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Sample records for model preserves important

  1. Preserving Madagascar's Natural Heritage: The Importance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preserving Madagascar's Natural Heritage: The Importance of Keeping the Island's Vertebrate Fossils in the Public Domain. DW Krause, PM O'Connor, AH Rasoamiaramanana, GA Buckley, D Burney, MT Carrano, PS Chatrath, JJ Flynn, CA Forster, LR Godfrey, WL Jungers, RR Rogers, KE Samonds, LE Simons, AR Wyss ...

  2. Modelling Organizational Preservation Goals to Guide Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dappert

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extended and updated version of the work reported at iPres 2008. Digital preservation activities can only succeed if they go beyond the technical properties of digital objects. They must consider the strategy, policy, goals, and constraints of the institution that undertakes them and take into account the cultural and institutional framework in which data, documents and records are preserved. Furthermore, because organizations differ in many ways, a one-size-fits-all approach cannot be appropriate. Fortunately, organizations involved in digital preservation have created documents describing their policies, strategies, work-flows, plans, and goals to provide guidance. They also have skilled staff who are aware of sometimes unwritten considerations. Within Planets (Farquhar & Hockx-Yu, 2007, a four-year project co-funded by the European Union to address core digital preservation challenges, we have analyzed preservation guiding documents and interviewed staff from libraries, archives, and data centres that are actively engaged in digital preservation. This paper introduces a conceptual model for expressing the core concepts and requirements that appear in preservation guiding documents. It defines a specific vocabulary that institutions can reuse for expressing their own policies and strategies. In addition to providing a conceptual framework, the model and vocabulary support automated preservation planning tools through an XML representation.

  3. Modelling the Costs of Preserving Digital Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2012-01-01

    and the benefits accrued by preserving the assets. Cost data is also needed for optimizing activities and comparing the costs of different preservation alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyse generic requirements for modelling the cost of preserving digital assets. The analysis was based......Information is increasingly being produced in digital form, and some of it must be preserved for the longterm. Digital preservation includes a series of actively managed activities that require on-going funding. To obtain sufficient resources, there is a need for assessing the costs...... on experiences from a Danish project to develop a cost model. It was found that a generic cost model should account for the nature of the organisation and the assets to be preserved, and for all major preservation activities and cost drivers. In addition, it should describe accounting principles. It was proposed...

  4. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese.

  5. Preservation of Agricultural Land as an Issue of Societal Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Slätmo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on concerns about food security and food sovereignty, it is appropriate to scrutinise societal measures for protecting agricultural land from conversion to other uses. Changes from agricultural to urban land use are particularly problematic, as they are largely irreversible. By analysing relevant Swedish policy, the present study investigated how the protection of agricultural land is framed as an issue of societal importance. Protection of agricultural land is enshrined in Swedish law, but its use is still continually changing to housing and other constructions. In a structured policy analysis, two questions were examined: (1 what are the societal motives for protecting agricultural land in Sweden, and (2 how do these motives influence the governance of agricultural land? The meaning of ‘national importance’, ‘suitable for cultivation’ and ‘significant national interests’ in Swedish land-use law was also analysed. The results showed that formulations in the law reflect the ambivalent discourses on agricultural land preservation and that the Swedish authorities view other land uses as more important than agriculture. The Swedish governance system is currently built on trust that municipal institutions will make satisfactory decisions concerning land and water use. However, it has been shown that these decisions have not been satisfactory concerning the protection of agricultural land, and it is important to acknowledge that the sum of local decisions can be degrading for these life-supporting resources. The present analysis revealed a looming conflict between the preservation of soils for food production, on one hand, and local participation in decision making, on the other. This raises the question of whether it is more important to defend subsidiarity or to preserve certain resources which are important for food security, such as agricultural land.

  6. Science Data Preservation: Implementation and Why It Is Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steven J.; Moses, John F.; Gerasimov, Irina V.; Johnson, James E.; Vollmer, Bruce E.; Theobald, Michael L.; Ostrenga, Dana M.; Ahmad, Suraiya; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Khayat, Mohammad G.

    2013-01-01

    Remote Sensing data generation by NASA to study Earth s geophysical processes was initiated in 1960 with the launch of the first Television Infrared Observation Satellite Program (TIROS), to develop a meteorological satellite information system. What would be deemed as a primitive data set by today s standards, early Earth science missions were the foundation upon which today s remote sensing instruments have built their scientific success, and tomorrow s instruments will yield science not yet imagined. NASA Scientific Data Stewardship requirements have been documented to ensure the long term preservation and usability of remote sensing science data. In recent years, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners and NASA s Earth Science Data System Working Groups have organized committees that specifically examine standards, processes, and ontologies that can best be employed for the preservation of remote sensing data, supporting documentation, and data provenance information. This presentation describes the activities, issues, and implementations, guided by the NASA Earth Science Data Preservation Content Specification (423-SPEC-001), for preserving instrument characteristics, and data processing and science information generated for 20 Earth science instruments, spanning 40 years of geophysical measurements, at the NASA s Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). In addition, unanticipated preservation/implementation questions and issues in the implementation process are presented.

  7. Preservatives as important etiologic factors of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kręcisz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. Material and Methods: A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 males was examined in 2011–2013. In all participants patch tests with a series of 13 preservatives (paraben mix, formaldehyde, Quaternium 15, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mix, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, benzalkonium chloride, sodium metabisulfite, produced by Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden were performed. Results: Of the 405 patients 74 (including 52 females showed positive results of patch tests. Contact allergy to at least 1 preservative was noted in 47 (11.6% patients, including 34 (11% females and 13 (13.4% males. Methylisothiazolinone proved to be the most frequent sensitizer – 4.7% (5.2% females, 3.1% males while parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and imidazolidinyl urea (0.2% were found to be the least frequent. Fourteen (3.4% participants, 10 women and 4 men, were allergic to formaldehyde and/or formaldehyde releasers. In 11 (78.6% of them monovalent hypersensitivity was observed. In 13 (3.2% of the examined group patients allergy to preservatives might have been of occupational origin. Conclusions: Preservatives, particularly isothiazolinones, are significant causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis, including occupational cases. Individuals sensitized to formaldehyde may react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers, however, such reactions are relatively rare. Med Pr 2015;66(3:327–332

  8. Colour - important factor in preserving the local identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Maria Zybaczynski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable competitiveness, referring to the city, requires the analysis of the characteristic elements that confer identity to the city. Could be colour one of them? This article, based on the Doctoral Dissertation "The colour in rehabilitation" presented to the Faculty of Architecture, University of Architecture and Urbanism "Ion Mincu" Bucharest, explores the role of colour in the urbanscape in terms of local identity and perceptual connections, concluding that the transformations of urban space and architecture are visible even on the chromatic level. The colour control in urban areas can be a means of preserving local identity and a potential element of sustainable urban competitiveness.

  9. Modelling OAIS Compliance for Disaggregated Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Knight

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The reference model for the Open Archival Information System (OAIS is well established in the research community as a method of modelling the functions of a digital repository and as a basis in which to frame digital curation and preservation issues. In reference to the 5th anniversary review of the OAIS, it is timely to consider how it may be interpreted by an institutional repository. The paper examines methods of sharing essential functions and requirements of an OAIS between two or more institutions, outlining the practical considerations of outsourcing. It also details the approach taken by the SHERPA DP Project to introduce a disaggregated service model for institutional repositories that wish to implement preservation services.

  10. Preservation of thermodynamic structure in model reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2015-03-01

    Based on the availability of an invariant manifold, we develop a model-reduction procedure that preserves thermodynamic structure. More concretely, we construct the Poisson and irreversible brackets of the general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling of nonequilibrium thermodynamics by means of the ideas originally introduced for handling constraints. The general ideas are then applied to the Kramers problem, that is, the description of transitions between two potential wells separated by a high barrier. This example reveals how a fortuitous cancellation mechanism that allows a logarithmic entropy to generate a linear diffusion equation is inherited by a master equation resulting from model reduction.

  11. A veracity preserving model for synthesizing scalable electricity load profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yunyou; Zhan, Jianfeng; Luo, Chunjie; Wang, Lei; Wang, Nana; Zheng, Daoyi; Fan, Fanda; Ren, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Electricity users are the major players of the electric systems, and electricity consumption is growing at an extraordinary rate. The research on electricity consumption behaviors is becoming increasingly important to design and deployment of the electric systems. Unfortunately, electricity load profiles are difficult to acquire. Data synthesis is one of the best approaches to solving the lack of data, and the key is the model that preserves the real electricity consumption behaviors. In this...

  12. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis...... for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital...... Preservation (CMDP), the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been...

  13. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2011-01-01

    for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital......The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis...... Preservation (CMDP), the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been...

  14. Modelling the Cost and Quality of Preservation Imaging and Archiving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2009-01-01

    in the OAIS Reference Model. The cost model divides the OAIS functions in a hierarchy of cost critical activities and measurable components, which are implemented as formulas in a spreadsheet. So far the model has only been completed for activities relating to preservation planning and digital migrations......, fire and other risks. In this PhD thesis it is examined how one may evaluate the long‐term costs and benefits to cultural heritage institutions of different preservation strategies for digital copies. The investigated alternatives are preserving the copies in a digital repository, and printing...... the files out on microfilm and preserving them in a non‐digital repository. In order to obtain empirical data and to understand the decisive cost factors in preservation copying, a case study was set up in which degrading sheet‐film negatives were digitised. Requirements for image quality and metadata were...

  15. Topology-guided deformable registration with local importance preservation for biomedical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaojie; Wang, Xiuying; Zeng, Shan; Zhou, Jianlong; Yin, Yong; Feng, Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The demons registration (DR) model is well recognized for its deformation capability. However, it might lead to misregistration due to erroneous diffusion direction when there are no overlaps between corresponding regions. We propose a novel registration energy function, introducing topology energy, and incorporating a local energy function into the DR in a progressive registration scheme, to address these shortcomings. The topology energy that is derived from the topological information of the images serves as a direction inference to guide diffusion transformation to retain the merits of DR. The local energy constrains the deformation disparity of neighbouring pixels to maintain important local texture and density features. The energy function is minimized in a progressive scheme steered by a topology tree graph and we refer to it as topology-guided deformable registration (TDR). We validated our TDR on 20 pairs of synthetic images with Gaussian noise, 20 phantom PET images with artificial deformations and 12 pairs of clinical PET-CT studies. We compared it to three methods: (1) free-form deformation registration method, (2) energy-based DR and (3) multi-resolution DR. The experimental results show that our TDR outperformed the other three methods in regard to structural correspondence and preservation of the local important information including texture and density, while retaining global correspondence.

  16. nestor Guideline for Preservation Planning – a Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Schrimpf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The nestor guideline for preservation planning is the latest in a series of nestor publications. nestor is the German competence network for digital preservation and it offers all interested parties from the private and public domains the possibility to participate in working groups. The guideline for preservation planning is the result of such a working group, which discussed the conceptual and practical issues of implementing the OAIS Functional Entity “Preservation Planning”.The guideline describes a process model and offers some guidance on potential implementations. It integrates and builds on recognized community concepts like Significant Properties, the OAIS Designated Community, the National Archives of Australia’s Performance Model, the PREMIS concept of Intellectual Entities and Representations, and the PLANET’s approach to preservation planning. Furthermore, it introduces the concepts “intended use” (Nutzungsziele, “information type” (Informationstyp and “preservation group” (Erhaltungsgruppe. The purpose of these new categories is that information objects shall be grouped by information type (e.g., audio, video, text… and intended use (e.g., reading for pleasure, search for specific information… to preservation groups for automatic processing. Significant properties can then be derived for whole preservation groups. The file format alone is considered as not completely sufficient for such categorisation. Some exemplary implementation solutions of the new concepts are presented in an annex.The guideline takes into account that resources for preservation planning and preservation actions are limited and has therefore adopted 4 premises: adequacy, financial viability, automation, and authenticity of archived objects. Its pragmatic approach becomes apparent in the definition and explanation of these dimensions. The guideline is written from the point of view of representatives of memory institutions, i

  17. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Bøgvad Kejser

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital Preservation (CMDP, the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been supplemented with findings from the literature, and our own knowledge and experience. The identified cost-critical activities have subsequently been deconstructed into measurable components, cost dependencies have been examined, and the resulting equations expressed in a spreadsheet. Currently the model can calculate the cost of different migration scenarios for a series of preservation formats for text, images, sound, video, geodata, and spreadsheets. In order to verify the model it has been tested on cost data from two different migration projects at the Danish National Archives (DNA. The study found that the OAIS model provides a sound overall framework for the cost breakdown, but that some functions need additional detailing in order to cost activities accurately. Running the two sets of empirical data showed among other things that the model underestimates the cost of manpower-intensive migration projects, while it reinstates an often underestimated cost, which is the cost of developing migration software. The model has proven useful for estimating the

  18. Environmental sustainability model and biodiversity preservation in Central Rhodopes

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatka Grigorova; Ekaterina Arabska

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the significance, opportunities and ways of biodiversity preservation and sustainable use of natural resources in the central region of the mountain of Rhodopes in Bulgaria. The proposed integrated model of recommendations embraces the following issues: preservation of rare, in danger of extinction and protected plant and animal species and their habitats; implementation of approved environmentally friendly practices in plant growing and animal husbandry; sustainable use...

  19. Towards The Long-Term Preservation of Building Information Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beetz, Jacob; Dietze, Stefan; Berndt, René

    2013-01-01

    primarily been on textual and audio-visual media types. With the recent paradigm shift in architecture and construction from analog 2D plans and scale models to digital 3D information models of buildings, long-term preservation efforts must turn their attention to this new type of data. Currently......, no existing approach is able to provide a secure and efficient long-term preservation solution covering the broad spectrum of 3D architectural data, while at the same time taking into account the demands of institutional collectors like architecture libraries and archives as well as those of the private...

