter bacteria with improved resistance to bacteriophage infection. Genomics and proteomics have increased the likelihood of the development of nonstarter adjuncts with specific enzymatic activity. Indeed, the use of adjunct microorganisms to produce cheese with a unique flavor profile or to produce cheese with more consistent or better quality flavor has gained almost universal acceptance.

  19. Research on processing technology and quality of fan-style cheese%乳扇加工新工艺及品质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绍芬; 黄艾祥; 段达松

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, processing technology and quality of fan-style cheese were studied according to its traditional technology and Italy style cheese. The improved technology showed that Raw Baffulo Milk → Pasteurized Milk → inoculate starter culture and fermentation →milk congeal by rennet → cutting → remove whey → stretching in hot water to make it like fan. The nutritional composition of the fanstyle cheese are 29.25% protein, 51.14% fat and 10.14% water. The microbe index of the product are mold ≤ 50 g-1,yeast ≤ 50 g-1, coliform ≤0.30g-1 and no pathogen. The improved fan-style cheese was excellent and the quality met some of Chinese standard.%在乳扇传统加工工艺基础上,结合意大利干酪加工技术,研究乳扇新加工工艺和产品质量.筛选的最佳工艺为:生鲜乳→质检→净乳→巴氏杀菌→冷却→接种发酵→加酶凝乳→凝乳、切割→乳清成熟→堆叠后熟→热烫拉伸→成型→干燥→包装→检验→成品.水牛奶乳扇的蛋白质平均质量分数29.25%,脂肪平均质量分数为51.14%,水分10.14%;霉菌≤50g-1,酵母菌≤50g-1,大肠菌群(最近似值)≤0.30 g-1,致病菌未检出.产品质量符合相关规定.

  20. Addition of whey protein to fresh cheese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Arce-Méndez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been conducted in order to assess the effect of adding whey protein (WP to fresh cheese. The yield, proximal chemical composition, tryptophan content,and texture and consumer sensorial acceptance were obtained. The study was conducted at a cheese factory located in San Carlos, Costa Rica, in 2011. The protein obtained from whey was added during the cheese manufacturing process, before adding the microbial rennet; and four enrichment levels were evaluated, including one control. The supplemented cheese showed an acceptance rating between 6.8 and 7.1. Products with 75 and 120 g of added whey protein per kilogram of milk showed no significant differences versus non-supplemented cheese, while the preference towards the cheese with 150 g WP/kg was less than that of the control (p<0.05. A cluster analysis revealed the existence of two consumer groups: one, accounting for 65% of the members of the panel, whose preference was unaffected by the protein supplemented; and, the other group where the added protein affected their liking negatively. Adding whey protein to the cheese resulted in a significant increase in yield and in the protein-to-water ratio, as well as a reduction in fat content (p<0.05. Nevertheless, there were structural changes in the cheese that caused the reduction of certain texture properties, generating changes in their sensory properties that reduced the preference of a representative group of consumers towards the product.

  1. Cheese / Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Eero, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Fotoajakirjast "Cheese". Fotograafia uurimisest, fotoajaloo läbikirjutatusest Eestis. Samas "Cheese'i" toimetaja Tiit Lepp ajakirja erainitsiatiivil väljaandmisest, Eesti Kultuurkapitali ebapiisavast ja määramatust toetusest

  2. Cheese / Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Eero, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Fotoajakirjast "Cheese". Fotograafia uurimisest, fotoajaloo läbikirjutatusest Eestis. Samas "Cheese'i" toimetaja Tiit Lepp ajakirja erainitsiatiivil väljaandmisest, Eesti Kultuurkapitali ebapiisavast ja määramatust toetusest

  3. Study of the critical processing conditions of the high-moisture Mozzarella cheese%高水分Mozzarella干酪关键工艺条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔惠玲; 马川兰; 张玉军

    2012-01-01

    With fresh milk as raw material, using innovative production processes, by a series of experiments, the critical processing conditions of the high梞oisture Mozzarella cheese were determined, which should have some practical significance.%以新鲜的牛乳为原料,采用创新的生产工艺,通过一系列的试验,确定了高水分Mozzarella干酪的关键工艺条件,为Mozzarella干酪的工业化生产提供了理论和技术支持.

  4. Effect of increasing the protein-to-fat ratio and reducing fat content on the chemical and physical properties of processed cheese product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinee, T P; O'Callaghan, D J

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies indicate that the intake of dietary fat and saturated fats in the modern Western diet is excessive and contributes adversely to health, lifestyle, and longevity. In response, manufacturers of cheese and processed cheese products (PCP) are pursuing the development of products with reduced fat contents. The present study investigated the effect of altering the fat level (13.8, 18.2, 22.7, 27.9, and 32.5 g/100g) in PCP on their chemical and physical properties. The PCP were formulated in triplicate to different fat levels using Cheddar cheese, skim milk cheese, anhydrous milk fat, emulsifying salt (ES), NaCl, and water. The formulations were designed to give fixed moisture (~53 g/100g) and ES:protein ratio (0.105). The resultant PCP, and their water-soluble extracts (WSE), prepared from a macerated blend of PCP and water at a weight ratio of 1:2, were analyzed at 4d. Reducing the fat content significantly increased the firmness of the unheated PCP and reduced the flowability and maximum loss tangent (fluidity) of the melted PCP. These changes coincided with increases in the levels of total protein, water-soluble protein, water-insoluble protein, and water-soluble Ca, and a decrease in the molar ratio of water-soluble Ca to soluble P. However, both water-soluble Ca and water-soluble protein decreased when expressed as percentages of total protein and total Ca, respectively, in the PCP. The high level of protein was a major factor contributing to the deterioration in physical properties as the fat content of PCP was reduced. Diluting the protein content or reducing the potential of the protein to aggregate, and thereby form structures that contribute to rigidity, may provide a means for improving quality of reduced-fat PCP by using natural cheese with lower intact casein content and lower calcium:casein ratio, for example, or by decreasing the ratio of sodium phosphate to sodium citrate-based ES.

  5. Optimization of preparation process for block-type cheese analogue%块状仿真干酪制备工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁宁; 霍贵成

    2011-01-01

    Cheese analogues are manufactured by blending various edible oil/fats, proteins, water and other ingredients into a cheese-like product They are increasingly used due to their cost-effectiveness and the simplicity of their manufactures. Rennet casein was used as main materials to develop cheese analogue in the present study. The production process of cheese analogue was investigated by single factor and the design of three factors quadratic. The optimal formula was 25.5% of rennet casein, 1.5% of trisodium citrate blended with disodium phosphate at the ratio from 2 to 1,17% of fat content, 0.6% of lactic acid content 1.55% of salt content Cheese analogues made with the formula developed in this study had lower firmness, higher cohesiveness and higher melting ability, compared with the marketing products with similar composition and characteristics.%仿真干酪是将各种成分,如食用油/脂肪、蛋白质、水等,经过加热和剪切作用后形成的干酪样产品.由于仿真干酪具有低成本、生产过程简单等优点,其使用越来越广泛.以酶凝干酪素为主要原料,通过单因素和三因素二次回归正交组合试验优化块状仿真干酪制备工艺.确定其配方为:酶凝干酪素25.5%;乳化盐1.5%,其中磷酸氢二钠∶柠檬酸钠=1∶2;花生油17%;乳酸0.6%;食盐1.55%.采用试验优化出的配方生产仿真干酪,与市场上相似组成及功能性的产品相比,硬度降低,粘聚性增加,融化性显著增加,且具有明显的花生油香味.

  6. The science of cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  7. Latin American cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

  8. The New Technique of Processed Cream Cheese%再制奶油奶酪生产新技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫蓓红

    2012-01-01

    针对影响再制奶油奶酪质构特性、持水性、持油性和感官等品质的关键工艺,包括融熔温度、融熔时间、剪切速率、均质压力和冷却方式进行了研究.结果表明,融熔过程中的温度和时间对样品的各个性质有一定影响,且融熔过程中剪切速率的影响最显著,最佳的融熔条件为80℃,10min,剪切速率900 r/min.不经均质的样品基本呈稠厚的液态,可流动.随着均质压力的提高,产品的硬度增加,当压力达到20 MPa时样品才达到硬度要求.本实验选择的两种冷却方式对样品的质构、感官和内部乳清析出没有显著影响,该工艺条件对产品品质总体影响不大.%The key process steps which can influence the texture, water-binding, oil-binding and sensory properties of processed cream cheese were studied, including melting temperature, time, shear rate, homogenization pressure and cooling. Results showed that temperature and time combination during melting had some impact on the property of processed cream cheese and agitation speed showed significant effects. The best melting conditions in this study was 80 °C, 10 min and 900 r/min shear rate. Homogenization was one of the most important process parameter and had extremely significant impact on the texture and sensory of processed cream cheese. Sample witout homogenization was semi liquid with fluid property. The hardness and spreadability of product increased with the homogenization pressure and can meet the target requirement until homogenization pressure reached 20 MPa. Two cooling process method used in this study had no impact on the texture, sensory and internal syneresis of processed cream cheese and had very less impact of overall property of finished product.

  9. The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Septier, Chantal; Boissard, Vanessa; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-02-15

    Reducing salt and lipid levels in foodstuffs without any effect on acceptability is a major challenge, particularly because of their interactions with other ingredients. This study used a multimodal approach to understand the effects of changes to the composition of model cheeses (20/28, 24/24, 28/20 lipid/protein ratios, 0% and 1% added NaCl) on sodium ion mobility ((23)Na NMR), in-mouth sodium release and flavour perception. An increase in the salt content decreased cheese firmness and perceived hardness, and increased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release and both saltiness and aroma perception. With the same amount of salt, a lower lipid/protein ratio increased the firmness of the cheeses, perceived hardness, and decreased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release, saltiness and aroma perception. These findings suggest on one hand that it could be possible to increase saltiness perception by varying cheese composition, thus inducing differences in sodium ion mobility and in free sodium ion concentration, leading to differences in in-mouth sodium release and saltiness perception, and on the other hand that the reformulation of foods in line with health guidelines needs to take account of both salt content and the lipid/protein ratio.

  10. 配方成分对再制干酪品质影响的研究进展%Advances in the Effect of Formulation Parameters on the Functional Properties of Processed Cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞瑞鹏

    2014-01-01

    再制干酪是以几种不同成熟度的天然干酪作为原料,粉碎混合后添加乳化盐及其它含乳或者不含乳的辅料,经加热熔融并持续搅拌而制得的一种质地均匀的产品。生产再制干酪的第一步是配方参数的设计,即通过选择合适的原料与添加物使产品的各项指标能符合预期。为了能够生产出具有特定物理化学性质和功能特性的再制干酪,科学调控包括pH值、钙含量、完整酪蛋白含量、乳糖含量和乳清蛋白含量等指标是十分重要的。本文详细介绍了这些指标对再制干酪品质产生的影响。%Processed cheese is produced by blending natural cheese in the presence of emulsifying salts, other dairy and nondairy ingredients, which fol owed by heating and continuous mixing to homogeneous texture product. The ifrst step to produce processed cheese is involves the formulation design of processed cheese. The desired formulation of processed cheese is achieved by appropriate selection of natural cheese and other ingredients. It is very important to control and monitor the pH, total calcium content, intact casein content, lactose content, and whey protein content while formulating processed cheese in order to produce a processed cheese with specific physicochemical and functional properties. The effect of these formulation parameters on the functional properties of processed cheese wil be discussed in this article.

  11. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  13. Prevalence, types, and geographical distribution of Listeria monocytogenes from a survey of retail Queso Fresco and associated cheese processing plants and dairy farms in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Enriquez, R I; Garcia-Galaz, A; Acedo-Felix, E; Gonzalez-Rios, I H; Call, J E; Luchansky, J B; Diaz-Cinco, M E

    2007-11-01

    In the first part of this study, samples were collected from farms, cheese processing plants (CPPs), and retail markets located in various geographical areas of Sonora, Mexico, over a 12-month period during the summer of 2004 and winter of 2005. Four (all Queso Fresco [QF] from retail markets) of 349 total samples tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Of these four positive samples, three were collected in the northern region and one in the southern region of Sonora. Additionally, two were collected during the winter months, and two were collected during the summer months. For the second part of the study, a total of 39 samples from a farm, a CPP, and retail markets were collected and processed according to a combination of the Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-143-SSA1-1995.10 method (NOM) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, and 27 samples from these same locations were collected and processed according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service method (USDA-FSIS). The NOM-FDA method recovered the pathogen from 6 (15%) of 39 samples (one cheese and five product contact surfaces), while the USDA-FSIS method recovered the pathogen from 5 (18.5%) of 27 samples (all product contact surfaces). In addition, the 40 isolates recovered from the 15 total samples that tested positive for Lm grouped into five distinct pulsotypes that were ca. 60% related, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The results of this study confirmed a 3.4% prevalence of Lm in QF collected from retail markets located in Sonora and no appreciable difference in the effectiveness of either the NOM-FDA or USDA-FSIS method to recover the pathogen from cheese or environmental samples.

  14. Water mobility and thermal properties of smoked soft cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Maria Baranowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present study was to characterize the functional parameters of smoked soft cheese, with the emphasis on the behavior of water and milk fat, as analyzed by DSC, which was used to directly measure the melting/freezing phase transitions in the cheese. This study was complemented by NMR measurements of the organization and distribution of the aqueous phase within the emulsions constituting the cheese. The smoked and unsmoked cheeses were characterized by similar compositions in terms of protein (19.08-19.12 g∙100 g-1, fat (18.86-19.02 g∙100 g-1, and water content (59.86-60.27 g∙100 g-1. The water activity was higher in the unsmoked cheese (aw = 0.9736 than in the smoked cheese (aw = 0.9615. This result was confirmed by DSC (higher ice melting enthalpy and NMR (higher T1 value measurements. The smoking process led to differences in the distribution and binding of water to the lipid-protein matrix of the cheese. There was more non-freezed bound water in the smoked cheese which resulted in a more fragile and loosened structure in the smoked cheese than the unsmoked, which manifested in lower values of stretching and meltability. The meltability of the mozzarella smoked cheese was 1.5 times less than that of the unsmoked cheese (tube test and Schreiber test.

  15. A Sublimation Model for the Martian Polar Swiss-Cheese Features. Observational and Modeling Studies of the South Polar Residual Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Shane; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    In their pioneering work Leighton and Murray argued that the Mars atmosphere, which is 95 percent CO2 today, is controlled by vapor equilibrium with a much larger polar reservoir of solid CO2. Here we argue that the polar reservoir is small and cannot function as a long-term buffer to the more massive atmosphere. Our work is based on modeling the circular depressions (Swiss-cheese features) in the south polar cap. We argue that a solid CO2 layer approximately 8 meters thick is being etched away to reveal water ice underneath. Preliminary results from the THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System) instrument seem to confirm our model.

  16. 乳化盐及加工条件对再制干酪质地及理化特性的影响%Effects of Emulsifying Salts and Processing Conditions on the Textural and Functional Properties of Processed Cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽萍; 张建强; 冷友斌; 马锦延; 宫春颖

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of several types of emulsifying salts (ES) and processing conditions on the textural properties of process cheese made from cheese. With the increasing of addition amount of ES, cooking temperature, cooking time, there is a significant decreased of melt-ability of processed cheese (p disodium phosphate > trisodium citrate. With the increasing of addition amount of ES and cooking time, there is a significant increase of hardness of processed cheese, and is a significant decrease of adhesiveness of processed cheese(p 0. 01). The maximum and minimum hardness and adhesiveness value of processed cheese (which the same amount of ES) is the sample made from trisodium citrate, and the sample made from trisodium pyrophosphate, respectively.%研究乳化盐及加工条件对再制干酪质地及理化特性的影响.结果表明,增加乳化盐的用量、融化温度和延长搅拌时间明显降低了再制干酪的融化性(p<0.01),不同种类乳化盐在相同添加水平下,制得样品的融化性:焦磷酸钠>磷酸氢二钠>柠檬酸钠;增加乳化盐的用量和延长搅拌时间制得的样品硬度显著增加、黏着性显著减小(p<0.01),提高融化温度制得的样品硬度增加,但其黏着性差异不显著(P>0.01).在添加量相同的情况下,柠檬酸钠制得样品的硬度和黏着性最大,焦磷酸钠使样品的硬度和黏着性最小.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus in cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese during production and storage can lead to production of enterotoxins responsible for human diseases. Due to specificity of those bacteria and complexity of cheese as a grown media, sometimes in the field it is very difficult to estimate an initial risk assessment of the S. aureus surveying in different cheese varieties. Moreover, the literature data on frequency and proportion of enterotoxigenic strains that cause cheese contamination are significantly different. The purpose of the present review is to objectively assess the risk of the potential occurrences of S. aureus in cheese and significance with respect to safety. The basic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, their presence in cheese and its potential risk for health are briefly reviewed. The own results of study relating to the presence of S. aureus in traditional (autochthonous hard sheep cheese made from raw milk are also discussed in this review.

  18. Pulsed light and antimicrobial combination treatments for surface decontamination of cheese: Favorable and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, J; Sullivan, G; Marostegan, L F; VanWees, S; Hsu, L C; Moraru, C I

    2017-03-01

    Postprocessing cross-contamination of cheese can lead to both food safety issues and significant losses due to spoilage. Pulsed light (PL) treatment, consisting of short, high-energy, broad-spectrum light pulses, has been proven effective in reducing the microbial load on cheese surface. As PL treatment effectiveness is limited by light-cheese interactions, the possibility to improve its effectiveness by combining it with the antimicrobial nisin was explored. The effect of natamycin, which is added to cheeses as an antifungal agent, on PL effectiveness was also investigated. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Listeria innocua were used as challenge microorganisms. Bacterial cultures in stationary growth phase were diluted to initial inoculum levels of 5 or 7 log cfu per cheese slice. Slices of sharp white Cheddar cheese and white American singles were cut in rectangles of 2.5 × 5 cm. For cheese slices receiving antimicrobial treatment before PL, slices were dipped in natamycin or nisin, spot inoculated with 100 μL of bacterial suspension, and then treated with PL. Cheese slices receiving PL treatment before antimicrobials were spot inoculated, treated with PL, and then treated with antimicrobials. The PL fluence levels from 1.02 to 12.29 J/cm(2) were used. Survivors were enumerated by standard plate counting or the most probable number technique, as appropriate. All treatments were performed in triplicate, and the data were analyzed using a general linear model. Treatment with nisin or natamycin before PL decreased the effectiveness of PL for all bacteria tested. For instance, PL reduced P. fluorescens on Cheddar cheese by 2.19 ± 0.27 log after 6.14 J/cm(2), whereas combination treatments at the same PL fluence yielded barely 1 log reduction. Inactivation of L. innocua on Cheddar was only 0.78 ± 0.01 log when using PL after nisin, compared with a 1.30 ± 0.76 log reduction by nisin alone. This was attributed to the absorption of UV light

  19. Application of infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate analysis for monitoring the effect of adjunct cultures during Swiss cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Harper, W J; Rodriguez-Saona, L E

    2009-08-01

    Improved cheese flavor has been attributed to the addition of adjunct cultures, which provide certain key enzymes for proteolysis and affect the dynamics of starter and nonstarter cultures. Infrared microspectroscopy provides unique fingerprint-like spectra for cheese samples and allows for rapid monitoring of cheese composition during ripening. The objective was to use infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate analysis to evaluate the effect of adjunct cultures on Swiss cheeses during ripening. Swiss cheeses, manufactured using a commercial starter culture combination and 1 of 3 adjunct Lactobacillus spp., were evaluated at d 1, 6, 30, 60, and 90 of ripening. Cheese samples (approximately 20 g) were powdered with liquid nitrogen and homogenized using water and organic solvents, and the water-soluble components were separated. A 3-microL aliquot of the extract was applied onto a reflective microscope slide, vacuum-dried, and analyzed by infrared microspectroscopy. The infrared spectra (900 to 1,800 cm(-1)) produced specific absorption profiles that allowed for discrimination among different cheese samples. Cheeses manufactured with adjunct cultures showed more uniform and consistent spectral profiles, leading to the formation of tight clusters by pattern-recognition analysis (soft independent modeling of class analogy) as compared with cheeses with no adjuncts, which exhibited more spectral variability among replicated samples. In addition, the soft independent modeling of class analogy discriminating power indicated that cheeses were differentiated predominantly based on the band at 1,122 cm(-1), which was associated with S-O vibrations. The greatest changes in the chemical profile of each cheese occurred between d 6 and 30 of warm-room ripening. The band at 1,412 cm(-1), which was associated with acidic AA, had the greatest contribution to differentiation, indicating substantial changes in levels of proteolysis during warm-room ripening in addition to propionic

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved.

  1. Detection and characterization of Bifidobacterium crudilactis and B. mongoliense able to grow during the manufacturing process of French raw milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, Veronique; Taminiau, Bernard; Gavini, Francoise; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athenais; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Theves, Muriel; Mahieu, Melanie; Daube, Georges

    2013-10-29

    The study of a production chain of raw milk cheeses (St Marcellin, Vercors area, France) led to the isolation of two Bifidobacterium populations: B. crudilactis and B. mongoliense, that were able to grow along the production chain. The aims of this study were to further detect and characterize these bacteria along the process and evaluate the ability of some strains to survive or grow in adverse conditions. Using PCR coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism, B. crudilactis and B. mongoliense were detected in respectively 77% and 30% of St Marcellin cheeses from production chain after 21 days of ripening. They were present in more than half of all analyzed retail cheeses with counts going from 1.6 to 5 log cfu g-1 for B. crudilactis and 1.4 to 7 log cfu g-1 for B. mongoliense. Bifidobacterium mongoliense was sensitive to pH 2, with an observed decrease of at least 3 log for both studied strains (FR49/f/2 and FR41/2) after 1 h incubation. At pH 3, no significant decrease was observed. Good survival was observed for the same strains in presence of pancreatic juice with a decrease of less than one log. Survival of strain FR49/f/2 was better than FR41/2 with a decrease of 3 logarithms (in presence of 1% bile salts) and almost 2 logarithms (in presence of 0.5% bile salts). The genotypic analyses using total DNA-DNA hybridization, GC% content, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequencing analysis (MLSA) confirmed the classification of Bifidobacterium. crudilactis and B. mongoliense into two different clusters well separated from other bifidobacteria clusters. According to the observed characteristics such as survival in adverse conditions and their ability to grow under 12 °C during the manufacturing process of the cheeses, which has never been described for bifidobacteria and which is a very interesting technological asset, these B. crudilactis and B. mongoliense strains should be further investigated for a potential use in new food or in food

  2. 无胶体型儿童再制干酪配方设计研究%Formulating of recipeof non colloid kids processed cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅幼华; 尹艳军; 解庆刚; 刘红雷

    2013-01-01

    By researching and optimizing the addition amount of natural cheese,condensed milk,Milk protein and water content,makes a formula of non colloid kids processed cheese:Mozzarella cheese 20%,old cheddar 4%,condensed milk 14%,butter 11%,skimmed milk power 6%,Malt syrup 5%,Milk protein 1.5%,emulsifying salts 1.3%,lactic acid 0.37%and water 36.8%.accelerated shelf life testing to prove that the product can be stored at least 9 months at under 10 ℃ refrigerated conditions.%通过对天然干酪、炼乳、乳蛋白添加量和目标水份的研究和优化,确定了无胶体型儿童再制干酪配方:马苏里拉20%,成熟车达4%,炼乳14%,黄油11%,脱脂乳粉6%,麦芽糖浆5%,牛乳蛋白1.5%,乳化盐1.3%,乳酸0.37%,加水量36.83%(均为质量分数).经一系列稳定实验说明该配方生产的产品在10℃左右冷藏条件下,至少可以贮存9个月.

  3. Microbial interactions in cheese: implications for cheese quality and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Irlinger, Françoise; Mounier, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The cheese microbiota, whose community structure evolves through a succession of different microbial groups, plays a central role in cheese-making. The subtleties of cheese character, as well as cheese shelf-life and safety, are largely determined by the composition and evolution of this microbiota. Adjunct and surface-ripening cultures marketed today for smear cheeses are inadequate for adequately mimicking the real diversity encountered in cheese microbiota. The inte...

  4. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella

    2017-05-01

    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  5. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions.

  6. The nonlinear effect of somatic cell count on milk composition, coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, cheese yield, and curd nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbo, T; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between somatic cell count (SCC) in milk and several milk technological traits at the individual cow level. In particular, we determined the effects of very low to very high SCC on traits related to (1) milk yield and composition; (2) coagulation properties, including the traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the new curd firming model parameters; and (3) cheese yield and recovery of milk nutrients in the curd (or loss in the whey). Milk samples from 1,271 Brown Swiss cows from 85 herds were used. Nine coagulation traits were measured: 3 traditional MCP [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd firming rate (k20, min), and curd firmness after 30 min (a30, mm)] and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotic curd firmness at infinite time (CFP, mm), curd firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), rennet coagulation time estimated using the equation (RCTeq, min), maximum curd firmness achieved within 45 min (CFmax, mm), and time at achievement of CFmax (tmax, min)]. The observed cheese-making traits included 3 cheese yield traits (%CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, which represented the weights of curd, total solids, and water, respectively, as a percentage of the weight of the processed milk) and 4 nutrient recoveries in the curd (RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY, which each represented the percentage ratio between the nutrient in the curd and milk). Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model with the fixed effects of days in milk, parity, and somatic cell score (SCS), and the random effect of herd-date. Somatic cell score had strong influences on casein number and lactose, and also affected pH; these were traits characterized by a quadratic pattern of the data. The results also showed a negative linear relationship between SCS and milk yield. Somatic cell score influenced almost all of the tested

  7. Study on Optimization of Quarks Cheese Processing Parameters%夸克干酪工艺条件优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 曹志军; 贺宝平; 王春燕

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain the best processing technology and conditions for the Chinese flavor quark cheese , in this study, as raw material, fresh milk was processed into quark cheese through the particular steps such as sterilization, cooling, inoculating, adding rennet, clot cutting, removing whey, packaging. The four key processes conditions were optimized mainly through L9(34) orthogonal test, including the addition amount of starter and rennet, cutting pH and whey removal, to process the quark cheese products fit Chinese taste. The results showed that when the addition amount of starter was 3.5%, rennet was 0.15%, pH was 4.7, and whey removal condition was 2 400 r/min for 20 min, sensory quality of the quark cheese was the best. While the addition amount of starter was 4%, rennet was 0.18%, pH was 4.7, and whey removal condition was 3 600 r/min for 20 min, the quark cheese yield was the highest.%为了获得适合中国人口味夸克干酪的最佳加工工艺和条件,以鲜乳为原料,经杀菌、冷却、接种、添加凝乳酶、凝块切割、排乳清、包装等工艺制作夸克干酪,主要通过L9(34)正交试验,发酵剂添加量、凝乳酶添加量、切割pH值和排乳清条件等4个关键工艺进行了优化,试图优选出适合中国人口味的夸克干酪制品最佳工艺条件。结果表明:当发酵剂添加量为3.5%、凝乳酶添加量为0.15%、切割pH为4.7和排乳清条件为2400 r/min、20 min条件下制作夸克干酪时,可获得最佳感官品质的夸克干酪。当发酵剂添加量为4.0%、凝乳酶添加量为0.18%、分离pH为4.7和排乳清条件为3600 r/min 20 min时,制作的夸克干酪出品率最高。

  8. Mexican chihuahua cheese: sensory profiles of young cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hekken, D L; Drake, M A; Corral, F J Molina; Prieto, V M Guerrero; Gardea, A A

    2006-10-01

    Sensory profiles of fresh semihard Chihuahua cheese produced in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua were developed to characterize the flavors and textures of this traditionally made Hispanic-style cheese. Multiple allotments of Chihuahua cheese, 9 brands made with raw milk (RM) and 5 brands made with pasteurized milk (PM), were obtained within 3 d of manufacture from 12 different cheese plants throughout Chihuahua, México. Cheeses were shipped overnight to Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, and flavor analyses were conducted within 14 to 18 d after manufacture. Four brands (2 RM and 2 PM cheeses) were then selected and multiple allotments were shipped at 3 distinct seasons over a 1-yr period for evaluation of flavor and texture. Microbial analysis was conducted prior to testing to ensure product safety. Descriptive analyses of cheese flavors and textures were conducted with panelists trained to use a universal or product-specific Spectrum intensity scale, respectively. Sensory profiles of cheeses varied among the different manufacturers. The most prominent flavor attributes were salty, sour, diacetyl, cooked, whey, bitter, and milk-fat. The RM cheeses had more intense sour, bitter, and prickle scores than the PM cheeses. Many cheese texture attributes were similar, but RM cheeses were perceived as softer than PM cheeses. As the demand for Hispanic-style cheeses increases, defining and understanding the sensory attributes of traditionally made Mexican cheeses provides guidance to cheese manufacturers as new ways are explored to improve the production and shelf life of the cheeses.

