WorldWideScience

Sample records for model preshipment review

  1. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing.

  2. Pre-Shipment Preparations at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will provide a detailed description of each of the pre-shipment process steps WSRC performs to produce the technical basis for approving the receipt and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site. It is intended to be a guide to reactor operators who plan on returning ''U.S. origin'' SNF and to emphasize the need for accurate and timely completion of pre-shipment activities

  3. Pre-shipment preparations at the Savannah River Site - WSRC's technical basis to support DOE's approval to ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Jay E.; Bickley, Donald W.; Conatser, E. Ray

    2000-01-01

    In the first four years of the Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Return Program following resumption of the SNF return program with the DOE-EIS ROD in May 1996, 13 shipments involving 77 casks with over 2,600 assemblies have been safely received and stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Each fuel type has gone through a rigorous pre-shipment preparation process that includes fuel characterization, criticality safety reviews, and operational reviews, culminating in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) authorization to ship. Ideally, the authorization to ship process should begin two years in advance of the fuel receipt with an agreement between the Department of Energy - Head Quarters (DOE-HQ) and the research reactor government on the conditions and protocol for the spent nuclear fuel return, with a target of DOE shipment authorization at least two months before facility loading. A visit by representatives from the Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) and Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), DOE's Management and Operations (M and O) Contractor for the SRS, to the research reactor facility is then scheduled for the purpose of finalizing contractual arrangements (DOE-SR), facility assessments, and initial fuel inspections. An extensive effort is initiated at this time to characterize the fuel in a standard format as identified in the Appendix A attachment to the contract. The Appendix A must be finalized in an accurate and timely manner because it serves as the base reference document for WSRC and other involved stakeholders such as the cask owners and the competent authorities throughout the approval process. With the approval of the Appendix A, criticality safety reviews are initiated to evaluate the unloading and storage configurations. Operational reviews are conducted to allow for necessary adaptation of fuel handling facilities, procedures, and training. WSRC has proceduralized this process, 'Certification to Receive and

  4. Preshipment testing success: resolution of a nasal sinus granuloma in a captive koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) caused by Cryptococcus gattii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Pye, Geoffrey W; Meyer, Wieland; Sykes, Jane E

    2012-12-01

    A 3-yr-old female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) was diagnosed with a nasal sinus granuloma caused by Cryptococcus gattii after a pre-shipment examination revealed a latex cryptococcal agglutination titer of 1:512. Successful medical and surgical treatment of the granuloma was monitored using serial latex cryptococcal agglutination titers, serum levels of antifungal drugs, and advanced imaging.

  5. Pre-shipment test of the ARGOS laser guide star wavefront sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaglia, Marco; Busoni, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Puglisi, Alfio; Antichi, Jacopo; Esposito, Simone; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of the laboratory characterization of the ARGOS LGS wavefront sensor (LGSW) and dichroic units. ARGOS is the laser guide star adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). It implements a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) correction for LUCI, an infrared imager and multi-object spectrograph (MOS), using 3 pulsed Rayleigh beacons focused at 12km altitude. The LGSW is a Shack-Hartman sensor having 15 × 15 subaspertures over the telescope pupil. Each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and gated to reduce spot elongation. The 3 LGS pupils are stabilized to compensate mechanical flexure and are arranged on a single detector. Two units of LGSW have been produced and tested at Arcetri Observatory. We report on the results obtained in the pre-shipment laboratory test: internal active flexure compensation loop performance, optomechanical stability under different gravity conditions, thermal cycling, Pockels cells performance. We also update on the upcoming installation and commissioning campaign at LBT.

  6. Model Validation Status Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M and O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  7. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  8. Drought modeling - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok K.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryIn recent years droughts have been occurring frequently, and their impacts are being aggravated by the rise in water demand and the variability in hydro-meteorological variables due to climate change. As a result, drought hydrology has been receiving much attention. A variety of concepts have been applied to modeling droughts, ranging from simplistic approaches to more complex models. It is important to understand different modeling approaches as well as their advantages and limitations. This paper, supplementing the previous paper ( Mishra and Singh, 2010) where different concepts of droughts were highlighted, reviews different methodologies used for drought modeling, which include drought forecasting, probability based modeling, spatio-temporal analysis, use of Global Climate Models (GCMs) for drought scenarios, land data assimilation systems for drought modeling, and drought planning. It is found that there have been significant improvements in modeling droughts over the past three decades. Hybrid models, incorporating large scale climate indices, seem to be promising for long lead-time drought forecasting. Further research is needed to understand the spatio-temporal complexity of droughts under climate change due to changes in spatio-temporal variability of precipitation. Applications of copula based models for multivariate drought characterization seem to be promising for better drought characterization. Research on decision support systems should be advanced for issuing warnings, assessing risk, and taking precautionary measures, and the effective ways for the flow of information from decision makers to users need to be developed. Finally, some remarks are made regarding the future outlook for drought research.

  9. Geochemical modeling: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenne, E.A.

    1981-06-01

    Two general families of geochemical models presently exist. The ion speciation-solubility group of geochemical models contain submodels to first calculate a distribution of aqueous species and to secondly test the hypothesis that the water is near equilibrium with particular solid phases. These models may or may not calculate the adsorption of dissolved constituents and simulate the dissolution and precipitation (mass transfer) of solid phases. Another family of geochemical models, the reaction path models, simulates the stepwise precipitation of solid phases as a result of reacting specified amounts of water and rock. Reaction path models first perform an aqueous speciation of the dissolved constituents of the water, test solubility hypotheses, then perform the reaction path modeling. Certain improvements in the present versions of these models would enhance their value and usefulness to applications in nuclear-waste isolation, etc. Mass-transfer calculations of limited extent are certainly within the capabilities of state-of-the-art models. However, the reaction path models require an expansion of their thermodynamic data bases and systematic validation before they are generally accepted

  10. A review of model designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Nijboer, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    The PAEQANN project aims to review current ecological theories which can help identify suited models that predict community structure in aquatic ecosystems, to select and discuss appropriate models, depending on the type of target community (i.e. empirical vs. simulation models) and to examine how

  11. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  12. Review of Parton Recombination Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, Steffen A

    2006-01-01

    Parton recombination models have been very successful in explaining data taken at RHIC on hadron spectra and emission patterns in Au+Au collisions at transverse momenta above 2 GeV/c, which have exhibited features which could not be understood in the framework of basic perturbative QCD. In this article I will review the current status on recombination models and outline which future challenges need to be addressed by this class of models

  13. Review of gust model concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.C.

    1979-11-01

    Within the past two years Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been associated directly or indirectly with several documents in which the authors set forth their concept of a wind component gust model. In this paper three models, each representing a somewhat different concept, are reviewed. A gust model can be defined as a mathematical model that begins by describing wind fluctuations in terms of discrete events and ends by defining statistics of those events. In the present models, all wind fluctuation is described in terms of either individual wind components with respect to a Cartesian coordinate system at a single point, or volume averages of these wind components.

  14. Colored Tensor Models - a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Gurau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Colored tensor models have recently burst onto the scene as a promising conceptual and computational tool in the investigation of problems of random geometry in dimension three and higher. We present a snapshot of the cutting edge in this rapidly expanding research field. Colored tensor models have been shown to share many of the properties of their direct ancestor, matrix models, which encode a theory of fluctuating two-dimensional surfaces. These features include the possession of Feynman graphs encoding topological spaces, a 1/N expansion of graph amplitudes, embedded matrix models inside the tensor structure, a resumable leading order with critical behavior and a continuum large volume limit, Schwinger-Dyson equations satisfying a Lie algebra (akin to the Virasoro algebra in two dimensions, non-trivial classical solutions and so on. In this review, we give a detailed introduction of colored tensor models and pointers to current and future research directions.

  15. Current and Evolving Models of Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Fresco Santalla, Ana; Hernández Pérez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    New models of scientific publishing and new ways of practicing peer review have injected a recent dynamism into the scholarly communication system. In this article, we delineate the context of the traditional peer review model, reflect upon some of the first experiences with open peer review and forecast some of the challenges that new models for peer review will have to meet. Our findings suggest that the peer review function has the potential to be divorced from the journal system, so that ...

  16. Models of sarcopenia: Short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, S; Springer, J I; Doehner, W; von Haehling, S; Anker, M; Anker, S D; Springer, J

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 40-50% of the population over 80years of age suffers from sarcopenia making this condition a major geriatric clinical disorder and a key challenge to healthy aging. The hallmark symptom of sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and strength without the loss of overall body weight. Sarcopenic patients are likely to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality compared to healthy individuals. This review will focus on animal models designed to study sarcopenia including hind-limb unloading, de-nervation, and immobilization by using casts or wire strategies, as well as using aged rodents. Currently there are no registered treatments for sarcopenia. Most sarcopenic individuals show signs of physical frailty, which leads to increases the prevalence of balance disorders, falls, fractures and pain. Therefore, is it essential to develop and use relevant animal models to further the research on sarcopenia therapy? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. MOVES Model Review Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FACA MOVES Review Work Group was formed under the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS), and is charged to provide input to EPA via the MSTRS and the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee on specific issues regarding MOVES development.

  18. Review of Four Turbulence Models using Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Pedersen, Jakob Martin

    2003-01-01

    The validation and development of turbulence models are still important issues related to Computational fluid Dynamics for ventilation purpose.The present work continues the work initiated by (Voigt, 2002). Four turbulence models are reviewed, the k-e model, the k-w model and two blending models...

  19. Review of Watershed Water Quality Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deliman, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    .... Several available watershed water quality models were reviewed and rated with regard to their potential in being utilized as the building block for the development of a Corps of Engineers watershed water quality model...

  20. A Review on Macroscopic Pedestrian Flow Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kormanová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews several various approaches to macroscopic pedestrian modelling. It describes hydrodynamic models based on similarity of pedestrian flow with fluids and gases; first-order flow models that use fundamental diagrams and conservation equation; and a model similar to LWR vehicular traffic model, which allows non-classical shocks. At the end of the paper there is stated a comparison of described models, intended to find appropriate macroscopic model to eventually be a part of a hybrid model. The future work of the author is outlined.

  1. Review: Model particles in atmospheric optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahnert, Michael; Nousiainen, Timo; Lindqvist, Hannakaisa

    2014-01-01

    This review paper provides an overview over model geometries for computing light scattering by small particles. The emphasis is on atmospheric optics, although much of this review will also be relevant to neighbouring fields, in particular to astronomy. Various morphological particle properties are discussed, such as overall nonsphericity, pristine shapes, aggregation, and different forms of inhomogeneity, e.g. porous and compact inhomogeneous morphologies, as well as encapsulated aggregates. Models employed to reproduce the optical properties of complex particles range from strongly simplified to highly realistic and morphologically sophisticated model geometries. Besides reviewing the most recent literature, we discuss the idea behind models of varying degree of complexity with regard to the intended use of the models. Applications range from fundamental studies of light scattering processes to routine applications of particle optics look-up tables in operational modelling systems. - Highlights: • Particle models in atmospheric optics are reviewed. • Review of recent literature on nonspherical particles. • Applications of particle models are discussed

  2. Review and selection of unsaturated flow models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, M.; Baker, N.A.; Duguid, J.O. [INTERA, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-04-04

    Since the 1960`s, ground-water flow models have been used for analysis of water resources problems. In the 1970`s, emphasis began to shift to analysis of waste management problems. This shift in emphasis was largely brought about by site selection activities for geologic repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Model development during the 1970`s and well into the 1980`s focused primarily on saturated ground-water flow because geologic repositories in salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff were envisioned to be below the water table. Selection of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for potential disposal of waste began to shift model development toward unsaturated flow models. Under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document existing computer models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. This document describes the CRWMS M&O approach to model review and evaluation (Chapter 2), and the requirements for unsaturated flow models which are the bases for selection from among the current models (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 identifies existing models, and their characteristics. Through a detailed examination of characteristics, Chapter 5 presents the selection of models for testing. Chapter 6 discusses the testing and verification of selected models. Chapters 7 and 8 give conclusions and make recommendations, respectively. Chapter 9 records the major references for each of the models reviewed. Appendix A, a collection of technical reviews for each model, contains a more complete list of references. Finally, Appendix B characterizes the problems used for model testing.

  3. Review and selection of unsaturated flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, M.; Baker, N.A.; Duguid, J.O.

    1994-01-01

    Since the 1960's, ground-water flow models have been used for analysis of water resources problems. In the 1970's, emphasis began to shift to analysis of waste management problems. This shift in emphasis was largely brought about by site selection activities for geologic repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Model development during the 1970's and well into the 1980's focused primarily on saturated ground-water flow because geologic repositories in salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff were envisioned to be below the water table. Selection of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for potential disposal of waste began to shift model development toward unsaturated flow models. Under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M ampersand O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document existing computer models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. This document describes the CRWMS M ampersand O approach to model review and evaluation (Chapter 2), and the requirements for unsaturated flow models which are the bases for selection from among the current models (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 identifies existing models, and their characteristics. Through a detailed examination of characteristics, Chapter 5 presents the selection of models for testing. Chapter 6 discusses the testing and verification of selected models. Chapters 7 and 8 give conclusions and make recommendations, respectively. Chapter 9 records the major references for each of the models reviewed. Appendix A, a collection of technical reviews for each model, contains a more complete list of references. Finally, Appendix B characterizes the problems used for model testing

  4. WATER QUALITY MODELS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Sumita; Bhatia Sukhpreet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining water quality and predicting the fate of water pollutants are one of the important tasks of present environmental problems. The best tool for predicting different pollution scenarios are the simulation of mathematical models which can provide a basis and technical support for environmental management.

  5. A critical review of clarifier modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plósz, Benedek; Nopens, Ingmar; Rieger, Leiv

    This outline paper aims to provide a critical review of secondary settling tank (SST) modelling approaches used in current wastewater engineering and develop tools not yet applied in practice. We address the development of different tier models and experimental techniques in the field with a part...

  6. Mathematical modelling of scour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2007-01-01

    A review is presented of mathematical modelling of scour around hydraulic and marine structures. Principal ideas, general features and procedures are given. The paper is organized in three sections: the first two sections deal with the mathematical modelling of scour around piers...

  7. Human factors engineering program review model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element

  8. Human factors engineering program review model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  9. Review and selection of unsaturated flow models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-10

    Under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document existing computer ground-water flow models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. In the area of scientific modeling, the M&O CRWMS has the following responsibilities: To provide overall management and integration of modeling activities. To provide a framework for focusing modeling and model development. To identify areas that require increased or decreased emphasis. To ensure that the tools necessary to conduct performance assessment are available. These responsibilities are being initiated through a three-step process. It consists of a thorough review of existing models, testing of models which best fit the established requirements, and making recommendations for future development that should be conducted. Future model enhancement will then focus on the models selected during this activity. Furthermore, in order to manage future model development, particularly in those areas requiring substantial enhancement, the three-step process will be updated and reported periodically in the future.

  10. Modelling Underground Coal Gasification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md M. Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG has been established through many field trials and laboratory-scale experiments over the past decades. However, the UCG is site specific and the commercialization of UCG is being hindered due to the lack of complete information for a specific site of operation. Since conducting UCG trials and data extraction are costly and difficult, modeling has been an important part of UCG study to predict the effect of various physical and operating parameters on the performance of the process. Over the years, various models have been developed in order to improve the understanding of the UCG process. This article reviews the approaches, key concepts, assumptions, and limitations of various forward gasification UCG models for cavity growth and product gas recovery. However, emphasis is given to the most important models, such as packed bed models, the channel model, and the coal slab model. In addition, because of the integral part of the main models, various sub-models such as drying and pyrolysis are also included in this review. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the various simulation methodologies and sub-models in order to enhance the understanding of the critical aspects of the UCG process.

  11. Critical Review of Membrane Bioreactor Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naessens, W.; Maere, T.; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios

    2012-01-01

    modelling. In this paper, the vast literature on hydrodynamic and integrated modelling in MBR is critically reviewed. Hydrodynamic models are used at different scales and focus mainly on fouling and only little on system design/optimisation. Integrated models also focus on fouling although the ones......Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can heavily benefit from mathematical...

  12. Optimization of experimental human leukemia models (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Pankov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actual problem of assessing immunotherapy prospects including antigenpecific cell therapy using animal models was covered in this review.Describe the various groups of currently existing animal models and methods of their creating – from different immunodeficient mice to severalvariants of tumor cells engraftment in them. The review addresses the possibility of tumor stem cells studying using mouse models for the leukemia treatment with adoptive cell therapy including WT1. Also issues of human leukemia cells migration and proliferation in a mice withdifferent immunodeficiency degree are discussed. To assess the potential immunotherapy efficacy comparison of immunodeficient mouse model with clinical situation in oncology patients after chemotherapy is proposed.

  13. Review of constructive models for concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoping, Y.; Ottosen, N.S.; Thelandersson, S.; Nielsen, M.P.

    1989-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre, ISPRA. The report reviews the constitutive models for concrete and is a part of a survey of the status of the analytical capabilities for predicting the structural response of NPP concrete containment buildings to severe loading conditions

  14. Review of statistical models for nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarasi, Sin-iti

    1991-01-01

    Statistical model calculations have been widely performed for nuclear data evaluations. These were based on the models of Hauser-Feshbach, Weisskopf-Ewing and their modifications. Since the 1940s, non-compound nuclear phenomena have been observed, and stimulated many nuclear physicists to study compound and non-compound nuclear reaction mechanisms. Concerning compound nuclear reactions, they investigated problems on the basis of fundamental properties of S-matrix, statistical distributions of resonance pole parameters, random matrix elements of the nuclear Hamiltonian, and so forth. They have presented many sophisticated results. But old statistical models have been still useful, because these models were simple and easily utilizable. In this report, these old and new models will be briefly reviewed with a purpose of application to nuclear data evaluation, and examine applicability of the new models. (author)

  15. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  16. A Review of Ionospheric Scintillation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, S

    This is a general review of the existing climatological models of ionospheric radio scintillation for high and equatorial latitudes. Trans-ionospheric communication of radio waves from transmitter to user is affected by the ionosphere which is highly variable and dynamic in both time and space. Scintillation is the term given to irregular amplitude and phase fluctuations of the received signals and related to the electron density irregularities in the ionosphere. Key sources of ionospheric irregularities are plasma instabilities; every irregularities model is based on the theory of radio wave propagation in random media. It is important to understand scintillation phenomena and the approach of different theories. Therefore, we have briefly discussed the theories that are used to interpret ionospheric scintillation data. The global morphology of ionospheric scintillation is also discussed briefly. The most important (in our opinion) analytical and physical models of scintillation are reviewed here.

  17. Animal Models of Human Placentation - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however...... and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial...

  18. Modeling Atom Probe Tomography: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vurpillot, F., E-mail: francois.vurpillot@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Université de Rouen, Saint Etienne du Rouvray 76801 (France); Oberdorfer, C. [Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Lehrstuhl für Materialphysik, Universität Stuttgart, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Improving both the precision and the accuracy of Atom Probe Tomography reconstruction requires a correct understanding of the imaging process. In this aim, numerical modeling approaches have been developed for 15 years. The injected ingredients of these modeling tools are related to the basic physic of the field evaporation mechanism. The interplay between the sample nature and structure of the analyzed sample and the reconstructed image artefacts have pushed to gradually improve and make the model more and more sophisticated. This paper reviews the evolution of the modeling approach in Atom Probe Tomography and presents some future potential directions in order to improve the method. - Highlights: • The basics of field evaporation. • The main aspects of Atom Probe Tomography modeling. • The intrinsic limitations of the current method and future potential directions to improve the understanding of tip to image ion projection.

  19. Review of existing landfill leachate production models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water resources is a fundamental consideration in managing landfill operations. Landfill sites should be designed and operated so as to control leachate production and hence minimize the risk of surface and ground water pollution. A further important development is the use of computer models to estimate the production of leachate from landfill sites. It is revealed from the literature that a number of landfill leachate management model lave been development in recent years. These models allow different engineering schemes to be evaluated and are essential tools for design and operation managements of modern landfills. This paper describes a review of such models mainly focused on their theory, practicability, data requirements, suitability to real situation and usefulness. An evaluation of these models identifies. (author)

  20. Models of radon entry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper reviews existing models of radon entry into houses. The primary mechanism of radon entry in houses with high indoor concentrations is, in most cases, convective entry of radon bearing soil-gas from the surrounding soil. The driving force for this convective entry is the small indoor-outdoor pressure difference arising from the stack effect and other causes. Entry points for the soil-gas generally are the cracks or gaps in the building substructure, or though other parts of the building shell in direct contact with the soil, although entry may also occur by flow though permeable concrete or cinder block walls of the substructure. Models using analytical solutions to idealized geometrical configurations with simplified boundary conditions obtain analytical tractability of equations to be solved at the cost of severe approximations; their strength is in the insights they offer with their solutions. Models based on lumped parameters attempt to characterize the significant physical behavioral characteristics of the soil-gas and radon flow. When realistic approximations are desired for the boundary conditions and terms in the governing equations, numerical models must be used; these are usually based on finite difference or finite element solutions to the governing equations. Limited data are now available for experimental verification of model predictions. The models are briefly reviewed and their strengths and limitations are discussed

  1. Modeling Consumer Learning from Online Product Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zhao; Sha Yang; Vishal Narayan; Ying Zhao

    2013-01-01

    We propose a structural model to study the effect of online product reviews on consumer purchases of experiential products. Such purchases are characterized by limited repeat purchase behavior of the same product item (such as a book title) but significant past usage experience with other products of the same type (such as books of the same genre). To cope with the uncertainty in quality of the product item, we posit that consumers may learn from their experience with the same type of product...

  2. Thermal modeling of an AFPMSM: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shazly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the axial-flux permanent-magnet synchronous motor (AFPMSM and the history of axial-flux machines. Various machine structures, features of the AFPMSM over the conventional machines and disadvantages are clarified. AFPMSMs are being developed for many applications due to their attractive features; these applications are mentioned. It also reviews the studies of thermal modeling of AFPMSM and the various techniques to analyze the thermal behavior of it.

  3. A Review on Human Respiratory Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, Pardis; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy. Various respiratory models have been proposed based on this idea in order to demonstrate and assess the different parts of respiratory system related to children and adults data. With regard to our knowledge, some of famous respiratory models in related to obstructive, restrictive diseases and also Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are reviewed in this article.

  4. Modeling Atom Probe Tomography: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurpillot, F; Oberdorfer, C

    2015-12-01

    Improving both the precision and the accuracy of Atom Probe Tomography reconstruction requires a correct understanding of the imaging process. In this aim, numerical modeling approaches have been developed for 15 years. The injected ingredients of these modeling tools are related to the basic physic of the field evaporation mechanism. The interplay between the sample nature and structure of the analyzed sample and the reconstructed image artefacts have pushed to gradually improve and make the model more and more sophisticated. This paper reviews the evolution of the modeling approach in Atom Probe Tomography and presents some future potential directions in order to improve the method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A strategic review of electricity systems models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.M.; O Gallachoir, B.P.; McKeogh, E.J.; Hur, J.; Baldick, R.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity systems models are software tools used to manage electricity demand and the electricity systems, to trade electricity and for generation expansion planning purposes. Various portfolios and scenarios are modelled in order to compare the effects of decision making in policy and on business development plans in electricity systems so as to best advise governments and industry on the least cost economic and environmental approach to electricity supply, while maintaining a secure supply of sufficient quality electricity. The modelling techniques developed to study vertically integrated state monopolies are now applied in liberalised markets where the issues and constraints are more complex. This paper reviews the changing role of electricity systems modelling in a strategic manner, focussing on the modelling response to key developments, the move away from monopoly towards liberalised market regimes and the increasing complexity brought about by policy targets for renewable energy and emissions. The paper provides an overview of electricity systems modelling techniques, discusses a number of key proprietary electricity systems models used in the USA and Europe and provides an information resource to the electricity analyst not currently readily available in the literature on the choice of model to investigate different aspects of the electricity system. (author)

  6. Dynamic modeling of gearbox faults: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xihui; Zuo, Ming J.; Feng, Zhipeng

    2018-01-01

    Gearbox is widely used in industrial and military applications. Due to high service load, harsh operating conditions or inevitable fatigue, faults may develop in gears. If the gear faults cannot be detected early, the health will continue to degrade, perhaps causing heavy economic loss or even catastrophe. Early fault detection and diagnosis allows properly scheduled shutdowns to prevent catastrophic failure and consequently result in a safer operation and higher cost reduction. Recently, many studies have been done to develop gearbox dynamic models with faults aiming to understand gear fault generation mechanism and then develop effective fault detection and diagnosis methods. This paper focuses on dynamics based gearbox fault modeling, detection and diagnosis. State-of-art and challenges are reviewed and discussed. This detailed literature review limits research results to the following fundamental yet key aspects: gear mesh stiffness evaluation, gearbox damage modeling and fault diagnosis techniques, gearbox transmission path modeling and method validation. In the end, a summary and some research prospects are presented.

  7. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-07-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs.

  8. Autism Treatment and Family Support Models Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Esbati

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a lifelong neurological disability of unknown etiology. The criteria for a diagnosis of autism are based on a triad of impairments in social interaction, communication and a lack of flexibility in thinking and behavior There are several factors which are likely to contribute to this variation including the definition of autism and variability in diagnosis amongst professionals, however anecdotally there appears to have been a steadily increasing demand for services. The purpose of this review of research literature relating to the management and treatment of children with autism is to identify the most effective models of best practice. The review includes Comparative evidence supporting a range of treatment and intervention models, across the range of individuals included within autism spectrum disorders, psychodynamic treatment/management which are based on the assumption that autism is the result of emotional damage to the child, usually because of failure to develop a close attachment to parents, especially the mother, biological treatments, educational and behavioral interventions, communication therapies, cost benefits and supporting families.The research is examined for evidence to support best practice models in supporting families at the time of diagnosis and assessment and an overview of the nature of comprehensive supports that help reduce stresses that may be experienced by families of a child with autism and promote inclusion in community activities.

  9. REVIEW One-Dimensional Dynamical Modeling of Earthquakes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the power-law relations of seismicity and earthquake source parameters based on the one-dimensional (1-D Burridge-Knopoff¡¦s (BK dynamical lattice model, especially those studies conducted by Taiwan¡¦s scientists, are reviewed in this article. In general, velocity- and/or state-dependent friction is considered to control faulting. A uniform distribution of breaking strengths (i.e., the static friction strength is taken into account in some studies, and inhomogeneous distributions in others. The scaling relations in these studies include: Omori¡¦s law, the magnitude-frequency or energy-frequency relation, the relation between source duration time and seismic moment, the relation between rupture length and seismic moment, the frequency-length relation, and the source power spectra. The main parameters of the one-dimensional (1-D Burridge-Knopoff¡¦s (BK dynamical lattice model include: the decreasing rate (r of dynamic friction strength with sliding velocity; the type and degree of heterogeneous distribution of the breaking strengths, the stiffness ratio (i.e., the ratio between the stiffness of the coil spring connecting two mass elements and that of the leaf spring linking a mass element and the moving plate; the frictional drop ratio of the minimum dynamic friction strength to the breaking strength; and the maximum breaking strength. For some authors, the distribution of the breaking strengths was considered to be a fractal function. Hence, the fractal dimension of such a distribution is also a significant parameter. Comparison between observed scaling laws and simulation results shows that the 1-D BK dynamical lattice model acceptably approaches fault dynamics.

  10. A Review of Vapor Intrusion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    A complete vapor intrusion (VI) model, describing vapor entry of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) into buildings located on contaminated sites, generally consists of two main parts-one describing vapor transport in the soil and the other its entry into the building. Modeling the soil vapor transport part involves either analytically or numerically solving the equations of vapor advection and diffusion in the subsurface. Contaminant biodegradation must often also be included in this simulation, and can increase the difficulty of obtaining a solution, especially when explicitly considering coupled oxygen transport and consumption. The models of contaminant building entry pathway are often coupled to calculations of indoor air contaminant concentration, and both are influenced by building construction and operational features. The description of entry pathway involves consideration of building foundation characteristics, while calculation of indoor air contaminant levels requires characterization of building enclosed space and air exchange within this. This review summarizes existing VI models, and discusses the limits of current screening tools commonly used in this field. PMID:23360069

  11. Spatially explicit modeling in ecology: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Yurek, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    The use of spatially explicit models (SEMs) in ecology has grown enormously in the past two decades. One major advancement has been that fine-scale details of landscapes, and of spatially dependent biological processes, such as dispersal and invasion, can now be simulated with great precision, due to improvements in computer technology. Many areas of modeling have shifted toward a focus on capturing these fine-scale details, to improve mechanistic understanding of ecosystems. However, spatially implicit models (SIMs) have played a dominant role in ecology, and arguments have been made that SIMs, which account for the effects of space without specifying spatial positions, have an advantage of being simpler and more broadly applicable, perhaps contributing more to understanding. We address this debate by comparing SEMs and SIMs in examples from the past few decades of modeling research. We argue that, although SIMs have been the dominant approach in the incorporation of space in theoretical ecology, SEMs have unique advantages for addressing pragmatic questions concerning species populations or communities in specific places, because local conditions, such as spatial heterogeneities, organism behaviors, and other contingencies, produce dynamics and patterns that usually cannot be incorporated into simpler SIMs. SEMs are also able to describe mechanisms at the local scale that can create amplifying positive feedbacks at that scale, creating emergent patterns at larger scales, and therefore are important to basic ecological theory. We review the use of SEMs at the level of populations, interacting populations, food webs, and ecosystems and argue that SEMs are not only essential in pragmatic issues, but must play a role in the understanding of causal relationships on landscapes.

  12. Latent variable modeling and its implications for institutional review board review: variables that delay the reviewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Dong-Sheng; Wu, Yi-Chang; Hsu, Jane-Yi

    2015-08-27

    To investigate the factors related to approval after review by an Institutional Review Board (IRB), the structure equation model was used to analyze the latent variables 'investigators', 'vulnerability' and 'review process' for 221 proposals submitted to our IRB. The vulnerability factor included vulnerable cases, and studies that involved drug tests and genetic analyses. The principal investigator (PI) factor included the license level of the PI and whether they belonged to our institution. The review factor included administration time, total review time, and revision frequency. The revision frequency and total review time influenced the efficiency of review. The latent variable of reviewing was the most important factor mediating the PIs and vulnerability to IRB review approval. The local PIs moderated with genetic study and revision frequency had an impact on the review process and mediated non-approval. Better guidance of the investigators and reviewers might improve the efficiency with which IRBs function.

  13. Selective experimental review of the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-02-01

    Before disussing experimental comparisons with the Standard Model, (S-M) it is probably wise to define more completely what is commonly meant by this popular term. This model is a gauge theory of SU(3)/sub f/ x SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) with 18 parameters. The parameters are α/sub s/, α/sub qed/, theta/sub W/, M/sub W/ (M/sub Z/ = M/sub W//cos theta/sub W/, and thus is not an independent parameter), M/sub Higgs/; the lepton masses, M/sub e/, Mμ, M/sub r/; the quark masses, M/sub d/, M/sub s/, M/sub b/, and M/sub u/, M/sub c/, M/sub t/; and finally, the quark mixing angles, theta 1 , theta 2 , theta 3 , and the CP violating phase delta. The latter four parameters appear in the quark mixing matrix for the Kobayashi-Maskawa and Maiani forms. Clearly, the present S-M covers an enormous range of physics topics, and the author can only lightly cover a few such topics in this report. The measurement of R/sub hadron/ is fundamental as a test of the running coupling constant α/sub s/ in QCD. The author will discuss a selection of recent precision measurements of R/sub hadron/, as well as some other techniques for measuring α/sub s/. QCD also requires the self interaction of gluons. The search for the three gluon vertex may be practically realized in the clear identification of gluonic mesons. The author will present a limited review of recent progress in the attempt to untangle such mesons from the plethora q anti q states of the same quantum numbers which exist in the same mass range. The electroweak interactions provide some of the strongest evidence supporting the S-M that exists. Given the recent progress in this subfield, and particularly with the discovery of the W and Z bosons at CERN, many recent reviews obviate the need for further discussion in this report. In attempting to validate a theory, one frequently searches for new phenomena which would clearly invalidate it. 49 references, 28 figures

  14. Wound healing in animal models: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jaffary

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing and reduction of its recovery time is one of the most important issues in medicine. Wound is defined as disruption of anatomy and function of normal skin. This injury could be the result of physical elements such as  surgical incision, hit or pressure cut of the skin and gunshot wound. Chemical or caustic burn is another category of wound causes that can be induced by acid or base contact irritation. Healing is a process of cellular and extracellular matrix interactions that occur in the damaged tissue. Wound healing consists of several stages including hemostasis, inflammatory phase, proliferative phase and new tissue formation which reconstructs by new collagen formation. Wounds are divided into acute and chronic types based on their healing time. Acute wounds have sudden onset and in normal individuals usually have healing process of less than 4 weeks without any residual side effects. In contrast, chronic wounds have gradual onset. Their inflammatory phase is prolonged and the healing process is stopped due to some background factors like diabetes, ischemia or local pressure. If the healing process lasts more than 4 weeks it will be classified as chronic wound. Despite major advances in the treatment of wounds, still finding effective modalities for healing wounds in the shortest possible time with the fewest side effects is a current challenge. In this review different phases of wound healing and clinical types of wound such as venous leg ulcer, diabetic foot ulcer and pressure ulcer are discussed. Also acute wound models (i.e burn wounds or incisional wound and chronic wound models (such as venous leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcer, pressure ulcers or bedsore in laboratory animals are presented. This summary can be considered as a preliminary step to facilitate designing of more targeted and applied research in this area.

  15. Simulation Modelling in Healthcare: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Literature Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Syed; Thokala, Praveen; Brennan, Alan; Hughes, Ruby; Booth, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies examine simulation modelling in healthcare. These studies present a bewildering array of simulation techniques and applications, making it challenging to characterise the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the level of activity of simulation modelling in healthcare and the key themes. We performed an umbrella review of systematic literature reviews of simulation modelling in healthcare. Searches were conducted of academic databases (JSTOR, Scopus, PubMed, IEEE, SAGE, ACM, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect) and grey literature sources, enhanced by citation searches. The articles were included if they performed a systematic review of simulation modelling techniques in healthcare. After quality assessment of all included articles, data were extracted on numbers of studies included in each review, types of applications, techniques used for simulation modelling, data sources and simulation software. The search strategy yielded a total of 117 potential articles. Following sifting, 37 heterogeneous reviews were included. Most reviews achieved moderate quality rating on a modified AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool used to Assess systematic Reviews) checklist. All the review articles described the types of applications used for simulation modelling; 15 reviews described techniques used for simulation modelling; three reviews described data sources used for simulation modelling; and six reviews described software used for simulation modelling. The remaining reviews either did not report or did not provide enough detail for the data to be extracted. Simulation modelling techniques have been used for a wide range of applications in healthcare, with a variety of software tools and data sources. The number of reviews published in recent years suggest an increased interest in simulation modelling in healthcare.

  16. Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    waste LCA models. This review infers that some of the differences in waste LCA models are inherent to the time they were developed. It is expected that models developed later, benefit from past modelling assumptions and knowledge and issues. Models developed in different countries furthermore rely...

  17. Adolescent Psychosocial Development: A Review of Longitudinal Models and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This review used 4 types of longitudinal models (descriptive models, prediction models, developmental sequence models and longitudinal mediation models) to identify regular patterns of psychosocial development in adolescence. Eight patterns of adolescent development were observed across countries: (1) adolescent maturation in multiple…

  18. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM): Performance Review and Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a widely used tool for urban drainage design and planning. Hundreds of peer-reviewed articles and conference proceedings have been written describing applications of SWMM. This review focused on collecting information on model performanc...

  19. Tourism Demand Modelling and Forecasting: A Review of Recent Research

    OpenAIRE

    Song, H; Li, G

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the published studies on tourism demand modelling and forecasting since 2000. One of the key findings of this review is that the methods used in analysing and forecasting the demand for tourism have been more diverse than those identified by other review articles. In addition to the most popular time-series and econometric models, a number of new techniques have emerged in the literature. However, as far as the forecasting accuracy is concerned, the study shows that there i...

  20. K. Sridhar Moorthy's Theoretical Modelling in Marketing - A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    cases. However, among the marketing models so often cited is. Moorthy‟s Theoretical Modelling in Marketing. This model is important, and hence this review once more, in that it offers a starting point, and in some cases the finishing line, for those who want to tread the pedestrian of modelling in marketing. But this is not the ...

  1. Review of Arc Models in Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incipient fault in underground cable is recognized as arc fault. Then the arc model selection is very important for the incipient fault detection. The arc features and some typical models have been introduced in detail, including traditional thermal based models, arc models in low voltage and models of arc in long free air. At last, the Kizilcay’s model is recommended to analyze the incipient fault in underground cable for its accuracy and widely utilized. Finally, some conclusions are summarized.

  2. [Forest carbon cycle model: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    2009-06-01

    Forest carbon cycle is one of the important items in the research of terrestrial carbon cycle, while carbon cycle model is an important means in studying the carbon cycle mechanisms of forest ecosystem and in estimating carbon fluxes. Based on the sum-up of main carbon cycle models, this paper classified the forest carbon cycle models into two categories, i.e., patch scale forest carbon cycle models and regional scale terrestrial carbon cycle models, with their features commented. The future development trend in the research of forest carbon cycle models in China was discussed.

  3. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  4. An OAI repository centric peer-review model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Pre-print repositories have seen a significant increase in use over the past fifteen years across multiple research domains. Researchers are beginning to develop applications capable of using these repositories to assist the scientific community above and beyond the pure dissemination of information. The contributions set forth by this paper emphasize a deconstructed publication model where in which the peer-review certification phase of a pre-print is mediated by an OAI-compliant peer-review service. This peer-review service uses a social-network algorithm for determining potential reviewers for a submitted manuscript and for weighting the influence of each participating reviewer’s evaluations. The paper also provides a set of peer-review specific metadata tags that can accompany a pre-prints existing metadata record. The combinations of these contributions provide a unique repository-centric peer-review model within the framework of the current OAI standards existing today.

  5. A review of dynamics modelling of friction wedge suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Sun, Yan Quan

    2014-11-01

    Three-piece bogies with friction wedge suspensions are the most widely used bogies in heavy haul trains. Fiction wedge suspensions play a key role in these wagon systems. This article reviews current techniques in dynamic modelling of friction wedge suspension with various motivations: to improve dynamic models of friction wedge suspensions so as to improve general wagon dynamics simulations; to seek better friction wedge suspension models for wagon stability assessments in complex train systems; to improve the modelling of other friction devices, such as friction draft gear. Relevant theories and friction wedge suspension models developed by using commercial simulation packages and in-house simulation packages are reviewed.

  6. Review of health effects models for Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seok Jung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Many international organizations have developed health risk models. Especially, as radiation-induced cancer is an important part among health effects, development has been focused on cancer risk model. This paper reviewed the cancer risk models of international agencies; United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Moreover, as pre-research for improving the health risk model in Korea, this paper analyzed the three methodologies and specific details in modeling. International agencies have developed radiation-induced cancer risk model reflecting the recent A-bomb survivor LSS data. This paper reviewed the recent cancer risk model of UNSCEAR, NAS and ICRP. All three models were based on ERR and EAR model in the form of a multiplication of dose-response model and modification function. Lifetime risk was calculated as a function of exposure age and gender.

  7. Critical review of glass performance modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-07-01

    Borosilicate glass is to be used for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. Mechanistic chemical models are used to predict the rate at which radionuclides will be released from the glass under repository conditions. The most successful and useful of these models link reaction path geochemical modeling programs with a glass dissolution rate law that is consistent with transition state theory. These models have been used to simulate several types of short-term laboratory tests of glass dissolution and to predict the long-term performance of the glass in a repository. Although mechanistically based, the current models are limited by a lack of unambiguous experimental support for some of their assumptions. The most severe problem of this type is the lack of an existing validated mechanism that controls long-term glass dissolution rates. Current models can be improved by performing carefully designed experiments and using the experimental results to validate the rate-controlling mechanisms implicit in the models. These models should be supported with long-term experiments to be used for model validation. The mechanistic basis of the models should be explored by using modern molecular simulations such as molecular orbital and molecular dynamics to investigate both the glass structure and its dissolution process

  8. Critical review of glass performance modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Borosilicate glass is to be used for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. Mechanistic chemical models are used to predict the rate at which radionuclides will be released from the glass under repository conditions. The most successful and useful of these models link reaction path geochemical modeling programs with a glass dissolution rate law that is consistent with transition state theory. These models have been used to simulate several types of short-term laboratory tests of glass dissolution and to predict the long-term performance of the glass in a repository. Although mechanistically based, the current models are limited by a lack of unambiguous experimental support for some of their assumptions. The most severe problem of this type is the lack of an existing validated mechanism that controls long-term glass dissolution rates. Current models can be improved by performing carefully designed experiments and using the experimental results to validate the rate-controlling mechanisms implicit in the models. These models should be supported with long-term experiments to be used for model validation. The mechanistic basis of the models should be explored by using modern molecular simulations such as molecular orbital and molecular dynamics to investigate both the glass structure and its dissolution process.

  9. REVIEW ON MODELING AND CONTROLLER DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh, S.; Rahmat, M. F.; Othman, S. M.; Danapalasingam, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on modeling and previous control strategies of the hydraulic actuator system proposed by most of the researchers around the world. Before comes to the main discussion, some background information related to hydraulic actuator will be presented. This review includes a short summary and conclusion for hydraulic actuator system. The repercussion of this review is for future inventions of a better and robust hydraulic actuator system.

  10. A narrative review of research impact assessment models and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Redman, Sally

    2015-03-18

    Research funding agencies continue to grapple with assessing research impact. Theoretical frameworks are useful tools for describing and understanding research impact. The purpose of this narrative literature review was to synthesize evidence that describes processes and conceptual models for assessing policy and practice impacts of public health research. The review involved keyword searches of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EBM Reviews, and Google Scholar in July/August 2013. Review search terms included 'research impact', 'policy and practice', 'intervention research', 'translational research', 'health promotion', and 'public health'. The review included theoretical and opinion pieces, case studies, descriptive studies, frameworks and systematic reviews describing processes, and conceptual models for assessing research impact. The review was conducted in two phases: initially, abstracts were retrieved and assessed against the review criteria followed by the retrieval and assessment of full papers against review criteria. Thirty one primary studies and one systematic review met the review criteria, with 88% of studies published since 2006. Studies comprised assessments of the impacts of a wide range of health-related research, including basic and biomedical research, clinical trials, health service research, as well as public health research. Six studies had an explicit focus on assessing impacts of health promotion or public health research and one had a specific focus on intervention research impact assessment. A total of 16 different impact assessment models were identified, with the 'payback model' the most frequently used conceptual framework. Typically, impacts were assessed across multiple dimensions using mixed methodologies, including publication and citation analysis, interviews with principal investigators, peer assessment, case studies, and document analysis. The vast majority of studies relied on principal investigator

  11. Review of air quality modeling techniques. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Air transport and diffusion models which are applicable to the assessment of the environmental effects of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation are reviewed. The general classification of models and model inputs are discussed. A detailed examination of the statistical, Gaussian plume, Gaussian puff, one-box and species-conservation-of-mass models is given. Representative models are discussed with attention given to the assumptions, input data requirement, advantages, disadvantages and applicability of each

  12. Simulation models in population breast cancer screening : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva-Kolarova, Rositsa G; Zhan, Zhuozhao; Greuter, Marcel J W; Feenstra, Talitha L; De Bock, Geertruida H

    The aim of this review was to critically evaluate published simulation models for breast cancer screening of the general population and provide a direction for future modeling. A systematic literature search was performed to identify simulation models with more than one application. A framework for

  13. Matrix models of RNA folding with external interactions: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The matrix model of (simplified) RNA folding with an external linear interaction in the action of the partition function is reviewed. The important results for structure combinatorics of the model are discussed and analysed in terms of the already existing models.

  14. Implementing a Four-Phase Curriculum Review Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCursia, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to implement the four-phase curriculum review model, a simplified process for renovating a high school health and physical education curriculum. Although this model was used at a large suburban high school, it could be adapted for use by smaller schools or other disciplines. The four phases of this model are: (1) needs…

  15. Chronic pain: Model of psychosomatic disorder (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernus N.P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a detailed review on epidemiology, pathogenesis and interrelation of serotonin neuromedia-tor metabolism in the central nervous system in state of chronic pain and depression. It has been demonstrated that neurophysiological conditions serve as psychological defense of an individual. That mechanism has been proved to «transform» serious emotions onto the inner level (body and it assists in the development of psychosomatic disorders — chronic pain syndrome

  16. An unsupervised aspect detection model for sentiment analysis of reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, Ayoub; Saraee, M.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    With the rapid growth of user-generated content on the internet, sentiment analysis of online reviews has become a hot research topic recently, but due to variety and wide range of products and services, the supervised and domain-specific models are often not practical. As the number of reviews

  17. Review and comparison of bi-fluid interpenetration mixing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enaux, C.