  20. Medical egg freezing: the importance of a patient-centered approach to fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Birenbaum-Carmeli, Daphna; Westphal, Lynn M; Doyle, Joseph; Gleicher, Norbert; Meirow, Dror; Raanani, Hila; Dirnfeld, Martha; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2018-01-01

    This binational qualitative study of medical egg freezing (MEF) examined women's motivations and experiences, including their perceived needs for patient-centered care in the midst of fertility- and life-threatening diagnoses. Forty-five women who had undertaken MEF were interviewed in the USA (33 women) and in Israel (12 women) between June 2014 and August 2016. Interviews lasted approximately 1 h and were conducted by two senior medical anthropologists, one in each country. Women were recruited from four American IVF clinics (two academic, two private) and two Israeli clinics (both academic) where MEF is being offered to cancer patients and women with other fertility-threatening medical conditions. Women who undertake MEF view their fertility and future motherhood as important components of their identities and recovery and, thus, are grateful for the opportunity to pursue fertility preservation. However, women who undergo MEF have special needs, given that they tend to be a "vulnerable" population of young (age preservation, including five "system factors" (information, coordination and integration, accessibility, physical comfort, cost) and five "human factors" (adolescent issues, male partner involvement, family involvement, egg disposition decisions, emotional support). Together, these dimensions of care constitute an important framework that can be best described as "patient-centered MEF." Women pursuing MEF have special medical needs and concerns, which require particular forms of patient-centered care. This study outlines 10 dimensions of patient-centered fertility preservation that are appropriate for MEF patients. This approach may help IVF clinics to be better prepared for delivering top-quality care to mostly young, single women facing the daunting prospect of fertility loss and life-threatening medical diagnoses.

  1. Long-term preservation of early formed mantle heterogeneity by mobile lid convection: Importance of grainsize evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Bradford J.; Rizo, Hanika

    2017-10-01

    The style of tectonics on the Hadean and Archean Earth, particularly whether plate tectonics was in operation or not, is debated. One important, albeit indirect, constraint on early Earth tectonics comes from observations of early-formed geochemical heterogeneities: 142Nd and 182W anomalies recorded in Hadean to Phanerozoic rocks from different localities indicate that chemically heterogeneous reservoirs, formed during the first ∼500 Myrs of Earth's history, survived their remixing into the mantle for over 1 Gyrs. Such a long mixing time is difficult to explain because hotter mantle temperatures, expected for the early Earth, act to lower mantle viscosity and increase convective vigor. Previous studies found that mobile lid convection typically erases heterogeneity within ∼100 Myrs under such conditions, leading to the hypothesis that stagnant lid convection on the early Earth was responsible for the observed long mixing times. However, using two-dimensional Cartesian convection models that include grainsize evolution, we find that mobile lid convection can preserve heterogeneity at high mantle temperature conditions for much longer than previously thought, because higher mantle temperatures lead to larger grainsizes in the lithosphere. These larger grainsizes result in stronger plate boundaries that act to slow down surface and interior convective motions, in competition with the direct effect temperature has on mantle viscosity. Our models indicate that mobile lid convection can preserve heterogeneity for ≈0.4-1 Gyrs at early Earth mantle temperatures when the initial heterogeneity has the same viscosity as the background mantle, and ≈1-4 Gyrs when the heterogeneity is ten times more viscous than the background mantle. Thus, stagnant lid convection is not required to explain long-term survival of early formed geochemical heterogeneities, though these heterogeneities having an elevated viscosity compared to the surrounding mantle may be essential for their

  2. Prognostic importance of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Shah, Sanjiv J; Anand, Inder

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony has been described in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but its prognostic significance is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 3445 patients with HFpEF enrolled in the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an...

  3. Digital preservation of cultural and scientific heritage: involving university students to raise awareness of its importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Redweik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage is a relevant issue in contemporary society. While its preservation is a challenge, its dissemination, can contribute for an economic balance between costs and benefits.  Scientific  heritage  can  be  considered  as  a  special domain  of  cultural  heritage, not yet sought  by  the  mass  tourism, but worth being preserved as the roots of today’s knowledge.  Considering  that  university  students  of  engineering  and computer  science traditionally  do  not  address cultural or scientific heritage issues in their syllabus, and that they constitute a layer of young citizens that will come to be influential  in  the  future  of  society,  an  effort  was  undertaken  to  focus  on  this  theme  in  disciplines  of  different  courses, allying  the  learning  of  technical  skills  with  the  natural  interest  of  younger  people  for  3D  and  animation  for  the  profit  of heritage. The goal was to raise the awareness of this particular group to the importance of maintaining heritage issues, in particular,  in  a  virtual  way,  both  for  documentation  and  for  divulgating  their  existence.  Raising  funds  for  buildings’ restoration, attracting the public to visit buildings and collections that are outside the usual tourism routes, contributing to revenue  generation,  or  allowing  virtual  visits  of  not  accessible  issues,  complementing  physical  visits  on  site,  were  the general  aims of  the  proposed  projects.  A survey was undertaken under the participating students to evaluate how the projects influenced their attitude towards heritage. The obtained feedback was very positive: 76% agreed that the project alerted them for the importance of preserving historical and cultural heritage, while 72% considered it was interesting that the topic of digital cultural heritage was used for the assessments of

  4. Quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal DNA in roots: how important is material preservation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušková, Martina; Püschel, David; Hujslová, M.; Slavíková, R.; Jansa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2015), s. 205-214 ISSN 0940-6360 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * quantitative real-time PCR * sample preservation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.252, year: 2015

  5. The importance of integrated left atrial evaluation: From hypertension to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, Matteo; Palazzuoli, Alberto; Padeletti, Luigi; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Coiro, Stefano; Emdin, Michele; Marcucci, Rossella; Morrone, Doralisa; Cameli, Matteo; Savino, Ketty; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2017-12-28

    Functional analysis and measurement of left atrium are an integral part of cardiac evaluation, and they represent a key element during non-invasive analysis of diastolic function in patients with hypertension (HT) and/or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, diastolic dysfunction remains quite elusive regarding classification, and atrial size and function are two key factors for left ventricular (LV) filling evaluation. Chronic left atrial (LA) remodelling is the final step of chronic intra-cavitary pressure overload, and it accompanies increased neurohormonal, proarrhythmic and prothrombotic activities. In this systematic review, we aim to purpose a multi-modality approach for LA geometry and function analysis, which integrates diastolic flow with LA characteristics and remodelling through application of both traditional and new diagnostic tools. The most important studies published in the literature on LA size, function and diastolic dysfunction in patients with HFpEF, HT and/or atrial fibrillation (AF) are considered and discussed. In HFpEF and HT, pulsed and tissue Doppler assessments are useful tools to estimate LV filling pressure, atrio-ventricular coupling and LV relaxation but they need to be enriched with LA evaluation in terms of morphology and function. An integrated evaluation should be also applied to patients with a high arrhythmic risk, in whom eccentric LA remodelling and higher LA stiffness are associated with a greater AF risk. Evaluation of LA size, volume, function and structure are mandatory in the management of patients with HT, HFpEF and AF. A multi-modality approach could provide additional information, identifying subjects with more severe LA remodelling. Left atrium assessment deserves an accurate study inside the cardiac imaging approach and optimised measurement with established cut-offs need to be better recognised through multicenter studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Preservation of fungi and actinomycetes of medical importance in distilled water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E G; Lírio, V S; Lacaz, C da S

    1992-01-01

    Several methods have been used for the preservation of fungi, all of them presenting advantages and disadvantages. The choice of the methods depends upon the laboratory availabilities, time of preservation, genetic stability of the cultures and other factors. In this work the results obtained through the utilization of Castellani's method (preservation in distilled water) for the maintenance of 174 strains belonging to the "Micoteca do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo" are presented. These strains were analyzed after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, with regard to the percentage of viability taking into consideration the rates of growth and contamination. The smallest percentage of viability occurred in the group of the actinomycetes (50 to 100%) and the largest one in the group of the yeasts (near 100%). According to other authors, the Castellani's method, besides being simple and economically feasible for small size laboratories, yields good results.

  7. Preserving and maintaining vital Ecosystem Services: the importance of linking knowledge from Geosciences and social-ecological System analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2013-04-01

    Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is

  8. The importance of phrenic nerve preservation and its effect on long-term postoperative lung function after pneumonectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocher, Gregor J; Lysgaard, Jannie; Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The importance of phrenic nerve preservation during pneumonectomy remains controversial. We previously demonstrated that preservation of the phrenic nerve in the immediate postoperative period preserved lung function by 3-5% but little is known about its long-term effects. We, therefore......, decided to investigate the effect of temporary ipsilateral cervical phrenic nerve block on dynamic lung volumes in mid- to long-term pneumonectomy patients. METHODS: We investigated 14 patients after a median of 9 years post pneumonectomy (range: 1-15 years). Lung function testing (spirometry......) and fluoroscopic and/or sonographic assessment of diaphragmatic motion on the pneumonectomy side were performed before and after ultrasonographic-guided ipsilateral cervical phrenic nerve block by infiltration with lidocaine. RESULTS: Ipsilateral phrenic nerve block was successfully achieved in 12 patients (86...

  9. Swarm intelligence algorithm for interconnect model order reduction with sub-block structure preserving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinsheng; Wang, Chenxu; Yu, Mingyan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a generalised sub-block structure preservation interconnect model order reduction (MOR) technique based on the swarm intelligence method, that is, particle swarm optimisation (PSO). The swarm intelligence-based structure preservation MOR can be used for a standard model as a criterion for different structure preservation interconnect MOR methods. In the proposed technique, the PSO method is used for predicting the unknown elements of structure-preserving reduced-order modelling of interconnect circuits. The prediction is based on minimising the difference of transform function between the original full-order and desired reduced-order systems maintaining the full-order structure in the reduced-order model. The proposed swarm-intelligence-based structure-preserving MOR method is compared with published work on structure preservation MOR SPRIM techniques. Simulation and synthesis results verify the accuracy and validity of the new structure-preserving MOR technique.

  10. THE INEXORABILITY OF CHANGE. THE IMPORTANCE OF PRESERVING HISTORIC STREET LAMPS IN LISBON’S 21ST CENTURY URBAN LANDSCAPE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Águas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the importance and significance of historic street lamps in Lisbon’s heritage, and suggest that the preservation and conservation of these notable elements, far from being a burden in economic, environmental and social terms, can be a critical vehicle to make our cultural heritage tangible to future generations and, thus contribute to the sustainable development of the city. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive discussion of economic and environmental sustainability criteria, such as to proof of energy savings and subsequently cost reductions through new outdoor lighting concepts. Rather it is hoped to be an approach of looking to our heritage and see the importance of the preservation of early streetlamps as a way to contribute to long term sustainability of cities and also as way to increase, recover and secure knowledge which otherwise may be lost.

  11. Structure-preserving model reduction of large-scale logistics networks. Applications for supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz-Reiter, B.; Wirth, F.; Dashkovskiy, S.; Makuschewitz, T.; Schönlein, M.; Kosmykov, M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the problem of model reduction with a view to large-scale logistics networks, specifically supply chains. Such networks are modeled by means of graphs, which describe the structure of material flow. An aim of the proposed model reduction procedure is to preserve important features within the network. As a new methodology we introduce the LogRank as a measure for the importance of locations, which is based on the structure of the flows within the network. We argue that these properties reflect relative importance of locations. Based on the LogRank we identify subgraphs of the network that can be neglected or aggregated. The effect of this is discussed for a few motifs. Using this approach we present a meta algorithm for structure-preserving model reduction that can be adapted to different mathematical modeling frameworks. The capabilities of the approach are demonstrated with a test case, where a logistics network is modeled as a Jackson network, i.e., a particular type of queueing network.

  12. Murine Models of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valero-Muñoz, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF is characterized by signs and symptoms of heart failure in the presence of a normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Despite accounting for up to 50% of all clinical presentations of heart failure, the mechanisms implicated in HFpEF are poorly understood, thus precluding effective therapy. The pathophysiological heterogeneity in the HFpEF phenotype also contributes to this disease and likely to the absence of evidence-based therapies. Limited access to human samples and imperfect animal models that completely recapitulate the human HFpEF phenotype have impeded our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings that exist in this disease. Aging and comorbidities such as atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes and obesity, pulmonary hypertension, and renal dysfunction are highly associated with HFpEF, yet the relationship and contribution between them remains ill-defined. This review discusses some of the distinctive clinical features of HFpEF in association with these comorbidities and highlights the advantages and disadvantage of commonly used murine models used to study the HFpEF phenotype.

  13. Importance of plan curvature in watershed modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Ribail, J.; Zhao, M.

    2016-12-01

    A hillslope's hydrologic response to precipitation events is largely controlled by the topographic features of a given hillslope, specifically the profile and plan curvature. Many models simplify hillslope topography and ignore the curvature properties, and some use alternate measures such as a topographic index or the hillslope width function. Models that ignore curvature properties may be calibrated to produce the statistically acceptable integrated response of runoff at a watershed outlet, but incorporating these properties is necessary to model accurately hydrologic processes such as surface flow, erosion, subsurface lateral flow, location of runoff generation and drainage response. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of rainfall-runoff modelling to profile and plan curvature in two models. In the first model, the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, hillslope uses a representative width to the hillslope by dividing the drainage area by the average surface channel length. Profile curvature is preserved with a limited spatial resolution due to the number of overland flow elements. In the second model, the distributed Soil Moisture Routing (SMR) model, the geographic information system uses the D8 algorithm to capture profile and plan curvature. Sensitivity to topographic features was tested for three profile curvatures (convex, concave, straight) combined with three plan curvatures (diverging, converging, uniform) resulting in a total of nine hillslopes. Each hillslope was subjected to different rainfall events to detect threshold behavior for when topographic features cannot be ignored. Our findings indicate that concave and convex plan curvature need to be included when subsurface flow processes are the dominant flow process for surface flow runoff generation. We present thresholds for acceptable cases when profile and plan curvature can be simplified in larger spatial hydrologic units.