  9. 新开河人参荷兰圆形干酪的研制%Processing of Holland Round Cheese with Xin-Kaihe Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆梦懿; 段明静; 王丹丹; 匡明

    2016-01-01

    The processing conditions of Holland round cheese, Xin-Kaihe ginseng and milk as raw material, were studied, and the optimal formula was determined by single factors and orthogonal tests. The results were as follows:0.05%Xin-Kaihe ginseng powder was added into milk with 0.02%CaCl 2, 3%starter culture and 0.004%rennin (60 000 U/g).The cheese was healthy and good taste.%以新开河人参、新鲜牛乳为主要原料,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了新开河人参荷兰圆形干酪的最佳配方。试验结果表明,产品的最佳配方为:在鲜乳中添加0.05%的新开河人参粉、0.02%的氯化钙、3%的发酵剂、0.004%的凝乳酶(效价6万U/g)。研制的干酪质地细腻、风味独特,具有一定的保健作用。

  10. Bulking on the activated slugde process applied to the cheese whey effluent treatment: characterization and use of chemical flocullants to improve settling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Duran

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work was studied the activated sludge process applied to an effluent treatment from a cheese manufacture (cheese whey, which is characterized by the high organic content containing easily biodegradable compounds as lactose. In the diluted whey treatment, it was found that the activated sludge is an adequate system at a diluted condition (100x, 50x, 25x e 10x and treatment (HRT varying between 6-36 h and suspended solid (SS between 2800-19417mgL-1. However, the system is susceptible to bulking occurrence. Chemical flocculants were evaluated in order to monitoring the biological flocs sedimentation present in a continuous activated sludge system under bulking conditions. The treatment was carried out in a continuous reactor at laboratory scale and the coagulants (Al2 (SO43 and FeSO4 .7H2O were added to sludge at 50-200 mg L-1 concentration range. The results showed that Al3+ presented higher settling capacity compared with Fe2+ effect, and the good settling characteristics were observed in terms of SVI (sludge volume index. However, more detailed studies in this direction should be done to evaluate if the characteristic organisms in the activated sludge are not irreversible suppressed with the use of chemical flocculants.

  11. Composition and Microstructure of Commercial Full-Fat and Low-Fat Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, V. V.; Anderson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the composition of commercial full-fat and low-fat cheeses and to evaluate their microstructure. Commercial cheeses evaluated included full-fat and low-fat Cheddar, Mozzarella , processed, and Swiss cheeses. Cheddar cheeses ranged from 8.2% fat and 5 1.1% moisture in the 75% low-fat product to 33.2% fat and 35.9% moisture in the full-fat cheese . Mozzarella cheeses ranged in fat from a low of 2. I% to a high of 24% with corresponding moisture content...

  12. Optimization of processing technology of black soybean-milk cheese by response surface methodology%响应面法优化黑豆干酪工艺条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭淑君; 蒋爱民; 胡利辉

    2011-01-01

    采用Box-Behnken中心组合响应面试验,研究黑豆干酪的最佳工艺条件,建立氯化钙添加量、凝乳酶添加量以及凝乳温度对凝乳效果影响的二次多项回归模型,并验证模型的有效性.结果表明,黑豆干酪的最佳工艺条件:氯化钙添加量0.06%、凝乳酶添加量0.025%、凝乳温度32℃.此时模型预测凝乳效果评分为88.5,验证实验结果为88.0,与理论预测值基本吻合.%Box-Behnken response surface methodology was employed to optimize processing technology of black soybean-milk cheese. And the second order quadratic equation for amount of calcium chloride,a-mount of rennet, curd temperature was built and the applicability of the model equation was verified. The result of response surface showed that the optimum process parameters for black soybean-milk cheese as: amount of calcium 0. 06%,amount of rennet 0. 025%, curd temperature 32 ℃ and the model gave the prediction of 88. 5. The confirmatory test showed that the curd effect was 88, and fitted the predicted value.

  13. The Physicochemical Quality of Traditional Burduf Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Pop; Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc; Sorin Apostu; Ancuţa Mihaela Rotar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is the assessmentof the quality control of raw milk and traditional burduf cheese obtained fromcow milk mixed with 10% sheep milk. Appreciation of the integrity and freshness assessmentof milk (cow and sheep) was tested by physico-chemical analysis.On theshelf-live were determined the physico-chemical parameters in cheese samples. Theantibiotics residues were tested of the milk samples with portable analyser,model Rosa Charm Reader. Theresults of physico-chemical determi...

  14. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in European cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    2017-01-01

    Both in Europe and worldwide cheese has caused important outbreaks of listeriosis and can be a vehicle for transmission of Listeria monocytogenes to consumers. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using scientific literature and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reports...... understanding of L. monocytogenes prevalence in different types of cheeses and provided results that can be useful as input for quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling....

  15. Metabolomics-based component profiling of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses with gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry, and its application to sensory predictive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Hiroshi; Naito, Hiroshige; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2012-06-01

    Gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS) was used to analyze hydrophilic low molecular weight components, including amino acids, fatty acids, amines, organic acids, and saccharides, in cheese, and the sensometric application for practical metabolomic studies in the food industry is described. Derivatization of target analytes was conducted prior to the GC/TOF-MS analysis. Data on 13 cheeses, six Cheddar cheeses, six Gouda cheeses and one Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese, were analyzed by multivariate analysis. The uniqueness of the Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese metabolome was revealed. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed no grouping of the Cheddar cheeses and Gouda cheeses according to production method or country of origin. The PCA loading plot confirms that many amino acids contribute positively to PC1, suggesting that PC1 is closely related to degradation of proteins, and that lactic acid contributed positively to PC2, whereas glycerol contributed negatively to PC2, suggesting that factors regarding degradation of carbohydrates and fats were expressed in PC2. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models were constructed to predict the relationship between the metabolite profile and two sensory attributes, "Rich flavor" and "Sour flavor", which were related to maturation. The compounds that play an important role in constructing each sensory prediction model were identified as 12 amino acids and lactose for "Rich flavor", and 4-aminobutyric acid, ornithine, succinic acid, lactic acid, proline and lactose for "Sour flavor". The present study revealed that metabolomics-based component profiling, focusing on hydrophilic low molecular weight components, was able to predict the sensory characteristics related to ripening. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. 玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物低脂再制干酪的研究%Research of low-fat processed cheeses made from corn starch based fat substitute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫波

    2012-01-01

    研究了玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物在低脂再制干酪中应用的关键影响因素,并对低脂再制干酪的融化性、硬度和感官指标进行了评定.在单因素试验的基础上,运用响应面分析法,建立了玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物低脂再制干酪的因素影响模型,确定了最佳工艺条件为:玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物添加量4.1%,水分质量分数51%,pH值5.9,在此条件下产品感官可接受性较高.%The objective of present study was to investigate the key influence factors in the application of corn starch based fat substitute in low -fat processed cheeses, and melting property, hardness and sensory acceptability were evaluated. On the basis of single -factor test, the mathematical model of the factors on the low-fat processed cheeses made from Corn starch based fat substitute was established. The optimum process conditions were as follows: die addition amount of corn starch based fat substitute 4.1 %, moisture content 51 % and pH value 5.9. The sensory acceptability of the product was higher under this condition.

  17. Effect of pre-treatment of cheese milk on the composition and characteristics of whey and whey products

    OpenAIRE

    Outinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Cheese producers want to increase cheese yield. The yield is improved by enhanced transfer of milk proteins and fat to cheese. This requires modifications to the traditional cheese process. During high-temperature heat treatment (HH), whey proteins are partially denaturated and co-precipitated with the cheese matrix. Elevation of the protein concentration of milk enhances the formation of the protein network in which whey proteins and fat are enclosed. The protein concentration is usually inc...

  18. Effect of uncertainty in composition and weight measures in control of cheese yield and fat loss in large cheese factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Brenda; Adams, Michael C; Pranata, Joice; Gondoutomo, Kathleen; Barbano, David M

    2017-08-01

    Our objective was to develop a computer-based cheese yield, fat recovery, and composition control performance measurement system to provide quantitative performance records for a Cheddar and mozzarella cheese factory. The system can be used to track trends in performance of starter cultures and vats, as well as systematically calculate theoretical yield. Yield equations were built into the spreadsheet to evaluate cheese yield performance and fat losses in a cheese factory. Based on observations in commercial cheese factories, sensitivity analysis was done to demonstrate the sensitivity of cheese factory performance to analytical uncertainty of data used in the evaluation. Analytical uncertainty in the accuracy of milk weight and milk and cheese composition were identified as important factors that influence the ability to manage consistency of cheese quality and profitability. It was demonstrated that an uncertainty of ±0.1% milk fat or milk protein in the vat causes a range of theoretical Cheddar cheese yield from 10.05 to 10.37% and an uncertainty of yield efficiency of ±1.5%. This equates to ±1,451 kg (3,199 lb) of cheese per day in a factory processing 907,185 kg (2 million pounds) of milk per day. The same is true for uncertainty in cheese composition, where the effect of being 0.5% low on moisture or fat is about 484 kg (1,067 lb) of missed revenue opportunity from cheese for the day. Missing the moisture target causes other targets such as fat on a dry basis and salt in moisture to be missed. Similar impacts were demonstrated for mozzarella cheese. In analytical performance evaluations of commercial cheese quality assurance laboratories, we found that analytical uncertainty was typically a bias that was as large as 0.5% on fat and moisture. The effect of having a high bias of 0.5% moisture or fat will produce a missed opportunity of 484 kg of cheese per day for each component. More accurate rapid methods for determination of moisture, fat, and salt

  19. The Physicochemical Quality of Traditional Burduf Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the assessmentof the quality control of raw milk and traditional burduf cheese obtained fromcow milk mixed with 10% sheep milk. Appreciation of the integrity and freshness assessmentof milk (cow and sheep was tested by physico-chemical analysis.On theshelf-live were determined the physico-chemical parameters in cheese samples. Theantibiotics residues were tested of the milk samples with portable analyser,model Rosa Charm Reader. Theresults of physico-chemical determinations for the milk and cheese samples werewithin the maximum permissible by data legislation. Regardingthe content of antibiotics, the results were negative both for cow milk and forsheep milk. The sensorycharacteristics of burduf cheese are influenced by the different types of milk.

  20. Coupon Redemption and Its Effect on Household Cheese Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Diansheng; Kaiser, Harry M.

    2003-01-01

    By endogenizing unit value and coupon redemption, we estimate U.S. household cheese purchase, quality choice, and coupon redemption equations simultaneously. Zero purchases and missing values are taken into account in the model to correct for the selectivity bias. The correlations among the three equations are found to be significant. Empirical findings show that high quality choice significantly decreases cheese purchases, while cheese coupon usage significantly increases purchases. We find ...

  1. Chemometrics approach to substrate development, case: semisyntetic cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Hansen, Birgitte Vedel

    1998-01-01

    In several cases a well defined, robust and easy reproducible substrate that meets specific requirements is needed. This is the case in studies of fungal growth and metabolism on specific products as affected by environmental conditions or processing factors, or isolation of product specific fungi...... from food production facilities.The Chemometrics approach to substrate development is illustrated by the development of a semisyntetic cheese substrate. Growth, colour formation and mycotoxin production of 6 cheese related fungi were studied on 9 types of natural cheeses and 24 synthetic cheese...... substrates and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). The synthetic cheese substrates contained various amounts of Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, lactate, lactose and casein. In this manner a robust, well-defined and easy prepared laboratory cheese substrate was developed for Penicillium commune...

  2. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  3. Study of the process optimization of Cottage cheese%钙试剂和温度对农家干酪品质及乳清OD值的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 吴槟; 李金宝; 胡瑞君

    2011-01-01

    摘 要:研究了直接加入钙试剂凝乳的方法来生产干酪,从而替代了凝乳酶的使用,根据单因素及L4(23)正交试验设计,筛选出了农家干酪的最佳工艺参数,其最佳的工艺条件:CaCl2添加量为1.6%,凝乳温度为75C时农家干酪的品质最佳.结果表明,用CaCl2直接凝乳生产农家干酪的工艺所得的制品可以用于实际生产.%For study of the process optimization of Cottage cheese, the CaCl2 was found to be the best addifier acidified for the production of Cottage cheese. According to single factor and orthogonal experiment L4 (23), the best process parameters of Cottage cheese were filtered out. The optimum process conditions are that whenadding amount of CaCl2 is 1.6% and curd temperature is 75°C, the coagulation of Cottage cheese has the highest quality in this process. The result shows that can be used in producing actually.

  4. 米黑毛霉凝乳酶制备切达干酪的工艺参数优化%Optimization of Preparation Process for Cheddarc Cheese using Chymosin from Mucor miehei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马江; 曹磊; 张忠明; 关明玲; 刘昕; 师希雄; 姚拓; 张卫兵

    2016-01-01

    为确定米黑毛霉凝乳酶制作切达干酪的最佳工艺条件,以感官评分和出品率为响应值,在单因素试验的基础上,采用响应面法对主要工艺参数进行了优化.试验得到的米黑毛霉凝乳酶制作切达干酪的最佳工艺参数为:酶添加量为2900.38SU/L、凝乳pH为6.2、CaCl2添加量为0.04%、凝乳温度为34℃、发酵剂添加量为0.14%;在此条件下,干酪感官评分为(95.2±0.34),试验结果与预测值接近,证明模型拟合程度较好.%In order to determine the optimal processing parameters for hard cheese using chymosin from Mucor miehe, the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the main technological parameters, using sensory evaluation and yield as response value. The optimal processing parameters was obtained as follows:the addi-tion of chymosin was 2900.38SU/L, the curd pH was 6.2, the addition of CaCl2 was 0.04%, the curd temperature was 34℃,the addition of starter culture was 0.14%. Under these conditions, the sensory score of cheese was (95.2±0.34). The model turned out to be with good fitting degree.

  5. Research and Development of Oat Room Temperature Storage Processing Cheese Food%常温贮藏燕麦干酪食品的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井雪莲; 张建强; 王英; 蒋世龙; 张丽萍

    2014-01-01

    Studied on oat room temperature storage processing cheese food process,used of Box-Behnken central composite design to optimize the key processing.The optimized processing:select a month rapidly matu-ring cheddar and Mozzarella cheese (1∶2 ratio)of 1 00g,adding 1 1 .46% oats,1 .2% NaCl,2.27% emulsif-ying salts (sodium citrate ),soy protein isolate added 3 .76%,45%pure water,melting temperature of 86℃, 8min.The detection indicators such as chemical and physical properties and microbiological characteristics of changes in test items sensory indicators are in line with national standards.%研究开发了常温贮藏燕麦干酪食品,利用SAS软件Box-Behnken对产品关键工艺参数进行了优化设计。常温贮藏燕麦干酪食品的最佳配方为:选择1个月快速成熟切达干酪和Mozzarella干酪(按照1∶2配比)共100g,加入11.46%燕麦,1.2%NaCl、2.27%乳化盐(柠檬酸钠),大豆分离蛋白添加量为3.76%,45%纯净水,融化温度86℃,保温搅拌8 min。同时,燕麦干酪食品在90天的理化、微生物指标,测项目均符合国标要求。

  6. ESTABLISHMENT OF A HYGIENE PROCEDURE IN A CHEESE FARMER ARTISANAL MINAS CHEESE

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Adbeel de Lima; Costa Júnior, Luiz Carlos Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    The food safety and the economical viability of milk processing depend on appropriated higyenization techniques. The main goal of this work was to evaluate higienics conditions of food processing environment and surfaces of a producer farm of Canastra cheese by using ATP - Bioluminescence. In addition it was also proposed a higyenization procedure to improve safety and quality of manufacture proceeding. It was also evaluated the water quality used in milking and during cheese production. Duri...

  7. METHOD FOR MAKING CHEESE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for making Cheddar type and Continental type cheese with an adjunct culture comprising a Lactobacillus helveticus strain.......The present invention relates to a method for making Cheddar type and Continental type cheese with an adjunct culture comprising a Lactobacillus helveticus strain....

  8. ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL METHODS OF PROCESSING FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TWO LOCAL CHEESES IN ILORIN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle Kudirat Saliu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian locally produced cheese from milk, commonly known as wara is highly nutritious and highly prone to attack by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Moist heat treatment and salting alone are the common methods used for processing. This study assessed the efficacy of these local processing methods in preserving the physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of wara. Samples were purchased from open markets in Ilorin; processed by boiling in water and with addition of salt; and stored at room temperature (28±2oC to mimic the local method. The samples were observed at 24 hrs interval for a period of 96 hrs, for changes in pH, color, odor and texture. Microbiological analysis was done following standard methods. The pH of most of the samples increased while the color, odor and texture deteriorated within 48 hrs of storage. The cheese samples were preserved most by boiling with salt. Many spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were isolated. The bacterial isolates were Lactobaccillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus feacalis, Aerobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella, Aerococcus, Micrococcus and Streptococcus spp.; while the fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Candida tropicalis, Rhizopus arrhizus, Penicillium and Mucor spp. Some of the microorganisms were eliminated during treatments, others survived while some contaminated the samples during storage. Though boiling of wara with salt was shown to improve its keeping quality compared to other methods studied, further treatments such as frying, drying, and roasting; as well as storage at low temperature may significantly increase the shelf life.

  9. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  10. Effect of composition changes on texture of sterilized processed cheese during storage%灭菌再制干酪储存期间组分变化对质构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王业菊; 李晓东; 马丽媛

    2012-01-01

    为改善灭菌再制干酪常温储存期间的质构,实现再制干酪常温储存技术,再制干酪经117 ℃(20 min)灭菌处理后储存的10个月内各项指标均在可接受范围内.在此基础上研究了常温储存下的质构特性变化及蛋白水解、脂肪水解对质构的影响,同时以未灭菌冷藏再制干酪作对照,得出灭菌再制干酪室温储存下蛋白水解了31.42%,游离脂肪酸质量分数达17.35%.随着蛋白水解和脂肪酸质量分数的增加,硬度、弹性呈先增加后降低趋势.%In order to improve the texture of sterilization processed cheese during storage at room temperature, the processed cheese is sterilized 117 ℃, 20 min, with every index accepted during storage of 10 months, on this Based, we studied texture changes of sterilization process cheese at room temperature and effects of protein hydrolysis, fat hydrolysis on texture. At the same time ,with non—sterilize refrigerated processed cheese as contrast which give the conclusion that protein degradation is 31.42%, free fatty acids are 17.35%. And hardness and elasticity of processed cheese increase first then decreased with increase of protein hydrolysis and fat hydrolysis degree at room temperature.

  11. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to predict cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits from unprocessed bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of fresh unprocessed milk samples for predicting cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were obtained from 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows. Individual measurements of 7 new cheese yield-related traits were obtained from the laboratory cheese-making procedure, including the fresh cheese yield, total solid cheese yield, and the water retained in curd, all as a percentage of the processed milk, and nutrient recovery (fat, protein, total solids, and energy) in the curd as a percentage of the same nutrient contained in the milk. All individual milk samples were analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). Two spectral acquisitions were carried out for each sample and the results were averaged before data analysis. Different chemometric models were fitted and compared with the aim of improving the accuracy of the calibration equations for predicting these traits. The most accurate predictions were obtained for total solid cheese yield and fresh cheese yield, which exhibited coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation (1-VR) of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. A less favorable result was obtained for water retained in curd (1-VR=0.65). Promising results were obtained for recovered protein (1-VR=0.81), total solids (1-VR=0.86), and energy (1-VR=0.76), whereas recovered fat exhibited a low accuracy (1-VR=0.41). As FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid, cheap, high-throughput technique that is already used to collect standard milk recording data, these FTIR calibrations for cheese yield and nutrient recovery highlight additional potential applications of the technique in the dairy industry, especially for monitoring cheese

  12. Thermus and the Pink Discoloration Defect in Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Daniel J; Daly, David; O'Sullivan, Orla; Burdikova, Zuzana; Vana, Rostislav; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; McSweeney, Paul L H; Giblin, Linda; Sheehan, Jeremiah J; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    A DNA sequencing-based strategy was applied to study the microbiology of Continental-type cheeses with a pink discoloration defect. The basis for this phenomenon has remained elusive, despite decades of research. The bacterial composition of cheese containing the defect was compared to that of control cheese using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing as well as quantitative PCR (qPCR). Throughout, it was apparent that Thermus, a carotenoid-producing genus, was present at higher levels in defect-associated cheeses than in control cheeses. Prompted by this finding and data confirming the pink discoloration to be associated with the presence of a carotenoid, a culture-based approach was employed, and Thermus thermophilus was successfully cultured from defect-containing cheeses. The link between Thermus and the pinking phenomenon was then established through the cheese defect equivalent of Koch's postulates when the defect was recreated by the reintroduction of a T. thermophilus isolate to a test cheese during the manufacturing process. IMPORTANCE Pink discoloration in cheese is a defect affecting many cheeses throughout the world, leading to significant financial loss for the dairy industry. Despite decades of research, the cause of this defect has remained elusive. The advent of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the field of food microbiology and, with respect to this study, provided a means of testing a possible microbial basis for this defect. In this study, a combined 16S rRNA, whole-genome sequencing, and quantitative PCR approach was taken. This resulted in the identification of Thermus, a carotenoid-producing thermophile, in defect-associated cheeses and the recreation of the problem in cheeses to which Thermus was added. This finding has the potential to lead to new strategies to eliminate this defect, and our method represents an approach that can be employed to investigate the role of microbes in other food defects

  13. Influence of microfiltration and adjunct culture on quality of Domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, S; Ahmed, N; El Soda, M

    2010-05-01

    The effects of microfiltration and pasteurization processes on proteolysis, lipolysis, and flavor development in Domiati cheese during 2 mo of pickling were studied. Cultures of starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from Egyptian dairy products were evaluated in experimental Domiati cheese for flavor development capabilities. In the first trial, raw skim milk was microfiltered and then the protein:fat ratio was standardized using pasteurized cream. Pasteurized milk with same protein:fat ratio was also used in the second trial. The chemical composition of cheeses seemed to be affected by milk treatment-microfiltration or pasteurization-rather than by the culture types. The moisture content was higher and the pH was lower in pasteurized milk cheeses than in microfiltered milk cheeses at d 1 of manufacture. Chemical composition of experimental cheeses was within the legal limits for Domiati cheese in Egypt. Proteolysis and lipolysis during cheese pickling were lower in microfiltered milk cheeses compared with pasteurized milk cheeses. Highly significant variations in free amino acids, free fatty acids, and sensory evaluation were found among the cultures used in Domiati cheesemaking. The cheese made using adjunct culture containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium received high scores in flavor acceptability. Cheeses made from microfiltered milk received a higher score in body and texture compared with cheeses made from pasteurized milk.

  14. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  15. 山羊乳农家干酪加工中凝乳酶的筛选研究%The Screening Study of Rennet in Goat Cottage Cheese Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兆瑞; 祝战斌; 姚瑞祺; 张鹏; 王智民

    2012-01-01

    选取5种凝乳酶应用于山羊乳农家千酪加工,通过不同凝乳酶在山羊乳农家干酪生产中的凝乳特性、干酪出品率及对干酪品质影响三方面试验研究,结果表明:液态小牛皱胃酶是山羊乳农家干酪加工的最佳凝乳酶,微生物凝乳酶次之,番木瓜蛋白酶不适合使用。%5 kinds of rennet used in goat cottage cheese processing were selected, coagulation properties of cheese, yield rate and quality of cheese were analyzed. The results show the liquid calf rennet is the best rennet for goat cottage cheese processing, microbial rennet the second, papaya protease is not suitable for using.

  16. Functional petit-suisse cheese: measure of the prebiotic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Haíssa R; Saad, Susana M I; Gibson, Glenn R; Vulevic, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Prebiotics and probiotics are increasingly being used to produce potentially synbiotic foods, particularly through dairy products as vehicles. It is well known that both ingredients may offer benefits to improve the host health. This research aimed to evaluate the prebiotic potential of novel petit-suisse cheeses using an in vitro fermentation model. Five petit-suisse cheese formulations combining candidate prebiotics (inulin, oligofructose, honey) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis) were tested in vitro using sterile, stirred, batch culture fermentations with human faecal slurry. Measurement of prebiotic effect (MPE) values were generated comparing bacterial changes through determination of maximum growth rates of groups, rate of substrate assimilation and production of lactate and short chain fatty acids. Fastest fermentation and high lactic acid production, promoting increased growth rates of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, were achieved with addition of prebiotics to a probiotic cheese (made using starter+probiotics). Addition of probiotic strains to control cheese (made using just a starter culture) also resulted in high lactic acid production. Highest MPE values were obtained with addition of prebiotics to a probiotic cheese, followed by addition of prebiotics and/or probiotics to a control cheese. Under the in vitro conditions used, cheese made with the combination of different prebiotics and probiotics resulted in the most promising functional petit-suisse cheese. The study allowed comparison of potentially functional petit-suisse cheeses and screening of preferred synbiotic potential for future market use.

  17. Cheese whey management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier

    2012-11-15

    Cheese whey is simultaneously an effluent with nutritional value and a strong organic and saline content. Cheese whey management has been focused in the development of biological treatments without valorization; biological treatments with valorization; physicochemical treatments and direct land application. In the first case, aerobic digestion is reported. In the second case, six main processes are described in the literature: anaerobic digestion, lactose hydrolysis, fermentation to ethanol, hydrogen or lactic acid and direct production of electricity through microbial fuel cells. Thermal and isoelectric precipitation, thermocalcic precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, acid precipitation, electrochemical and membrane technologies have been considered as possible and attractive physicochemical processes to valorize or treat cheese whey. The direct land application is a common and longstanding practice, although some precautions are required. In this review, these different solutions are analyzed. The paper describes the main reactors used, the influence of the main operating variables, the microorganisms or reagents employed and the characterizations of the final effluent principally in terms of chemical oxygen demand. In addition, the experimental conditions and the main results reported in the literature are compiled. Finally, the comparison between the different treatment alternatives and the presentation of potential treatment lines are postulated.

  18. Optimization of technology processing of corn germ Cheddar cheese%玉米胚芽蛋白Cheddar干酪生产工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮钰珍; 尹伊; 岳喜庆; 刘彦妮

    2011-01-01

    以玉米胚茅蛋白为添加辅料,研究了玉米胚芽蛋白添加量、Ca^2+浓度、切割大小、盐浓度四个工艺参数对玉米胚芽Cheddar干酪品质的影响,利用响应面分析法确定了最佳工艺参数。结果表明,胚芽蛋白添加量为4.28%,Ca^2+浓度为0.04%,切割大小为9.05mm3,盐浓度为1.62%时,生产的玉米胚芽Cheddar干酪具有干酪特有的滋味和气味,软硬适度、香味醇厚、营养丰富。%With corn germ for adding raw materials,the influence of the addition of corn germ protein,the addition of calcium,cutting size and salt concentration on the quality of corn germ Cheddar cheese was studied to ascertain the optimal processing parameters by the response surface method. The results indicated the addition of corn germ protein was 4.28% ,the addition of calcium was 0.04% ,9.05mm3 cuttmg size and salt concentration was 1.62%,the cheese had better flavor, proper hardness and rich nutrition.

  19. 花生乳牛乳新鲜干酪加工工艺优化%Optimization of Preparation Process for Peanut-milk Fresh Cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤丽新; 杨柳; 马井喜; 陈海燕; 马虹; 张凤宽

    2011-01-01

    用花生乳代替部分牛乳生产新鲜干酪,对花生乳添加比例、氯化钙添加量、凝乳酶添加量3个因素对凝乳效果的影响分别进行单因素试验,确定各自合适比例后,再采用L9(3^3)正交试验,确定花生乳牛乳新鲜干酪最佳生产工艺。结果表明花生乳添加量20%、氯化钙添加量0.06%、凝乳酶添加量0.002%时制作出的新鲜花生乳牛乳干酪成品呈乳白色、柔软、有弹性、具有花生风味,产品出品率为16.33%。%In this study, peanut milk was used to partially substitute milk during the preparation process of fresh cheese. Effects of three factors including peanut milk amount, calcium amount and curd enzyme amount were explored by o one-factor-at-a-time combined with orthogonal array design method. The results indicated that the optimal formula was peanut milk 20%, calcium chloride 0.06% and curd enzyme of 0.002%. The resultant fresh peanut-milk cheese revealed milk-white color, soft and elastic texture and peanut flavor, and the yield is 16.33%.