    2006-01-01

    Today, there is a lot of bi-fluid models with two different speeds: Baer-Nunziato models; Godunov-Romensky models. coupled Euler's equations, and so on. In this report, one compares the most used models in the fields of physics and mathematics while basing this study on the literature. From the point of view of physics. for each model. one reviews: -) the type of mixture considered and modeling assumptions, -) the technique of construction, -) some properties like the respect of thermodynamical principles, the respect of the Galilean invariance principle, or the equilibrium conservation. From the point of view of mathematics, for each model, one looks at: -) the possibility of writing the equations in conservative form, -) hyperbolicity, -) the existence of a mathematical entropy. Finally, a unified review of the models is proposed. It is shown that under certain closing assumptions or for certain flow types. some of the models become equivalent. (author)

  18. Review on the Modeling of Electrostatic MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Wan-Chun; Lee, Hsin-Li; Chang, Pei-Zen; Hu, Yuh-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic-driven microelectromechanical systems devices, in most cases, consist of couplings of such energy domains as electromechanics, optical electricity, thermoelectricity, and electromagnetism. Their nonlinear working state makes their analysis complex and complicated. This article introduces the physical model of pull-in voltage, dynamic characteristic analysis, air damping effect, reliability, numerical modeling method, and application of electrostatic-driven MEMS devices. PMID:22219707

  19. REVIEW OF WIRELESS MIMO CHANNEL MODELS | Anioke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to increase spectral efficiency has led to the design of multiple antenna systems for both transmit and receive sides otherwise known as MIMO. Channel modeling forms an integral part of this design. Therefore it is very important to investigate and understand existing MIMO channel models. This paper provides a ...

  20. REVIEW OF WIRELESS MIMO CHANNEL MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The need to increase spectral efficiency has led to the design of multiple antenna systems for both transmit and receive sides otherwise known as MIMO. Channel modeling forms an integral part of this design. Therefore it is very important to investigate and understand existing MIMO channel models. This paper provides a ...

  1. K. Sridhar Moorthy's Theoretical Modelling in Marketing - A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    /afrrev.v8i1.15. K. Sridhar Moorthy's Theoretical Modelling in. Marketing - A Review. Okoye, Ikechukwu-Maria Nnamdi Hyacinth. Head, Micro Enterprise Development/Training. University of Nigeria Nsukka Centre for Entrepreneurship and.

  2. Review of Literature for Model Assisted Probability of Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crawford, Susan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lareau, John P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client documenting a literature review of model assisted probability of detection (MAPOD) for potential application to nuclear power plant components for improvement of field NDE performance estimations.

  3. Literature review of models on tire-pavement interaction noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tan; Burdisso, Ricardo; Sandu, Corina

    2018-04-01

    Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) becomes dominant at speeds above 40 km/h for passenger vehicles and 70 km/h for trucks. Several models have been developed to describe and predict the TPIN. However, these models do not fully reveal the physical mechanisms or predict TPIN accurately. It is well known that all the models have both strengths and weaknesses, and different models fit different investigation purposes or conditions. The numerous papers that present these models are widely scattered among thousands of journals, and it is difficult to get the complete picture of the status of research in this area. This review article aims at presenting the history and current state of TPIN models systematically, making it easier to identify and distribute the key knowledge and opinions, and providing insight into the future research trend in this field. In this work, over 2000 references related to TPIN were collected, and 74 models were reviewed from nearly 200 selected references; these were categorized into deterministic models (37), statistical models (18), and hybrid models (19). The sections explaining the models are self-contained with key principles, equations, and illustrations included. The deterministic models were divided into three sub-categories: conventional physics models, finite element and boundary element models, and computational fluid dynamics models; the statistical models were divided into three sub-categories: traditional regression models, principal component analysis models, and fuzzy curve-fitting models; the hybrid models were divided into three sub-categories: tire-pavement interface models, mechanism separation models, and noise propagation models. At the end of each category of models, a summary table is presented to compare these models with the key information extracted. Readers may refer to these tables to find models of their interest. The strengths and weaknesses of the models in different categories were then analyzed. Finally

  4. Comparison of Spatiotemporal Fusion Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously capturing spatial and temporal dynamics is always a challenge for the remote sensing community. Spatiotemporal fusion has gained wide interest in various applications for its superiority in integrating both fine spatial resolution and frequent temporal coverage. Though many advances have been made in spatiotemporal fusion model development and applications in the past decade, a unified comparison among existing fusion models is still limited. In this research, we classify the models into three categories: transformation-based, reconstruction-based, and learning-based models. The objective of this study is to (i compare four fusion models (STARFM, ESTARFM, ISTAFM, and SPSTFM under a one Landsat-MODIS (L-M pair prediction mode and two L-M pair prediction mode using time-series datasets from the Coleambally irrigation area and Poyang Lake wetland; (ii quantitatively assess prediction accuracy considering spatiotemporal comparability, landscape heterogeneity, and model parameter selection; and (iii discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the three categories of spatiotemporal fusion models.

  5. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been further enhanced in recent years and special attention has been paid to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing interest in biomass gasification, several models have been proposed in order to explain and understand this complex process......, and the design, simulation, optimisation and process analysis of gasifiers have been carried out. This paper presents and analyses several gasification models based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural networks. The thermodynamic models are found to be a useful tool for preliminary...

  6. Systematic reviews of animal models: methodology versus epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions.

  7. A review of telemedicine business models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengnan; Cheng, Alice; Mehta, Khanjan

    2013-04-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance/virtual medical care and education, but many telemedicine ventures fail to grow beyond the initial pilot stage. Studying the business models of successful telemedicine ventures can help develop business strategies for upcoming ventures. This article describes business models of eight telemedicine ventures from different regions of the world using Osterwalder's "Business Model Canvas." The ventures are chosen on the basis of their apparent success and their diverse value chains. The business models are compared to draw inferences and lessons regarding their business strategy and contextual factors that influenced it. Key differences between telemedicine business practices in developing and developed countries are also discussed. The purpose of this article is to inform and inspire the business strategy of the next generation of telemedicine ventures to be economically sustainable and to successfully address local healthcare challenges.

  8. Review on the Modeling of Electrostatic MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chun Chuang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic-driven microelectromechanical systems devices, in most cases, consist of couplings of such energy domains as electromechanics, optical electricity, thermoelectricity, and electromagnetism. Their nonlinear working state makes their analysis complex and complicated. This article introduces the physical model of pull-in voltage, dynamic characteristic analysis, air damping effect, reliability, numerical modeling method, and application of electrostatic-driven MEMS devices.

  9. Aspect Βased Classification Model for Social Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspect based opinion mining investigates deeply, the emotions related to one’s aspects. Aspects and opinion word identification is the core task of aspect based opinion mining. In previous studies aspect based opinion mining have been applied on service or product domain. Moreover, product reviews are short and simple whereas, social reviews are long and complex. However, this study introduces an efficient model for social reviews which classifies aspects and opinion words related to social domain. The main contributions of this paper are auto tagging and data training phase, feature set definition and dictionary usage. Proposed model results are compared with CR model and Naïve Bayes classifier on same dataset having accuracy 98.17% and precision 96.01%, while recall and F1 are 96.00% and 96.01% respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed model performs better than the CR model and Naïve Bayes classifier.

  10. Review of experimental models: sinusitis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Coura Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In order to better understand the pathophysiology of rhinosinusitis, several attempts have been made to create the disease in an animal model. Among the studied rodents each has its advantages and disadvantages. Rabbits are considered more appropriate for studies that require surgical manipulation or invasive procedures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the most viable experimental model of rhinosinusitis in rabbits to be adopted in future studies. METHODS: An electronic search for studies with experimental models of rhinosinusitis in rabbits published in English and Portuguese between July of 1967 and January of 2013 was conducted in Medline, Pub Med, Cochrane, and CAPES databases, using the keywords "sinusitis", "rabbits", and "polyps". RESULTS: A total of 256 studies were retrieved, but in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were selected. Many different methods of response assessment were used in these studies. CONCLUSION: To date, there is no ideal experimental model for induction of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis in rabbits, but the rhinogenic model appears to be the most viable option for the continuity of studies of the disease.

  11. [Review of experimental models: sinusitis in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, André Coura; Buzatto, Guilherme Pietrucci; Dantas, Ivan de Picole; Dorgam, João Vicente; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Tamashiro, Edwin; Lima, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the pathophysiology of rhinosinusitis, several attempts have been made to create the disease in an animal model. Among the studied rodents each has its advantages and disadvantages. Rabbits are considered more appropriate for studies that require surgical manipulation or invasive procedures. To evaluate the most viable experimental model of rhinosinusitis in rabbits to be adopted in future studies. An electronic search for studies with experimental models of rhinosinusitis in rabbits published in English and Portuguese between July of 1967 and January of 2013 was conducted in Medline, Pub Med, Cochrane, and CAPES databases, using the keywords "sinusitis", "rabbits", and "polyps". A total of 256 studies were retrieved, but in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were selected. Many different methods of response assessment were used in these studies. To date, there is no ideal experimental model for induction of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis in rabbits, but the rhinogenic model appears to be the most viable option for the continuity of studies of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. REVIEW: Going beyond the LIBOR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Alireza

    2004-06-01

    Having a mostly equity derivatives background, I was concerned that I would find this book too complex. I therefore started reading it with misgiving. However, the first thing Rebonato does is to give a concise yet thorough history of the evolution of interest-rate derivatives. Starting with the famous Black model, one assumes that either the forward rate or the swap rate (fixed rate) is log-normal. Using the forward rate would allow us to deal with the `pull to par' phenomenon: the fact that the price of a bond must be par at its maturity. Note that, as Rebonato points out, some were even ignoring this phenomenon and using the Black - Scholes pricing formula. The justification was that in their cases, the bond maturity was far beyond the option maturity. This model has been, and still is, popular due to its simplicity and the fact that it allows us to price many vanilla instruments (caps and swaptions) exactly. However, as Rebonato keeps telling us, this exact replication is deceiving. Indeed they take place under different probability measures and, therefore, the replications are inconsistent with one another. This means that if you were to price an exotic derivative with multiple call dates or exercise dates, you would not have one internally plausible framework to do so. Then came the short-rate models such as the Vasicek model or the Cox, Ingersoll and Ross (CIR) model. They treated the instantaneous short interest rate as the driving force of the term structure. This short rate therefore followed a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of its own which was mean reverting. However, these models did not guarantee matching of the market. An extension to these models, mainly by Hull and White on the one hand and Jamshidian on the other hand, was the following: make the drift term a time-dependent deterministic function that we would resolve in order to match various vanilla prices. But once again, the same issue raises its ugly head. If we are pricing non

  13. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  14. Book Review Owen's Intentionality Model in Integrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talk, Action, Belief: How the Intentionality Model Combines Attachment-Oriented Psychodynamic Therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. New York: iUniverse Inc. Paperback (435 pages). ISBN : 978-1-4401-0538-8. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, May 2010, Volume 10, Edition 1 ...

  15. [Model-based biofuels system analysis: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhang, Xiliang; Zhao, Lili; Ou, Xunmin

    2011-03-01

    Model-based system analysis is an important tool for evaluating the potential and impacts of biofuels, and for drafting biofuels technology roadmaps and targets. The broad reach of the biofuels supply chain requires that biofuels system analyses span a range of disciplines, including agriculture/forestry, energy, economics, and the environment. Here we reviewed various models developed for or applied to modeling biofuels, and presented a critical analysis of Agriculture/Forestry System Models, Energy System Models, Integrated Assessment Models, Micro-level Cost, Energy and Emission Calculation Models, and Specific Macro-level Biofuel Models. We focused on the models' strengths, weaknesses, and applicability, facilitating the selection of a suitable type of model for specific issues. Such an analysis was a prerequisite for future biofuels system modeling, and represented a valuable resource for researchers and policy makers.

  16. Reviewing model application to support animal health decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alexander; Salman, Mo; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Animal health is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animal health. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animal health decisions. We reviewed the 35 animal health related scientific opinions adopted by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Models of care in tele-ophthalmology: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Liam J; Taylor, Monica; Gole, Glen; Smith, Anthony C

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this review was to identify and describe telehealth models of care for ophthalmic services. We conducted a scoping review of the literature to identify how ophthalmic care can be delivered by telehealth. We searched the PubMed database to identify relevant articles which were screened based on pre-defined inclusion criteria. For included articles, data were extracted, categorised and analysed. Synthesis of findings was performed narratively. The scoping review included 78 articles describing 62 discrete tele-ophthalmic models of care. Tele-ophthalmic models of care can be used for consultative service, screening, triage and remote supervision. The majority of services were for general eye care and triage ( n = 17; 26%) or emergency services ( n = 8; 12%). The most common conditions for disease-specific models of care were diabetic retinopathy ( n = 14; 21%), and glaucoma ( n = 8; 12%). Most models of care involved local clinicians capturing images and transmitting them to an ophthalmologist for assessment. This scoping review demonstrated tele-ophthalmology to be feasible for consultation, screening, triage and remote supervision applications across a broad range of ophthalmic conditions. A large number of models of care have been identified and described in this review. Considerable collaboration between patient-end clinicians and substantial infrastructure is typically required for tele-ophthalmology.

  18. Organizational Frustration: A Model and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Paul E.

    1978-01-01

    This discussion is divided into four parts: (1) the definition of frustration; (2) general behavioral reactions to frustration which have implications for organizations; (3) integration of the individual behavioral reactions into a model of organizational frustration; and (4) a review of the supporting evidence for the model. (Author)

  19. A review of thermoelectric cooling: Materials, modeling and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Tan, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the recent advances of thermoelectric materials, modeling approaches, and applications. Thermoelectric cooling systems have advantages over conventional cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no working fluid, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. In this study, historical development of thermoelectric cooling has been briefly introduced first. Next, the development of thermoelectric materials has been given and the achievements in past decade have been summarized. To improve thermoelectric cooling system's performance, the modeling techniques have been described for both the thermoelement modeling and thermoelectric cooler (TEC) modeling including standard simplified energy equilibrium model, one-dimensional and three-dimensional models, and numerical compact model. Finally, the thermoelectric cooling applications have been reviewed in aspects of domestic refrigeration, electronic cooling, scientific application, and automobile air conditioning and seat temperature control, with summaries for the commercially available thermoelectric modules and thermoelectric refrigerators. It is expected that this study will be beneficial to thermoelectric cooling system design, simulation, and analysis. - Highlights: •Thermoelectric cooling has great prospects with thermoelectric material's advances. •Modeling techniques for both thermoelement and TEC have been reviewed. •Principle thermoelectric cooling applications have been reviewed and summarized

  20. Models as instruments for optimizing hospital processes: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sambeek, J. R. C.; Cornelissen, F. A.; Bakker, P. J. M.; Krabbendam, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to find decision-making models for the design and control of processes regarding patient flows, considering various problem types, and to find out how usable these models are for managerial decision making. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A systematic review of

  1. A review on modeling, identification and servo control of robotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Robotic excavator is a hydraulic actuated 4 DOF manipulator mounted on a mobile chassis which implements automatic excavations. This article reviews modeling, identification, and low level control of the robotic excavator. First, modeling of the nonlinear hydraulic dynamics, coupling manipulator dynamics, and soil-tool ...

  2. A review of organizational buyer behaviour models and theories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years, models have been developed, and theories propounded, to explain the behavior of industrial buyers on the one hand and the nature of the dyadic relationship between organizational buyers and sellers on the other hand. This paper is an attempt at a review of the major models and theories in extant ...

  3. The Integrated Medical Model: Outcomes from Independent Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J.; Garcia, Y.; Griffin, D.; Arellano, J.; Boley, L.; Goodenow, D. A.; Kerstman, E.; Reyes, D.; Saile, L.; Walton, M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) v4.0 underwent an extensive external review in preparation for transition to an operational status. In order to insure impartiality of the review process, the Exploration Medical Capabilities Element of NASA's Human Research Program convened the review through the Systems Review Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The review board convened by GSFC consisted of persons from both NASA and academia with expertise in the fields of statistics, epidemiology, modeling, software development, aerospace medicine, and project management (see Figure 1). The board reviewed software and code standards, as well as evidence pedigree associated with both the input and outcomes information. The board also assesses the models verification, validation, sensitivity to parameters and ability to answer operational questions. This talk will discuss the processes for designing the review, how the review progressed and the findings from the board, as well as summarize the IMM project responses to those findings. Overall, the board found that the IMM is scientifically sound, represents a necessary, comprehensive approach to identifying medical and environmental risks facing astronauts in long duration missions and is an excellent tool for communication between engineers and physicians. The board also found IMM and its customer(s) should convene an additional review of the IMM data sources and to develop a sustainable approach to augment, peer review, and maintain the information utilized in the IMM. The board found this is critically important because medical knowledge continues to evolve. Delivery of IMM v4.0 to the Crew Health and Safety (CHS) Program will occur in the 2017. Once delivered for operational decision support, IMM v4.0 will provide CHS with additional quantitative capability in to assess astronaut medical risks and required medical capabilities to help drive down overall mission risks.

  4. Literature Review on Modeling Cyber Networks and Evaluating Cyber Risks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelic, Andjelka; Campbell, Philip L

    2018-04-01

    The National Infrastructure Simulations and Analysis Center (NISAC) conducted a literature review on modeling cyber networks and evaluating cyber risks. The literature review explores where modeling is used in the cyber regime and ways that consequence and risk are evaluated. The relevant literature clusters in three different spaces: network security, cyber-physical, and mission assurance. In all approaches, some form of modeling is utilized at varying levels of detail, while the ability to understand consequence varies, as do interpretations of risk. This document summarizes the different literature viewpoints and explores their applicability to securing enterprise networks.

  5. A review of hydrological/water-quality models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang GAO,Daoliang LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality models are important in predicting the changes in surface water quality for environmental management. A range of water quality models are wildly used, but every model has its advantages and limitations for specific situations. The aim of this review is to provide a guide to researcher for selecting a suitable water quality model. Eight well known water quality models were selected for this review: SWAT, WASP, QUALs, MIKE 11, HSPF, CE-QUAL-W2, ELCOM-CAEDYM and EFDC. Each model is described according to its intended use, development, simulation elements, basic principles and applicability (e.g., for rivers, lakes, and reservoirs and estuaries. Currently, the most important trends for future model development are: (1 combination models─individual models cannot completely solve the complex situations so combined models are needed to obtain the most appropriate results, (2 application of artificial intelligence and mechanistic models combined with non-mechanistic models will provide more accurate results because of the realistic parameters derived from non-mechanistic models, and (3 integration with remote sensing, geographical information and global position systems (3S ─3S can solve problems requiring large amounts of data.

  6. The Revised Hierarchical Model: A critical review and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, Judith F.; van Hell, Janet G.; Tokowicz, Natasha; Green, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Brysbaert and Duyck (2009) suggest that it is time to abandon the Revised Hierarchical Model (Kroll and Stewart, 1994) in favor of connectionist models such as BIA+ (Dijkstra and Van Heuven, 2002) that more accurately account for the recent evidence on nonselective access in bilingual word recognition. In this brief response, we first review the history of the Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM), consider the set of issues that it was proposed to address, and then evaluate the evidence that supp...

  7. A review of models relevant to road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B P; Newstead, S; Anund, A; Shu, C C; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries' road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into 'Safe Systems' models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or 'models' of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phosphate Kinetic Models in Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Sisse H; Vestergaard, Peter; Hejlesen, Ole K

    2018-01-01

    Understanding phosphate kinetics in dialysis patients is important for the prevention of hyperphosphatemia and related complications. One approach to gain new insights into phosphate behavior is physiologic modeling. Various models that describe and quantify intra- and/or interdialytic phosphate kinetics have been proposed, but there is a dearth of comprehensive comparisons of the available models. The objective of this analysis was to provide a systematic review of existing published models of phosphate metabolism in the setting of maintenance hemodialysis therapy. Systematic review. Hemodialysis patients. Studies published in peer-reviewed journals in English about phosphate kinetic modeling in the setting of hemodialysis therapy. Modeling equations from specific reviewed studies. Changes in plasma phosphate or serum phosphate concentrations. Of 1,964 nonduplicate studies evaluated, 11 were included, comprising 9 different phosphate models with 1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-compartment assumptions. Between 2 and 11 model parameters were included in the models studied. Quality scores of the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale ranged from 2 to 11 (scale, 0-14). 2 studies were considered low quality, 6 were considered medium quality, and 3 were considered high quality. Only English-language studies were included. Many parameters known to influence phosphate balance are not included in existing phosphate models that do not fully reflect the physiology of phosphate metabolism in the setting of hemodialysis. Moreover, models have not been sufficiently validated for their use as a tool to simulate phosphate kinetics in hemodialysis therapy. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulation Models for Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Speybroeck

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence and evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in health involves multiple factors interacting with each other at different levels. Simulation models are suitable for studying such complex and dynamic systems and have the ability to test the impact of policy interventions in silico. Objective: To explore how simulation models were used in the field of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Methods: An electronic search of studies assessing socioeconomic inequalities in health using a simulation model was conducted. Characteristics of the simulation models were extracted and distinct simulation approaches were identified. As an illustration, a simple agent-based model of the emergence of socioeconomic differences in alcohol abuse was developed. Results: We found 61 studies published between 1989 and 2013. Ten different simulation approaches were identified. The agent-based model illustration showed that multilevel, reciprocal and indirect effects of social determinants on health can be modeled flexibly. Discussion and Conclusions: Based on the review, we discuss the utility of using simulation models for studying health inequalities, and refer to good modeling practices for developing such models. The review and the simulation model example suggest that the use of simulation models may enhance the understanding and debate about existing and new socioeconomic inequalities of health frameworks.

  10. A review of design and modeling of magnetorheological valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Fatah, Abdul Yasser; Mazlan, Saiful Amri; Koga, Tsuyoshi; Zamzuri, Hairi; Zeinali, Mohammadjavad; Imaduddin, Fitrian

    2015-01-01

    Following recent rapid development of researches in utilizing Magnetorheological (MR) fluid, a smart material that can be magnetically controlled to change its apparent viscosity instantaneously, a lot of applications have been established to exploit the benefits and advantages of using the MR fluid. One of the most important applications for MR fluid in devices is the MR valve, where it uses the popular flow or valve mode among the available working modes for MR fluid. As such, MR valve is widely applied in a lot of hydraulic actuation and vibration reduction devices, among them are dampers, actuators and shock absorbers. This paper presents a review on MR valve, discusses on several design configurations and the mathematical modeling for the MR valve. Therefore, this review paper classifies the MR valve based on the coil configuration and geometrical arrangement of the valve, and focusing on four different mathematical models for MR valve: Bingham plastic, Herschel-Bulkley, bi-viscous and Herschel-Bulkley with pre-yield viscosity (HBPV) models for calculating yield stress and pressure drop in the MR valve. Design challenges and opportunities for application of MR fluid and MR valve are also highlighted in this review. Hopefully, this review paper can provide basic knowledge on design and modeling of MR valve, complementing other reviews on MR fluid, its applications and technologies.

  11. Mathematical models of ABE fermentation: review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayank, Rahul; Ranjan, Amrita; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2013-12-01

    Among different liquid biofuels that have emerged in the recent past, biobutanol produced via fermentation processes is of special interest due to very similar properties to that of gasoline. For an effective design, scale-up, and optimization of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process, it is necessary to have insight into the micro- and macro-mechanisms of the process. The mathematical models for ABE fermentation are efficient tools for this purpose, which have evolved from simple stoichiometric fermentation equations in the 1980s to the recent sophisticated and elaborate kinetic models based on metabolic pathways. In this article, we have reviewed the literature published in the area of mathematical modeling of the ABE fermentation. We have tried to present an analysis of these models in terms of their potency in describing the overall physiology of the process, design features, mode of operation along with comparison and validation with experimental results. In addition, we have also highlighted important facets of these models such as metabolic pathways, basic kinetics of different metabolites, biomass growth, inhibition modeling and other additional features such as cell retention and immobilized cultures. Our review also covers the mathematical modeling of the downstream processing of ABE fermentation, i.e. recovery and purification of solvents through flash distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, and pervaporation. We believe that this review will be a useful source of information and analysis on mathematical models for ABE fermentation for both the appropriate scientific and engineering communities.

  12. Models as instruments for optimizing hospital processes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sambeek, J R C; Cornelissen, F A; Bakker, P J M; Krabbendam, J J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to find decision-making models for the design and control of processes regarding patient flows, considering various problem types, and to find out how usable these models are for managerial decision making. A systematic review of the literature was carried out. Relevant literature from three databases was selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and the results were analyzed. A total of 68 articles were selected. Of these, 31 contained computer simulation models, ten contained descriptive models, and 27 contained analytical models. The review showed that descriptive models are only applied to process design problems, and that analytical and computer simulation models are applied to all types of problems to approximately the same extent. Only a few models have been validated in practice, and it seems that most models are not used for their intended purpose: to support management in decision making. The comparability of the relevant databases appears to be limited and there is an insufficient number of suitable keywords and MeSH headings, which makes searching systematically within the broad field of health care management relatively hard to accomplish. The findings give managers insight into the characteristics of various types of decision-support models and into the kinds of situations in which they are used. This is the first time literature on various kinds of models for supporting managerial decision making in hospitals has been systematically collected and assessed.

  13. A comparative review of radiation-induced cancer risk models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seok Jung [Risk and Environmental Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    With the need for a domestic level 3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), it is essential to develop a Korea-specific code. Health effect assessments study radiation-induced impacts; in particular, long-term health effects are evaluated in terms of cancer risk. The objective of this study was to analyze the latest cancer risk models developed by foreign organizations and to compare the methodology of how they were developed. This paper also provides suggestions regarding the development of Korean cancer risk models. A review of cancer risk models was carried out targeting the latest models: the NUREG model (1993), the BEIR VII model (2006), the UNSCEAR model (2006), the ICRP 103 model (2007), and the U.S. EPA model (2011). The methodology of how each model was developed is explained, and the cancer sites, dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) and mathematical models are also described in the sections presenting differences among the models. The NUREG model was developed by assuming that the risk was proportional to the risk coefficient and dose, while the BEIR VII, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and U.S. EPA models were derived from epidemiological data, principally from Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The risk coefficient does not consider individual characteristics, as the values were calculated in terms of population-averaged cancer risk per unit dose. However, the models derived by epidemiological data are a function of sex, exposure age, and attained age of the exposed individual. Moreover, the methodologies can be used to apply the latest epidemiological data. Therefore, methodologies using epidemiological data should be considered first for developing a Korean cancer risk model, and the cancer sites and DDREF should also be determined based on Korea-specific studies. This review can be used as a basis for developing a Korean cancer risk model in the future.

  14. Formulation, construction and analysis of kinetic models of metabolism: A review of modelling frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saa, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2017-01-01

    Kinetic models are critical to predict the dynamic behaviour of metabolic networks. Mechanistic kinetic models for large networks remain uncommon due to the difficulty of fitting their parameters. Recent modelling frameworks promise new ways to overcome this obstacle while retaining predictive...... capabilities. In this review, we present an overview of the relevant mathematical frameworks for kinetic formulation, construction and analysis. Starting with kinetic formalisms, we next review statistical methods for parameter inference, as well as recent computational frameworks applied to the construction...

  15. Elements of effective palliative care models: a rapid review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tim; Phillips, Jane; Agar, Meera; Virdun, Claudia; Green, Anna; Davidson, Patricia M

    2014-03-26

    Population ageing, changes to the profiles of life-limiting illnesses and evolving societal attitudes prompt a critical evaluation of models of palliative care. We set out to identify evidence-based models of palliative care to inform policy reform in Australia. A rapid review of electronic databases and the grey literature was undertaken over an eight week period in April-June 2012. We included policy documents and comparative studies from countries within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published in English since 2001. Meta-analysis was planned where >1 study met criteria; otherwise, synthesis was narrative using methods described by Popay et al. (2006). Of 1,959 peer-reviewed articles, 23 reported systematic reviews, 9 additional RCTs and 34 non-randomised comparative studies. Variation in the content of models, contexts in which these were implemented and lack of detailed reporting meant that elements of models constituted a more meaningful unit of analysis than models themselves. Case management was the element most consistently reported in models for which comparative studies provided evidence for effectiveness. Essential attributes of population-based palliative care models identified by policy and addressed by more than one element were communication and coordination between providers (including primary care), skill enhancement, and capacity to respond rapidly to individuals' changing needs and preferences over time. Models of palliative care should integrate specialist expertise with primary and community care services and enable transitions across settings, including residential aged care. The increasing complexity of care needs, services, interventions and contextual drivers warrants future research aimed at elucidating the interactions between different components and the roles played by patient, provider and health system factors. The findings of this review are limited by its rapid methodology and focus on model

  16. Models of care in nursing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ritin; Johnson, Maree; Tran, Duong Thuy; Miranda, Charmaine

    2012-12-01

    This review investigated the effect of the various models of nursing care delivery using the diverse levels of nurses on patient and nursing outcomes. All published studies that investigated patient and nursing outcomes were considered. Studies were included if the nursing delivery models only included nurses with varying skill levels. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Medline (1985-2011), CINAHL (1985-2011), EMBASE (1985 to current) and the Cochrane Controlled Studies Register (Issue 3, 2011 of Cochrane Library). In addition, the reference lists of relevant studies and conference proceedings were also scrutinised. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility of the studies for inclusion in the review, the methodological quality and extracted details of eligible studies. Data were analysed using the RevMan software (Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Fourteen studies were included in this review. The results reveal that implementation of the team nursing model of care resulted in significantly decreased incidence of medication errors and adverse intravenous outcomes, as well as lower pain scores among patients; however, there was no effect of this model of care on the incidence of falls. Wards that used a hybrid model demonstrated significant improvement in quality of patient care, but no difference in incidence of pressure areas or infection rates. There were no significant differences in nursing outcomes relating to role clarity, job satisfaction and nurse absenteeism rates between any of the models of care. Based on the available evidence, a predominance of team nursing within the comparisons is suggestive of its popularity. Patient outcomes, nurse satisfaction, absenteeism and role clarity/confusion did not differ across model comparisons. Little benefit was found within primary nursing comparisons and the cost effectiveness of team nursing over other models remains debatable. Nonetheless, team nursing does

  17. A review of unmanned aircraft system ground risk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Achim; Clothier, Reece A.; Silva, Jose

    2017-11-01

    There is much effort being directed towards the development of safety regulations for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). National airworthiness authorities have advocated the adoption of a risk-based approach, whereby regulations are driven by the outcomes of a systematic process to assess and manage identified safety risks. Subsequently, models characterising the primary hazards associated with UAS operations have now become critical to the development of regulations and in turn, to the future of the industry. Key to the development of airworthiness regulations for UAS is a comprehensive understanding of the risks UAS operations pose to people and property on the ground. A comprehensive review of the literature identified 33 different models (and component sub models) used to estimate ground risk posed by UAS. These models comprise failure, impact location, recovery, stress, exposure, incident stress and harm sub-models. The underlying assumptions and treatment of uncertainties in each of these sub-models differ significantly between models, which can have a significant impact on the development of regulations. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in research into UAS ground risk modelling, discusses how the various sub-models relate to the different components of the regulation, and explores how model-uncertainties potentially impact the development of regulations for UAS.

  18. A review of mathematical models in economic environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahorski, Z.; Ravn, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a review of mathematical models used,in economic analysis of environmental problems. This area of research combines macroeconomic models of growth, as dependent on capital, labour, resources, etc., with environmental models describing such phenomena like natural resources...... exhaustion or pollution accumulation and degradation. In simpler cases the models can be treated analytically and the utility function can be optimized using, e.g., such tools as the maximum principle. In more complicated cases calculation of the optimal environmental policies requires a computer solution....

  19. Coronary heart disease policy models: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capewell Simon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD is complex. A variety of models have therefore been developed to try and explain past trends and predict future possibilities. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the strengths and limitations of existing CHD policy models. Methods A search strategy was developed, piloted and run in MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases, supplemented by manually searching reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Two reviewers independently checked the papers for inclusion and appraisal. All CHD modelling studies were included which addressed a defined population and reported on one or more key outcomes (deaths prevented, life years gained, mortality, incidence, prevalence, disability or cost of treatment. Results In total, 75 articles describing 42 models were included; 12 (29% of the 42 models were micro-simulation, 8 (19% cell-based, and 8 (19% life table analyses, while 14 (33% used other modelling methods. Outcomes most commonly reported were cost-effectiveness (36%, numbers of deaths prevented (33%, life-years gained (23% or CHD incidence (23%. Among the 42 models, 29 (69% included one or more risk factors for primary prevention, while 8 (19% just considered CHD treatments. Only 5 (12% were comprehensive, considering both risk factors and treatments. The six best-developed models are summarised in this paper, all are considered in detail in the appendices. Conclusion Existing CHD policy models vary widely in their depth, breadth, quality, utility and versatility. Few models have been calibrated against observed data, replicated in different settings or adequately validated. Before being accepted as a policy aid, any CHD model should provide an explicit statement of its aims, assumptions, outputs, strengths and limitations.

  20. Predictive models in churn data mining: a review

    OpenAIRE

    García, David L.; Vellido Alcacena, Alfredo; Nebot Castells, M. Àngela

    2007-01-01

    The development of predictive models of customer abandonment plays a central role in any churn management strategy. These models can be developed using either qualitative approaches or can take a data-centred point of view. In the latter case, the use of Data Mining procedures and techniques can provide useful and actionable insights into the processes leading to abandonment. In this report, we provide a brief and structured review of some of the Data Mining approaches that have been put forw...

  1. Business model framework applications in health care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Jens Jacob; Mazzocato, Pamela; Muhammed, Rafiq; Savage, Carl

    2017-11-01

    It has proven to be a challenge for health care organizations to achieve the Triple Aim. In the business literature, business model frameworks have been used to understand how organizations are aligned to achieve their goals. We conducted a systematic literature review with an explanatory synthesis approach to understand how business model frameworks have been applied in health care. We found a large increase in applications of business model frameworks during the last decade. E-health was the most common context of application. We identified six applications of business model frameworks: business model description, financial assessment, classification based on pre-defined typologies, business model analysis, development, and evaluation. Our synthesis suggests that the choice of business model framework and constituent elements should be informed by the intent and context of application. We see a need for harmonization in the choice of elements in order to increase generalizability, simplify application, and help organizations realize the Triple Aim.

  2. Models Predicting Success of Infertility Treatment: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarinara, Alireza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Kamali, Koorosh; Mohammad, Kazem; Shahnazari, Parisa; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertile couples are faced with problems that affect their marital life. Infertility treatment is expensive and time consuming and occasionally isn’t simply possible. Prediction models for infertility treatment have been proposed and prediction of treatment success is a new field in infertility treatment. Because prediction of treatment success is a new need for infertile couples, this paper reviewed previous studies for catching a general concept in applicability of the models. Methods: This study was conducted as a systematic review at Avicenna Research Institute in 2015. Six data bases were searched based on WHO definitions and MESH key words. Papers about prediction models in infertility were evaluated. Results: Eighty one papers were eligible for the study. Papers covered years after 1986 and studies were designed retrospectively and prospectively. IVF prediction models have more shares in papers. Most common predictors were age, duration of infertility, ovarian and tubal problems. Conclusion: Prediction model can be clinically applied if the model can be statistically evaluated and has a good validation for treatment success. To achieve better results, the physician and the couples’ needs estimation for treatment success rate were based on history, the examination and clinical tests. Models must be checked for theoretical approach and appropriate validation. The privileges for applying the prediction models are the decrease in the cost and time, avoiding painful treatment of patients, assessment of treatment approach for physicians and decision making for health managers. The selection of the approach for designing and using these models is inevitable. PMID:27141461

  3. A review of function modeling : Approaches and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erden, M.S.; Komoto, H.; Van Beek, T.J.; D'Amelio, V.; Echavarria, E.; Tomiyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed at establishing a common frame and understanding of function modeling (FM) for our ongoing research activities. A comparative review of the literature is performed to grasp the various FM approaches with their commonalities and differences. The relations of FM with the research

  4. Review of whole-farm economic modelling for irrigation farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this paper is to review the progress that has been made in South Africa with respect to whole-farm economic modelling over the past 2 decades. Farming systems are complex and careful consideration to the stochastic dynamic nature of irrigation farming processes and their linkages with the larger ...

  5. Prediction models in women with postmenopausal bleeding: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hanegem, Nehalennia; Breijer, Maria C.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Timmermans, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal bleeding is associated with an elevated risk of having endometrial cancer. The aim of this review is to give an overview of existing prediction models on endometrial cancer in women with postmenopausal bleeding. In a systematic search of the literature, we identified nine prognostic

  6. A Descriptive Model of Decision Making: Review of Idiographic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye; Bryant, H. David

    1988-01-01

    This article provides an overview of decision-making literature, describes individual and organizational decision stages, and reviews selected idiographic influences on decision-making. Also presented is a model for predicting and explaining variations in decision outcomes. These outcomes include affective, cognitive, and behavioral conditions.…

  7. The Social Relations Model in Family Studies: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.; Cook, William L.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relations Model (SRM) allows for examination of family relations on three different levels: the individual level (actor and partner effects), the dyadic level (relationship effects), and the family level (family effect). The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of SRM family studies and identify general patterns in the…

  8. A review of animal models for portal vein embolization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Floor; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Damude, Samantha; Hoekstra, Lisette T.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a preoperative intervention to increase the future remnant liver (FRL) through regeneration of the non-embolized liver lobes. This review assesses all the relevant animal models of PVE available, to guide researchers who intend to study PVE. We performed a

  9. How to Review Your Business Model: Some Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staisloff, Rick

    2013-01-01

    The changing landscape in higher education is increasingly forcing institutions to examine their long-standing business models and to start making changes. Leading those changes and overcoming internal resistance to them will require strong oversight from governing boards. What might an institution's review of its

  10. Greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment - A review of modelling tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Ekama, George; Caniani, Donatella; Cosenza, Alida; Esposito, Giovanni; Gori, Riccardo; Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Rosso, Diego; Olsson, Gustaf

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from wastewater treatment that contribute to its carbon footprint. As a result of the increasing awareness of GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), new modelling, design, and operational tools have been developed to address and reduce GHG emissions at the plant-wide scale and beyond. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the recently developed tools used to understand and manage GHG emissions from WWTPs, and discusses open problems and research gaps. The literature review reveals that knowledge on the processes related to N2O formation, especially due to autotrophic biomass, is still incomplete. The literature review shows also that a plant-wide modelling approach that includes GHG is the best option for the understanding how to reduce the carbon footprint of WWTPs. Indeed, several studies have confirmed that a wide vision of the WWPTs has to be considered in order to make them more sustainable as possible. Mechanistic dynamic models were demonstrated as the most comprehensive and reliable tools for GHG assessment. Very few plant-wide GHG modelling studies have been applied to real WWTPs due to the huge difficulties related to data availability and the model complexity. For further improvement in GHG plant-wide modelling and to favour its use at large real scale, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in GHG formation and release, and data acquisition must be enhanced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Maturity Models in Supply Chain Sustainability: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope; and the main characteristics associated with their design. The literature review was performed based on journal articles and conference papers from 2000 to 2015 using the SCOPUS, Emerald Insight, EBSCO and Web of Science databases. Most of the analysed papers have as main objective the development of maturity models and their validation. The case study is the methodology that is most widely used by researchers to develop and validate maturity models. From the sustainability perspective, the scope of the analysed maturity models is the Triple Bottom Line (TBL and environmental dimension, focusing on a specific process (eco-design and new product development and without a broad SC perspective. The dominant characteristics associated with the design of the maturity models are the maturity grids and a continuous representation. In addition, results do not allow identifying a trend for a specific number of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models in sustainability. Various aspects associated with the maturity models (i.e., research objectives, research methods, scope and characteristics of the design of models are explored to contribute to the evolution and significance of this multidimensional area.

  12. Photo-chemical transport modelling of tropospheric ozone: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Sharma, Prateek; Khare, Mukesh

    2017-06-01

    Ground level ozone (GLO), a secondary pollutant having adverse impact on human health, ecology, and agricultural productivity, apart from being a major contributor to global warming, has been a subject matter of several studies. In order to identify appropriate strategies to control GLO levels, accurate assessment and prediction is essential, for which elaborate simulation and modelling is required. Several studies have been undertaken in the past to simulate GLO levels at different scales and for various applications. It is important to evaluate these studies, widely spread over in literature. This paper aims to critically review various studies that have been undertaken, especially in the past 15 years (2000-15) to model GLO. The review has been done of the studies that range over different spatial scales - urban to regional and continental to global. It also includes a review of performance evaluation and sensitivity analysis of photo-chemical transport models in order to assess the extent of application of these models and their predictive capability. The review indicates following major findings: (a) models tend to over-estimate the night-time GLO concentrations due to limited titration of GLO with NO within the model; (b) dominance of contribution from far-off regional sources to average ozone concentration in the urban region and higher contribution of local sources during days of high ozone episodes; requiring strategies for controlling precursor emissions at both regional and local scales; (c) greater influence of NOx over VOC in export of ozone from urban regions due to shifting of urban plumes from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive as they move out from city centres to neighbouring rural regions; (d) models with finer resolution inputs perform better to a certain extent, however, further improvement in resolutions (beyond 10 km) did not show improvement always; (e) future projections show an increase in GLO concentrations mainly due to rise in

  13. Modelling mixed forest growth : a review of models for forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porte, A.; Bartelink, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    Most forests today are multi-specific and heterogeneous forests (`mixed forests'). However, forest modelling has been focusing on mono-specific stands for a long time, only recently have models been developed for mixed forests. Previous reviews of mixed forest modelling were restricted to certain

  14. A review on otolith models in human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Houshyar; Mohamed, Shady; Lim, Chee Peng; Nahavandi, Saeid

    2016-08-01

    The vestibular system, which consists of semicircular canals and otolith, are the main sensors mammals use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Identifying the most suitable and consistent mathematical model of the vestibular system is important for research related to driving perception. An appropriate vestibular model is essential for implementation of the Motion Cueing Algorithm (MCA) for motion simulation purposes, because the quality of the MCA is directly dependent on the vestibular model used. In this review, the history and development process of otolith models are presented and analyzed. The otolith organs can detect linear acceleration and transmit information about sensed applied specific forces on the human body. The main purpose of this review is to determine the appropriate otolith models that agree with theoretical analyses and experimental results as well as provide reliable estimation for the vestibular system functions. Formulating and selecting the most appropriate mathematical model of the vestibular system is important to ensure successful human perception modelling and simulation when implementing the model into the MCA for motion analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modern statistical models for forensic fingerprint examinations: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joshua; Champod, Christophe; Lennard, Chris; Roux, Claude

    2013-10-10

    Over the last decade, the development of statistical models in support of forensic fingerprint identification has been the subject of increasing research attention, spurned on recently by commentators who claim that the scientific basis for fingerprint identification has not been adequately demonstrated. Such models are increasingly seen as useful tools in support of the fingerprint identification process within or in addition to the ACE-V framework. This paper provides a critical review of recent statistical models from both a practical and theoretical perspective. This includes analysis of models of two different methodologies: Probability of Random Correspondence (PRC) models that focus on calculating probabilities of the occurrence of fingerprint configurations for a given population, and Likelihood Ratio (LR) models which use analysis of corresponding features of fingerprints to derive a likelihood value representing the evidential weighting for a potential source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of visual MODFLOW applications in groundwater modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, V.; Shankar, M. Uma

    2017-11-01

    Visual MODLOW is a Graphical User Interface for the USGS MODFLOW. It is a commercial software that is popular among the hydrogeologists for its user-friendly features. The software is mainly used for Groundwater flow and contaminant transport models under different conditions. This article is intended to review the versatility of its applications in groundwater modelling for the last 22 years. Agriculture, airfields, constructed wetlands, climate change, drought studies, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), landfills, mining operations, river and flood plain monitoring, salt water intrusion, soil profile surveys, watershed analyses, etc., are the areas where the software has been reportedly used till the current date. The review will provide a clarity on the scope of the software in groundwater modelling and research.

  17. Normal Type-2 Fuzzy Geometric Curve Modeling: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesah, R. S.; Zakaria, R.

    2017-09-01

    Type-2 Fuzzy Set Theory (T2FST) is widely used for defining uncertainty data points rather than the traditional fuzzy set theory (type-1) since 2001. Recently, T2FST is used in many fields due to its ability to handle complex uncertainty data. In this paper, a review of normal type-2 fuzzy geometric curve modeling methods and techniques is presented. In particular, there have been recent applications of Normal Type-2 Fuzzy Set Theory (NT2FST) in geometric modeling, where it has helped improving results over type-1 fuzzy sets. In this paper, a concise and representative review of the processes in normal type-2 fuzzy geometrical curve modeling such as the fuzzification is presented.