  14. The importance of using the irradiation technology in the post-harvest Preservation of onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Enriquez, Isora

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba post-harvest preservation of onions and garlic for different uses have been performed by irradiation bulbs with a minimal dose range of 80 to 90 Gy of Gamma radiation (Co60 ) at commercial level in the Food Irradiation Plant (PIA) Producto 1 which in 1986 held a nominal activity of 110 000 ci. Results showed that the irradiated products could be preserved up to 8 and 11 months, respectively, resulting un total losses lower than 30 %. Products were stored in a warehouse with forced air distribution system of 22 0C to 32 0C and 70 to 100 % RH, resulting in 30 air changes /hour. An important economic benefit was obtained from this method as compared to other traditional storage methods using controlled temperature chambers ( 1 0C to 3 0C ) to preserve un-irradiated onions an garlic's. It is concluded that the irradiated products could be stored at atmospheric temperature and forced air distribution system resulting in lower losses and energy savings and non-imported product, which to reached more of the 5 dollars millions

  15. Quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal DNA in roots: how important is material preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušková, Martina; Püschel, David; Hujslová, Martina; Slavíková, Renata; Jansa, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots is a pre-requisite for improving our understanding of AMF ecology and functioning of the symbiosis in natural conditions. Among other approaches, quantification of fungal DNA in plant tissues by quantitative real-time PCR is one of the advanced techniques with a great potential to process large numbers of samples and to deliver truly quantitative information. Its application potential would greatly increase if the samples could be preserved by drying, but little is currently known about the feasibility and reliability of fungal DNA quantification from dry plant material. We addressed this question by comparing quantification results based on dry root material to those obtained from deep-frozen roots of Medicago truncatula colonized with Rhizophagus sp. The fungal DNA was well conserved in the dry root samples with overall fungal DNA levels in the extracts comparable with those determined in extracts of frozen roots. There was, however, no correlation between the quantitative data sets obtained from the two types of material, and data from dry roots were more variable. Based on these results, we recommend dry material for qualitative screenings but advocate using frozen root materials if precise quantification of fungal DNA is required.

  16. Beyond Poiseuille: Preservation Fluid Flow in an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poiseuille’s equation describes the relationship between fluid viscosity, pressure, tubing diameter, and flow, yet it is not known if cold organ perfusion systems follow this equation. We investigated these relationships in an ex vivo model and aimed to offer some rationale for equipment selection. Increasing the cannula size from 14 to 20 Fr increased flow rate by a mean (SD of 13 (12%. Marshall’s hyperosmolar citrate was three times less viscous than UW solution, but flows were only 45% faster. Doubling the bag pressure led to a mean (SD flow rate increase of only 19 (13%, not twice the rate. When external pressure devices were used, 100 mmHg of continuous pressure increased flow by a mean (SD of 43 (17% when compared to the same pressure applied initially only. Poiseuille’s equation was not followed; this is most likely due to “slipping” of preservation fluid within the plastic tubing. Cannula size made little difference over the ranges examined; flows are primarily determined by bag pressure and fluid viscosity. External infusor devices require continuous pressurisation to deliver high flow. Future studies examining the impact of perfusion variables on graft outcomes should include detailed equipment descriptions.

  17. Prognostic importance of pathophysiologic markers in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael A; Katz, Daniel H; Beussink, Lauren; Selvaraj, Senthil; Gupta, Deepak K; Fox, Justin; Chakrabarti, Sudarsana; Sauer, Andrew J; Rich, Jonathan D; Freed, Benjamin H; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2014-03-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous syndrome associated with multiple pathophysiologic abnormalities, including left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, longitudinal LV systolic dysfunction, abnormal ventricular-arterial coupling, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular (RV) remodeling/dysfunction. However, the relative prognostic significance of each of these pathophysiologic abnormalities in HFpEF is unknown. We prospectively studied 419 patients with HFpEF using echocardiography and sphygmomanometry to assess HFpEF pathophysiologic markers. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to determine the associations between pathophysiologic markers and outcomes. Mean age was 65±12 years; 62% were women; 39% were black; comorbidities were common; and study participants met published criteria for HFpEF. RV abnormalities were frequent: 28% had abnormal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, 15% had reduced RV fractional area change, and 34% had RV hypertrophy. During a median follow-up time of 18 months, 102 (24%) were hospitalized for HF and 175 (42%) experienced the composite end point of cardiovascular hospitalization or death. Decreased LV compliance, measured as reduced LV end-diastolic volume at an idealized LV end-diastolic pressure of 20 mm Hg (EDV20), and RV remodeling, as indicated by increased RV wall thickness, were the 2 pathophysiologic markers most predictive of worse outcomes: adjusted hazard ratio per 1 SD decrease in EDV20=1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.75; P=0.006), and hazard ratio per 1 SD increase in RV wall thickness=1.37 (95% CI, 1.16-1.61; Pmarkers of HF severity. By contrast, markers of LV relaxation, longitudinal LV systolic dysfunction, and ventricular-arterial coupling were not significantly associated with adverse outcomes. In patients with HFpEF, reduced LV compliance and RV remodeling are the strongest pathophysiologic predictors of adverse outcomes.

  18. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostacero León, José; López Medina, Segundo E; Yabar, Helmut; De La Cruz Castillo, Jordan

    2017-12-18

    Abstract : Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species : Fabaceae (5), Anacardiaceae (2), Annonaceae (2), Asteraceae (2), Berberidaceae (2), Rosaceae (2), and Solanaceae (2). Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana , and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  19. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mostacero León

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species: Fabaceae (5, Anacardiaceae (2, Annonaceae (2, Asteraceae (2, Berberidaceae (2, Rosaceae (2, and Solanaceae (2. Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam. Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana, and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  20. Towards a Curation and Preservation Architecture for CAD Engineering Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Alexander; Patel, Manjula; Ding, Lian

    2008-01-01

    For many decades, computer-aided design (CAD) packages have played an important part in the design of product models within the engineering domain. Within the last ten years, however, the increasing complexity of CAD models and their tighter integration into the workflow of engineering enterprises has led to their becoming the definitive expression of a design.At the same time, a paradigm shift has been emerging whereby manufacturers and construction companies enter into contracts to take res...

  1. Maintaining the Gains: The Importance of Preserving Coverage in MEDICAID and SCHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ellen; Mann, Cindy

    As states face increasing fiscal pressures, many are considering proposals to cut eligibility levels, eliminate outreach, and retract simplified enrollment procedures for children and families eligible for Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). This paper presents evidence on the importance of maintaining gains made in…

  2. Don’t bust the biological soil crust: Preserving and restoring an important desert resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Miller; Steve Warren; Larry St. Clair

    2017-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are a complex of microscopic organisms growing on the soil surface in many arid and semi-arid ecosystems. These crusts perform the important role of stabilizing soil and reducing or eliminating water and wind erosion. One of the largest threats to biological soil crusts in the arid and semi-arid areas of the western United States is mechanical...

  3. A model for normothermic preservation of the rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, Herman; Pouw, Roos; Uygun, Korkut; Tanimura, Yoko; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Berthiaume, François; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2007-01-01

    Current techniques for the preservation of donor livers typically rely on cold temperatures (approximately 0-4 degrees C) to slow down metabolic processes. Recently, normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) has regained interest as a potentially promising approach for long-term liver

  4. Animal models of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Conceição; I.H.A. Heinonen (Ilkka); A.P. Lourenço; D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); I. Falcão-Pires

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHeart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes a clinical syndrome in which the diagnostic criteria of heart failure are not accompanied by gross disturbances of systolic function, as assessed by ejection fraction. In turn, under most circumstances, diastolic function

  5. The Importance of Preserving Tax-Preferred Status for Employer-Sponsored Health and Retirement Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, Annette Guarisco

    The future of employer-sponsored health and retirement plans may be at risk. For years, employers have struggled to maintain and pay for these plans despite the increasing compliance and financial burdens imposed by legislative and regulatory action. Now, as Congress begins to lay the foundation for comprehensive tax reform, the need to raise federal revenue may trump the continuation of the tax preferences for employer-provided health and retirement benefits. Recent actions illustrate that the drive for federal revenue may not be sufficiently tempered by the potential negative impact on employers and employees who must bear the brunt of these revenue-induced changes. This article considers the erosion of protections offered by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) and the importance of maintaining the tax treatment of employer-provided benefits.

  6. Critically Important Object Security System Element Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Khomyackov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic model of critically important object security system element has been developed. The model includes mathematical description of the security system element properties and external influences. The state evolution of the security system element is described by the semi-Markov process with finite states number, the semi-Markov matrix and the initial semi-Markov process states probabilities distribution. External influences are set with the intensity of the Poisson thread.

  7. A Privacy Preservation Model for Health-Related Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of social networking sites (SNS) in health care has resulted in a growing number of individuals posting personal health information online. These sites may disclose users' health information to many different individuals and organizations and mine it for a variety of commercial and research purposes, yet the revelation of personal health information to unauthorized individuals or entities brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among users. Many users join multiple social networks for different purposes and enter personal and other specific information covering social, professional, and health domains into other websites. Integration of multiple online and real social networks makes the users vulnerable to unintentional and intentional security threats and misuse. This paper analyzes the privacy and security characteristics of leading health-related SNS. It presents a threat model and identifies the most important threats to users and SNS providers. Building on threat analysis and modeling, this paper presents a privacy preservation model that incorporates individual self-protection and privacy-by-design approaches and uses the model to develop principles and countermeasures to protect user privacy. This study paves the way for analysis and design of privacy-preserving mechanisms on health-related SNS. PMID:26155953

  8. A Privacy Preservation Model for Health-Related Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingquan

    2015-07-08

    The increasing use of social networking sites (SNS) in health care has resulted in a growing number of individuals posting personal health information online. These sites may disclose users' health information to many different individuals and organizations and mine it for a variety of commercial and research purposes, yet the revelation of personal health information to unauthorized individuals or entities brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among users. Many users join multiple social networks for different purposes and enter personal and other specific information covering social, professional, and health domains into other websites. Integration of multiple online and real social networks makes the users vulnerable to unintentional and intentional security threats and misuse. This paper analyzes the privacy and security characteristics of leading health-related SNS. It presents a threat model and identifies the most important threats to users and SNS providers. Building on threat analysis and modeling, this paper presents a privacy preservation model that incorporates individual self-protection and privacy-by-design approaches and uses the model to develop principles and countermeasures to protect user privacy. This study paves the way for analysis and design of privacy-preserving mechanisms on health-related SNS.

  9. Animal models: an important tool in mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, Javier; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2007-12-01

    Animal models of fungal infections are, and will remain, a key tool in the advancement of the medical mycology. Many different types of animal models of fungal infection have been developed, with murine models the most frequently used, for studies of pathogenesis, virulence, immunology, diagnosis, and therapy. The ability to control numerous variables in performing the model allows us to mimic human disease states and quantitatively monitor the course of the disease. However, no single model can answer all questions and different animal species or different routes of infection can show somewhat different results. Thus, the choice of which animal model to use must be made carefully, addressing issues of the type of human disease to mimic, the parameters to follow and collection of the appropriate data to answer those questions being asked. This review addresses a variety of uses for animal models in medical mycology. It focuses on the most clinically important diseases affecting humans and cites various examples of the different types of studies that have been performed. Overall, animal models of fungal infection will continue to be valuable tools in addressing questions concerning fungal infections and contribute to our deeper understanding of how these infections occur, progress and can be controlled and eliminated.

  10. Importing CAD models into MONK and MCBEND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searson, K.; Fleurot, F.; Cooper, A. J.; Cowan, P.

    2009-01-01

    The direct use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) models in criticality and shielding codes has been a long standing goal for Sellafield Ltd. Such functionality could offer several advantages over the traditional method of text based modelling systems. Analysts would be able to take advantage of the advanced Graphical User Interface based modelling features provided by solid modelers, potentially reducing the costs associated with creating models in a format suitable for the analyst's criticality and shielding code. A prototype system has been developed that allows CAD models created in Autodesk Inventor or Solidworks to be used in criticality and shielding calculations. The system is based on the ANSI Initial Graphics Exchange Specification 5.3 standard and models are exported from the CAD software in Trimmed NURBS format. The format retains much more of the model's geometrical information than a format based on solid meshing techniques and avoids many of the associated problems such as large memory costs, surface approximations and void spaces. The time consuming and complex meshing process is also avoided. Runtime intersection calculations are performed using either a Bezier clipping process for NURBS based surface definitions, or by transforming the coordinate system through which the ray tracks for Surface of Revolution calculations. NURBS surfaces are therefore converted to Bezier form as the model is imported. In addition, the SR generatrix is, in general, converted to a 'strip tree' representation, allowing the SR intersection calculations to be performed with arbitrary generatrix shapes. Details of recent improvements to the Bezier clipping process are provided. Reduction in runtime of SR based Solidworks models over equivalent NURBS based Autodesk Inventor models is also demonstrated. (authors)

  11. Testing the molecular clock using mechanistic models of fossil preservation and molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Rachel C M; Yang, Ziheng; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2017-06-28

    Molecular sequence data provide information about relative times only, and fossil-based age constraints are the ultimate source of information about absolute times in molecular clock dating analyses. Thus, fossil calibrations are critical to molecular clock dating, but competing methods are difficult to evaluate empirically because the true evolutionary time scale is never known. Here, we combine mechanistic models of fossil preservation and sequence evolution in simulations to evaluate different approaches to constructing fossil calibrations and their impact on Bayesian molecular clock dating, and the relative impact of fossil versus molecular sampling. We show that divergence time estimation is impacted by the model of fossil preservation, sampling intensity and tree shape. The addition of sequence data may improve molecular clock estimates, but accuracy and precision is dominated by the quality of the fossil calibrations. Posterior means and medians are poor representatives of true divergence times; posterior intervals provide a much more accurate estimate of divergence times, though they may be wide and often do not have high coverage probability. Our results highlight the importance of increased fossil sampling and improved statistical approaches to generating calibrations, which should incorporate the non-uniform nature of ecological and temporal fossil species distributions. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Property preservation and quality measures in meta-models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siem, A.Y.D.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts. Each part considers different sorts of meta-models. In the first part so-called Sandwich models are considered. In the second part Kriging models are considered. Finally, in the third part, (trigonometric) Polynomials and Rational models are studied.