  20. 凝乳工艺对功能性低脂干酪中活菌数的影响%Effects of curd process on viable count of functional low-fat cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉红; 郝慧敏

    2012-01-01

    The viable count is an important indexes of functional low-fat cheese. This paper curd process low-fat cheese to functional The viable count was studied, aims to control curd process parameters and make cheese the viable count reach final functional food standards. Through to the single factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment research and analysis, and the results show that: the curd enzyme adding amount of 0.01%, curd 35 °C temperature, pH value of 6.2 curd, CaCl2 adding amount of 0.03%, cheese living bacterium number all can reach 107 mL"1, accord with functional low-fat cheese living bacterium number of requirement, and can obtain a relatively ideal experimental results.%活菌数是功能性低脂干酪的重要指标,本文就凝乳工艺过程对功能性低脂干酪活菌数的影响进行了研究,旨在通过控制凝乳工艺过程参数而使干酪最终活菌数达到功能性食品的标准.通过对单因素实验和正交实验研究与分析,结果表明:凝乳酶添加量0.01%,凝乳温度35℃,凝乳pH值为6.2,CaCl2添加量0.03%,干酪活菌数均能达到107 mL-1,符合功能性低脂干酪的活菌数要求,能够获得较为理想的实验效果.

  1. Effects of Curd Process on Viable Count of Functional Low-Fat Cheese%凝乳工艺对功能性低脂干酪中活菌数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗红生

    2012-01-01

    The viable count was the most important target of functional low-fat cheese.It great effected by cheese processing program,and the aim was to get a standard viable count in cheese by controlling the processing parameters.The single-factor tests,the orthogonal test,the range and the variance analysis were used.The result showed that: the rennet addition 0.01%,the curd temperature 35 ℃,the curd pH 6.2,the CaCl2 addition 0.03%,the viable count in cheese was achieve 107 CFU/mL,this consequence could consistent with the standard of functional low-fat cheese.%活菌数是功能性低脂干酪的重要指标,就凝乳工艺过程对功能性低脂干酪活菌数的影响进行了研究,旨在通过控制凝乳工艺过程参数而使干酪最终活菌数达到功能性食品的标准。通过对单因素试验和正交试验研究与分析,结果表明:凝乳酶添加量0.01%,凝乳温度35℃,凝乳pH 6.2,CaCl2添加量0.03%,干酪活菌数均能达到107CFU/mL,符合功能性低脂干酪的活菌数要求,能够获得较为理想的试验效果。

  2. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  3. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity and...

  4. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients may be used: (1) Dairy ingredients. Milk, nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3. (2... optional ingredients. (i) Salt. (ii) Cheese whey, concentrated cheese whey, dried cheese whey, or reconstituted cheese whey prepared by addition of water to concentrated cheese whey or dried cheese whey....

  5. An iterative sensory procedure to select odor-active associations in complex consortia of microorganisms: application to the construction of a cheese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaïti, C; Irlinger, F; Spinnler, H E; Engel, E

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an iterative procedure based on odor assessment to select odor-active associations of microorganisms from a starting association of 82 strains (G1), which were chosen to be representative of Livarot cheese biodiversity. A 3-step dichotomous procedure was applied to reduce the starting association G1. At each step, 3 methods were used to evaluate the odor proximity between mother (n strains) and daughter (n/2 strains) associations: a direct assessment of odor dissimilarity using an original bidimensional scale system and 2 indirect methods based on comparisons of odor profile or hedonic scores. Odor dissimilarity ratings and odor profile gave reliable and sometimes complementary criteria to select G3 and G4 at the first iteration, G31 and G42 at the second iteration, and G312 and G421 at the final iteration. Principal component analysis of odor profile data permitted the interpretation at least in part, of the 2D multidimensional scaling representation of the similarity data. The second part of the study was dedicated to 1) validating the choice of the dichotomous procedure made at each iteration, and 2) evaluating together the magnitude of odor differences that may exist between G1 and its subsequent simplified associations. The strategy consisted of assessing odor similarity between the 13 cheese models by comparing the contents of their odor-active compounds. By using a purge-and-trap gas chromatography-olfactory/mass spectrometry device, 50 potent odorants were identified in models G312, G421, and in a typical Protected Denomination of Origin Livarot cheese. Their contributions to the odor profile of both selected model cheeses are discussed. These compounds were quantified by purge and trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the 13 products and the normalized data matrix was transformed to a between-product distance matrix. This instrumental assessment of odor similarities allowed validation of the choice

  6. A new method for the production of low-fat Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Irma; Drake, MaryAnne; Nelson, Brandon; Barbano, David M

    2013-08-01

    Our objective was to develop an alternative process to produce low-fat Cheddar cheese (LFCC) by combining reduced-fat Cheddar cheese (RFCC) made by a fat-removal process with micellar casein concentrate (MCC) to try to achieve the texture and flavor characteristics of full-fat Cheddar cheese (FFCC). The production of LFCC was replicated 3 times. The MCC was produced by ultrafiltration of skim milk, followed by 3 stages of microfiltration, and the final MCC was spray dried. The LFCC was formulated to achieve 6% fat, 28% protein, and 1.2% salt by a combination of RFCC, MCC powder, salt, and water. The 6% fat target was selected to comply with the FDA standard for a low-fat label claim. The pH of the LFCC mixture was adjusted to 5.3 by lactic acid. Rennet was added to the LFCC mixture, followed by pressing and packaging. Chemical and sensory data were analyzed by ANOVA using the Proc GLM of SAS to determine if any differences in chemical composition and sensory properties were present among different cheeses. Descriptive sensory scores were used to construct a principal component analysis biplot to visualize flavor profile differences among cheeses. The LFCC had 83% less fat, 32% less sodium, and higher protein and moisture content than FFCC. When the cheese texture was evaluated in the context of a filled-gel model consisting of matrix and filler (100% minus percentage of matrix) the LFCC had lower filler volume than FFCC, yet the LFCC had a softer texture than FFCC. The LFCC contained some of the original FFCC cheese matrix that had been disrupted by the fat-removal process, and this original FFCC matrix was embedded in the new LFCC matrix formed by the action of rennet on casein from the continuous phase of hydrated MCC. Thus, the texture of the LFCC was desirable and was softer than the FFCC it was made from, whereas commercial RFCC (50 and 75% fat reduction) were firmer than the FFCC. The sulfur flavor in LFCC was closer to FFCC than commercial RFCC. The LFCC had

  7. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...... of CVD compared to butter intake with an equal fat content. It was found that cheese intake lowered total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and increased glucose concentrations when compared to butter. Additionally, butter intake resulted in higher...... total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol when compared to habitual diet whereas no difference was observed between cheese intake and habitual diet. Calcium has been suggested to increase fecal fat and bile acid excretions which could explain the lower cholesterol concentrations with cheese intake. Although...

  8. Torsion gelometry of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, M H; Van Hekken, D L

    2002-11-01

    Torsion gelometry, a fundamental rheological test in which specimens are twisted until they fracture, was applied to several different cheese varieties to determine its suitability for measuring their textural properties. Fresh and aged Brick, Cheddar, Colby, Gouda, Havarti, Mozzarella, and Romano cheeses were subjected to torsion analysis, and the results were compared with those from small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) tests and texture profile analysis (TPA). Strong relationships (correlation coefficients > 0.8) were found between torsion shear stress and TPA hardness, and between torsion shear strain and TPA cohesiveness. SAOS, which measures rheological properties of intact samples, did not correlate well with torsion or TPA. A map showing trends during aging toward brittle, mushy, rubbery, and tough texture was drawn using the torsion data. The findings show that torsion gelometry provides fundamental rheological data on cheese at the fracture point. The information can be used to compare textural qualities of cheese samples as they are being cut.

  9. Comparison of performance of different algorithms in noisy signals filtering of process in enzymatic hydrolysis of cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Alexandre Pinto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presented the results of the implementation of an off-line smoothing algorithm in the monitoring system, for the partial hydrolysis of cheese whey proteins using enzymes, which used penalized least squares. Different algorithms for on-line signals filtering used by the control were also compared: artificial neural networks, moving average and smoothing algorithm.A hidrólise parcial de proteínas do soro de queijo, realizada por enzimas imobilizadas em suporte inerte, pode alterar ou evidenciar propriedades funcionais dos polipeptídeos produzidos, aumentando assim suas aplicações. O controle do pH do reator de proteólise é de fundamental importância para modular a distribuição de pesos moleculares dos peptídeos formados. Os sinais de pH e temperatura utilizados pelo algoritmo de controle e inferência de estado podem estar sujeitos a ruído considerável, tornando importante sua filtragem. Apresentam-se aqui resultados da implementação, no sistema de monitoramento do processo, de algoritmo suavizador, que utiliza mínimos quadrados com penalização para o pós-tratamento dos dados. Compara-se ainda o desempenho de diferentes algoritmos na filtragem em tempo real dos sinais utilizados pelo sistema de controle, a saber: redes neurais artificiais, média móvel e o sobredito suavizador.

  10. Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

    2013-02-15

    Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems.

  11. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  12. Chemometric analysis of Ragusano cheese flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, S; Acree, T E; Barbano, D M; Licitra, G; Siebert, K J

    2002-02-27

    Ragusano cheeses were produced in duplicate from milk collected from pasture-fed and total mixed ration (TMR)-fed cattle at four time intervals. The cheeses were subjected to chemical analysis, conventional sensory testing, and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO). Data from each type of analysis were examined by principal component and factor analysis and by pattern recognition (SIMCA) to see if sufficient information for classification into pasture-fed and TMR-fed groups was contained therein. The results clearly indicate that there are significant differences in sensory panel and chemical analysis results between the two cheeses. The data were also examined to see if models of sensory responses as a function of analytical or GCO results or both could be constructed with the modeling technique partial least-squares regression (PLS). Strong PLS models of some sensory responses (green and toasted odor; salt, pungent, bitter, and butyric sensations; and smooth consistency) were obtained.

  13. Modeling multiphase materials processes

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    ""Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems"" describes the methodology and application of physical and mathematical modeling to multi-phase flow phenomena in materials processing. The book focuses on systems involving gas-liquid interaction, the most prevalent in current metallurgical processes. The performance characteristics of these processes are largely dependent on transport phenomena. This volume covers the inherent characteristics that complicate the modeling of transport phenomena in such systems, including complex multiphase structure, intense turbulence, opacity of

  14. Production of fresh Cheddar cheese curds with controlled postacidification and enhanced flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, D; Lessard, J; Champagne, C P; Vuillemard, J-C

    2009-05-01

    Cheddar cheese in curd form is very popular in eastern Canada. It is retailed immediately after cheese manufacturing and can be maintained at room temperature for 24 h to provide better texture and mouthfeel. Subsequently, the cheese curds must be stored at 4 degrees C. The shelf life is generally 3 d. In this study, Cheddar cheese curds were produced by adding a high diacetyl flavor-producing strain (Lactococcus diacetylactis) to a thermophilic-based starter. The objective was to achieve both postacidification stability to increase the shelf life and enhanced flavor. The addition of L. diacetylactis increased processing time but did not affect cheese composition or the evolution of proteolysis and texture. During cheese manufacturing, streptococci became the dominant microflora in all cheeses, whereas populations of Lactococcus cremoris and L. diacetylactis decreased. During cheese storage, viable counts of L. diacetylactis and Streptococcus thermophilus increased but the counts of L. cremoris decreased. During cheese manufacturing and storage, the concentrations of lactic acid and diacetyl increased rapidly in cheeses produced with L. diacetylactis. Citric acid and galactose contents remained high in cheese made without L. diacetylactis. Sensory evaluation indicated that cheeses containing the L. diacetylactis strain were more flavorful and also had less sourness and could be stored at 4 degrees C for up to 7 d.

  15. Cheese. What is its contribution to the sodium intake of Brazilians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicio, T L; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Nogueira, L C; Raices, R S L; Deliza, R; Bolini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R

    2013-07-01

    The heightened intake of sodium from processed foods is of great public health concern throughout the world. This study evaluated the sodium contents of cheeses available in Brazil and the contribution of cheese to the daily intake of this micronutrient. The labels of 156 commercial samples of various types of Brazilian cheese (Minas, Prato, mozarella, and requeijão cheese, as well as padrão cheese) were evaluated with respect to the reported sodium content. A high variability in the sodium contents of cheeses within each category was observed, although no significant difference was observed in the sodium content present in one serving (30 g) of cheese versus that present in 100 g of product (p > 0.05). With the exception of Minas cheese, more than 70% of the other cheeses examined in this study could be classified as high-sodium cheeses, with sodium contents exceeding 400 mg Na/100 g of product. These results suggest that cheese manufacturers need to reformulate their products and that public health authorities need to take additional measures to curb sodium intake from cheese consumption, including demand-specific labeling and implementing educational campaigns to inform the public about the dangers associated with high sodium intake.

  16. Product Development Process Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The use of Concurrent Engineering and other modern methods of product development and maintenance require that a large number of time-overlapped "processes" be performed by many people. However, successfully describing and optimizing these processes are becoming even more difficult to achieve. The perspective of industrial process theory (the definition of process) and the perspective of process implementation (process transition, accumulation, and inter-operations between processes) are used to survey the method used to build one base model (multi-view) process model.

  17. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of Manchego and Chihuahua Mexican cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-López, C; Hernández-Sánchez, H

    2000-12-05

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to survive the Mexican Manchego and Chihuahua cheese-making processes and its persistence during the ripening stages of both cheeses was examined. Commercial pasteurized and homogenized whole milk was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (strain ATCC 19114) to a level between 2 x 10(6) and 9 x 10(6) CFU/ml. The milk was used to make Mexican Manchego and Chihuahua cheeses in a 25-l vat. Mexican Manchego cheese was ripened for 5 days and Chihuahua cheese for 6 weeks at 12 degrees C and 85% RH. Listeria present in the cheese was enumerated by diluting samples in sterile 0.1% peptone water and plating on Oxford agar. Duplicate samples were taken at each step of the manufacturing process. During the first week of ripening samples were taken daily from both cheeses. For Chihuahua cheese, samples were taken weekly after the first week of the ripening stage. During the manufacture of Mexican Manchego cheese, Listeria counts remained relatively constant at 10(6) CFU/ml, while with Chihuahua cheese there was a one log decrease in numbers (10(6) to 10(5) CFU/ml). After pressing both curds overnight, numbers of bacteria decreased in Mexican Manchego cheese to 8.2 x 10(5) but increased in Chihuahua cheese from 1.7 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(6) CFU/ml. During the ripening stage, counts of Listeria remained constant in both cheeses. However, since the Chihuahua cheese ripening stage is about 6 weeks, the number of bacteria decreased from 2 x 10(6) to 4 x 10(4) CFU/g. The results show that Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive the manufacture and ripening processes of both Mexican cheeses.

  18. Autochthonous "Bjelovars dried cheese"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available «Dried cheese» is in autochthonous group of Bjelovar region cheeses which is still produced in rural domestic scale. The name of cheese originates from production procedure - drying for longer or shorter period in airy place after which the cheese is smoked, or is smoked only without drying. This type of cheese is produced in whole central region of Croatia which includes Međimurje, Podravina, Bilogora; Moslavina, Posavina and region around the capital. The aim of this paper is to describe and determine sensory, chemical and microbiological composition to determine its characteristics and production standards. As standards for sensory properties following characteristics can be used: a Outer shape: dimensions: diameter: 140-145 mm, height: 58-61 mm, mass: 700-750 g, equal, rounded shape, smooth skin, equal colour; b Consistency: easily cut, elastic, soft; c Cut: nicely combined white body, few improper holes of equal size; d Odour: pleasant milky acid odour, fairly smoky; e Taste: Fairly milky acidic taste, medium salty, fairly smoky taste. Depending on fat in dry matter content and water content in non fat dry matter, analyzed samples can be characterized as quarter fat, soft and semidry cheese. Higher acidity and saltiness was determined in some samples, microbiological analyses has shown that the most common contaminants are yeasts and moulds.

  19. Microbial interactions in cheese: implications for cheese quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlinger, Françoise; Mounier, Jérôme

    2009-04-01

    The cheese microbiota, whose community structure evolves through a succession of different microbial groups, plays a central role in cheese-making. The subtleties of cheese character, as well as cheese shelf-life and safety, are largely determined by the composition and evolution of this microbiota. Adjunct and surface-ripening cultures marketed today for smear cheeses are inadequate for adequately mimicking the real diversity encountered in cheese microbiota. The interactions between bacteria and fungi within these communities determine their structure and function. Yeasts play a key role in the establishment of ripening bacteria. The understanding of these interactions offers to enhance cheese flavour formation and to control and/or prevent the growth of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms in cheese.

  20. Characterization of major and trace minerals, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content of Protected Designation of Origin cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuelian, C L; Currò, S; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; De Marchi, M

    2017-05-01

    Cheese provides essential nutrients for human nutrition and health, such as minerals and fatty acids (FA). Its composition varies according to milk origin (e.g., species and breed), rearing conditions (e.g., feeding and management), and cheese-making technology (e.g., coagulation process, addition of salt, ripening period). In recent years, cheese production has increased worldwide. Italy is one of the main producers and exporters of cheese. This study aimed to describe mineral, FA, and cholesterol content of 133 samples from 18 commercial cheeses from 4 dairy species (buffalo, cow, goat, and sheep) and from 3 classes of moisture content (hard, 45%). Mineral concentrations of cheese samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and FA and cholesterol contents were determined by gas chromatography. Moisture and species had a significant effect on almost all traits: the highest levels of Na, Ca, and Fe were found in cheeses made from sheep milk; the greatest level of Cu was found in cow milk cheese, the lowest amount of K was found in buffalo milk cheese, and the lowest amount of Zn was found in goat cheeses. In all samples, Cr and Pb were not detected (below the level of detection). In general, total fat, protein, and minerals significantly increased when the moisture decreased. Buffalo and goat cheeses had the highest saturated FA content, and sheep cheeses showed the highest content of unsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, conjugated linoleic acid, and n-3 FA. Goat and sheep cheeses achieved higher proportions of minor FA than did cow and buffalo cheeses. Buffalo cheese exhibited the lowest cholesterol level. Our results confirm that cheese mineral content is mainly affected by the cheese-making process, whereas FA profile mainly reflects the FA composition of the source milk. This study allowed the characterization of mineral and FA composition and cholesterol content and revealed large variability among different commercial

  1. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  2. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models. These ...

  3. Changes of Textural and Rheological Properties of Sterilized Processed Cheese Stored at Ambient Temperature%灭菌再制干酪常温储藏下质地和流变学特性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史亚丽; 李晓东; 王业菊

    2011-01-01

    To make the fact true that processed cheese can be stored at ambient temperature which can also save costs,sensory quality,textural and rheological properties of sterilized processed cheese(117 ℃,20 min) stored at ambient temperature and unsterilized processed cheese stored at low temperature were studied in this research.Sensory qualities and texture of sterilized processed cheese can be accepted.Sensory qualities,textural and rheological properties were found to be affected significantly by storage temperature(p0.05).And processed cheese stored at ambient temperature could not be accepted at the eighth week.Its hardness and springiness decreased,and it became much liquid.Fat were found to melt and overflow from the inside.%为实现再制干酪的常温储藏,节约成本,便于运输,试验对储藏在常温(23±2℃)下二次灭菌的再制干酪(117℃,20 min)和低温下未经灭菌再制干酪的感官、质构和流变学特性进行了研究。通过对储藏两个月内样品的各项指标进行对比分析,得出灭菌后再制干酪感官和质地可以接受,储藏温度对其感官、质构和流变学性质有显著影响(p〈0.05),经二次灭菌再制干酪第8周感官上已不具有可接受性,产品硬度和弹性下降,流体性增加,微观结构发现脂肪熔化溢出。

  4. Proteolysis of prato type cheese produced using ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadoti Leila Maria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of milk ultrafiltration technology for cheese manufacture presents several advantages. However, it also influences proteolysis and, consequently, cheese ripening. The effects of five different processing methods for Prato cheese were evaluated with respect to the time evolution of the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes (EPI and DPI. The following treatments (T for cheese production were studied: T1 - without ultrafiltration (standard; T2, T3, T4 and T5 - using milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UFCM and respectively: T2 - without pre-fermentation of the UFCM; T3 - pre-fermentation of 10% of the UFCM; T4 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the UFCM, and T5 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the UFCM plus indirect heating. Treatments affected the EPI and DPI of the cheeses (T1 lower values for EPI and DPI and T4 higher values for EPI and DPI. The time influenced the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes.

  5. Detection of regulated disinfection by-products in cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes; Cabezas, Lourdes; Fernández-Salguero, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Cheese can contain regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs), mainly through contact with brine solutions prepared in disinfected water or sanitisers used to clean all contact surfaces, such as processing equipment and tanks. This study has focused on the possible presence of up to 10 trihalomethanes (THMs) and 13 haloacetic acids (HAAs) in a wide range of European cheeses. The study shows that 2 THMs, (in particular trichloromethane) and 3 HAAs (in particular dichloroacetic acid) can be found at μg/kg levels in the 56 cheeses analysed. Of the two types of DBPs, HAAs were generally present at higher concentrations, due to their hydrophilic and non-volatile nature. Despite their different nature (THMs are lipophilic), both of them have an affinity for fatty cheeses, increasing their concentrations as the percentage of water decreased because the DBPs were concentrated in the aqueous phase of the cheeses.

  6. Effect of Proteases on Meltability and Stretchability of Nabulsi Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abu-Alruz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boiled white brined cheese (Nabulsi cheese is the mostly consumed cheese in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries. However, these characteristics are rarely available when usual processing and preservation method were used. Approach: This study was based on the hypothesis that it would be possible to imply meltability and stretchability to the cheese by proteolytic enzymes to the original brine that may specifically act on cross linking bonds of casein. In this study, six commercial proteases were used. It was found that Nabulsi cheese treated with papain developed an outstanding fibrous structure, this gave superiority in the application in kunafa, pizza and pastries. Results: The meltability and stretchability of Nabulsi cheese treated with papain were still excellent after 4 weeks of storage; this indicated the restricted enzyme action, probably due to high salt concentrations (18% in storage brine. Conclusion: The meltability and stretchability of Nabulsi cheese treated with papain were still excellent after 4 weeks of storage.

  7. Chemical species in cheese and their origin in milk components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A R

    1995-01-01

    Cheese making is the process of concentrating milk fat and protein by separation from water and soluble components. The objective of the cheese maker is to maximize yield efficiency by optimum utilization of each milk component while not compromising cheese quality. Cheese yielding potential of milk may be increased by selective breeding for specific protein genotypes, especially the BB variant of both kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin. Milk fat is included in cheese by occlusion into the protein coagulum. Participation of casein in both lactic and rennet coagulation is nearly complete so that casein losses to the whey occur mainly during cutting and the early stages of cooking. In lactic cheese, excepting cottage cheese, it is possible to eliminate losses of fines by centrifugal or membrane separation of curd. In heat-acid precipitated varieties protein recovery is increased by inclusion of whey proteins but fat recovery is very dependent on coagulation conditions. In ripened cheese obtaining the correct basic structure and composition is critical to texture and flavour development during curing.

  8. Fluorometric determination of histamine in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T L; Staruszkiewicz, W F

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-one samples of cheese obtained from retail outlets were analyzed for histamine, using an official AOAC fluorometric method. The types of cheese analyzed and the ranges of histamine found were: colby, 0.3--2.8; camembert, 0.4--4.2; cheddar, 1.2--5.8; gouda, 1.3--2.4; provolone, 2.0--23.5; roquefort, 1.0--16.8; mozzarella 1.6--5.0; and swiss, 0.4--250 mg histamine/100 g. Ten of the 12 samples of swiss cheese contained less than 16 mg histamine/100 g. The remaining 2 samples which contained 116 and 250 mg histamine/100 g were judged organoleptically to be of poor quality. An investigation of one processing facility showed that the production of histamine in swiss cheese may have been a result of a hydrogen peroxide/low temperature treatment of the milk supply. Recovery of histamine added to methanol extracts of cheese ranged from 93 to 105%. Histamine content was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the methanol extracts.

  9. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models....... These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  10. Pulsed-light inactivation of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on cheese surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, J; Hsu, L C; Miller, B M; Sullivan, G; Paradis, K; Moraru, C I

    2015-09-01

    Cheese products are susceptible to postprocessing cross-contamination by bacterial surface contamination during slicing, handling, or packaging, which can lead to food safety issues and significant losses due to spoilage. This study examined the effectiveness of pulsed-light (PL) treatment on the inactivation of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fluorescens, the nonenterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (nonpathogenic surrogate of Escherichia coli O157:H7), and Listeria innocua (nonpathogenic surrogate of Listeria monocytogenes) on cheese surface. The effects of inoculum level and cheese surface topography and the presence of clear polyethylene packaging were evaluated in a full factorial experimental design. The challenge microorganisms were grown to early stationary phase and subsequently diluted to reach initial inoculum levels of either 5 or 7 log cfu/slice. White Cheddar and process cheeses were cut into 2.5×5 cm slices, which were spot-inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspension. Inoculated cheese samples were exposed to PL doses of 1.02 to 12.29 J/cm(2). Recovered survivors were enumerated by standard plate counting or the most probable number technique, as appropriate. The PL treatments were performed in triplicate and data were analyzed using a general linear model. Listeria innocua was the least sensitive to PL treatment, with a maximum inactivation level of 3.37±0.2 log, followed by P. fluorescens, with a maximum inactivation of 3.74±0.8 log. Escherichia coli was the most sensitive to PL, with a maximum reduction of 5.41±0.1 log. All PL inactivation curves were nonlinear, and inactivation reached a plateau after 3 pulses (3.07 J/cm(2)). The PL treatments through UV-transparent packaging and without packaging consistently resulted in similar inactivation levels. This study demonstrates that PL has strong potential for decontamination of the cheese surface. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  11. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar Saavedra, J.A.; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  12. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon......Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  13. Effect of biodegradable starch packing on storage of processed cheese/ Efeito de embalagem biodegradável de amido no armazenamento de queijo processado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victória Eiras Grossmann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the utilization of renewable resources for the production of food packaging. Among the biopolymers, starches from several sources have been considered as one of the most promising material for this purpose; and the reasons for this are that starches are biodegradable, inexpensive and available in all world. This work had the objective of evaluate the effect of yam starch biodegradable packaging on storage (30 days / 4oC of comercial-processed cheese and to compare with conventional packaging. The results showed that conventional packaging presented the better behavior on weight and water activity retention of samples during all storage time than starch packaging. Considering microbiological counts, only control samples (unpackaged showed contamination. Titratable acidity and pH of packaged samples did not differ for starch or conventional package (Tukey test, p ? 0.05 during all storage time. Considering the presented results, yam starch could be used as an alternative to package processed cheese, but more studies have to be done to improve starch films as a water vapor barrier.Há um interesse crescente no emprego de matérias-primas provenientes de recursos renováveis para a produção de embalagens para alimentos. Dentre os biopolímeros mais promissores para este fim estão os amidos de diversas fontes botânicas, que são biodegradáveis, têm custo baixo e estão disponíveis em todo o mundo. Assim sendo, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de embalagens biodegradáveis de amido de inhame no armazenamento (30 dias / 4oc de queijo processado obtido de fonte comercial, e comparar o seu desempenho com o de embalagens convencionais. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a embalagem convencional foi mais eficaz na retenção do peso e atividade de água das amostras do que a embalagem de amido. Quanto à contagem microbiana, apenas as amostras não embaladas apresentaram contaminação. A acidez

  14. Iodixanol Development of a Laboratory-Scale Technique to Monitor the Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cheddar Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Donaghy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map is a potential human pathogen known to be present in raw milk from infected dairy herds. Current pasteurisation regimes do not totally inactivate Map resulting in the possibility of viable cells being present in pasteurised milk used for Cheddar cheese production. A laboratory-based method, ensuring strict safety precautions, was developed to manufacture 800-g Cheddar blocks, experimentally contaminated (postpasteurisation with two different strains of Map. The composition of the model Cheddar produced was consistent with commercial product. Syneresis of the cheese curd caused a 1 log10 concentration of Map numbers from milk to cheese for a strain isolated from pasteurised milk. The type strain NCTC 8578 did not show a similar concentration effect, but did however survive the Cheddar manufacturing process. A small percentage (<5% of the Map load for each strain was recovered in the whey fraction during the process.