  18. Models for Microbial Fuel Cells: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chengshuo; Zhang, Daxing; Pedrycz, Witold; Zhu, Yingmin; Guo, Yongxian

    2018-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been widely viewed as one of the most promising alternative sources of renewable energy. A recognition of needs of efficient development methods based on multidisciplinary research becomes crucial for the optimization of MFCs. Modeling of MFCs is an effective way for not only gaining a thorough understanding of the effects of operation conditions on the performance of power generation but also becomes of essential interest to the successful implementation of MFCs. The MFC models encompass the underlying reaction process and limiting factors of the MFC. The models come in various forms, such as the mathematical equations or the equivalent circuits. Different modeling focuses and approaches of the MFC have emerged. In this study, we present a state of the art of MFCs modeling; the past modeling methods are reviewed as well. Models and modeling methods are elaborated on based on the classification provided by Mechanism-based models and Application-based models. Mechanisms, advantages, drawbacks, and application fields of different models are illustrated as well. We exhibit a complete and comprehensive exposition of the different models for MFCs and offer further guidance to promote the performance of MFCs.

  19. A review of Higgs mass calculations in supersymmetric models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, P.; Rzehak, H.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson is both a milestone achievement for the Standard Model and an exciting probe of new physics beyond the SM. One of the most important properties of the Higgs is its mass, a number that has proven to be highly constraining for models of new physics, particularly those...... related to the electroweak hierarchy problem. Perhaps the most extensively studied examples are supersymmetric models, which, while capable of producing a 125 GeV Higgs boson with SM-like properties, do so in non-generic parts of their parameter spaces. We review the computation of the Higgs mass...

  20. Modelling of additive manufacturing processes: a review and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Panagiotis; Foteinopoulos, Panagis

    2018-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a very promising technology; however, there are a number of open issues related to the different AM processes. The literature on modelling the existing AM processes is reviewed and classified. A categorization of the different AM processes in process groups, according to the process mechanism, has been conducted and the most important issues are stated. Suggestions are made as to which approach is more appropriate according to the key performance indicator desired to be modelled and a discussion is included as to the way that future modelling work can better contribute to improving today's AM process understanding.

  1. 75 FR 52597 - Availability of Interim Procedures for Federal External Review and Model Notices Relating to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Federal External Review and Model Notices Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and External Review... external review process and model notices both for internal claims and appeals and for external review... standards for plans and issuers regarding both internal claims and appeals and external review. The...

  2. Airline service quality evaluation: A review on concepts and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Haghighat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews different major service quality concept and models which led to great developments in evaluating service quality with focusing on improvement process of the models through discussing criticisms of each model. Criticisms against these models are discussed to clarify development steps of newer models which led to the improvement of airline service quality models. The precise and accurate evaluation of service quality needs utilizing a reliable concept with comprehensive criteria and effective measurement techniques as the fundamentals of a valuable framework. In this paper, service quality models improvement is described based on three major service quality concepts, the disconfirmation, performance and hierarchical concepts which are developed subsequently. Reviewing various criteria and different measurement techniques such a statistical analysis and multi-criteria decision making assist researchers to have a clear understanding of the development of the evaluation framework in the airline industry. This study aims at promoting reliable frameworks for evaluating airline service quality in different countries and societies due to economic, cultural and social aspects of each society.

  3. Review of Animal Models of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Simmons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models are indispensable in investigating cancer pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics. Multiple animal models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, but few effectively model prostatic neoplasms and osteoblastic bone metastases as they occur in men. This review discusses the animal models that have been developed to investigate prostate cancer bone metastasis, with a focus on canine models and also includes human xenograft and rodent models. Adult dogs spontaneously develop benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases. Large animal models, such as dogs, are needed to develop new molecular imaging tools and effective focal intraprostatic therapy. None of the available models fully reflect the metastatic disease seen in men, although the various models have provided important insight into the metastatic process. As additional models are developed and knowledge from the different models is combined, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer bone metastasis can be deciphered and targeted for development of novel therapies and molecular diagnostic imaging.

  4. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  5. Review of Model Predictions for Extensive Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierog, Tanguy

    In detailed air shower simulations, the uncertainty in the prediction of shower observable for different primary particles and energies is currently dominated by differences between hadronic interaction models. With the results of the first run of the LHC, the difference between post-LHC model predictions has been reduced at the same level as experimental uncertainties of cosmic ray experiments. At the same time new types of air shower observables, like the muon production depth, have been measured, adding new constraints on hadronic models. Currently no model is able to reproduce consistently all mass composition measurements possible with the Pierre Auger Observatory for instance. We review the current model predictions for various particle production observables and their link with air shower observables and discuss the future possible improvements.

  6. A systematic review of current osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, R M Y; Choy, M H V; Li, M C M; Leung, K-S; K-H Chow, S; Cheung, W-H; Cheng, J C Y

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is a major challenge, and the enhancement of healing is critical as a major goal in modern fracture management. Most osteoporotic fractures occur at the metaphyseal bone region but few models exist and the healing is still poorly understood. A systematic review was conducted to identify and analyse the appropriateness of current osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture animal models. A literature search was performed on the Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases, and relevant articles were selected. A total of 19 studies were included. Information on the animal, induction of osteoporosis, fracture technique, site and fixation, healing results, and utility of the model were extracted. Fracture techniques included drill hole defects (3 of 19), bone defects (3 of 19), partial osteotomy (1 of 19), and complete osteotomies (12 of 19). Drill hole models and incomplete osteotomy models are easy to perform and allow the study of therapeutic agents but do not represent the usual clinical setting. Additionally, biomaterials can be filled into drill hole defects for analysis. Complete osteotomy models are most commonly used and are best suited for the investigation of therapeutic drugs or noninvasive interventions. The metaphyseal defect models allow the study of biomaterials, which are associated with complex and comminuted osteoporotic fractures. For a clinically relevant model, we propose that an animal model should satisfy the following criteria to study osteoporotic fracture healing: 1) induction of osteoporosis, 2) complete osteotomy or defect at the metaphysis unilaterally, and 3) internal fixation. Cite this article : R. M. Y. Wong, M. H. V. Choy, M. C. M. Li, K-S. Leung, S. K-H. Chow, W-H. Cheung, J. C. Y. Cheng. A systematic review of current osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture animal models. Bone Joint Res 2018;7:6-11. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.71.BJR-2016-0334.R2. © 2018 Wong et al.

  7. Turbulence modeling of natural convection in enclosures: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong O

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a review of recent developments of turbulence models for natural convection in enclosures is presented. The emphasis is placed on the effect of the treatments of Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux on the stability and accuracy of the solution for natural convection in enclosures. The turbulence models considered in the preset study are the two-layer k -ε model, the shear stress transport (SST) model, the elliptic-relaxation (V2-f) model and the elliptic-blending second-moment closure (EBM). Three different treatments of the turbulent heat flux are the generalized gradient diffusion hypothesis (GGDH), the algebraic flux model (AFM) and the differential flux model (DFM). The mathematical formulation of the above turbulence models and their solution method are presented. Evaluation of turbulence models are performed for turbulent natural convection in a 1:5 rectangular cavity ( Ra = 4.3x10 10 ) and in a square cavity with conducting top and bottom walls ( Ra =1.58x10 9 ) and the Rayleigh-Benard convection ( Ra = 2x10 6 ∼ Ra =10 9 ). The relative performances of turbulence models are examined and their successes and shortcomings are addressed

  8. Review of modeling and control during transport airdrop process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the review of modeling and control during the airdrop process of transport aircraft. According to the airdrop height, technology can be classified into high and low altitude airdrop and in this article, the research is reviewed based on the two scenarios. While high altitude airdrop is mainly focusing on the precise landing control of cargo, the low altitude flight airdrop is on the control of transport aircraft dynamics to ensure flight safety. The history of high precision airdrop system is introduced first, and then the modeling and control problem of the ultra low altitude airdrop in transport aircraft is presented. Finally, the potential problems and future direction of low altitude airdrop are discussed.

  9. Simulation models in population breast cancer screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva-Kolarova, Rositsa G; Zhan, Zhuozhao; Greuter, Marcel J W; Feenstra, Talitha L; De Bock, Geertruida H

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review was to critically evaluate published simulation models for breast cancer screening of the general population and provide a direction for future modeling. A systematic literature search was performed to identify simulation models with more than one application. A framework for qualitative assessment which incorporated model type; input parameters; modeling approach, transparency of input data sources/assumptions, sensitivity analyses and risk of bias; validation, and outcomes was developed. Predicted mortality reduction (MR) and cost-effectiveness (CE) were compared to estimates from meta-analyses of randomized control trials (RCTs) and acceptability thresholds. Seven original simulation models were distinguished, all sharing common input parameters. The modeling approach was based on tumor progression (except one model) with internal and cross validation of the resulting models, but without any external validation. Differences in lead times for invasive or non-invasive tumors, and the option for cancers not to progress were not explicitly modeled. The models tended to overestimate the MR (11-24%) due to screening as compared to optimal RCTs 10% (95% CI - 2-21%) MR. Only recently, potential harms due to regular breast cancer screening were reported. Most scenarios resulted in acceptable cost-effectiveness estimates given current thresholds. The selected models have been repeatedly applied in various settings to inform decision making and the critical analysis revealed high risk of bias in their outcomes. Given the importance of the models, there is a need for externally validated models which use systematical evidence for input data to allow for more critical evaluation of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of function modeling: Approaches and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Erden, M.S.; Komoto, H.; Van Beek, T.J.; D'Amelio, V.; Echavarria, E.; Tomiyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed at establishing a common frame and understanding of function modeling (FM) for our ongoing research activities. A comparative review of the literature is performed to grasp the various FM approaches with their commonalities and differences. The relations of FM with the research fields of artificial intelligence, design theory, and maintenance are discussed. In this discussion the goals are to highlight the features of various classical approaches in relation to FM, to delin...

  11. Review on modeling and simulation of interdependent critical infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Modern societies are becoming increasingly dependent on critical infrastructure systems (CISs) to provide essential services that support economic prosperity, governance, and quality of life. These systems are not alone but interdependent at multiple levels to enhance their overall performance. However, recent worldwide events such as the 9/11 terrorist attack, Gulf Coast hurricanes, the Chile and Japanese earthquakes, and even heat waves have highlighted that interdependencies among CISs increase the potential for cascading failures and amplify the impact of both large and small scale initial failures into events of catastrophic proportions. To better understand CISs to support planning, maintenance and emergency decision making, modeling and simulation of interdependencies across CISs has recently become a key field of study. This paper reviews the studies in the field and broadly groups the existing modeling and simulation approaches into six types: empirical approaches, agent based approaches, system dynamics based approaches, economic theory based approaches, network based approaches, and others. Different studies for each type of the approaches are categorized and reviewed in terms of fundamental principles, such as research focus, modeling rationale, and the analysis method, while different types of approaches are further compared according to several criteria, such as the notion of resilience. Finally, this paper offers future research directions and identifies critical challenges in the field. - Highlights: • Modeling approaches on interdependent critical infrastructure systems are reviewed. • I mainly review empirical, agent-based, system-dynamics, economic, network approaches. • Studies by each approach are sorted out in terms of fundamental principles. • Different approaches are further compared with resilience as the main criterion

  12. A review of experimental models in colorectal carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Vanessa Foresto; Feitosa, Marley Ribeiro; Rocha, Jose Joaquim Ribeiro da; Féres, Omar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Colorectal cancer is the leading cause of malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. A better understanding of the molecular and cellular changes that lead to the disease is necessary to develop early diagnosis and optimal treatment modalities. Rodent models are rapid, reproducible and exhibit an adenoma-carcinoma sequence similar to that found in humans. The objective of this manuscript is to review the most common chemical carcinogens used to induce experimental tumors and the usual...

  13. Mental Models for Mechanical Comprehension. A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    constructionists are concerned with how mental models are formed. Jean Piaget , the first constructionist (for a review, see Piaget , 1970), conceptualized mental...fact about the world without change in the structures, Piaget says the child had assimilated the information. If, on the other hand, a child’s structures...cannot assimilate the new fact in the present form, then the structures must change. Piaget calls this process accommodation. Taken together, these

  14. Molecular level in silico studies for oncology. Direct models review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psakhie, S. G.; Tsukanov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The combination of therapy and diagnostics in one process "theranostics" is a trend in a modern medicine, especially in oncology. Such an approach requires development and usage of multifunctional hybrid nanoparticles with a hierarchical structure. Numerical methods and mathematical models play a significant role in the design of the hierarchical nanoparticles and allow looking inside the nanoscale mechanisms of agent-cell interactions. The current position of in silico approach in biomedicine and oncology is discussed. The review of the molecular level in silico studies in oncology, which are using the direct models, is presented.

  15. Mathematical and computational modelling of skin biophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbert, Georges

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a review on some aspects of the mathematical and computational modelling of skin biophysics, with special focus on constitutive theories based on nonlinear continuum mechanics from elasticity, through anelasticity, including growth, to thermoelasticity. Microstructural and phenomenological approaches combining imaging techniques are also discussed. Finally, recent research applications on skin wrinkles will be presented to highlight the potential of physics-based modelling of skin in tackling global challenges such as ageing of the population and the associated skin degradation, diseases and traumas.

  16. Spatial modelling with R-INLA: A review

    KAUST Repository

    Bakka, Haakon

    2018-02-18

    Coming up with Bayesian models for spatial data is easy, but performing inference with them can be challenging. Writing fast inference code for a complex spatial model with realistically-sized datasets from scratch is time-consuming, and if changes are made to the model, there is little guarantee that the code performs well. The key advantages of R-INLA are the ease with which complex models can be created and modified, without the need to write complex code, and the speed at which inference can be done even for spatial problems with hundreds of thousands of observations. R-INLA handles latent Gaussian models, where fixed effects, structured and unstructured Gaussian random effects are combined linearly in a linear predictor, and the elements of the linear predictor are observed through one or more likelihoods. The structured random effects can be both standard areal model such as the Besag and the BYM models, and geostatistical models from a subset of the Mat\\\\\\'ern Gaussian random fields. In this review, we discuss the large success of spatial modelling with R-INLA and the types of spatial models that can be fitted, we give an overview of recent developments for areal models, and we give an overview of the stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach and some of the ways it can be extended beyond the assumptions of isotropy and separability. In particular, we describe how slight changes to the SPDE approach leads to straight-forward approaches for non-stationary spatial models and non-separable space-time models.

  17. Chest compressions in newborn animal models: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solevåg, Anne Lee; Cheung, Po-Yin; Lie, Helene; O'Reilly, Megan; Aziz, Khalid; Nakstad, Britt; Schmölzer, Georg Marcus

    2015-11-01

    Much of the knowledge about the optimal way to perform chest compressions (CC) in newborn infants is derived from animal studies. The objective of this review was to identify studies of CC in newborn term animal models and review the evidence. We also provide an overview of the different models. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL, until September 29th 2014. Study eligibility criteria and interventions: term newborn animal models where CC was performed. Based on 419 retrieved studies from MEDLINE and 502 from EMBASE, 28 studies were included. No additional studies were identified in CINAHL. Most of the studies were performed in pigs after perinatal transition without long-term follow-up. The models differed widely in methodological aspects, which limits the possibility to compare and synthesize findings. Studies uncommonly reported the method for randomization and allocation concealment, and a limited number were blinded. Only the evidence in favour of the two-thumb encircling hands technique for performing CC, a CC to ventilation ratio of 3:1; and that air can be used for ventilation during CC; was supported by more than one study. Animal studies should be performed and reported with the same rigor as in human randomized trials. Good transitional and survival models are needed to further increase the strength of the evidence derived from animal studies of newborn chest compressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling radionuclide transport in the geosphere: a review of the models available

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacas, M.C.; Cordier, E.; Coudrain-Ribstein, A.; Fargue, D.; Goblet, P.; Jamet, Ph.; Ledoux, E.; Marsily, G. de; Vinsot, A.; Brun, Ch.; Cernes, A.; Jacquier, Ph.; Lewi, J.; Priem, Th.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last twelve years, several models have been developed to simulate the transport of radionuclides in the environment of a radioactive waste repository: - continuous equivalent porous media flow and transport models using the finite element method in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions and taking into account various coupled mechanisms; - discontinuous stochastic fracture network models in 3 dimensions representing flow, transport, matrix diffusion, heat flow and mechanical stress; - geochemical models representing interactions between transported elements and a solid matrix; - transport process models coupling non dominant phenomena such as thermo-diffusion or thermo-gravitation. This paper reviews the role that each of these models can play in safety analyses. 3 refs [fr

  19. Mechanistic kinetic models of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoh, Tina; Cardona, Maria J; Karuna, Nardrapee; Mudinoor, Akshata R; Nill, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Bioconversion of lignocellulose forms the basis for renewable, advanced biofuels, and bioproducts. Mechanisms of hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases have been actively studied for nearly 70 years with significant gains in understanding of the cellulolytic enzymes. Yet, a full mechanistic understanding of the hydrolysis reaction has been elusive. We present a review to highlight new insights gained since the most recent comprehensive review of cellulose hydrolysis kinetic models by Bansal et al. (2009) Biotechnol Adv 27:833-848. Recent models have taken a two-pronged approach to tackle the challenge of modeling the complex heterogeneous reaction-an enzyme-centric modeling approach centered on the molecularity of the cellulase-cellulose interactions to examine rate limiting elementary steps and a substrate-centric modeling approach aimed at capturing the limiting property of the insoluble cellulose substrate. Collectively, modeling results suggest that at the molecular-scale, how rapidly cellulases can bind productively (complexation) and release from cellulose (decomplexation) is limiting, while the overall hydrolysis rate is largely insensitive to the catalytic rate constant. The surface area of the insoluble substrate and the degrees of polymerization of the cellulose molecules in the reaction both limit initial hydrolysis rates only. Neither enzyme-centric models nor substrate-centric models can consistently capture hydrolysis time course at extended reaction times. Thus, questions of the true reaction limiting factors at extended reaction times and the role of complexation and decomplexation in rate limitation remain unresolved. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1369-1385. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Review of Modeling Bioelectrochemical Systems: Engineering and Statistical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Luo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are promising technologies to convert organic compounds in wastewater to electrical energy through a series of complex physical-chemical, biological and electrochemical processes. Representative BES such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs have been studied and advanced for energy recovery. Substantial experimental and modeling efforts have been made for investigating the processes involved in electricity generation toward the improvement of the BES performance for practical applications. However, there are many parameters that will potentially affect these processes, thereby making the optimization of system performance hard to be achieved. Mathematical models, including engineering models and statistical models, are powerful tools to help understand the interactions among the parameters in BES and perform optimization of BES configuration/operation. This review paper aims to introduce and discuss the recent developments of BES modeling from engineering and statistical aspects, including analysis on the model structure, description of application cases and sensitivity analysis of various parameters. It is expected to serves as a compass for integrating the engineering and statistical modeling strategies to improve model accuracy for BES development.

  1. Animal models for implant biomaterial research in bone: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A I Pearce

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of an optimal interface between bone and orthopaedic and dental implants has taken place for many years. In order to determine whether a newly developed implant material conforms to the requirements of biocompatibility, mechanical stability and safety, it must undergo rigorous testing both in vitro and in vivo. Results from in vitro studies can be difficult to extrapolate to the in vivo situation. For this reason the use of animal models is often an essential step in the testing of orthopaedic and dental implants prior to clinical use in humans. This review discusses some of the more commonly available and frequently used animal models such as the dog, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit models for the evaluation of bone-implant interactions. Factors for consideration when choosing an animal model and implant design are discussed. Various bone specific features are discussed including the usage of the species, bone macrostructure and microstructure and bone composition and remodelling, with emphasis being placed on the similarity between the animal model and the human clinical situation. While the rabbit was the most commonly used of the species discussed in this review, it is clear that this species showed the least similarities to human bone. There were only minor differences in bone composition between the various species and humans. The pig demonstrated a good likeness with human bone however difficulties may be encountered in relation to their size and ease of handling. In this respect the dog and sheep/goat show more promise as animal models for the testing of bone implant materials. While no species fulfils all of the requirements of an ideal model, an understanding of the differences in bone architecture and remodelling between the species is likely to assist in the selection of a suitable species for a defined research question.

  2. Sentiments Analysis of Reviews Based on ARCNN Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Ming; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Ning; Yang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    The sentiments analysis of product reviews is designed to help customers understand the status of the product. The traditional method of sentiments analysis relies on the input of a fixed feature vector which is performance bottleneck of the basic codec architecture. In this paper, we propose an attention mechanism with BRNN-CNN model, referring to as ARCNN model. In order to have a good analysis of the semantic relations between words and solves the problem of dimension disaster, we use the GloVe algorithm to train the vector representations for words. Then, ARCNN model is proposed to deal with the problem of deep features training. Specifically, BRNN model is proposed to investigate non-fixed-length vectors and keep time series information perfectly and CNN can study more connection of deep semantic links. Moreover, the attention mechanism can automatically learn from the data and optimize the allocation of weights. Finally, a softmax classifier is designed to complete the sentiment classification of reviews. Experiments show that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of sentiment classification compared with benchmark methods.

  3. Green roof hydrologic performance and modeling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanling; Babcock, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Green roofs reduce runoff from impervious surfaces in urban development. This paper reviews the technical literature on green roof hydrology. Laboratory experiments and field measurements have shown that green roofs can reduce stormwater runoff volume by 30 to 86%, reduce peak flow rate by 22 to 93% and delay the peak flow by 0 to 30 min and thereby decrease pollution, flooding and erosion during precipitation events. However, the effectiveness can vary substantially due to design characteristics making performance predictions difficult. Evaluation of the most recently published study findings indicates that the major factors affecting green roof hydrology are precipitation volume, precipitation dynamics, antecedent conditions, growth medium, plant species, and roof slope. This paper also evaluates the computer models commonly used to simulate hydrologic processes for green roofs, including stormwater management model, soil water atmosphere and plant, SWMS-2D, HYDRUS, and other models that are shown to be effective for predicting precipitation response and economic benefits. The review findings indicate that green roofs are effective for reduction of runoff volume and peak flow, and delay of peak flow, however, no tool or model is available to predict expected performance for any given anticipated system based on design parameters that directly affect green roof hydrology.

  4. Toward Cognitively Constrained Models of Language Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Vogelzang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained computational models, which simulate the cognitive processes involved in language processing. The theoretical claims implemented in cognitive models interact with general architectural constraints such as memory limitations. This way, it generates new predictions that can be tested in experiments, thus generating new data that can give rise to new theoretical insights. This theory-model-experiment cycle is a promising method for investigating aspects of language processing that are difficult to investigate with more traditional experimental techniques. This review specifically examines the language processing models of Lewis and Vasishth (2005, Reitter et al. (2011, and Van Rij et al. (2010, all implemented in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational (Anderson et al., 2004. These models are all limited by the assumptions about cognitive capacities provided by the cognitive architecture, but use different linguistic approaches. Because of this, their comparison provides insight into the extent to which assumptions about general cognitive resources influence concretely implemented models of linguistic competence. For example, the sheer speed and accuracy of human language processing is a current challenge in the field of cognitive modeling, as it does not seem to adhere to the same memory and processing capacities that have been found in other cognitive processes. Architecture-based cognitive models of language processing may be able to make explicit which language-specific resources are needed to acquire and process natural language. The review sheds light on cognitively constrained models of language processing from two angles: we

  5. A review of toxicity models for realistic atmospheric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunatilaka, Ajith; Skvortsov, Alex; Gailis, Ralph

    2014-02-01

    There are many applications that need to study human health effects caused by exposure to toxic chemicals. Risk analysis for industrial sites, study of population health impacts of atmospheric pollutants, and operations research for assessing the potential impacts of chemical releases in military contexts are some examples. Because of safety risks and the high cost of field trials involving hazardous chemical releases, computer simulations are widely used for such studies. Modelling of atmospheric transport and dispersion of chemicals released into the atmosphere to determine the toxic chemical concentrations to which individuals will be exposed is one main component of these simulations, and there are well established atmospheric dispersion models for this purpose. Estimating the human health effects caused by the exposure to these predicted toxic chemical concentrations is the other main component. A number of different toxicity models for assessing the health effects of toxic chemical exposure are found in the literature. Because these different models have been developed based on different assumptions about the plume characteristics, chemical properties, and physiological response, there is a need to review and compare these models to understand their applicability. This paper reviews several toxicity models described in the literature. The paper also presents results of applying different toxicity models to simulated concentration time series data. These results show that the use of ensemble mean concentrations, which are what atmospheric dispersion models typically provide, to estimate human health effects of exposure to hazardous chemical releases may underestimate their impact when toxic exponent, n, of the chemical is greater than one; the opposite phenomenon appears to hold when n biological recovery processes may predict greater toxicity than the explicitly parameterised models. Despite the wide variety of models of varying degrees of complexity that is

  6. Systematic review: Health care transition practice service models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Cecily L; O'Kane, Lisa S; Nehring, Wendy M; Lobo, Marie L

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 750,000 adolescents and emerging adults with special health care needs (AEA-SHCN) enter into adulthood annually. The linkages to ensure the seamless transfer of care from pediatric to adult care and transition to adulthood for AEA-SHCN have yet to be realized. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the state of the science of health care transition (HCT) service models as described in quantitative investigations. A four-tier screening approach was used to obtain reviewed articles published from 2004 to 2013. A total of 17 articles were included in this review. Transfer of care was the most prominent intervention feature. Overall, using the Effective Public Health Practice Project criteria, the studies were rated as weak. Limitations included lack of control groups, rigorous designs and methodology, and incomplete intervention descriptions. As the findings indicate, HCT is an emerging field of practice that is largely in the exploratory stage of model development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling the vehicle-to-vehicle propagation channel: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matolak, David W.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we provide a review of the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) wireless propagation channel. This "car-to-car" application will be used to improve roadway efficiency, provide unique traveler services, and can also enable safety applications that can save lives. We briefly review some currently envisioned applications and the initial V2V radio technology, then address the V2V propagation channel. Propagation basics germane to the V2V setting are described, followed by a discussion of channel dispersion and time variation. The channel impulse response and its Fourier transform, the channel transfer function, are described in detail, and their common statistical characterizations are also reviewed. The most common models for the V2V channel—the tapped delay line and geometry-based stochastic channel models—are covered in some detail. We highlight key differences between the V2V channel and the well-known cellular radio channel. These differences are the more rapid time variation and the higher probability of obstruction of the direct line of sight component; modeling of these effects has required some novel approaches. The V2V channel's nonstationary statistical behavior is addressed, as is the use of multiple-antenna systems. The remaining areas for future work are also described.

  8. Applications of modeling of structural equations in nursing: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Umann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the scientific production using modeling of structural equations in nursing. We conducted an integrative review in June of 2016 in the databases PUBMED, MEDLINE, and LILACS. We identified 127 articles, and we selected 20 from those. We conducted the analyses – quality and level of evidence – using validated tools and a synoptic table. The articles attended to 80% of STROBE items (95%, level of evidence 5 (95% and published in Asian (50% and North American (30% countries. There was an increase of the scientific production using models of structural equations during the study period and the predominance of investigations aimed at the work organization. The use of modeling of structural equations in nursing is growing. However, studies aimed at assistance and teaching are lacking. This method appeared useful for issues in research in this health field.

  9. A review of dynamics modelling of friction draft gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Cole, Colin; Luo, Shihui; Spiryagin, Maksym

    2014-06-01

    Longer and heavier trains mean larger in-train forces and more complicated force patterns. Practical experience indicates that the development of fatigue failure of coupling systems in long heavy trains may differ from conventional understanding. The friction-type draft gears are the most widely used draft gears. The ever developing heavy haul transport environment requires further or new understanding of friction draft gear behaviour and its implications for train dynamics as well as fatigue damage of rolling stock. However, modelling of friction draft gears is a highly nonlinear question. Especially the poor predictability, repeatability and the discontinuity of friction make this task more challenging. This article reviews current techniques in dynamics modelling of friction draft gears to provide a starting point that can be used to improve existing or develop new models to achieve more accurate force amplitude and pattern predictions.

  10. Infantile Spasms: A Critical Review of Emerging Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafstrom, Carl E

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms is a developmental epilepsy syndrome with unique clinical and EEG features, a specific pattern of pharmacological responsiveness, and poor outcome in terms of cognition and epilepsy. Despite the devastating nature of infantile spasms, little is known about its pathogenesis. Until recently, there has been no animal model available to investigate the pathophysiology of the syndrome or to generate and test novel therapies. Now, several promising animal models have emerged, spanning the etiological spectrum from genetic causes (e.g., Down syndrome or Aristaless-related homeobox [ARX] mutation) to acquired causes (e.g., endogenous and exogenous toxins or stress hormones with convulsant activity or blockade of neural activity). These new models are discussed in this review, with emphasis on the insights each can provide for understanding, treating, and preventing infantile spasms. PMID:19471616

  11. Critical review of activated sludge modeling: state of process knowledge, modeling concepts, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauduc, H; Rieger, L; Oehmen, A; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Comeau, Y; Héduit, A; Vanrolleghem, P A; Gillot, S

    2013-01-01

    This work critically reviews modeling concepts for standard activated sludge wastewater treatment processes (e.g., hydrolysis, growth and decay of organisms, etc.) for some of the most commonly used models. Based on a short overview on the theoretical biochemistry knowledge this review should help model users to better understand (i) the model concepts used; (ii) the differences between models, and (iii) the limits of the models. The seven analyzed models are: (1) ASM1; (2) ASM2d; (3) ASM3; (4) ASM3 + BioP; (5) ASM2d + TUD; (6) Barker & Dold model; and (7) UCTPHO+. Nine standard processes are distinguished and discussed in the present work: hydrolysis; fermentation; ordinary heterotrophic organisms (OHO) growth; autotrophic nitrifying organisms (ANO) growth; OHO & ANO decay; poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) storage; polyphosphate (polyP) storage; phosphorus accumulating organisms PAO) growth; and PAO decay. For a structured comparison, a new schematic representation of these processes is proposed. Each process is represented as a reaction with consumed components on the left of the figure and produced components on the right. Standardized icons, based on shapes and color codes, enable the representation of the stoichiometric modeling concepts and kinetics. This representation allows highlighting the conceptual differences of the models, and the level of simplification between the concepts and the theoretical knowledge. The model selection depending on their theoretical limitations and the main research needs to increase the model quality are finally discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Finite element modelling of cornea mechanics: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talisa Mohammad Nejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is a transparent tissue in front of the eye that refracts light and facilitates vision. A slight change in the geometry of the cornea remarkably affects the optical power. Because of this sensitivity, biomechanical study of the cornea can reveal much about its performance and function. In vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanics of the cornea and determine its characteristics. Numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM have been extensively implemented as effective and noninvasive methods for analyzing corneal mechanics and possible disorders. This article reviews the use of FEM for assessing the mechanical behavior of the cornea. Different applications of FEM in corneal disease studies, surgical predictions, impact simulations, and clinical applications have been reviewed. Some suggestions for the future of this type of modeling in the area of corneal mechanics are also discussed.

  13. Personality and Depression: Explanatory Models and Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel N.; Kotov, Roman; Bufferd, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the association between personality and depression has implications for elucidating etiology and comorbidity, identifying at-risk individuals, and tailoring treatment. We discuss seven major models that have been proposed to explain the relation between personality and depression, and we review key methodological issues, including study design, the heterogeneity of mood disorders, and the assessment of personality. We then selectively review the extensive empirical literature on the role of personality traits in depression in adults and children. Current evidence suggests that depression is linked to traits such as neuroticism/negative emotionality, extraversion/positive emotionality, and conscientiousness. Moreover, personality characteristics appear to contribute to the onset and course of depression through a variety of pathways. Implications for prevention and prediction of treatment response are discussed, as well as specific considerations to guide future research on the relation between personality and depression. PMID:21166535

  14. The Application of Adaptive Behaviour Models: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Price

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behaviour has been viewed broadly as an individual’s ability to meet the standards of social responsibilities and independence; however, this definition has been a source of debate amongst researchers and clinicians. Based on the rich history and the importance of the construct of adaptive behaviour, the current study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the application of adaptive behaviour models to assessment tools, through a systematic review. A plethora of assessment measures for adaptive behaviour have been developed in order to adequately assess the construct; however, it appears that the only definition on which authors seem to agree is that adaptive behaviour is what adaptive behaviour scales measure. The importance of the construct for diagnosis, intervention and planning has been highlighted throughout the literature. It is recommended that researchers and clinicians critically review what measures of adaptive behaviour they are utilising and it is suggested that the definition and theory is revisited.

  15. Review of the Modelling of Slush Hydrogen Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. Reynier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the perspective of mass savings related to future launchers, the use of slush hydrogen as propellant is attractive. Due to its higher density, the use of slush hydrogen could lead to the mass reduction of propellant and the utilisation of smaller tanks. However, the use of slush hydrogen in rocket engines presents different challenges. The first one is the production of slush hydrogen. Other aspects are the problems induced by the use of slush in a propulsion system: slush flow in pipes and singularities, design of a compatible turbopump and injection of slush in a combustion chamber. In order to prepare numerical tools for supporting future technical activities, ISA has undertaken a large effort in the direction of the modelling of slush hydrogen flows. The work has been split in two parts: the engineering modelling for slush flows in pipe lines and the preparation of more advanced models. At first, an extensive review of the available studies on this topic reported in the literature has been undertaken. Then, an engineering model has been selected and incorporated in a numerical tool. The different issues in term of modelling related to slush hydrogen have been identified and a potential model for future computational fluid dynamics calculations has been selected.

  16. Review of constitutive models and failure criteria for concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Young Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The general behavior, constitutive models, and failure criteria of concrete are reviewed. The current constitutive models for concrete cannot satisfy all of mechanical behavior of concrete. Among several constitutive models, damage models are recommended to describe properly the structural behavior of concrete containment buildings, because failure modes and post-failure behavior are important in containment buildings. A constitutive model which can describe the concrete behavior in tension is required because the containment buildings will reach failure state due to ultimate internal pressure. Therefore, a thorough study on the behavior and models under tension stress state in concrete and reinforced concrete has to be performed. There are two types of failure criteria in containment buildings: structural failure criteria and leakage failure criteria. For reinforced or prestressed concrete containment buildings, concrete cracking does not mean the structural failure of containment building because the reinforcement or post-tensioning system is able to resist tensile stress up to yield stress. Therefore leakage failure criteria will be prior to structural failure criteria, and a strain failure criterion for concrete has to be established. 120 refs., 59 figs., 1 tabs. (Author)

  17. Adolescent psychosocial development: A review of longitudinal models and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Wim

    2016-12-01

    This review used 4 types of longitudinal models (descriptive models, prediction models, developmental sequence models and longitudinal mediation models) to identify regular patterns of psychosocial development in adolescence. Eight patterns of adolescent development were observed across countries: (1) adolescent maturation in multiple developmental domains; (2) heterogeneous continuity of personal relationships; (3) good goes together with good, and bad with bad, across time in adolescence; (4) parents transmit values and behaviors to their adolescent children over time; (5) adolescent psychopathology leads to erosion of personal relationships with parents and peers; (6) adolescent psychopathology prevents adolescent independence from parents; (7) parental interference in personal issues of adolescents has counterproductive effects over time; (8) mood variability and (social and personal) uncertainty are mechanisms that maintain psychopathology in adolescence. Principles of life span developmental psychology are used to discuss adolescent maturation, and a developmental contextual perspective is used to discuss links between the various developmental patterns. Strengths and limitations of the various longitudinal models, and links between longitudinal and experimental research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A Review on Quantitative Models for Sustainable Food Logistics Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soysal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades food logistics systems have seen the transition from a focus on traditional supply chain management to food supply chain management, and successively, to sustainable food supply chain management. The main aim of this study is to identify key logistical aims in these three phases and analyse currently available quantitative models to point out modelling challenges in sustainable food logistics management (SFLM. A literature review on quantitative studies is conducted and also qualitative studies are consulted to understand the key logistical aims more clearly and to identify relevant system scope issues. Results show that research on SFLM has been progressively developing according to the needs of the food industry. However, the intrinsic characteristics of food products and processes have not yet been handled properly in the identified studies. The majority of the works reviewed have not contemplated on sustainability problems, apart from a few recent studies. Therefore, the study concludes that new and advanced quantitative models are needed that take specific SFLM requirements from practice into consideration to support business decisions and capture food supply chain dynamics.

  19. Einstein's 1917 static model of the universe: a centennial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2017-08-01

    We present a historical review of Einstein's 1917 paper ` Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity' to mark the centenary of a key work that set the foundations of modern cosmology. We find that the paper followed as a natural next step after Einstein's development of the general theory of relativity and that the work offers many insights into his thoughts on relativity, astronomy and cosmology. Our review includes a description of the observational and theoretical background to the paper; a paragraph-by-paragraph guided tour of the work; a discussion of Einstein's views of issues such as the relativity of inertia, the curvature of space and the cosmological constant. Particular attention is paid to little-known aspects of the paper such as Einstein's failure to test his model against observation, his failure to consider the stability of the model and a mathematical oversight concerning his interpretation of the role of the cosmological constant. We recall the response of theorists and astronomers to Einstein's cosmology in the context of the alternate models of the universe proposed by Willem de Sitter, Alexander Friedman and Georges Lemaître. Finally, we consider the relevance of the Einstein World in today's `emergent' cosmologies.

  20. Application of soft computing based hybrid models in hydrological variables modeling: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Farzad; Yaseen, Zaher Mundher; El-shafie, Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Since the middle of the twentieth century, artificial intelligence (AI) models have been used widely in engineering and science problems. Water resource variable modeling and prediction are the most challenging issues in water engineering. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a common approach used to tackle this problem by using viable and efficient models. Numerous ANN models have been successfully developed to achieve more accurate results. In the current review, different ANN models in water resource applications and hydrological variable predictions are reviewed and outlined. In addition, recent hybrid models and their structures, input preprocessing, and optimization techniques are discussed and the results are compared with similar previous studies. Moreover, to achieve a comprehensive view of the literature, many articles that applied ANN models together with other techniques are included. Consequently, coupling procedure, model evaluation, and performance comparison of hybrid models with conventional ANN models are assessed, as well as, taxonomy and hybrid ANN models structures. Finally, current challenges and recommendations for future researches are indicated and new hybrid approaches are proposed.

  1. Review of Methods for Buildings Energy Performance Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, Hrvoje; Teni, Mihaela

    2017-10-01

    Research presented in this paper gives a brief review of methods used for buildings energy performance modelling. This paper gives also a comprehensive review of the advantages and disadvantages of available methods as well as the input parameters used for modelling buildings energy performance. European Directive EPBD obliges the implementation of energy certification procedure which gives an insight on buildings energy performance via exiting energy certificate databases. Some of the methods for buildings energy performance modelling mentioned in this paper are developed by employing data sets of buildings which have already undergone an energy certification procedure. Such database is used in this paper where the majority of buildings in the database have already gone under some form of partial retrofitting – replacement of windows or installation of thermal insulation but still have poor energy performance. The case study presented in this paper utilizes energy certificates database obtained from residential units in Croatia (over 400 buildings) in order to determine the dependence between buildings energy performance and variables from database by using statistical dependencies tests. Building energy performance in database is presented with building energy efficiency rate (from A+ to G) which is based on specific annual energy needs for heating for referential climatic data [kWh/(m2a)]. Independent variables in database are surfaces and volume of the conditioned part of the building, building shape factor, energy used for heating, CO2 emission, building age and year of reconstruction. Research results presented in this paper give an insight in possibilities of methods used for buildings energy performance modelling. Further on it gives an analysis of dependencies between buildings energy performance as a dependent variable and independent variables from the database. Presented results could be used for development of new building energy performance

  2. A Modeling Framework for the Evolution and Spread of Antibiotic Resistance: Literature Review and Model Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicknall, Ian H.; Foxman, Betsy; Marrs, Carl F.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant infections complicate treatment and increase morbidity and mortality. Mathematical modeling has played an integral role in improving our understanding of antibiotic resistance. In these models, parameter sensitivity is often assessed, while model structure sensitivity is not. To examine the implications of this, we first reviewed the literature on antibiotic-resistance modeling published between 1993 and 2011. We then classified each article's model structure into one or more of 6 categories based on the assumptions made in those articles regarding within-host and population-level competition between antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains. Each model category has different dynamic implications with respect to how antibiotic use affects resistance prevalence, and therefore each may produce different conclusions about optimal treatment protocols that minimize resistance. Thus, even if all parameter values are correctly estimated, inferences may be incorrect because of the incorrect selection of model structure. Our framework provides insight into model selection. PMID:23660797

  3. A modeling framework for the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance: literature review and model categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicknall, Ian H; Foxman, Betsy; Marrs, Carl F; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2013-08-15

    Antibiotic-resistant infections complicate treatment and increase morbidity and mortality. Mathematical modeling has played an integral role in improving our understanding of antibiotic resistance. In these models, parameter sensitivity is often assessed, while model structure sensitivity is not. To examine the implications of this, we first reviewed the literature on antibiotic-resistance modeling published between 1993 and 2011. We then classified each article's model structure into one or more of 6 categories based on the assumptions made in those articles regarding within-host and population-level competition between antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains. Each model category has different dynamic implications with respect to how antibiotic use affects resistance prevalence, and therefore each may produce different conclusions about optimal treatment protocols that minimize resistance. Thus, even if all parameter values are correctly estimated, inferences may be incorrect because of the incorrect selection of model structure. Our framework provides insight into model selection.

  4. Review and perspective on mathematical modeling of microbial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Antonella; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2018-03-14

    Understanding microbial ecosystems means unlocking the path toward a deeper knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of life. Engineered microbial communities are also extremely relevant to tackling some of today's grand societal challenges. Advanced meta-omics experimental techniques provide crucial insights into microbial communities, but have been so far mostly used for descriptive, exploratory approaches to answer the initial 'who is there?' An ecosystem is a complex network of dynamic spatio-temporal interactions among organisms as well as between organisms and the environment. Mathematical models with their abstraction capability are essential to capture the underlying phenomena and connect the different scales at which these systems act. Differential equation models and constraint-based stoichiometric models are deterministic approaches that can successfully provide a macroscopic description of the outcome from microscopic behaviors. In this mini-review, we present classical and recent applications of these modeling methods and illustrate the potential of their integration. Indeed, approaches that can capture multiple scales are needed in order to understand emergent patterns in ecosystems and their dynamics regulated by different spatio-temporal phenomena. We finally discuss promising examples of methods proposing the integration of differential equations with constraint-based stoichiometric models and argue that more work is needed in this direction. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Integrating language models into classifiers for BCI communication: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speier, W; Arnold, C; Pouratian, N

    2016-06-01

    The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain-computer interface (BCI) communication systems. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population.

  6. Modelling of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R.; Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.

    1998-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident has clearly shown the long-term effects of a radioactive contamination of forest ecosystems. This report is based on a literature review of models which describe the migration of radionuclides, radioactive caesium in particular, in forest ecosystems. The report describes the particularities of the forest ecosystem, the time dynamics of the contamination, the transfer processes and factors influencing caesium migration. This provides a basis for a discussion of different approaches for modelling caesium migration in the forest. It is concluded that the studied dynamic models include the most relevant transfer processes both for the acute and the long-term phase after a radioactive deposition. However, most models are site specific and do not consider some of the factors responsible for the differences in radionuclide behaviour and distribution in different types of forests. Although model improvements are constrained by the availability of experimental data and by the lack of knowledge of the migration mechanisms some possible improvements are discussed. This report is part of the LANDSCAPE project. -An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in the semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. 42 refs, 3 tabs, 9 figs.

  7. Regional Evacuation Modeling: A State of the Art Reviewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    1991-01-01

    Regional evacuation modeling is treated as a five step process: involving vehicle trip generation, trip departure time, trip destination, and trip route selection modeling, supplemented by plan set-up and analysis procedures. Progress under each of these headings is reviewed and gaps in the process identified. The potential for emergency planners to make use of real time traffic data, resulting from the recent technical and economic revolutions in telecommunications and infrared traffic sensing, is identified as the single greatest opportunity for the near future; and some beginnings in the development of real time dynamic traffic modeling specifically geared to evacuation planning are highlighted. Significant data problems associated with the time of day location of large urban populations represent a second area requiring extensive research. A third area requiring much additional effort is the translation of the considerable knowledge we have on evacuee behavior in times of crisis into reliable quantitative measures of the timing of evacuee mobilization, notably by distance from the source of the hazard. Specific evacuation models are referenced and categorized by method. Incorporation of evacuation model findings into the definition of emergency planning zone boundaries is also discussed.

  8. Modelling of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.; Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.

    1998-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident has clearly shown the long-term effects of a radioactive contamination of forest ecosystems. This report is based on a literature review of models which describe the migration of radionuclides, radioactive caesium in particular, in forest ecosystems. The report describes the particularities of the forest ecosystem, the time dynamics of the contamination, the transfer processes and factors influencing caesium migration. This provides a basis for a discussion of different approaches for modelling caesium migration in the forest. It is concluded that the studied dynamic models include the most relevant transfer processes both for the acute and the long-term phase after a radioactive deposition. However, most models are site specific and do not consider some of the factors responsible for the differences in radionuclide behaviour and distribution in different types of forests. Although model improvements are constrained by the availability of experimental data and by the lack of knowledge of the migration mechanisms some possible improvements are discussed. This report is part of the LANDSCAPE project. -An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in the semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man

  9. Topic Modeling in Sentiment Analysis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqir Ahmad Rana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion and acceptance of Word Wide Web, sentiment analysis has become progressively popular research area in information retrieval and web data analysis. Due to the huge amount of user-generated contents over blogs, forums, social media, etc., sentiment analysis has attracted researchers both in academia and industry, since it deals with the extraction of opinions and sentiments. In this paper, we have presented a review of topic modeling, especially LDA-based techniques, in sentiment analysis. We have presented a detailed analysis of diverse approaches and techniques, and compared the accuracy of different systems among them. The results of different approaches have been summarized, analyzed and presented in a sophisticated fashion. This is the really effort to explore different topic modeling techniques in the capacity of sentiment analysis and imparting a comprehensive comparison among them.