  13. Fuel swelling importance in PCI mechanistic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimescu, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Under certain conditions, fuel pellet swelling is the most important factor in determining the intensity of the pellet-to-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). This is especially true during power ramps, which lead to a temperature increase to a higher terminal plateau that is maintained for hours. The time-dependent gaseous swelling is proportional to temperature and is also enhanced by the increased gas atom migration to the grain boundary during the power ramp. On the other hand, gaseous swelling is inhibited by a compressive hydrostatic stress in the pellet. Therefore, PCMI is the net result of combining gaseous swelling and pellet thermal expansion with the opposing feedback from the cladding mechanical reaction. The coupling of the thermal and mechanical processes, mentioned above, with various feedback loops is best simulated by a mechanistic fuel code. This paper discusses a mechanistic swelling model that is coupled with a fission gas release model as well as a mechanical model of the fuel pellet. The role of fuel swelling is demonstrated for typical power ramps at different burn-ups. Also, fuel swelling plays a significant role in avoiding the thermal instability for larger gap fuel rods, by limiting the potentially exponentially increasing gap due to the positive feedback loop effect of increasing fission gas release and the associated over-pressure inside the cladding. (author)

  14. How much does it cost? The LIFE Project - Costing Models for Digital Curation and Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Davies

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital preservation is concerned with the long-term safekeeping of electronic resources. How can we be confident of their permanence, if we do not know the cost of preservation? The LIFE (Lifecycle Information for E-Literature Project has made a major step forward in understanding the long-term costs in this complex area. The LIFE Project has developed a methodology to model the digital lifecycle and to calculate the costs of preserving digital information for the next 5, 10 or 100 years. National and higher education (HE libraries can now apply this process and plan effectively for the preservation of their digital collections. Based on previous work undertaken on the lifecycles of paper-based materials, the LIFE Project created a lifecycle model and applied it to real-life digital collections across a diverse subject range. Three case studies examined the everyday operations, processes and costs involved in their respective activities. The results were then used to calculate the direct costs for each element of the digital lifecycle. The Project has made major advances in costing preservation activities, as well as making detailed costs of real digital preservation activities available. The second phase of LIFE (LIFE2, which recently started, aims to refine the lifecycle methodology and to add a greater range and breadth to the project with additional exemplar case studies.

  15. Complex recombination patterns arising during geminivirus coinfections preserve and demarcate biologically important intra-genome interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren P Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is an important process during the evolution of many virus species and occurs particularly frequently amongst begomoviruses in the single stranded DNA virus family, Geminiviridae. As in many other recombining viruses it is apparent that non-random recombination breakpoint distributions observable within begomovirus genomes sampled from nature are the product of variations both in basal recombination rates across genomes and in the over-all viability of different recombinant genomes. Whereas factors influencing basal recombination rates might include local degrees of sequence similarity between recombining genomes, nucleic acid secondary structures and genomic sensitivity to nuclease attack or breakage, the viability of recombinant genomes could be influenced by the degree to which their co-evolved protein-protein and protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide interactions are disreputable by recombination. Here we investigate patterns of recombination that occur over 120 day long experimental infections of tomato plants with the begomoviruses Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus. We show that patterns of sequence exchange between these viruses can be extraordinarily complex and present clear evidence that factors such as local degrees of sequence similarity but not genomic secondary structure strongly influence where recombination breakpoints occur. It is also apparent from our experiment that over-all patterns of recombination are strongly influenced by selection against individual recombinants displaying disrupted intra-genomic interactions such as those required for proper protein and nucleic acid folding. Crucially, we find that selection favoring the preservation of co-evolved longer-range protein-protein and protein DNA interactions is so strong that its imprint can even be used to identify the exact sequence tracts involved in these interactions.

  16. Complex recombination patterns arising during geminivirus coinfections preserve and demarcate biologically important intra-genome interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Darren P; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Varsani, Arvind; Hoareau, Murielle; Semegni, Jean-Yves; Dijoux, Betty; Vincent, Claire; Reynaud, Bernard; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Genetic recombination is an important process during the evolution of many virus species and occurs particularly frequently amongst begomoviruses in the single stranded DNA virus family, Geminiviridae. As in many other recombining viruses it is apparent that non-random recombination breakpoint distributions observable within begomovirus genomes sampled from nature are the product of variations both in basal recombination rates across genomes and in the over-all viability of different recombinant genomes. Whereas factors influencing basal recombination rates might include local degrees of sequence similarity between recombining genomes, nucleic acid secondary structures and genomic sensitivity to nuclease attack or breakage, the viability of recombinant genomes could be influenced by the degree to which their co-evolved protein-protein and protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide interactions are disreputable by recombination. Here we investigate patterns of recombination that occur over 120 day long experimental infections of tomato plants with the begomoviruses Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus. We show that patterns of sequence exchange between these viruses can be extraordinarily complex and present clear evidence that factors such as local degrees of sequence similarity but not genomic secondary structure strongly influence where recombination breakpoints occur. It is also apparent from our experiment that over-all patterns of recombination are strongly influenced by selection against individual recombinants displaying disrupted intra-genomic interactions such as those required for proper protein and nucleic acid folding. Crucially, we find that selection favoring the preservation of co-evolved longer-range protein-protein and protein DNA interactions is so strong that its imprint can even be used to identify the exact sequence tracts involved in these interactions.

  17. Modelling the impact of regional uplift and local tectonics on fluvial terrace preservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Balen, van R.T.

    2014-01-01

    A terrace formation model (TERRACE) combined with a longitudinal river profile model (FLUVER) was used to simulate fluvial terrace formation and preservation in the northwest Iberian lower Miño River basin under the influence of three tectonic conditions; namely regional vertical uplift, local basin

  18. Influence of a modified preservation solution in kidney transplantation: A comparative experimental study in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golriz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Although the new preservation HTK solution is in several points a well-thought-out modification of the standard HTK solution, its preservation efficacy, at least for kidney preservation in a pig model for 30 hours, seems to be comparable to the current used solutions. A real advantage, however, could be confirmed in clinical settings, where marginal organs may influence the clinical outcome.

  19. 4D Shape-Preserving Modelling of Bone Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt; Nielsen, Mads; Kreiborg, Sven

    1998-01-01

    From a set of temporally separated scannings of the same anatomical structure we wish to identify and analyze the growth in terms of a metamorphosis. That is, we study the tempral change of shape which may prowide an understanding of the biological processes which govern the growth process. We...... subdivide the growth analysis into growth simulation, growth modelling, and finally the growth analysis. In this paper, we present results of growth simulation of the mandible from 3 scannings of the same patient in the age of 9 months, 21 months, and 7 years. We also present the first growth models...... and growth analyzes. The ultimative goal is to predict/simulate human growth which would be extremely useful in many surgical procedures....

  20. Model of evaluating the projected payback period in energy preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorshkov Aleksandr Sergeevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Providing energy efficiency of newly designed buildings is an important state task which is considered in EPBD directive and the latest regulations on energy saving. Though reducing energy consumption of the existing building is not less important. The majority of the existing buildings had been built before the implementation of modern energy saving programs. That’s why the volume of energy consumption in the existing buildings is greater than in new buildings. In frames of the given investigation the author considers the problem of forecasting the payback period of investment into reduction of energy consumption in a building. The formula is offered for calculating the projected payback period in energy saving with account for capital costs, calculated or actual value of the achieved energy saving effect, rise in tariffs for energy sources, discounting of the future cash flows and the volume and time for return of credit funds. Basing on the offered calculation methods it is possible to compare the efficiency of different energy saving solutions.

  1. Enhanced P-Sensitive K-Anonymity Models for Privacy Preserving Data Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxun Sun; Hua Wang; Jiuyong Li; Traian Marius Truta

    2008-01-01

    Publishing data for analysis from a micro data table containing sensitive attributes, while maintaining individual privacy, is a problem of increasing significance today. The k-anonymity model was proposed for privacy preserving data publication. While focusing on identity disclosure, k-anonymity model fails to protect attribute disclosure to some extent. Many efforts are made to enhance the k-anonymity model recently. In this paper, we propose two new privacy protection models called (p, a)-...

  2. Preservation of information in a prebiotic package model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Daniel A M M; Fontanari, José F

    2007-05-01

    The coexistence between different informational molecules has been the preferred mode to circumvent the limitation posed by imperfect replication on the amount of information stored by each of these molecules. Here we reexamine a classic package model in which distinct information carriers or templates are forced to coexist within vesicles, which in turn can proliferate freely through binary division. The combined dynamics of vesicles and templates is described by a multitype branching process which allows us to write equations for the average number of the different types of vesicles as well as for their extinction probabilities. The threshold phenomenon associated with the extinction of the vesicle population is studied quantitatively using finite-size scaling techniques. We conclude that the resultant coexistence is too frail in the presence of parasites and so confinement of templates in vesicles without an explicit mechanism of cooperation does not resolve the information crisis of prebiotic evolution.

  3. Cartographic modeling: The role and importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonović Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and sense of cartographic modeling is to represent essential, typical and characteristically attributes of mapping territory. Cartographic modeling is applying in two phases: 1. trough theoretical modeling and creating mind models (by notice relevant factors of space, modeling is in cartographer’s mind and 2. trough practical modeling and making prototype model (continuing and objectification of mind model which one has bigger degree of concrezation and experimented role. The maps are mathematical and logical models, which are not just representing the contents of the real space, but also their specific and relational traits which can’t be seen at first sight. Atlas is modeled contexture contents of treated thematic of space on optimal map union. Atlases are higher form of cartography. Modern computer's technology and specific software make possible better and faster making of all kinds of maps, atlases and spatial analysis connections and relationships among all elements of contents from concrete space which is, until now, demand much more time or they can not imagine.

  4. Thermodynamic investigation of the interaction between cyclodextrins and preservatives - Application and verification in a mathematical model to determine the needed preservative surplus in aqueous cyclodextrin formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Olesen, Niels Erik; Alexandersen, Signe Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    of the present work was to establish a mathematical model, which defines this surplus based upon knowledge of stability constants and the minimal concentration of preservation to inhibit bacterial growth. The stability constants of benzoic acid, methyl- and propyl-paraben with different frequently used βCDs were...... determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Based upon this knowledge mathematical models were constructed to account for the equilibrium systems and to calculate the required concentration of the preservations, which was evaluated experimentally based upon the USP/Ph. Eur./JP monograph. The mathematical...... calculations were able to predict the needed concentration of preservation in the presence of CDs; it clearly demonstrated the usefulness of including all underlying chemical equilibria in a mathematical model, such that the formulation design can be based on quantitative arguments....

  5. Mathematical Modeling: Are Prior Experiences Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czocher, Jennifer A.; Moss, Diana L.

    2017-01-01

    Why are math modeling problems the source of such frustration for students and teachers? The conceptual understanding that students have when engaging with a math modeling problem varies greatly. They need opportunities to make their own assumptions and design the mathematics to fit these assumptions (CCSSI 2010). Making these assumptions is part…

  6. Variable importance in latent variable regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvalheim, O.M.; Arneberg, R.; Bleie, O.; Rajalahti, T.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and practical usefulness of a regression model are a function of both interpretability and prediction performance. This work presents some new graphical tools for improved interpretation of latent variable regression models that can also assist in improved algorithms for variable

  7. Accuracy Enhanced Stability and Structure Preserving Model Reduction Technique for Dynamical Systems with Second Order Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    gramians within the time interval to build the appropriate Petrov-Galerkin projection for dynamical systems within the time interval of interest. The bound on approximation error is also derived. The numerical results are compared with the counterparts from other techniques. The results confirm......A method for model reduction of dynamical systems with the second order structure is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique preserves the second order structure of the system, and also preserves the stability of the original systems. The method uses the controllability and observability...

  8. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  9. Modeling and predicting the growth boundary of Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2007-01-01

    in lightly preserved seafood. The developed growth boundary model accurately predicted growth and no-growth responses in 68 of 71 examined experiments from the present study as well as from literature data. Growth was predicted for three batches of naturally contaminated cold-smoked salmon when a no......-growth response was actually observed, indicating that the model is fail-safe. The developed model predicts both the growth boundary and growth rate of L. monocytogenes and seems useful for the risk management of lightly preserved seafood. Particularly, the model facilitates the identification of product...... characteristics required to prevent the growth of L. monocytogenes, thereby making it possible to identify critical control points, and is useful for compliance with the new European Union regulation on ready-to-eat foods (EC 2073/2005)....

  10. A Framework for Relating Timed Transition Systems and Preserving TCTL Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2010-01-01

    Many formal translations between time dependent models have been proposed over the years. While some of them produce timed bisimilar models, others preserve only reachability or (weak) trace equivalence. We suggest a general framework for arguing when a translation preserves Timed Computation Tree...... Logic (TCTL) or its safety fragment.The framework works at the level of timed transition systems, making it independent of the modeling formalisms and applicable to many of the translations published in the literature. Finally, we present a novel translation from extended Timed-Arc Petri Nets...... to Networks of Timed Automata and using the framework argue that itpreserves the full TCTL. The translation has been implemented in the verification tool TAPAAL....

  11. Ewe Ovarian Tissue Vitrification: A Model for the Study of Fertility Preservation in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Franciele Osmarini; Bass, Casie Shantel; Bernuci, Marcelo Picinin; Chaves, Roberta Nogueira; Lima, Laritza Ferreira; Silva, Renato Félix da; Figueiredo, José Ricardo de; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Emergency in vitro fertilization followed by embryo vitrification is one feasible fertility preservation option for cancer patients. However, its clinical application has several limitations. Hormonal stimulation delays the initiation of oncotherapy and it is contraindicated in hormone-sensitive cancers or for use in pre-pubertal females. Vitrification of ovarian cortical tissue prior to the start of cancer treatment could be utilized for autotransplantation or for in vitro maturation of follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue. Nevertheless, the main concern associated with autotransplantation is the risk of malignant cell re-introduction to the patient, which is non-existent with the use of follicular in vitro culture. Since obtaining ovarian tissues from women for research is challenging and experimental studies are difficult to complete due to ethical issues, exploring the alternative usage of animal models for fertility preservation may provide beneficial insight into the prospects of follicular culture as an alternative for fertility restoration following ovarian tissue vitrification. Similarities between ewe and human ovary structures, as well as in ovarian follicular development dynamics, make the ewe a possible animal model for the study of female fertility preservation. As vitrification of ovarian tissue has the potential to cryopreserve preantral ovarian follicles, the present review will describe the progress of ovarian tissue vitrification studies completed in ewes.