  15. Isolation of [i]Listeria monocytogenes[/i] from milks used for Iranian traditional cheese in Lighvan cheese factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Hassan Moosavy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Lighvan cheese is a semi-hard cheese which has a popular market in Iran and neighboring countries. The aim of this study was evaluating the contamination of milks used for Lighvan cheese making with[i] Listeria monocytogenes[/i]. Raw milk samples were randomly collected from different cheese producing factories (sampling carried out from large milk tanks used cheese making in factories. Isolation of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] was performed according to ISO 11290 and biochemical tests were done to identify and confirm L. monocytogenes. 9 samples (50% of the 18 collected samples from milk tanks in Lighvan cheese producing factories were contaminated with [i]L. monocytogenes[/i]. The concentration of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] in all 9 positive samples was 40 CFU/ml. This study is the first report of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] contamination in raw milks used for Lighvan cheese production in Iran. Regarding the fact that these cheeses are produced from raw milk and no heating process is performed on them its milk contamination can be a potential risk for consumers.

  16. The language of cheese-ripening cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Microbial interactions are of importance for the establishment and growth of cheese ripening cultures. An interesting aspect of microbial interactions is cell-cell communication, often referred to as quorum sensing; the process in which micro-organisms communicate with signalling molecules and co......-ordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. Little is known about quorum sensing in foods. However, as quorum sensing is expected to be a general phenomenon in micro-organisms, it is likely to be of importance for micro-organisms in foods. An example of a food product where quorum sensing could...... be of importance is surface ripened cheeses. The present review focuses on our findings on quorum sensing systems in cheese ripening cultures. The main focus is on the group of bacterial non-species-specific signalling molecules referred to as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in smear bacteria as well as alcohol...

  17. Short communication: norbixin and bixin partitioning in Cheddar cheese and whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Li, X E; Drake, M A

    2014-01-01

    The Cheddar cheese colorant annatto is present in whey and must be removed by bleaching. Chemical bleaching negatively affects the flavor of dried whey ingredients, which has established a need for a better understanding of the primary colorant in annatto, norbixin, along with cheese color alternatives. The objective of this study was to determine norbixin partitioning in cheese and whey from full-fat and fat-free Cheddar cheese and to determine the viability of bixin, the nonpolar form of norbixin, as an alternative Cheddar cheese colorant. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar cheeses and wheys were manufactured from colored pasteurized milk. Three norbixin (4% wt/vol) levels (7.5, 15, and 30 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk) were used for full-fat Cheddar cheese manufacture, and 1 norbixin level was evaluated in fat-free Cheddar cheese (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk). For bixin incorporation, pasteurized whole milk was cooled to 55 °C, and then 60 mL of bixin/454 kg of milk (3.8% wt/vol bixin) was added and the milk homogenized (single stage, 8 MPa). Milk with no colorant and milk with norbixin at 15 mL/454 kg of milk were processed analogously as controls. No difference was found between the norbixin partition levels of full-fat and fat-free cheese and whey (cheese mean: 79%, whey: 11.2%). In contrast to norbixin recovery (9.3% in whey, 80% in cheese), 1.3% of added bixin to cheese milk was recovered in the homogenized, unseparated cheese whey, concurrent with higher recoveries of bixin in cheese (94.5%). These results indicate that fat content has no effect on norbixin binding or entrapment in Cheddar cheese and that bixin may be a viable alternative colorant to norbixin in the dairy industry.

  18. Effect of different hydrocolloid on the quality of processed cream cheese%不同亲水胶体对再制奶油奶酪品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫蓓红; 吴润博; 郑远荣; 刘振民

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different hydrocolloid such as locust bean gum,carrageenan,sodium alginate,guar gum and xanthan gum on the quality of processed cream cheese made by cheddar cheese and directly acidified by acidulant was studied in order to find out the best hydrocolloid solution for the system.Hydrocolloid has significant impact on all the parameters of processed cream cheese,especially on the water binding capacity and oil binding capacity.Hydrocolloid without gelling can provide better product than gel-forming hydrocolloid.Xanthan gum Locus and bean gum are both good hydrocolloid for processed cream cheese and it is better to use them separately.%通过研究刺槐豆胶、卡拉胶、海藻酸钠、瓜尔豆胶和黄原胶5种不同亲水胶体对以切达奶酪为原料,直接酸化法得到的再制奶油奶酪品质的影响,来选择较佳的亲水胶体方案.实验结果表明,亲水胶体对样品各方面的性质影响显著,对持水性和持油性的影响尤为明显.本体系适用不凝胶的亲水胶体.黄原胶和刺槐豆胶是最佳的选择,并建议2种胶体单独使用.

  19. Effects of Carrageenan and Xanthan Gum on Texture of Processed Acid-coagulated Cheese%卡拉胶和黄原胶对酸性凝胶型再制干酪质构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖杨; 苗君莅; 郑远荣; 刘振民

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan and xanthan gum on the texture and sensory quality of processed acid-coagulated cheese were studied.Under the acidic condition of pH 4.25,addition of carrageenan,along with 0.2% locust bean gum,could increase the hardness of cheese and result in the formation of hard and sticky gels.The presence of xanthan gum was effective in enhancing the springiness and chewiness of processed acid-coagulated cheese and soft,smooth and elastic gels were formed.Combined addition of carageenan and xanthan gum to processed acid-coagulated cheese can meet various texture requirements.%通过质构仪分析和感官评定,研究卡拉胶和黄原胶对酸性再制干酪质构的影响。结果表明:在pH4.25的酸性条件下,在添加0.2%刺槐豆胶的基础上,添加卡拉胶能增强再制干酪的硬度,形成的凝胶硬实且黏厚;添加黄原胶能增强再制干酪的弹性和咀嚼性,形成的凝胶柔滑且富有弹性。可按不同质构需求将两者复配起来运用于酸性凝胶型再制干酪的加工。

  20. Fontes de contaminação por Staphylococcus aureus na linha de processamento de queijo prato Identification of main sources of contamination with Staphylococcus aureus in Prato cheese manufacturing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Assumpção

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar as principais fontes de contaminação por Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus produtores de coagulase (SC+, avaliou-se o processo de fabricação de queijo prato em um laticínio de Lavras, MG, durante os meses de outubro de 2000 a abril de 2001. As análises microbiológicas foram feitas no leite cru, no leite pasteurizado resfriado, nas mãos e antebraços dos funcionários, na salmoura, na água de imersão das fôrmas e no queijo embalado. Contagens elevadas de SC+ e de S. aureus (4x10³ a 4,8x10(6 UFC/ml e 4x10³ a 3,3x10(5 UFC/ml, respectivamente foram encontradas em quatro avaliações no leite cru. Após a pasteurização, as contagens foram reduzidas a In order to identify the main sources of contamination with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SC+, a manufacture process of prato cheese in a plant located in Lavras, State of Minas Gerais, was evaluated five times from October/2000 to April/2001. Raw and pasteurized milk, hand and forearms of cheese makers, brine, hoops flushing water and cheeses were analyzed for SC+ and S. aureus. High counts of SC+ and S. aureus (4x10³ to 4.8x10(6 CFU/ml and 4x10³ to 3.3x10(5 CFU/ml, respectively were found in raw milk in four evaluations, but they decreased to values lower than 1 CFU/ml after pasteurization. In three evaluations, counts of SC+ in prato cheese samples were above legal limits (10(4, 10(5 and 2.3x10(5 CFU/g. The hoops flushing water and brine were not important contamination sources, both with counts lower than 1CFU/ml. The cheese makers probably were the main source of contamination, since high counts in cheese were correlated to high counts in their hands (4x10² CFU/cm² or forearms (4.7x10² and 3.3x10³ CFU/cm².

  1. Evolution of the taste of a bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: characterization of a matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Nicklaus, S; Septier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of ripening on the taste of a typically bitter Camembert cheese. The first step was to select a typically bitter cheese among several products obtained by different processes supposed to enhance this taste defect. Second, the evolution of cheese taste during ripening was characterized from a sensory point of view. Finally, the relative impact of fat, proteins, and water-soluble molecules on cheese taste was determined by using omission tests performed on a reconstituted cheese. These omission tests showed that cheese taste resulted mainly from the gustatory properties of water-soluble molecules but was modulated by a matrix effect due to fat, proteins, and cheese structure. The evolution of this matrix effect during ripening was discussed for each taste characteristic.

  2. Business Process Modeling: Blueprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fedaghi, Sabah

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a flow-based methodology for capturing processes specified in business process modeling. The proposed methodology is demonstrated through re-modeling of an IBM Blueworks case study. While the Blueworks approach offers a well-proven tool in the field, this should not discourage workers from exploring other ways of thinking about effectively capturing processes. The diagrammatic representation presented here demonstrates a viable methodology in this context. It is hoped this...

  3. Effects on Moisture content on quality of processed cheese storied at room temperature%水分添加量对常温保存再制奶酪品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会平; 董进; 卫风汝; 曹春玲

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the experiment studied the influence of moisture on the functional properties of processed cheese stored at room temperature which used laboratory-made mozzarella cheese as the main raw material, through process of raw material cutting, heating and melting, UHT ultra high temperature sterilization etc., by using texture analyzer and SEM, and it described that water played an important role in the process of making processed cheese stored at room temperature. The results indicated: meltability and sol coefficient were significant increasing trend by water (P<0.05); while the firmness, chewiness of processed cheese were affected a similar decreasing trend. The number and size of fat globules, the increase of pH value and sol coefficient indicated the emulsification of casein was influenced by water, to some extent, with the increasing of water in processed cheese, the emulsification of casein became better.%以实验室自制Mozzarella奶酪为主要原料研究了的常温保存再制奶酪,经过切割、加热融化、UHT超高温瞬时灭菌等工艺,利用质构仪、扫描电镜等仪器分析水分添加量对常温保存再制奶酪品质的影响.结果表明:水分添加量对再制奶酪的融化性和溶胶系数均有显著增大的趋势(P<0.05);而对再制奶酪物性中的硬度、黏着性、咀嚼性有相似的减小的趋势;水分对酪蛋白的乳化作用的影响体现在溶胶系数和pH值的增大,以及脂肪球的分散和数量减少,在一定范围内水分增加对酪蛋白乳化作用越好.

  4. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  5. Determination of the lactose and galactose content of cheese for use in the galactosaemia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoi, P A; MacDonald, A

    2009-10-01

    Treatment of galactosaemia requires a low galactose diet. In the UK, traditionally, all cheeses have been excluded from the diet, although some types of mature hard cheese are likely to be low in lactose and galactose. The present study aimed to determine the lactose and galactose content of mature cheeses. Over 6 years, the UK Galactosaemia Support Group commissioned the analysis of 109 samples (by two laboratories) of 12 cheese types, in eight batches throughout the year. Cheeses, obtained from retail outlets, were homogenised, sugars were extracted using water or 40% alcohol for fatty samples, and samples were deproteinised. Enzymatic analysis using measuring light absorbance was conducted on filtered extracts. Cheeses containing undetectable quantities of lactose (cheese from the UK West Country Farmhouse Cheese Makers Association (35 samples) only. Lactose containing cheeses included other mature Cheddar cheeses, Gouda and Edam. Gruyere, Emmental, Jarlsberg, Italian Parmesan (Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano), and mature Cheddar cheese produced in one area of England where the manufacturing process is standardised and guaranteed are now allowed in the UK galactosaemia diet.

  6. 凝乳粒的pH值对融化干酪品质的影响%Effect of curd particle's pH value on the quality of processed cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍建新; 王燕; 原慧艳; 王演; 白彩艳; 李明

    2015-01-01

    研究了凝乳粒的pH值对融化干酪的品质的影响.通过对融化干酪主要成分、感官评价、质构分析和微观结构的测定,比较了凝乳粒pH值为6.0、5.8、5.6、5.4、5.2对融化干酪品质的影响.结果表明:随着pH值的降低,融化干酪的脂肪含量和蛋白质含量逐渐减少,含水率增加;凝乳粒pH值为5.6时,切面光滑平整、组织状态均一、口感细腻;具有最高的恢复性,硬度适中,较低的咀嚼度、胶着性、黏聚性和弹性;融化干酪的网络结构更加密实,质地均匀,融化干酪整个体系有最佳的乳化效果.%The effect of the curd particle' s pH value on the quality of processed cheese was studied.Combined with main compositions,sensory evaluation,texture profile analysis and electron scanning spectroscopy,we investigated the effects of pH value 6.0,5.8,5.6,5.4,5.2 on the quality of processed cheese,respectively.Results showed that with pH values decreasing,processed cheese exhibited higher moisture,lower fat content.At pH 5.6,processed cheese had a smooth texture,uniform tissue and delighted taste,higher resilience,moderate hardness,low chewiness,low gumminess,cohesiveness,and springiness.The network between proteins was more closed and the structure was more uniform in the processed cheese.The emulsification was also very good.

  7. Evaluation of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as a method for the rapid and direct determination of sodium in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankey, J A; Akbulut, C; Romero, J E; Govindasamy-Lucey, S

    2015-08-01

    Cheese manufacturers indirectly determine Na in cheese by analysis of Cl using the Volhard method, assuming that all Cl came from NaCl. This method overestimates the actual Na content in cheeses when Na replacers (e.g., KCl) are used. A direct and rapid method for Na detection is needed. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), a mineral analysis technique used in the mining industry, was investigated as an alternative method of Na detection in cheese. An XRF method for the detection of Na in cheese was developed and compared with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES; the reference method for Na in cheese) and Cl analyzer. Sodium quantification was performed by multi-point calibration with cheese standards spiked with NaCl ranging from 0 to 4% Na (wt/wt). The Na concentration of each of the cheese standards (discs: 30mm×7mm) was quantified by the 3 methods. A single laboratory method validation was performed; linearity, precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantification were determined. An additional calibration graph was created using cheese standards made from natural or process cheeses manufactured with different ratios of Na:K. Both Na and K calibration curves were linear for the cheese standards. Sodium was quantified in a variety of commercial cheese samples. The Na data obtained by XRF were in agreement with those from ICP-OES and Cl analyzer for most commercial natural cheeses. The XRF method did not accurately determine Na concentration for several process cheese samples, compared with ICP-OES, likely due to the use of unknown types of Na-based emulsifying salts (ES). When a calibration curve was created for process cheese with the specific types of ES used for this cheese, Na content was successfully predicted in the samples. For natural cheeses, the limit of detection and limit of quantification for Na that can be determined with an acceptable level of repeatability, precision, and trueness was 82 and 246mg/100g of

  8. Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Kefir Coculture as Starter in Feta-Type Cheese Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoutas, Y.; Kandylis, P.; Panas, P.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Nigam, P.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4°C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compared to salted rennet cheese. Determination of bacterial diversity at the end of the ripening process in salted kefir and rennet cheeses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology, based on both DNA and RNA analyses, suggested a potential species-specific inhibition of members of the genera Staphylococcus and Psychrobacter by kefir coculture. The main active microbial associations in salted kefir cheese appeared to be members of the genera Pseudomonas and Lactococcus, while in salted rennet cheese, Oxalobacteraceae, Janthinobacterium, Psychrobacter, and Pseudomonas species were noted. The effect of the starter culture on the production of aroma-related compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied by the solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Kefir coculture also appeared to extend the shelf life of unsalted cheese. Spoilage of kefir cheese was observed on the 9th and 20th days of preservation at 10 and 5°C, respectively, while spoilage in the corresponding rennet cheese was detected on the 7th and 16th days. Microbial counts during preservation of both types of unsalted cheese increased steadily and reached similar levels, with the exception of staphylococci, which were significantly lower in unsalted kefir cheese. All types of cheese produced with kefir as a starter were approved and accepted by the panel during the preliminary sensory evaluation compared to commercial feta-type cheese. PMID:16957238

  9. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 利用响应面法优化重制干酪的制作工艺%Optimization of processing technology on processed cheese by response surface method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白英; 白晓彬

    2011-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize processing technology on processed cheese. Three statistically significant factors are:Sodium pyrophosphate 2%, SodiumCitrate 1.5%, SodiumTripolyphosphate 2%.Gel strength was 528.1 g/cm2,sensory evaluation was 4.8.%以契达干酪为原料,采用响应面法对重制干酪的制作工艺进行优化.优化后乳化盐的使用量分别为:焦磷酸钠2%,柠檬酸钠1.5%,三聚磷酸钠2%,重制干酪的凝胶强度为528.1 g/cm2,感官评分4.8分.

  11. Autochthonous cheeses of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Sarić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the migration of people towards cities, autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina survived. Technologies of these cheeses are simple and adapted to humble mountain limitations. Geographical occasions and rich mountain pastures created a certain participation of ewe's milk cheeses. Communicative isolation of hilly-mountain regions resulted in "closed" cheese production in small households. Autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina have various origins. Different cheeses are produced in different parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are : Travnički cheese, Masni (fat cheese, Presukača, Sirac, Livanjski cheese, Posni (lean cheese, "Suvi" (dry cheese or "Mješinski" full fat cheese matured in sheepskin bag, fresh sour milk cheese "Kiseli" and dried sour milk cheese "Kiseli", Zajednica, Basa, Kalenderovački cheese and goat's milk cheeses (Hard and White soft goat's milk cheese, "Zarica" and Urda. Besides above-mentioned types of cheese in Bosnia and Herzegovina some other autochthonous dairy products are produced: Kajmak (Cream, Maslo (Rendered butter and Zimsko kiselo mlijeko (Winter sour milk. The specificity in Bosnia and Herzegovina is that autochthonous dairy products are still mainly both produced and consumed in small rural households. Exceptions are Travnički cheese and Kajmak that are significantly sold at market. Only Livanjski cheese is manufactured as industry dairy product.

  12. 酶法改性干酪风味配料的加工技术%Processing Technology of Enzyme Modified Cheese Flavour Ingredient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 刘佳; 赵秀明; 赵征

    2011-01-01

    酶改性干酪(EMC)作为酶法改性干酪风味配料的主要产品,可以赋予风味平淡的产品以特殊的干酪风味特性。本文介绍了EMC生产工艺以及生产过程中所用的酶和发酵剂。%As a main product of enzyme-modified cheese flavour ingredients, enzyme-modified cheese (EMC) can be used to impart a special cheese flavour character to a blander product. This review introduced the technology of EMC, and enzymes as well as starter cultures used in EMC manufacture.

  13. Enzyme-modified cheese processing technology%酶法改性干酪风味配料的加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 刘佳; 赵秀明; 赵征

    2011-01-01

    酶改性干酪(EMC)作为酶法改性干酪风味配料的主要产品,可以赋予风味平淡的产品以特殊的干酪风味特性.本文介绍了EMC生产工艺以及生产过程中所用的酶和发酵剂.%As a main product of enzyme -modified cheese flavour ingredients, enzyme -modified cheese (EMC) can be used to impart a special cheese flavour character to a blander product. This review introduces the technology of EMC, and enzymes as well as starter cultures used in EMC manufacture.

  14. Business Model Process Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Nielsen, Christian; Thomsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims: 1) To develop systematically a structural list of various business model process configuration and to group (deductively) these selected configurations in a structured typological categorization list. 2) To facilitate companies in the process of BM innovation......, by developing (inductively) an ontological classification framework, in view of the BM process configurations typology developed. Design/methodology/approach – Given the inconsistencies found in the business model studies (e.g. definitions, configurations, classifications) we adopted the analytical induction...... method of data analysis. Findings - A comprehensive literature review and analysis resulted in a list of business model process configurations systematically organized under five classification groups, namely, revenue model; value proposition; value configuration; target customers, and strategic...

  15. Cheese yield in Brazil: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    SALES,Danielle Cavalcanti; RANGEL,Adriano Henrique do Nascimento; Urbano,Stela Antas; BORGES,Kátia Cristina; ANDRADE NETO,Júlio César de; Bruna Maria Emerenciano CHAGAS

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This literature review discusses the concepts and factors that influence industrial cheese yield and compiles the latest studies conducted in Brazil involving this theme. In seeking to support managerial decision-making, cheese yield can be measured at the end of processing or estimated prior to this. In research and industry, measuring and estimating yield can be evaluated under the effect of processing, from different proportions and characteristics of ingredients (mainly milk qual...

  16. Researches Regarding Microbiological Parameters Values of Telemea Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Suler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper were microbiological parameters which characterized the Telemea cheese for each season, assessment of technologies and thus assortment defects as well as projection of hygienic solution for obtaining qualitative products according to actual standards. We studied 5 units of Telemea cheese processing replaced in different area. For obtaining concrete results we used STAS methodologies and analyze procedure was based on observation, mathematical estimation and experiments (in lab and processing units.

  17. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  18. Biosphere Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor

  19. Tool for quantification of staphylococcal enterotoxin gene expression in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquenne, Manon; Fleurot, Isabelle; Aigle, Marina; Darrigo, Claire; Borezée-Durant, Elise; Derzelle, Sylviane; Bouix, Marielle; Deperrois-Lafarge, Véronique; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès

    2010-03-01

    Cheese is a complex and dynamic microbial ecosystem characterized by the presence of a large variety of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Some microorganisms, including species of lactobacilli or lactococci, are known to contribute to the organoleptic quality of cheeses, whereas the presence of other microorganisms may lead to spoilage or constitute a health risk. Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as an important food-borne pathogen, owing to the production of enterotoxins in food matrices. In order to study enterotoxin gene expression during cheese manufacture, we developed an efficient procedure to recover total RNA from cheese and applied a robust strategy to study gene expression by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). This method yielded pure preparations of undegraded RNA suitable for RT-qPCR. To normalize RT-qPCR data, expression of 10 potential reference genes was investigated during S. aureus growth in milk and in cheese. The three most stably expressed reference genes during cheese manufacture were ftsZ, pta, and gyrB, and these were used as internal controls for RT-qPCR of the genes sea and sed, encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins A and D, respectively. Expression of these staphylococcal enterotoxin genes was monitored during the first 72 h of the cheese-making process, and mRNA data were correlated with enterotoxin production.

  20. Survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during the Preparation of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Liu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a new probiotic soy cheese on the basis of chinese sufu. The soy cheese was made from soymilk fermented with soy cheese bacterial starter cultures (DH1 and GH4 and L. rhamnosus 6013. After ripening, probiotic soy cheese sensory scores (standard SB/T 10170-93 were compared to the control. The changes in pH, bacterial growth and the survivability of the potential probiotic L. rhamnosus 6013 during fermentation and storage at 10 °C were examined. After 6 h of fermentation, L. rhamnosus 6013 was capable of growing in soymilk as high as 108–109 CFU/mL. After being stored for 30 days at 10 °C, slight decrease in pH and the viable counts of the strain was noticed. The viable counts of L. rhamnosus 6013, DH1 and GH4 were 107, 106 and 106 CFU/g, respectively, after storage for 30 days. The levels of stachyose, raffinose and sucrose in soy cheese were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could utilize the soybean oligosaccharides as carbon sources. In addition, 2–4 % of NaCl had little effect on the survivability of L. rhamnosus 6013. It indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could withstand the technological processing of soy cheese and had no negative effect on the fermentation and the sensory properties of the soy cheese.

  1. Lipids in cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  2. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  3. Segmentation of Parmigiano Reggiano dairies according to cheese-making technology and relationships with the aspect of the cheese curd surface at the moment of its extraction from the cheese vat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchetti, G; Gatti, M; Nocetti, M; Reverberi, P; Bianchi, A; Galati, F; Petroni, A

    2014-03-01

    Parmigiano Reggiano cheese dairies develop specific cheese-making strategies to adapt the variable characteristics of raw, not standardized milk to the final goal of obtaining cheese consistent with the standard. Analyzing 1,175 cheese-making reports from 30 out of 383 dairies associated with the Parmigiano Reggiano Consortium in 2010 and 2011, 4 groups of Parmigiano Reggiano dairies using specific cheese-making technologies were discriminated by means of multiple linear discriminant analysis. Cheese makers manage cheese-making practices to obtain curd with different roughness properties, classified according to jargon words such as "rigata" and "giusta" or synonyms, because they believe that the roughness of the cheese curd surface immediately after the extraction from the vat is associated with different whey-draining properties and to the final outcome of the cheese. The aspect of the surfaces of the curds produced by the 4 groups of dairies was different according to the technology applied by each group. Cutting of the coagulum when it is still soft for a longer time and faster cooking of the cheese curd grains were associated with a less rough appearance of the surface of the curd, whereas under the opposite conditions, cutting the coagulum when it is firm for a shorter time, led to a curd with a rougher surface. These findings partially support the traditional feeling of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese makers, who consider the curd surface aspect one of the main drivers for their technological choices; to date, however, no data are provided about correlation between the aspect of the curd and the quality of the ripened cheese. If a sufficiently strong correlation could be demonstrated by the future development of the research, the operational effectiveness of Parmigiano Reggiano dairies will be able to largely benefit from the availability of sound and early process markers.

  4. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg: Al 0.01-3.93, Co<0.005, Cr 0.005-1.66, Li 0.008-0.056, Mn 0.068-5.37, Mo 0.003-0.225, Ni 0.01-0.163 and Sr 0.085-3.49. There were significant differences considering the concentrations of Mn, Cr and Al (p<0.01, all among the analysed dairy products. There were no significant differences in Sr, Mo, Ni and Li levels among products. The highest levels were found in following products (mg/kg: 4.23 Mn in semi-hard fat cheese, 2.43 Sr in cream cheese, 0.18 Mo in cream, 0.14 Ni and 0.028 Li in melted cheese, 1.13 Cr and 3.87 Al in butter. The trace element con¬centrations measured in cheeses and butter varied compared to the literature data. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn and Mo found in cheeses and Mn and Ni in butter were in line with contents reported in other countries. These results may demonstrate differences in production processes between countries. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs calculated for Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni in cheeses showed a low contribution (0.59-3.38 % to the reference values for the permitted daily exposure (PDE for these elements. However, the high contribution of Al concentrations (56 and 124 % to PTWI (provisional maximum tolerable daily intake calculated in fresh and melted cheese may pose a health risk to consumers.

  5. Foam process models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A. (Procter & Gamble Co., West Chester, OH); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2008-09-01

    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

  6. Comparative evaluation of enamel remineralization potential of processed cheese, calcium phosphate-based synthetic agent, and a fluoride-containing toothpaste: An in situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Grewal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel remineralization potential of variety of products has been established, but there is a lack of evidence of comparison of remineralization potential of natural versus synthetic products. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the enamel remineralization potential of saliva, cheese, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP-based synthetic agent, and fluoride toothpaste. Design: In situ study was carried out on sixty individuals who wore an intraoral appliance containing demineralized enamel slabs for each agent. One out of six slabs was kept as a control so as to record the baseline values (neither subjected to demineralization nor remineralization. Experimental agents were applied on the designated enamel slabs on day 1, 4, 7, and 10 with a crossover wash out period of 7 days. Quantitative values of mineral content of slab were measured using energy dispersive X-ray and qualitative changes in surface topography of slab were seen under scanning electron microscope at ×20K magnification. Results: Highly significant changes from baseline values were seen in calcium and phosphorus content of slabs treated with cheese and CPP-ACP-based agent whereas levels of fluoride were significantly higher in enamel slabs treated with fluoride-containing toothpaste. Conclusion: Cheese is an organic, economical, and user-friendly option over prescribed synthetic agents. A synergistic effect of fluoride-containing toothpaste with intake of cheese could be a good enamel remineralization protocol.

  7. Autochthonous cheeses of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatan Sarić; Sonja Bijeljac

    2003-01-01

    Despite the migration of people towards cities, autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina survived. Technologies of these cheeses are simple and adapted to humble mountain limitations. Geographical occasions and rich mountain pastures created a certain participation of ewe's milk cheeses. Communicative isolation of hilly-mountain regions resulted in "closed" cheese production in small households. Autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina have various origins. Different cheeses are...