  10. Review of probabilistic models of the strength of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, L.S.; Guedes Soares, C.

    1997-01-01

    The available literature concerning probabilistic models describing the strength of composite materials has been reviewed to highlight the important aspects of this behaviour which will be of interest to the modelling and analysis of a complex system. The success with which these theories have been used to predict experimental results has been discussed. Since the brittle reinforcement phase largely controls the strength of composites, the probabilistic theories used to describe the strength of brittle materials, fibres and bundles of fibres have been detailed. The use of these theories to predict the strength of composite materials has been considered, along with further developments incorporating the damage accumulation observed in the failure of such materials. Probabilistic theories of the strength of short-fibre composites have been outlined. Emphasis has been placed throughout on straightforward engineering explanations of these theories and how they may be used, rather than providing comprehensive statistical descriptions

  11. A review of flow modeling for dense medium cyclones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Narasimha; M.S. Brennan; P.N. Holtham [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India). R& amp; D Division

    2006-06-15

    A critical assessment is presented for the existing fluid flow models used for dense medium cyclones (DMCs) and hydrocyclones. As the present discussion indicates, the understanding of dense medium cyclone flow is still far from the complete. However, its similarity to the hydrocyclone provides a basis for improved understanding of fluid flow in DMCs. The complexity of fluid flow in DMCs is basically due to the existence of medium as well as the dominance of turbulent particle size and density effects on separation. Both the theoretical and experimental analysis is done with respect to two-phase motions and solid phase flow in hydrocyclones or DMCs. A detailed discussion is presented on the empirical, semiempirical, and the numerical models based upon both the vorticity-stream function approach and Navier-Stokes equations in their primitive variables and in cylindrical coordinates available in literature. The existing equations describing turbulence and multiphase flows in cyclone are also critically reviewed.

  12. Modeling dissolved oxygen dynamics and coastal hypoxia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M. A.; Katsev, S.; Oguz, T.; Gilbert, D.

    2009-09-01

    Hypoxia occurs in marine ecosystems throughout the world, influences biogeochemical cycles of elements and may have severe impacts on marine life. Hypoxia results from complex interactions between physical and biogeochemical processes, which can not be addressed by observations alone. In this paper, we review oxygen dynamical models that have been applied in studies of factors controlling coastal hypoxia and in predictions of future states. We also identify scientific issues that need further development and point out some of the major challenges. Over recent decades, substantial progress has been made in the development of oxygen dynamical models. Considerable progress has been made towards the parameterization of biogeochemical processes in the water column and sediments, such as the dynamic representation of nitrification-denitrification. Recent advances in three-dimensional coupled physical-ecological-biogeochemical models allow better representation of physical-biological interactions. Several types of modelling approaches, from simple to complex, have significantly contributed to improve our understanding of hypoxia. We discuss the applications of these models to the study of the effects of oxygen depletion on biogeochemical cycles, links between nutrient enrichment and hypoxia development, impacts of hypoxia on marine ecosystems and predictions of climate change responses. However, for some processes models are still crude. For example, current representations of organic matter transformations and remineralization are incomplete, as they are mostly based on empirical parameterizations at few locations. For most of these processes, the availability of validation data has been a limiting factor in model development. Another gap is that, in virtually all nutrient load models, efforts have focused on nutrient utilization and organic matter degradation, whereas three-dimensional mixing and advection have been less well represented. Explicit inclusion of physical

  13. Control Valve Stiction Identification, Modelling, Quantification and Control - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Arumugam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the processes found in process industries exhibit undesirable nonlinearity due to backlash, saturation, hysteresis, stiction (friction, dead-zone and stuck-fault existing in control valves. The control valve is the actuator for most process control loops and, as the only moving part in the loop, its function is to implement the control action. If the control valve malfunctions, the performance of the control loop is likely to deteriorate, no matter how good the controller is. Commonly encountered control valve problems include nonlinear responses to the demand signal caused by effects such as stiction, dead-band or saturation. Because of these problems, the control loop may be oscillatory, which in turn may cause oscillations in many process variables causing a range of operational problems including increased valve wear. Understanding nonlinear behaviour of control valves in order to maintain the quality of the end products in the industry, this review article surveys the identification, modelling, estimation and design of dynamic models of stiction nonlinearity and providing appropriate controller to obtain optimum responses of the process. The primary objective of this work is to present state-of-art-review of common nonlinear problems associated with mechanical and chemical processes for encouraging researchers, practicing engineers working in this field, so that readers can invent their goals for future research work on nonlinear systems identification and control.

  14. A review of forecasting models for new products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mas-Machuca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The main objective of this article is to present an up-to-date review of new product forecasting techniques. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic review of forecasting journals was carried out using the ISI-Web of Knowledge database. Several articles were retrieved and examined, and forecasting techniques relevant to this study were selected and assessed. Findings: The strengths, weaknesses and applications of the main forecasting models are discussed to examine trends and set future challenges. Research limitations/implications: A theoretical reference framework for forecasting techniques classified into judgmental, consumer/market research, cause-effect and artificial intelligence is proposed. Future research can assess these models qualitatively. Practical implications: Companies are currently motivated to launch new products and thus attract new customers to expand their market share.  In order to reduce uncertainty and risk, many companies go to extra lengths to forecast sales accurately using several techniques. Originality/value: This article outlines new lines of research on the improvement of new product performance which will aid managers in decision making and allow companies to sustain their competitive advantages in this challenging world.

  15. A Review of Decision Support Models for Global Distribution Network Design and Future Model development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reich, Juri; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    We look at the global distribution network design problem and the requirements to solve it. This problem typically involves conflicting goals and a magnitude of interdependent input factors, described by qualitative and quantitative information. Our literature review shows that current models do...

  16. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling and Simulation Approaches: A Systematic Review of Published Models, Applications, and Model Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Jennifer E.; Yu, Jingjing; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of drug disposition has emerged as an important tool in drug development, clinical study design and regulatory review, and the number of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling related publications and regulatory submissions have risen dramatically in recent years. However, the extent of use of PBPK modeling by researchers, and the public availability of models has not been systematically evaluated. This review evaluates PBPK-related publications to 1) identify the common applications of PBPK modeling; 2) determine ways in which models are developed; 3) establish how model quality is assessed; and 4) provide a list of publically available PBPK models for sensitive P450 and transporter substrates as well as selective inhibitors and inducers. PubMed searches were conducted using the terms “PBPK” and “physiologically based pharmacokinetic model” to collect published models. Only papers on PBPK modeling of pharmaceutical agents in humans published in English between 2008 and May 2015 were reviewed. A total of 366 PBPK-related articles met the search criteria, with the number of articles published per year rising steadily. Published models were most commonly used for drug-drug interaction predictions (28%), followed by interindividual variability and general clinical pharmacokinetic predictions (23%), formulation or absorption modeling (12%), and predicting age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and disposition (10%). In total, 106 models of sensitive substrates, inhibitors, and inducers were identified. An in-depth analysis of the model development and verification revealed a lack of consistency in model development and quality assessment practices, demonstrating a need for development of best-practice guidelines. PMID:26296709

  17. Review of SFR Design Safety using Preliminary Regulatory PSA Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hyun Ju; Lee, Yong Suk; Shin, Andong; Suh, Nam Duk

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop a risk model for regulatory verification of the SFR design, and thereby, make sure that the SFR design is adequate from a risk perspective. In this paper, the development result of preliminary regulatory PSA model of SFR is discussed. In this paper, development and quantification result of preliminary regulatory PSA model of SFR is discussed. It was confirmed that the importance PDRC and ADRC dampers is significant as stated in the result of KAERI PSA model. However, the importance can be changed significantly depending on assumption of CCCG and CCF factor of PDRC and ADRC dampers. SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) which is Gen-IV nuclear energy system, is designed to accord with the concept of stability, sustainability and proliferation resistance. KALIMER-600, which is under development in Korea, includes passive safety systems (e. g. passive reactor shutdown, passive residual heat removal, and etc.) as well as active safety systems. Risk analysis from a regulatory perspective is needed to support the regulatory body in its safety and licensing review for SFR (KALIMER-600). Safety issues should be identified in the early design phase in order to prevent the unexpected cost increase and delay of the SFR licensing schedule that may be caused otherwise

  18. Historical Review of the Fluid Percussion TBI Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G Lyeth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major health concern worldwide. Laboratory studies utilizing animal models of TBI are essential for addressing pathological mechanisms of brain injury and development of innovative treatments. Over the past 75 years, pioneering head injury researchers have devised and tested a number of fluid percussive methods to reproduce in animals the concussive clinical syndrome. The fluid percussion brain injury technique has evolved from early investigations that applied a generalized loading of the brain to more recent computer controlled systems. Of the many pre-clinical TBI models, the fluid percussion technique is one of the most extensively characterized and widely used models. Some of the most important advances involved the development of the Stalhammer device to produce concussion in cats and the later characterization of this device for application in rodents. The goal of this historical review is to provide readers with an appreciation for the time and effort expended by the pioneering researchers that have led to today’s state of the art fluid percussion animal models of TBI.

  19. Urban Water Cycle Simulation/Management Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Peña-Guzmán

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management is increasingly important given the need to maintain water resources that comply with global and local standards of quantity and quality. The effective management of water resources requires the optimization of financial resources without forsaking social requirements. A number of mathematical models have been developed for this task; such models account for all components of the Urban Water Cycle (UWC and their interactions. The wide range of models entails the need to understand their differences in an effort to identify their applicability, so academic, state, and private sectors can employ them for environmental, economic, and social ends. This article presents a description of the UWC and relevant components, a literature review of different models developed between 1990 and 2015, and an analysis of several case studies (applications. It was found that most applications are focused on new supply sources, mainly rainwater. In brief, this article provides an overview of each model’s use (primarily within academia and potential use as a decision-making tool.

  20. Systematic review of model-based cervical screening evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Diana; Bains, Iren; Vanni, Tazio; Jit, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Optimising population-based cervical screening policies is becoming more complex due to the expanding range of screening technologies available and the interplay with vaccine-induced changes in epidemiology. Mathematical models are increasingly being applied to assess the impact of cervical cancer screening strategies. We systematically reviewed MEDLINE®, Embase, Web of Science®, EconLit, Health Economic Evaluation Database, and The Cochrane Library databases in order to identify the mathematical models of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer progression used to assess the effectiveness and/or cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening strategies. Key model features and conclusions relevant to decision-making were extracted. We found 153 articles meeting our eligibility criteria published up to May 2013. Most studies (72/153) evaluated the introduction of a new screening technology, with particular focus on the comparison of HPV DNA testing and cytology (n = 58). Twenty-eight in forty of these analyses supported HPV DNA primary screening implementation. A few studies analysed more recent technologies - rapid HPV DNA testing (n = 3), HPV DNA self-sampling (n = 4), and genotyping (n = 1) - and were also supportive of their introduction. However, no study was found on emerging molecular markers and their potential utility in future screening programmes. Most evaluations (113/153) were based on models simulating aggregate groups of women at risk of cervical cancer over time without accounting for HPV infection transmission. Calibration to country-specific outcome data is becoming more common, but has not yet become standard practice. Models of cervical screening are increasingly used, and allow extrapolation of trial data to project the population-level health and economic impact of different screening policy. However, post-vaccination analyses have rarely incorporated transmission dynamics. Model calibration to country

  1. Concise Review: Stem Cell Trials Using Companion Animal Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Andrew M; Dow, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of stem cells in humans would benefit from more realistic animal models. In veterinary medicine, companion animals naturally develop many diseases that resemble human conditions, therefore, representing a novel source of preclinical models. To understand how companion animal disease models are being studied for this purpose, we reviewed the literature between 2008 and 2015 for reports on stem cell therapies in dogs and cats, excluding laboratory animals, induced disease models, cancer, and case reports. Disease models included osteoarthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's fistulas, meningoencephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis-like), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Sjogren's syndrome-like), atopic dermatitis, and chronic (end-stage) kidney disease. Stem cells evaluated in these studies included mesenchymal stem-stromal cells (MSC, 17/19 trials), olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC, 1 trial), or neural lineage cells derived from bone marrow MSC (1 trial), and 16/19 studies were performed in dogs. The MSC studies (13/17) used adipose tissue-derived MSC from either allogeneic (8/13) or autologous (5/13) sources. The majority of studies were open label, uncontrolled studies. Endpoints and protocols were feasible, and the stem cell therapies were reportedly safe and elicited beneficial patient responses in all but two of the trials. In conclusion, companion animals with naturally occurring diseases analogous to human conditions can be recruited into clinical trials and provide realistic insight into feasibility, safety, and biologic activity of novel stem cell therapies. However, improvements in the rigor of manufacturing, study design, and regulatory compliance will be needed to better utilize these models. Stem Cells 2016;34:1709-1729. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Testing flow diversion in animal models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahed, Robert; Raymond, Jean; Ducroux, Célina; Gentric, Jean-Christophe; Salazkin, Igor; Ziegler, Daniela; Gevry, Guylaine; Darsaut, Tim E

    2016-04-01

    Flow diversion (FD) is increasingly used to treat intracranial aneurysms. We sought to systematically review published studies to assess the quality of reporting and summarize the results of FD in various animal models. Databases were searched to retrieve all animal studies on FD from 2000 to 2015. Extracted data included species and aneurysm models, aneurysm and neck dimensions, type of flow diverter, occlusion rates, and complications. Articles were evaluated using a checklist derived from the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Forty-two articles reporting the results of FD in nine different aneurysm models were included. The rabbit elastase-induced aneurysm model was the most commonly used, with 3-month occlusion rates of 73.5%, (95%CI [61.9-82.6%]). FD of surgical sidewall aneurysms, constructed in rabbits or canines, resulted in high occlusion rates (100% [65.5-100%]). FD resulted in modest occlusion rates (15.4% [8.9-25.1%]) when tested in six complex canine aneurysm models designed to reproduce more difficult clinical contexts (large necks, bifurcation, or fusiform aneurysms). Adverse events, including branch occlusion, were rarely reported. There were no hemorrhagic complications. Articles complied with 20.8 ± 3.9 of 41 ARRIVE items; only a small number used randomization (3/42 articles [7.1%]) or a control group (13/42 articles [30.9%]). Preclinical studies on FD have shown various results. Occlusion of elastase-induced aneurysms was common after FD. The model is not challenging but standardized in many laboratories. Failures of FD can be reproduced in less standardized but more challenging surgical canine constructions. The quality of reporting could be improved.

  3. BMDS 2.0 BETA WITH NEW QUANTAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT EXTERNAL REVIEW REPORTS AND SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the availability of BMDS 2.0 on the BMDS web site, EPA is providing (a) results of the external review (charge to reviewers and reviewer comments), (b) EPA responses to the review comments, and (c) a report describing development and testing of the models in BMDS 2.0 with ne...

  4. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Mohsen Ali; Mohaidin, Zurina

    2017-01-01

    To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the 'persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model', the stimuli-response marketing model', the 'agency theory', the theory of planned behaviour,' and 'social power theory,' in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.

  5. [Measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Qing; Wei, Shu-Jing; Jin, Sen; Sun, Long

    2012-05-01

    Forest fire is the main disturbance factor for forest ecosystem, and an important pathway of the decrease of vegetation- and soil carbon storage. Large amount of carbonaceous gases in forest fire can release into atmosphere, giving remarkable impacts on the atmospheric carbon balance and global climate change. To scientifically and effectively measure the carbonaceous gases emission from forest fire is of importance in understanding the significance of forest fire in the carbon balance and climate change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire, which covered three critical issues, i. e., measurement methods of forest fire-induced total carbon emission and carbonaceous gases emission, affecting factors and measurement parameters of measurement model, and cause analysis of the uncertainty in the measurement of the carbon emissions. Three path selections to improve the quantitative measurement of the carbon emissions were proposed, i. e., using high resolution remote sensing data and improving algorithm and estimation accuracy of burned area in combining with effective fuel measurement model to improve the accuracy of the estimated fuel load, using high resolution remote sensing images combined with indoor controlled environment experiments, field measurements, and field ground surveys to determine the combustion efficiency, and combining indoor controlled environment experiments with field air sampling to determine the emission factors and emission ratio.

  6. Stem cells in animal asthma models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, Nadim; Thébaud, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    Asthma control frequently falls short of the goals set in international guidelines. Treatment options for patients with poorly controlled asthma despite inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonists are limited, and new therapeutic options are needed. Stem cell therapy is promising for a variety of disorders but there has been no human clinical trial of stem cell therapy for asthma. We aimed to systematically review the literature regarding the potential benefits of stem cell therapy in animal models of asthma to determine whether a human trial is warranted. The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for original studies of stem cell therapy in animal asthma models. Nineteen studies were selected. They were found to be heterogeneous in their design. Mesenchymal stromal cells were used before sensitization with an allergen, before challenge with the allergen and after challenge, most frequently with ovalbumin, and mainly in BALB/c mice. Stem cell therapy resulted in a reduction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid inflammation and eosinophilia as well as Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 and interleukin-5. Improvement in histopathology such as peribronchial and perivascular inflammation, epithelial thickness, goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle layer thickening was universal. Several studies showed a reduction in airway hyper-responsiveness. Stem cell therapy decreases eosinophilic and Th2 inflammation and is effective in several phases of the allergic response in animal asthma models. Further study is warranted, up to human clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A biopsychosocial model of violence when sleepwalking: review and reconceptualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallman, Helen M; Bari, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Violence towards others during sleepwalking is relatively uncommon, but can result in serious injury or even death. Much of the research in this field has focused on the forensic consequences of violence during sleepwalking without sufficient attention to an understanding of the risk factors for violence during sleepwalking and the development of prevention and interventions based on these risk factors. This paper reviews the characteristics of impulsive violence in general and reconceptualises violence during sleepwalking as an extension of this prior vulnerability. We propose a biopsychosocial model of the risk for violence during sleepwalking that is supported through a review of empirical literature both within sleepwalking and violent behaviour more generally. Biological, psychological and social risk factors are hypothesised to mediate the relationship between sleepwalking and violence. Implications for prevention and treatment of this potentially fatal problem are discussed. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  8. UNDERSTANDING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION. LITERATURE REVIEW OF COMPETING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991, the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980 and the theory of technology acceptance model (Davis, 1989 in order to better perceive their possible future application in the marketing field, namely in the process of using electronic commerce at the organizational level. While previous empirical studies have focused primarily on one of the theories, in an attempt to rule the advantages and / or disadvantages which would support the findings and hypothesis presented, it is the authors’ belief that all three theories greatly contribute, each one in a unique way. However, several pitfalls in methodology may be encountered, therefore further empirical research is required.

  9. Technology, applications and modelling of ohmic heating: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, K Shiby; Pandey, M C; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2014-10-01

    Ohmic heating or Joule heating has immense potential for achieving rapid and uniform heating in foods, providing microbiologically safe and high quality foods. This review discusses the technology behind ohmic heating, the current applications and thermal modeling of the process. The success of ohmic heating depends on the rate of heat generation in the system, the electrical conductivity of the food, electrical field strength, residence time and the method by which the food flows through the system. Ohmic heating is appropriate for processing of particulate and protein rich foods. A vast amount of work is still necessary to understand food properties in order to refine system design and maximize performance of this technology in the field of packaged foods and space food product development. Various economic studies will also play an important role in understanding the overall cost and viability of commercial application of this technology in food processing. Some of the demerits of the technology are also discussed.

  10. WHEN MODEL MEETS REALITY – A REVIEW OF SPAR LEVEL 2 MODEL AGAINST FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhegang Ma

    2013-09-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models are a set of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the risk of operations at U.S. nuclear power plants and provide inputs to risk informed regulatory process. A small number of SPAR Level 2 models have been developed mostly for feasibility study purpose. They extend the Level 1 models to include containment systems, group plant damage states, and model containment phenomenology and accident progression in containment event trees. A severe earthquake and tsunami hit the eastern coast of Japan in March 2011 and caused significant damages on the reactors in Fukushima Daiichi site. Station blackout (SBO), core damage, containment damage, hydrogen explosion, and intensive radioactivity release, which have been previous analyzed and assumed as postulated accident progression in PRA models, now occurred with various degrees in the multi-units Fukushima Daiichi site. This paper reviews and compares a typical BWR SPAR Level 2 model with the “real” accident progressions and sequences occurred in Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3. It shows that the SPAR Level 2 model is a robust PRA model that could very reasonably describe the accident progression for a real and complicated nuclear accident in the world. On the other hand, the comparison shows that the SPAR model could be enhanced by incorporating some accident characteristics for better representation of severe accident progression.

  11. Erosion and Sediment Transport Modelling in Shallow Waters: A Review on Approaches, Models and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajigholizadeh, Mohammad; Melesse, Assefa M; Fuentes, Hector R

    2018-03-14

    The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent. This paper attempts to review the related literature concerning sediment transport modelling in shallow waters. A classification based on the representational processes of the soil erosion and sediment transport models (empirical, conceptual, physical and hybrid) is adopted, and the commonly-used models and their characteristics are listed. This review is expected to be of interest to researchers and soil and water conservation managers who are working on erosion and sediment transport phenomena in shallow waters. The paper format should be helpful for practitioners to identify and generally characterize the types of available models, their strengths and their basic scope of applicability.

  12. Modeling urban building energy use: A review of modeling approaches and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenliang; Zhou, Yuyu; Cetin, Kristen; Eom, Jiyong; Wang, Yu; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Xuesong

    2017-12-01

    With rapid urbanization and economic development, the world has been experiencing an unprecedented increase in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions is a common interest shared by major developed and developing countries, actions to enable these global reductions are generally implemented at the city scale. This is because baseline information from individual cities plays an important role in identifying economical options for improving building energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Numerous approaches have been proposed for modeling urban building energy use in the past decades. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the broad categories of energy models for urban buildings and describes the basic workflow of physics-based, bottom-up models and their applications in simulating urban-scale building energy use. Because there are significant differences across models with varied potential for application, strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed models are also presented. This is followed by a discussion of challenging issues associated with model preparation and calibration.

  13. Erosion and Sediment Transport Modelling in Shallow Waters: A Review on Approaches, Models and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Hector R.

    2018-01-01

    The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent. This paper attempts to review the related literature concerning sediment transport modelling in shallow waters. A classification based on the representational processes of the soil erosion and sediment transport models (empirical, conceptual, physical and hybrid) is adopted, and the commonly-used models and their characteristics are listed. This review is expected to be of interest to researchers and soil and water conservation managers who are working on erosion and sediment transport phenomena in shallow waters. The paper format should be helpful for practitioners to identify and generally characterize the types of available models, their strengths and their basic scope of applicability. PMID:29538335

  14. Prioritizing alarms from sensor-based detection models in livestock production - A review on model performance and alarm reducing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Katarina Sylow; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this review is to present, evaluate and discuss methods for reducing false alarms in sensor-based detection models developed for livestock production as described in the scientific literature. Papers included in this review are all peer-reviewed and present sensor-based detection...

  15. The Sequential Intercept Model and Juvenile Justice: Review and Prospectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbrun, Kirk; Goldstein, Naomi E S; DeMatteo, David; Newsham, Rebecca; Gale-Bentz, Elizabeth; Cole, Lindsay; Arnold, Shelby

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral health needs in justice-involved adolescents are an increasing concern, as it has been estimated that two-thirds of youths in the juvenile justice system now meet the criteria for one or more psychological disorders. This article describes the application of the Sequential Intercept Model (SIM), developed to describe five "points of interception" from standard prosecution into rehabilitation-oriented alternatives for adults (Munetz & Griffin, 2006), to juvenile justice. The five SIM intercepts are: (1) first contact with law enforcement or emergency services; (2) initial hearings and detention following arrest; (3) jails and courts (including problem-solving courts); (4) re-entry from jails, prisons and forensic hospitals; and (5) community corrections and community support, including probation and parole. Modifying the SIM for application with justice-involved adolescents, this article describes three examples of interventions at different intercepts: Intercept 1 (the Philadelphia Police School Diversion Program), Intercept 3 (problem-solving courts for juveniles), and Intercept 5 (juvenile probation). Relevant research evidence for each example is reviewed, and the further application of this model to juveniles is described. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murshid M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the ‘persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model’, the stimuli–response marketing model’, the ‘agency theory’, the theory of planned behaviour,’ and ‘social power theory,’ in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.

  17. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidin, Zurina

    2017-01-01

    To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the ‘persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model’, the stimuli–response marketing model’, the ‘agency theory’, the theory of planned behaviour,’ and ‘social power theory,’ in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research. PMID:28690701

  18. Sorption isotherms: A review on physical bases, modeling and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, G. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France) and Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: guillaumelimousin@yahoo.fr; Gaudet, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Techtonophysique - CNRS-IRD-LCPC-UJF-Universite de Savoie, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Szenknect, S. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barthes, V. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Krimissa, M. [Electricite de France, Division Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et d' Environnement - P78, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2007-02-15

    The retention (or release) of a liquid compound on a solid controls the mobility of many substances in the environment and has been quantified in terms of the 'sorption isotherm'. This paper does not review the different sorption mechanisms. It presents the physical bases underlying the definition of a sorption isotherm, different empirical or mechanistic models, and details several experimental methods to acquire a sorption isotherm. For appropriate measurements and interpretations of isotherm data, this review emphasizes 4 main points: (i) the adsorption (or desorption) isotherm does not provide automatically any information about the reactions involved in the sorption phenomenon. So, mechanistic interpretations must be carefully verified. (ii) Among studies, the range of reaction times is extremely wide and this can lead to misinterpretations regarding the irreversibility of the reaction: a pseudo-hysteresis of the release compared with the retention is often observed. The comparison between the mean characteristic time of the reaction and the mean residence time of the mobile phase in the natural system allows knowing if the studied retention/release phenomenon should be considered as an instantaneous reversible, almost irreversible phenomenon, or if reaction kinetics must be taken into account. (iii) When the concentration of the retained substance is low enough, the composition of the bulk solution remains constant and a single-species isotherm is often sufficient, although it remains strongly dependent on the background medium. At higher concentrations, sorption may be driven by the competition between several species that affect the composition of the bulk solution. (iv) The measurement method has a great influence. Particularly, the background ionic medium, the solid/solution ratio and the use of flow-through or closed reactor are of major importance. The chosen method should balance easy-to-use features and representativity of the studied

  19. Description of a practice model for pharmacist medication review in a general practice setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mette; Hallas, Jesper; Hansen, Trine Graabæk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practical descriptions of procedures used for pharmacists' medication reviews are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To describe a model for medication review by pharmacists tailored to a general practice setting. METHODS: A stepwise model is described. The model is based on data from the medical chart...... no indication (n=47, 23%). Most interventions were aimed at cardiovascular drugs. CONCLUSION: We have provided a detailed description of a practical approach to pharmacists' medication review in a GP setting. The model was tested and found to be usable, and to deliver a medication review with high acceptance...

  20. Tissue mechanics, animal models, and pelvic organ prolapse: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitch, Steven D; Feola, Andrew; Jallah, Zegbeh; Moalli, Pamela A

    2009-05-01

    Pelvic floor disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse, urinary incontinence, and fecal incontinence affect a large number of women each year. The pelvic floor can be thought of as a biomechanical structure due to the complex interaction between the vagina and its supportive structures that are designed to withstand the downward descent of the pelvic organs in response to increases in abdominal pressure. Although previous work has highlighted the biochemical changes that are associated with specific risk factors (i.e. parity, menopause, and genetics), little work has been done to understand the biomechanical changes that occur within the vagina and its supportive structures to prevent the onset of these pelvic floor disorders. Human studies are often limited due to the challenges of obtaining large tissue samples and ethical concerns. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the use of animal models and their importance in understanding how different risk factors affect the biomechanical properties of the vagina and its supportive structures. In this review paper, we will discuss the different animal models that have been previously used to characterize the biomechanical properties of the vagina: including non-human primates, rodents, rabbits, and sheep. The anatomy and preliminary biomechanical findings are discussed along with the importance of considering experimental conditions, tissue anisotropy, and viscoelasticity when characterizing the biomechanical properties of vaginal tissue. Although there is not a lot of biomechanics research related to the vagina and pelvic floor, the future is exciting due to the significant potential for scientific findings that will improve our understanding of these conditions and hopefully lead to improvements in the prevention and treatment of pelvic disorders.

  1. A Brief Review on Leading Big Data Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugam Sharma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, science is passing through an era of transformation, where the inundation of data, dubbed data deluge is influencing the decision making process. The science is driven by the data and is being termed as data science. In this internet age, the volume of the data has grown up to petabytes, and this large, complex, structured or unstructured, and heterogeneous data in the form of “Big Data” has gained significant attention. The rapid pace of data growth through various disparate sources, especially social media such as Facebook, has seriously challenged the data analytic capabilities of traditional relational databases. The velocity of the expansion of the amount of data gives rise to a complete paradigm shift in how new age data is processed. Confidence in the data engineering of the existing data processing systems is gradually fading whereas the capabilities of the new techniques for capturing, storing, visualizing, and analyzing data are evolving. In this review paper, we discuss some of the modern Big Data models that are leading contributors in the NoSQL era and claim to address Big Data challenges in reliable and efficient ways. Also, we take the potential of Big Data into consideration and try to reshape the original operationaloriented definition of “Big Science” (Furner, 2003 into a new data-driven definition and rephrase it as “The science that deals with Big Data is Big Science.”

  2. Membranes and theoretical modeling of membrane distillation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayet, Mohamed

    2011-05-11

    Membrane distillation (MD) is one of the non-isothermal membrane separation processes used in various applications such desalination, environmental/waste cleanup, food, etc. It is known since 1963 and is still being developed at laboratory stage for different purposes and not fully implemented in industry. An abrupt increase in the number of papers on MD membrane engineering (i.e. design, fabrication and testing in MD) is seen since only 6 years ago. The present paper offers a comprehensive MD state-of-the-art review covering a wide range of commercial membranes, MD membrane engineering, their MD performance, transport mechanisms, experimental and theoretical modeling of different MD configurations as well as recent developments in MD. Improved MD membranes with specific morphology, micro- and nano-structures are highly demanded. Membranes with different pore sizes, porosities, thicknesses and materials as well as novel structures are required in order to carry out systematic MD studies for better understanding mass transport in different MD configurations, thereby improving the MD performance and looking for MD industrialization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. From in silico astrocyte cell models to neuron-astrocyte network models: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschmann, Franziska; Berry, Hugues; Obermayer, Klaus; Lenk, Kerstin

    2018-01-01

    The idea that astrocytes may be active partners in synaptic information processing has recently emerged from abundant experimental reports. Because of their spatial proximity to neurons and their bidirectional communication with them, astrocytes are now considered as an important third element of the synapse. Astrocytes integrate and process synaptic information and by doing so generate cytosolic calcium signals that are believed to reflect neuronal transmitter release. Moreover, they regulate neuronal information transmission by releasing gliotransmitters into the synaptic cleft affecting both pre- and postsynaptic receptors. Concurrent with the first experimental reports of the astrocytic impact on neural network dynamics, computational models describing astrocytic functions have been developed. In this review, we give an overview over the published computational models of astrocytic functions, from single-cell dynamics to the tripartite synapse level and network models of astrocytes and neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The pipe model theory half a century on: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnebach, Romain; Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Heuret, Patrick

    2018-01-23

    More than a half century ago, Shinozaki et al. (Shinozaki K, Yoda K, Hozumi K, Kira T. 1964b. A quantitative analysis of plant form - the pipe model theory. II. Further evidence of the theory and its application in forest ecology. Japanese Journal of Ecology14: 133-139) proposed an elegant conceptual framework, the pipe model theory (PMT), to interpret the observed linear relationship between the amount of stem tissue and corresponding supported leaves. The PMT brought a satisfactory answer to two vividly debated problems that were unresolved at the moment of its publication: (1) What determines tree form and which rules drive biomass allocation to the foliar versus stem compartments in plants? (2) How can foliar area or mass in an individual plant, in a stand or at even larger scales be estimated? Since its initial formulation, the PMT has been reinterpreted and used in applications, and has undoubtedly become an important milestone in the mathematical interpretation of plant form and functioning. This article aims to review the PMT by going back to its initial formulation, stating its explicit and implicit properties and discussing them in the light of current biological knowledge and experimental evidence in order to identify the validity and range of applicability of the theory. We also discuss the use of the theory in tree biomechanics and hydraulics as well as in functional-structural plant modelling. Scrutinizing the PMT in the light of modern biological knowledge revealed that most of its properties are not valid as a general rule. The hydraulic framework derived from the PMT has attracted much more attention than its mechanical counterpart and implies that only the conductive portion of a stem cross-section should be proportional to the supported foliage amount rather than the whole of it. The facts that this conductive portion is experimentally difficult to measure and varies with environmental conditions and tree ontogeny might cause the commonly

  5. Book Review of 'Modelling for Field Biologists and Other Interesting People' by Kokko, H

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article provides a review of the book, Modelling for Field Biologists and Other Interesting People, written by Hanna Kokko. The review is structured from the perspective of general interest in the topic rather than an assessment of the deep technical merits of the book. The review will be publ...

  6. A Scoping Review: Conceptualizations and Pedagogical Models of Learning in Nursing Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikela, Paula; Teräs, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Simulations have been implemented globally in nursing education for years with diverse conceptual foundations. The aim of this scoping review is to examine the literature regarding the conceptualizations of learning and pedagogical models in nursing simulations. A scoping review of peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2013 was…

  7. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released an external review draft entitled, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios(External Review Draft). The public comment period and the external peer-review workshop are separate processes that provide opportunities ...

  8. A Review of Accident Modelling Approaches for Complex Critical Sociotechnical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qureshi, Zahid H

    2008-01-01

    .... This report provides a review of key traditional accident modelling approaches and their limitations, and describes new system-theoretic approaches to the modelling and analysis of accidents in safety-critical systems...

  9. Demonstrating sustainable energy: A review-based model of sustainable energy demonstration projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a model of sustainable energy demonstration projects, based on a review of 229 scientific publications on demonstrations in renewable and sustainable energy. The model addresses the basic organizational characteristics (aim, cooperative form, and physical location) and learning

  10. Evaluation of the Service Review Model with Performance Scorecards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Thomas G.; Williams, W. Larry; Rafacz, Sharlet D.; Newsome, William; Lydon, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study combined a management technique termed "Service Review" with performance scorecards to enhance staff and consumer behavior in a human service setting consisting of 11 supervisors and 56 front-line staff working with 9 adult consumers with challenging behaviors. Results of our intervention showed that service review and…

  11. Modeling and analyzing of nuclear power peer review on enterprise operational efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songbai; Xu Yuhu

    2007-01-01

    Based on the practice and analysis of peer review in nuclear power plants, the models on the Pareto improvement of peer review, and governance entropy decrease of peer review are set up and discussed. It shows that the peer review of nuclear power is actually a process of Pareto improvement, and of governance entropy decrease. It's a process of improvement of the enterprise operational efficiency. (authors)

  12. Modelling water use in global hydrological models: review, challenges and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, M. F.; de Graaf, I.; Wada, Y.; Wanders, N.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2017-12-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s, awareness of the shortage of global water resources lead to the first detailed global water resources assessments using regional statistics of water use and observations of meteorological and hydrological variables. Shortly thereafter, the first macroscale hydrological models (MHM) appeared. In these models, blue water (i.e., surface water and renewable groundwater) availability was calculated by accumulating runoff over a stream network and comparing it with population densities or with estimated water demand for agriculture, industry and households. In this talk we review the evolution of human impact modelling in global land models with a focus on global water resources, touching upon developments of the last 15 years: i.e. calculating human water scarcity; estimating groundwater depletion; adding dams and reservoirs; fully integrating water use (demand, withdrawal, consumption, return flow) in the hydrology; simulating the effects of land use change. We show example studies for each of these steps. We identify We identify major challenges that hamper the further development of integrated water resources modelling. Examples of these are: 1) simulating reservoir operations; 2) including local infrastructure and redistribution; 3) using the correct allocations rules; 4) projecting future water demand and water use. For each of these challenges we signify promising directions for further research.

  13. A review of recent advances in numerical modelling of local scour problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    A review is presented of recent advances in numerical modelling of local scour problems. The review is organized in five sections: Highlights of numerical modelling of local scour; Influence of turbulence on scour; Backfilling of scour holes; Scour around complex structures; and Scour protection ...

  14. Review of regional economic models with special reference to labor impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, G.; Mason, B.

    1979-06-01

    This paper reviews several regional economic models and examines the capabilities of these models for assessing the total employment impacts of solar energy adoption. Five generic analytic methods are discussed: economic base analysis, shift-share analysis, demographic-economic interaction models, input-output analysis, and industrial location analysis. Ten regional models incorporating some aspect of these methods are reviewed. From the model review, the conclusion is drawn that there is no single model that fits all of the necessary criteria for planned research efforts. Models that appear to hold promise are the Economic Activity Analysis (EAA) Model, the Regional Industrial Multipliers System (RIMS), the Multiregion, Multi-industry (MRMI) Model, and the MULTIREGION model.

  15. K. Sridhar Moorthy's Theoretical Modelling in Marketing - A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling has become a visible tool in many disciplines including marketing and several marketing models have been constructed. These models serve their pedagogical and practical purposes in some cases. However, among the marketing models so often cited is Moorthy‟s Theoretical Modelling in Marketing.

  16. Pharmacist-Led Home Medicines Review and Residential Medication Management Review: The Australian Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Timothy F

    2016-03-01

    Older people are often prescribed multiple medicines and have a high prevalence of polypharmacy. Polypharmacy is associated with an increased risk of inappropriate use of medicines and drug-related problems. As experts in pharmacotherapy, pharmacists are well placed to review complex medication regimens and identify causes of drug-related problems and recommend solutions to prevent or resolve them. Involvement in medication review services represents a major philosophical shift and paradigm change in the way pharmacists practice, in that the focus is shifted away from the dispensing of prescription medicines to the provision of a professional service for a patient, in collaboration with their general practitioner (GP). In Australia, there are two established medication review programs: Home Medicines Review (HMR) and Residential Medication Management Review (RMMR). The objectives of this article were to describe the process of government-funded medication review services in Australia and to evaluate the contribution of pharmacists to HMR and RMMR, using evidence-based measures, such as the Drug Burden Index (DBI) and the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI). This review found that there is good evidence to support the role of pharmacists in delivering medication review services across different settings. Although the positive impact of such services has been demonstrated using a variety of validated measures (DBI, MAI), there remains a need to also evaluate actual clinical outcomes and/or patient-reported outcomes.

  17. Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-26

    The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to

  18. Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

    2013-01-01

    The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations

  19. Modeling for Deformable Body and Motion Analysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailang Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the modeling methods for deformable human body and motion analysis in the recent 30 years. First, elementary knowledge of human expression and modeling is introduced. Then, typical human modeling technologies, including 2D model, 3D surface model, and geometry-based, physics-based, and anatomy-based approaches, and model-based motion analysis are summarized. Characteristics of these technologies are analyzed. The technology accumulation in the field is outlined for an overview.

  20. K. Sridhar Moorthy's Theoretical Modelling in Marketing - A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Avoidance learning: a review of theoretical models and recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance is a key characteristic of adaptive and maladaptive fear. Here, we review past and contemporary theories of avoidance learning. Based on the theories, experimental findings and clinical observations reviewed, we distill key principles of how adaptive and maladaptive avoidance behavior is acquired and maintained. We highlight clinical implications of avoidance learning theories and describe intervention strategies that could reduce maladaptive avoidance and prevent its return. We end with a brief overview of recent developments and avenues for further research. PMID:26257618

  2. A review of modelling the interaction between natural organic matter and metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report reviews techniques available to model the interaction between natural organic matter (mainly fulvic and humic acids) and metal cations and protons. A comprehensive overview over the properties of natural organic matter is given and experimental techniques are presented briefly. Two major concepts of modelling have been identified: discrete ligand models and continuous distribution model. Different modelling approaches like Discrete Ligand Models (s.s.), Random-Structure Model, Affinity Spectra, Statistical Distribution Models, Continuous Stability Function Models and surface sorption models and their advantages/disadvantages are discussed. (author)

  3. Aspect-Aware Latent Factor Model: Rating Prediction with Ratings and Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zhiyong; Ding, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Kankanhalli, Mohan

    2018-01-01

    Although latent factor models (e.g., matrix factorization) achieve good accuracy in rating prediction, they suffer from several problems including cold-start, non-transparency, and suboptimal recommendation for local users or items. In this paper, we employ textual review information with ratings to tackle these limitations. Firstly, we apply a proposed aspect-aware topic model (ATM) on the review text to model user preferences and item features from different aspects, and estimate the aspect...

  4. Expert initial review of Columbia River Basin salmonid management models: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1993-10-01

    Over the past years, several fish passage models have been developed to examine the downstream survival of salmon during their annual migration through the Columbia River reservoir system to below Bonneville Dam. More recently, models have been created to simulate the survival of salmon throughout the entire life cycle. The models are used by various regional agencies and native American tribes to assess impacts of dam operation, harvesting, and predation on salmonid abundance. These models are now also being used to assess extinction probabilities and evaluate restoration alternatives for threatened and endangered salmonid stocks. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) coordinated an initial evaluation of the principal models by a panel of outside, expert reviewers. None of the models were unequivocally endorsed by any reviewer. Significant strengths and weaknesses were noted for each with respect to reasonability of assumptions and equations, adequacy of documentation, adequacy of supporting data, and calibration procedures. Although the models reviewed differ in some important respects, all reflect a common conceptual basis in classical population dynamic theory and a common empirical basis consisting of the available time series of salmonid stock data, hydrographic records, experimental studies of dam passage parameters, and measurements of reservoir mortality. The results of this initial review are not to be construed as a comprehensive scientific peer review of existing Columbia River Basin (CRB) salmon population models and data. The peer review process can be enhanced further by a dynamic exchange regional modelers and scientific panel experts involving interaction and feedback

  5. Review of early assessment models of innovative medical technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasterholdt, Iben; Krahn, Murray D; Kidholm, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hospitals increasingly make decisions regarding the early development of and investment in technologies, but a formal evaluation model for assisting hospitals early on in assessing the potential of innovative medical technologies is lacking. This article provides an overview of models...... methods assessing cost-effectiveness are most prevalent in early assessment, but seems ill-suited for early assessment in hospitals. Four models provided some usable elements for the development of a hospital-based model....

  6. Review Genetic prediction models and heritability estimates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edward

    2015-05-09

    May 9, 2015 ... cattle in South Africa. Linear models, random regression (RR) models, threshold models (TMs) and ...... Heritability for longevity has been estimated with TMs in Canadian Holsteins (Boettcher et al., 1999),. Spanish ... simulation to incorporate the tri-gamma function (γ) as used by Sasaki et al. (2012) and ...

  7. Review of forest landscape models: types, methods, development and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin Xi; Robert N. Coulson; Andrew G. Birt; Zong-Bo Shang; John D. Waldron; Charles W. Lafon; David M. Cairns; Maria D. Tchakerian; Kier D. Klepzig

    2009-01-01

    Forest landscape models simulate forest change through time using spatially referenced data across a broad spatial scale (i.e. landscape scale) generally larger than a single forest stand. Spatial interactions between forest stands are a key component of such models. These models can incorporate other spatio-temporal processes such as...

  8. Olfactory-Induced Synesthesias: A Review and Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Tomiczek, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Recent reviews of synesthesia concentrate upon rare neurodevelopmental examples and exclude common olfactory-induced experiences with which they may profitably be compared. Like the neurodevelopmental synesthesias, odor-induced experiences involve different sensory modalities; are reliable, asymmetric (concurrents cannot induce), and automatic;…

  9. Cooperation in stochastic inventory models with continuous review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; Chessa, Michela; Timmer, Judith B.

    Consider multiple companies that continuously review their inventories and face Poisson demand. We study cooperation strategies for these companies and analyse if there exist allocations of the joint cost such that any company has lower costs than on its own; such allocations are called stable cost

  10. Do Cochrane reviews provide a good model for social science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Merete; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    to conclude that the majority of reviews appears limited to considering randomised controlled trials only. Because recent studies have delineated conditions for observational studies in social research to produce valid evidence, we argue that an inclusive approach is essential for truly evidence-based policy...