  12. Accounting for Uncertainty in Decision Analytic Models Using Rank Preserving Structural Failure Time Modeling: Application to Parametric Survival Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Iain; Paracha, Noman; Abrams, Keith; Ray, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Rank Preserving Structural Failure Time models are one of the most commonly used statistical methods to adjust for treatment switching in oncology clinical trials. The method is often applied in a decision analytic model without appropriately accounting for additional uncertainty when determining the allocation of health care resources. The aim of the study is to describe novel approaches to adequately account for uncertainty when using a Rank Preserving Structural Failure Time model in a decision analytic model. Using two examples, we tested and compared the performance of the novel Test-based method with the resampling bootstrap method and with the conventional approach of no adjustment. In the first example, we simulated life expectancy using a simple decision analytic model based on a hypothetical oncology trial with treatment switching. In the second example, we applied the adjustment method on published data when no individual patient data were available. Mean estimates of overall and incremental life expectancy were similar across methods. However, the bootstrapped and test-based estimates consistently produced greater estimates of uncertainty compared with the estimate without any adjustment applied. Similar results were observed when using the test based approach on a published data showing that failing to adjust for uncertainty led to smaller confidence intervals. Both the bootstrapping and test-based approaches provide a solution to appropriately incorporate uncertainty, with the benefit that the latter can implemented by researchers in the absence of individual patient data. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New strategies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the importance of targeted therapies for heart failure phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senni, Michele; Paulus, Walter J.; Gavazzi, Antonello; Fraser, Alan G.; Díez, Javier; Solomon, Scott D.; Smiseth, Otto A.; Guazzi, Marco; Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Tschöpe, Carsten; Metra, Marco; Hummel, Scott L.; Edelmann, Frank; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Stewart Coats, Andrew J.; Filippatos, Gerasimos S.; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Anker, Stefan D.; Levy, Daniel; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Pieske, Burkert M.

    2014-01-01

    The management of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) has improved significantly over the last two decades. In contrast, little or no progress has been made in identifying evidence-based, effective treatments for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). Despite the high prevalence, mortality, and cost of HF-PEF, large phase III international clinical trials investigating interventions to improve outcomes in HF-PEF have yielded disappointing results. Therefore, treatment of HF-PEF remains largely empiric, and almost no acknowledged standards exist. There is no single explanation for the negative results of past HF-PEF trials. Potential contributors include an incomplete understanding of HF-PEF pathophysiology, the heterogeneity of the patient population, inadequate diagnostic criteria, recruitment of patients without true heart failure or at early stages of the syndrome, poor matching of therapeutic mechanisms and primary pathophysiological processes, suboptimal study designs, or inadequate statistical power. Many novel agents are in various stages of research and development for potential use in patients with HF-PEF. To maximize the likelihood of identifying effective therapeutics for HF-PEF, lessons learned from the past decade of research should be applied to the design, conduct, and interpretation of future trials. This paper represents a synthesis of a workshop held in Bergamo, Italy, and it examines new and emerging therapies in the context of specific, targeted HF-PEF phenotypes where positive clinical benefit may be detected in clinical trials. Specific considerations related to patient and endpoint selection for future clinical trials design are also discussed. PMID:25104786

  14. Results of a modeling workshop concerning preservation and protection of wetlands in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.

    1981-01-01

    In a recently signed letter, the Governor of North Dakota and the Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Fish and Wildlife and Parks charged a joint state-federal study group with examination of two separate questions: 1) mitigation for the Garrison Diversion Project; and 2) planning for long-range protection and preservation of fish and wildlife habitat in North Dakota. The cochair for this study group (the Secretary of the Interior's Field Representative, Denver, Colorado, and the Natural Resources Coordinator for North Dakota) further articulated the charge concerning the second of these two questions to include three steps: 1) development of a general plan for preservation and protection of migratory waterfowl and their associated wetland habitat; 2) a comprehensive analysis of alternative strategies, including opportunities and constraints, for achieving the goals articulated in Step 1; and 3) design of a coordinated state-federal public information program to assist in plan implementation. In order to obtain input from a variety of interests, the joint study group initiated step 2 activities with a five-day workshop in Bismarck, N. D.; December 8-12, 1980. The objectives of the workshop were: 1) to identify alternative strategies for preserving and enhancing waterfowl production habitat in North Dakota; 2) to identify opportunities and constraints associated with those alternatives; and 3) to promote communication and understanding of the implications of those alternatives for all affected parties. To achieve these objectives, the workshop utilized a group of concepts and techniques collectively known as Adaptive Environmental Assessment (AEA). Developed by Dr. C. S. Holling and his co-workers at the University of British Columbia, the AEA process involves planners, managers, scientists, and other interested parties in a structures atmosphere whose focus is the construction and examination of a computerized simulation model of the resource system under

  15. The role and importance of Tuvan literature and teaching it in schools in the preservation and development of Tuvan language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiia Kh. Oorzhak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article start off by expressing their concern about the level of command of Tuvan by the younger generation, especially children. Preserving and developing Tuvan language is impossible without literature in Tuvan and teaching it in schools and other educational institutions. The article deals with the issues of teaching Tuvan literature in secondary comprehensive schools of the Republic of Tuva. The authors also provide an overview of textbooks of Tuvan literature compiled at the laboratory of Tuvan philology, Institute for the Development of National Schools of the Republic of Tuva, in compliance with the Federal educational standards of Russian Federation. The textbook provide the mandatory minimum of the standard-provided content of general education and guarantee the required quality of knowledge for school graduates. In 2013-2017, textbooks titled «Tөreen chogaal» (Literature in the Native Tongue were compiled and published for Grades 5-9, as well as two accompanying textbooks for Grades 5 and 6. The textbooks rely on the methodological principles of the study program «Tyva aas chogaaly bolgash literatura. Niiti өөredilge cherleriniң 5-11 klasstarynga chizhek programma» (Tuvan folklore and literature. Sample Study Program for Grade 5-11 of Comprehensive Schools. In comparison to the previous generation of textbooks, these have been largely updated both in their structure and scope of its content. The texts were grouped in the following categories: “Folklore, the nation’s boundless treasury”, “From folklore to literary genres”, “The world of childhood”, “The world of wonders”, “Holy places”, “The Stars of Victory” and “Animal world”. They prominently feature folklore texts, including shaman songs; tests and creative tasks have also been developed. In terms of their content and methodology, the textbooks intend to familiarize students with the spiritual, moral and aesthetic values of

  16. Management of digital preservation repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Márdero Arellano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work are the international experiences of implementation of digital preservation practices in repositories. It based on bibliographical survey about the beginning of digital preservation practices in digital repositories, identifying important aspects of how to manage the practices of digital preservation on repositories. Most repositories analyzed showed a double function of access and preservation, but few could be considered to be "dark archives" used only for preservation matters. The application of digital preservation standards showed that large institutions possessed detailed definitions of what stored materials could be filed and used. Repositories managers had some kind of operating budget to carry on preservation activities. Most repositories cited in the bibliography used a combination of commercial tools and free software. As a conclusion, the records analyzed reinforce the need today of the application of digital preservation strategies using the OAIS Reference Model and official audit certification actions  on the design of digital preservation repositories, to keep the integration flexibility of  functions and services that go beyond the repository.

  17. Essential oils as food eco-preservatives: Model system studies on the effect of temperature on limonene antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Flasiński, Michał; Romańczuk, Karolina

    2017-11-15

    Antimicrobial properties of essential oils predestine these substances to be used as ecological food preservatives. However, their activity is determined by variety of factors among which external conditions and food properties are highly important. Herein the influence of limonene on artificial membranes was studied to verify the effect of temperature on the incorporation of this compound into model bacterial membrane. The investigations were done on lipid monolayers and the experiments involved the surface pressure-area measurements, penetration studies and Brewster Angle Microscopy analysis. It was found that limonene incorporates into lipid monolayers causing their fluidization. However, the magnitude of alterations depends on limonene concentration, model membrane composition and, for a given composition, on system condensation. Moreover, the influence of limonene is stronger at lower temperatures and, in the light of collected data, this may be a consequence of strong volatility and evaporation of limonene increasing with temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Complex recombination patterns arising during geminivirus coinfections preserve and demarcate biologically important intra-genome interaction networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Darren P Martin; Pierre Lefeuvre; Arvind Varsani; Murielle Hoareau; Jean-Yves Semegni; Betty Dijoux; Claire Vincent; Bernard Reynaud; Jean-Michel Lett

    2011-01-01

    Genetic recombination is an important process during the evolution of many virus species and occurs particularly frequently amongst begomoviruses in the single stranded DNA virus family, Geminiviridae. As in many other recombining viruses it is apparent that non-random recombination breakpoint distributions observable within begomovirus genomes sampled from nature are the product of variations both in basal recombination rates across genomes and in the over-all viability of different recombin...

  19. A Scientific Approach to Cultural Heritage Preservation: A Case Study of Vandalistic Acts on Important Roman Mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberto, Enrico; Spoto, Giuseppe; Matteini, Mauro; Puglisi, Concetto

    1998-10-01

    As an example of the way in which a scientific study can help the restorer in the restoration of important artistic works, the authors report the case study of vandalistic acts on important Roman mosaics. On the night of September 29, 1995, some unknown vandals poured dark brown paint over several of the most beautiful and important mosaics of the Villa del Casale (Piazza Armerina, Italy). The villa, consisting of an extensive network of rooms, galleries, courtyards, and baths, contains some of the largest and most beautiful mosaics surviving from Roman times. Chemical investigations were performed in order to draw up a rapid restoration plan aimed at identifying the substances used and proposing a correct restoration procedure. A multitechnique, analytical approach was used for these investigations because of the highly complex heterogeneity of the materials studied. The results showed that toluidine red was present in the paint as pigment and that the vehicle was made up of a mixture of alkyd resins, together with styrenated compounds and unsaturated long chain-containing oils. Moreover, besides compounds like calcium carbonate, barium sulfate, and aluminum oxide, silver-containing compounds were present in the paint. All of these observations allowed the authors to propose the removal method to be adopted that achieved the restoration of the mosaics.

  20. A torso model comparison of temperature preservation devices for use in the prehospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasa, Michele; Flowers, Neil; Zideman, David; Hodgetts, Timothy J; Harris, Tim

    2016-06-01

    Hypothermia is an independent predictor of increased morbidity and mortality in patients with trauma. Several strategies and products have been developed to minimise patients' heat loss in the prehospital arena, but there is little evidence to inform the clinician concerning their effectiveness. We used a human torso model consisting of two 5.5-litre fluid bags to simultaneously compare four passive (space blanket, bubble wrap, Blizzard blanket, ambulance blanket) and one active (Ready-Heat II blanket) temperature preservation products. A torso model without any temperature preservation device provided a control. For each test, the torso models were warmed to 37°C and left outdoors. Core temperatures were recorded every 10 min for 1 h in total; tests were repeated 10 times. A significant difference in temperature was detected among groups at 30 and 60 min (F (1.29, 10.30)=103.58, pmodel based on two 5 L dialysate bags we found the Ready-Heat II heating blanket and Blizzard blanket were associated with lower rates of heat loss after 60 min environmental exposure than the other devices tested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Identifying the important factors in simulation models with many factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettonvil, B.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Simulation models may have many parameters and input variables (together called factors), while only a few factors are really important (parsimony principle). For such models this paper presents an effective and efficient screening technique to identify and estimate those important factors. The

  2. Structure-Preserving Methods for the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard System to Model Immiscible Fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel F.

    2017-12-03

    This work presents a novel method to model immiscible incompressible fluids in a stable manner. Here, the immiscible behavior of the flow is described by the incompressible Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard model, which is based on a diffuse interface method. We introduce buoyancy effects in the model through the Boussinesq approximation in a consistent manner. A structure-preserving discretization is used to guarantee the linear stability of the discrete problem and to satisfy the incompressibility of the discrete solution at every point in space by construction. For the solution of the model, we developed the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Isogeometric Analysis with Multi-Field discretizations (PetIGA-MF), a high-performance framework that supports structure-preserving spaces. PetIGA-MF is built on top of PetIGA and the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc), sharing all their user-friendly, performance, and flexibility features. Herein, we describe the implementation of our model in PetIGA-MF and the details of the numerical solution. With several numerical tests, we verify the convergence, scalability, and validity of our approach. We use highly-resolved numerical simulations to analyze the merging and rising of droplets. From these simulations, we detailed the energy exchanges in the system to evaluate quantitatively the quality of our simulations. The good agreement of our results when compared against theoretical descriptions of the merging, and the small errors found in the energy analysis, allow us to validate our approach. Additionally, we present the development of an unconditionally energy-stable generalized-alpha method for the Swift-Hohenberg model that offers control over the numerical dissipation. A pattern formation example demonstrates the energy-stability and convergence of our method.

  3. Role-task conditional-purpose policy model for privacy preserving data publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Elgendy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Privacy becomes a major concern for both consumers and enterprises; therefore many research efforts have been devoted to the development of privacy preserving technology. The challenge in data privacy is to share the data while assuring the protection of personal information. Data privacy includes assuring protection for both insider ad outsider threats even if the data is published. Access control can help to protect the data from outsider threats. Access control is defined as the process of mediating every request to resources and data maintained by a system and determining whether the request should be granted or denied. This can be enforced by a mechanism implementing regulations established by a security policy. In this paper, we present privacy preserving data publishing model based on integration of CPBAC, MD-TRBAC, PBFW, protection against database administrator technique inspired from oracle vault technique and benefits of anonymization technique to protect data when being published using k-anonymity. The proposed model meets the requirements of workflow and non-workflow system in enterprise environment. It is based on the characteristics of the conditional purposes, conditional roles, tasks, and policies. It guarantees the protection against insider threats such as database administrator. Finally it assures needed protection in case of publishing the data. Keywords: Database security, Access control, Data publishing, Anonymization

  4. Preservation of Cell Structure, Metabolism, and Biotransformation Activity of Liver-On-Chip Organ Models by Hypothermic Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Marko; Dinger, Julia; Kiehntopf, Michael; Peters, Frank T; Rauen, Ursula; Mosig, Alexander S

    2018-01-01

    The liver is a central organ in the metabolization of nutrition, endogenous and exogenous substances, and xenobiotic drugs. The emerging organ-on-chip technology has paved the way to model essential liver functions as well as certain aspects of liver disease in vitro in liver-on-chip models. However, a broader use of this technology in biomedical research is limited by a lack of protocols that enable the short-term preservation of preassembled liver-on-chip models for stocking or delivery to researchers outside the bioengineering community. For the first time, this study tested the ability of hypothermic storage of liver-on-chip models to preserve cell viability, tissue morphology, metabolism and biotransformation activity. In a systematic study with different preservation solutions, liver-on-chip function can be preserved for up to 2 d using a derivative of the tissue preservation solution TiProtec, containing high chloride ion concentrations and the iron chelators LK614 and deferoxamine, supplemented with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Hypothermic storage in this solution represents a promising method to preserve liver-on-chip function for at least 2 d and allows an easier access to liver-on-chip technology and its versatile and flexible use in biomedical research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Scaled distribution mapping: a bias correction method that preserves raw climate model projected changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Switanek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Commonly used bias correction methods such as quantile mapping (QM assume the function of error correction values between modeled and observed distributions are stationary or time invariant. This article finds that this function of the error correction values cannot be assumed to be stationary. As a result, QM lacks justification to inflate/deflate various moments of the climate change signal. Previous adaptations of QM, most notably quantile delta mapping (QDM, have been developed that do not rely on this assumption of stationarity. Here, we outline a methodology called scaled distribution mapping (SDM, which is conceptually similar to QDM, but more explicitly accounts for the frequency of rain days and the likelihood of individual events. The SDM method is found to outperform QM, QDM, and detrended QM in its ability to better preserve raw climate model projected changes to meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation.