  8. 乳清两步发酵法制取环保型融雪剂醋酸钙镁盐%Production of environment friendly deicer calcium magnesium acetate by two-stage fermentation process from cheese whey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩爱霞; 吕海棠; 王兆谦; 任彦蓉; 王海鹏; 郗怡佳; 黄靖; 李春花

    2012-01-01

    To reasonably utilize cheese whey which was a by-product from the manufacture of cheese and casein,the anaerobic fermentation process was developed to produce acetic acid from lactose in cheese whey .Then environment friendly deicers calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) can be produced with the acetic acid and CaO/MgO.A lactobacillus plantarum was used to convert lactose in cheese whey to lactic acid in the first stage,the conversion rate of lactic acid was 47.47%. Propionibac-terium was used to convert lactic acid to acetic acid and propionic acid which could be separated by gas chromatography method in the second stage,and the conversion rate of acetic acid was 5.643%.Structure of CMA was verified by IR.This method effectively utilized cheese whey and reduced production costs of calcium magnesium acetate, will have a bright future.%为合理利用乳酪和乳酪素的副产品乳清,研究了一种新的厌氧发酵方法将乳清中的乳糖发酵成醋酸,以此醋酸与CaO/MgO反应制备得到环保型融雪剂醋酸钙镁盐(CMA).第一步用植物乳杆菌将乳清中的乳糖发酵成乳酸,乳酸的转化率是47.47%;第二步用丙酸杆菌将乳酸发酵成醋酸与丙酸,用气相色谱法将二者分离,得到醋酸的转化率为5.643%;用红外光谱法验证了此醋酸与CaO/MgO反应制备得到的CMA的结构.该法既有效地利用了乳酪和乳酪素的副产品乳清,又降低了环保型融雪剂醋酸钙镁盐的生产成本,具有很好的应用前景.

  9. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are introdu

  10. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are

  11. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  12. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...

  13. Quality Assessment of Cheese in Markets of Tirana City

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mycological control of cheese is considered an important process related to food safety. Food borne disease in our days remains an important issue for public health because they causes infection to the consumers and an important economic damage. A mycological survey of different kind of cheeses sold at five big markets in Tirana is conducted during March - Septembre 2013, in order to identify if potentially toxicological and pathogenic fungi were or were not present. A total 140 samples of c...

  14. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...... as Lb. paracasei and three as Lb. fermentum. Lb. paracasei ST 68 was chosen for further testing as antifungal protective adjunct for Edam cheese production.  ...

  15. Consumers’ attitude and opinion towards different types of fresh cheese: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Pereira de BARROS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fresh cheese stands out for its tradition and widespread consumption in Brazil. However, there is a lack of information on motivation towards the consumption of available fresh cheeses in the Brazilian market. Focus group sessions were used to explore consumers’ attitude and opinion about fresh cheese. Products with different characteristics were used to stimulate discussion among participants including cheese with “no added salt”, the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” and products processed with goat milk. The salt content played an important role on the consumer intention to purchase of fresh cheese. Participants stated that they would consume cheese without salt only by following a medical prescription. However, the subjects declared that they would buy reduced salt cheese if such reduction would not compromise the flavor. The meaning of the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” was often declared as unknown during the discussion. However, they would buy a probiotic product. In addition, it was mentioned that a premium price would be paid for such functional cheese. Participants declared that would buy goat cheese. Nevertheless, to pay a higher price over the conventional one was a controversial and debatable issue among consumers. Results revealed important implications for the development of marketing strategies for fresh cheese.

  16. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P M; Burdíková, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfu·mL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfu·g(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >5×10(7) cfu·g(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting.

  17. Effect of multiple substrates in ethanol fermentations from cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.J.; Jayanata, Y.; Bajpai, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanol fermentations from cheese whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397 were investigated. Cheese whey, which contains lactose as the major sugar, has been found to have small amounts of glucose and galactose, depending on the source and operating conditions. Fermentation performance was strongly influenced by the presence of glucose and galactose. However, lactose did not significantly affect the cell growth and product formation even at a high concentration. A logistical model was proposed to take into account the effect of lactose. (Refs. 6).

  18. 利用3种凝固剂制作新鲜软质大豆干酪的工艺研究%Optimization of Preparation Process for Fresh Soft Soymilk Cheese Using Three Different Coagulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹莹; 笪久香; 栾广忠; 崔亚丽; 胡亚云; 李志成

    2012-01-01

    Three different coagulants, δ-gluconolactone, magnesium chloride and papain were individually used to prepare fresh soft soymilk cheese from cooked soymilk. Key process parameters such as inoculum amount of starter culture, coagulant level and NaCl level were optimized by means of orthogonal array design. Soymilk cheeses obtained from these three coagulants were comparatively tested for the major physical and chemical properties and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the optimal levels of starter culture, coagulant and NaC1 were the same for the preparation of soymilk cheeses using c%gluconolactone or magnesium chloride, which were 0.020%, 0.20% and 1.0%, respectively; the optimal levels of starter culture, CaCl2, coagulant and NaC1 for the preparation of papain-coagulated soymilk cheese were 0.010%, 0.02%, 0.05% and 1.0%, respectively. The soymilk cheeses obtained with the different coagulants had similar water contents. The papain-coagulated soymilk cheese received the highest sensory evaluation score, the magnesium chloride-coagulated one had the highest protein content, and the highest cheese productivity was achieved through coagulation with δ -gluconolactone. Although the cow's milk cheese and the soymilk cheese prepared under the same technological parameters had similar protein contents, the fat content of the latter represented only one-third of that of the former and the latter showed higher water content and productivity and a slightly lower sensory evaluation score. Fresh soft soymilk cheese may be considered as a low-fat healthy substitute for fresh soft cow's milk cheese.%以豆乳为原料,分别以葡萄糖酸内酯、氯化镁和木瓜蛋白酶为凝固剂制作新鲜软质大豆干酪。用正交试验法对发酵剂、凝固剂及食盐的添加量等参数进行优化,并将3种大豆干酪的主要理化指标及感官与牛奶新鲜软质干酪进行比较。结果表明,以葡萄糖酸内酯为凝固剂制备新鲜软质

  19. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-07-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  20. Validation of the Safety of Process Cheese Slices When They are Used%重制切片干酪使用过程中安全性的测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洁; 司炜

    2014-01-01

    重制切片干酪可以通过控制pH值、水分、含盐量、防腐剂,生产过程的加热处理,包装内充入惰性气体等手段,确保最终成品的安全性以及在低温储存下达到预定保质期(60天)的目的。但重制切片干酪在客户使用过程中会出现0.5~4.0 h的常温放置(打开包装失去惰性气体的保护),此段时间产品是否安全是本文测试的主要目的。测试得出结论:产品使用过程中常温放置时,24 h内产品符合安全性要求。%It can be assured that ifnal products of process cheese slices keep safety during cold storage and shelf life by control ing pH,moisture,salts,and preservative,or by pasteurism and inert gases protected. In addition, when the customer use the process cheese slices,the products may be put on the table without cold storage for 0.5~4.0 hours. For this reason,safety or not of the product during this period is our main research purpose. The conclusions indicate that the process cheese slices are safety under room temperature,when storage time is limited to less than 24 hours.

  1. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals.

  2. Cheese rind microbial communities: diversity, composition and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlinger, Françoise; Layec, Séverine; Hélinck, Sandra; Dugat-Bony, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cheese rinds host a specific microbiota composed of both prokaryotes (such as Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria) and eukaryotes (primarily yeasts and moulds). By combining modern molecular biology tools with conventional, culture-based techniques, it has now become possible to create a catalogue of the biodiversity that inhabits this special environment. Here, we review the microbial genera detected on the cheese surface and highlight the previously unsuspected importance of non-inoculated microflora--raising the question of the latter's environmental sources and their role in shaping microbial communities. There is now a clear need to revise the current view of the cheese rind ecosystem (i.e. that of a well-defined, perfectly controlled ecosystem). Inclusion of these new findings should enable us to better understand the cheese-making process.

  3. Effect of Pasteurization Temperature, Starter Culture, and Incubation Temperature on the Physicochemical Properties, Yield, Rheology, and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Goat Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Florencia Frau; Graciela Font de Valdez; Nora Pece

    2014-01-01

    The local cheese factories currently use bovine commercial starter cultures, and the spreadable cheese process is not standardized. A detailed understanding of the effect of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature must allow producers to optimize the process, increase cheese yield, and improve the quality of the final product. The main objective of the study was to describe the preparation method of spreadable goat cheese and investigate the effects of specific...

  4. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... milkfat, dehydrated cream, skim milk cheese for manufacturing, and albumin from cheese whey. All optional... made from pasteurized milk, or are held for not less than 60 days at a temperature of not less than 35..., neufchatel cheese, cottage cheese, creamed cottage cheese, cook cheese, and skim-milk cheese...

  5. Behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in culture broth, in raw and thermized milk, and during processing and storage of traditional Greek Graviera cheese in the presence or absence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel nisin A-producing raw milk isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelis, John; Lianou, Alexandra; Pappa, Eleni C; Bogovič-Matijašić, Bojana; Parapouli, Maria; Kakouri, Athanasia; Rogelj, Irena

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the behavior of Staphylococcus aureus during processing, ripening, and storage of traditional Greek Graviera cheese in accordance with European Union Regulation 1441/2007 for coagulase-positive staphylococci in thermized milk cheeses. Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel nisin A-producing (NisA+) strain, also was evaluated as an antistaphylococcal adjunct. A three-strain cocktail of enterotoxigenic (Ent+) S. aureus increased by approximately 2 log CFU/ml when co-inoculated (at approximately 3 log CFU/ml) in thermized Graviera cheese milk (TGCM; 63°C for 30 s) with commercial starter culture (CSC) and/or strain M104 at approximately 6 log CFU/ml and then incubated at 37°C for 3 h. However, after 6 h at 37°C, significant retarding effects on S. aureus growth were noted in the order TGCM + M104 > TGCM + CSC = TGCM + CSC + M104 > TGCM. Additional incubation of TGCM cultures at 18°C for 66 h resulted in a 1.2-log reduction (P cheeses prepared from TGCM + CSC or TGCM + CSC + M104, ripened at 18°C and 90% relative humidity for 20 days, and stored at 4°C in vacuum packages for 2 months. A rapid 10-fold decrease (P cheese fermentation. Reductions of S. aureus were greater by approximately 0.4 log CFU/g in CSC + M104 than in CSC only cheeses, concomitantly with the presence of NisA + M104 colonies and nisin-encoding genes in the CSC plus M104 cheeses and their corresponding microbial consortia only. A high level of selective survival of a naturally nisin-resistant EntC z S. aureus strain from the cocktail was noted in CSC + M104 cheeses and in coculture with the NisA + M104 strain in M-17 broth. In conclusion, although S. aureus growth inhibition is assured during Graviera cheese ripening, early growth of the pathogen during milk curdling and curd cooking operations may occur. Nisin-resistant S. aureus strains that may contaminate Graviera cheese milks postthermally may be difficult to control even by the

  6. Potential of anticlostridial Lactobacillus isolated from cheese to prevent blowing defects in semihard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Vogensen,, F. K.; Nielsen, E. W;

    2010-01-01

    Five anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese were selected for a mixed adjunct culture. Cheese with the mixed adjunct culture (experimental) and without (control) was made in triplicate and ripened as vacuum-packed and surface-ripened cheese. Cheese gross composition was similar...... in the experimental cheeses. Anticlostridial nonstarter Lactobacillus strains have potential as protective adjunct cultures against blowing defects in cheese........ Excessive gas formation occurred only in control cheeses. In contrast to control cheeses, the experimental cheeses were dominated by the added adjunct Lactobacillus strains (repetitive-PCR). Casein breakdown was not influenced, however, the total amount of amino acids and pH was slightly lower...

  7. Ectoine as a natural component of food: detection in red smear cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Julia; Schwarz, Thomas; Lentzen, Georg

    2007-11-01

    Ectoine is a compatible solute accumulated in halophilic bacteria in response to high salt concentrations and offers protection from osmotic stress. The occurrence of compatible solutes is widespread among bacteria, yet ectoine has never been detected in foods. The use of an ectoine producing microorganism (Brevibacterium linens) in the surface ripening of red smear cheeses led to the question whether ectoine can be found in cheese. Therefore we examined samples from a variety of cheese manufacturers and different types of red smear cheeses for the presence of ectoine using HPLC and HPLC/MS analysis. Ectoine solely appears in the rind and was detected up to 178 mg/200 g red smear cheese, depending on several factors like ripening status and conditions throughout the cheese production process (e.g. salt concentrations of used brine baths).

  8. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  9. Effect of Difference Acidification End on Properties and Sensory of Processed Cream Cheese%不同酸化终点对高乳脂再制奶酪功能性和感官特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫蓓红; 高红艳; 陈帅; 刘振民

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study effects of different end pH on functionality and sensory characteristics of cream processed cheese. [ Method] The effect of different pH on the quality of processed cream cheese made from cheddar and cream and acidified by gluconic acid-delta-lactone (GDL) was studied. The texture, water binding capacity, oil binding capacity and sensory of the samples were evaluated. [Result] pH has big impact on sensory, texture and internal syneresis, but has less impact on surface syneresis and oil separation. The best end pH is 4. 8. The impacts could be caused by the special curd forming style of cream cheese and the electrostatic interaction between protein molecular changing with pH value. [Conclusion] The obtained cream processed cheese is better accordance with target when end pH at isoelectric point.%[目的]研究不同终点pH对高乳脂再制奶酪功能性和感官特性的影响.[方法]以切达奶酪和稀奶油为主要原料,以葡萄糖酸-δ-内酯(GDL)为酸化剂,通过直接酸化法得到不同终点pH的高乳脂再制奶酪样品.对制得的样品进行了质构分析、持水性测试、持油性测试等功能性测定,并进行了感官评定分析.[结果]试验得出,终点pH对高乳脂再制奶酪影响较大的是感官、质构特性和内部乳清析出,而对表面乳清析出和油脂析出率影响不大,pH 4.8是最佳的酸化终点.产生这些影响的主要原因是由于高乳脂奶酪特殊的凝乳方式和蛋白质分子间随pH变化的静电作用.[结论]酸化终点在等点电附近时,得到的高乳脂再制奶酪的结构更符合目标要求.

  10. Extra Cheese, Please! Mozzarella's Journey from Cow to Pizza [and] Teaching Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chris

    This book traces Annabelle the dairy cow's milk from the farm to the top of a Friday night pizza. The book relates that when Annabelle gives birth to her calf she also begins to produce milk; the milk is then processed into cheese, and from the cheese, pizza is made (recipe included). The book features color photographs of the entire process which…

  11. 马苏里拉干酪关键加工工艺技术参数的优化和设备的研发%The Optimization of the Key Processing Technology Parameters and Development of the Critical Equipment for Mozzarella Cheese Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅; 张轶

    2014-01-01

    At present, the cheese production enterprises in China are less, cheese production and processing technology was not mature enough and mainly fol owed the foreign technology. In view of the related research on cheese production technology are few. This paper reviewed the production of mozzarel a cheese, optimized the key processing technology parameters, stated the critical equipment which independent developed in industrial production of mozzarel a cheese, thereby make the product quantity and quality are in accordance with the design requirements.%目前,我国干酪生产企业较少,生产加工工艺技术还不够成熟,主要沿袭国外技术,有关干酪生产的工艺和设备方面的研究也较少。本文就马苏里拉干酪的生产进行了论述,优化了关键加工工艺参数,自主研发了工业化生产马苏里拉干酪的关键设备,生产的产品质量和产量均符合设计要求。

  12. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and... Products § 133.133 Cream cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cream cheese is the soft, uncured cheese prepared by..., nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes....

  13. Decontamination of hard cheeses by pulsed UV light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Fidan O; Demirci, Ali; Puri, Virendra M; Gourama, Hassan

    2014-10-01

    Cheese is a ready-to-eat food that may be contaminated on the surface by undesirable spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms during production, packaging, and postpackaging processes. Penicillium roqueforti is commonly found on cheese surfaces at refrigeration temperatures and is one of the most common spoilage fungal species. Consumption of cheese contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes can result in foodborne listeriosis. Therefore, cheese should be decontaminated at postprocessing stages. Pulsed UV light is a nonthermal method for food preservation that involves the use of intense short pulses to ensure microbial decontamination on the surface of foods or packaging materials. In this study, the efficacy of pulsed UV light for inactivation of P. roqueforti and L. monocytogenes inoculated onto packaged and unpackaged hard cheeses was investigated. Treatment times and the distance from the UV strobe were evaluated to determine optimum treatment conditions. Packaged and unpackaged cheeses were treated at distances of 5, 8, and 13 cm for up to 60 s. For P. roqueforti, maximum reduction after 40 s at 5 cm was 1.32 log CFU/cm(2) on unpackaged cheese and 1.24 log CFU/cm(2) on packaged cheese. Reductions of L. monocytogenes under the same treatment conditions were about 2.9 and 2.8 log CFU/cm(2) on packaged and unpackaged cheeses, respectively. The temperature changes and total energy increases were directly proportional to treatment time and inversely proportional to distance between the UV lamp and the samples. The changes in color and lipid oxidation were determined at mild (5 s at 13 cm), moderate (30 s at 8 cm), and extreme (40 s at 5 cm) treatments. The color and chemical quality of cheeses were not significantly different after mild treatments (P > 0.05). The mechanical properties of the plastic packaging material (polypropylene) also were evaluated after mild, moderate, and extreme treatments. A decreasing trend was noted for elastic modulus; however, no

  14. Prospect and development of Xinjiang curd-cheese%新疆奶酪现状及前景探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽奴儿·吐拉西; 普燕; 张富春

    2011-01-01

    分别对新疆传统奶酪的种类、生产方法、酶凝奶酪和酸凝奶酪的凝乳机理、凝乳酶特性及其在新疆奶酪中的应用现状等问题进行了详细介绍,进而探讨了新疆奶酪产业的发展前景.%Coagulation is the fundamental process in cheese making. Cheese prepared by different methods have different flavors. In this paper , the classification and production of Xinjiang traditional cheese are introduced in detail, the mechanism of curd-cheese and acid-cheese ,characteristic and application of chymosin in Xinjiang cheese are discussed as well in this paper, which intend to describe the prospect for the Xinjiang curd-cheese.

  15. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  16. Biogas yield from Sicilian kitchen waste and cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of kitchen waste and cheese whey, as well as the biogas yield obtained from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD tests of these two raw materials. Since the separated waste collection is performed in the town of Marineo (Palermo, a sample of kitchen waste, different from food industry one and included in the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, was collected from the mass stored at the households of this town. Moreover, a sample of cheese whey was collected in a Sicilian mini dairy plant, where sheep milk is processed. This investigation was carried out inside laboratory digesters of Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania. Total Solids (TS resulted 15.6% in kitchen waste and 6% in cheese whey, while both the raw materials showed a high content of organic matter, 91.1% and 79.1%, respectively. The biogas yield resulted 104.6 l kg–1 from kitchen waste and 30.6 l kg–1 from cheese whey. The biogas yield from TS resulted 672.6 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 384.7 l kg–1 using cheese whey. The biogas yield from Volatile Solids (VS resulted 738.9 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 410.3 l kg–1 using cheese whey.

  17. Optimization of pH, temperature and CaCl2 concentrations for Ricotta cheese production from Buffalo cheese whey using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul Ahid; Huma, Nuzhat; Zahoor, Tahir; Asgher, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The recovery of milk constituents from cheese whey is affected by various processing conditions followed during production of Ricotta cheese. The objective of the present investigation was to optimize the temperature (60-90 °C), pH (3-7) and CaCl2 concentration (2·0-6·0 mm) for maximum yield/recovery of milk constituents. The research work was carried out in two phases. In 1st phase, the influence of these processing conditions was evaluated through 20 experiments formulated by central composite design (CCD) keeping the yield as response factor. The results obtained from these experiments were used to optimize processing conditions for maximum yield using response surface methodology (RSM). The three best combinations of processing conditions (90 °C, pH 7, CaCl2 6 mm), (100 °C, pH 5, CaCl2 4 mm) and (75 °C, pH 8·4, CaCl2 4 mm) were exploited in the next phase for Ricotta cheese production from a mixture of Buffalo cheese whey and skim milk (9 : 1) to determine the influence of optimized conditions on the cheese composition. Ricotta cheeses were analyzed for various physicochemical (moisture, fat, protein, lactose, total solids, pH and acidity indicated) parameters during storage of 60 d at 4 ± 2 °C after every 15 d interval. Ricotta cheese prepared at 90 °C, pH 7 and CaCl2 6 mm exhibited the highest cheese yield, proteins and total solids, while high fat content was recorded for cheese processed at 100 °C, pH 5 and 4 mm CaCl2 concentration. A significant storage-related increase in acidity and NPN was recorded for all cheese samples.

  18. Assessing the yield, microstructure, and texture properties of miniature Chihuahua-type cheese manufactured with a phospholipase A1 and exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancoso-Reyes, N; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Sepulveda, D R; Hernández-Ochoa, L R

    2014-02-01

    Chihuahua cheese or Mennonite cheese is one of the most popular and consumed cheeses in Mexico and by the Hispanic community in the United States. According to local producers the yield of Chihuahua cheese ranges from 9 to 9.5 kg of cheese from 100 kg of milk. Cheese yield is a crucial determinant of profitability in cheese-manufacturing plants; therefore, different methods have been developed to increase it. In this work, a miniature Chihuahua-type cheese model was used to assess the effect of a phospholipase A1 (PL-A1) and exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria (separately and in combination) on the yield, microstructure, and texture of cheese. Four different cheeses were manufactured: cheese made with PL-A1, cheese made with EPS-producing bacteria, cheese with both PL-A1 and EPS-producing bacteria, and a cheese control without PL-A1 or EPS-producing bacteria. The compositional analysis of cheese was carried out using methods of AOAC International (Washington, DC). The actual yield and moisture-adjusted yield were calculated for all cheese treatments. Texture profile analyses of cheeses were performed using a texture analyzer. Micrographs were obtained by electron scanning microscopy. Fifty panelists carried out sensorial analysis using ranking tests. Incorporation of EPS-producing bacteria in the manufacture of cheese increased the moisture content and water activity. In contrast, the addition of PL-A1 did not increase fat retention or cheese yield. The use of EPS alone improved the cheese yield by increasing water and fat retention, but also caused a negative effect on the texture and flavor of Chihuahua cheese. The use of EPS-producing bacteria in combination with PL-A1 improved the cheese yield and increased the moisture and fat content. The cheeses with the best flavor and texture were those manufactured with PL-A1 and the cheeses manufactured with the combination of PL-A1 and EPS-producing culture.

  19. Stuody on the Optimal Process of Chitosan Producing Fresh Cheese%壳聚糖优化制作新鲜奶酪的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙万成

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to optimize the craft condition of fresh soft cheese through adding functional chitosan. [ Method ] The lactic acid was taken as the chitosan dissolved by single factor experiment and the optimum condition for the production of fresh cheese was determined by orthodox experiment. [ Result] Orthogonal factor test proved lactic acid as lytic agent of chitosan and determined calcium concentration and curd temperature as factoring influencing the yield of cheese. Thus, the optimum production craft was formed: 0.6 mg/ml CaC12,6 mg/ml chitosan soluble in lactic acid solution and 32 ℃ curd temperature. Under such condition, the yield of fresh cheese was high and the color and plasticity was the best. [ Conclusion] The study provided basic data for the dairy company to produce fresh soft cheese.%[目的]通过添加功能性壳聚糖,优化新鲜软奶酪制作的工艺条件.[方法]单因素试验确定壳聚糖的最佳溶解剂,正交试验确定鲜奶酪制作的最佳工艺条件.[结果]通过单因素试验确定乳酸作为壳聚糖的溶解剂,并确定了氯化钙浓度、壳聚糖浓度、凝乳温度作为最终影响奶酪得率的因素.新鲜奶酪的最佳制作工艺为氯化钙0.6 mg/ml,溶于乳酸溶液的壳聚糖6 mg/ml,凝乳温度为32 ℃.在此条件下的鲜奶酪得率最高,色泽和塑性最好.I结论]该研究为乳品企业进一步工业化生产新鲜软奶酪提供了基础数据.

  20. No Swiss-cheese on the brane

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, L A

    2004-01-01

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario.

  1. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of mexican mennonite-style cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Sergio I; Salais-Fierro, Fabiola

    2014-10-01

    Moisture adsorption isotherms of fresh and ripened Mexican Mennonite-style cheese were investigated using the static gravimetric method at 4, 8, and 12 °C in a water activity range (aw) of 0.08-0.96. These isotherms were modeled using GAB, BET, Oswin and Halsey equations through weighed non-linear regression. All isotherms were sigmoid in shape, showing a type II BET isotherm, and the data were best described by GAB model. GAB model coefficients revealed that water adsorption by cheese matrix is a multilayer process characterized by molecules that are strongly bound in the monolayer and molecules that are slightly structured in a multilayer. Using the GAB model, it was possible to estimate thermodynamic functions (net isosteric heat, differential entropy, integral enthalpy and entropy, and enthalpy-entropy compensation) as function of moisture content. For both samples, the isosteric heat and differential entropy decreased with moisture content in exponential fashion. The integral enthalpy gradually decreased with increasing moisture content after reached a maximum value, while the integral entropy decreased with increasing moisture content after reached a minimum value. A linear compensation was found between integral enthalpy and entropy suggesting enthalpy controlled adsorption. Determination of moisture content and aw relationship yields to important information of controlling the ripening, drying and storage operations as well as understanding of the water state within a cheese matrix.

  2. Study on key process and ripening characteristic of goat's milk soft cheese%羊奶软质奶酪关键工艺及成熟特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾建勤; 刘兴龙; 于倩

    2012-01-01

    The goat milk soft cheese were investigated and the main technology parameters were optimized. The physical and chemical indicators and the microstructure of cheese were also observed during ripening. The results showed that best process parameters of goat milk soft cheese were the sterilization temperature at 72- 75℃,sterilization time at 15-20s,added lactic acid bacteria at 0.4%,curd temperature of 36℃,calcium chloride concentration at 0.03%,rennet at 0.55mL/1001U and pH at 5.9.As time increasing,the degree of cheese protein degradation increased,the smaller hole appeared at protein structure and the structure became rough,the unique smell of mutton were greatly reduced by fermentation action.%以酒泉肃北县山羊乳为原料,优化了羊奶软质奶酪的工艺参数,并观察成熟期间奶酪理化指标和微观结构的变化。结果显示:羊奶软质奶酪最佳工艺参数为杀菌温度控制在72-75℃,杀菌时间为15-20s。乳酸菌发酵剂添加量为0.4%,凝乳温度36℃,氯化钙添加量为0.03%,凝乳酶添加量为0.55mL/100IU,凝乳pH为5.9;随着时间的增加,奶酪蛋白质降解程度加大,蛋白质结构壁上出现更小的孔眼,而且结构变得粗糙,同时羊奶所特有的膻味通过奶酪的发酵作用世.大大降低一

  3. Keberadaan Bakteri Listeria monocytogenes pada Keju Gouda Produksi Lokal dan Impor (PRESENCE OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN LOCAL AND IMPORTED GOUDA CHEESES)

    OpenAIRE

    Debby Fadhilah Pazra; Trioso Purnawarman; Denny Widaya Lukman

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is included in the foodborne pathogen, which has been associated with severaloutbreaks of human listeriosis especially in high risk groups. Listeria monocytogenes could be found inGouda cheeses because of poor hygienic and sanitation practices. In addition, this bacteria could surviveduring the making of cheese and cheese ripening process. The purpose of this study was to identify thepresence of L. monocytogenes in local and imported Gouda cheeses and how the safety lev...