  11. Review of potential models for UF6 dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, R.I.; Lewellen, W.S.

    1992-07-01

    A survey of existing atmospheric dispersion models has been conducted to determine the most appropriate basis for the development of a model for predicting the consequences of an accidental UF 6 release. The model is required for safety analysis studies and should therefore be computationally efficient. The release of UF 6 involves a number of physical phenomena which make the situation more complicated than passive dispersion of a trace gas. The safety analysis must consider the density variations in the UF 6 cloud, which can be heavier or lighter than the ambient air. The release also involves rapid chemical reactions and associated heat release, which must be modeled. Other Department of Energy storage facilities require a dense gas prediction capability, so the model must be sufficiently general for use with a variety of release scenarios. The special problems associated with UF 6 make it unique, so there are very few models with existing capability for the problem. There are, however, a large number of dense gas dispersion models, some with relevant chemical reaction modeling, that could potentially form the basis of an advanced UF 6 model. We have examined a large selection of possible candidates, and selected 5 models for detailed consideration

  12. Systems Models in Educational Research: A Review and Realignment in the Context of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nicolette

    2015-01-01

    System models are commonly used in tertiary education as a mechanism for describing the interacting components of educational phenomena, but have hitherto been uncritically accepted. This paper provides a critical review of existing systems models, including the 3P model defined Biggs, and outlines their conceptual challenges. A revised model…

  13. Multi-Level Model of Contextual Factors and Teachers' Assessment Practices: An Integrative Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Lee, Iris C. H.; Tan, Kelvin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-level model of contextual factors that may influence teachers' assessment practices, and use this model in a selected review of existing literature on teachers' assessment knowledge, views and conceptions with respect to these contextual factors. Adapting Kozma's model, we distinguish three levels of influence on teachers'…

  14. A Systematic Literature Review of Agile Maturity Model Research

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan Henriques; Maureen Tanner

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim/Purpose: A commonly implemented software process improvement framework is the capability maturity model integrated (CMMI). Existing literature indicates higher levels of CMMI maturity could result in a loss of agility due to its organizational focus. To maintain agility, research has focussed attention on agile maturity models. The objective of this paper is to find the common research themes and conclusions in agile maturity model research. Methodology: This research adop...

  15. Acoustic Modeling of Lightweight Structures: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shasha; Shen, Cheng

    2017-10-01

    This paper gives an overview of acoustic modeling for three kinds of typical lightweight structures including double-leaf plate system, stiffened single (or double) plate and porous material. Classical models are citied to provide frame work of theoretical modeling for acoustic property of lightweight structures; important research advances derived by our research group and other authors are introduced to describe the current state of art for acoustic research. Finally, remaining problems and future research directions are concluded and prospected briefly

  16. Phenomenological Models for Landscape Signatures: Review and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballard, Jerrell

    2004-01-01

    ... sensors that are commonly applied to the mine detection problem (either surface or buried). The report lists important predictive high-resolution atmospheric, environmental, and geophysical models...

  17. Review: Modelling of meniscus of knee joint during soccer kicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib, Mohd; Firdaus Jaafar, Mohd

    2013-12-01

    Knee is a part of the body that located between thigh and shank is one of the most complicated and largest joints in the human body. The common injuries that occur are ligaments, meniscus or bone fracture. During soccer games, the knee is the most critical part that will easily injure due to the shock from an external impact. Torn meniscus is one of the effects. This study will investigate the effect towards the meniscus within the knee joint during soccer ball kicking. We conduct a literary review of 14 journals that discuss the general view of meniscus and also soccer kicking. The selected topics for this review paper are meniscal function, meniscal movement, meniscal tears and also instep kick. As a finding, statistics show that most meniscal tears (73%) occurred in athletes who were soccer players, basketball players or skiers. The tear is frequently happening at the medial side rather than lateral side with a percentage of 70%.

  18. Scientific and technical advisory committee review of the nutrient inputs to the watershed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following is a report by a STAC Review Team concerning the methods and documentation used by the Chesapeake Bay Partnership for evaluation of nutrient inputs to Phase 6 of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model. The “STAC Review of the Nutrient Inputs to the Watershed Model” (previously referred to...

  19. A code reviewer assignment model incorporating the competence differences and participant preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanqing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A good assignment of code reviewers can effectively utilize the intellectual resources, assure code quality and improve programmers’ skills in software development. However, little research on reviewer assignment of code review has been found. In this study, a code reviewer assignment model is created based on participants’ preference to reviewing assignment. With a constraint of the smallest size of a review group, the model is optimized to maximize review outcomes and avoid the negative impact of “mutual admiration society”. This study shows that the reviewer assignment strategies incorporating either the reviewers’ preferences or the authors’ preferences get much improvement than a random assignment. The strategy incorporating authors’ preference makes higher improvement than that incorporating reviewers’ preference. However, when the reviewers’ and authors’ preference matrixes are merged, the improvement becomes moderate. The study indicates that the majority of the participants have a strong wish to work with reviewers and authors having highest competence. If we want to satisfy the preference of both reviewers and authors at the same time, the overall improvement of learning outcomes may be not the best.

  20. The Revised Hierarchical Model: A critical review and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroll, J.F.; Hell, J.G. van; Tokowicz, N.; Green, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Brysbaert and Duyck (this issue) suggest that it is time to abandon the Revised Hierarchical Model (Kroll and Stewart, 1994) in favor of connectionist models such as BIA+ (Dijkstra and Van Heuven, 2002) that more accurately account for the recent evidence on non-selective access in bilingual word

  1. A review of modeling approaches in activated sludge systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feasibility of using models to understand processes, predict and/or simulate, control, monitor and optimize WasteWater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) has been explored by a number of researchers. Mathematical modeling provides a powerful tool for design, operational assistance, forecast future behavior and control.

  2. A review of distributed parameter groundwater management modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Steven M.

    1983-01-01

    Models which solve the governing groundwater flow or solute transport equations in conjunction with optimization techniques, such as linear and quadratic programing, are powerful aquifer management tools. Groundwater management models fall in two general categories: hydraulics or policy evaluation and water allocation. Groundwater hydraulic management models enable the determination of optimal locations and pumping rates of numerous wells under a variety of restrictions placed upon local drawdown, hydraulic gradients, and water production targets. Groundwater policy evaluation and allocation models can be used to study the influence upon regional groundwater use of institutional policies such as taxes and quotas. Furthermore, fairly complex groundwater-surface water allocation problems can be handled using system decomposition and multilevel optimization. Experience from the few real world applications of groundwater optimization-management techniques is summarized. Classified separately are methods for groundwater quality management aimed at optimal waste disposal in the subsurface. This classification is composed of steady state and transient management models that determine disposal patterns in such a way that water quality is protected at supply locations. Classes of research missing from the literature are groundwater quality management models involving nonlinear constraints, models which join groundwater hydraulic and quality simulations with political-economic management considerations, and management models that include parameter uncertainty.

  3. Modelling of radionuclide transport in forests: Review and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, G.; Schell, W.; Linkov, I.

    1997-01-01

    Ecological modeling is a powerful tool which can be used to synthesize information on the dynamic processes which occur in ecosystems. Models of radionuclide transport in forests were first constructed in the mid-1960's, when the consequences of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests and waste disposal in the environment were of great concern. Such models were developed based on site-specific experimental data and were designed to address local needs. These models had a limited applicability in evaluating distinct ecosystems and deposition scenarios. Given the scarcity of information, the same experimental data sets were often used both for model calibration and validation, an approach which clearly constitutes a methodological error. Even though the carry modeling attempts were far from being faultless, they established a useful conceptual approach in that they tried to capture general processes in ecosystems and thus had a holistic nature. Later, radioecological modeling attempted to reveal ecosystem properties by separating the component parts from the whole system, as an approach to simplification. This method worked well for radionuclide transport in agricultural ecosystems, in which the biogeochemistry of radionuclide cycling is relatively well understood and can be influenced by fertilization. Several models have been successfully developed and applied to human dose evaluation and emergency response to contaminating events in agricultural lands

  4. A review of mathematical programming models of irrigation water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crops modelled influence water values, but there is no apparent relationship between objective function specification and average value. Nor does the number of irrigation options seem to influence water value either. The policy implication is that while similar models for the same region produce consistent estimates, each ...

  5. Review of "Stochastic Modelling for Systems Biology" by Darren Wilkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullinger Eric

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Stochastic Modelling for Systems Biology" by Darren Wilkinson introduces the peculiarities of stochastic modelling in biology. This book is particularly suited to as a textbook or for self-study, and for readers with a theoretical background.

  6. A review on modeling, identification and servo control of robotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    automation of these excavation tasks provides benefits such as improving productivity by enabling machines to drive at a higher average speed, reducing dependence ..... model (Figure.7) built for autonomous excavation were reported by Luengo et al., (1998), Tan et al., (2005), Althoefer et al.,. (2009), these models were ...

  7. Unstructured Models for Lactic Acid Fermentation – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Bouguettoucha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To describe a microbial process, two kinds of models can be developed, structured and unstructured models. Contrary to structured models, which take into account some basic aspects of cell structure, their function and composition, no physiological characterization of cells is considered in unstructured models, which only consider total cellular concentration. However, in spite of their simplicity, unstructured models have proven to accurately describe lactic acid fermentation in a wide range of experimental conditions and media. A partial link between cell growth and production, namely the Luedeking and Piret model, is mostly considered by the authors. Culture pH is the main parameter to be considered for model development. Acidic pH leads to inhibitory concentrations of undissociated lactic acid, the main inhibitory component, which causes cessation of growth and then production. On the other hand, pH control at optimal value for LAB growth allows to overcome product inhibition (by the total lactic acid produced or its undissociated part; hence nutritional limitations have to be considered for model development. Nitrogen is mainly involved in cessation of growth, owing to the fastidious nutritional requirements of LAB, while lactic acid production ceased when carbon was exhausted from the medium. The lack of substrate inhibition when usual concentrations of carbon substrate are used should be noted.

  8. Review on the Application of Ecosystem Models in Biodiversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an exposition with the sole aim of highlighting the relevance of ecosystem models in the analyses of biodiversity. The structure of ecosystem models enables researchers to design and consequently formulate monitoring programs that will be useful to the conservation of biodiversity. Ecosystem theoretical ...

  9. Bayesian Network Models in Cyber Security: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, S.; Pieters, W.; Herdeiro Teixeira, A.M.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Lipmaa, Helger; Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Matulevicius, Raimundas

    2017-01-01

    Bayesian Networks (BNs) are an increasingly popular modelling technique in cyber security especially due to their capability to overcome data limitations. This is also instantiated by the growth of BN models development in cyber security. However, a comprehensive comparison and analysis of these

  10. Critical appraisal and data extraction for systematic reviews of prediction modelling studies: the CHARMS checklist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel G M Moons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carl Moons and colleagues provide a checklist and background explanation for critically appraising and extracting data from systematic reviews of prognostic and diagnostic prediction modelling studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  11. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Huerou-Luron, Le Isabelle; Jager, de Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet),

  12. Radon decay product in-door behaviour - parameter, measurement method, and model review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scofield, P.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews parameters used to characterize indoor radon daughter behavior and concentrations. Certain parameters that affect indoor radon daughter concentrations are described and the values obtained experimentally or theoretically are summarized. Radon daughter measurement methods are reviewed, such as, PAEC, unattached daughters, particle size distributions, and plateout measurement methods. In addition, certain radon pressure driven/diffusion models and indoor radon daughter models are briefly described. (orig.)

  13. Geometric Models for Isotropic Random Porous Media: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Models for random porous media are considered. The models are isotropic both from the local and the macroscopic point of view; that is, the pores have spherical shape or their surface shows piecewise spherical curvature, and there is no macroscopic gradient of any geometrical feature. Both closed-pore and open-pore systems are discussed. The Poisson grain model, the model of hard spheres packing, and the penetrable sphere model are used; variable size distribution of the pores is included. A parameter is introduced which controls the degree of open-porosity. Besides systems built up by a single solid phase, models for porous media with the internal surface coated by a second phase are treated. Volume fraction, surface area, and correlation functions are given explicitly where applicable; otherwise numerical methods for determination are described. Effective medium theory is applied to calculate physical properties for the models such as isotropic elastic moduli, thermal and electrical conductivity, and static dielectric constant. The methods presented are exemplified by applications: small-angle scattering of systems showing fractal-like behavior in limited ranges of linear dimension, optimization of nanoporous insulating materials, and improvement of properties of open-pore systems by atomic layer deposition of a second phase on the internal surface.

  14. A Review of Hemolysis Prediction Models for Computational Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Engel, Sebastian; Janiga, Gábor; Thévenin, Dominique

    2017-07-01

    Flow-induced hemolysis is a crucial issue for many biomedical applications; in particular, it is an essential issue for the development of blood-transporting devices such as left ventricular assist devices, and other types of blood pumps. In order to estimate red blood cell (RBC) damage in blood flows, many models have been proposed in the past. Most models have been validated by their respective authors. However, the accuracy and the validity range of these models remains unclear. In this work, the most established hemolysis models compatible with computational fluid dynamics of full-scale devices are described and assessed by comparing two selected reference experiments: a simple rheometric flow and a more complex hemodialytic flow through a needle. The quantitative comparisons show very large deviations concerning hemolysis predictions, depending on the model and model parameter. In light of the current results, two simple power-law models deliver the best compromise between computational efficiency and obtained accuracy. Finally, hemolysis has been computed in an axial blood pump. The reconstructed geometry of a HeartMate II shows that hemolysis occurs mainly at the tip and leading edge of the rotor blades, as well as at the leading edge of the diffusor vanes. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Lake eutrophication modeling in considering climatic factors change: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jie-Qiong; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Zhi-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Climatic factors are considered as the key factors affecting the trophic status and its process in most lakes. Under the background of global climate change, to incorporate the variations of climatic factors into lake eutrophication models could provide solid technical support for the analysis of the trophic evolution trend of lake and the decision-making of lake environment management. This paper analyzed the effects of climatic factors such as air temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and atmosphere on lake eutrophication, and summarized the research results about the lake eutrophication modeling in considering in considering climatic factors change, including the modeling based on statistical analysis, ecological dynamic analysis, system analysis, and intelligent algorithm. The prospective approaches to improve the accuracy of lake eutrophication modeling with the consideration of climatic factors change were put forward, including 1) to strengthen the analysis of the mechanisms related to the effects of climatic factors change on lake trophic status, 2) to identify the appropriate simulation models to generate several scenarios under proper temporal and spatial scales and resolutions, and 3) to integrate the climatic factors change simulation, hydrodynamic model, ecological simulation, and intelligent algorithm into a general modeling system to achieve an accurate prediction of lake eutrophication under climatic change.

  16. A Systematic Literature Review of Agile Maturity Model Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Henriques

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim/Purpose: A commonly implemented software process improvement framework is the capability maturity model integrated (CMMI. Existing literature indicates higher levels of CMMI maturity could result in a loss of agility due to its organizational focus. To maintain agility, research has focussed attention on agile maturity models. The objective of this paper is to find the common research themes and conclusions in agile maturity model research. Methodology: This research adopts a systematic approach to agile maturity model research, using Google Scholar, Science Direct, and IEEE Xplore as sources. In total 531 articles were initially found matching the search criteria, which was filtered to 39 articles by applying specific exclusion criteria. Contribution:: The article highlights the trends in agile maturity model research, specifically bringing to light the lack of research providing validation of such models. Findings: Two major themes emerge, being the coexistence of agile and CMMI and the development of agile principle based maturity models. The research trend indicates an increase in agile maturity model articles, particularly in the latter half of the last decade, with concentrations of research coinciding with version updates of CMMI. While there is general consensus around higher CMMI maturity levels being incompatible with true agility, there is evidence of the two coexisting when agile is introduced into already highly matured environments. Future Research:\tFuture research direction for this topic should include how to attain higher levels of CMMI maturity using only agile methods, how governance is addressed in agile environments, and whether existing agile maturity models relate to improved project success.

  17. Independent modelling in SSM's licensing review of a spent nuclear fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shulan; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Norden, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted a license application for construction of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. SKB's disposal method, the KBS-3 method, involves disposing of the spent nuclear fuel in cast iron canisters with an outer layer of 5 cm copper. The canisters will be placed in vertical deposition holes at approximately 500 m depths in crystalline bedrock. Each canister is surrounded by a buffer of swelling bentonite clay. The repository is designed to accommodate 6 000 canisters, corresponding to 12 000 tonnes of spent nuclear fuel. The license application is supported by a post-closure safety assessment, SR-Site. Along with other parts of the application, SR-Site is currently being reviewed by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). The main method for review of SKB's licensing documentation is document review carried out by SSM, supported by SSM's external experts. However, SSM's document review is also supported by regulatory modelling, technical reviews of SKB's quality assurance programme and consideration of external review comments partly from two broad national consultations and an international peer review organised by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA, 2012). SSM's review is divided into three main phases: the initial review phase, the main review phase and the reporting phase. The overall goal of the initial review phase is to achieve a broad coverage of SR-Site and its supporting references and in particular to identify the need for complementary information and clarifications to be provided by SKB, as well as to identify critical review issues that require a more comprehensive treatment in the main review phase. SSM completed the initial review phase at the end of 2012. During the initial review phase SSM has identified a number of issues requiring either clarifications, complementary information from SKB or further in-depth review by SSM. Important issues include the

  18. Health promotion in adolescents: a review of Pender's health promotion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srof, Brenda J; Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    Adolescents have unique health considerations as they transition from parent-managed healthcare to personal responsibility for health behavior. One question to consider is the goodness-of-fit of available theoretical models for explaining and predicting adolescent health-promoting behavior. This integrative review explored Pender's health promotion model in relation to adolescent health. Specifically, this review summarizes the components of Pender's model and the supporting theoretical underpinnings based in the social cognitive theory. Research literature related to the health promotion model and various aspects of teen health is explored. Recommendations for further research and theory development are discussed.

  19. Equation of state modelling of systems with ionic liquids: Literature review and application with the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Filipa Meireles; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Rodriguez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    and their interactions with other components is still needed. In this work, we made a review of literature studies on modelling systems with ionic liquids using equation of state models. Furthermore, we applied the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state to describe the phase behaviour of two ionic liquids, 1...... is in progress for improving the modelling of LLE with the CPA equation of state....

  20. Literature review on induced exposure models, Task 2 HS-270

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Sections 1, 2 and 3 of this report describe the development of : induced exposure models, together with d discussion of questions : of validity. These Sections focus on the most important and : relevant results from the literature, while Appendix A c...

  1. A Review of the Haspert Model for Target Identification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mortiss, Genevieve

    2001-01-01

    The Haspert model for target identification using multiple sensors is examined. Haspert takes a total-cost approach in constructing identification rules for engagements in which friendly, hostile and neutral parties are involved...

  2. A REVIEW OF RECENT RESEARCH IN INDOOR MODELLING & MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gunduz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor modeling and mapping has been an active area of research in last 20 years in order to tackle the problems related to positioning and tracking of people and objects indoors, and provides many opportunities for several domains ranging from emergency response to logistics in micro urban spaces. The outputs of recent research in the field have been presented in several scientific publications and events primarily related to spatial information science and technology. This paper summarizes the outputs of last 10 years of research on indoor modeling and mapping within a proper classification which covers 7 areas, i.e. Information Acquisition by Sensors, Model Definition, Model Integration, Indoor Positioning and LBS, Routing & Navigation Methods, Augmented and Virtual Reality Applications, and Ethical Issues. Finally, the paper outlines the current and future research directions and concluding remarks.

  3. a Review of Recent Research in Indoor Modelling & Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, M.; Isikdag, U.; Basaraner, M.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor modeling and mapping has been an active area of research in last 20 years in order to tackle the problems related to positioning and tracking of people and objects indoors, and provides many opportunities for several domains ranging from emergency response to logistics in micro urban spaces. The outputs of recent research in the field have been presented in several scientific publications and events primarily related to spatial information science and technology. This paper summarizes the outputs of last 10 years of research on indoor modeling and mapping within a proper classification which covers 7 areas, i.e. Information Acquisition by Sensors, Model Definition, Model Integration, Indoor Positioning and LBS, Routing & Navigation Methods, Augmented and Virtual Reality Applications, and Ethical Issues. Finally, the paper outlines the current and future research directions and concluding remarks.

  4. Radiation modeling in mountainous terrain: review and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguay, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Advances in the determination of surface net radiation in mountainous terrain have mostly been directed at the computation of shortwave and longwave irradiance. In general, lack of adequate information regarding the surface variables of albedo and thermal exitance have been the major impediments to mapping the net radiation load at the surface. These variables are typically measured during field campaigns at sites of relatively easy access. These point observations are rarely representative of the diversity of the study area. Remotely sensed data have the potential to provide these fluxes with the necessary spatial resolution. Approaches to the determination of the components of the radiation balance in mountainous terrain are reviewed herein. Each component of the radiation balance, namely shortwave and longwave irradiance (i.e., insolation and atmospheric emittance) as well as surface albedo and thermal exitance, is examined. Current limitations towards more precise estimates of the components of the radiation balance are also given. The review concludes with a series of recommendations for future research. (author) [de

  5. Developing and Optimising the Use of Logic Models in Systematic Reviews: Exploring Practice and Good Practice in the Use of Programme Theory in Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneale, Dylan; Thomas, James; Harris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Logic models are becoming an increasingly common feature of systematic reviews, as is the use of programme theory more generally in systematic reviewing. Logic models offer a framework to help reviewers to ‘think’ conceptually at various points during the review, and can be a useful tool in defining study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy, identifying relevant outcomes, identifying mediating and moderating factors, and communicating review findings. Methods and Findings In this paper we critique the use of logic models in systematic reviews and protocols drawn from two databases representing reviews of health interventions and international development interventions. Programme theory featured only in a minority of the reviews and protocols included. Despite drawing from different disciplinary traditions, reviews and protocols from both sources shared several limitations in their use of logic models and theories of change, and these were used almost unanimously to solely depict pictorially the way in which the intervention worked. Logic models and theories of change were consequently rarely used to communicate the findings of the review. Conclusions Logic models have the potential to be an aid integral throughout the systematic reviewing process. The absence of good practice around their use and development may be one reason for the apparent limited utility of logic models in many existing systematic reviews. These concerns are addressed in the second half of this paper, where we offer a set of principles in the use of logic models and an example of how we constructed a logic model for a review of school-based asthma interventions. PMID:26575182

  6. A critical review of the data requirements for fluid flow models through fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    The report is a comprehensive critical review of the data requirements for ten models of fluid flow through fractured rock, developed in Europe and North America. The first part of the report contains a detailed review of rock discontinuities and how their important geometrical properties can be quantified. This is followed by a brief summary of the fundamental principles in the analysis of fluid flow through two-dimensional discontinuity networks and an explanation of a new approach to the incorporation of variability and uncertainty into geotechnical models. The report also contains a review of the geological and geotechnical properties of anhydrite and granite. Of the ten fluid flow models reviewed, only three offer a realistic fracture network model for which it is feasible to obtain the input data. Although some of the other models have some valuable or novel features, there is a tendency to concentrate on the simulation of contaminant transport processes, at the expense of providing a realistic fracture network model. Only two of the models reviewed, neither of them developed in Europe, have seriously addressed the problem of analysing fluid flow in three-dimensional networks. (author)

  7. A critical review of lexical analysis and Big Five model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Richaud de Minzi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the idea has resurfaced that traits can be measured in a reliable and valid and this can be useful inthe prediction of human behavior. The five-factor model appears to represent a conceptual and empirical advances in the field of personality theory. Necessary orthogonal factors (Goldberg, 1992, p. 26 to show the relationships between the descriptors of the features in English is five, and its nature can be summarized through the broad concepts of Surgency, Agreeableness, Responsibility, Emotional Stability versus neuroticism and openness to experience (John, 1990, p96 Furthermore, despite the criticisms that have been given to the model, represents a breakthrough in the field of personality assessment. This approach means a contribution to the study of personality, without being the integrative model of personality.

  8. Kinetic Model For Triglyceride Hydrolysis Using Lipase:Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Hermansyah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride hydrolysis using lipase has been proposed as a novel method to produce raw materials in food and cosmetic industries such as diacylglycerol, monoacylglycerol, glycerol and fatty acid. In order to design a reactor for utilizing this reaction on industrial scale, constructing a kinetic model is important. Since the substrates are oil and water, the hydrolysis takes place at oil-water interface. Furthermore, the triglyceride has three ester bonds, so that the hydrolysis stepwise proceeds. Thus, the reaction mechanism is very complicated. The difference between the interfacial and bulk concentrations of the enzyme, substrates and products, and the interfacial enzymatic reaction mechanism should be considered in the model.

  9. A review of experiments testing the shoving model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Dyre, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    interval over which the relaxation time increases by ten to fifteen decades. In this paper we have compiled all tests of the shoving model known to us. These involve rheological data obtained by different techniques, high-frequency sound-wave data, neutron scattering data for the vibrational mean......According to the shoving model the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of supercooled liquids' relaxation time (or viscosity) derives from the fact that the high-frequency shear modulus is temperature dependent in the supercooled phase, often increasing a factor of three or four in the temperature...

  10. Invited review: Genetic and genomic mouse models for livestock research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arends

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the function and functioning of single or multiple interacting genes is of the utmost significance for understanding the organism as a whole and for accurate livestock improvement through genomic selection. This includes, but is not limited to, understanding the ontogenetic and environmentally driven regulation of gene action contributing to simple and complex traits. Genetically modified mice, in which the functions of single genes are annotated; mice with reduced genetic complexity; and simplified structured populations are tools to gain fundamental knowledge of inheritance patterns and whole system genetics and genomics. In this review, we briefly describe existing mouse resources and discuss their value for fundamental and applied research in livestock.

  11. Hydrothermal Carbonization: Modeling, Final Properties Design and Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Román

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active research on biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC continues to demonstrate its advantages over other thermochemical processes, in particular the interesting benefits that are associated with carbonaceous solid products, called hydrochar (HC. The areas of applications of HC range from biofuel to doped porous material for adsorption, energy storage, and catalysis. At the same time, intensive research has been aimed at better elucidating the process mechanisms and kinetics, and how the experimental variables (temperature, time, biomass load, feedstock composition, as well as their interactions affect the distribution between phases and their composition. This review provides an analysis of the state of the art on HTC, mainly with regard to the effect of variables on the process, the associated kinetics, and the characteristics of the solid phase (HC, as well as some of the more studied applications so far. The focus is on research made over the last five years on these topics.

  12. Experimental review on interior tire-road noise models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Bekke, D.A.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Sas, P

    2010-01-01

    Exterior and interior tire-road noise is a common problem for car and tire manufactures. Exterior tire-road noise is bounded by UN-ECE R117 and EC R661/2009. Interior tire-road noise on the other hand is determined by market requirements. Since the beginning of the last century different model

  13. Review Genetic prediction models and heritability estimates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edward

    2015-05-09

    May 9, 2015 ... Keywords: Dairy cattle, proportional hazards, random regression, survival analysis ... control of production costs associated with rearing and purchasing replacement of heifers as there will be ..... models are considered optimal in a statistical sense, they may not be economically optimal (VanRaden et al.,.

  14. A Review of Research on Universal Design Educational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kavita; Ok, Min Wook; Bryant, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Universal design for learning (UDL) has gained considerable attention in the field of special education, acclaimed for its promise to promote inclusion by supporting access to the general curriculum. In addition to UDL, there are two other universal design (UD) educational models referenced in the literature, universal design of instruction (UDI)…

  15. Leader Succession: A Model and Review for School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskel, Cecil; Cosgrove, Dorothy

    Recent research casts doubt on the commonly held notions that administrators affect student learning through instructional leadership and that changing administrators will improve school performance. To help construct a model for examining the process of leader succession that specifies a number of major school process and outcome variables…

  16. Business process maturity models : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarhan, Ayca; Turetken, Oktay; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Context The number of maturity models proposed in the area of Business Process Management (BPM) has increased considerably in the last decade. However, there are a number of challenges, such as the limited empirical studies on their validation and a limited extent of actionable properties of these

  17. Review of friction modeling in metal forming processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C.V.; Bay, N.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In metal forming processes, friction between tool and workpiece is an important parameter influencing the material flow, surface quality and tool life. Theoretical models of friction in metal forming are based on analysis of the real contact area in tool-workpiece interfaces. Several res...

  18. Analytical and Empirical Modeling of Wear and Forces of CBN Tool in Hard Turning - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vallabh Dahyabhai; Gandhi, Anishkumar Hasmukhlal

    2017-08-01

    Machining of steel material having hardness above 45 HRC (Hardness-Rockwell C) is referred as a hard turning. There are numerous models which should be scrutinized and implemented to gain optimum performance of hard turning. Various models in hard turning by cubic boron nitride tool have been reviewed, in attempt to utilize appropriate empirical and analytical models. Validation of steady state flank and crater wear model, Usui's wear model, forces due to oblique cutting theory, extended Lee and Shaffer's force model, chip formation and progressive flank wear have been depicted in this review paper. Effort has been made to understand the relationship between tool wear and tool force based on the different cutting conditions and tool geometries so that appropriate model can be used according to user requirement in hard turning.

  19. Using logic model methods in systematic review synthesis: describing complex pathways in referral management interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan K; Blank, Lindsay; Woods, Helen Buckley; Payne, Nick; Rimmer, Melanie; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2014-05-10

    There is increasing interest in innovative methods to carry out systematic reviews of complex interventions. Theory-based approaches, such as logic models, have been suggested as a means of providing additional insights beyond that obtained via conventional review methods. This paper reports the use of an innovative method which combines systematic review processes with logic model techniques to synthesise a broad range of literature. The potential value of the model produced was explored with stakeholders. The review identified 295 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The papers consisted of 141 intervention studies and 154 non-intervention quantitative and qualitative articles. A logic model was systematically built from these studies. The model outlines interventions, short term outcomes, moderating and mediating factors and long term demand management outcomes and impacts. Interventions were grouped into typologies of practitioner education, process change, system change, and patient intervention. Short-term outcomes identified that may result from these interventions were changed physician or patient knowledge, beliefs or attitudes and also interventions related to changed doctor-patient interaction. A range of factors which may influence whether these outcomes lead to long term change were detailed. Demand management outcomes and intended impacts included content of referral, rate of referral, and doctor or patient satisfaction. The logic model details evidence and assumptions underpinning the complex pathway from interventions to demand management impact. The method offers a useful addition to systematic review methodologies. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004037.

  20. A review and validation of the IMPLAN model for Pennsylvania's solid hardwood product industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Lord; Charles H. Strauss

    1993-01-01

    The IMPLAN model for Pennsylvania was reviewed with respect to the industries processing the state's solid hardwood resources. Several sectors were found to be under represented in the standard sources of industrial activity. Further problems were attributed to the lack of distinction between hardwoods and softwoods in the national model. A further set of changes...

  1. Overview of data-synthesis in systematic reviews of studies on outcome prediction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van den Berg (Tobias); M.W. Heymans (Martijn); O. Leone; D. Vergouw (David); J. Hayden (Jill); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); H.C. de Vet (Henrica C)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Many prognostic models have been developed. Different types of models, i.e. prognostic factor and outcome prediction studies, serve different purposes, which should be reflected in how the results are summarized in reviews. Therefore we set out to investigate how authors of

  2. A Review of Contemporary Ethical Decision-Making Models for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Perry C.

    2015-01-01

    Mental health professionals are faced with increasingly complex ethical decisions that are impacted by culture, personal and professional values, and the contexts in which they and their clients inhabit. This article presents the reasons for developing and implementing multiple ethical decision making models and reviews four models that address…

  3. Computational models of social and emotional turn-taking for embodied conversational agents: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bruijnes, Merijn

    2012-01-01

    The emotional involvement of participants in a conversation not only shows in the words they speak and in the way they speak and gesture but also in their turn-taking behavior. This paper reviews research into computational models of embodied conversational agents. We focus on models for turn-taking

  4. In vitro biofilm models to study dental caries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maske, T.T.; Sande, F.H. van de; Arthur, R.A.; Huysmans, M.C.; Cenci, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to characterize and discuss key methodological aspects of in vitro biofilm models for caries-related research and to verify the reproducibility and dose-response of models considering the response to anti-caries and/or antimicrobial substances. Inclusion criteria

  5. A review of communication models and frameworks in a healthcare context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Brenda S S; Bridges, Susan M; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews six key communication models and frameworks in healthcare contexts. Comparison suggests key inter-relationships between the different stages of the clinical consultations. Implications are identified for future study in healthcare provider-patient communication. Clinical Relevance: To understand the healthcare provider-patient interaction through communication models.

  6. Multivariate models of subjective caregiver burden in dementia: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, J.H.; Bakker, T.J.E.M.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Dröes, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Burden in dementia caregivers is a complex and multidimensional construct. Several models of burden and other representations of burden like depression or mental health are described in literature. To clarify the state of science, we systematically reviewed complex models that include

  7. Reviewing Instructional Studies Conducted Using Video Modeling to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Cimen; Diken, Ibrahim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored 31 instructional research articles written using video modeling to children with autism and published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies in this research have been reached by searching EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, ERIC and other Anadolu University online search engines and using keywords such as "autism, video modeling,…

  8. Environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials: Review of modeling and analytical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Fadri; Sun, TianYin; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Scientific consensus predicts that the worldwide use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) leads to their release into the environment. We reviewed the available literature concerning environmental concentrations of six ENMs (TiO 2 , ZnO, Ag, fullerenes, CNT and CeO 2 ) in surface waters, wastewater treatment plant effluents, biosolids, sediments, soils and air. Presently, a dozen modeling studies provide environmental concentrations for ENM and a handful of analytical works can be used as basis for a preliminary validation. There are still major knowledge gaps (e.g. on ENM production, application and release) that affect the modeled values, but over all an agreement on the order of magnitude of the environmental concentrations can be reached. True validation of the modeled values is difficult because trace analytical methods that are specific for ENM detection and quantification are not available. The modeled and measured results are not always comparable due to the different forms and sizes of particles that these two approaches target. -- Highlights: •Modeled environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials are reviewed. •Measured environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials are reviewed. •Possible validation of modeled data by measurements is critically evaluated. •Different approaches in modeling and measurement methods complicate validation. -- Modeled and measured environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials are reviewed and critically discussed

  9. Expanding the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: An Integrative Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H.

    2010-01-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate to their new culture at a quicker pace than their parents, leading to family conflict and youth maladjustment. This article reviews literature on the acculturation gap-distress model, showing that acculturation gaps function in unique ways depending on many social…

  10. The use of GIS and modelling approaches in squirrel population management and conservation: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. W. W. Lurz; J. L. Koprowski; D. J. A. Wood

    2008-01-01

    We review modelling approaches in relation to three key areas of sciurid ecology: management, disease risk assessments and conservation. Models enable us to explore different scenarios to develop effective management and conservation strategies. They may also assist in identifying and targeting research needs for tree and flying squirrels. However, there is a need to...

  11. Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model-Based Programmes in Physical Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Pablo; Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Pérez-Ordás, Raquel

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a review of research on the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility model-based programme within physical education. Papers selected for analysis were found through searches of Web of Science, SportDiscus (EBSCO), SCOPUS, and ERIC (ProQuest) databases. The keywords "responsibility model" and…

  12. REVIEW: Zebrafish: A Renewed Model System For Functional Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Yan

    2008-01-01

    In the post genome era, a major goal in molecular biology is to determine the function of the many thousands of genes present in the vertebrate genome. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides an almost ideal genetic model to identify the biological roles of these novel genes, in part because their embryos are transparent and develop rapidly. The zebrafish has many advantages over mouse for genome-wide mutagenesis studies, allowing for easier, cheaper and faster functional characterization of novel genes in the vertebrate genome. Many molecular research tools such as chemical mutagenesis, transgenesis, gene trapping, gene knockdown, TILLING, gene targeting, RNAi and chemical genetic screen are now available in zebrafish. Combining all the forward, reverse, and chemical genetic tools, it is expected that zebrafish will make invaluable contribution to vertebrate functional genomics in functional annotation of the genes, modeling human diseases and drug discoveries.

  13. The vaccination model in psychoneuroimmunology research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the reasoning behind using the vaccination model to examine the influence of psychosocial factors on immunity. It then briefly discusses the mechanics of the vaccination response and the protocols used in Psychoneuroimmunology vaccine research, before giving examples from the research literature of the studies examining relationships such as the association between stress and the vaccination response. It also explores the ways the vaccination model can be used to answer key questions in Psychoneuroimmunology, such as: "does it matter when stressful life events occur relative to when the vaccine is received?" "what are the effects of prior exposure to the antigen?" and "do other psychosocial factors influence vaccine response besides stress?" Finally, it briefly considers the mechanisms underlying psychosocial factors and vaccination response associations and the future research needed to understand these better, and indeed to use current and future knowledge to improve and enhance vaccine responses in key at risk populations.

  14. Optimizing radiology peer review: a mathematical model for selecting future cases based on prior errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Yun Robert; Feder, Elie; Balsim, Igor; Levin, Victor F; Bleicher, Andrew G; Branstetter, Barton F

    2010-06-01

    Peer review is an essential process for physicians because it facilitates improved quality of patient care and continuing physician learning and improvement. However, peer review often is not well received by radiologists who note that it is time intensive, is subjective, and lacks a demonstrable impact on patient care. Current advances in peer review include the RADPEER() system, with its standardization of discrepancies and incorporation of the peer-review process into the PACS itself. The purpose of this study was to build on RADPEER and similar systems by using a mathematical model to optimally select the types of cases to be reviewed, for each radiologist undergoing review, on the basis of the past frequency of interpretive error, the likelihood of morbidity from an error, the financial cost of an error, and the time required for the reviewing radiologist to interpret the study. The investigators compiled 612,890 preliminary radiology reports authored by residents and attending radiologists at a large tertiary care medical center from 1999 to 2004. Discrepancies between preliminary and final interpretations were classified by severity and validated by repeat review of major discrepancies. A mathematical model was then used to calculate, for each author of a preliminary report, the combined morbidity and financial costs of expected errors across 3 modalities (MRI, CT, and conventional radiography) and 4 departmental divisions (neuroradiology, abdominal imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, and thoracic imaging). A customized report was generated for each on-call radiologist that determined the category (modality and body part) with the highest total cost function. A universal total cost based on probability data from all radiologists was also compiled. The use of mathematical models to guide case selection could optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of physician time spent on peer review and produce more concrete and meaningful feedback to radiologists

  15. A review of radio channel models for body centric communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Simon L; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude

    2014-06-01

    The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing

  16. In Vivo Modeling of Biofilm-Infected Wounds: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-15

    with the bacterial biofilm (e.g., lung mucosa in association with cystic fibrosis ) [10,11,22,69e71]. In addition, infections in foreign materials such...predicament of cystic fibrosis patients. Trends Microbiol 2000;8:247. [72] Darouiche RO. Treatment of infections associated with surgical implants. N Engl...chronic wound diagnosis . However, similar to previously discussed models, there was no assessment of the wound healing impairment or host inflammatory

  17. A review of radio channel models for body centric communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Simon L; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing

  18. A review of radio channel models for body centric communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Simon L.; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude

    2014-06-01

    The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing

  19. Peer Review of Clinical Information Models: A Web 2.0 Crowdsourced Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Heather; Ljosland Bakke, Silje

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 8 years the openEHR Clinical Model program has been developing a Web 2.0 approach and tooling to support the development, review and governance of atomic clincial information models, known as archetypes. This paper describes the background and review process, and provides a practical example where cross standards organisation collaboration resulted in jointly agreed clinical content which was subsequently represented in different implementation formalisms that were effectively semantically aligned. The discussion and conclusions highlight some of the socio-technical benefits and challenges facing organisations who seek to govern automic clinical information models in a global and collaborative online community.

  20. Eastern European Political Socialization Modeling Research: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.

  1. Review of Current Standard Model Results in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Gerhard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This talk highlights results selected from the Standard Model research programme of the ATLAS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider. Results using data from $p-p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7,8$~TeV in LHC Run-1 as well as results using data at $\\sqrt{s}=13$~TeV in LHC Run-2 are covered. The status of cross section measurements from soft QCD processes and jet production as well as photon production are presented. The presentation extends to vector boson production with associated jets. Precision measurements of the production of $W$ and $Z$ bosons, including a first measurement of the mass of the $W$ bosons, $m_W$, are discussed. The programme to measure electroweak processes with di-boson and tri-boson final states is outlined. All presented measurements are compatible with Standard Model descriptions and allow to further constrain it. In addition they allow to probe new physics which would manifest through extra gauge couplings, or Standard Model gauge couplings deviating from their predicted value.

  2. A Review of Variable Slicing in Fused Deposition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiyapara, Hitesh Hirjibhai; Pande, Sarang

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a literature survey in the field of fused deposition of plastic wires especially in the field of slicing and deposition using extrusion of thermoplastic wires. Various researchers working in the field of computation of deposition path have used their algorithms for variable slicing. In the study, a flowchart has also been proposed for the slicing and deposition process. The algorithm already been developed by previous researcher will be used to be implemented on the fused deposition modelling machine. To demonstrate the capabilities of the fused deposition modeling machine a case study has been taken. It uses a manipulated G-code to be fed to the fused deposition modeling machine. Two types of slicing strategies, namely uniform slicing and variable slicing have been evaluated. In the uniform slicing, the slice thickness has been used for deposition is varying from 0.1 to 0.4 mm. In the variable slicing, thickness has been varied from 0.1 in the polar region to 0.4 in the equatorial region Time required and the number of slices required to deposit a hemisphere of 20 mm diameter have been compared with that using the variable slicing.

  3. Tsallis Entropy Theory for Modeling in Water Engineering: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay P. Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Water engineering is an amalgam of engineering (e.g., hydraulics, hydrology, irrigation, ecosystems, environment, water resources and non-engineering (e.g., social, economic, political aspects that are needed for planning, designing and managing water systems. These aspects and the associated issues have been dealt with in the literature using different techniques that are based on different concepts and assumptions. A fundamental question that still remains is: Can we develop a unifying theory for addressing these? The second law of thermodynamics permits us to develop a theory that helps address these in a unified manner. This theory can be referred to as the entropy theory. The thermodynamic entropy theory is analogous to the Shannon entropy or the information theory. Perhaps, the most popular generalization of the Shannon entropy is the Tsallis entropy. The Tsallis entropy has been applied to a wide spectrum of problems in water engineering. This paper provides an overview of Tsallis entropy theory in water engineering. After some basic description of entropy and Tsallis entropy, a review of its applications in water engineering is presented, based on three types of problems: (1 problems requiring entropy maximization; (2 problems requiring coupling Tsallis entropy theory with another theory; and (3 problems involving physical relations.

  4. Theoretical and Empirical Review of Asset Pricing Models: A Structural Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Celik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive theoretical review devoted to asset pricing models by emphasizing static and dynamic versions in the line with their empirical investigations. A considerable amount of financial economics literature devoted to the concept of asset pricing and their implications. The main task of asset pricing model can be seen as the way to evaluate the present value of the pay offs or cash flows discounted for risk and time lags. The difficulty coming from discounting process is that the relevant factors that affect the pay offs vary through the time whereas the theoretical framework is still useful to incorporate the changing factors into an asset pricing models. This paper fills the gap in literature by giving a comprehensive review of the models and evaluating the historical stream of empirical investigations in the form of structural empirical review.