  6. Generation of risk importance information from severe accident PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Mi Ro; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Moon, Chan Kook

    2012-01-01

    One of the important objects conducting Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is the relative evaluation of importance of the component or function that is greatly affected to the plant safety. This evaluation is performed by the importance assessment methods such as Risk Reduction Worth, Risk Achievement Worth, and Fuss el Vessley method from the aspect of core damage frequency (CDF). In the Level 1 PSA model, the importance of each component can be evaluated since the CDF is calculated by the combination of the branch probability of event tree and the component failure probability in the fault tree. But, the Level 2 PSA model in order to assess the containment integrity cannot evaluate the risk importance by the above methods because the model is consisted of 3 parts, plant damage status, containment event tree, and source term category. So, in the field that the Level 2 PSA risk importance information should be reflected, such as maintenance rule program, risk importance has been determined by the subjective judgment of the model developer. This study was performed in order to generate the risk importance information more objectively and systematically in the Level 2 PSA model, focused on the containment event tree in the domain PHWR Level 2 PSA model

  7. Energy law preserving C0 finite element schemes for phase field models in two-phase flow computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jinsong; Lin Ping; Liu Chun; Wang Qi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study phase-field models for multi-phase flow computation. → We develop an energy-law preserving C0 FEM. → We show that the energy-law preserving method work better. → We overcome unphysical oscillation associated with the Cahn-Hilliard model. - Abstract: We use the idea in to develop the energy law preserving method and compute the diffusive interface (phase-field) models of Allen-Cahn and Cahn-Hilliard type, respectively, governing the motion of two-phase incompressible flows. We discretize these two models using a C 0 finite element in space and a modified midpoint scheme in time. To increase the stability in the pressure variable we treat the divergence free condition by a penalty formulation, under which the discrete energy law can still be derived for these diffusive interface models. Through an example we demonstrate that the energy law preserving method is beneficial for computing these multi-phase flow models. We also demonstrate that when applying the energy law preserving method to the model of Cahn-Hilliard type, un-physical interfacial oscillations may occur. We examine the source of such oscillations and a remedy is presented to eliminate the oscillations. A few two-phase incompressible flow examples are computed to show the good performance of our method.

  8. Importance of predictor variables for models of chemical function

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Importance of random forest predictors for all classification models of chemical function. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Isaacs , K., M....

  9. Role modelling in medical education: the importance of teaching skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Oates, Kim; Goulston, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    By observation of role models, and participation in activities, students develop their attitudes, values and professional competencies. Literature suggests that clinical skills and knowledge, personality, and teaching skills are three main areas that students consider central to the identification of positive role models. The aim of this study was to explore junior medical students' opinions of the ideal attributes of a good role model in clinical tutors. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed year 1 of the medical programme in 2013. All students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the ideal attributes of a good role model in a clinical tutor. The questionnaire consisted of seven closed items and one open-ended question. The response rate to the questionnaire was 265/301 (88%). Although students found all three key areas important in a good role model, students emphasised the importance of excellence in teaching skills. Specifically, students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment, a good understanding of the curriculum and an ability to cater to the learning needs of all students. Students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment While acknowledging the importance of a patient-centred approach, as well as clinical knowledge and skills, our findings reinforce the importance of the actual teaching abilities of role models within medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Probabilistic reliability modeling for oil exploration & production (E&P) facilities in the tallgrass prairie preserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Lyda; Sublette, Kerry; Duncan, Kathleen; Thoma, Greg

    2007-10-01

    The aging domestic oil production infrastructure represents a high risk to the environment because of the type of fluids being handled (oil and brine) and the potential for accidental release of these fluids into sensitive ecosystems. Currently, there is not a quantitative risk model directly applicable to onshore oil exploration and production (E&P) facilities. We report on a probabilistic reliability model created for onshore exploration and production (E&P) facilities. Reliability theory, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and event trees were used to develop the model estimates of the failure probability of typical oil production equipment. Monte Carlo simulation was used to translate uncertainty in input parameter values to uncertainty in the model output. The predicted failure rates were calibrated to available failure rate information by adjusting probability density function parameters used as random variates in the Monte Carlo simulations. The mean and standard deviation of normal variate distributions from which the Weibull distribution characteristic life was chosen were used as adjustable parameters in the model calibration. The model was applied to oil production leases in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve, Oklahoma. We present the estimated failure probability due to the combination of the most significant failure modes associated with each type of equipment (pumps, tanks, and pipes). The results show that the estimated probability of failure for tanks is about the same as that for pipes, but that pumps have much lower failure probability. The model can provide necessary equipment reliability information for proactive risk management at the lease level by providing quantitative information to base allocation of maintenance resources to high-risk equipment that will minimize both lost production and ecosystem damage.

  11. Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, B; Huja, S S; Chien, H-H; Dalstra, M

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effects of transcortical screws on alveolar (bone) ridge preservation following extraction. Four adult beagle dogs had mandibular premolars extracted bilaterally. After 6 weeks, using a split-mouth design, two transcortical screws were inserted unilaterally below the alveolar crest on the experimental side in the region of the extraction. The dogs were killed after 12 weeks. The bone at the extraction sites was analyzed using μCT and 3D analysis. A cylindrical core was placed around the actual and a virtual screw placed in the identical location on the control side. The bone volume within the cylinders was quantified. An insertion of a dental implant was simulated bilaterally at the insertion site. The height of the clinical crown and the alveolar crest were determined on both sides. The bone turnover was assessed histomorphometrically on un-decalcified bucco-lingual sections stained with basic fuchsine and toluidine blue. Comparison of the two sides revealed a significant difference both with regard to the bone volume and morphology. The transcortical screw caused an increase in bone density and less ridge atrophy. When simulating a dental implant placement on both sides, the bone preservation on the experimental side led to a need for a shorter clinical crown compared to the control side. A higher activity level of the bone in the experimental side was demonstrated histologically. In this dog model the insertion of a mini-implant across the healing alveolar process results in increased density not only adjacent to the screws, but also in the region where a potential dental implant would be inserted. In humans, the insertion of transcortical screws may maintain bone when for various reasons insertion of a permanent dental implant has to be postponed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Structure-Preserving Variational Multiscale Modeling of Turbulent Incompressible Flow with Subgrid Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John; Coley, Christopher; Aronson, Ryan; Nelson, Corey

    2017-11-01

    In this talk, a large eddy simulation methodology for turbulent incompressible flow will be presented which combines the best features of divergence-conforming discretizations and the residual-based variational multiscale approach to large eddy simulation. In this method, the resolved motion is represented using a divergence-conforming discretization, that is, a discretization that preserves the incompressibility constraint in a pointwise manner, and the unresolved fluid motion is explicitly modeled by subgrid vortices that lie within individual grid cells. The evolution of the subgrid vortices is governed by dynamical model equations driven by the residual of the resolved motion. Consequently, the subgrid vortices appropriately vanish for laminar flow and fully resolved turbulent flow. As the resolved velocity field and subgrid vortices are both divergence-free, the methodology conserves mass in a pointwise sense and admits discrete balance laws for energy, enstrophy, and helicity. Numerical results demonstrate the methodology yields improved results versus state-of-the-art eddy viscosity models in the context of transitional, wall-bounded, and rotational flow when a divergence-conforming B-spline discretization is utilized to represent the resolved motion.

  13. Unified theory for stochastic modelling of hydroclimatic processes: Preserving marginal distributions, correlation structures, and intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael

    2018-05-01

    Hydroclimatic processes come in all "shapes and sizes". They are characterized by different spatiotemporal correlation structures and probability distributions that can be continuous, mixed-type, discrete or even binary. Simulating such processes by reproducing precisely their marginal distribution and linear correlation structure, including features like intermittency, can greatly improve hydrological analysis and design. Traditionally, modelling schemes are case specific and typically attempt to preserve few statistical moments providing inadequate and potentially risky distribution approximations. Here, a single framework is proposed that unifies, extends, and improves a general-purpose modelling strategy, based on the assumption that any process can emerge by transforming a specific "parent" Gaussian process. A novel mathematical representation of this scheme, introducing parametric correlation transformation functions, enables straightforward estimation of the parent-Gaussian process yielding the target process after the marginal back transformation, while it provides a general description that supersedes previous specific parameterizations, offering a simple, fast and efficient simulation procedure for every stationary process at any spatiotemporal scale. This framework, also applicable for cyclostationary and multivariate modelling, is augmented with flexible parametric correlation structures that parsimoniously describe observed correlations. Real-world simulations of various hydroclimatic processes with different correlation structures and marginals, such as precipitation, river discharge, wind speed, humidity, extreme events per year, etc., as well as a multivariate example, highlight the flexibility, advantages, and complete generality of the method.

  14. The National Digital Information Infrastructure Preservation Program; Metadata Principles and Practicalities; Challenges for Service Providers when Importing Metadata in Digital Libraries; Integrated and Aggregated Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Amy; Duval, Erik; Hodgins, Wayne; Sutton, Stuart; Weibel, Stuart L.; McClelland, Marilyn; McArthur, David; Giersch, Sarah; Geisler, Gary; Hodgkin, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Includes 6 articles that discuss the National Digital Information Infrastructure Preservation Program at the Library of Congress; metadata in digital libraries; integrated reference services on the Web. (LRW)

  15. Optimization of RNA preservation in granulation tissue in the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) tube model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Koudahl, V; Christensen, B

    2009-01-01

    RNA is easily degraded by RNAses. An efficient and non-hazardous method optimizing RNA preservation and extraction is needed. Our aim was to evaluate RNA preservation methods on murine granulation tissue from subcutaneously implanted ePTFE tubes. ePTFE tubes were placed subcutaneously in mice...

  16. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  17. Information Preservation Modeling of Rayleigh-Bénard Transition from Thermal Conduction to Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Fan, Jing

    2008-12-01

    Onset and evolution of the Rayleigh-Bénard (R-B) convection are investigated using the Information Preservation (IP) method. The information velocity and temperature are updated using the Octant Flux Splitting (OFS) model developed by Masters & Ye based on the Maxwell transport equation suggested by Sun & Boyd. Statistical noise inherent in particle approaches such as the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is effectively reduced by the IP method, and therefore the evolutions from an initial quiescent fluid to a final steady state are shown clearly. An interesting phenomenon is observed: when the Rayleigh number (Ra) exceeds its critical value, there exists an obvious incubation stage. During the incubation stage, the vortex structure clearly appears and evolves, whereas the Nusselt number (Nu) of the lower plate is close to unity. After the incubation stage, the vortex velocity and Nu rapidly increase, and the flow field quickly reaches a steady, convective state. A relation of Nu to Ra given by IP agrees with those given by DSMC, the classical theory and experimental data.

  18. Reduced-Order Structure-Preserving Model for Parallel-Connected Three-Phase Grid-Tied Inverters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Purba, Victor [University of Minnesota; Jafarpour, Saber [University of California, Santa Barbara; Bullo, Francesco [University of California, Santa Barbara; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota

    2017-08-31

    Given that next-generation infrastructures will contain large numbers of grid-connected inverters and these interfaces will be satisfying a growing fraction of system load, it is imperative to analyze the impacts of power electronics on such systems. However, since each inverter model has a relatively large number of dynamic states, it would be impractical to execute complex system models where the full dynamics of each inverter are retained. To address this challenge, we derive a reduced-order structure-preserving model for parallel-connected grid-tied three-phase inverters. Here, each inverter in the system is assumed to have a full-bridge topology, LCL filter at the point of common coupling, and the control architecture for each inverter includes a current controller, a power controller, and a phase-locked loop for grid synchronization. We outline a structure-preserving reduced-order inverter model for the setting where the parallel inverters are each designed such that the filter components and controller gains scale linearly with the power rating. By structure preserving, we mean that the reduced-order three-phase inverter model is also composed of an LCL filter, a power controller, current controller, and PLL. That is, we show that the system of parallel inverters can be modeled exactly as one aggregated inverter unit and this equivalent model has the same number of dynamical states as an individual inverter in the paralleled system. Numerical simulations validate the reduced-order models.

  19. Reduced-Order Structure-Preserving Model for Parallel-Connected Three-Phase Grid-Tied Inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Purba, Victor [University of Minnesota; Jafarpour, Saber [University of California Santa-Barbara; Bullo, Francesco [University of California Santa-Barbara; Dhople, Sairaj V. [University of Minnesota

    2017-08-21

    Next-generation power networks will contain large numbers of grid-connected inverters satisfying a significant fraction of system load. Since each inverter model has a relatively large number of dynamic states, it is impractical to analyze complex system models where the full dynamics of each inverter are retained. To address this challenge, we derive a reduced-order structure-preserving model for parallel-connected grid-tied three-phase inverters. Here, each inverter in the system is assumed to have a full-bridge topology, LCL filter at the point of common coupling, and the control architecture for each inverter includes a current controller, a power controller, and a phase-locked loop for grid synchronization. We outline a structure-preserving reduced-order inverter model with lumped parameters for the setting where the parallel inverters are each designed such that the filter components and controller gains scale linearly with the power rating. By structure preserving, we mean that the reduced-order three-phase inverter model is also composed of an LCL filter, a power controller, current controller, and PLL. We show that the system of parallel inverters can be modeled exactly as one aggregated inverter unit and this equivalent model has the same number of dynamical states as any individual inverter in the system. Numerical simulations validate the reduced-order model.