  4. Outgrowth inhibition of Clostridium beijerinckii spores by a bacteriocin-producing lactic culture in ovine milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Sonia; Avila, Marta; Arias, Ramón; Gaya, Pilar; Nuñez, Manuel

    2011-10-17

    In the manufacture of model cheeses, ovine milk was deliberately contaminated with spores of Clostridium beijerinckii INIA 63, a wild isolate from Manchego cheese with late blowing defect, and inoculated with nisin- and lacticin 481-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415 as starter, to test its potential to prevent the late blowing defect, or with L. lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415-2, a spontaneous mutant not producing bacteriocins. Cheeses made individually with the lactococcal strains, without clostridial spores, served as controls. Cheese made with clostridial spores and L. lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415-2 showed late blowing defect after 120days of ripening. Spoilt cheese also showed lower concentrations of lactic acid, and higher levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, and of other volatile compounds such as 2-propanol and 1-butanol, than control cheese. In addition, cheese made with the bacteriocin producer did not show any late blowing symptoms, despite its spore counts similar to those of blown cheese, pointing to outgrowth inhibition of C. beijerinckii spores by bacteriocins. Besides, cheese made with the bacteriocin producer showed similar concentrations of lactic acid and volatile compounds than control cheese. Inclusion of L. lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415 in starter cultures seems a feasible method to prevent late blowing defect in cheese without altering its sensory characteristics.

  5. Probiotic Crescenza cheese containing Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus manufactured with high-pressure homogenized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, P; Patrignani, F; Serrazanetti, D; Vinderola, G C; Reinheimer, J A; Lanciotti, R; Guerzoni, M E

    2008-02-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional thermal treatment of food preservation and diversification. Its effectiveness on the deactivation of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in model systems and real food is well documented. To evaluate the potential of milk treated by HPH for the production of Crescenza cheese with commercial probiotic lactobacilli added, 4 types of cheeses were made: HPH (from HPH-treated milk), P (from pasteurized milk), HPH-P (HPH-treated milk plus probiotics), and P-P (pasteurized milk plus probiotics) cheeses. A strain of Streptococcus thermophilus was used as starter culture for cheese production. Compositional, microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic analyses were carried out at 1, 5, 8, and 12 d of refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). According to results obtained, no significant differences among the 4 cheese types were observed for gross composition (protein, fat, moisture) and pH. Differently, the HPH treatment of milk increased the cheese yield about 1% and positively affected the viability during the refrigerated storage of the probiotic bacteria. In fact, after 12 d of storage, the Lactobacillus paracasei A13 cell loads were 8 log cfu/ g, whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus H5 exhibited, in P-P cheese, a cell load decrease of about 1 log cfu/g with respect to the HPH-P cheese. The hyperbaric treatment had a significant positive effect on free fatty acids release and cheese proteolysis. Also, probiotic cultures affected proteolytic and lipolytic cheese patterns. No significant differences were found for the sensory descriptors salty and creamy among HPH and P cheeses as well as for acid, piquant, sweet, milky, salty, creamy, and overall acceptance among HPH, HPH-P, and P-P Crescenza cheeses.

  6. Modular process modeling for OPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, M. C.; Bodendorf, C.; Schmidtling, T.; Schlief, R.; Wildfeuer, R.; Zumpe, S.; Niehoff, M.

    2007-03-01

    Modular OPC modeling, describing mask, optics, resist and etch processes separately is an approach to keep efforts for OPC manageable. By exchanging single modules of a modular OPC model, a fast response to process changes during process development is possible. At the same time efforts can be reduced, since only single modular process steps have to be re-characterized as input for OPC modeling as the process is adjusted and optimized. Commercially available OPC tools for full chip processing typically make use of semi-empirical models. The goal of our work is to investigate to what extent these OPC tools can be applied for modeling of single process steps as separate modules. For an advanced gate level process we analyze the modeling accuracy over different process conditions (focus and dose) when combining models for each process step - optics, resist and etch - for differing single processes to a model describing the total process.

  7. Simulation of NaCl and KCl mass transfer during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation: a numerical solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of dietary NaCl with arterial hypertension has led to a reduction in the levels of this salt in cheeses. For salting, KCl has been used as a partial substitute for NaCl, which cannot be completely substituted without affecting product acceptability. In this study a sensorially adequate saline solution (NaCl/KCl was simultaneously diffused during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation. The simultaneous multicomponent diffusion during the process was modeled with Fick’s second generalized law. The system of partial differential equations formed was solved by the finite element method (FEM. In the experimental data concentration the deviation for NaCl was of 7.3% and for KCl of 5.4%, both of which were considered acceptable. The simulation of salt diffusion will allow control and modulation of salt content in Prato cheese, permitting the prediction of final content from initial conditions.

  8. Genome-wide association study for cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadousis, C; Biffani, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Nicolazzi, E L; Rosa, G J M; Gianola, D; Rossoni, A; Santus, E; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-02-01

    Cheese production and consumption are increasing in many countries worldwide. As a result, interest has increased in strategies for genetic selection of individuals for technological traits of milk related to cheese yield (CY) in dairy cattle breeding. However, little is known about the genetic background of a cow's ability to produce cheese. Recently, a relatively large panel (1,264 cows) of different measures of individual cow CY and milk nutrient and energy recoveries in the cheese (REC) became available. Genetic analyses showed considerable variation for CY and for aptitude to retain high proportions of fat, protein, and water in the coagulum. For the dairy industry, these characteristics are of major economic importance. Nevertheless, use of this knowledge in dairy breeding is hampered by high costs, intense labor requirement, and lack of appropriate technology. However, in the era of genomics, new possibilities are available for animal breeding and genetic improvement. For example, identification of genomic regions involved in cow CY might provide potential for marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to perform genome-wide association studies on different CY and REC measures. Milk and DNA samples from 1,152 Italian Brown Swiss cows were used. Three CY traits expressing the weight (wt) of fresh curd (%CYCURD), curd solids (%CYSOLIDS), and curd moisture (%CYWATER) as a percentage of weight of milk processed, and 4 REC (RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY, calculated as the % ratio between the nutrient in curd and the corresponding nutrient in processed milk) were analyzed. Animals were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead Chip v.2. Single marker regressions were fitted using the GenABEL R package (genome-wide association using mixed model and regression-genomic control). In total, 103 significant associations (88 single nucleotide polymorphisms) were identified in 10 chromosomes (2, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14, 18, 19, 27, 28). For

  9. Production technology and some quality parameters of Njeguši cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Mirecki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization of agricultural production and depopulation of areas that are recognized by traditional products, reached its peak during the last few decades. This represents a significant risk that the technology of traditional agricultural products, especially cheeses, can go into oblivion. Njeguši cheese is one of the famous Montenegrin traditional dairy products which originates from the mountain Lovćen and its peripheral areas. Produced by traditional technology, it belongs to a group of full fat, hard cheeses. Owing to its characteristic, spicy taste and pleasant odour, Njeguši cheese can be compared with some of the most famous hard cheeses. Originally it is made from ewe’s milk, but also, cow’s, goat’s and their mixture in different proportions, are increasingly used, which may be the treat to the originality of Njeguši cheese. The present study offers a description of original Njeguši cheese technology, followed by analysis of the chemical quality of ewe’s milk, cheese and whey. Thereat milk, cheese and whey samples were taken from 5 households located at the place of cheese origin - the Njeguši village. Chemical quality of ewe’s milk, cheese and whey was determined by method of FTIR spectrophotometry. Milk fat in the dry matter and moisture in cheese non-fat basis were mathematically calculated. The average content of milk fat in ewe’s milk was 4.92 %, proteins 4.59 %, lactose 4.14 % and total solids non-fat 9.46 %. Accordingly, the analysed cheeses belonged to full fat, semi-hard cheese due to 51.73 % fat in total solids and 60.07 % moisture in non-fat basis. The only deviation from original technology was shortening of the ripening period. Apart from the main objective - the preservation of the original technology, this study could significantly contribute to the process of protection of origin of Njeguši cheese, because the technology of cheese fulfilled the requirements listed in the National Law on the

  10. Microbiology of Cheddar cheese made with different fat contents using a Lactococcus lactis single-strain starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, J R; Brighton, C; McMahon, D J; Farkye, N Y; Johnson, M E; Steele, J L

    2013-07-01

    Flavor development in low-fat Cheddar cheese is typified by delayed or muted evolution of desirable flavor and aroma, and a propensity to acquire undesirable meaty-brothy or burnt-brothy off-flavor notes early in ripening. The biochemical basis for these flavor deficiencies is unclear, but flavor production in bacterial-ripened cheese is known to rely on microorganisms and enzymes present in the cheese matrix. Lipid removal fundamentally alters cheese composition, which can modify the cheese microenvironment in ways that may affect growth and enzymatic activity of starter or nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). Additionally, manufacture of low-fat cheeses often involves changes to processing protocols that may substantially alter cheese redox potential, salt-in-moisture content, acid content, water activity, or pH. However, the consequences of these changes on microbial ecology and metabolism remain obscure. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of fat content on population dynamics of starter bacteria and NSLAB over 9 mo of aging. Duplicate vats of full fat, 50% reduced-fat, and low-fat (containing cheeses were manufactured at 3 different locations with a single-strain Lactococcus lactis starter culture using standardized procedures. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and sampled periodically for microbiological attributes. Microbiological counts indicated that initial populations of nonstarter bacteria were much lower in full-fat compared with low-fat cheeses made at all 3 sites, and starter viability also declined at a more rapid rate during ripening in full-fat compared with 50% reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of cheese bacteria showed that the NSLAB fraction of all cheeses was dominated by Lactobacillus curvatus, but a few other species of bacteria were sporadically detected. Thus, changes in fat level were correlated with populations of different bacteria, but did not appear to alter the

  11. Study on characteristics of lactic acid bacteria with cheese and the analysis of volatile flavor Gouda cheese model%干酪用乳酸菌的特性研究及其在高达干酪模型中风味分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宜; 刘振民; 莫蓓红; 郭本恒; 吴正钧

    2015-01-01

    41 Lactococcus lactis and 47 Lactococcus strains were screened in cheese simulation environment test,5 strains of Lactococcus lactis and 3 Leuconostoc could grow in cheese high salt and low pH environ-ments. These strains were tested for the ability of produce acid and viscosity,fermented milk flavor assess-ment,and evaluation of its proteolytic ability;The Lactococcus lactis combined with Leuconostoc mesente-roides with different characteristics to produce Gouda cheese model and conducted analysis of volatile fla-vor substances sensory analysis. The results showed that Lactococcus lactis BD3170,BD2263,BD164 and BD2263,BD164,BD401 combined with Leuconostoc mesenteroides LM79 inoculated 1∶1∶1∶1 with good flavor,have the potention to be developed into cheese starter cultures.%对41株乳酸乳球菌和47株明串珠菌进行干酪模拟环境测试,筛选出能够在干酪高盐低pH环境下生长的5株乳酸乳球菌和3株明串珠菌。对乳酸乳球菌进行发酵产酸、产黏测定,凝乳性能和发酵牛乳风味评估,同时对其蛋白水解能力进行评价;并与风味优良的肠膜明串珠菌进行组合,制作高达干酪模型,进行风味分析。结果表明,BD 3170、BD 2263、BD 164和BD 2263、BD 164、BD 401与肠膜明串珠菌LM 79按1∶1∶1∶1接种制作的干酪,与对照组相比,具有良好的风味,具备开发成干酪发酵剂的潜力。

  12. 玉米胚芽蛋白新鲜干酪的加工工艺%The Processing Technology Research of Corn Germ Protein Fresh Cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮钰珍; 刘彦妮; 岳喜庆; 尹伊

    2011-01-01

    Corn germ protein is a kind of high-quality protein,high nutritional value,the fresh cheese make with corn germ protein replacing part of milk,having good texture and flavor.This study investigated the addition of corn germ protein,fermentation agent dosage,CaCl2 adds amounts and ferment rennet addition of fresh cheese yield was influenced.By the response surface method to determine the optimum parameters for corn germ protein liquid additives for 4%,fermentation agent additives for 0.06 %,CaCl2 for 0.04%,ferment rennet additives in 0.04%.Fresh cheese produced high yield,fine texture,and fresh acidity.%用玉米胚芽蛋白替代部分牛乳,制备新鲜干酪。研究了玉米胚芽蛋白添加量、发酵剂添加量、CaCl2添加量、凝乳酶添加量对新鲜干酪产率的影响。利用响应面分析法优化了工艺参数,即玉米胚芽蛋白液添加量为4%,发酵剂添加量为0.06%,CaCl2添加量为0.04%,凝乳酶添加量为0.04%。生产出的新鲜干酪产率高,质地细腻,酸味清爽。

  13. Effects of supercritical fluid extraction pressure on chemical composition, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Laubscher, A; Castro, N; Argüello, A; Jiménez-Flores, R

    2013-03-01

    The consumer trend for healthier food choices and preferences for low-fat products has increased the interest in low-fat cheese and nutraceutical dairy products. However, consumer preference is still for delicious food. Low- and reduced-fat cheeses are not completely accepted because of their unappealing properties compared with full-fat cheeses. The method reported here provides another option to the conventional cheese-making process to obtain lower fat cheese. Using CO(2) as a supercritical fluid offers an alternative to reduce fat in cheese after ripening, while maintaining the initial characteristics and flavor. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of pressure (10, 20, 30, and 40 × 10(6) Pa) of supercritical CO(2) on the amount of fat extracted, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of 2 varieties of goat cheese: Majorero, a protected denomination of origin cheese from Spain, and goat Gouda-type cheese. The amount of fat was reduced 50 to 57% and 48 to 55% for Majorero and goat Gouda-type cheeses, respectively. Higher contents (on a fat basis) of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine were found in Majorero cheese compared with control and goat Gouda-type cheeses. The microbial population was reduced after supercritical fluid extraction in both cheeses, and the lethality was higher as pressure increased in Majorero cheese, most noticeably on lactococcus and lactobacillus bacteria. The Gouda-type cheese did not contain any lactobacilli. Micrographs obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a more open matrix and whey pockets in the Majorero control cheese. This could explain the ease of extracting fat and reducing the microbial counts in this cheese after treatment with supercritical CO(2). Supercritical fluid extraction with CO(2) has great potential in the dairy industry and in commercial applications. The Majorero cheese obtained after the supercritical fluid extraction treatment was an excellent

  14. Characterization of volatiles in Beaten cheeses (bieno sirenje by SPME/GC-MC: Influence of geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejmani Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the volatile profiles of a type of economically important cheeses for the FYR Macedonian dairy sector were characterized. A total of eighteen samples belonged to 6 different geographical regions of Beaten cheese, including cheeses from Kumanovo, Tetovo, Struga, Resen, Veles and Radovish were comparatively studied for their volatile profiles. Sixty two volatile compounds were identified in the cheeses by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the results are discussed based on their chemical classes (18 esters, 13 ketones, 10 acids, 8 alcohols, 5 terpenes, and 8 miscellaneous compounds. Acids, esters and alcohols were the most abundant classes identified and were highly dependent on the geographical origin of cheeses. Beaten cheese from Struga had the highest levels of carboxylic acids, ketones, alcohols, esters and terpenes. The Beaten cheese from other geographical origin had low levels of volatiles probably from the effect of variable characteristics of used milk and different cheese making process which affects the biochemical processes. The results suggest that each cheese from different geographical regions had different volatiles profile and the manufacturing technique as well as the ripening stage of the cheeses played a major role on the volatile compounds’ distribution.

  15. Analysis of spreadable cheese by Raman spectroscopy and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Kamila de Sá; Callegaro, Layce de Souza; Stephani, Rodrigo; Almeida, Mariana Ramos; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa

    2016-03-01

    In this work, FT-Raman spectroscopy was explored to evaluate spreadable cheese samples. A partial least squares discriminant analysis was employed to identify the spreadable cheese samples containing starch. To build the models, two types of samples were used: commercial samples and samples manufactured in local industries. The method of supervised classification PLS-DA was employed to classify the samples as adulterated or without starch. Multivariate regression was performed using the partial least squares method to quantify the starch in the spreadable cheese. The limit of detection obtained for the model was 0.34% (w/w) and the limit of quantification was 1.14% (w/w). The reliability of the models was evaluated by determining the confidence interval, which was calculated using the bootstrap re-sampling technique. The results show that the classification models can be used to complement classical analysis and as screening methods.

  16. On Activity modelling in process modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Aiordachioaie

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is looking to the dynamic feature of the meta-models of the process modelling process, the time. Some principles are considered and discussed as main dimensions of any modelling activity: the compatibility of the substances, the equipresence of phenomena and the solvability of the model. The activity models are considered and represented at meta-level.

  17. The dyeing process of T/C blended cheese with disperse dye and vat dye%涤棉混纺筒子纱分散/还原染料染色工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓红; 季莉; 姚金龙

    2015-01-01

    The dyeing processes of the T/C blended cheese with disperse dye and vat dye were introduced. The actual production proves that the dyed yarn is uniform, the color difference between inner and outer is slight and the color fastness is good under proper process and standard operation.%介绍了涤棉混纺筒子纱分散/还原染料染色工艺。实际生产证明,只要工艺合理、操作规范,经分散/还原染料一浴两步法染色后,涤棉混纺筒子纱颜色均匀,内中外层色差较小,染色牢度较高。

  18. A comparative study between inhibitory effect of L. lactis and nisin on important pathogenic bacteria in Iranian UF Feta cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mirdamadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : In the present study, the inhibitory effect of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis during co-culture and pure standard nisin were assessed against selected foodborne pathogenes in growth medium and Iranian UF Feta cheese. In comparison L lactis, not only proves flavor but also plays a better role in microbial quality of Iranian UF Feta cheese as a model of fermented dairy products.   Materials and method s: L. lactis subsp. lactis as nisin producer strain, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as pathogenic strains were inoculated in Ultra-Filtered Feta cheese. Growth curve of bacterial strains were studied by colony count method in growth medium and UF Feta cheese separately and during co-culture with L. lactis. Nisin production was determined by agar diffusion assay method against susceptible test strain and confirmed by RP-HPLC analysis method.   Results : Counts of L. monocytogenes decreased in cheese sample containing L. lactis and standard nisin, to 103 CFU/g after 7 days and it reached to undetectable level within 2 weeks. S. aureus counts remained at its initial number, 105 CFU/g, after 7 days then decreased to 104 CFU/g on day 14 and it was not detectable on day 28. E. coli numbers increased in both treatments after 7 days and then decreased to 104 CFU/g after 28 days. Despite the increasing number of E. coli in growth medium containing nisin, due to the synergistic effect of nisin and other metabolites produced by Lactococcus lactis and starter cultures, the number of E. coli decreased with slow rate . Discussion and conclusion : The results showed, L. monocytogenes was inhibited by L. lactis before entering the logarithmic phase during co-culture. S. aureus was also inhibited during co-culture, but it showed less sensitivity in comparison with L. monocytogenes. However, the number of E. coli remained steady in co-culture with L. lactis. Also, we found that, in all cheese samples, E

  19. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...... reporting the intake of cheese and risk of CVD or risk factors of CVD represent four human intervention studies, nine prospective studies, one prospective case-cohort study, one prospective nested case-control study, five case-control studies, five cross-sectional studies and three correlation studies....... The possible mechanisms that may be of importance include calcium, protein, fermentation and the fatty acid composition of cheese. Results from four prospective studies reported no association between cheese intake and CVD risk, whereas one reported an increased risk, two reported a decreased risk and one...

  20. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinka Radošević

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC. Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min. The milk for fresh cheese production was further inoculated with mesophilic culture of lactic acid bacteria MM101 and probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC-1. Besides the trial samples with addition of TG and probiotic bacteria, control samples without addition of TG and probiotic were produced, as well as the samples without addition of TG but with probiotic bacteria addition. Samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG, especially in which TG was active at 11 ºC, had greater weight then samples produced without the enzyme addition. Therefore, their yield was also greater then yield of cheese produced without the addition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG have shown lesser syneresis than other samples during 10 days of storage at 10 ºC. The same samples also had the best sensory properties. Metabolic activity of mesophilic culture MM101 and probiotic culture L. acidophilus LAC-1 has resulted in better taste and odour of fresh cheese. The viable cell number of probiotic strain L. acidophilus LAC-1 in prepared samples was around 5 x 106 cells/g after 10 days of storage at 10 ºC, which is higher than the minimal dose required for 27 probiotic products. Addition of transgultaminase contributed to better consistency and general appearance of produced fresh cheese.

  1. Microbiological Quality Evaluation of Various Types Of Traditional Romanian Cheese Through Advanced Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tabaran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw milk represents a nutritive environment for a number of pathogens, like Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157: H7, Staphylococcus aureus etc. This fact can cause a serious of foodborne outbreaks associated to the consumption of contaminated milk and derivated products. The traditional processing of raw milk in poor hygiene conditions can pose a serious microbiological risk. The study aimed at evaluating the incidence of pathogen bacteria in ripened traditional cheese by advanced biochemical and molecular methods in order to reveal the possible risk of consumer exposure. The study was applied on 150 samples of riepened cheese from the follwoing types: salted teleme cheese and „Burduf” cheese and „Năsal” cheese. The traditional teleme cheese presented an average value of the total E. coli count in between 11.06±0.52-38.33±2.76 cfu/g. The risk represented by the presence of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus is low within the first steps of ripening, being absent after 28 months of ripeneing in the teleme cheese samples. The Staphylococcus aureus load was in between 3.82±0.12 log cfu/g for the first period of ripeneing in „Burduf” cheese and 0.27±0.56 log cfu/g after the second period of maturation, following a descendant pathway towards the last period of ripening. In „Năsal” cheese we isolated the specific Brevibacterium linens, which gives the characteristics of this type of cheese, but also Micrococcus spp., in 35% and lactic streptococci in  20%. The traditional cheese evaluated represent a low risk of contamination given that no sample investigated has exceeded the maximum limits allowed by the legislation and no pathogen bacteria isolated.

  2. Selection of dairy culture and changes of Podravec cheese acidity during production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection and characteristics of dairy culture play a basic role in all types of cheese production process. The most important characteristic is acidification ability i.e. lactic acid formation, which regulates manufacturing and maturing conditions of cheese, thus affecting its organoleptic characteristics as well. In this work the results on control of acidity increase in Podravec cheeseproduction are presented. In the production process, a technical culture as well as identical frozen and concentrated culture, with and without auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus for direct milk inoculation, were used. It was established that the acidity, expressed as pH value, is more intensively developed in cheeses produced with culture for direct inoculation. This was especially evident in the first phases of production i.e. before cheese salting. During salting the acidity of cheeses, in both cases, was almoust identical. Cheeses produced with identical frozen culture and auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus culture had more pronounced acidity before salting and lower after salting in comparison with cheeses with the mentioned two cultures. Organoleptic and other characteristics of mature cheeses were identical.

  3. Reduction of wastewaters and valorisation of by-products from "Serpa" cheese manufacture using nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, V; Minhalma, M; Queiroz, D; Geraldes, V; Macedo, A; de Pinho, M N

    2005-01-01

    Second cheese whey (SCW) is a by-product of cheese and curd cheese production that is usually not recovered and therefore contributes substantially to the negative environmental impact of the cheese manufacture plants. Membrane technology, namely nanofiltration (NF), is used in this work for the recovery of SCW organic nutrients, resulting from "Serpa" cheese and curd production. The SCW is processed by NF to recover a rich lactose fraction in the concentrate and a process water with a high salt content in the permeate. The permeation experiments were carried out in a plate and frame NF unit, where two NF membranes (NFT50 and HR-95-PP) were characterized and tested. The NF permeation experiments were performed accordingly with two different operation modes: total recirculation and concentration. In order to select the best membrane and operating pressure for the SCW fractionation, total recirculation experiments were carried out. After the membrane selection, the concentration experiments showed that the selected membrane (NFT50) at 30 bar allows a water recovery of approximately 80%, concentrating the second cheese whey nutrients approximately 5 times. Therefore, the NF operation can successfully reduce the wastewater organic load and simultaneously contribute to the valorisation of the cheese and curd cheese manufacture by-products.

  4. Nucleic acid-based approaches to investigate microbial-related cheese quality defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Daniel J; Giblin, Linda; McSweeney, Paul L H; Sheehan, Jeremiah J; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The microbial profile of cheese is a primary determinant of cheese quality. Microorganisms can contribute to aroma and taste defects, form biogenic amines, cause gas and secondary fermentation defects, and can contribute to cheese pinking and mineral deposition issues. These defects may be as a result of seasonality and the variability in the composition of the milk supplied, variations in cheese processing parameters, as well as the nature and number of the non-starter microorganisms which come from the milk or other environmental sources. Such defects can be responsible for production and product recall costs and thus represent a significant economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. Traditional non-molecular approaches are often considered biased and have inherently slow turnaround times. Molecular techniques can provide early and rapid detection of defects that result from the presence of specific spoilage microbes and, ultimately, assist in enhancing cheese quality and reducing costs. Here we review the DNA-based methods that are available to detect/quantify spoilage bacteria, and relevant metabolic pathways in cheeses and, in the process, highlight how these strategies can be employed to improve cheese quality and reduce the associated economic burden on cheese processors.

  5. Survival of cheese-ripening microorganisms in a dynamic simulator of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adouard, Nadège; Magne, Laurent; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Foligné, Benoît; Picque, Daniel; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of nine microorganisms (six bacteria and three yeasts) from the microflora of surface-ripened cheeses were subjected to in vitro digestive stress in a three-compartment "dynamic gastrointestinal digester" (DIDGI). We studied the microorganisms (i) grown separately in culture medium only (ii) grown separately in culture medium and then mixed, (iii) grown separately in culture medium and then included in a rennet gel and (iv) grown together in smear-ripened cheese. The yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and Debaryomyces hansenii, were strongly resistant to the whole DIDGI process (with a drop in viable cell counts of less than cheese-grown cultures. Ripening bacteria such as Hafnia alvei survived gastric stress less well when grown in cheese (with no viable cells after 90 min of exposure of the cheese matrix, compared with 6 CFU mL(-1) in lab cultures). The ability of Corynebacterium casei and Staphylococcus equorum to withstand digestive stress was similar for cheese and pure culture conditions. When grow in a cheese matrix, Brevibacterium aurantiacum and Arthrobacter arilaitensis were clearly more sensitive to the overall digestive process than when grown in pure cultures. Lactococcus lactis displayed poorer survival in gastric and duodenal compartments when it had been grown in cheese. In vivo experiments in BALB/c mice agreed with the DIDGI experiments and confirmed the latter's reliability.

  6. Nucleic acid-based approaches to investigate microbial-related cheese quality defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eO Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe microbial profile of cheese is a primary determinant of cheese quality. Microorganisms can contribute to aroma and taste defects, form biogenic amines, cause gas and secondary fermentation defects, and can contribute to cheese pinking and mineral deposition issues. These defects may be as a result of seasonality and the variability in the composition of the milk supplied, variations in cheese processing parameters, as well as the nature and number of the non-starter microorganisms which come from the milk or other environmental sources. Such defects can be responsible for production and product recall costs and thus represent a significant economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. Traditional non-molecular approaches are often considered biased and have inherently slow turnaround times. Molecular techniques can provide early and rapid detection of defects that result from the presence of specific spoilage microbes and, ultimately, assist in enhancing cheese quality and reducing costs. Here we review the DNA-based methods that are available to detect/quantify spoilage bacteria, and relevant metabolic pathways, in cheeses and, in the process, highlight how these strategies can be employed to improve cheese quality and reduce the associated economic burden on cheese processors.

  7. Release of angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor peptides during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of Parmigiano Reggiano PDO cheese and their absorption through an in vitro model of intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiricò, L; Catalani, E; Morera, P; Cattaneo, S; Stuknytė, M; Bernabucci, U; De Noni, I; Nardone, A

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of 8 bovine casein-derived peptides (VPP, IPP, RYLGY, RYLG, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, LHLPLP, and HLPLP) reported as angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors (ACE-I) was investigated in the 3-kDa ultrafiltered water-soluble extract (WSE) of Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheese samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry via an electrospray ionization source. Only VPP, IPP, LHLPLP, and HLPLP were revealed in the WSE, and their total amount was in the range of 8.46 to 21.55 mg/kg of cheese. Following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion, the same ACE-I peptides along with the newly formed AYFYPEL and AYFYPE were found in the 3 kDa WSE of PR digestates. Digestates presented high amounts (1,880-3,053 mg/kg) of LHLPLP, whereas the remaining peptides accounted for 69.24 to 82.82 mg/kg. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values decreased from 7.92 ± 2.08 in undigested cheese to 3.20 ± 1.69 after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The 3-kDa WSE of digested cheeses were used to study the transport of the 8 ACE-I peptides across the monolayers of the Caco-2 cell culture grown on a semipermeable membrane of the transwells. After 1h of incubation, 649.20 ± 148.85 mg/kg of LHLPLP remained in the apical compartment, whereas VPP, IPP, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, and HLPLP accounted in total for less than 36.78 mg/kg. On average, 0.6% of LHLPLP initially present in the digestates added to the apical compartment were transported intact to the basolateral chamber after the same incubation time. Higher transport rate (2.9%) was ascertained for the peptide HLPLP. No other intact ACE-I peptides were revealed in the basolateral compartment. For the first time, these results demonstrated that the ACE-I peptides HLPLP and LHLPLP present in the in vitro digestates of PR cheese are partially absorbed through an in vitro model of human intestinal epithelium.