  5. Models of the impact of dengue vaccines: a review of current research and potential approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Michael A.; Hombach, Joachim; Cummings, Derek A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination reduces transmission of pathogens directly, by preventing individual infections, and indirectly, by reducing the probability of contact between infected individuals and susceptible ones. The potential combined impact of future dengue vaccines can be estimated using mathematical models of transmission. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the structure of models that accurately represent dengue transmission dynamics. Here, we review models that could be used to assess the impact of future dengue immunization programmes. We also review approaches that have been used to validate and parameterize models. A key parameter of all approaches is the basic reproduction number, R0, which can be used to determine the critical vaccination fraction to eliminate transmission. We review several methods that have been used to estimate this quantity. Finally, we discuss the characteristics of dengue vaccines that must be estimated to accurately assess their potential impact on dengue virus transmission. PMID:21699949

  6. Models of the impact of dengue vaccines: a review of current research and potential approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Michael A; Hombach, Joachim; Cummings, Derek A T

    2011-08-11

    Vaccination reduces transmission of pathogens directly, by preventing individual infections, and indirectly, by reducing the probability of contact between infected individuals and susceptible ones. The potential combined impact of future dengue vaccines can be estimated using mathematical models of transmission. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the structure of models that accurately represent dengue transmission dynamics. Here, we review models that could be used to assess the impact of future dengue immunization programmes. We also review approaches that have been used to validate and parameterize models. A key parameter of all approaches is the basic reproduction number, R(0), which can be used to determine the critical vaccination fraction to eliminate transmission. We review several methods that have been used to estimate this quantity. Finally, we discuss the characteristics of dengue vaccines that must be estimated to accurately assess their potential impact on dengue virus transmission. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Constructing kinetic models of metabolism at genome-scales: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Shyam; Cluett, William R; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Constraint-based modeling of biological networks (metabolism, transcription and signal transduction), although used successfully in many applications, suffer from specific limitations such as the lack of representation of metabolite concentrations and enzymatic regulation, which are necessary for a complete physiologically relevant model. Kinetic models conversely overcome these shortcomings and enable dynamic analysis of biological systems for enhanced in silico hypothesis generation. Nonetheless, kinetic models also have limitations for modeling at genome-scales chiefly due to: (i) model non-linearity; (ii) computational tractability; (iii) parameter identifiability; (iv) estimability; and (v) uncertainty. In order to support further development of kinetic models as viable alternatives to constraint-based models, this review presents a brief description of the existing obstacles towards building genome-scale kinetic models. Specific kinetic modeling frameworks capable of overcoming these obstacles are covered in this review. The tractability and physiological feasibility of these models are discussed with the objective of using available in vivo experimental observations to define the model parameter space. Among the different methods discussed, Monte Carlo kinetic models of metabolism stand out as potentially tractable methods to model genome scale networks while also addressing in vivo parameter uncertainty. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Assessment and Review of GIA Models for Antarctica and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    One of the major obstacles to reducing the uncertainty of GRACE-based ice mass balance estimates for the ice sheets during 2002-2011 is our poor control on the ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment of bedrock (GIA). The later adjustments cause vertical motions of rock at the crustal surface and at great depths within the mantle. These are sources of positive mass trend when measured in space gravimtery data. The poorly understood signal in Antarctica may be large enough to manifest uncertainties that approach 190 Gt/yr (Velicogna and Wahr, 2006), dominating the background error in trend for Antarctica, and potentially corrupting solutions for mass balance for ice drainage basins in the north and central parts of Greenland. This source of error is independent of method, and corrupts the interpretable trend in both spherical harmonic field or mascon releases. Two of the most recent GRACE mass balance assessments for GIA in Antarctica employ combinations of ICE5G and IJ05 models, both of which are now more than half a decade old. In part, because of the urgency to report to the IPCC on the mass balance of Antarctica with greater certainty, GIA modeling has been the focus of intense research in the past 6-7 years. Significant progress lies in three areas of research: i.) Constraint on paleo-ice sheet reconstruction coming from dated sedimentary coring ('bathtub rings') and moraine and nunatuk rock nuclide exposures ('dip sticks of the past'). This data is now rich enough that, in fact, for some areas of Antarctica we now know much more about ice mass evolution since Last Glacial Maximum (21 thousand years ago), that we do for the great Laurentide ice sheet of North America; ii.) Integration of simple ice dynamics models that are specifically constrained by these data (Whitehouse et al., 2011, ISAES XI Edinburgh); iii.) A more robust GPS data set for vertical motion trends of longer legacy (almost two decades in some cases) approaching 50 individual station records on

  9. Review of models on energy and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyant, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum recently has initiated a global climate change project. The purpose of the project is to summarize the work which has already been done on this topic and to evaluate the quality of the work. Several critical issues arise in any effort to make credible estimates of the cost of greenhouse control strategies. First, a worldwide modeling framework must be developed because carbon emissions from particular regions affect the global atmosphere. Because the data available on developing countries is quite poor at present, future efforts should focus on new data collection and modeling efforts in these regions. Second, all the major greenhouse gases - CO 2 , CFCs, methane and N 2 O - and not just carbon dioxide must be considered in future analyses. It is the overall concentration of all these different greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that ultimately will lead to global climate change. Third, an effective means for analyzing the various greenhouse gas control strategies must be developed. In order to successfully carry out the final task, a method must be developed which integrates a top-down macro-economic approach with a bottom-up process engineering approach. When implementing the macro-economic approach, one must choose plausible ranges for future economic and population growth rates. The reason for this is that even small changes in these driving factors can have huge impacts on emissions projections over the 100 or more year time frames required to address the greenhouse gas problem. The implementation of the process engineering approach requires: an accurate characterization of the costs, performance and availability of current and likely future technologies; an assessment of the likely barriers to technology transfer of both existing and new technologies, particularly from the developed to the developing countries; and an evaluation of the impact of energy prices and greenhouse gas policies on new technological development

  10. The Use of Decision-Analytic Models in Atopic Eczema: A Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Emma; Sach, Tracey; Levell, Nick

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify and assess the quality of published economic decision-analytic models within atopic eczema against best practice guidelines, with the intention of informing future decision-analytic models within this condition. A systematic search of the following online databases was performed: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EconLit, Scopus, Health Technology Assessment, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and Web of Science. Papers were eligible for inclusion if they described a decision-analytic model evaluating both the costs and benefits associated with an intervention or prevention for atopic eczema. Data were extracted using a standardised form by two independent reviewers, whilst quality was assessed using the model-specific Philips criteria. Twenty-four models were identified, evaluating either preventions (n = 12) or interventions (n = 12): 14 reported using a Markov modelling approach, four utilised decision trees and one a discrete event simulation, whilst five did not specify the approach. The majority, 22 studies, reported that the intervention was dominant or cost effective, given the assumptions and analytical perspective taken. Notably, the models tended to be short-term (16 used a time horizon of ≤1 year), often providing little justification for the limited time horizon chosen. The methodological and reporting quality of the studies was generally weak, with only seven studies fulfilling more than 50% of their applicable Philips criteria. This is the first systematic review of decision models in eczema. Whilst the majority of models reported favourable outcomes in terms of the cost effectiveness of the new intervention, the usefulness of these findings for decision-making is

  11. Review of State-Space Models for Fisheries Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aeberhard, William H.; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Nielsen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    stocks will respond to varying levels of fishing pressure in the future. Such tools are essential with overfishing now reducing stocks and employment worldwide, with in turn many serious social, economic, and environmental implications. Increasingly, a state-space framework is being used in place...... of deterministic and standard parametric stock assessment models. These efforts have not only had considerable impact on fisheries management but have also advanced the supporting statistical theory and inference tools as well as the required software. An application of such techniques to the North Sea cod stock...

  12. Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health literacy concerns the knowledge and competences of persons to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. Although its importance is increasingly recognised, there is no consensus about the definition of health literacy or about its conceptual dimensions, which limits the possibilities for measurement and comparison. The aim of the study is to review definitions and models on health literacy to develop an integrated definition and conceptual model capturing the most comprehensive evidence-based dimensions of health literacy. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify definitions and conceptual frameworks of health literacy. A content analysis of the definitions and conceptual frameworks was carried out to identify the central dimensions of health literacy and develop an integrated model. Results The review resulted in 17 definitions of health literacy and 12 conceptual models. Based on the content analysis, an integrative conceptual model was developed containing 12 dimensions referring to the knowledge, motivation and competencies of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health-related information within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion setting, respectively. Conclusions Based upon this review, a model is proposed integrating medical and public health views of health literacy. The model can serve as a basis for developing health literacy enhancing interventions and provide a conceptual basis for the development and validation of measurement tools, capturing the different dimensions of health literacy within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion settings. PMID:22276600

  13. Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sorensen, Kristine

    2012-01-25

    Abstract Background Health literacy concerns the knowledge and competences of persons to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. Although its importance is increasingly recognised, there is no consensus about the definition of health literacy or about its conceptual dimensions, which limits the possibilities for measurement and comparison. The aim of the study is to review definitions and models on health literacy to develop an integrated definition and conceptual model capturing the most comprehensive evidence-based dimensions of health literacy. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify definitions and conceptual frameworks of health literacy. A content analysis of the definitions and conceptual frameworks was carried out to identify the central dimensions of health literacy and develop an integrated model. Results The review resulted in 17 definitions of health literacy and 12 conceptual models. Based on the content analysis, an integrative conceptual model was developed containing 12 dimensions referring to the knowledge, motivation and competencies of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health-related information within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion setting, respectively. Conclusions Based upon this review, a model is proposed integrating medical and public health views of health literacy. The model can serve as a basis for developing health literacy enhancing interventions and provide a conceptual basis for the development and validation of measurement tools, capturing the different dimensions of health literacy within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion settings.

  14. A Comparative Review on Computational Modeling Paradigms. A Study on Case-Based Modeling and Political Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2007-01-01

    We review the advances in Case-Based Computational Modeling on Political Analysis issues. Starting in early „70s, the research on political terrorism has been challenged by the latest advances of terrorism computational modeling research. Nowadays Political Analysis community has a wider perspective over the terrorism research aims, methodology and instruments. Widening up this perspective is not a matter of political analysis and research only, it is as well a long-term effect...

  15. A Structured Review of Quantitative Models of the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Franco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to identify and provide a structured overview of quantitative models in the pharmaceutical supply chain, a subject not exhaustively studied in the previous reviews on healthcare logistics related mostly to quantitative models in healthcare or logistics studies in hospitals. The models are classified into three categories of classification: network design, inventory models, and optimization of a pharmaceutical supply chain. A taxonomy for each category is shown describing the principal features of each echelon included in the review; this taxonomy allows the readers to identify easily a paper based on the actors of the pharmaceutical supply chain. The search process included research articles published in the databases between 1984 and November 2016. In total 46 studies were included. In the review process we found that in the three fields the most common source of uncertainty used is the demand in the 56% of the cases. Within the review process we can conclude that most of the articles in the literature are focused on the optimization of the pharmaceutical supply chain and inventory models but the field on supply chain network design is not deeply studied.

  16. Mechanical model development of rolling bearing-rotor systems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongrui; Niu, Linkai; Xi, Songtao; Chen, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    The rolling bearing rotor (RBR) system is the kernel of many rotating machines, which affects the performance of the whole machine. Over the past decades, extensive research work has been carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of RBR systems. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no comprehensive review on RBR modelling has been reported yet. To address this gap in the literature, this paper reviews and critically discusses the current progress of mechanical model development of RBR systems, and identifies future trends for research. Firstly, five kinds of rolling bearing models, i.e., the lumped-parameter model, the quasi-static model, the quasi-dynamic model, the dynamic model, and the finite element (FE) model are summarized. Then, the coupled modelling between bearing models and various rotor models including De Laval/Jeffcott rotor, rigid rotor, transfer matrix method (TMM) models and FE models are presented. Finally, the paper discusses the key challenges of previous works and provides new insights into understanding of RBR systems for their advanced future engineering applications.

  17. Methods to assess performance of models estimating risk of death in intensive care patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D A

    2006-04-01

    Models that estimate the probability of death of intensive care unit patients can be used to stratify patients according to the severity of their condition and to control for casemix and severity of illness. These models have been used for risk adjustment in quality monitoring, administration, management and research and as an aid to clinical decision making. Models such as the Mortality Prediction Model family, SAPS II, APACHE II, APACHE III and the organ system failure models provide estimates of the probability of in-hospital death of ICU patients. This review examines methods to assess the performance of these models. The key attributes of a model are discrimination (the accuracy of the ranking in order of probability of death) and calibration (the extent to which the model's prediction of probability of death reflects the true risk of death). These attributes should be assessed in existing models that predict the probability of patient mortality, and in any subsequent model that is developed for the purposes of estimating these probabilities. The literature contains a range of approaches for assessment which are reviewed and a survey of the methodologies used in studies of intensive care mortality models is presented. The systematic approach used by Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy provides a framework to incorporate these theoretical considerations of model assessment and recommendations are made for evaluation and presentation of the performance of models that estimate the probability of death of intensive care patients.

  18. Saturated-liquid heat capacity: new polynomial models and review of the literature experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN K. GROZDANIC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a review of selected literature experimental data for saturated-liquid heat capacities was presented. Two-, three- and four-parameter polynomial correlation models are tested on those data. Obtained results lead to the conclusion that correlation quality depends on the number of parameters, and slightly on the type of models. The best two-, three- and four-parameter models were proposed.

  19. Social isolation and loneliness in old age : review and model refinement.

    OpenAIRE

    Wenger, G. Clare; Davies, Richard B.; Shahtahmasebi, Said; Scott, Anne

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on social isolation and loneliness and identifies a wide range of published correlates. Using data from a study conducted in North Wales, which included many of the same correlated variables, a statistical modelling technique is used to refine models of isolation and loneliness by controlling for co-variance. The resulting models indicate that the critical factors for isolation are: marital status, network type and social class; and, for loneliness:...

  20. A Review on Broker Based Cloud Service Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Rajganesh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing emerged as a utility oriented computing that facilitates resource sharing under pay-as-you-go model. Nowadays, cloud offerings are not limited to range of services and anything can be shared as a service through the Internet. In this work, a detailed literature survey with respect to cloud service discovery and composition has been accounted. A proposed architecture with the inclusion of cloud broker is presented in our work. It focuses the importance of suitable service selection and its ranking towards fulfilling the customer’s service requirements. The proposed cloud broker advocates techniques such as reasoning and decision making capabilities for the improved cloud service selection and composition.

  1. Pathogenesis of presbycusis in animal models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, Anna R; Picciotti, Pasqualina M; Paludetti, Gaetano; Troiani, Diana

    2011-06-01

    Presbycusis is the most common cause of hearing loss in aged subjects, reducing individual's communicative skills. Age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral, symmetrical hearing loss due to age related degeneration and it can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder, with both environmental and genetic factors contributing to the aetiology of the disease. The decline in hearing sensitivity caused by ageing is related to the damage at different levels of the auditory system (central and peripheral). Histologically, the aged cochlea shows degeneration of the stria vascularis, the sensorineural epithelium, and neurons of the central auditory pathways. The mechanisms responsible for age-associated hearing loss are still incompletely characterized. This work aims to give a broad overview of the scientific findings related to presbycusis, focusing mainly on experimental studies in animal models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reviewing the evidence to inform the population of cost-effectiveness models within health technology assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenthaler, Eva; Tappenden, Paul; Paisley, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    Health technology assessments (HTAs) typically require the development of a cost-effectiveness model, which necessitates the identification, selection, and use of other types of information beyond clinical effectiveness evidence to populate the model parameters. The reviewing activity associated with model development should be transparent and reproducible but can result in a tension between being both timely and systematic. Little procedural guidance exists in this area. The purpose of this article was to provide guidance, informed by focus groups, on what might constitute a systematic and transparent approach to reviewing information to populate model parameters. A focus group series was held with HTA experts in the United Kingdom including systematic reviewers, information specialists, and health economic modelers to explore these issues. Framework analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data elicited during focus groups. Suggestions included the use of rapid reviewing methods and the need to consider the trade-off between relevance and quality. The need for transparency in the reporting of review methods was emphasized. It was suggested that additional attention should be given to the reporting of parameters deemed to be more important to the model or where the preferred decision regarding the choice of evidence is equivocal. These recommendations form part of a Technical Support Document produced for the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Decision Support Unit in the United Kingdom. It is intended that these recommendations will help to ensure a more systematic, transparent, and reproducible process for the review of model parameters within HTA. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Snow bedforms: A review, new data, and a formation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filhol, Simon; Sturm, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Snow bedforms, like sand bedforms, consist of various shapes that form under the action of wind on mobile particles. Throughout a year, they can cover up to 11% of the Earth surface, concentrated toward the poles. These forms impact the local surface energy balance and the distribution of precipitation. Only a few studies have concentrated on their genesis. Their size ranges from 2 cm (ripple marks) to 2.5 m tall (whaleback dunes). We counted a total of seven forms that are widely recognized. Among them sastrugi, an erosional shape, is the most widespread. From laser scans, we compared scaling of snow versus sand barchan morphology. We found that both have proportionally the same footprint, but snow barchans are flatter. The key difference is that snow can sinter, immobilizing the bedform and creating an erodible material. Using a model, we investigated the effect of sintering on snow dune dynamics. We found that sintering limits their size because it progressively hardens the snow and requires an ever-increasing wind speed to maintain snow transport. From the literature and results from this model, we have reclassified snow bedforms based on two parameters: wind speed and snow surface conditions. The new data show that snow dune behavior mirrors that of sand dunes, with merging, calving, and collision. However, isolated snow barchans are rare, with most of the snow surfaces encountered in the field consisting of several superimposed bedforms formed sequentially during multiple weather events. Spatially variable snow properties and geometry can explain qualitatively these widespread compound snow surfaces.

  4. Literature Reviews on Modeling Internal Geometry of Textile Composites and Rate-Independent Continuum Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Yuen, Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Textile composite materials have good potential for constructing composite structures where the effects of three-dimensional stresses are critical or geometric complexity is a manufacturing concern. There is a recent interest in advancing competence within Langley Research Center for modeling the degradation of mechanical properties of textile composites. In an initial effort, two critical areas are identified to pursue: (1) Construction of internal geometry of textile composites, and (2) Rate-independent continuum damage mechanics. This report documents reviews on the two subjects. Various reviewed approaches are categorized, their assumptions, methods, and progress are briefed, and then critiques are presented. Each review ends with recommended research.

  5. ERG review of salt constitutive law, salt stress determinations, and salt corrosion and modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balon, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The August 1983 meeting of the ERG reviewed a RE/SPEC technical report containing a review of eight constitutive laws that have been proposed to model the creep of salt over the ranges of stress and temperature anticipated in a nuclear repository. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on this subject and the ONWI responses to the specific points raised by the ERG

  6. Review of calculational models and computer codes for environmental dose assessment of radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Watson, E.C.; Droppo, J.G.

    1976-06-01

    The development of technological bases for siting nuclear fuel cycle facilities requires calculational models and computer codes for the evaluation of risks and the assessment of environmental impact of radioactive effluents. A literature search and review of available computer programs revealed that no one program was capable of performing all of the great variety of calculations (i.e., external dose, internal dose, population dose, chronic release, accidental release, etc.). Available literature on existing computer programs has been reviewed and a description of each program reviewed is given

  7. Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Synthetic Review and Theoretical Model for Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moon; Sprang, Ginny; Eslinger, Jessica G

    2016-01-01

    The number of custodial grandparents has increased significantly over the past decade. Building on Hayslip's and Kaminski's comprehensive review of the literature on custodial grandparenting, we conducted an updated review of the literature, in particular peer-reviewed journal articles published since 2004. We have developed a conceptual model to contribute to understanding the causes and consequences of custodial grandparenting, using the stress-coping framework while highlighting the emerging issues related to contemporary grandfamilies such as cultural and ethnic heterogeneity in grandfamilies. We also emphasized loss, grief, and trauma among grandfamilies and provided the implications for effective public and community health programs.

  8. Review of calculational models and computer codes for environmental dose assessment of radioactive releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Watson, E.C.; Droppo, J.G.

    1976-06-01

    The development of technological bases for siting nuclear fuel cycle facilities requires calculational models and computer codes for the evaluation of risks and the assessment of environmental impact of radioactive effluents. A literature search and review of available computer programs revealed that no one program was capable of performing all of the great variety of calculations (i.e., external dose, internal dose, population dose, chronic release, accidental release, etc.). Available literature on existing computer programs has been reviewed and a description of each program reviewed is given.

  9. Additive Manufacturing Modeling and Simulation A Literature Review for Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufzer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is coming into industrial use and has several desirable attributes. Control of the deposition remains a complex challenge, and so this literature review was initiated to capture current modeling efforts in the field of additive manufacturing. This paper summarizes about 10 years of modeling and simulation related to both welding and additive manufacturing. The goals were to learn who is doing what in modeling and simulation, to summarize various approaches taken to create models, and to identify research gaps. Later sections in the report summarize implications for closed-loop-control of the process, implications for local research efforts, and implications for local modeling efforts.

  10. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  11. A review of parameter estimation used in solar photovoltaic system for a single diode model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabudin, Siti Nurashiken Md; Jamil, Norazaliza Mohd; Rosli, Norhayati

    2017-09-01

    With increased demand for theoretical solar energy, the mathematical modelling of the solar photovoltaic (PV) system has gained importance. Numerous mathematical models have been developed for different purposes. In this paper, we briefly review the progress made in the mathematical modelling of solar photovoltaic (PV) system over the last twenty years. First, a general classification of these models is made. Then, the basic characteristics of the models along with the objectives and different parameters considered in modelling are discussed. The assumptions and approximations made also parameter estimation method in solving the models are summarized. This may facilitate the mathematicians to adopt better understanding of the modelling strategies and further to develop suitable models in this direction relevant to the present scenario.

  12. Numerical Models of Alaskan Tectonics: A Review and Looking Ahead to a New Era of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M. A.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific-North American plate boundary in Alaska is in the current scientific spotlight, as a highlighted tectonic region for integrated scientific investigation. It is timely, therefore, to step back and examine the previous numerical modeling studies of Alaska. Reviewing the numerical models is valuable, as geodynamic modeling can be a predictive tool that can guide and target field studies, both geologic and geophysical. This review presents a comparison of the previous numerical modeling studies of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, including the mainland and extending into northwestern Canada. By distinguishing between the model set-up, governing equations, and underlying assumptions, non-modelers can more easily understand under what context the modeling predictions can be interpreted. Several key features in the Alaska tectonic setting appear in all the models to have a first order effect on the resulting deformation, such as the plate margin geometry and Denali fault. In addition, there are aspects of the tectonic setting that lead to very different results depending how they are implemented into the models. For example, models which fix the slab velocity to surface plate motions predict lower mantle flow rates than models that allow the slab to steepen. Despite the previous modeling studies, many unanswered questions remain, including the formation of the Wrangell volcanics, the driver for motion in western and interior Alaska, and the timing and nature of slab deformation. A synthesis of this kind will be of value to geologists, geodeticists, seismologists, volcanologists, sedimentologists, geochemists, as well as geodynamicists.

  13. Invited review: Genetics and modeling of milk coagulation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Penasa, M; Cecchinato, A

    2012-12-01

    Milk coagulation properties (MCP) are conventionally measured using computerized renneting meters, mechanical or optical devices that record curd firmness over time (CF(t)). The traditional MCP are rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd firmness (a(30), mm), and curd-firming time (k(20), min). The milk of different ruminant species varies in terms of CF(t) pattern. Milk from Holstein-Friesian and some Scandinavian cattle breeds yields higher proportions of noncoagulating samples, samples with longer RCT and lower a(30), and samples for which k(20) is not estimable, than does milk from Brown Swiss, Simmental, and other local Alpine breeds. The amount, proportion, and genetic variants (especially κ-casein) of milk protein fractions strongly influence MCP and explain variable proportions of the observed differences among breeds and among individuals of the same breed. In addition, other major genes have been shown to affect MCP. Individual repeatability of MCP is high, whereas any herd effect is low; thus, the improvement of MCP should be based principally on selection. Exploitable additive genetic variation in MCP exists and has been assessed using different breeds in various countries. Several models have been formulated that either handle noncoagulating samples or not. The heritability of MCP is similar to that of other milk quality traits and is higher than the heritability of milk yield. Rennet coagulation time and a(30) are highly correlated, both phenotypically and genetically. This means that the use of a(30) data does not add valuable information to that obtainable from RCT; both traits are genetically correlated mainly with milk acidity. Moreover, a(30) is correlated with casein content. The major limitations of traditional MCP can be overcome by prolonging the observation period and by using a novel CF(t) modeling, which uses all available information provided by computerized renneting meters and allows the estimation of RCT, the potential asymptotic

  14. A systematic review of predictive models for asthma development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Nkoy, Flory L; Stone, Bryan L; Schmick, Darell; Johnson, Michael D

    2015-11-28

    Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease affecting 9.6 % of American children. Delay in asthma diagnosis is prevalent, resulting in suboptimal asthma management. To help avoid delay in asthma diagnosis and advance asthma prevention research, researchers have proposed various models to predict asthma development in children. This paper reviews these models. A systematic review was conducted through searching in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, and OpenGrey up to June 3, 2015. The literature on predictive models for asthma development in children was retrieved, with search results limited to human subjects and children (birth to 18 years). Two independent reviewers screened the literature, performed data extraction, and assessed article quality. The literature search returned 13,101 references in total. After manual review, 32 of these references were determined to be relevant and are discussed in the paper. We identify several limitations of existing predictive models for asthma development in children, and provide preliminary thoughts on how to address these limitations. Existing predictive models for asthma development in children have inadequate accuracy. Efforts to improve these models' performance are needed, but are limited by a lack of a gold standard for asthma development in children.

  15. Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models

  16. Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hose Rodney

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient

  17. Review of zero-D and 1-D models of blood flow in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yubing; Lawford, Patricia; Hose, Rodney

    2011-04-26

    Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models, and this application is also

  18. A review of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand models for large rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, H.; Al, W.

    2013-01-01

    Development and modifications of mathematical models for Dissolved Oxygen (DO) are reviewed in this paper. The field and laboratory methods to estimate the kinetics of Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand (CBOD) and Nitrogenous Biochemical Oxygen Demand (NBOD) are also presented. This review also includes recent approaches of BOD and DO modeling beside the conventional ones along with their applicability to the natural rivers. The most frequently available public domain computer models and their applications in real life projects are also briefly covered. The literature survey reveals that currently there is more emphasis on solution techniques rather than understanding the mechanisms and processes that control DO in large rivers. The DO modeling software contains inbuilt coefficients and parameters that may not reflect the specific conditions under study. It is therefore important that the selected mathematical and computer models must incorporate the relevant processes specific to the river under study and be within the available resources in term of data collection. (author)

  19. DCMIP2016: a review of non-hydrostatic dynamical core design and intercomparison of participating models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Ullrich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric dynamical cores are a fundamental component of global atmospheric modeling systems and are responsible for capturing the dynamical behavior of the Earth's atmosphere via numerical integration of the Navier–Stokes equations. These systems have existed in one form or another for over half of a century, with the earliest discretizations having now evolved into a complex ecosystem of algorithms and computational strategies. In essence, no two dynamical cores are alike, and their individual successes suggest that no perfect model exists. To better understand modern dynamical cores, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of 11 non-hydrostatic dynamical cores, drawn from modeling centers and groups that participated in the 2016 Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project (DCMIP workshop and summer school. This review includes a choice of model grid, variable placement, vertical coordinate, prognostic equations, temporal discretization, and the diffusion, stabilization, filters, and fixers employed by each system.

  20. DCMIP2016: a review of non-hydrostatic dynamical core design and intercomparison of participating models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Paul A.; Jablonowski, Christiane; Kent, James; Lauritzen, Peter H.; Nair, Ramachandran; Reed, Kevin A.; Zarzycki, Colin M.; Hall, David M.; Dazlich, Don; Heikes, Ross; Konor, Celal; Randall, David; Dubos, Thomas; Meurdesoif, Yann; Chen, Xi; Harris, Lucas; Kühnlein, Christian; Lee, Vivian; Qaddouri, Abdessamad; Girard, Claude; Giorgetta, Marco; Reinert, Daniel; Klemp, Joseph; Park, Sang-Hun; Skamarock, William; Miura, Hiroaki; Ohno, Tomoki; Yoshida, Ryuji; Walko, Robert; Reinecke, Alex; Viner, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric dynamical cores are a fundamental component of global atmospheric modeling systems and are responsible for capturing the dynamical behavior of the Earth's atmosphere via numerical integration of the Navier-Stokes equations. These systems have existed in one form or another for over half of a century, with the earliest discretizations having now evolved into a complex ecosystem of algorithms and computational strategies. In essence, no two dynamical cores are alike, and their individual successes suggest that no perfect model exists. To better understand modern dynamical cores, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of 11 non-hydrostatic dynamical cores, drawn from modeling centers and groups that participated in the 2016 Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project (DCMIP) workshop and summer school. This review includes a choice of model grid, variable placement, vertical coordinate, prognostic equations, temporal discretization, and the diffusion, stabilization, filters, and fixers employed by each system.

  1. Risk Prediction Models for Incident Heart Failure: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Model Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, Berhe W; Owen, Alice J; Chin, Ken Lee; Reid, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Numerous models predicting the risk of incident heart failure (HF) have been developed; however, evidence of their methodological rigor and reporting remains unclear. This study critically appraises the methods underpinning incident HF risk prediction models. EMBASE and PubMed were searched for articles published between 1990 and June 2016 that reported at least 1 multivariable model for prediction of HF. Model development information, including study design, variable coding, missing data, and predictor selection, was extracted. Nineteen studies reporting 40 risk prediction models were included. Existing models have acceptable discriminative ability (C-statistics > 0.70), although only 6 models were externally validated. Candidate variable selection was based on statistical significance from a univariate screening in 11 models, whereas it was unclear in 12 models. Continuous predictors were retained in 16 models, whereas it was unclear how continuous variables were handled in 16 models. Missing values were excluded in 19 of 23 models that reported missing data, and the number of events per variable was models. Only 2 models presented recommended regression equations. There was significant heterogeneity in discriminative ability of models with respect to age (P prediction models that had sufficient discriminative ability, although few are externally validated. Methods not recommended for the conduct and reporting of risk prediction modeling were frequently used, and resulting algorithms should be applied with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Review. J. Astrophys. Astr., Vol. 36, No. 4, December 2015, pp. 433–445. Line Shape Variability in a Sample of AGN with Broad Lines. D. Ilic1,∗, L. ˇC. Popovic1,2 ... ing from. We give here a comparative review of the line shape variability ..... using the mean continuum flux at 5100 Å and the online calculator for luminosity.

  3. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (99) Complete A-Z Physics Handbook Science Magic in the Kitchen The Science of Cooking Science Experiments You Can Eat WEB WATCH (101) These journal themes are pasta joke Microwave oven Web links CD REVIEW (104) Electricity and Magnetism, KS3 Big Science Comics

  4. Fogwater deposition modeling for terrestrial ecosystems: A review of developments and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katata, Genki

    2014-07-01

    Recent progress in modeling fogwater (and low cloud water) deposition over terrestrial ecosystems during fogwater droplet interception by vegetative surfaces is reviewed. Several types of models and parameterizations for fogwater deposition are discussed with comparing assumptions, input parameter requirements, and modeled processes. The relationships among deposition velocity of fogwater (Vd) in model results, wind speed, and plant species structures associated with literature values are gathered for model validation. Quantitative comparisons between model results and observations in forest environments revealed differences as large as 2 orders of magnitude, which are likely caused by uncertainties in measurement techniques over heterogeneous landscapes. Results from the literature review show that Vd values ranged from 2.1 to 8.0 cm s-1 for short vegetation, whereas Vd = 7.7-92 cm s-1 and 0-20 cm s-1 for forests measured by throughfall-based methods and the eddy covariance method, respectively. This review also discusses the current understanding of the impacts of fogwater deposition on atmosphere-land interactions and over complex terrain based on results from numerical studies. Lastly, future research priorities in innovative modeling and observational approaches for model validation are outlined.

  5. A Review of Domain Modelling and Domain Imaging Techniques in Ferroelectric Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnis, Prashant R; Tsou, Nien-Ti; Huber, John E

    2011-02-16

    The present paper reviews models of domain structure in ferroelectric crystals, thin films and bulk materials. Common crystal structures in ferroelectric materials are described and the theory of compatible domain patterns is introduced. Applications to multi-rank laminates are presented. Alternative models employing phase-field and related techniques are reviewed. The paper then presents methods of observing ferroelectric domain structure, including optical, polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and piezo-force microscopy. Use of more than one technique for unambiguous identification of the domain structure is also described.

  6. A Review of Domain Modelling and Domain Imaging Techniques in Ferroelectric Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Huber

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews models of domain structure in ferroelectric crystals, thin films and bulk materials. Common crystal structures in ferroelectric materials are described and the theory of compatible domain patterns is introduced. Applications to multi-rank laminates are presented. Alternative models employing phase-field and related techniques are reviewed. The paper then presents methods of observing ferroelectric domain structure, including optical, polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and piezo-force microscopy. Use of more than one technique for unambiguous identification of the domain structure is also described.

  7. Review of the Space Mapping Approach to Engineering Optimization and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We review the Space Mapping (SM) concept and its applications in engineering optimization and modeling. The aim of SM is to avoid computationally expensive calculations encountered in simulating an engineering system. The existence of less accurate but fast physically-based models is exploited. SM......). An essential subproblem of any SM based optimization algorithm is parameter extraction. The uniqueness of this optimization subproblem has been crucial to the success of SM optimization. Different approaches to enhance the uniqueness are reviewed. We also discuss new developments in Space Mapping...

  8. Eating disorders among fashion models: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancu, Simona Alexandra; Enea, Violeta

    2017-09-01

    In the light of recent concerns regarding the eating disorders among fashion models and professional regulations of fashion model occupation, an examination of the scientific evidence on this issue is necessary. The article reviews findings on the prevalence of eating disorders and body image concerns among professional fashion models. A systematic literature search was conducted using ProQUEST, EBSCO, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Gale Canage electronic databases. A very low number of studies conducted on fashion models and eating disorders resulted between 1980 and 2015, with seven articles included in this review. Overall, results of these studies do not indicate a higher prevalence of eating disorders among fashion models compared to non-models. Fashion models have a positive body image and generally do not report more dysfunctional eating behaviors than controls. However, fashion models are on average slightly underweight with significantly lower BMI than controls, and give higher importance to appearance and thin body shape, and thus have a higher prevalence of partial-syndrome eating disorders than controls. Despite public concerns, research on eating disorders among professional fashion models is extremely scarce and results cannot be generalized to all models. The existing research fails to clarify the matter of eating disorders among fashion models and given the small number of studies, further research is needed.

  9. Process modeling and bottleneck mining in online peer-review systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premchaiswadi, Wichian; Porouhan, Parham

    2015-01-01

    This paper is divided into three main parts. In the first part of the study, we captured, collected and formatted an event log describing the handling of reviews for proceedings of an international conference in Thailand. In the second part, we used several process mining techniques in order to discover process models, social, organizational, and hierarchical structures from the proceeding's event log. In the third part, we detected the deviations and bottlenecks of the peer review process by comparing the observed events (i.e., authentic dataset) with a pre-defined model (i.e., master map). Finally, we investigated the performance information as well as the total waiting time in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the online submission and peer review system for the prospective conferences and seminars. Consequently, the main goals of the study were as follows: (1) to convert the collected event log into the appropriate format supported by process mining analysis tools, (2) to discover process models and to construct social networks based on the collected event log, and (3) to find deviations, discrepancies and bottlenecks between the collected event log and the master pre-defined model. The results showed that although each paper was initially sent to three different reviewers; it was not always possible to make a decision after the first round of reviewing; therefore, additional reviewers were invited. In total, all the accepted and rejected manuscripts were reviewed by an average of 3.9 and 3.2 expert reviewers, respectively. Moreover, obvious violations of the rules and regulations relating to careless or inappropriate peer review of a manuscript-committed by the editorial board and other staff-were identified. Nine blocks of activity in the authentic dataset were not completely compatible with the activities defined in the master model. Also, five of the activity traces were not correctly enabled, and seven activities were missed within the

  10. Transition between process models (BPMN and service models (WS-BPEL and other standards: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jurišić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BPMN and BPEL have become de facto standards for modeling of business processes and imple-mentation of business processes via Web services. There is a quintessential problem of discrep-ancy between these two approaches as they are applied in different phases of lifecycle and theirfundamental concepts are different — BPMN is a graph based language while BPEL is basicallya block-based programming language. This paper shows basic concepts and gives an overviewof research and ideas which emerged during last two years, presents state of the art and possiblefuture research directions. Systematic literature review was performed and critical review wasgiven regarding the potential of the given solutions.

  11. Two-Fluid Models for Simulating Dispersed Multiphase Flows-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.X. Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of two-fluid models for simulating dispersed multiphase flows (gas-particle, gas-droplet, bubble-liquid, liquid-particle flows by the present author within the last 20 years is systematically reviewed. The two-fluid models based on Reynolds expansion, time averaging and mass-weighed averaging, and also PDF transport equations are described. Different versions of two-phase turbulence models, including the unified second-order moment (USM and k-ε-kp models, the DSM-PDF model, the SOM-MC model, the nonlinear k-e-kp model, and the USM-Θ model for dense gas-particle flows and their application and experimental validation are discussed.

  12. Mathematical Modeling in Tobacco Control Research: Initial Results From a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feirman, Shari P; Donaldson, Elisabeth; Glasser, Allison M; Pearson, Jennifer L; Niaura, Ray; Rose, Shyanika W; Abrams, David B; Villanti, Andrea C

    2016-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has expressed interest in using mathematical models to evaluate potential tobacco policies. The goal of this systematic review was to synthesize data from tobacco control studies that employ mathematical models. We searched five electronic databases on July 1, 2013 to identify published studies that used a mathematical model to project a tobacco-related outcome and developed a data extraction form based on the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices. We developed an organizational framework to categorize these studies and identify models employed across multiple papers. We synthesized results qualitatively, providing a descriptive synthesis of included studies. The 263 studies in this review were heterogeneous with regard to their methodologies and aims. We used the organizational framework to categorize each study according to its objective and map the objective to a model outcome. We identified two types of study objectives (trend and policy/intervention) and three types of model outcomes (change in tobacco use behavior, change in tobacco-related morbidity or mortality, and economic impact). Eighteen models were used across 118 studies. This paper extends conventional systematic review methods to characterize a body of literature on mathematical modeling in tobacco control. The findings of this synthesis can inform the development of new models and the improvement of existing models, strengthening the ability of researchers to accurately project future tobacco-related trends and evaluate potential tobacco control policies and interventions. These findings can also help decision-makers to identify and become oriented with models relevant to their work. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Review of petroleum transport network models and their applicability to a national refinery model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J. N.

    1982-04-01

    This report examines four petroleum transport network models to determine whether parts of them can be incorporated into the transportation component of a national refinery model. Two questions in particular are addressed. (a) How do the models under examination represent the oil transport network, estimate link capacities, and calculate transport costs. (b) Are any of these network representations, capacity estimates, or cost functions suitable for inclusion in a linear programming model of oil refinery and primary distribution in the US. Only pipeline and waterway transport is discussed. The models examined are the Department of Energy's OILNET model, the Department of Transportation's Freight Energy Model, the Federal Energy Administration Petroleum Transportation Network Model, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory oil pipeline energy model. Link capacity and cost functions are recommended for each transport mode. The coefficients of the recommended pipeline cost functions remain to be estimated.

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Plasma and Fluid Turbulence: Theory and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, A.; Itoh, S. I.; Itoh, K.

    2003-03-01

    The area of turbulence has been covered by many books over the years. This has, of course, mainly been fluid turbulence, while the area of plasma turbulence has been treated much less. This book by Yoshizawa et al covers both plasma and fluid turbulence, in a way that does justice to both areas at the same time as cross-disciplinary aspects are illuminated. The book should be useful to physicists working in both areas partly because it examines fundamental aspects in a pedagogical way, partly because it is up to date and partly because of the cross-disciplinary aspects which enrich both areas. It is written as an advanced textbook. The reader should have previous knowledge of at least one of the areas and also some background in statistical physics. The book starts with the very important and highly up to date area of structure formation which is relevant both to fluids and plasmas. Here, pipe flow of fluids is treated as an introduction to the area, then follows discussion of the generation of magnetic fields by turbulent motion in stellar objects and stucture formation in plasmas confined by a magnetic field. Also the concept of bifurcation is introduced. This part builds up knowledge from the simple fluid case to the problems of magnetic confinement of plasmas in a very pedagogical way. It continues by introducing the fundamentals of fluid turbulence. This is done very systematically and concepts useful for industrial applications like the K-e method and several ways of heuristic modelling are introduced. Also the two dimensional vortex equation, which is also relevant to magnetized plasmas is introduced. In chapter 5 the statistical theory of turbulence is treated. It starts with a very nice and easy to understand example of renormalization of a simple nonlinear equation where the exact solution is known. It introduces the method of partial renormalization, Greens functions and the direct interaction approximation (DIA). The book then continues with an

  15. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Revista alicantina de estudios ingleses

    1996-01-01

    Contiene: Jan Pilditch, ed. The Critical Response to Katherine Mansfield. Critical Responses in Arts and Letters. 21. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996 / reviewed by Ana Belén López Pérez; Edith Wharton. Cartas a Morton Fullerton (1907-1931), (Barcelona, Grijalbo Mondadori, 1995). Ed. Marina Premoli. Translation: Esther Gómez / reviewed by Teresa Gómez Reus; Elizabeth Deeds Ermarth. The English Novel in History: 1840-1895. London and New York: Routledge, 1997 / reviewed by Ángel Pé...

  16. Safety of children in cars: A review of biomechanical aspects and human body models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Brolin

    2015-03-01

    To study how children interact with restraints during on-road driving and during pre- and in-crash events, numerical child models implementing age-specific anthropometric features will be essential. The review of human whole body models covers multi body models (age 1.5 to 15 years and finite element models (ages 3, 6, and 10 years. All reviewed child models are developed for crash scenarios. The only finite element models to implement age dependent anthropometry details for the spine and pelvis were a 3 year-old model and an upcoming 10 year-old model. One ongoing project is implementing active muscles response in a 6 year-old multi body model to study pre-crash scenarios. These active models are suitable for the next important step in providing the automotive industry with adequate tools for development and assessment of future restraint systems in the full sequence of events from pre- to in-crash.

  17. A Review on the Cosmology of the de Sitter Horndeski Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson J. Nunes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the most general scalar-tensor cosmological models with up to second-order derivatives in the field equations that have a fixed spatially flat de Sitter critical point independent of the material content or vacuum energy. This subclass of the Horndeski Lagrangian is capable of dynamically adjusting any value of the vacuum energy of the matter fields at the critical point. We present the cosmological evolution of the linear models and the non-linear models with shift symmetry. We come to the conclusion that the shift symmetric non-linear models can deliver a viable background compatible with current observations.

  18. Review of the Space Mapping Approach to Engineering Optimization and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We review the Space Mapping (SM) concept and its applications in engineering optimization and modeling. The aim of SM is to avoid computationally expensive calculations encountered in simulating an engineering system. The existence of less accurate but fast physically-based models is exploited. SM...... drives the optimization iterates of the time-intensive model using the fast model. Several algorithms have been developed for SM optimization, including the original SM algorithm, Aggressive Space Mapping (ASM), Trust Region Aggressive Space Mapping (TRASM) and Hybrid Aggressive Space Mapping (HASM...

  19. Review of colorectal cancer and its metastases in rodent models: comparative aspects with those in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, M; Thorup, I; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common cancer forms developing in industrialized countries, and its incidence appears to be rising. Studies of human population groups provide insufficient information about carcinogenesis, pathogenesis, and treatment of CRC....... of metastases. Which model(s) to choose depends on the goal(s) of the experiment(s). The review published here can provide help in selecting the most optimal CRC model(s) for a certain purpose and in preventing unnecessary duplication of animal experimentation....

  20. Critical review of the reactor-safety study radiological health effects model. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.W.; Evans, J.S.; Jacob, N.; Kase, K.R.; Maletskos, C.J.; Robertson, J.B.; Smith, D.G.

    1983-03-01

    This review of the radiological health effects models originally presented in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) and currently used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was undertaken to assist the NRC in determining whether or not to revise the models and to aid in the revision, if undertaken. The models as presented in the RSS and as implemented in the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) Code are described and critiqued. The major elements analyzed are those concerning dosimetry, early effects, and late effects. The published comments on the models are summarized, as are the important findings since the publication of the RSS

  1. Critical review of the reactor-safety study radiological health effects model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, D.W.; Evans, J.S.; Jacob, N.; Kase, K.R.; Maletskos, C.J.; Robertson, J.B.; Smith, D.G.

    1983-03-01

    This review of the radiological health effects models originally presented in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) and currently used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was undertaken to assist the NRC in determining whether or not to revise the models and to aid in the revision, if undertaken. The models as presented in the RSS and as implemented in the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) Code are described and critiqued. The major elements analyzed are those concerning dosimetry, early effects, and late effects. The published comments on the models are summarized, as are the important findings since the publication of the RSS.

  2. Towards an integrated model of nursing competence: an overview of the literature reviews and concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Roberto; Fida, Roberta; Sili, Alessandro; Arrigoni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Competence is considered a fundamental element when measuring a nurse's or student's ability to provide nursing care, but there is no consensus on what competence really is. This paper aims to review the existing meanings and models of nursing competence. The overview of literature reviews and concept analysis was performed through a search on Pubmed, Cinahl and PsychINFO from January 2005 to September 2014. It included key words, such as: Competence Model; Professional Competence; Nursing Competence; Competency Model; Professional Competency; Nursing Competency. A total of 14 papers were found, coming from educational or clinical nursing field. It was possible to identify some common themes: description of competence determinants; confu- sion around the competence concept; lack in competence evaluation; lack when competence have to be operationalized. The overview results, enriched by the literature coming out from the organiza- tional studies, build the conceptual basis of an integrated model of nursing competence. More empirical research is needed to test the theoretical assumptions.

  3. Animal models in bariatric surgery--a review of the surgical techniques and postsurgical physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Raghavendra S; Rao, Venkatesh; Kini, Subhash

    2010-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective current treatment for morbid obesity. Since the first publication of an article by Kremen, Linner, and Nelson, many experiments have been performed using animal models. The initial experiments used only malabsorptive procedures like intestinal bypass which have largely been abandoned now. These experimental models have been used to assess feasibility and safety as well as to refine techniques particular to each procedure. We will discuss the surgical techniques and the postsurgical physiology of the four major current bariatric procedures (namely, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion). We have also reviewed the anatomy and physiology of animal models. We have reviewed the literature and presented it such that it would be a reference to an investigator interested in animal experiments in bariatric surgery. Experimental animal models are further divided into two categories: large mammals that include dogs, cats, rabbits, and pig and small mammals that include rats and mice.