  20. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  1. Analysis of the tradeoff between agriculture and ecosystem preservation using a new ecohydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Li, X.; Tian, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2016-12-01

    Inner-basin water use conflicts are common in arid and semi-arid areas. As the second largest endorheic river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) is exemplary of such conflicts between agriculture and ecosystem preservation. The densely distributed agriculture in the middle HRB (M-HRB) consumes a large amount of water, which has directly threatened the fragile and water-limited ecosystem in the lower HRB (L-HRB). To alleviate the conflict and prevent the trend of ecological deterioration of the L-HRB, an Ecological Water Diversion Project (EWDP) has been implemented since 2000 to ensure that enough water is released to the L-HRB. With the water diversion, an increase in the leaf area index (LAI) has been observed in the L-HRB. However, to ensure the annually allocated streamflow discharge to the L-HRB, more groundwater (GW) has been pumped for irrigation in the M-HRB, which has led to declining GW levels. How to make water management more sustainable for both agriculture and ecosystem has thus become an urgent issue. Crops and natural vegetation play vital roles in affecting the water cycle, hence it should be well integrated into a hydrological model for water management. A new Hydrological and Ecological Integrated watershed-scale FLOW model (HEIFLOW) has been developed. HEIFLOW is based on an improved version of the GSFLOW developed by the USGS and a General Eco-Hydrological Module (GEHM) developed in this study to simulate plant growth kinetics. The model has been applied to simulate the ecohydrological conditions in the M- and L-HRB. The model results show a consistently good agreement with the observation data. Analysis using the new integrated model indicates that the M-HRB GW system is not sustainable, and that the agriculture in the M-HRB has to sacrifice itself for ecological restoration in the L-HRB under the current water allocation strategy. The restoration of lower basin was further assessed under a new allocation strategy that aims to improve

  2. Topology preserving non-rigid image registration using time-varying elasticity model for MRI brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sahar; Khan, Muhammad Faisal

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new non-rigid image registration method that imposes a topology preservation constraint on the deformation. We propose to incorporate the time varying elasticity model into the deformable image matching procedure and constrain the Jacobian determinant of the transformation over the entire image domain. The motion of elastic bodies is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation, generally termed as elastodynamics wave equation, which we propose to use as a deformation model. We carried out clinical image registration experiments on 3D magnetic resonance brain scans from IBSR database. The results of the proposed registration approach in terms of Kappa index and relative overlap computed over the subcortical structures were compared against the existing topology preserving non-rigid image registration methods and non topology preserving variant of our proposed registration scheme. The Jacobian determinant maps obtained with our proposed registration method were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme provides good registration accuracy with smooth transformations, thereby guaranteeing the preservation of topology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Two woman medical doctors of the Meiji era who came from the "Preservative District of Johnai Suwakohji Important Traditional Buildings Group", Kanegasaki Town, Iwate Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Masakazu

    2010-09-01

    There is a historical group of samurai buildings called the "Preservative District of Johnai Suwakohji Important Traditional Buildings Group" in Kanegasaki Town, Iwate Prefecture. Two woman medical doctors (Misaho Aizawa and Mie Shiga, came from this district at the end of the Meiji Era (1910-1911). Misaho Aizawa was born in a minister's family in 1885 and studied at the Women's School of Dohshisha. After graduation she studied abroad at the Women's Medical College of Philadelphia and graduated from the college in 1910. Immediately after graduation she came back to Japan and got a medical license in Japan. She married a minister and was employed by the Red Cross Clinic in Fukuoka Prefecture. Mie Shiga was born in a samurai-family in 1880 and worked her way through various medical schools in Tokyo. After three failures to pass the national medical examination she received a medical license in 1911. In 1913 she opened her clinic of internal medicine & pediatrics in Utsunomiya. She made an effort to diagnose correctly and won patients' confidence. These two women had neither communication nor common points due to the differences of their family environment and their age. However, they were brought up by fathers who were enthusiastic for education and they made an effort to become woman doctors. Although women's social situation and the female compulsory education rate were low, and women's medical education was poor in the Meiji Era, Misaho Aizawa was able to enter the medical route under the influence of Christianity, and Mie Shiga through the assistance of her family and her samurai spirit.

  4. Importance of incorporating agriculture in conceptual rainfall-runoff models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer-Euser, Tanja; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Incorporating spatially variable information is a frequently discussed option to increase the performance of (semi-)distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff models. One of the methods to do this is by using this spatially variable information to delineate Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) within a catchment. In large parts of Europe the original forested land cover is replaced by an agricultural land cover. This change in land cover probably affects the dominant runoff processes in the area, for example by increasing the Hortonian overland flow component, especially on the flatter and higher elevated parts of the catchment. A change in runoff processes implies a change in HRUs as well. A previous version of our model distinguished wetlands (areas close to the stream) from the remainder of the catchment. However, this configuration was not able to reproduce all fast runoff processes, both in summer as in winter. Therefore, this study tests whether the reproduction of fast runoff processes can be improved by incorporating a HRU which explicitly accounts for the effect of agriculture. A case study is carried out in the Ourthe catchment in Belgium. For this case study the relevance of different process conceptualisations is tested stepwise. Among the conceptualisations are Hortonian overland flow in summer and winter, reduced infiltration capacity due to a partly frozen soil and the relative effect of rainfall and snow smelt in case of this frozen soil. The results show that the named processes can make a large difference on event basis, especially the Hortonian overland flow in summer and the combination of rainfall and snow melt on (partly) frozen soil in winter. However, differences diminish when the modelled period of several years is evaluated based on standard metrics like Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. These results emphasise on one hand the importance of incorporating the effects of agricultural in conceptual models and on the other hand the importance of more event

  5. The enduring importance of animal models in understanding periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George; Lamont, Richard J; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    Whereas no single animal model can reproduce the complexity of periodontitis, different aspects of the disease can be addressed by distinct models. Despite their limitations, animal models are essential for testing the biological significance of in vitro findings and for establishing cause-and-effect relationships relevant to clinical observations, which are typically correlative. We provide evidence that animal-based studies have generated a durable framework for dissecting the mechanistic basis of periodontitis. These studies have solidified the etiologic role of bacteria in initiating the inflammatory response that leads to periodontal bone loss and have identified key mediators (IL-1, TNF, prostaglandins, complement, RANKL) that induce inflammatory breakdown. Moreover, animal studies suggest that dysbiosis, rather than individual bacterial species, are important in initiating periodontal bone loss and have introduced the concept that organisms previously considered commensals can play important roles as accessory pathogens or pathobionts. These studies have also provided insight as to how systemic conditions, such as diabetes or leukocyte adhesion deficiency, contribute to tissue destruction. In addition, animal studies have identified and been useful in testing therapeutic targets.

  6. Importance of resolution and model configuration when downscaling extreme precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J. Champion

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical downscaling is frequently used to investigate the dynamical variables of extra-tropical cyclones, for example, precipitation, using very high-resolution models nested within coarser resolution models to understand the processes that lead to intense precipitation. It is also used in climate change studies, using long timeseries to investigate trends in precipitation, or to look at the small-scale dynamical processes for specific case studies. This study investigates some of the problems associated with dynamical downscaling and looks at the optimum configuration to obtain the distribution and intensity of a precipitation field to match observations. This study uses the Met Office Unified Model run in limited area mode with grid spacings of 12, 4 and 1.5 km, driven by boundary conditions provided by the ECMWF Operational Analysis to produce high-resolution simulations for the Summer of 2007 UK flooding events. The numerical weather prediction model is initiated at varying times before the peak precipitation is observed to test the importance of the initialisation and boundary conditions, and how long the simulation can be run for. The results are compared to raingauge data as verification and show that the model intensities are most similar to observations when the model is initialised 12 hours before the peak precipitation is observed. It was also shown that using non-gridded datasets makes verification more difficult, with the density of observations also affecting the intensities observed. It is concluded that the simulations are able to produce realistic precipitation intensities when driven by the coarser resolution data.

  7. Information model for management and preservation of scientific digital memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Luana Farias; Sayao, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the data-oriented science (eScience), a considerable part of the results of research activities has been created in digital formats. This means that the memory of the scientific institutions involved in this new scientific paradigm may be at risk of being lost by rapid technological obsolescence, the known fragility of digital media and also by the fragmentation of information and knowledge scattered across multiples repositories. Thus, management of research data in a digital networked and distributed environment becomes an increasing challenge for the research world and the whole area of information: information science, librarianship, knowledge management, archival science and information technology; moreover, in the dynamic environment featuring eScience, there is a need for novel concepts of documents establishing a linkage between traditional documents - printed or digital - stored in repositories, with the data sets stored in data repositories. In this new research environment, an important issue is how to preserve these new complex documents so that they maintain their structure, meaning and authenticity and also its ability to be retrieved, accessed and reused through time and space. In this sense, this paper proposes an information model focused on the curation of scientific memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN/IEN). The model considers the traditional scientific documents (theses, articles, books, etc.) in digital formats and all other relevant data and information related to them, such as: scientific data, software, simulations, photos, videos, historical facts, news, etc., compounding an enhanced publication type oriented to the nuclear area. (author)

  8. Information model for management and preservation of scientific digital memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Luana Farias, E-mail: lsales@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sayao, Luis Fernando, E-mail: isayao@cnen.gov.br [Centro de Informacoes Nucleares (CIN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the context of the data-oriented science (eScience), a considerable part of the results of research activities has been created in digital formats. This means that the memory of the scientific institutions involved in this new scientific paradigm may be at risk of being lost by rapid technological obsolescence, the known fragility of digital media and also by the fragmentation of information and knowledge scattered across multiples repositories. Thus, management of research data in a digital networked and distributed environment becomes an increasing challenge for the research world and the whole area of information: information science, librarianship, knowledge management, archival science and information technology; moreover, in the dynamic environment featuring eScience, there is a need for novel concepts of documents establishing a linkage between traditional documents - printed or digital - stored in repositories, with the data sets stored in data repositories. In this new research environment, an important issue is how to preserve these new complex documents so that they maintain their structure, meaning and authenticity and also its ability to be retrieved, accessed and reused through time and space. In this sense, this paper proposes an information model focused on the curation of scientific memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN/IEN). The model considers the traditional scientific documents (theses, articles, books, etc.) in digital formats and all other relevant data and information related to them, such as: scientific data, software, simulations, photos, videos, historical facts, news, etc., compounding an enhanced publication type oriented to the nuclear area. (author)

  9. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  10. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitudes and Performance of the Parents of Preschool and Primary School Children Referred to Health Centers of Qom City about the Importance of Preserving Primary Teeth and its Related Factors, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mehdipour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Knowledge is a necessary component for behavioral changes, including behaviors related to oral and dental health and prevention of oral disease. Family has the most important role in children's oral and dental health. This research aimed to determine knowledge, attitudes and performance of the parents of preschool and primary school children referring to health centers of Qom City about the importance of preserving Primary Teeth and its related factors. Methods: This study was conducted as a descriptive-analytical study on 267 mothers of preschool children referring to selected health centers of Qom City in 2014. Data was collected using questionnaire and interview. The reasearcher-made tool was a 22-part questionnaire containing 21 multiple-choice questions and one descriptive question. The data were analysed using simple and multiple logistic regression descriptive statistics. Results: In this study, the participants’ knowledge about the care of primary teeth in 51.1% of cases was poor, 48.9% of the participants had a positive attitude about the care of primary teeth, and 60% of the participating parents showed a good performance for the care of primary teeth. There was a significant relationship between female gender and knowledge and positive attitude of parents about the care of primary teeth (p<0.05 according to multiple logistic regression model. Also, in multiple logistic regression model, there was only a significant relationship between attitude and performaance (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, training parents about the importance of care of primary teeth, should be performed in line with individual needs of children and parents to succeed in the prevention programs for oral and dental diseases in children.

  11. Modelling the growth/no growth boundary of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in acidic conditions: a contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T D T; Mertens, L; Vermeulen, A; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Debevere, J; Devlieghere, F

    2010-01-31

    The aim of the study was to develop mathematical models describing growth/no growth (G/NG) boundaries of the highly resistant food spoilage yeast-Zygosaccharomyces bailii-in different environmental conditions, taking acidified sauces as the target product. By applying these models, the stability of products with characteristics within the investigated pH, a(w) and acetic acid ranges can be evaluated. Besides, the well-defined no growth regions can be used in the development of guidelines regarding formulation of new shelf-stable foods without using chemical preservatives, which would facilitate the innovation of additive-free products. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and periods (22 degrees C for 45 and 60days, 30 degrees C for 45days) in 150 modified Sabouraud media characterized by high amount of sugars (glucose and fructose, 15% (w/v)), acetic acid (0.0-2.5% (v/v), 6 levels), pH (3.0-5.0, 5 levels) and a(w) (0.93-0.97, 5 levels). These time and temperature combinations were chosen as they are commonly applied for shelf-stable foods. The media were inoculated with ca. 4.5 log CFU/ml and yeast growth was monitored daily using optical density measurements. Every condition was examined in 20 replicates in order to yield accurate growth probabilities. Three separate ordinary logistic regression models were developed for different tested temperatures and incubation time. The total acetic acid concentration was considered as variable for all models. In general, when one intrinsic inhibitory factor became more stringent, the G/NG boundary shifted to less stressful conditions of the other two factors, resulting in enlarged no growth zones. Abrupt changes of growth probability often occurred around the transition zones (between growth and no growth regions), which indicates that minor variations in environmental conditions near the G/NG boundaries can cause a significant impact on the growth probability. When comparing growth after 45days between the