  8. Auditory processing models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will pr...

  9. Influence of selected lab cultures on the evolution of free amino acids, free fatty acids and Fiore Sardo cheese microflora during the ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangia, Nicoletta P; Murgia, Marco A; Garau, Giovanni; Sanna, Maria G; Deiana, Pietrino

    2008-04-01

    Fiore Sardo Protected Denomination of Origin is a traditional Sardinian (Italy) hard cheese produced exclusively from whole raw ovine milk and coagulated with lamb rennet paste. Currently, Fiore Sardo is still produced by shepherds at the farmhouse level without the addition of any starter culture and the cheese-making process is characterized by significant waste. The first objective of the present work was to investigate the autochthonous microflora present in milk and Fiore Sardo cheese in order to select lactic acid bacterial (LAB) cultures with suitable cheese-making attributes and, possibly reduce the production waste. Secondly, the ability of selected cultures to guarantee cheese healthiness and quality was tested in experimental cheese-making trials. In this study, we show that the typical lactic microflora of raw ewe's milk and Fiore Sardo cheese is mostly composed of mesophilic LAB such as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei. Moreover, strains belonging to the species were selected for cheese-making attributes and used in experimental cheese-making trials carried out in different farms producing Fiore Sardo. The evolution of the cheese microflora, free amino acids and free fatty acids during the ripening showed that the experimental cheeses were characterized by a balanced ratio of the chemical constituents, by a reduced number of spoilage microorganisms and, remarkably, by the absence of production waste that were significant for the control cheeses.

  10. Inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum TF711 against Clostridium sporogenes when used as adjunct culture in cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lorena; Zárate, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are of great interest to the food-processing industry as natural preservatives. This work aimed to investigate the efficacy of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum TF711, isolated from artisanal Tenerife cheese, in controlling Clostridium sporogenes during cheese ripening. Cheeses were made from pasteurised milk artificially contaminated with 10(4) spores m/l C. sporogenes. Experimental cheeses were manufactured with Lb. plantarum TF711 added at 1% as adjunct to commercial starter culture. Cheeses made under the same conditions but without Lb. plantarum TF711 served as controls. Evolution of microbiological parameters, pH and NaCl content, as well as bacteriocin production was studied throughout 45 d of ripening. Addition of Lb. plantarum TF711 did not bring about any significant change in starter culture counts, NaCl content and pH, compared with control cheese. In contrast, clostridial spore count in experimental cheeses were significantly lower than in control cheeses from 7 d onwards, reaching a maximum reduction of 2·2 log units on day 21. Inhibition of clostridia found in experimental cheeses was mainly attributed to plantaricin activity, which in fact was recovered from these cheeses.

  11. Cream cheese products: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cream cheese is a soft fresh acid-coagulated cheese product, which is acidified by mesophilic lactic acid starter culture, i.e. Lactococcus and Leuconostoc. Cream cheese products are categorized into two main types based on the different fat content in the initial mix and the final composition. These are double-cream cheese with at least 9-11% fat content in the initial mix, and single-cream cheese with 4.5-5% fat content in initial mix. Cream cheese was first made by using the cooked-curd method, which was developed in the early twenties, and the cold-pack and hot-pack methods were developed, and are still used at present. The products with high quality should have a uniform white to light cream color with a lightly lactic acid and cultured diacetyl flavor and aroma. The texture of the products should be smooth without lumps, grittiness, or any indication of cracking and wheying off, and with the ability to spread at room temperature.

  12. Probiotic in rennet paste can affect lipase activity of rennet and lipolysis in ovine cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Albenzio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lambs were subjected to three different feeding regimes (mother suckling MS, artificial rearing AR, and artificial rearing with 7log10 cfu/ml Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation to the milk substitute ARLb and slaughtered at 20d and 40d of age for each feeding treatment. Lambs abomasa were processed to rennet paste and lipases activity was evaluated. Rennet paste was used for Pecorino cheese production. Free fatty acids (FFAs and conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs were detected in cheese at 60d of ripening. Lipase activity was found higher in ARLb than in MS and AR rennet from lambs slaughtered at an older age. A reduction of all FFAs was observed in all cheeses when passing from 20 d to 40d of slaughtering. CLAs were more abundant in ARLb cheeses at both 20 and 40d. Milk substitute with Lb. acidophilus improves enzymatic features of rennet, and health and nutritional characteristics of ovine cheese.

  13. [Diagnostic of health quality in artisanal cheese dairies of Zacazonapan municipality, State of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Valdés, Jair Jesús; Colín-Navarro, Vianey; López-González, Felipe; Avilés-Nova, Francisca; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and the degree of contamination by molds and yeasts (M&Y), aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), total coliforms (TC) and Salmonella spp. (S). These microorganisms were considered indicators of quality and hygiene in the manufacturing environment of Zacazonapan cheese. Samples from five cheese dairies at Zacazonapan municipality were collected. The samples were collected directly from hands, water, milk, curd, cheese and surface of utensils for cheese making. All surfaces sampled were contaminated, there was an evident lack of hygiene in the cheese making process, the microorganisms count during cheese manufacturing were: for milk; 6.8, 6.7 and 4.5 log10 CFU/ml for M&Y, AMB and TC, respectively. For cheese, the presence of S was detected and presented the following counting: 9.16, 9.23 and 9.18 log10 CFU/g to M&Y, AMB and TC. The lack of hygiene in dairies and implements for cheese manufacturing represents a risk for human health.

  14. Free amino acid content of goat's milk cheese made with animal rennet and plant coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Adela; Cayuela, José María; Pino, Antonio; Martínez-Cachá, Adela; Salazar, Eva; Tejada, Luis

    2012-06-01

    Enzymes present in the flowers of Cynara cardunculus (cyprosins) are used in the production of some traditional Spanish and Portuguese cheeses, replacing animal rennet. The aim of this work was to study the changes that take place in free amino acids during the ripening of a goat's milk cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufactured with plant coagulant (PC) or animal rennet (AR). The total free amino acid (TFAA) concentration increased during ripening, with Ile, Val, Ala, Phe, Gaba, Arg and Lys representing more than 50% of the TFAA content at 60 days in both types of cheese. The TFAA concentration was significantly higher in cheeses made with PC (854 mg 100 g(-1) total solids (TS)) than those made with AR (735 mg 100 g(-1) TS). The concentration of most free amino acids, especially His, Ser, Gln, Thr, Ala, Met and Ile, was higher in the PC cheese. Cheese made using PC as coagulant presented higher contents of free amino acid throughout the ripening period than cheese made using AR. Therefore we can conclude that the use of PC to produce Murcia al Vino goat's cheese would accelerate the ripening process as a result of increased cyprosin proteolytic activity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Complexity and Uniqueness of the Aromatic Profile of Smoked and Unsmoked Herreño Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Palencia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile fraction of unsmoked and smoked Herreño cheese, a type of soft cheese from the Canary Islands, has been characterized for the first time. In order to evaluate if the position in the smokehouse could influence the volatile profile of the smoked variety, cheeses smoked at two different heights were studied. The volatile components were extracted by Solid Phase Microextraction using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/ polydimethylsiloxane fiber, followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. In total, 228 components were detected. The most numerous groups of components in the unsmoked Herreño cheese were hydrocarbons, followed by terpenes and sesquiterpenes, whereas acids and ketones were the most abundant. It is worth noticing the high number of aldehydes and ketones, and the low number of alcohols and esters in this cheese in relation to others, as well as the presence of some specific unsaturated hydrocarbons, terpenes, sesquiterpenes and nitrogenated derivatives. The smoking process enriches the volatile profile of Herreño cheese with ketones and diketones, methyl esters, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, hydrocarbons, terpenes, nitrogenated compounds, and especially with ethers and phenolic derivatives. Among these, methylindanones or certain terpenes like α-terpinolene, have not been detected previously in other types of smoked cheese. Lastly, the results obtained suggest a slightly higher smoking degree in the cheeses smoked at a greater height.

  16. Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radeljević

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day were monitored. In water soluble extracts of cheese, the presence of free NH2 groups in all ripening stages was detected, which means smaller peptides and amino acids, whose concentration significantly (P<0.01 increased during ripening. Cheeses produced with and without microbial culture resulted in statistically significant differences (P<0.01 in content amino acids free on the 90th and 120th day of ripening. Cd - ninhydrin method was found to be suitable for cheese ripening monitoring, as well as for determination of the differences in mature characteristics of cheeses, depending on the production process.

  17. Quality Assessment of Cheese in Markets of Tirana City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YLLKA ALLARAJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycological control of cheese is considered an important process related to food safety. Food borne disease in our days remains an important issue for public health because they causes infection to the consumers and an important economic damage. A mycological survey of different kind of cheeses sold at five big markets in Tirana is conducted during March - Septembre 2013, in order to identify if potentially toxicological and pathogenic fungi were or were not present. A total 140 samples of cheeses (soft, hard, semi hard, edam cheese etch, were tested for mold and yeast counts. For level (106 cfu/gr results in 24 cases or 17.1%.From the total number of 140 cases, 24 samples have resulted to be in a load thrush (> 106 cfu /gr which are considered as samples with high potential risk. In 9 samples or (37.5% Aspergillus spp gender was present in 9 samples or 37.5% , Penicillium spp was present in 7 samples or 29.1%, Fusarium was present 2 samples or 8.4% and Mucor was present 6 samples or 25% of samples. Pathogenic genders of moulds were found mostly in white cheese and in edam chesse that have been produced in craft way.

  18. Chemical and instrumental approaches to cheese analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Anand; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Overcoming the complexity of cheese matrix to reliably analyze cheese composition, flavor, and ripening changes has been a challenge. Several sample isolation or fractionation methods, chemical and enzymatic assays, and instrumental methods have been developed over the decades. While some of the methods are well established standard methods, some still need to be researched and improved. This chapter reviews the chemical and instrumental methods available to determine cheese composition and monitor biochemical events (e.g., glycolysis, lipolysis, and proteolysis) during cheese ripening that lead to the formation of cheese flavor. Chemical and enzymatic methods available for analysis of cheese composition (fat, protein, lactose, salt, nitrogen content, moisture, etc.) are presented. Electrophoretic, chromatographic, and spectroscopic techniques are also reviewed in the light of their application to monitor cheese ripening and flavor compounds. Novel instrumental methods based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy that are currently being researched and applied to cheese analysis are introduced.

  19. GREAT Process Modeller user manual

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Urko; España, Sergio; Ruiz, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    This report contains instructions to install, uninstall and use GREAT Process Modeller, a tool that supports Communication Analysis, a communication-oriented business process modelling method. GREAT allows creating communicative event diagrams (i.e. business process models), specifying message structures (which describe the messages associated to each communicative event), and automatically generating a class diagram (representing the data model of an information system that would support suc...

  20. Diversity and activities of yeasts from different parts of a Stilton cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkatzionis, Konstantinos; Yunita, Dewi; Linforth, Robert S T; Dickinson, Matthew; Dodd, Christine E R

    2014-05-02

    Blue cheeses are very complex food matrices presenting significant spatial differentiation between sections and the Stilton variety also has a hard brown crust making its matrix even more complex. The mycobiota communities in the three sections (blue veins, white core and outer crust) of a Stilton blue cheese were studied by employing culture-independent (TRFLP, DGGE) and culture-dependent analyses. Yeasts isolated from the cheese were studied for aroma production in a dairy model system with and without the starter Lactococcus lactis and filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti using SPME GC-MS. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the yeast communities between the cheese sections with all the techniques. Yarrowia lipolytica presented strong synergistic activity with P. roqueforti enhancing the production of ketone aroma compounds, characteristic of blue cheeses. Culture techniques allowed the observation of the presence and uneven distribution of two different morphological groups of Debaryomyces hansenii in the different sections and of Trichosporon ovoides but failed to isolate Candida catenulata which dominated some parts of the cheese in the culture-independent analysis. This suggests that this species may be an important early coloniser but fails to survive into the final cheese. The study indicated that the yeast flora in the cheese sections differ including isolates that could affect their aroma profiles.

  1. Texture Profile Analysis of Sliced Cheese in relation to Chemical Composition and Storage Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanrong Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative relationships among chemical composition, storage temperature, and texture of cheese were not fully understood. In this study, the effects of composition and temperature on textural properties of eight common varieties of sliced cheese were examined. The textural properties of sliced cheeses, including firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness, chewiness, and resilience, were measured by texture profile analysis after storage at 4 and 25°C for 4 h. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to describe the quantitative relationships of textural properties (dependent variables to chemical composition and storage temperature (independent variables of sliced cheeses. Results showed that protein, fat, moisture, and sodium chloride contents as well as storage temperature significantly affected the texture of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. In particular, fat in the dry matter and moisture in the nonfat substances were negatively correlated with firmness of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. As storage temperature rose from 4 to 25°C, the average values of firmness, chewiness, and resilience substantially declined by 42%, 45%, and 17%, respectively (P<0.05. This study provided reference data for adjusting chemical composition and storage temperature of common cheese products to obtain favorable texture for Chinese consumers, which thereby facilitated the localization of cheese industry in Chinese market.

  2. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    be the need of an extended ripening period to reach a similar cheese structure as in cheeses produced with BC. The aim of this project was to compensate for the lower proteolytic activity in cheese produced with CC compared to BC. Selection of dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for cheese production with high...... for their ability to influence proteolysis and structure during cheese ripening. In an attempt to improve the screening methods and contribute to the development of a new classification system of Latcococcus lactic strains, the peptide profile formed by selected strains after growth in milk was analyzed...... mediated an increase in the total amount of amino acids as well as a shorter structure. A model system, used to study the retention of chymosin in a curd, showed that the retention of CC was less dependent on pH compared to BC, and the retention of CC was higher than BC in the pH interval 6...

  3. INNOVATION PROCESS MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANUSZ K. GRABARA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling phenomena in accordance with the structural approach enables one to simplify the observed relations and to present the classification grounds. An example may be a model of organisational structure identifying the logical relations between particular units and presenting the division of authority, work.

  4. Microbial fuel cell coupled to biohydrogen reactor: a feasible technology to increase energy yield from cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, J; Fuentes, L; Cabezas, A; Etchebehere, C

    2017-02-20

    An important pollutant produced during the cheese making process is cheese whey which is a liquid by-product with high content of organic matter, composed mainly by lactose and proteins. Hydrogen can be produced from cheese whey by dark fermentation but, organic matter is not completely removed producing an effluent rich in volatile fatty acids. Here we demonstrate that this effluent can be further used to produce energy in microbial fuel cells. Moreover, current production was not feasible when using raw cheese whey directly to feed the microbial fuel cell. A maximal power density of 439 mW/m(2) was obtained from the reactor effluent which was 1000 times more than when using raw cheese whey as substrate. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that potential electroactive populations (Geobacter, Pseudomonas and Thauera) were enriched on anodes of MFCs fed with reactor effluent while fermentative populations (Clostridium and Lactobacillus) were predominant on the MFC anode fed directly with raw cheese whey. This result was further demonstrated using culture techniques. A total of 45 strains were isolated belonging to 10 different genera including known electrogenic populations like Geobacter (in MFC with reactor effluent) and known fermentative populations like Lactobacillus (in MFC with cheese whey). Our results show that microbial fuel cells are an attractive technology to gain extra energy from cheese whey as a second stage process during raw cheese whey treatment by dark fermentation process.

  5. Case of Contamination by Listeria Monocytogenes in Mozzarella Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolli, Rita; Bossù, Teresa; Rodas, Eda Maria Flores; Di Giamberardino, Fabiola; Di Sirio, Alessandro; Vita, Silvia; De Angelis, Veronica; Bilei, Stefano; Sonnessa, Michele; Gattuso, Antonietta; Lanni, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Following a Listeria monocytogenes detection in a mozzarella cheese sampled at a dairy plant in Lazio Region, further investigations have been conducted both by the competent Authority and the food business operatordairy factory (as a part of dairy factory HACCP control). In total, 90 dairy products, 7 brine and 64 environmental samples have been tested. The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 24.4% in mozzarella cheese, and 9.4% in environmental samples, while brines were all negatives. Forty-seven strains of L. monocytogenes have been isolated, all belonging to 4b/4e serotype. In 12 of these, the macrorestriction profile has been determined by means of pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The profiles obtained with AscI enzyme showed a 100% similarity while those obtained with ApaI a 96.78% similarity. These characteristics of the isolated strains jointly with the production process of mozzarella cheese has allowed to hypothesise an environmental contamination. PMID:27800317

  6. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor components in cheese shall have a pleasing and desirable taste and odor and shall have the ability...

  7. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  8. BPMN Impact on Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Przemyslaw

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen huge rise in popularity of BPMN in the area of business process modeling, especially among business analysts. This notation has characteristics that distinguish it significantly from the previously popular process modeling notations, such as EPC. The article contains the analysis of some important characteristics of BPMN and provides author’s conclusions on the impact that the popularity and specificity of BPMN can have on the practice of process modeling. Author's obse...

  9. Environmental assessment of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenisation for milk and fresh cheese production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Temperature (UHT) treatment and, at the same time, to lower energy consumptions through the combination of pasteurisation and homogenisation in a single process. Furthermore, the use of UHPH treated milk for the production of fresh cheese has been proven to increase shelf life days and increase yield...... This study provides an LCA of UHPH and UHT processing of milk and fresh cheese production from processing to end-of-life....

  10. Preliminary Discrimination of Cheese Adulteration by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a preliminary study to compare some traditional Romanian cheeses and adulterated cheeses using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. For PLS model calibration (6 concentration levels and validation (5 concentration levels sets were prepared from commercial Dalia Cheese from different manufacturers by spiking it with palm oil at concentrations ranging 2-50 % and 5-40 %, respectively. Fifteen Dalia Cheese were evaluated as external set. The spectra of each sample, after homogenization, were acquired in triplicate using a FTIR Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, with a horizontal diamond ATR accessory in the MIR region 4000-600 cm-1. Statistical methods as PLS were applied using MVC1 routines written for Matlab R2010a. As first step the optimal condition for PLS model were obtained using cross-validation on the Calibration set. Spectral region in 3873-652 cm-1, and 3 PLS-factors were stated as the best conditions and showed an R2 value of 0.9338 and a relative error in the calibration of 17.2%. Then validation set was evaluated, obtaining good recovery rates (108% and acceptable dispersion of the data (20%. The curve of actual vs. predicted values shows slope near to 1 and origin close to 0, with an R2 of 0.9695. When the external sample set was evaluated, samples F19, F21, F22 and F24, showed detectable levels of palm fats. The results proved that FTIR-PLS is a reliable non-destructive technique for a rapid quantification the level of adulteration in cheese.  The spectroscopic methods could assist the quality control authority, traders and the producers to discriminate the adulterated cheeses with palm oil.

  11. Radiolysis Process Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Edgar C.; Wittman, Richard S.; Skomurski, Frances N.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.

    2012-07-17

    Assessing the performance of spent (used) nuclear fuel in geological repository requires quantification of time-dependent phenomena that may influence its behavior on a time-scale up to millions of years. A high-level waste repository environment will be a dynamic redox system because of the time-dependent generation of radiolytic oxidants and reductants and the corrosion of Fe-bearing canister materials. One major difference between used fuel and natural analogues, including unirradiated UO2, is the intense radiolytic field. The radiation emitted by used fuel can produce radiolysis products in the presence of water vapor or a thin-film of water (including OH• and H• radicals, O2-, eaq, H2O2, H2, and O2) that may increase the waste form degradation rate and change radionuclide behavior. H2O2 is the dominant oxidant for spent nuclear fuel in an O2 depleted water environment, the most sensitive parameters have been identified with respect to predictions of a radiolysis model under typical conditions. As compared with the full model with about 100 reactions it was found that only 30-40 of the reactions are required to determine [H2O2] to one part in 10–5 and to preserve most of the predictions for major species. This allows a systematic approach for model simplification and offers guidance in designing experiments for validation.

  12. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  13. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  14. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  15. UML in business process modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Marcinkowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection and proper application of business process modeling methods and techniques have a significant impact on organizational improvement capabilities as well as proper understanding of functionality of information systems that shall support activity of the organization. A number of business process modeling notations were popularized in practice in recent decades. Most significant of the notations include Business Process Modeling Notation (OMG BPMN and several Unified Modeling Language (OMG UML extensions. In this paper, the assessment whether one of the most flexible and strictly standardized contemporary business process modeling notations, i.e. Rational UML Profile for Business Modeling, enable business analysts to prepare business models that are all-embracing and understandable by all the stakeholders. After the introduction, methodology of research is discussed. Section 2 presents selected case study results. The paper is concluded with a summary.

  16. Modeling Software Processes and Artifacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Bosch, Jan; Mitchell, Stuart

    1997-01-01

    The workshop on Modeling Software Processes and Artifacts explored the application of object technology in process modeling. After the introduction and the invited lecture, a number of participants presented their position papers. First, an overview is given on some background work, and the aims, as

  17. Studies on effect of oat and cheese incorporation on sensory and textural quality of short-dough type biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, K S; Rao, K Jayaraj

    2016-03-01

    In view of their growing importance in human nutrition, incorporation of oats and cheese during the manufacture of short-dough type biscuits was studied. Rolled oats were incorporated at 25, 35 and 45 % of refined wheat flour in short-dough type biscuit formulation. Cheddar and processed cheese were used for flavouring purpose at three levels each, viz. 30, 40 and 50 % on flour basis. The dough exhibited less firmness on oats incorporation as indicated by lower firmness value (21.73 N) as against 25.05 N for control dough measured by Texture Analyser. Addition of cheese to the 25 % oat incorporated dough further reduced its firmness and altered its viscoelastic characteristics. Baking conditions for the oats and cheese incorporated biscuits were optimized as 165 °C for 25-27 min. Sensory evaluation results revealed that the biscuit made from 25 % oat incorporated dough scored highest in most of the sensory attributes including overall acceptability. Cheddar cheese and processed cheese levels were optimized at 30 and 40 % in oats-incorporated dough based on the sensory analysis of biscuits prepared from the dough samples. The moisture and β- glucan contents were 3.93 % and 0.62 %; 4.32 % and 0.60 % for cheddar cheese and processed cheese added biscuits, respectively. The spread ratios were higher in cheese incorporated biscuits than in oat incorporated biscuits. It was concluded that good quality cheese flavoured biscuits can be prepared by incorporating rolled oats in biscuit formulation along with cheddar or processed cheese.

  18. Influence of milk quality and production protocol on proteolysis and lipolysis in Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Russo, Donatella Esterina; Caroprese, Mariangela; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of milk source and of cheese production protocol on proteolytic and lipolytic pattern of cheese during ripening. The study involved six dairy factories located in Monti Dauni Meridionali area of Southern Italy; three dairy factories processed the milk produced by their own cow herds, while the other three dairy factories processed the milk collected in other dairy farms located in the neighbouring area. Cow milk processed to cheese had different nutritional parameters and hygienic quality. Caciocavallo cheese showed differences in the evolution of proteolysis during ripening and in the intensity of the lipolytic process detected at the end of ripening. The main factors influencing Caciocavallo cheese features were the quality of the starting milk, differences in technological steps such as milk heating, type of starter cultures and coagulant used.

  19. Multi-enzyme Process Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade Santacoloma, Paloma de Gracia

    . In this way the model parameters that drives the main dynamic behavior can be identified and thus a better understanding of this type of processes. In order to develop, test and verify the methodology, three case studies were selected, specifically the bi-enzyme process for the production of lactobionic acid......The subject of this thesis is to develop a methodological framework that can systematically guide mathematical model building for better understanding of multi-enzyme processes. In this way, opportunities for process improvements can be identified by analyzing simulations of either existing...... in the scientific literature. Reliable mathematical models of such multi-catalytic schemes can exploit the potential benefit of these processes. In this way, the best outcome of the process can be obtained understanding the types of modification that are required for process optimization. An effective evaluation...

  20. Business process modeling in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Francisco; Garcia, Felix; Calahorra, Luis; Llorente, César; Gonçalves, Luis; Daniel, Christel; Blobel, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The importance of the process point of view is not restricted to a specific enterprise sector. In the field of health, as a result of the nature of the service offered, health institutions' processes are also the basis for decision making which is focused on achieving their objective of providing quality medical assistance. In this chapter the application of business process modelling - using the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) standard is described. Main challenges of business process modelling in healthcare are the definition of healthcare processes, the multi-disciplinary nature of healthcare, the flexibility and variability of the activities involved in health care processes, the need of interoperability between multiple information systems, and the continuous updating of scientific knowledge in healthcare.

  1. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133... Cheese and Related Products § 133.134 Cream cheese with other foods. (a) Description. Cream cheese with other foods is the class of foods prepared by mixing, with or without the aid of heat, cream cheese...

  2. Short communication: Characterization of microflora in Mexican Chihuahua cheese

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renye, J.A; Somkuti, G.A; Van Hekken, D.L; Guerrero Prieto, V.M

    2011-01-01

    ...-style cheeses that are made using pasteurized milk and defined starter cultures while maintaining the traditional organoleptic qualities of the cheeses. Chihuahua cheese, or queso Menonita, is a semi-hard cheese produced using bovine milk in Mennonite communities located in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. The cheese has a crumbly texture and ...

  3. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by § 133.144...

  4. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by § 133.113...

  5. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by § 133.108...

  6. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by § 133.118...

  7. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by § 133.136...

  8. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by § 133.195...

  9. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133... Cheese and Related Products § 133.147 Grated American cheese food. (a)(1) Grated American cheese food is... granular mixture. (2) Grated American cheese food contains not less than 23 percent of milkfat,...

  10. Modeling nuclear processes by Simulink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nahrul Khair Alang Md, E-mail: nahrul@iium.edu.my [Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Modelling and simulation are essential parts in the study of dynamic systems behaviours. In nuclear engineering, modelling and simulation are important to assess the expected results of an experiment before the actual experiment is conducted or in the design of nuclear facilities. In education, modelling can give insight into the dynamic of systems and processes. Most nuclear processes can be described by ordinary or partial differential equations. Efforts expended to solve the equations using analytical or numerical solutions consume time and distract attention from the objectives of modelling itself. This paper presents the use of Simulink, a MATLAB toolbox software that is widely used in control engineering, as a modelling platform for the study of nuclear processes including nuclear reactor behaviours. Starting from the describing equations, Simulink models for heat transfer, radionuclide decay process, delayed neutrons effect, reactor point kinetic equations with delayed neutron groups, and the effect of temperature feedback are used as examples.

  11. Modeling nuclear processes by Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Nahrul Khair Alang Md

    2015-04-01

    Modelling and simulation are essential parts in the study of dynamic systems behaviours. In nuclear engineering, modelling and simulation are important to assess the expected results of an experiment before the actual experiment is conducted or in the design of nuclear facilities. In education, modelling can give insight into the dynamic of systems and processes. Most nuclear processes can be described by ordinary or partial differential equations. Efforts expended to solve the equations using analytical or numerical solutions consume time and distract attention from the objectives of modelling itself. This paper presents the use of Simulink, a MATLAB toolbox software that is widely used in control engineering, as a modelling platform for the study of nuclear processes including nuclear reactor behaviours. Starting from the describing equations, Simulink models for heat transfer, radionuclide decay process, delayed neutrons effect, reactor point kinetic equations with delayed neutron groups, and the effect of temperature feedback are used as examples.

  12. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, Isolated from Munster, a French Smear-Ripened Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Dugat-Bony, Eric; Sarthou, Anne-Sophie; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Irlinger, Françoise; Layec, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, which was originally isolated from the surface of Munster, a French smear-ripened cheese. This genome investigation will improve our knowledge on the molecular determinants potentially involved in the adaptation of this strain during the Munster-type cheese manufacturing process.