  4. Hospitality and Tourism Online Review Research: A Systematic Analysis and Heuristic-Systematic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung Hlee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With tremendous growth and potential of online consumer reviews, online reviews of hospitality and tourism are now playing a significant role in consumer attitude and buying behaviors. This study reviewed and analyzed hospitality and tourism related articles published in academic journals. The systematic approach was used to analyze 55 research articles between January 2008 and December 2017. This study presented a brief synthesis of research by investigating content-related characteristics of hospitality and tourism online reviews (HTORs in different market segments. Two research questions were addressed. Building upon our literature analysis, we used the heuristic-systematic model (HSM to summarize and classify the characteristics affecting consumer perception in previous HTOR studies. We believe that the framework helps researchers to identify the research topic in extended HTORs literature and to point out possible direction for future studies.

  5. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-18

    jbiosci. J. Biosci. 42(2), June 2017, 345–353 * Indian Academy of Sciences. 345. DOI: 10.1007/s12038-017-9681-x. Keywords. Angiogenesis; FRG1; FSHD; neuromuscular disorder; RNA biogenesis. Review. Published online: ...

  6. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, George; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three software packages: 1) a package containing 68 programs covering general topics in chemistry; 2) a package dealing with acid-base titration curves and allows for variables to be changed; 3) a chemistry tutorial and drill package. (MVL)

  7. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  8. Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , complications are relatively common and this needs to be considered in patient counseling and clinical decision making. Review: Fertility generally returns after renal transplantation. Approximately 74% of pregnancies in kidney transplant ...

  9. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Revista alicantina de estudios ingleses

    2000-01-01

    Contiene: Villalba, Estefanía. Claves para interpretar la literatura inglesa. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1999,211 p. / reviewed by Eva M. Pérez Rodríguez; Dieter Stein & Rosanna Sornicola (ed.) The Virtues of Language. History in Language, Linguistics and Texts. Number 87. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Pub. Co., 1998 / reviewed by José Manuel Belda Medina; Antonia Sánchez-Macarro and R. Carter (eds.) (1998): Linguistic Choice across Genres: Variation in Spoken and Written English. Amsterd...

  10. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE FINANCIAL REPORTING MODEL: THEORETICAL STUDIES IN REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana; Matis Dumitru

    2011-01-01

    Our paper analyzes the manner in which the financial reporting model evolved towards fair value accounting. After a brief introduction into the context of financial reporting at international level, the analysis focuses on the accounting model of fair value. This is done by synthesizing main studies in accounting research literature that analyze fair value accounting through a theoretical approach. The analysis being developed relies on literature review methodology. The main purpose of the d...

  11. Gatekeeper Training for Suicide Prevention: A Theoretical Model and Review of the Empirical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    among exposed teens . Of the exposed group, 2.5 percent reported having made a (first) suicide attempt during the 18 months of follow-up compared...Gatekeeper Training for Suicide Prevention A Theoretical Model and Review of the Empirical Literature Crystal Burnette, Rajeev Ramchand, Lynsay...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gatekeeper Training for Suicide Prevention: A Theoretical Model and

  12. Effects of Photobiomodulation Therapy on Oxidative Stress in Muscle Injury Animal Models: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Solange Almeida; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Stancker, Tatiane Garcia; Simões, Maíra Cecília Brandão; dos Santos Vieira, Marcia Ataíze; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar; Prokic, Marko; Vasconsuelo, Andrea; Santos, Simone Silva; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review was performed to identify the role of photobiomodulation therapy on experimental muscle injury models linked to induce oxidative stress. EMBASE, PubMed, and CINAHL were searched for studies published from January 2006 to January 2016 in the areas of laser and oxidative stress. Any animal model using photobiomodulation therapy to modulate oxidative stress was included in analysis. Eight studies were selected from 68 original articles targeted on laser irradiation and oxi...

  13. Ecosystem-based fishery management: A critical review of concepts and ecological economic models

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thanh Viet

    2009-01-01

    An ecosystem approach means different things to different people. As a result the concept of ecosystem-based fishery management is evolving and it has no universal definition or consistent application. As regards ecosystem modeling, most economic models of fishery ignore the linkages to lower trophic levels. In particular, environmental data and other bottom-up information is widely disregarded. The objective of this paper is to provide a critical review of concepts and ecological economic mo...

  14. Integrating probabilistic models of perception and interactive neural networks: a historical and tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to establish a rapprochement between explicitly Bayesian models of contextual effects in perception and neural network models of such effects, particularly the connectionist interactive activation (IA) model of perception. The article is in part an historical review and in part a tutorial, reviewing the probabilistic Bayesian approach to understanding perception and how it may be shaped by context, and also reviewing ideas about how such probabilistic computations may be carried out in neural networks, focusing on the role of context in interactive neural networks, in which both bottom-up and top-down signals affect the interpretation of sensory inputs. It is pointed out that connectionist units that use the logistic or softmax activation functions can exactly compute Bayesian posterior probabilities when the bias terms and connection weights affecting such units are set to the logarithms of appropriate probabilistic quantities. Bayesian concepts such the prior, likelihood, (joint and marginal) posterior, probability matching and maximizing, and calculating vs. sampling from the posterior are all reviewed and linked to neural network computations. Probabilistic and neural network models are explicitly linked to the concept of a probabilistic generative model that describes the relationship between the underlying target of perception (e.g., the word intended by a speaker or other source of sensory stimuli) and the sensory input that reaches the perceiver for use in inferring the underlying target. It is shown how a new version of the IA model called the multinomial interactive activation (MIA) model can sample correctly from the joint posterior of a proposed generative model for perception of letters in words, indicating that interactive processing is fully consistent with principled probabilistic computation. Ways in which these computations might be realized in real neural systems are also considered.

  15. Dual-process models of health-related behaviour and cognition: a review of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, S

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this review was to synthesise a spectrum of theories incorporating dual-process models of health-related behaviour. Review of theory, adapted loosely from Cochrane-style systematic review methodology. Inclusion criteria were specified to identify all relevant dual-process models that explain decision-making in the context of decisions made about human health. Data analysis took the form of iterative template analysis (adapted from the conceptual synthesis framework used in other reviews of theory), and in this way theories were synthesised on the basis of shared theoretical constructs and causal pathways. Analysis and synthesis proceeded in turn, instead of moving uni-directionally from analysis of individual theories to synthesis of multiple theories. Namely, the reviewer considered and reconsidered individual theories and theoretical components in generating the narrative synthesis' main findings. Drawing on systematic review methodology, 11 electronic databases were searched for relevant dual-process theories. After de-duplication, 12,198 records remained. Screening of title and abstract led to the exclusion of 12,036 records, after which 162 full-text records were assessed. Of those, 21 records were included in the review. Moving back and forth between analysis of individual theories and the synthesis of theories grouped on the basis of theme or focus yielded additional insights into the orientation of a theory to an individual. Theories could be grouped in part on their treatment of an individual as an irrational actor, as social actor, as actor in a physical environment or as a self-regulated actor. Synthesising identified theories into a general dual-process model of health-related behaviour indicated that such behaviour is the result of both propositional and unconscious reasoning driven by an individual's response to internal cues (such as heuristics, attitude and affect), physical cues (social and physical environmental stimuli) as well as

  16. Simulation models applied to practical learning and skill enhancement in direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Holderegger Ricci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to analyze and describe simulation methods for practical learning and training of the ophthalmoscopy exam and to organize them into specific topics relative to each principle of operation, while evaluating their preliminary results. A critical review of articles that described and evaluated simulated models for ophthalmoscopy published in the last ten years (2004-2014 was performed. One hundred articles about ophthalmology and simulation were found in national and international periodicals, but only a few discussed the examination of the posterior pole of the eye. For this study, 25 articles were considered; those articles described simulation methods, general concepts, and its actual use in ophthalmoscopy. There were many different simulation methods described, but only few articles proved their efficacy or performed a comparison between models. Review of this topic may give information for the critical analysis of the simulation devices and ideas for the development of new ones.

  17. Modelling ADHD: A review of ADHD theories through their predictions for computational models of decision-making and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Sigurd; Pedersen, Mads L; Mowinckel, Athanasia M; Biele, Guido

    2016-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by altered decision-making (DM) and reinforcement learning (RL), for which competing theories propose alternative explanations. Computational modelling contributes to understanding DM and RL by integrating behavioural and neurobiological findings, and could elucidate pathogenic mechanisms behind ADHD. This review of neurobiological theories of ADHD describes predictions for the effect of ADHD on DM and RL as described by the drift-diffusion model of DM (DDM) and a basic RL model. Empirical studies employing these models are also reviewed. While theories often agree on how ADHD should be reflected in model parameters, each theory implies a unique combination of predictions. Empirical studies agree with the theories' assumptions of a lowered DDM drift rate in ADHD, while findings are less conclusive for boundary separation. The few studies employing RL models support a lower choice sensitivity in ADHD, but not an altered learning rate. The discussion outlines research areas for further theoretical refinement in the ADHD field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technical Review of the CENWP Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of the John Day Dam Forebay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2010-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP) has developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the John Day forebay on the Columbia River to aid in the development and design of alternatives to improve juvenile salmon passage at the John Day Project. At the request of CENWP, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrology Group has conducted a technical review of CENWP's CFD model run in CFD solver software, STAR-CD. PNNL has extensive experience developing and applying 3D CFD models run in STAR-CD for Columbia River hydroelectric projects. The John Day forebay model developed by CENWP is adequately configured and validated. The model is ready for use simulating forebay hydraulics for structural and operational alternatives. The approach and method are sound, however CENWP has identified some improvements that need to be made for future models and for modifications to this existing model.

  19. Fractured rock modeling in the National Waste Terminal Storage Program: a review of requirements and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. John, C.; Krug, A.; Key, S.; Monsees, J.

    1983-05-01

    Generalized computer codes capable of forming the basis for numerical models of fractured rock masses are being used within the NWTS program. Little additional development of these codes is considered justifiable, except in the area of representation of discrete fractures. On the other hand, model preparation requires definition of medium-specific constitutive descriptions and site characteristics and is therefore legitimately conducted by each of the media-oriented projects within the National Waste Terminal Storage program. However, it is essential that a uniform approach to the role of numerical modeling be adopted, including agreement upon the contribution of modeling to the design and licensing process and the need for, and means of, model qualification for particular purposes. This report discusses the role of numerical modeling, reviews the capabilities of several computer codes that are being used to support design or performance assessment, and proposes a framework for future numerical modeling activities within the NWTS program.

  20. Fractured rock modeling in the National Waste Terminal Storage Program: a review of requirements and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.; Krug, A.; Key, S.; Monsees, J.

    1983-05-01

    Generalized computer codes capable of forming the basis for numerical models of fractured rock masses are being used within the NWTS program. Little additional development of these codes is considered justifiable, except in the area of representation of discrete fractures. On the other hand, model preparation requires definition of medium-specific constitutive descriptions and site characteristics and is therefore legitimately conducted by each of the media-oriented projects within the National Waste Terminal Storage program. However, it is essential that a uniform approach to the role of numerical modeling be adopted, including agreement upon the contribution of modeling to the design and licensing process and the need for, and means of, model qualification for particular purposes. This report discusses the role of numerical modeling, reviews the capabilities of several computer codes that are being used to support design or performance assessment, and proposes a framework for future numerical modeling activities within the NWTS program

  1. Review and Application of Time Nonlocal Transport Models to Capture Solute Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    LU, B.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, H.; Green, C. T.; Wei, S.; Qian, J.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple time nonlocal transport models had long been used to capture solute retention in natural geologic media with intrinsic physical and chemical heterogeneity, but systematical comparison of these models was rather rare. This presentation reviewed four major time nonlocal transport models, which are the matrix diffusion (MD) model, the continuous time random walk (CTRW) framework, the multi-rate mass transfer (MRMT) model, and the time fractional advection-dispersion (fADE) model, by focusing on the physical description and parameter correlation The four models were then applied to quantify solute transport observed in laboratory sand columns to further evaluate their data needs and ability to represent real-world non-Fickian dispersion due to retention process.

  2. Information Processing: A Review of Implications of Johnstone's Model for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Overton, Tina; Botton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The current review is concerned with an information processing model used in science education. The purpose is to summarise the current theoretical understanding, in published research, of a number of factors that are known to influence learning and achievement. These include field independence, working memory, long-term memory, and the use of…

  3. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  4. Assessing and modelling catastrophic risk perceptions and attitudes in agriculture: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogurtsov, V.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Catastrophic risks result in high losses in agriculture. To cope with such losses farmers need to apply risk management strategies to balance their profits and risks. Therefore risk assessment and risk modelling are important to support farm-level decision-making. This paper (1) reviews the

  5. A review of the microscopic modeling of the 5-dim. black hole of IIB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review the theory of the microscopic modeling of the 5-dim. black hole of type IIB string theory in terms of the 1-5 brane system. A detailed discussion of the low energy effective Lagrangian of the brane system is presented and the black hole micro-states are identified. These considerations are valid in the strong ...

  6. A critical review of integrated urban water modelling – Urban drainage and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Peter M.; Rauch, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    Modelling interactions in urban drainage, water supply and broader integrated urban water systems has been conceptually and logistically challenging as evidenced in a diverse body of literature, found to be confusing and intimidating to new researchers. This review consolidates thirty years of re...

  7. A review of the microscopic modeling of the 5-dim. black hole of IIB

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review the theory of the microscopic modeling of the 5-dim. black hole of type IIB string theory in terms of the 1-5 brane system. A detailed discussion of the low energy effective Lagrangian of the brane system is presented and the black hole micro-states are identified. These considerations are valid in the strong ...

  8. A review of international pharmacy-based minor ailment services and proposed service design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mariyam; García-Cárdenas, Victoria; Williams, Kylie; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2018-01-05

    The need to consider sustainable healthcare solutions is essential. An innovative strategy used to promote minor ailment care is the utilisation of community pharmacists to deliver minor ailment services (MASs). Promoting higher levels of self-care can potentially reduce the strain on existing resources. To explore the features of international MASs, including their similarities and differences, and consider the essential elements to design a MAS model. A grey literature search strategy was completed in June 2017 to comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standard. This included (1) Google/Yahoo! search engines, (2) targeted websites, and (3) contact with commissioning organisations. Executive summaries, table of contents and title pages of documents were reviewed. Key characteristics of MASs were extracted and a MAS model was developed. A total of 147 publications were included in the review. Key service elements identified included eligibility, accessibility, staff involvement, reimbursement systems. Several factors need to be considered when designing a MAS model; including contextualisation of MAS to the market. Stakeholder engagement, service planning, governance, implementation and review have emerged as key aspects involved with a design model. MASs differ in their structural parameters. Consideration of these parameters is necessary when devising MAS aims and assessing outcomes to promote sustainability and success of the service. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reviewing the Concept of Brand Equity and Evaluating Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Farjam; Xu Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of brand equity and discuss its different perspectives, we try to review existing literature of brand equity and evaluate various Customer-based brand equity models to provide a collection from well-known databases for further research in this area.Classification-JEL: M00

  10. Review on numerical modeling of active magnetic regenerators for room temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Tusek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    . This paper reviews the existing numerical modeling of room temperature AMR to date. The governing equations, implementation of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE), fluid flow and magnetic field profiles, thermal conduction etc. are discussed in detail as is their impact on the AMR cycle. Flow channeling effects...

  11. Where's the Beef? A Review of Published Research on the Adaptive Learning Environment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, James H.; Bryan, Tanis H.

    1988-01-01

    Review of published studies involving the effects of the Adaptive Learning Environment Model on special education students indicate insufficient detail for adequate evaluation of the program's impact on exceptional children. Methodological weaknesses include multiple reporting of the same data, the lack of control subjects, and inconsistencies in…

  12. Application of marginal structural models in pharmacoepidemiologic studies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shibing; Eaton, Charles B; Lu, Juan; Lapane, Kate L

    2014-06-01

    We systematically reviewed pharmacoepidemiologic studies published in 2012 that used inverse probability weighted (IPW) estimation of marginal structural models (MSM) to estimate the effect from a time-varying treatment. Potential studies were retrieved through a citation search within Web of Science and a keyword search within PubMed. Eligibility of retrieved studies was independently assessed by at least two reviewers. One reviewer performed data extraction, and a senior epidemiologist confirmed the extracted information for all eligible studies. Twenty pharmacoepidemiologic studies were eligible for data extraction. The majority of reviewed studies did not report whether the positivity assumption was checked. Six studies performed intention-to-treat analyses, but none of them reported adherence levels after treatment initiation. Eight studies chose an as-treated analytic strategy, but only one of them reported modeling the multiphase of treatment use. Almost all studies performing as-treated analyses chose the most recent treatment status as the functional form of exposure in the outcome model. Nearly half of the studies reported that the IPW estimate was substantially different from the estimate derived from a standard regression model. The use of IPW method to control for time-varying confounding is increasing in medical literature. However, reporting of the application of the technique is variable and suboptimal. It may be prudent to develop best practices in reporting complex methods in epidemiologic research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Assessment of Programming Language Learning Based on Peer Code Review Model: Implementation and Experience Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…

  14. Selection through Individualized Review: A Report on Phase IV of the Admissions Models Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Gretchen W.

    2004-01-01

    This is the fourth monograph in the admissions models series. Based on discussions at a June 2004 conference and conversations with numerous admissions experts, this publication describes different approaches to individualized review and covers topics such as standardizing elements of the application, reader training and guidelines, consistency…

  15. The Dynamics of Mobile Learning Utilization in Vocational Education: Frame Model Perspective Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahande, Ridwan Daud; Susanto, Adhi; Surjono, Herman Dwi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the dynamics of content aspects, user aspects and social aspects of mobile learning utilization (m-learning) in vocational education from the FRAME Model perspective review. This study was quantitative descriptive research. The population in this study was teachers and students of state vocational school and private…

  16. Absorption of beta-carotene and other carotenoids in humans and animal models : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To review available information on absorption and further metabolism of different carotenoids in man and to discuss animal models and approaches in the study of carotenoid absorption and metabolism in man. Conclusions: Humans appear to absorb various carotenoids in a relatively

  17. Investigation of Effectiveness of Order Review and Release Models in Make to Order Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Kaustav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays customisation becomes more common due to vast requirement from the customers for which industries are trying to use make-to-order (MTO strategy. Due to high variation in the process, workload control models are extensively used for jobshop companies which usually adapt MTO strategy. Some authors tried to implement workload control models, order review and release systems, in non-repetitive manufacturing companies, where there is a dominant flow in production. Those models are better in shop floor but their performances are never been investigated in high variation situations like MTO supply chain. This paper starts with the introduction of particular issues in MTO companies and a general overview of order review and release systems widely used in the industries. Two order review and release systems, the Limited and Balanced models, particularly suitable for flow shop system are applied to MTO supply chain, where the processing times are difficult to estimate due to high variation. Simulation results show that the Balanced model performs much better than the Limited model if the processing times can be estimated preciously.

  18. System Dynamics Modeling in Entrepreneurship Research: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics is a strategic approach for modeling complex systems and analyzing their behavior. Dynamic behavior in entrepreneurial system can be modeled using System Dynamics Approach and dynamic hypotheses about the system`s behavior can be proposed and tested using simulation and computer aided tools. However, as the review of literature shows, studies which link system dynamics modeling with entrepreneurship are rare and fragmented. This article presents a review of studies on the subject followed by integration and discussion on main research issues that have been the focus of previous studies. The main aim of this review is to categorize the available research related to the application of system dynamics modeling in entrepreneurship to integrate research and enable recommendations for future research. The Results reveal that the previous research could be categorized under a two dimensional taxonomy composed of level of analysis and level of modeling. The Level of analysis has three categories: micro level, meso level and macro level. The Level of modeling has six hierarchical levels. This study identifies several gaps in the literature and discusses the future directions in this field.

  19. Dynamic epidemiological models for dengue transmission: a systematic review of structural approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Andraud

    Full Text Available Dengue is a vector-borne disease recognized as the major arbovirose with four immunologically distant dengue serotypes coexisting in many endemic areas. Several mathematical models have been developed to understand the transmission dynamics of dengue, including the role of cross-reactive antibodies for the four different dengue serotypes. We aimed to review deterministic models of dengue transmission, in order to summarize the evolution of insights for, and provided by, such models, and to identify important characteristics for future model development. We identified relevant publications using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, focusing on mathematical deterministic models of dengue transmission. Model assumptions were systematically extracted from each reviewed model structure, and were linked with their underlying epidemiological concepts. After defining common terms in vector-borne disease modelling, we generally categorised fourty-two published models of interest into single serotype and multiserotype models. The multi-serotype models assumed either vector-host or direct host-to-host transmission (ignoring the vector component. For each approach, we discussed the underlying structural and parameter assumptions, threshold behaviour and the projected impact of interventions. In view of the expected availability of dengue vaccines, modelling approaches will increasingly focus on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination options. For this purpose, the level of representation of the vector and host populations seems pivotal. Since vector-host transmission models would be required for projections of combined vaccination and vector control interventions, we advocate their use as most relevant to advice health policy in the future. The limited understanding of the factors which influence dengue transmission as well as limited data availability remain important concerns when applying dengue models to real-world decision problems.

  20. Computer simulation models of pre-diabetes populations: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jose; Khurshid, Waqar; Pagano, Eva; Feenstra, Talitha

    2017-10-05

    Diabetes is a major public health problem and prediabetes (intermediate hyperglycaemia) is associated with a high risk of developing diabetes. With evidence supporting the use of preventive interventions for prediabetes populations and the discovery of novel biomarkers stratifying the risk of progression, there is a need to evaluate their cost-effectiveness across jurisdictions. In diabetes and prediabetes, it is relevant to inform cost-effectiveness analysis using decision models due to their ability to forecast long-term health outcomes and costs beyond the time frame of clinical trials. To support good implementation and reimbursement decisions of interventions in these populations, models should be clinically credible, based on best available evidence, reproducible and validated against clinical data. Our aim is to identify recent studies on computer simulation models and model-based economic evaluations of populations of individuals with prediabetes, qualify them and discuss the knowledge gaps, challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed for future evaluations. A systematic review will be conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, EconLit and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. We will extract peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 and 2016 that describe computer simulation models of the natural history of individuals with prediabetes and/or decision models to evaluate the impact of interventions, risk stratification and/or screening on these populations. Two reviewers will independently assess each study for inclusion. Data will be extracted using a predefined pro forma developed using best practice. Study quality will be assessed using a modelling checklist. A narrative synthesis of all studies will be presented, focussing on model structure, quality of models and input data, and validation status. This systematic review is exempt from ethics approval because the work is carried out on published documents. The findings of the review

  1. Theories, models and frameworks used in capacity building interventions relevant to public health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Kim; Abdi, Samiya; DeCorby, Kara; Mensah, Gloria; Rempel, Benjamin; Manson, Heather

    2017-11-28

    There is limited research on capacity building interventions that include theoretical foundations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify underlying theories, models and frameworks used to support capacity building interventions relevant to public health practice. The aim is to inform and improve capacity building practices and services offered by public health organizations. Four search strategies were used: 1) electronic database searching; 2) reference lists of included papers; 3) key informant consultation; and 4) grey literature searching. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are outlined with included papers focusing on capacity building, learning plans, professional development plans in combination with tools, resources, processes, procedures, steps, model, framework, guideline, described in a public health or healthcare setting, or non-government, government, or community organizations as they relate to healthcare, and explicitly or implicitly mention a theory, model and/or framework that grounds the type of capacity building approach developed. Quality assessment were performed on all included articles. Data analysis included a process for synthesizing, analyzing and presenting descriptive summaries, categorizing theoretical foundations according to which theory, model and/or framework was used and whether or not the theory, model or framework was implied or explicitly identified. Nineteen articles were included in this review. A total of 28 theories, models and frameworks were identified. Of this number, two theories (Diffusion of Innovations and Transformational Learning), two models (Ecological and Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation) and one framework (Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning) were identified as the most frequently cited. This review identifies specific theories, models and frameworks to support capacity building interventions relevant to public health organizations. It provides public health practitioners

  2. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF6 release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF 6 -) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF 6 , Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF 6 released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF 6 -specific models, using field data on releases of UF 6 and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF 6 and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF 6 -specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF 6 reaction with water

  3. Acute kidney injury following liver transplantation: a systematic review of published predictive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragata, R; Wyssusek, K H; Kruger, P

    2016-03-01

    Acute kidney injury is a frequent postoperative complication amongst liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This systematic review analysed the existing predictive models, in order to solidify current understanding. Articles were selected for inclusion if they described the primary development of a clinical prediction model (either an algorithm or risk score) to predict AKI post liver transplantation. The database search yielded a total of seven studies describing the primary development of a prediction model or risk score for the development of AKI following liver transplantation. The models span thirteen years of clinical research and highlight a gradual change in the definitions of AKI, emphasising the need to employ standardised definitions for subsequent studies. Collectively, the models identify a diverse range of predictive factors with several common trends. They emphasise the impact of preoperative renal dysfunction, liver disease severity and aetiology, metabolic risk factors as well as intraoperative variables including measures of haemodynamic instability and graft quality. Although several of the models address postoperative parameters, their utility in predictive modelling seems to be of questionable relevance. The common risk factors identified within this systematic review provide a minimum list of variables, which future studies should address. Research in this area would benefit from prospective, multi-site studies with larger cohorts as well as the subsequent internal and external validation of predictive models. Ultimately, the ability to identify patients at high risk of post-transplant AKI may enable early intervention and perhaps prevention.

  4. Review of numerical models of cavitating flows with the use of the homogeneous approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedźwiedzka Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of research works on cavitation has changed since the 1960s; the behaviour of a single bubble is no more the area of interest for most scientists. Its place was taken by the cavitating flow considered as a whole. Many numerical models of cavitating flows came into being within the space of the last fifty years. They can be divided into two groups: multi-fluid and homogeneous (i.e., single-fluid models. The group of homogenous models contains two subgroups: models based on transport equation and pressure based models. Several works tried to order particular approaches and presented short reviews of selected studies. However, these classifications are too rough to be treated as sufficiently accurate. The aim of this paper is to present the development paths of numerical investigations of cavitating flows with the use of homogeneous approach in order of publication year and with relatively detailed description. Each of the presented model is accompanied by examples of the application area. This review focuses not only on the list of the most significant existing models to predict sheet and cloud cavitation, but also on presenting their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, it shows the reasons which inspired present authors to look for new ways of more accurate numerical predictions and dimensions of cavitation. The article includes also the division of source terms of presented models based on the transport equation with the use of standardized symbols.

  5. Use of the EFPA Test Review Model by the UK and Issues Relating to the Internationalization of Test Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Patricia A.; Bartram, Dave

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present the background to the development of test reviewing by the British Psychological Society (BPS) in the United Kingdom. We also describe the role played by the BPS in the development of the EFPA test review model and its adaptation for use in test reviewing in the United Kingdom. We conclude with a discussion of lessons…

  6. Model performance evaluation (validation and calibration) in model-based studies of therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases : a review and suggested reporting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Decision analytic models play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of health technologies. Given uncertainties around the assumptions used to develop such models, several guidelines have been published to identify and assess 'best practice' in the model development process, including general modelling approach (e.g., time horizon), model structure, input data and model performance evaluation. This paper focuses on model performance evaluation. In the absence of a sufficient level of detail around model performance evaluation, concerns regarding the accuracy of model outputs, and hence the credibility of such models, are frequently raised. Following presentation of its components, a review of the application and reporting of model performance evaluation is presented. Taking cardiovascular disease as an illustrative example, the review investigates the use of face validity, internal validity, external validity, and cross model validity. As a part of the performance evaluation process, model calibration is also discussed and its use in applied studies investigated. The review found that the application and reporting of model performance evaluation across 81 studies of treatment for cardiovascular disease was variable. Cross-model validation was reported in 55 % of the reviewed studies, though the level of detail provided varied considerably. We found that very few studies documented other types of validity, and only 6 % of the reviewed articles reported a calibration process. Considering the above findings, we propose a comprehensive model performance evaluation framework (checklist), informed by a review of best-practice guidelines. This framework provides a basis for more accurate and consistent documentation of model performance evaluation. This will improve the peer review process and the comparability of modelling studies. Recognising the fundamental role of decision analytic models in informing public funding decisions, the proposed

  7. A Model of Consultation in Prostate Cancer Care: Evidence From a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Catherine; Nabi, Ghulam

    There has been an evolution of various consultation models in the literature. Men affected by prostate cancer can experience a range of unmet supportive care needs. Thus, effective consultations are paramount in the delivery of supportive care to optimize tailored self-management plans at the individual level of need. The aim of this study is to critically appraise existing models of consultation and make recommendations for a model of consultation within the scope of clinical practice for prostate cancer care. A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement Guidelines. Electronic databases were searched using a wide range of keywords and free text items to increase the sensitivity and inclusiveness of the searches. Findings were integrated in a narrative synthesis. A total of 1829 articles were retrieved and 17 papers were included. Beneficial features ranged across a number of models that included a person-centered consultation, shared management plans, and safety netting. None of the reviewed models of consultation are suitable for use in prostate cancer care because of a range of limitations and the clinical context in which models were developed. A Cancer Care Consultation Model was informed from critical appraisal of the evidence and expert clinical and service user comment. Further research is needed to empirically test consultation models in routine clinical practice, specifically for advanced cancer specialist nurses. The Prostate Cancer Model of Consultation can be used to structure clinical consultations to target self-management care plans at the individual level of need over the cancer care continuum.

  8. A Review of Quantitative Situation Assessment Models for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Situation assessment is the process of developing situation awareness and situation awareness is defined as 'the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future.' Situation awareness is an important element influencing human actions because human decision making is based on the result of situation assessment or situation awareness. There are many models for situation awareness and those models can be categorized into qualitative or quantitative. As the effects of some input factors on situation awareness can be investigated through the quantitative models, the quantitative models are more useful for the design of operator interfaces, automation strategies, training program, and so on, than the qualitative models. This study presents the review of two quantitative models of situation assessment (SA) for nuclear power plant operators

  9. Regional review: the hydrology of the Okavango Delta, Botswana-processes, data and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, C.; Kgotlhang, L.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2009-01-01

    . For the global community, the wetlands retain a tremendous pool of biodiversity. As the upstream states Angola and Namibia are developing, however, changes in the use of the water of the Okavango River and in the ecological status of the wetlands are to be expected. To predict these impacts, the hydrology...... of the Delta has to be understood. This article reviews scientific work done for that purpose, focussing on the hydrological modelling of surface water and groundwater. Research providing input data to hydrological models is also presented. It relies heavily on all types of remote sensing. The history...... of hydrologic models of the Delta is retraced from the early box models to state-of-the-art distributed hydrological models. The knowledge gained from hydrological models and its relevance for the management of the Delta are discussed....

  10. Use of homeopathic preparations in phytopathological models and in field trials: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Lucietta; Trebbi, Grazia; Majewsky, Vera; Scherr, Claudia; Shah-Rossi, Devika; Jäger, Tim; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2009-10-01

    The literature on the applications of homeopathy for controlling plant diseases in both plant pathological models and field trials was first reviewed by Scofield in 1984. No other review on homeopathy in plant pathology has been published since, though much new research has subsequently been carried out using more advanced methods. To conduct an up-to-date review of the existing literature on basic research in homeopathy using phytopathological models and experiments in the field. A literature search was carried out on publications from 1969 to 2009, for papers that reported experiments on homeopathy using phytopathological models (in vitro and in planta) and field trials. The selected papers were summarized and analysed on the basis of a Manuscript Information Score (MIS) to identify those that provided sufficient information for proper interpretation (MIS>or=5). These were then evaluated using a Study Methods Evaluation Procedure (SMEP). A total of 44 publications on phytopathological models were identified: 19 papers with statistics, 6 studies with MIS>or=5. Publications on field were 9, 6 with MIS>or=5. In general, significant and reproducible effects with decimal and centesimal potencies were found, including dilution levels beyond the Avogadro's number. The prospects for homeopathic treatments in agriculture are promising, but much more experimentation is needed, especially at a field level, and on potentisation techniques, effective potency levels and conditions for reproducibility. Phytopathological models may also develop into useful tools to answer pharmaceutical questions.

  11. Modeling metal stocks and flows: a review of dynamic material flow analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Esther; Hilty, Lorenz M; Widmer, Rolf; Schluep, Mathias; Faulstich, Martin

    2014-02-18

    Dynamic material flow analysis (MFA) is a frequently used method to assess past, present, and future stocks and flows of metals in the anthroposphere. Over the past fifteen years, dynamic MFA has contributed to increased knowledge about the quantities, qualities, and locations of metal-containing goods. This article presents a literature review of the methodologies applied in 60 dynamic MFAs of metals. The review is based on a standardized model description format, the ODD (overview, design concepts, details) protocol. We focus on giving a comprehensive overview of modeling approaches and structure them according to essential aspects, such as their treatment of material dissipation, spatial dimension of flows, or data uncertainty. The reviewed literature features similar basic modeling principles but very diverse extrapolation methods. Basic principles include the calculation of outflows of the in-use stock based on inflow or stock data and a lifetime distribution function. For extrapolating stocks and flows, authors apply constant, linear, exponential, and logistic models or approaches based on socioeconomic variables, such as regression models or the intensity-of-use hypothesis. The consideration and treatment of further aspects, such as dissipation, spatial distribution, and data uncertainty, vary significantly and highly depends on the objectives of each study.

  12. Animal models for glucocorticoid-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis: An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhida; Ren, Hui; Shen, Gengyang; Qiu, Ting; Liang, De; Yang, Zhidong; Yao, Zhensong; Tang, Jingjing; Jiang, Xiaobing; Wei, Qiushi

    2016-12-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis is a severe osteoporosis, with high risk of major osteoporotic fractures. This severe osteoporosis urges more extensive and deeper basic study, in which suitable animal models are indispensable. However, no relevant review is available introducing this model systematically. Based on the recent studies on GI-PMOP, this brief review introduces the GI-PMOP animal model in terms of its establishment, evaluation of bone mass and discuss its molecular mechanism. Rat, rabbit and sheep with their respective merits were chosen. Both direct and indirect evaluation of bone mass help to understand the bone metabolism under different intervention. The crucial signaling pathways, miRNAs, osteogenic- or adipogenic- related factors and estrogen level may be the predominant contributors to the development of glucocorticoid-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of Models of Consumer Behaviour and Influence of Emotions in the Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Mikel Alonso López

    2016-01-01

    In order to begin the process of studying the task of making consumer decisions, the main decision models must be analyzed. The objective of this task is to see if there is a presence of emotions in those models, and analyze how authors that have created them consider their impact in consumer choices. In this paper, the most important models of consumer behavior are analysed. This review is useful to consider an unproblematic background knowledge in the literature. The order that has been est...

  14. Review of Slug Detection, Modeling and Control Techniques for Offshore Oil & Gas Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The current offshore oil & gas multi-phase production and transportation installations have big challenges related with the slugging flow: An unstable multi-phase flow regime where the flow rates, pressures and temperatures oscillate in the considered processes. Slug can be caused by different...... severe consequences to the production processes because of the slugging flow. This paper reviews some observed latest status and key challenges about slug detection, dynamical modeling and elimination of slugging flows. Mathematical modeling of slug has been used to investigate the slug mechanism...... decades, the cost-effective and optimal slug modeling and control are still open topics with many related challenges....

  15. Ecosystem-based fishery management: a critical review of concepts and ecological economic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Viet

      An ecosystem approach means different things to different people. As a result the concept of ecosystem-based fishery management is evolving and it has no universal definition or consistent application. As regards ecosystem modeling, most economic models of fishery ignore the linkages to lower...... trophic levels. In particular, environmental data and other bottom-up information is widely disregarded. The objective of this paper is to provide a critical review of concepts and ecological economic models relating to ecosystem-based fishery management....

  16. Applicability of models to predict phosphorus losses in drained fields: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, David E; Reid, D Keith; Blombäck, Karin; Bolster, Carl H; Collick, Amy S; Easton, Zachary M; Francesconi, Wendy; Fuka, Daniel R; Johnsson, Holger; King, Kevin; Larsbo, Mats; Youssef, Mohamed A; Mulkey, Alisha S; Nelson, Nathan O; Persson, Kristian; Ramirez-Avila, John J; Schmieder, Frank; Smith, Douglas R

    2015-03-01

    Most phosphorus (P) modeling studies of water quality have focused on surface runoff loses. However, a growing number of experimental studies have shown that P losses can occur in drainage water from artificially drained fields. In this review, we assess the applicability of nine models to predict this type of P loss. A model of P movement in artificially drained systems will likely need to account for the partitioning of water and P into runoff, macropore flow, and matrix flow. Within the soil profile, sorption and desorption of dissolved P and filtering of particulate P will be important. Eight models are reviewed (ADAPT, APEX, DRAINMOD, HSPF, HYDRUS, ICECREAMDB, PLEASE, and SWAT) along with P Indexes. Few of the models are designed to address P loss in drainage waters. Although the SWAT model has been used extensively for modeling P loss in runoff and includes tile drain flow, P losses are not simulated in tile drain flow. ADAPT, HSPF, and most P Indexes do not simulate flow to tiles or drains. DRAINMOD simulates drains but does not simulate P. The ICECREAMDB model from Sweden is an exception in that it is designed specifically for P losses in drainage water. This model seems to be a promising, parsimonious approach in simulating critical processes, but it needs to be tested. Field experiments using a nested, paired research design are needed to improve P models for artificially drained fields. Regardless of the model used, it is imperative that uncertainty in model predictions be assessed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. A Review of Current Machine Learning Methods Used for Cancer Recurrence Modeling and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, Geralyn M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Cancer has been characterized as a heterogeneous disease consisting of many different subtypes. The early diagnosis and prognosis of a cancer type has become a necessity in cancer research. A major challenge in cancer management is the classification of patients into appropriate risk groups for better treatment and follow-up. Such risk assessment is critically important in order to optimize the patient’s health and the use of medical resources, as well as to avoid cancer recurrence. This paper focuses on the application of machine learning methods for predicting the likelihood of a recurrence of cancer. It is not meant to be an extensive review of the literature on the subject of machine learning techniques for cancer recurrence modeling. Other recent papers have performed such a review, and I will rely heavily on the results and outcomes from these papers. The electronic databases that were used for this review include PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Query terms used include “cancer recurrence modeling”, “cancer recurrence and machine learning”, “cancer recurrence modeling and machine learning”, and “machine learning for cancer recurrence and prediction”. The most recent and most applicable papers to the topic of this review have been included in the references. It also includes a list of modeling and classification methods to predict cancer recurrence.

  18. Formation of calcareous nodules in loess-paleosol sequences: Reviews of existing models with a proposed new "per evapotranspiration model"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanrong; Zhang, Weiwei; Aydin, Adnan; Deng, Xiaohong

    2018-04-01

    Loess is a product of aeolian deposition during Quaternary glaciation cycles. Loess-paleosol sequences are rich in calcareous nodules (CNs). In the literature, two models are widely cited for the formation of CNs, namely "per descendum" and "per ascendum". However, there has been no direct testing or monitoring to support either of these contradictory models. This paper reviews a large number of multidisciplinary literature to evaluate the consistency, reliability and rationality of these two models. Three main conclusions are drawn: (1) the causative factors (variation of pH value along loess-paleosol sequence, decrease of CO2 partial pressure, and reduction of solvent water) that are used to support the per descendum model do not completely explain the supersaturation of infiltration solution with CaCO3, thereby making this model questionable; (2) the per ascendum model explains the formation of CNs along narrow horizons through upward evaporation; however, it fails to produce sporadic distributions and irregular shapes of nodules on loess slope faces and the frequent appearance of nodules around plant roots. In order to reconcile these deficiencies, we conducted an extensive field survey in various parts of Shanxi province. Based on this new set of observations, it was concluded that the "per ascendum" model can be extended to explain all occurrences of CNs. This extended model is called "per evapotranspiration".

  19. Web-Based Training on Reviewing Dose Modeling Aspects of NRC Decommissioning and License Termination Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LePoire, D.; Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Arnish, J.; Richmond, P.; Chen, S.Y.; Barr, C.; McKenney, C.

    2008-01-01

    NRC licensees at decommissioning nuclear facilities submit License Termination Plans (LTP) or Decommissioning Plans (DP) to NRC for review and approval. To facilitate a uniform and consistent review of these plans, the NRC developed training for its staff. A live classroom course was first developed in 2005, which targeted specific aspects of the LTP and DP review process related to dose-based compliance demonstrations or modeling. A web-based training (WBT) course was developed in 2006 and 2007 to replace the classroom-based course. The advantage of the WBT is that it will allow for staff training or refreshers at any time, while the advantage of a classroom-based course is that it provides a forum for lively discussion and the sharing of experience of classroom participants. The objective of this course is to train NRC headquarters and regional office staff on how to review sections of a licensee's DP or LTP that pertain to dose modeling. The DP generally refers to the decommissioning of non-reactor facilities, while the LTP refers specifically to the decommissioning of reactors. This review is part of the NRC's licensing process, in which the NRC determines if a licensee has provided a suitable technical basis to support derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs)1 or dose modeling analyses performed to demonstrate compliance with dose-based license termination rule criteria. This type of training is one component of an organizational management system. These systems 'use a range of practices to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning'. This is especially important in an organization undergoing rapid change or staff turnover to retain organizational information and processes. NRC is committed to maintaining a dynamic program of training, development, and knowledge transfer to ensure that the NRC acquires and maintains the competencies needed to accomplish its mission. This paper discusses one specific project

  20. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The two published parts of the Desmid Flora of Austria are well-illustrated review volumes on a group of precious freshwater microalgae. Volume 1 contains a pretty, visual key to the genera, completed by figures of one or more characteristic species. In all keys of the separate genera many visual

  1. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.

    1996-01-01

    The first volume of this series was published in 1991, and reviewed in Blumea 38, p. 216. The treatments of volumes 2 and 3 are each based on a doctor’s thesis by the first author, elaborated under supervision of Dr. Panigrahi. Volume 2 contains regional revisions of six genera: Prunus, Prinsepia,

  2. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  3. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38

  4. Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-19

    Dave Richards and Brian Finch. March 19, 2016, Penguin Random House South Africa, ISBN 978-1775842514, pp. 64, full colour. Price US$10.00/GB£6.70. In this review, I shall attempt to convince readers that ... head and slams her book down as the memory arrives. “Oh no. That bird still sends shivers through me!

  5. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.; Adema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This book intends (according to the preface) to afford at once a review, a general outline of what has been accomplished, and a set of signposts for the future. It attempts to do so in three sections on Origin and Diversification of Primitive Land Plants (4 papers), Origin and Diversification of

  6. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which

  7. A review of cutting mechanics and modeling techniques for biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabi, Behrouz; Tai, Bruce L

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive survey on the modeling of tissue cutting, including both soft tissue and bone cutting processes. In order to achieve higher accuracy in tissue cutting, as a critical process in surgical operations, the meticulous modeling of such processes is important in particular for surgical tool development and analysis. This review paper is focused on the mechanical concepts and modeling techniques utilized to simulate tissue cutting such as cutting forces and chip morphology. These models are presented in two major categories, namely soft tissue cutting and bone cutting. Fracture toughness is commonly used to describe tissue cutting while Johnson-Cook material model is often adopted for bone cutting in conjunction with finite element analysis (FEA). In each section, the most recent mathematical and computational models are summarized. The differences and similarities among these models, challenges, novel techniques, and recommendations for future work are discussed along with each section. This review is aimed to provide a broad and in-depth vision of the methods suitable for tissue and bone cutting simulations. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Review: David Lohmann (2003. Das Bielefelder Diakonie-Management-Modell [The Bielefeld Deaconry Management Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rausch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In six chapters, David LOHMANN makes suggestions for theological-ethical deaconry management, including a consideration of economic necessities. Through a qualitative comparison of documented sources, the author generates a theory of theological-ethical enterprise management. Following that, the author considers the theology of the deaconry in the context of TILLICH's model of believed realism and WICHERN’s theological concept of the inner mission. At the center of the examination lies a formulation of a cybernetic theory of deaconry theology. Of the available management models, the author favours the St. Galler model as the basic model of deaconry enterprise management. In doing so, the author lays out theological ground rules for the normative, strategic and operational levels of deaconry. In attempting to formulate this prospective deaconry management model through the consideration of the work of the two 20th century theologians and his own personal experience, the current needs and knowledge-base of specific deaconries are not considered. A systematic consideration of quantitative social research would have been a worthwhile supplement. In conclusion, the analysis develops a management model for deaconry enterprises that emphasizes the interdisciplinary aspects of theology and business economics. The book confirms the competitive value of a management model attuned to the theological and economic aspects of a deaconry. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601356

  9. Evaluating alternative systems of peer review: a large-scale agent-based modelling approach to scientific publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanis, Michail; Trinquart, Ludovic; Ravaud, Philippe; Porcher, Raphaël

    2017-01-01

    The debate on whether the peer-review system is in crisis has been heated recently. A variety of alternative systems have been proposed to improve the system and make it sustainable. However, we lack sufficient evidence and data related to these issues. Here we used a previously developed agent-based model of the scientific publication and peer-review system calibrated with empirical data to compare the efficiency of five alternative peer-review systems with the conventional system. We modelled two systems of immediate publication, with and without online reviews (crowdsourcing), a system with only one round of reviews and revisions allowed (re-review opt-out) and two review-sharing systems in which rejected manuscripts are resubmitted along with their past reviews to any other journal (portable) or to only those of the same publisher but of lower impact factor (cascade). The review-sharing systems outperformed or matched the performance of the conventional one in all peer-review efficiency, reviewer effort and scientific dissemination metrics we used. The systems especially showed a large decrease in total time of the peer-review process and total time devoted by reviewers to complete all reports in a year. The two systems with immediate publication released more scientific information than the conventional one but provided almost no other benefit. Re-review opt-out decreased the time reviewers devoted to peer review but had lower performance on screening papers that should not be published and relative increase in intrinsic quality of papers due to peer review than the conventional system. Sensitivity analyses showed consistent findings to those from our main simulations. We recommend prioritizing a system of review-sharing to create a sustainable scientific publication and peer-review system.