  14. Proline iminopeptidase PepI overexpressing Lactobacillus casei as an adjunct starter in Edam cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Takala, Timo M; Alatossava, Tapani; Saris, Per EJ

    2013-01-01

    In this study the growth of genetically modified Lactobacillus casei LAB6, overexpressing proline iminopeptidase PepI and its capacity to increase free proline was investigated during ripening of Edam cheese. The strain successfully survived 12 weeks of ripening period in cheese. The food-grade plasmid pLEB604, carrying the pepI gene, was stable, and PepI enzyme was active in LAB6 cells isolated at different stages of the ripening process. However, HPLC analyses indicated that Lb. casei LAB6 could not increase the amount of free proline in ripened cheese. PMID:23851577

  15. Non-starter lactic acid bacteria used to improve cheese quality and provide health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2010-09-01

    Non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) dominate cheese microbiota during ripening. They tolerate the hostile environment well and strongly influence the biochemistry of curd maturation, contributing to the development of the final characteristics of cheese. Several NSLAB are selected on the basis of their health benefits (enhancement of intestinal probiosis, production of bioactive peptides, generation of gamma-aminobutyric acid and inactivation of antigenotoxins) and are employed in cheese-making. This review describes the ecology of NSLAB, and focuses on their application as adjunct cultures, in order to drive the ripening process and promote health advantages. The scopes of future directions of research are summarised.

  16. Children preferences of coloured fresh cheese prepared during an educational laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Tesini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Choices among young consumers are mainly driven by food preferences; in particular, a connection between appearance and acceptance of food has been highlighted, together with a general lack of knowledge of food processing. For these reasons, educational activities are important to increase scientific knowledge and awareness. The cheese-making educational laboratory described herein involved children, adolescents, and their parents/teachers in the preparation of fresh and naturally-coloured cheeses. At the end of the activity, both the colour preference and possible relation between preference and colour of cheese prepared were investigated administering a short questionnaire.

  17. Sato Processes in Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas; Nicolato, Elisa

    In reduced form default models, the instantaneous default intensity is classically the modeling object. Survival probabilities are then given by the Laplace transform of the cumulative hazard defined as the integrated intensity process. Instead, recent literature has shown a tendency towards...... specifying the cumulative hazard process directly. Within this framework we present a new model class where cumulative hazards are described by self-similar additive processes, also known as Sato processes. Furthermore we also analyze specifications obtained via a simple deterministic time......-change of a homogeneous Levy process. While the processes in these two classes share the same average behavior over time, the associated intensities exhibit very different properties. Concrete specifications are calibrated to data on the single names included in the iTraxx Europe index. The performances are compared...

  18. Sato Processes in Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas; Nicolato, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    In reduced form default models, the instantaneous default intensity is the classical modeling object. Survival probabilities are then given by the Laplace transform of the cumulative hazard defined as the integrated intensity process. Instead, recent literature tends to specify the cumulative...... hazard process directly. Within this framework we present a new model class where cumulative hazards are described by self-similar additive processes, also known as Sato processes. Furthermore, we analyze specifications obtained via a simple deterministic time-change of a homogeneous Lévy process. While...... the processes in these two classes share the same average behavior over time, the associated intensities exhibit very different properties. Concrete specifications are calibrated to data on all the single names included in the iTraxx Europe index. The performances are compared with those of the classical CIR...

  19. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium variabile is part of the complex microflora on the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and contributes to the development of flavor and textural properties during cheese ripening. Still little is known about the metabolic processes and microbial interactions during the production of smear-ripened cheeses. Therefore, the gene repertoire contributing to the lifestyle of the cheese isolate C. variabile DSM 44702 was deduced from the complete genome sequence to get a better understanding of this industrial process. Results The chromosome of C. variabile DSM 44702 is composed of 3, 433, 007 bp and contains 3, 071 protein-coding regions. A comparative analysis of this gene repertoire with that of other corynebacteria detected 1, 534 predicted genes to be specific for the cheese isolate. These genes might contribute to distinct metabolic capabilities of C. variabile, as several of them are associated with metabolic functions in cheese habitats by playing roles in the utilization of alternative carbon and sulphur sources, in amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid degradation. Relevant C. variabile genes confer the capability to catabolize gluconate, lactate, propionate, taurine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and to utilize external caseins. In addition, C. variabile is equipped with several siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters for iron acquisition and an exceptional repertoire of AraC-regulated iron uptake systems. Moreover, C. variabile can produce acetoin, butanediol, and methanethiol, which are important flavor compounds in smear-ripened cheeses. Conclusions The genome sequence of C. variabile provides detailed insights into the distinct metabolic features of this bacterium, implying a strong adaption to the iron-depleted cheese surface habitat. By combining in silico data obtained from the genome annotation with previous experimental knowledge, occasional observations on genes that are involved in the complex metabolic capacity of C. variabile

  20. Modelling of CWS combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybenko, I. A.; Ermakova, L. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper considers the combustion process of coal water slurry (CWS) drops. The physico-chemical process scheme consisting of several independent parallel-sequential stages is offered. This scheme of drops combustion process is proved by the particle size distribution test and research stereomicroscopic analysis of combustion products. The results of mathematical modelling and optimization of stationary regimes of CWS combustion are provided. During modeling the problem of defining possible equilibrium composition of products, which can be obtained as a result of CWS combustion processes at different temperatures, is solved.

  1. PRODUCTION UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS OF “CASU MARZU” CHEESE: EFFECT OF THE Piophila Casei COLONIZATION ON MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CHEESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Coinu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Piophila casei colonization under controlled conditions on “casu marzu”, a typical Sardinian sheep milk cheese. Three batches of two different kind of cheese (PO, holed paste and PC, firm paste were produced in duplicate (test and control. Test cheeses were exposed to the Piophila casei colonization in a conditioned store room, while control cheeses were suitably protected. All the samples were analyzed at 0, 10, 30, 60 and 90 days from the production. The pH and aw, the chemical composition and the microbiological parameters (food safety and process hygiene criteria were determined. The colonization was unhomogeneous between the batches: PO cheeses were more easily colonized and showed more intense proteolysis and lipolysis respect to PC cheeses. The microbiological parameters were strongly affected by the experimental process conditions. The authors discuss about the opportunity of a controlled production of “casu marzu” and the implications to the health of consumers.

  2. Development and application of a processing model for the Irish dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, U; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Garrick, D J; Shalloo, L

    2010-11-01

    A processing-sector model was developed that simulates (i) milk collection, (ii) standardization, and (iii) product manufacture. The model estimates the product yield, net milk value, and component values of milk based on milk quantity, composition, product portfolio, and product values. Product specifications of cheese, butter, skim and whole milk powders, liquid milk, and casein are met through milk separation followed by reconstitution in appropriate proportions. Excess cream or skim milk are used in other product manufacture. Volume-related costs, including milk collection, standardization, and processing costs, and product-related costs, including processing costs per tonne, packaging, storage, distribution, and marketing, are quantified. Operating costs, incurred irrespective of milk received and processing activities, are included in the model on a fixed-rate basis. The net milk value is estimated as sale value less total costs. The component values of fat and protein were estimated from net milk value using the marginal rate of technical substitution. Two product portfolio scenarios were examined: scenario 1 was representative of the Irish product mix in 2000, in which 27, 39, 13, and 21% of the milk pool was processed into cheese (€ 3,291.33/t), butter (€ 2,766.33/t), whole milk powder (€ 2,453.33/t), and skim milk powder (€ 2,017.00/t), respectively, and scenario 2 was representative of the 2008 product mix, in which 43, 30, 14, and 13% was processed into cheese, butter, whole milk powder, and skim milk powder, respectively, and sold at the same market prices. Within both scenarios 3 milk compositions were considered, which were representative of (i) typical Irish Holstein-Friesian, (ii) Jersey, and (iii) the New Zealand strain of Holstein-Friesian, each of which had differing milk constituents. The effect each milk composition had on product yield, processing costs, total revenue, component values of milk, and the net value of milk was examined

  3. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  4. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as starter culture in dried whey cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, D; Kourkoutas, Y; Koutinas, A A; Kanellaki, M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as a starter culture for protein-enriched dried whey cheese. For comparison reasons, dried whey cheese with thermally-dried free kefir culture and with no starter culture were also produced. The effect of the nature of the culture, the ripening temperature and the ripening process on quality characteristics of the whey cheese was studied. The association of microbial groups during cheese maturation suggested repression of spoilage and protection from pathogens due to the thermally-dried kefir, as counts of coliforms, enterobacteria and staphylococci were significantly reduced in cheeses produced using thermally-dried kefir starter cultures. The effect of the starter culture on production of volatile compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied using the SPME GC/MS technique. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir starter culture resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds. The preliminary sensory evaluation ascertained the soft, fine taste and the overall improved quality of cheese produced with the thermally-dried immobilized kefir. The potential of protein-based thermally-dried starter cultures in dairy products is finally highlighted and assessed.

  5. Influence of ripening time on the amount of certain biogenic amines in rind and core of cow milk Livno cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonela Marijan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the levels of biogenic amines in cheese except that it has significance for determining the nutritional value and hygienic accuracy, cheese as food can be used as a parameter to evaluate the conditions of production and/or ripening of products, and particularly in the selection of bacterial cultures. The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of the ripening process on the amount of biogenic amines in cheese. For this purpose were conducted physico-chemical analysis, determination of biogenic amines and microbiological analysis. During the process of ripening Livno cheese from three different batches was taken one cheese from prime day and 9th, 20th, 29th, 50th, 60th and 105th day. From each cheese two samples were taken, one from the middle and one from the cheese rind. During 105th day of ripening Livno cheese, the presence of triptamin, ß-feniletlamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine were determinated. The maximum total values of searched biogenic amines were found 105th day, in the middle 184.13 mg/kg and 76.26 mg/kg in the rind of cheese. With an indication that the largest share of value rep¬resent histamine with 43.9 % and tyramine with 38.2 % in the middle, respectively histamine with 31.6 % and tyramine with 31.5 % in the rind of cheese. The values of putrescine and spermine were in small ranges and they are not identified in all samples. The values of histamine and tyramine are almost a third more at 105th than 60th day. There was a significant difference between the middle and the rind of cheese in the values of biogenic amines. Correlation between biogenic amines and microorganisms has not been determined.

  6. Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss Hard and Semihard Cheese Manufactured from Raw Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Spahr, U.; Schafroth, K.

    2001-01-01

    Raw milk was artificially contaminated with declumped cells of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a concentration of 104 to 105 CFU/ml and was used to manufacture model hard (Swiss Emmentaler) and semihard (Swiss Tisliter) cheese. Two different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were tested, and for each strain, two model hard and semihard cheeses were produced. The survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was monitored over a ripening period of 120 days by plat...

  7. Multilocus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Clostridium tyrobutyricum strains isolated from cheese production environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hajime; Sudo, Tomoko; Kyoi, Daisuke; Kawahara, Toshio; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Takashi; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon; Yanahira, Shuichi

    2014-11-03

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is a gram-positive spore-forming anaerobe that is considered as the main causative agent for late blowing in cheese due to butyric acid fermentation. In this study, multilocus variable-number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) for C. tyrobutyricum was developed to identify the source of contamination by C. tyrobutyricum spores in the cheese production environment. For each contig constructed from the results of a whole genome draft sequence of C. tyrobutyricum JCM11008(T) based on next-generation sequencing, VNTR loci that were effective for typing were searched using the Tandem Repeat Finder program. Five VNTR loci were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine their number of repeats by sequencing, and MLVA was conducted. 25 strains of C. tyrobutyricum isolated from the environment, raw milk, and silage were classified into 18 MLVA types (DI=0.963). Of the C. tyrobutyricum strains isolated from raw milk, natural cheese, and blown processed cheese, strains with identical MLVA type were detected, which suggested that these strains might have shifted from natural cheese to blown processed cheese. MLVA could be an effective tool for monitoring contamination of natural cheese with C. tyrobutyricum in the processed cheese production environment because of its high discriminability, thereby allowing the analyst to trace the source of contamination.

  8. Use of propidium monoazide for selective profiling of viable microbial cells during Gouda cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkus, Oylum; de Jager, Victor C L; Geene, Renske T C M; van Alen-Boerrigter, Ingrid; Hazelwood, Lucie; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Smid, Eddy J

    2016-07-02

    DNA based microbial community profiling of food samples is confounded by the presence of DNA derived from membrane compromised (dead or injured) cells. Selective amplification of DNA from viable (intact) fraction of the community by propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment could circumvent this problem. Gouda cheese manufacturing is a proper model to evaluate the use of PMA for selective detection of intact cells since large fraction of membrane compromised cells emerges as a background in the cheese matrix during ripening. In this study, the effect of PMA on cheese community profiles was evaluated throughout manufacturing and ripening using quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA effectively inhibited the amplification of DNA derived from membrane compromised cells and enhanced the analysis of the intact fraction residing in the cheese samples. Furthermore, a two-step protocol, which involves whole genome amplification (WGA) to enrich the DNA not modified with PMA and subsequent sequencing, was developed for the selective metagenome sequencing of viable fraction in the Gouda cheese microbial community. The metagenome profile of PMA treated cheese sample reflected the viable community profile at that time point in the cheese manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Social Models: Blueprints or Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Graham R.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the nature and implications of two different models for societal planning: (1) the problem-solving process approach based on Karl Popper; and (2) the goal-setting "blueprint" approach based on Karl Marx. (DC)

  10. CREATION OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF EXTRACTION BY CHEESE WHEY FROM A LUPINE IN THE FORM OF A PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Shishatskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prerequisites for creation of model are stated. At a problem definition consideration of a particle of a lupine as unlimited plate is proved. The main assumptions are formulated, regional conditions are written out. Partial solutions of the differential equation, and also the common decision for the current value of a concentration pressure С'(x,у. Distribution of concentration is symmetric concerning ordinate axis. Final expression for a field of concentration at extraction of a flat plate in a dimensionless look is written out. It is shown that distribution of concentration is rather precisely described by the first member of a row. Th e conclusion is drawn that for any timepoint under the set boundary conditions the field of concentration has an appearance of a symmetric curve with a maximum on a plate axis (Х=0. For each subsequent timepoint there will be the curve which is monotonously decreasing to a plate surface. It is proved that it is possible to define nature of change of concentration in a body at a preset value the case when strives for infinity at the set physical parameters, thickness of a plate and the organization of high intensity of branch of extractive substances from a surface Is considered. For this case the equations of rather dimensionless concentration and Fourier's numb er are received. Also the equation for definition of final time of extraction is written out. It is shown that the received solutions of the eq uations of model are found in a good consent with experimental data.

  11. Model feedstock supply processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bautin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of raw providing the processing enterprises entering into vertically integrated structure on production and processing of dairy raw materials, differing by an orientation on achievement of cumulative effect by the integrated structure acting as criterion function which maximizing is reached by optimization of capacities, volumes of deliveries of raw materials and its qualitative characteristics, costs of industrial processing of raw materials and demand for dairy production is developed.

  12. The Effect of adjusting PH on Stretchability and Meltability to White Brined Nabulsi Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman S. Mazahreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boiled white brined (Nabulsi cheese is the mostly consumed in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries.The most outstanding characteristic of Nabulsi cheese is the long keeping ability (more than one year without cooling, since it is preserved in concentrated brine (up to 25%. Approach: This work was based on the hypothesis that it would be possible to imply meltability and stretchability to the cheese by adjusting pH to the original brine that may specifically act on cross linking bonds of casein. A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheeses proved its validity and reliability to measurement stretchability up to 80cm. Detailed treatments revealed the success of the proposed assumption in inducing meltability and stretchability to cheese processed and preserved according to the traditional methods. Results: The following results were obtained: It is possible to imply a low but acceptable level of stretchability and meltability through adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.4-5.8 by adding calculated amount of citric acid considering the buffering capacity of the cheese and storing it for few weeks to reach equilibrium. Conclusion: Conformational experiments proved the applicability of the new method on commercial Nabulsi cheese samples. Sensory evaluation revealed the superiority of pH adjusting treatment specifically at pH 5.4 and 5.8 as well as commercial Mashmouleh cheese that has high meltability and stretchability when used in Kunafa making.

  13. ANOMALOUS BLUE COLOURING OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE INTENTIONALLY CONTAMINATED WITH PIGMENT PRODUCING STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sechi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 a large outbreak of anomalous blue coloration of mozzarella cheese was recorded in Italy and some northern European countries. Official laboratory analysis and health authorities linked the outbreak to the contamination of processing water with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, although several expert raised the question of how to unequivocally link the blue coloring to the presence of the micro-organism. In an attempt to set-up a method to determine whether a given Pseudomonas spp. strain is responsible of the defect, an in vitro system for the evaluation of blue colouring of mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens. was developed The system is aimed to ascertain whether P. fluorescens strains, isolated from mozzarella cheese with anomalous blue coloration, are able to reproduce the blue coloration under controlled experimental condition. 96 trials of experimental inoculation of mozzarella cheese in different preservation liquids, were conducted using various suspension of Pseudomonas spp. (P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, P. fluorescens CFBP 3150, one P. fluorescens field strain isolated from blue-colored mozzarella cheese and P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as positive control at different concentrations and incubated at different temperatures. Growth curve of all Pseudomonas spp. strains tested demonstrated that after three days of incubation the concentration was generally higher than 106 CFU/g of mozzarella cheese incubated in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB, and higher than 105 CFU/g of mozzarella cheese incubated in preservation liquid. All mozzarella cheeses inoculated with the field strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens showed the characteristic anomalous blue coloration, which is often associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens contamination of water used during mozzarella cheesemaking. With the proposed system, which enabled a considerable amount of samples to be analysed under controlled experimental

  14. Model Checking of Boolean Process Models

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In the field of Business Process Management formal models for the control flow of business processes have been designed since more than 15 years. Which methods are best suited to verify the bulk of these models? The first step is to select a formal language which fixes the semantics of the models. We adopt the language of Boolean systems as reference language for Boolean process models. Boolean systems form a simple subclass of coloured Petri nets. Their characteristics are low tokens to model explicitly states with a subsequent skipping of activations and arbitrary logical rules of type AND, XOR, OR etc. to model the split and join of the control flow. We apply model checking as a verification method for the safeness and liveness of Boolean systems. Model checking of Boolean systems uses the elementary theory of propositional logic, no modal operators are needed. Our verification builds on a finite complete prefix of a certain T-system attached to the Boolean system. It splits the processes of the Boolean sy...

  15. Cheese peptidomics: a detailed study on the evolution of the oligopeptide fraction in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese from curd to 24 months of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, S; Cavatorta, V; Lambertini, F; Galaverna, G; Dossena, A; Marchelli, R

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we performed a detailed evaluation of the evolution of the oligopeptide fractions in samples of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese from the curd up to 24 mo of aging. The samples were taken from wheels produced the same day, in the same factory, from the same milk, during the same caseification process, thus simplifying the natural variability of a whey-based starter fermentation. This unique and homogeneous sampling plan, never reported before in the literature, provided a detailed study of the peptides produced by enzymatic events during Parmigiano-Reggiano aging. Given the large dimensions of the 35-kg wheels of Parmigiano-Reggiano, samples were taken from both the internal and external parts of the cheese, to evidence eventual differences in the oligopeptide composition of the different parts. Fifty-seven peptides were considered, being among the most abundant during at least one of the periods of ripening considered, and their semiquantification indicated that the peptide fraction of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese constantly evolves during the aging period. Five trends in its evolution were outlined, which could be clearly correlated to the enzymatic activities present in the cheese, making it possible to discriminate cheeses according to their aging time. Several known bioactive peptides were also found to be present in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese samples, and for the first time, the age at which they are most abundant has been identified. Aged cheeses have been shown to be dominated by nonproteolytic aminoacyl derivatives, a new class of peptide-like molecules recently reported. Finally, the changing peptide pattern may be related to the changing enzymatic activities occurring inside the cheeses during the aging period, which, in turn, are also related to the microbiological composition.

  16. Technological Strategies to Preserve Burrata Cheese Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Burrata cheese is a very perishable product due to microbial proliferation and undesirable sensory changes. In this work, a step-by-step optimization approach was used to design proper processing and packaging conditions for burrata in brine. In particular, four different steps were carried out to extend its shelf life. Different headspace gas compositions (MAP-1 30:70 CO2:N2; MAP-2 50:50 CO2:N2 and MAP-3 65:35 CO2:N2 were firstly tested. To further promote product preservation, a coating was also optimized. Then, antimicrobial compounds in the filling of the burrata cheese (lysozyme and Na2-EDTA and later in the coating (enzymatic complex and silver nanoparticles were analyzed. To evaluate the quality of the samples, in each step headspace gas composition, microbial population, and pH and sensory attributes were monitored during storage at 8 ± 1 °C. The results highlight that the antimicrobial compounds in the stracciatella, coating with silver nanoparticles, and packaging under MAP-3 represent effective conditions to guarantee product preservation, moving burrata shelf life from three days (control sample to ten days.

  17. Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

    2014-02-01

    The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures.

  18. Aerobic biodegradation of precoagulated cheese whey wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Javier; Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fatima

    2011-03-23

    Prior to the application of an aerobic biological process, cheese whey wastewater has been pretreated by means of a precipitation stage by adding either NaOH or CaOH2. Both precipitating agents reduce roughly 50% of the raw wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD). The sludge generated in the prestage shows acceptable settling properties, although solids from the CaOH2-treated effluent are better separated from the liquid bulk than those formed in NaOH-processed wastewater. In both situations, the presedimentation stage renders a supernatant more prone to biodegradation than the untreated effluent. The previous statement is corroborated by the determination of some biological kinetic parameters. Under the operating conditions used in this work, sludge generation after the biological process is reduced to a minimum. The sludge generated shows good settling properties, especially for those experiments in which CaOH2 has previously been added.

  19. Computer Modelling of Dynamic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rybakin

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of numerical modeling of dynamic problems are summed in the article up. These problems are characteristic for various areas of human activity, in particular for problem solving in ecology. The following problems are considered in the present work: computer modeling of dynamic effects on elastic-plastic bodies, calculation and determination of performances of gas streams in gas cleaning equipment, modeling of biogas formation processes.

  20. Command Process Modeling & Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Commanding Errors may be caused by a variety of root causes. It's important to understand the relative significance of each of these causes for making institutional investment decisions. One of these causes is the lack of standardized processes and procedures for command and control. We mitigate this problem by building periodic tables and models corresponding to key functions within it. These models include simulation analysis and probabilistic risk assessment models.

  1. Path modeling and process control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Rodionova, O.; Pomerantsev, A.

    2007-01-01

    and having three or more stages. The methods are applied to a process control of a multi-stage production process having 25 variables and one output variable. When moving along the process, variables change their roles. It is shown how the methods of path modeling can be applied to estimate variables...... of the next stage with the purpose of obtaining optimal or almost optimal quality of the output variable. An important aspect of the methods presented is the possibility of extensive graphic analysis of data that can provide the engineer with a detailed view of the multi-variate variation in data.......Many production processes are carried out in stages. At the end of each stage, the production engineer can analyze the intermediate results and correct process parameters (variables) of the next stage. Both analysis of the process and correction to process parameters at next stage should...

  2. Modelling Hospital Materials Management Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Iannone

    2013-06-01

    integrated and detailed analysis and description model for hospital materials management data and tasks, which is able to tackle information from patient requirements to usage, from replenishment requests to supplying and handling activities. The model takes account of medical risk reduction, traceability and streamlined processes perspectives. Second, the paper translates this information into a business process model and mathematical formalization.The study provides a useful guide to the various relevant technology‐related, management and business issues, laying the foundations of an efficient reengineering of the supply chain to reduce healthcare costs and improve the quality of care.

  3. Qualitative evaluation of buffalo cheese using FTIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Coroian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FTIR is a rapid technique based on infrared which has been used to analyze the followingsamples of cheese: traditional buffalo milk cheese, mouldy cheese traditionally produced (in Mesendorf,buffalo milk cheese (Napolact and buffalo mozzarella (Italy. Here were highlighted main wavelengths atwhich the main components were observed in cheese, namely: fat, protein, lactose and water. Thesecompounds have been outlined in terms of quality. The presence of water was observed in the region of3600-3010 cm-1, showing a high content in water for mozzarella, followed by buffalo milk cheese,traditional cheese and the lowest content being observed to mouldy cheese.

  4. Mycotoxicogenic fungal inhibition by innovative cheese cover with aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Armando; Librán, Celia M; Berruga, M Isabel; Zalacain, Amaya; Carmona, Manuel

    2013-03-30

    The use of aromatic plants and their extracts with antimicrobial properties may be compromised in the case of cheese, as some type of fungal starter is needed during its production. Penicillium verrucosum is considered a common cheese spoiler. The aim of this study was to evaluate the innovative use of certain aromatic plants as natural cheese covers in order to prevent mycotoxicogenic fungal growth (P. verrucosum). A collection of 12 essential oils (EOs) was obtained from various aromatic plants by solvent-free microwave extraction technology, and volatile characterisation of the EOs was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The most effective EOs against P. verrucosum were obtained from Anethum graveolens, Hyssopus officinalis and Chamaemelum nobile, yielding 50% inhibition of fungal growth at concentration values lower than 0.02 µL mL⁻¹. All EOs showed high volatile heterogeneity, with α-phellandrene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone, α-pinene, camphene, 1,8-cineole, carvacrol and trans-anethole being found to be statistically significant in the antifungal model. The use of these aromatic plants as natural covers on cheese can satisfactorily inhibit the growth of some mycotoxicogenic fungal spoilers. Among the volatile compounds present, α- and β-phellandrene were confirmed as the most relevant in the inhibition. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese using protective lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M C; Silva, C C G; Ribeiro, S C; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Rosa, H J D

    2014-11-17

    detected over the same period, in the absence of bacteriocin-producing LAB. The combination of two bacteriocin producing Enterococcus sp. optimized the reduction of L. monocytogenes counts in fresh cheese, reducing by approximately 5 log units after 7 days. The present work demonstrates that using bacteriocin-producing strains in the manufacture of fresh cheese might contribute to preventing the growth of undesirable pathogenic bacteria such as L. monocytogenes. A blend of two strains demonstrated great potential as a protective culture for the cheese making process.

  6. Socioeconomic diagnosis of cheese producers of Marajó, state of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Nazaré Costa Seixas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to diagnose the socioeconomic conditions of cheese producers from three municipalities of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil. Manufacture process, hygienic-sanitary conditions in handmade cheese production and its commercialization were some features analysed for both cream-type and butter-type cheeses. During the survey, conducted from March to September 2012 questionnaires were applied to ten Marajó’s cheese producers. The cheese fabrication was characterized as a handmade process, employing family labor, most over ten years of experience. The production has a small scale, uses rudimentary technologies, lacks proper infrastructure for the processing of the product and has unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions. Commercialization is mainly by direct sale on the ship that travels to Belém city, capital of Pará state. Interviewed producers showed good reception to knowledge that can improve quality of the product, but they need a better guidance. In this context, the transfer of information is essential to sustain the production of these cheeses and preserve local culture, contributing to the economic and social development of producers regions.

  7. Evaluation of hygiene and safety criteria in the production of a traditional Piedmont cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Astegiano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional products and related processes must be safe to protect consumers’ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological criteria of a traditional Piedmont cheese, made by two different cheese producers (A and B. Three batches of each cheese were considered. The following seven samples of each batch were collected: raw milk, milk at 38°C, curd, cheese at 7, 30, 60, 90 days of ripening. During cheese making process, training activities dealing with food safety were conducted. Analyses regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria were set up according to the EC Regulation 2073/2005. Other microbiological and chemical-physical analyses [lactic streptococci, lactobacilli, pH and water activity (Aw] were performed as well. Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli, aflatoxin M1 and antimicrobial substances were considered only for raw milk. All samples resulted negative for food safety criteria; Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS were high in the first phase of cheese production, however they decreased at the end of ripening. A high level of CPS in milk was found in producer A, likewise in some cheese samples a count of >5 Log CFU/g was reached; staphylococcal enterotoxins resulted negative. The pH and Aw values decreased during the cheese ripening period. The competition between lactic flora and potential pathogen microorganisms and decreasing of pH and Aw are considered positive factors in order to ensure safety of dairy products. Moreover, training activities play a crucial role to manage critical points and perform corrective action. Responsible application of good manufacturing practices are considered key factors to obtain a high hygienic level in dairy products.