  10. Modelling of transport and biogeochemical processes in pollution plumes: Literature review of model development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, A.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2002-01-01

    A literature survey shows how biogeochemical (coupled organic and inorganic reaction processes) transport models are based on considering the complete biodegradation process as either a single- or as a two-step process. It is demonstrated that some two-step process models rely on the Partial Equi....... A second paper [J. Hydrol. 256 (2002) 230-249], reports the application of the model to a field study of biogeochemical transport processes in a landfill plume in Denmark (Vejen). (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-08-03

    Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the "Cluster Approach" (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws "Who is Where, When, doing What" mapping tool (with four case studies), the "Sphere Project" (with two case studies), the "5x5" model (with one case study), and the "model of information coordination" (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services.

  12. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Sockolow, Paulina

    2016-02-24

    Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one's choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other disciplines.

  13. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. Objectives The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. Methods A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. Results The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one’s choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Conclusions Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other

  14. Importance of demand modelling in network water quality models : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, E.J.M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Buchberger, S.G.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Today, there is a growing interest in network water quality modelling. The water quality issues of interest relate to both dissolved and particulate substances. For dissolved substances the main interest is in residual chlorine and (microbiological) contaminant propagation; for particulate

  15. A review of logistic regression models used to predict post-fire tree mortality of western North American conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Woolley; David C. Shaw; Lisa M. Ganio; Stephen. Fitzgerald

    2012-01-01

    Logistic regression models used to predict tree mortality are critical to post-fire management, planning prescribed bums and understanding disturbance ecology. We review literature concerning post-fire mortality prediction using logistic regression models for coniferous tree species in the western USA. We include synthesis and review of: methods to develop, evaluate...

  16. Validity and reliability of an application review process using dedicated reviewers in one stage of a multi-stage admissions model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Jacqueline M; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C

    2017-11-01

    With increased emphasis placed on non-academic skills in the workplace, a need exists to identify an admissions process that evaluates these skills. This study assessed the validity and reliability of an application review process involving three dedicated application reviewers in a multi-stage admissions model. A multi-stage admissions model was utilized during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle. After advancing through the academic review, each application was independently reviewed by two dedicated application reviewers utilizing a six-construct rubric (written communication, extracurricular and community service activities, leadership experience, pharmacy career appreciation, research experience, and resiliency). Rubric scores were extrapolated to a three-tier ranking to select candidates for on-site interviews. Kappa statistics were used to assess interrater reliability. A three-facet Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) determined reviewer severity, candidate suitability, and rubric construct difficulty. The kappa statistic for candidates' tier rank score (n = 388 candidates) was 0.692 with a perfect agreement frequency of 84.3%. There was substantial interrater reliability between reviewers for the tier ranking (kappa: 0.654-0.710). Highest construct agreement occurred in written communication (kappa: 0.924-0.984). A three-facet MFRM analysis explained 36.9% of variance in the ratings, with 0.06% reflecting application reviewer scoring patterns (i.e., severity or leniency), 22.8% reflecting candidate suitability, and 14.1% reflecting construct difficulty. Utilization of dedicated application reviewers and a defined tiered rubric provided a valid and reliable method to effectively evaluate candidates during the application review process. These analyses provide insight into opportunities for improving the application review process among schools and colleges of pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk prediction models for major adverse cardiac event (MACE) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Norhafizah A.; Abidin, Basir

    2015-02-01

    Five percent of patients who went through Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) experienced Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) after PCI procedure. Risk prediction of MACE following a PCI procedure therefore is helpful. This work describes a review of such prediction models currently in use. Literature search was done on PubMed and SCOPUS database. Thirty literatures were found but only 4 studies were chosen based on the data used, design, and outcome of the study. Particular emphasis was given and commented on the study design, population, sample size, modeling method, predictors, outcomes, discrimination and calibration of the model. All the models had acceptable discrimination ability (C-statistics >0.7) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lameshow P-value >0.05). Most common model used was multivariate logistic regression and most popular predictor was age.

  18. Modelling tools to evaluate China's future energy system - a review of the Chinese perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2014-01-01

    compares 18 energy modelling tools from ten Chinese institutions. These models have been described in English language publications between 2005 and 2013, although not all are published in peer-reviewed journals. When comparing the results for three main energy system indicators across models, this paper...... finds that there are considerable ranges in the reference scenarios: (i) GDP is projected to grow by 630e840% from 2010 to 2050, (ii) energy demand could increase by 200e300% from 2010 to 2050, and (iii) CO2 emissions could rise by 160e250% from 2010 to 2050. Although the access to the modelling tools...... and the underlying data remains challenging, this study concludes that the Chinese perspective, independently from the modelling approach and institution, suggests a rather gradual and long-term transition towards a low carbon economy in China. Few reference scenarios include an emission peak or stabilisation period...

  19. Review of FD-TD numerical modeling of electromagnetic wave scattering and radar cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflove, Allen; Umashankar, Korada R.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method for numerical modeling of electromagnetic wave interactions with structures are reviewed, concentrating on scattering and radar cross section (RCS). A number of two- and three-dimensional examples of FD-TD modeling of scattering and penetration are provided. The objects modeled range in nature from simple geometric shapes to extremely complex aerospace and biological systems. Rigorous analytical or experimental validatons are provided for the canonical shapes, and it is shown that FD-TD predictive data for near fields and RCS are in excellent agreement with the benchmark data. It is concluded that with continuing advances in FD-TD modeling theory for target features relevant to the RCS problems and in vector and concurrent supercomputer technology, it is likely that FD-TD numerical modeling will occupy an important place in RCS technology in the 1990s and beyond.

  20. Predicting Oral Drug Absorption: Mini Review on Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Most marketed drugs are administered orally, despite the complex process of oral absorption that is difficult to predict. Oral bioavailability is dependent on the interplay between many processes that are dependent on both compound and physiological properties. Because of this complexity, computational oral physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models have emerged as a tool to integrate these factors in an attempt to mechanistically capture the process of oral absorption. These models use inputs from in vitro assays to predict the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs in the human body. The most common oral PBPK models are compartmental approaches, in which the gastrointestinal tract is characterized as a series of compartments through which the drug transits. The focus of this review is on the development of oral absorption PBPK models, followed by a brief discussion of the major applications of oral PBPK models in the pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Primary Health Care Models Addressing Health Equity for Immigrants: A Systematic Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ricardo; Pottie, Kevin; Bouchard, Louise; Ng, Edward; Tanuseputro, Peter; Tugwell, Peter

    2018-02-01

    To examine two healthcare models, specifically "Primary Medical Care" (PMC) and "Primary Health Care" (PHC) in the context of immigrant populations' health needs. We conducted a systematic scoping review of studies that examined primary care provided to immigrants. We categorized studies into two models, PMC and PHC. We used subjects of access barriers and preventive interventions to analyze the potential of PMC/PHC to address healthcare inequities. From 1385 articles, 39 relevant studies were identified. In the context of immigrant populations, the PMC model was found to be more oriented to implement strategies that improve quality of care of the acute and chronically ill, while PHC models focused more on health promotion and strategies to address cultural and access barriers to care, and preventive strategies to address social determinants of health. Primary Health Care models may be better equipped to address social determinants of health, and thus have more potential to reduce immigrant populations' health inequities.

  2. Generic dynamic wind turbine models for power system stability analysis: A comprehensive review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gómez-Lázaro, E.; Fortmann, J.

    2018-01-01

    the subsequent changes made during the development phase. The main differences between IEC and WECC generic models are also analyzed. Not only is the final model structure presented but we also provide a complete description of the physical behavior of wind turbines facing power system stability problems......In recent years, international working groups, mainly from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), have made a major effort to develop generic —also known as simplified or standard— dynamic wind turbine models to be used for power...... system stability analysis. These models are required by power system operators to conduct the planning and operation activities of their networks since the use of detailed manufacturer models is not practical. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the work done in this field, based on the results...

  3. Material Models and Properties in the Finite Element Analysis of Knee Ligaments: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbusera, Fabio; Freutel, Maren; Dürselen, Lutz; D’Aiuto, Marta; Croce, Davide; Villa, Tomaso; Sansone, Valerio; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Knee ligaments are elastic bands of soft tissue with a complex microstructure and biomechanics, which are critical to determine the kinematics as well as the stress bearing behavior of the knee joint. Their correct implementation in terms of material models and properties is therefore necessary in the development of finite element models of the knee, which has been performed for decades for the investigation of both its basic biomechanics and the development of replacement implants and repair strategies for degenerative and traumatic pathologies. Indeed, a wide range of element types and material models has been used to represent knee ligaments, ranging from elastic unidimensional elements to complex hyperelastic three-dimensional structures with anatomically realistic shapes. This paper systematically reviews literature studies, which described finite element models of the knee, and summarizes the approaches, which have been used to model the ligaments highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25478560

  4. Modeling recent climate change induced extreme events in Bangladesh: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rehan Dastagir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a resourceful and densely populated country that has been experiencing frequent disasters viz. cyclones, tidal surges, floods, salinity intrusions, droughts etc. which cause large damage to lives and properties every year. The frequency and intensity of the extreme events have increased significantly in recent decades due to climate change and global warming. This review paper synthesizes extreme climatic events in Bangladesh in the context of the climate modeling data. The modeling results of extreme events showed significant trends in Bangladesh due to climate change. The results of these climate models are significant to show the importance of climate modeling in Bangladesh and it will help to promote research on climate modeling in least developed countries like Bangladesh.

  5. Software Quality Evaluation Models Applicable in Health Information and Communications Technologies. A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor Ordozgoiti, Alberto; Delgado Hito, Pilar; Guix Comellas, Eva María; Fernandez Sanchez, Carlos Manuel; Garcia Hernandez, Milagros; Lluch Canut, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communications Technologies in healthcare has increased the need to consider quality criteria through standardised processes. The aim of this study was to analyse the software quality evaluation models applicable to healthcare from the perspective of ICT-purchasers. Through a systematic literature review with the keywords software, product, quality, evaluation and health, we selected and analysed 20 original research papers published from 2005-2016 in health science and technology databases. The results showed four main topics: non-ISO models, software quality evaluation models based on ISO/IEC standards, studies analysing software quality evaluation models, and studies analysing ISO standards for software quality evaluation. The models provide cost-efficiency criteria for specific software, and improve use outcomes. The ISO/IEC25000 standard is shown as the most suitable for evaluating the quality of ICTs for healthcare use from the perspective of institutional acquisition.

  6. Avoiding and identifying errors in health technology assessment models: qualitative study and methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, J; Tappenden, P; Rawdin, A; Johnson, M; Kaltenthaler, E; Paisley, S; Papaioannou, D; Shippam, A

    2010-05-01

    Health policy decisions must be relevant, evidence-based and transparent. Decision-analytic modelling supports this process but its role is reliant on its credibility. Errors in mathematical decision models or simulation exercises are unavoidable but little attention has been paid to processes in model development. Numerous error avoidance/identification strategies could be adopted but it is difficult to evaluate the merits of strategies for improving the credibility of models without first developing an understanding of error types and causes. The study aims to describe the current comprehension of errors in the HTA modelling community and generate a taxonomy of model errors. Four primary objectives are to: (1) describe the current understanding of errors in HTA modelling; (2) understand current processes applied by the technology assessment community for avoiding errors in development, debugging and critically appraising models for errors; (3) use HTA modellers' perceptions of model errors with the wider non-HTA literature to develop a taxonomy of model errors; and (4) explore potential methods and procedures to reduce the occurrence of errors in models. It also describes the model development process as perceived by practitioners working within the HTA community. A methodological review was undertaken using an iterative search methodology. Exploratory searches informed the scope of interviews; later searches focused on issues arising from the interviews. Searches were undertaken in February 2008 and January 2009. In-depth qualitative interviews were performed with 12 HTA modellers from academic and commercial modelling sectors. All qualitative data were analysed using the Framework approach. Descriptive and explanatory accounts were used to interrogate the data within and across themes and subthemes: organisation, roles and communication; the model development process; definition of error; types of model error; strategies for avoiding errors; strategies for

  7. A Review of Flood Loss Models as Basis for Harmonization and Benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerl, Tina; Kreibich, Heidi; Franco, Guillermo; Marechal, David; Schröter, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Risk-based approaches have been increasingly accepted and operationalized in flood risk management during recent decades. For instance, commercial flood risk models are used by the insurance industry to assess potential losses, establish the pricing of policies and determine reinsurance needs. Despite considerable progress in the development of loss estimation tools since the 1980s, loss estimates still reflect high uncertainties and disparities that often lead to questioning their quality. This requires an assessment of the validity and robustness of loss models as it affects prioritization and investment decision in flood risk management as well as regulatory requirements and business decisions in the insurance industry. Hence, more effort is needed to quantify uncertainties and undertake validations. Due to a lack of detailed and reliable flood loss data, first order validations are difficult to accomplish, so that model comparisons in terms of benchmarking are essential. It is checked if the models are informed by existing data and knowledge and if the assumptions made in the models are aligned with the existing knowledge. When this alignment is confirmed through validation or benchmarking exercises, the user gains confidence in the models. Before these benchmarking exercises are feasible, however, a cohesive survey of existing knowledge needs to be undertaken. With that aim, this work presents a review of flood loss-or flood vulnerability-relationships collected from the public domain and some professional sources. Our survey analyses 61 sources consisting of publications or software packages, of which 47 are reviewed in detail. This exercise results in probably the most complete review of flood loss models to date containing nearly a thousand vulnerability functions. These functions are highly heterogeneous and only about half of the loss models are found to be accompanied by explicit validation at the time of their proposal. This paper exemplarily presents

  8. Economic Evaluations of Multicomponent Disease Management Programs with Markov Models: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Florian

    2016-12-01

    Disease management programs (DMPs) for chronic diseases are being increasingly implemented worldwide. To present a systematic overview of the economic effects of DMPs with Markov models. The quality of the models is assessed, the method by which the DMP intervention is incorporated into the model is examined, and the differences in the structure and data used in the models are considered. A literature search was conducted; the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was followed to ensure systematic selection of the articles. Study characteristics e.g. results, the intensity of the DMP and usual care, model design, time horizon, discount rates, utility measures, and cost-of-illness were extracted from the reviewed studies. Model quality was assessed by two researchers with two different appraisals: one proposed by Philips et al. (Good practice guidelines for decision-analytic modelling in health technology assessment: a review and consolidation of quality asessment. Pharmacoeconomics 2006;24:355-71) and the other proposed by Caro et al. (Questionnaire to assess relevance and credibility of modeling studies for informing health care decision making: an ISPOR-AMCP-NPC Good Practice Task Force report. Value Health 2014;17:174-82). A total of 16 studies (9 on chronic heart disease, 2 on asthma, and 5 on diabetes) met the inclusion criteria. Five studies reported cost savings and 11 studies reported additional costs. In the quality, the overall score of the models ranged from 39% to 65%, it ranged from 34% to 52%. Eleven models integrated effectiveness derived from a clinical trial or a meta-analysis of complete DMPs and only five models combined intervention effects from different sources into a DMP. The main limitations of the models are bad reporting practice and the variation in the selection of input parameters. Eleven of the 14 studies reported cost-effectiveness results of less than $30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year and

  9. External validation of multivariable prediction models: a systematic review of methodological conduct and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Before considering whether to use a multivariable (diagnostic or prognostic) prediction model, it is essential that its performance be evaluated in data that were not used to develop the model (referred to as external validation). We critically appraised the methodological conduct and reporting of external validation studies of multivariable prediction models. Methods We conducted a systematic review of articles describing some form of external validation of one or more multivariable prediction models indexed in PubMed core clinical journals published in 2010. Study data were extracted in duplicate on design, sample size, handling of missing data, reference to the original study developing the prediction models and predictive performance measures. Results 11,826 articles were identified and 78 were included for full review, which described the evaluation of 120 prediction models. in participant data that were not used to develop the model. Thirty-three articles described both the development of a prediction model and an evaluation of its performance on a separate dataset, and 45 articles described only the evaluation of an existing published prediction model on another dataset. Fifty-seven percent of the prediction models were presented and evaluated as simplified scoring systems. Sixteen percent of articles failed to report the number of outcome events in the validation datasets. Fifty-four percent of studies made no explicit mention of missing data. Sixty-seven percent did not report evaluating model calibration whilst most studies evaluated model discrimination. It was often unclear whether the reported performance measures were for the full regression model or for the simplified models. Conclusions The vast majority of studies describing some form of external validation of a multivariable prediction model were poorly reported with key details frequently not presented. The validation studies were characterised by poor design, inappropriate handling

  10. A systematic literature review of open source software quality assessment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Adewole; Misra, Sanjay; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Many open source software (OSS) quality assessment models are proposed and available in the literature. However, there is little or no adoption of these models in practice. In order to guide the formulation of newer models so they can be acceptable by practitioners, there is need for clear discrimination of the existing models based on their specific properties. Based on this, the aim of this study is to perform a systematic literature review to investigate the properties of the existing OSS quality assessment models by classifying them with respect to their quality characteristics, the methodology they use for assessment, and their domain of application so as to guide the formulation and development of newer models. Searches in IEEE Xplore, ACM, Science Direct, Springer and Google Search is performed so as to retrieve all relevant primary studies in this regard. Journal and conference papers between the year 2003 and 2015 were considered since the first known OSS quality model emerged in 2003. A total of 19 OSS quality assessment model papers were selected. To select these models we have developed assessment criteria to evaluate the quality of the existing studies. Quality assessment models are classified into five categories based on the quality characteristics they possess namely: single-attribute, rounded category, community-only attribute, non-community attribute as well as the non-quality in use models. Our study reflects that software selection based on hierarchical structures is found to be the most popular selection method in the existing OSS quality assessment models. Furthermore, we found that majority (47%) of the existing models do not specify any domain of application. In conclusion, our study will be a valuable contribution to the community and helps the quality assessment model developers in formulating newer models and also to the practitioners (software evaluators) in selecting suitable OSS in the midst of alternatives.

  11. A review of selected topics in physics based modeling for tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseni, David; Pala, Marco; Palestri, Pierpaolo; Alper, Cem; Rollo, Tommaso

    2017-08-01

    The research field on tunnel-FETs (TFETs) has been rapidly developing in the last ten years, driven by the quest for a new electronic switch operating at a supply voltage well below 1 V and thus delivering substantial improvements in the energy efficiency of integrated circuits. This paper reviews several aspects related to physics based modeling in TFETs, and shows how the description of these transistors implies a remarkable innovation and poses new challenges compared to conventional MOSFETs. A hierarchy of numerical models exist for TFETs covering a wide range of predictive capabilities and computational complexities. We start by reviewing seminal contributions on direct and indirect band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) modeling in semiconductors, from which most TCAD models have been actually derived. Then we move to the features and limitations of TCAD models themselves and to the discussion of what we define non-self-consistent quantum models, where BTBT is computed with rigorous quantum-mechanical models starting from frozen potential profiles and closed-boundary Schrödinger equation problems. We will then address models that solve the open-boundary Schrödinger equation problem, based either on the non-equilibrium Green’s function NEGF or on the quantum-transmitting-boundary formalism, and show how the computational burden of these models may vary in a wide range depending on the Hamiltonian employed in the calculations. A specific section is devoted to TFETs based on 2D crystals and van der Waals hetero-structures. The main goal of this paper is to provide the reader with an introduction to the most important physics based models for TFETs, and with a possible guidance to the wide and rapidly developing literature in this exciting research field.

  12. A review on integration of artificial intelligence into water quality modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Kwok-wing

    2006-07-01

    With the development of computing technology, numerical models are often employed to simulate flow and water quality processes in coastal environments. However, the emphasis has conventionally been placed on algorithmic procedures to solve specific problems. These numerical models, being insufficiently user-friendly, lack knowledge transfers in model interpretation. This results in significant constraints on model uses and large gaps between model developers and practitioners. It is a difficult task for novice application users to select an appropriate numerical model. It is desirable to incorporate the existing heuristic knowledge about model manipulation and to furnish intelligent manipulation of calibration parameters. The advancement in artificial intelligence (AI) during the past decade rendered it possible to integrate the technologies into numerical modelling systems in order to bridge the gaps. The objective of this paper is to review the current state-of-the-art of the integration of AI into water quality modelling. Algorithms and methods studied include knowledge-based system, genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, and fuzzy inference system. These techniques can contribute to the integrated model in different aspects and may not be mutually exclusive to one another. Some future directions for further development and their potentials are explored and presented.

  13. In vitro biofilm models to study dental caries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, T T; van de Sande, F H; Arthur, R A; Huysmans, M C D N J M; Cenci, M S

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to characterize and discuss key methodological aspects of in vitro biofilm models for caries-related research and to verify the reproducibility and dose-response of models considering the response to anti-caries and/or antimicrobial substances. Inclusion criteria were divided into Part I (PI): an in vitro biofilm model that produces a cariogenic biofilm and/or caries-like lesions and allows pH fluctuations; and Part II (PII): models showing an effect of anti-caries and/or antimicrobial substances. Within PI, 72.9% consisted of dynamic biofilm models, while 27.1% consisted of batch models. Within PII, 75.5% corresponded to dynamic models, whereas 24.5% corresponded to batch models. Respectively, 20.4 and 14.3% of the studies reported dose-response validations and reproducibility, and 32.7% were classified as having a high risk of bias. Several in vitro biofilm models are available for caries-related research; however, most models lack validation by dose-response and reproducibility experiments for each proposed protocol.

  14. Towards a standard design model for quad-rotors: A review of current models, their accuracy and a novel simplified model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezquita-Brooks, Luis; Liceaga-Castro, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Mario; Garcia-Salazar, Octavio; Martinez-Vazquez, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Applications based on quad-rotor-vehicles (QRV) are becoming increasingly wide-spread. Many of these applications require accurate mathematical representations for control design, simulation and estimation. However, there is no consensus on a standardized model for these purposes. In this article a review of the most common elements included in QRV models reported in the literature is presented. This survey shows that some elements are recurrent for typical non-aerobatic QRV applications; in particular, for control design and high-performance simulation. By synthesising the common features of the reviewed models a standard generic model SGM is proposed. The SGM is cast as a typical state-space model without memory-less transformations, a structure which is useful for simulation and controller design. The survey also shows that many QRV applications use simplified representations, which may be considered simplifications of the SGM here proposed. In order to assess the effectiveness of the simplified models, a comprehensive comparison based on digital simulations is presented. With this comparison, it is possible to determine the accuracy of each model under particular operating ranges. Such information is useful for the selection of a model according to a particular application. In addition to the models found in the literature, in this article a novel simplified model is derived. The main characteristics of this model are that its inner dynamics are linear, it has low complexity and it has a high level of accuracy in all the studied operating ranges, a characteristic found only in more complex representations. To complement the article the main elements of the SGM are evaluated with the aid of experimental data and the computational complexity of all surveyed models is briefly analysed. Finally, the article presents a discussion on how the structural characteristics of the models are useful to suggest particular QRV control structures.

  15. Review and study of physics driven pitting corrosion modeling in 2024-T3 aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingyu; Jata, Kumar V.

    2015-04-01

    Material degradation due to corrosion and corrosion fatigue has been recognized to significantly affect the airworthiness of civilian and military aircraft, especially for the current fleet of airplanes that have served beyond their initial design life. The ability to predict the corrosion damage development in aircraft components and structures, therefore, is of great importance in managing timely maintenance for the aging aircraft vehicles and in assisting the design of new ones. The assessment of aircraft corrosion and its influence on fatigue life relies on appropriate quantitative models that can evaluate the initiation of the corrosion as well as the accumulation during the period of operation. Beyond the aircraft regime, corrosion has also affected the maintenance, safety and reliability of other systems such as nuclear power systems, steam and gas turbines, marine structures and so on. In the work presented in this paper, we reviewed and studied several physics based pitting corrosion models that have been reported in the literature. The classic work of particle induced pitting corrosion by Wei and Harlow is reviewed in detail. Two types of modeling, a power law based simplified model and a microstructure based model, are compared for 2024-T3 alloy. Data from literatures are used as model inputs. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for future work.

  16. Clinical implications of in silico mathematical modeling for glioblastoma: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapa, Maria; Zygogianni, Anna; Stamatakos, Georgios S; Antypas, Christos; Armpilia, Christina; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos K; Kouloulias, Vassilis

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma remains a clinical challenge in spite of years of extensive research. Novel approaches are needed in order to integrate the existing knowledge. This is the potential role of mathematical oncology. This paper reviews mathematical models on glioblastoma from the clinical doctor's point of view, with focus on 3D modeling approaches of radiation response of in vivo glioblastomas based on contemporary imaging techniques. As these models aim to provide a clinically useful tool in the era of personalized medicine, the integration of the latest advances in molecular and imaging science and in clinical practice by the in silico models is crucial for their clinical relevance. Our aim is to indicate areas of GBM research that have not yet been addressed by in silico models and to point out evidence that has come up from in silico experiments, which may be worth considering in the clinic. This review examines how close these models have come in predicting the outcome of treatment protocols and in shaping the future of radiotherapy treatments.

  17. A review on model updating of joint structure for dynamic analysis purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural joints provide connection between structural element (beam, plate etc. in order to construct a whole assembled structure. There are many types of structural joints such as bolted joint, riveted joints and welded joints. The joints structures significantly contribute to structural stiffness and dynamic behaviour of structures hence the main objectives of this paper are to review on method of model updating on joints structure and to discuss the guidelines to perform model updating for dynamic analysis purpose. This review paper firstly will outline some of the existing finite element modelling works of joints structure. Experimental modal analysis is the next step to obtain modal parameters (natural frequency & mode shape to validate and improve the discrepancy between results obtained from experimental and the simulation counterparts. Hence model updating will be carried out to minimize the differences between the two results. There are two methods of model updating; direct method and iterative method. Sensitivity analysis employed using SOL200 in NASTRAN by selecting the suitable updating parameters to avoid ill-conditioning problem. It is best to consider both geometrical and material properties in the updating procedure rather than choosing only a number of geometrical properties alone. Iterative method was chosen as the best model updating procedure because the physical meaning of updated parameters are guaranteed although this method required computational effort compare to direct method.

  18. The epidemiological impact of antiretroviral use predicted by mathematical models: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Neil M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarises theoretical studies attempting to assess the population impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART use on mortality and HIV incidence. We describe the key parameters that determine the impact of therapy, and argue that mathematical models of disease transmission are the natural framework within which to explore the interaction between antiviral use and the dynamics of an HIV epidemic. Our review focuses on the potential effects of ART in resource-poor settings. We discuss choice of model type and structure, the potential for risk behaviour change following widespread introduction of ART, the importance of the stage of HIV infection at which treatment is initiated, and the potential for spread of drug resistance. These issues are illustrated with results from models of HIV transmission. We demonstrate that HIV transmission models predicting the impact of ART use should incorporate a realistic progression through stages of HIV infection in order to capture the effect of the timing of treatment initiation on disease spread. The realism of existing models falls short of properly reproducing patterns of diagnosis timing, incorporating heterogeneity in sexual behaviour, and describing the evolution and transmission of drug resistance. The uncertainty surrounding certain effects of ART, such as changes in sexual behaviour and transmission of ART-resistant HIV strains, demands exploration of best and worst case scenarios in modelling, but this must be complemented by surveillance and behavioural surveys to quantify such effects in settings where ART is implemented.

  19. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented.

  20. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi; Jiang, Liying

    2017-01-26

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented.

  1. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi; Jiang, Liying

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented. PMID:28336861

  2. Scoping review identifies significant number of knowledge translation theories, models and frameworks with limited use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strifler, Lisa; Cardoso, Roberta; McGowan, Jessie; Cogo, Elise; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Scott, Alistair; Ghassemi, Marco; MacDonald, Heather; Lai, Yonda; Treister, Victoria; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E

    2018-04-13

    To conduct a scoping review of knowledge translation (KT) theories, models and frameworks that have been used to guide dissemination or implementation of evidence-based interventions targeted to prevention and/or management of cancer or other chronic diseases. We used a comprehensive multistage search process from 2000-2016, which included traditional bibliographic database searching, searching using names of theories, models and frameworks, and cited reference searching. Two reviewers independently screened the literature and abstracted data. We found 596 studies reporting on the use of 159 KT theories, models or frameworks. A majority (87%) of the identified theories, models or frameworks were used in five or fewer studies, with 60% used once. The theories, models and frameworks were most commonly used to inform planning/design, implementation and evaluation activities, and least commonly used to inform dissemination and sustainability/scalability activities. Twenty-six were used across the full implementation spectrum (from planning/design to sustainability/scalability) either within or across studies. All were used for at least individual-level behavior change, while 48% were used for organization-level, 33% for community-level and 17% for system-level change. We found a significant number of KT theories, models and frameworks with a limited evidence base describing their use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmperis, Athanasios C., E-mail: athkarmp@mail.ntua.gr [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece); Army Corps of Engineers, Hellenic Army General Staff, Ministry of Defence (Greece); Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed.

  4. A Critical Review of Model-Based Economic Studies of Depression: Modelling Techniques, Model Structure and Data Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Haji Ali Afzali; Jonathan Karnon; Jodi Gray

    2012-01-01

    Depression is the most common mental health disorder and is recognized as a chronic disease characterized by multiple acute episodes/relapses. Although modelling techniques play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of depression interventions, comparatively little attention has been paid to issues around modelling studies with a focus on potential biases. This, however, is important as different modelling approaches, variations in model structure and input parameters may ...

  5. Laser photobiomodulation of wound healing: a review of experimental studies in mouse and rat animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Philip V; Chung, Tzu-Yun; Baxter, G David

    2010-06-01

    This investigation reviewed experimental studies of laser irradiation of wound healing in mice and rats published from 2003 to August 2008, respectively, to assess putative stimulatory effects of this treatment. Animal models, including rodents, attempt to reflect human wound healing and associated problems such as dehiscence, ischemia, ulceration, infection, and scarring. They have played a key role in furthering understanding of underlying mechanisms involved in impaired wound healing, and in testing new therapeutic strategies including laser irradiation. Original research papers investigating effects of laser or monochromatic light therapy on wound healing in mice and rats and published from January 2003 to August 2008 were retrieved from library sources, PubMed and Medline databases, reference lists from retrieved papers, and hand searches of relevant journals. Papers were selected for this review with regard to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were critically reviewed in terms of study design, methodology, and appropriateness of laser irradiation parameters. The literature search identified eight studies in mice and 39 in rats. A variety of wound models were investigated, including acute-wound, impaired-healing, and chronic-wound models. Considerable variation was observed in research design, methodology, and irradiation parameters employed, limiting comparison of research findings between studies. Inadequate reporting of key experimental details, or errors in specification and/or calculation of key irradiation parameters was also found. Evidence from the studies reviewed suggested that use of red or infrared wavelength at a range of dosage parameters (median 4.2 J cm(-2)) results in significant benefits in measured parameters of wound healing. Interestingly, coherence does not seem essential to the photobiomodulatory effects of 'laser' phototherapy. Studies reviewed consistently demonstrated the ability of laser or monochromatic light to

  6. Attachment in medical care: A review of the interpersonal model in chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Xavier F

    2017-03-01

    Objective Patient-physician interaction is continually examined in an era prioritizing patient-centered approaches, yet elaboration beyond aspects of communication and empathy is lacking. Major chronic conditions would benefit tremendously from understanding interpersonal aspects of patient-physician encounters. This review intends to provide a concise introduction to the interpersonal model of attachment theory and how it informs both the patient-physician interaction and medical outcomes in chronic care. Methods A narrative review of the theoretical, neurobiological, epidemiological, investigational, and clinical literature on attachment theory and its impact on medical outcomes was conducted, utilizing a variety of key words as searched on PubMed database. Studies and reviews included were of a variety of sources, including textbooks and peer-reviewed journals. Reports in languages other than English were excluded. Results Measurable, discrete attachment styles and behavioral patterns correlate with poor medical outcomes, including nonadherence in insecure dismissing attachment and care overutilization in insecure preoccupied attachment. Furthermore, insecure dismissing attachment is associated with significant mortality. These variables can be easily assessed, and their effects are reversible, as evidenced by collaborative care outcome data. Discussion Attachment theory is useful a model with application in clinical and investigational aspects of chronic illness care. Implications and guidelines are explored.

  7. Model of inventory replenishment in periodic review accounting for the occurrence of shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Krzyżaniak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the development of alternative concepts of goods flow management, the inventory management under conditions of random variations of demand is still an important issue, both from the point of view of inventory keeping and replenishment costs and the service level measured as the level of inventory availability. There is a number of inventory replenishment systems used in these conditions, but they are mostly developments of two basic systems: reorder point-based and periodic review-based. The paper deals with the latter system. Numerous researches indicate the need to improve the classical models describing that system, the reason being mainly the necessity to adapt the model better to the actual conditions. This allows a correct selection of parameters that control the used inventory replenishment system and - as a result - to obtain expected economic effects. Methods: This research aimed at building a model of the periodic review system to reflect the relations (observed during simulation tests between the volume of inventory shortages and the degree of accounting for so-called deferred demand, and the service level expressed as the probability of satisfying the demand in the review and the inventory replenishment cycle. The following model building and testing method has been applied: numerical simulation of inventory replenishment - detailed analysis of simulation results - construction of the model taking into account the regularities observed during the simulations - determination of principles of solving the system of relations creating the model - verification of the results obtained from the model using the results from simulation. Results: Presented are selected results of calculations based on classical formulas and using the developed model, which describe the relations between the service level and the parameters controlling the discussed inventory replenishment system. The results are compared to the simulation

  8. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use

  9. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  10. Characteristics of Indigenous primary health care service delivery models: a systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfield, Stephen G; Davy, Carol; McArthur, Alexa; Munn, Zachary; Brown, Alex; Brown, Ngiare

    2018-01-25

    Indigenous populations have poorer health outcomes compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. The evolution of Indigenous primary health care services arose from mainstream health services being unable to adequately meet the needs of Indigenous communities and Indigenous peoples often being excluded and marginalised from mainstream health services. Part of the solution has been to establish Indigenous specific primary health care services, for and managed by Indigenous peoples. There are a number of reasons why Indigenous primary health care services are more likely than mainstream services to improve the health of Indigenous communities. Their success is partly due to the fact that they often provide comprehensive programs that incorporate treatment and management, prevention and health promotion, as well as addressing the social determinants of health. However, there are gaps in the evidence base including the characteristics that contribute to the success of Indigenous primary health care services in providing comprehensive primary health care. This systematic scoping review aims to identify the characteristics of Indigenous primary health care service delivery models. This systematic scoping review was led by an Aboriginal researcher, using the Joanna Briggs Institute Scoping Review Methodology. All published peer-reviewed and grey literature indexed in PubMed, EBSCO CINAHL, Embase, Informit, Mednar, and Trove databases from September 1978 to May 2015 were reviewed for inclusion. Studies were included if they describe the characteristics of service delivery models implemented within an Indigenous primary health care service. Sixty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and then thematically analysed to identify the characteristics of Indigenous PHC service delivery models. Culture was the most prominent characteristic underpinning all of the other seven characteristics which were identified - accessible health services, community

  11. Modelling the effects of subjective and objective decision making in scientific peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Uck; Peacey, Mike W; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-02-06

    The objective of science is to advance knowledge, primarily in two interlinked ways: circulating ideas, and defending or criticizing the ideas of others. Peer review acts as the gatekeeper to these mechanisms. Given the increasing concern surrounding the reproducibility of much published research, it is critical to understand whether peer review is intrinsically susceptible to failure, or whether other extrinsic factors are responsible that distort scientists' decisions. Here we show that even when scientists are motivated to promote the truth, their behaviour may be influenced, and even dominated, by information gleaned from their peers' behaviour, rather than by their personal dispositions. This phenomenon, known as herding, subjects the scientific community to an inherent risk of converging on an incorrect answer and raises the possibility that, under certain conditions, science may not be self-correcting. We further demonstrate that exercising some subjectivity in reviewer decisions, which serves to curb the herding process, can be beneficial for the scientific community in processing available information to estimate truth more accurately. By examining the impact of different models of reviewer decisions on the dynamic process of publication, and thereby on eventual aggregation of knowledge, we provide a new perspective on the ongoing discussion of how the peer-review process may be improved.

  12. Exploring the Group Prenatal Care Model: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have compared perinatal outcomes between individual prenatal care and group prenatal care. A critical review of research articles that were published between 1998 and 2009 and involved participants of individual and group prenatal care was conducted. Two middle range theories, Pender’s health promotion model and Swanson’s theory of caring, were blended to enhance conceptualization of the relationship between pregnant women and the group prenatal care model. Among the 17 research studies that met inclusion criteria for this critical review, five examined gestational age and birth weight with researchers reporting longer gestations and higher birth weights in infants born to mothers participating in group prenatal care, especially in the preterm birth population. Current evidence demonstrates that nurse educators and leaders should promote group prenatal care as a potential method of improving perinatal outcomes within the pregnant population. PMID:23997549

  13. Review of strongly-coupled composite dark matter models and lattice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kribs, Graham D.; Neil, Ethan T.

    2016-08-01

    We review models of new physics in which dark matter arises as a composite bound state from a confining strongly-coupled non-Abelian gauge theory. We discuss several qualitatively distinct classes of composite candidates, including dark mesons, dark baryons, and dark glueballs. We highlight some of the promising strategies for direct detection, especially through dark moments, using the symmetries and properties of the composite description to identify the operators that dominate the interactions of dark matter with matter, as well as dark matter self-interactions. We briefly discuss the implications of these theories at colliders, especially the (potentially novel) phenomenology of dark mesons in various regimes of the models. Throughout the review, we highlight the use of lattice calculations in the study of these strongly-coupled theories, to obtain precise quantitative predictions and new insights into the dynamics.

  14. Exploring the group prenatal care model: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have compared perinatal outcomes between individual prenatal care and group prenatal care. A critical review of research articles that were published between 1998 and 2009 and involved participants of individual and group prenatal care was conducted. Two middle range theories, Pender's health promotion model and Swanson's theory of caring, were blended to enhance conceptualization of the relationship between pregnant women and the group prenatal care model. Among the 17 research studies that met inclusion criteria for this critical review, five examined gestational age and birth weight with researchers reporting longer gestations and higher birth weights in infants born to mothers participating in group prenatal care, especially in the preterm birth population. Current evidence demonstrates that nurse educators and leaders should promote group prenatal care as a potential method of improving perinatal outcomes within the pregnant population.

  15. A review of MRI evaluation of demyelination in cuprizone murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutenkova, E., E-mail: len--k@yandex.ru; Pan, E.; Khodanovich, M., E-mail: khodanovich@mail.tsu.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Lenina pr., 36, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The cuprizone mouse model of non-autoimmune demyelination reproduces some phenomena of multiple sclerosis and is appropriate for validation and specification of a new method of non-invasive diagnostics. In the review new data which are collected using the new MRI method are compared with one or more conventional MRI tools. Also the paper reviewed the validation of MRI approaches using histological or immunohistochemical methods. Luxol fast blue histological staining and myelin basic protein immunostaining is widespread. To improve the accuracy of non-invasive conventional MRI, multimodal scanning could be applied. The new quantitative MRI method of fast mapping of the macromolecular proton fraction is a reliable biomarker of myelin in the brain and can be used for research of demyelination in animals. To date, a validation of MPF method on the CPZ mouse model of demyelination is not performed, although this method is probably the best way to evaluate demyelination using MRI.

  16. 78 FR 70598 - Submission for Review: Request for External Review (3206-NEW); Model Notice of Final Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-28383] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request for External... of Management and Budget (OMB) Control No. 3206-NEW, Request for External Review. The information...) Program on March 11, 2013, 78 FR 15560, which outlined an external review process that would be available...

  17. A Systematic Review of Marine-Based Species Distribution Models (SDMs with Recommendations for Best Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor M. Robinson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the marine environment Species Distribution Models (SDMs have been used in hundreds of papers for predicting the present and future geographic range and environmental niche of species. We have analyzed ways in which SDMs are being applied to marine species in order to recommend best practice in future studies. This systematic review was registered as a protocol on the Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/tngs6/. The literature reviewed (236 papers was published between 1992 and July 2016. The number of papers significantly increased through time (R2 = 0.92, p < 0.05. The studies were predominantly carried out in the Temperate Northern Atlantic (45% followed by studies of global scale (11% and studies in Temperate Australasia (10%. The majority of studies reviewed focused on theoretical ecology (37% including investigations of biological invasions by non-native organisms, conservation planning (19%, and climate change predictions (17%. Most of the studies were published in ecological, multidisciplinary, or biodiversity conservation journals. Most of the studies (94% failed to report the amount of uncertainty derived from data deficiencies and model parameters. Best practice recommendations are proposed here to ensure that novice and advanced SDM users can (a understand the main elements of SDMs, (b reproduce standard methods and analysis, and (c identify potential limitations with their data. We suggest that in the future, studies of marine SDMs should report on key features of the approaches employed, data deficiencies, the selection of the best explanatory model, and the approach taken to validate the SDM results. In addition, based on the literature reviewed, we suggest that future marine SDMs should account for uncertainty levels as part of the modeling process.

  18. Evaluation models and criteria of the quality of hospital websites: a systematic review study

    OpenAIRE

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Gilasi, Hamidreza; Khademi, Sahar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hospital websites are important tools in establishing communication and exchanging information between patients and staff, and thus should enjoy an acceptable level of quality. The aim of this study was to identify proper models and criteria to evaluate the quality of hospital websites. Methods This research was a systematic review study. The international databases such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, Proquest, Ovid, Elsevier, Springer, and EBSCO together with regiona...

  19. Socio-hydrological modelling: a review asking "why, what and how?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, P.; Buytaert, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and the environment are occurring on a scale that has never previously been seen; the scale of human interaction with the water cycle, along with the coupling present between social and hydrological systems, means that decisions that impact water also impact people. Models are often used to assist in decision-making regarding hydrological systems, and so in order for effective decisions to be made regarding water resource management, these interactions and feedbacks should be accounted for in models used to analyse systems in which water and humans interact. This paper reviews literature surrounding aspects of socio-hydrological modelling. It begins with background information regarding the current state of socio-hydrology as a discipline, before covering reasons for modelling and potential applications. Some important concepts that underlie socio-hydrological modelling efforts are then discussed, including ways of viewing socio-hydrological systems, space and time in modelling, complexity, data and model conceptualisation. Several modelling approaches are described, the stages in their development detailed and their applicability to socio-hydrological cases discussed. Gaps in research are then highlighted to guide directions for future research. The review of literature suggests that the nature of socio-hydrological study, being interdisciplinary, focusing on complex interactions between human and natural systems, and dealing with long horizons, is such that modelling will always present a challenge; it is, however, the task of the modeller to use the wide range of tools afforded to them to overcome these challenges as much as possible. The focus in socio-hydrology is on understanding the human-water system in a holistic sense, which differs from the problem solving focus of other water management fields, and as such models in socio-hydrology should be developed with a view to gaining new insight into these dynamics. There is an

  20. Modelling socio-hydrological systems: a review of concepts, approaches and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, P.; Buytaert, W.

    2015-09-01

    Interactions between humans and the environment are occurring on a scale that has never previously been seen; one environmental facet that has seen particular co-evolution with society is water. The scale of human interaction with the water cycle, along with the coupling present between social and hydrological systems, means that decisions that impact water also impact people. Models are often used to assist in decision-making regarding hydrological systems, and so in order for effective decisions to be made regarding water resource management, these interactions and feedbacks should be accounted for in models used to analyse systems in which water and humans interact. This paper reviews literature surrounding aspects of socio-hydrological modelling. It begins with background information regarding the current state of socio-hydrology as a discipline, before covering reasons for modelling and potential applications. Some important concepts that underlie socio-hydrological modelling efforts are then discussed, including ways of viewing socio-hydrological systems, space and time in modelling, complexity, data and model conceptualisation. Several modelling approaches are described, the stages in their development detailed and their applicability to socio-hydrological cases discussed. Gaps in research are then highlighted to guide directions for future research. The review of literature suggests that the nature of socio-hydrological study, being interdisciplinary, focusing on complex interactions between human and natural systems, and dealing with long horizons, is such that modelling will always present a challenge; it is, however, the task of the modeller to use the wide range tools afforded to them to overcome these challenges as much as possible. The focus in socio-hydrology is on understanding the human-water system in a holistic sense, which differs from the problem solving focus of other water management fields, and as such models in socio-hydrology should be