  12. An experimental model for training in renal transplantation surgery with human cadavers preserved using W. Thiel's embalming technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Ramiro; González, Carmen; Quicios, Cristina; Bueno, Gonzalo; García, Juan V; Arribas, Ana B; Clascá, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    To describe a novel cadaver-based model for practicing renal transplant (RT) surgery. A simulating model using cadavers preserved by Thiel's method is developed to teach surgical anatomy and operative skills in RT surgery. Participants were asked to complete a voluntary, anonymous survey evaluating perceptions of the model and comparing cadaver sessions to other types of learning (rating questions from 0-10). Large university teaching hospital. A total of 28 residents, junior transplant surgeons, and faculty members were participants in the cadaver simulation. Overall, 9 cadavers were used with 17 grafts transplanted. Kidney procurement in human cadavers preserved using Thiel's embalming technique was performed following the conventional protocol; en bloc nephrectomy with the trunk of aorta and inferior vena cava. Bench surgery was performed, perfusing artery with saline and checking vascular permeability. Once suitability is established, RT was performed as is done in clinical practice. This embalming method enables tissue dissection that is comparable to the living body and provides suitable conditions for realistic RT simulation; handling human tissues and vessels in the same surgical field as the clinical scenario. This experimental model approximates to in vivo RT, providing a realistic and interesting learning to inexperienced surgeons. Overall, participants held a positive view of the cadaver sessions, believed them to be useful in their daily practice, and felt that the proposed model was similar to the clinical setting. Trainees believed that these practices improved skills and confidence in performing an RT. The proposed method of kidney procurement and RT in human cadavers preserved by Thiel's embalming technique is a promising, realistic, and reproducible method of practicing RT surgery. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  14. Single dose of bisphosphonate preserves gains in bone mass following cessation of sclerostin antibody in Brtl/+ osteogenesis imperfecta model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perosky, Joseph E; Khoury, Basma M; Jenks, Terese N; Ward, Ferrous S; Cortright, Kai; Meyer, Bethany; Barton, David K; Sinder, Benjamin P; Marini, Joan C; Caird, Michelle S; Kozloff, Kenneth M

    2016-12-01

    Sclerostin antibody has demonstrated a bone-forming effect in pre-clinical models of osteogenesis imperfecta, where mutations in collagen or collagen-associated proteins often result in high bone fragility in pediatric patients. Cessation studies in osteoporotic patients have demonstrated that sclerostin antibody, like intermittent PTH treatment, requires sequential anti-resorptive therapy to preserve the anabolic effects in adult populations. However, the persistence of anabolic gains from either drug has not been explored clinically in OI, or in any animal model. To determine whether cessation of sclerostin antibody therapy in a growing OI skeleton requires sequential anti-resorptive treatment to preserve anabolic gains in bone mass, we treated 3week old Brtl/+ and wild type mice for 5weeks with SclAb, and then withdrew treatment for an additional 6weeks. Trabecular bone loss was evident following cessation, but was preserved in a dose-dependent manner with single administration of pamidronate at the time of cessation. In vivo longitudinal near-infrared optical imaging of cathepsin K activation in the proximal tibia suggests an anti-resorptive effect of both SclAb and pamidronate which is reversed after three weeks of cessation. Cortical bone was considerably less susceptible to cessation effects, and showed no structural or functional deficits in the absence of pamidronate during this cessation period. In conclusion, while SclAb induces a considerable anabolic gain in the rapidly growing Brtl/+ murine model of OI, a single sequential dose of antiresorptive drug is required to maintain bone mass at trabecular sites for 6weeks following cessation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Importance of Preserving Cross-correlation in developing Statistically Downscaled Climate Forcings and in estimating Land-surface Fluxes and States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Bhowmik, R.; Arumugam, S.

    2015-12-01

    Multivariate downscaling techniques exhibited superiority over univariate regression schemes in terms of preserving cross-correlations between multiple variables- precipitation and temperature - from GCMs. This study focuses on two aspects: (a) develop an analytical solutions on estimating biases in cross-correlations from univariate downscaling approaches and (b) quantify the uncertainty in land-surface states and fluxes due to biases in cross-correlations in downscaled climate forcings. Both these aspects are evaluated using climate forcings available from both historical climate simulations and CMIP5 hindcasts over the entire US. The analytical solution basically relates the univariate regression parameters, co-efficient of determination of regression and the co-variance ratio between GCM and downscaled values. The analytical solutions are compared with the downscaled univariate forcings by choosing the desired p-value (Type-1 error) in preserving the observed cross-correlation. . For quantifying the impacts of biases on cross-correlation on estimating streamflow and groundwater, we corrupt the downscaled climate forcings with different cross-correlation structure.

  16. Bridging between NMA and Elastic Network Models: Preserving All-Atom Accuracy in Coarse-Grained Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuntae Na

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics can provide deep insights into the functional mechanisms of proteins and protein complexes. For large protein complexes such as GroEL/GroES with more than 8,000 residues, obtaining a fine-grained all-atom description of its normal mode motions can be computationally prohibitive and is often unnecessary. For this reason, coarse-grained models have been used successfully. However, most existing coarse-grained models use extremely simple potentials to represent the interactions within the coarse-grained structures and as a result, the dynamics obtained for the coarse-grained structures may not always be fully realistic. There is a gap between the quality of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures given by all-atom models and that by coarse-grained models. In this work, we resolve an important question in protein dynamics computations--how can we efficiently construct coarse-grained models whose description of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures remains as accurate as that given by all-atom models? Our method takes advantage of the sparseness of the Hessian matrix and achieves a high efficiency with a novel iterative matrix projection approach. The result is highly significant since it can provide descriptions of normal mode motions at an all-atom level of accuracy even for the largest biomolecular complexes. The application of our method to GroEL/GroES offers new insights into the mechanism of this biologically important chaperonin, such as that the conformational transitions of this protein complex in its functional cycle are even more strongly connected to the first few lowest frequency modes than with other coarse-grained models.

  17. The importance of proper feedback modeling in HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saphier, D.; Gorelik, Z.; Shapira, M.

    1996-01-01

    The DSNP simulation language was applied to study the effect of different modeling approximations of feedback phenomena in nuclear power plants. The different methods to model the feedback effects are presented and discussed. It is shown that HWR's are most sensitive to the correct modeling since the usually have at least three feedback effects acting at different time scales, and to achieve correct kinetics a one dimensional representation is needed with correct modeling of the in core time delays. The simulation methodology of lumped parameters and one dimensional models using the DSNP simulation language is presented (authors)

  18. Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte; Huja, Sarandeep; Chien, Hua-Hong

    2015-01-01

    -implant across the healing alveolar process results in increased density not only adjacent to the screws, but also in the region where a potential dental implant would be inserted. In humans, the insertion of transcortical screws may maintain bone when for various reasons insertion of a permanent dental implant......Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of transcortical screws on alveolar (bone) ridge preservation following extraction. DESIGN: Four adult beagle dogs had mandibular premolars extracted bilaterally. After 6 weeks, using a split-mouth design, two transcortical screws were inserted unilaterally...... below the alveolar crest on the experimental side in the region of the extraction. The dogs were killed after 12 weeks. The bone at the extraction sites was analyzed using μCT and 3D analysis. A cylindrical core was placed around the actual and a virtual screw placed in the identical location...

  19. A unifying model for Neoproterozoic-Palaeozoic exceptional fossil preservation through pyritization and carbonaceous compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffbauer, James D; Xiao, Shuhai; Cai, Yaoping; Wallace, Adam F; Hua, Hong; Hunter, Jerry; Xu, Huifang; Peng, Yongbo; Kaufman, Alan J

    2014-12-17

    Soft-tissue fossils capture exquisite biological detail and provide our clearest views onto the rise of animals across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. The processes contributing to fossilization of soft tissues, however, have long been a subject of debate. The Ediacaran Gaojiashan biota displays soft-tissue preservational styles ranging from pervasive pyritization to carbonaceous compression, and thus provides an excellent opportunity to dissect the relationships between these taphonomic pathways. Here geochemical analyses of the Gaojiashan fossil Conotubus hemiannulatus show that pyrite precipitation was fuelled by the degradation of labile tissues through bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). Pyritization initiated with nucleation on recalcitrant tube walls, proceeded centripetally, decelerated with exhaustion of labile tissues and possibly continued beneath the BSR zone. We propose that pyritization and kerogenization are regulated principally by placement and duration of the decaying organism in different microbial zones of the sediment column, which hinge on post-burial sedimentation rate and/or microbial zone thickness.

  20. Categorized stacking models for import containers in port container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Chan Ting; Jaw-Shen Wang; Sheng-Long Kao; Flor Melina Pitty

    2010-01-01

    Container terminals have been playing an important role in global transportation and serve as multi-modal interfaces between sea and land transportation. Import containers are those containers that arrive at container terminals from overseas and transship to their destination through inland transport, feeders or wait to be picked up by consignees. As trucks assigned by consignees arrive more or less randomly to pick up specific containers, there is uncertainty about which container will be pi...

  1. Recent advances in importance sampling for statistical model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijsbergen, D.P.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the following work we present an overview of recent advances in rare event simulation for model checking made at the University of Twente. The overview is divided into the several model classes for which we propose algorithms, namely multicomponent systems, Markov chains and stochastic Petri

  2. The importance of dynamics in panel gravity models of trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.; Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Existing gravity models of trade based on panel data are often static, that is, they only allow for contemporaneous effects of regressors on trade. However, there are numerous economic arguments suggesting that trade is a dynamic process. Hence, we extend the static model with lagged regressors

  3. Remote access methods for exploratory data analysis and statistical modelling: Privacy-Preserving Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Ross; Carter, Chris; Donnelly, John B; O'Keefe, Christine M; Duncan, Jodie; Keighley, Tim; McAullay, Damien

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the challenge of enabling the use of confidential or private data for research and policy analysis, while protecting confidentiality and privacy by reducing the risk of disclosure of sensitive information. Traditional solutions to the problem of reducing disclosure risk include releasing de-identified data and modifying data before release. In this paper we discuss the alternative approach of using a remote analysis server which does not enable any data release, but instead is designed to deliver useful results of user-specified statistical analyses with a low risk of disclosure. The techniques described in this paper enable a user to conduct a wide range of methods in exploratory data analysis, regression and survival analysis, while at the same time reducing the risk that the user can read or infer any individual record attribute value. We illustrate our methods with examples from biostatistics using publicly available data. We have implemented our techniques into a software demonstrator called Privacy-Preserving Analytics (PPA), via a web-based interface to the R software. We believe that PPA may provide an effective balance between the competing goals of providing useful information and reducing disclosure risk in some situations.

  4. Chronic intermittent hypoxia preserves bone density in a mouse model of sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Marta; Montserrat, Josep M; Pavía, Javier; Dalmases, Mireia; Ros, Domenec; Fernandez, Yolanda; Barbé, Ferran; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    Very recent clinical research has investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may modulate bone homeostasis but the few data available are conflicting. Here we report novel data obtained in a mouse study specifically designed to determine whether chronic intermittent hypoxia realistically mimicking OSA modifies bone mineral density (BMD). Normal male and female mice and orchidectomized mice (N=10 each group) were subjected to a pattern of high-frequency intermittent hypoxia (20s at 5% and 40s at 21%, 60 cycles/h) for 6h/day. Identical groups breathing room air (normoxia) were the controls. After 32 days of intermittent hypoxia/normoxia the trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the peripheral femora were measured by micro-CT scanning. When compared with normoxia (two-way ANOVA), intermittent hypoxia did not significantly modify BMD in the three animal groups tested. Data in this study suggest that the type of intermittent hypoxia characterizing OSA, applied as a single challenge, preserves bone homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Preservation Planning within OAIS, based on the Planets Functional Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sierman, Barbara; Wheatley, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the Planets Functional Model and relates it to the Planets deliverables. It also gives a set of recommendations for the OAIS model. The Report was part of the European FP6 Project Planets

  6. Full Semantics Preservation in Model Transformation - A Comparison of Proof Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hülsbusch, Mathias; König, Barbara; Rensink, Arend; Semenyak, Maria; Soltenborn, Christian; Wehrheim, Heike

    Model transformation is a prime technique in modern, model-driven software design. One of the most challenging issues is to show that the semantics of the models is not affected by the transformation. So far, there is hardly any research into this issue, in particular in those cases where the source

  7. The importance of time-stepping errors in ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. D.

    2011-12-01

    Many ocean models use leapfrog time stepping. The Robert-Asselin (RA) filter is usually applied after each leapfrog step, to control the computational mode. However, it will be shown in this presentation that the RA filter generates very large amounts of numerical diapycnal mixing. In some ocean models, the numerical diapycnal mixing from the RA filter is as large as the physical diapycnal mixing. This lowers our confidence in the fidelity of the simulations. In addition to the above problem, the RA filter also damps the physical solution and degrades the numerical accuracy. These two concomitant problems occur because the RA filter does not conserve the mean state, averaged over the three time slices on which it operates. The presenter has recently proposed a simple modification to the RA filter, which does conserve the three-time-level mean state. The modified filter has become known as the Robert-Asselin-Williams (RAW) filter. When used in conjunction with the leapfrog scheme, the RAW filter eliminates the numerical damping of the physical solution and increases the amplitude accuracy by two orders, yielding third-order accuracy. The phase accuracy is unaffected and remains second-order. The RAW filter can easily be incorporated into existing models of the ocean, typically via the insertion of just a single line of code. Better simulations are obtained, at almost no additional computational expense. Results will be shown from recent implementations of the RAW filter in various ocean models. For example, in the UK Met Office Hadley Centre ocean model, sea-surface temperature and sea-ice biases in the North Atlantic Ocean are found to be reduced. These improvements are encouraging for the use of the RAW filter in other ocean models.

  8. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2003-01-01

    When wood is exposed to various environmental conditions, many degradation reactions (biological, ultraviolet, mechanical, moisture, and chemical) can occur. To protect wood from biological degradation, chemical preservatives are applied by nonpressure or pressure treatment. Penetration and retention of a chemical depend upon the wood species and the amount of...

  9. On the importance of local connectivity for internet topology models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddadi, H.; Fay, D.; Jamakovic, A.; Maennel, O.; Moore, A.W.; Mortier, R.; Uhlig, S.

    2009-01-01

    Existing models for Internet Autonomous System (AS) topology generation make structural assumptions about the AS graph. Those assumptions typically stem from beliefs about the true properties of the Internet, e.g. hierarchy and powerlaws, which arise from incorrect interpretations of incomplete

  10. The importance of data curation on QSAR Modeling ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the last few decades many QSAR models and tools have been developed at the US EPA, including the widely used EPISuite. During this period the arsenal of computational capabilities supporting cheminformatics has broadened dramatically with multiple software packages. These modern tools allow for more advanced techniques in terms of chemical structure representation and storage, as well as enabling automated data-mining and standardization approaches to examine and fix data quality issues.This presentation will investigate the impact of data curation on the reliability of QSAR models being developed within the EPA‘s National Center for Computational Toxicology. As part of this work we have attempted to disentangle the influence of the quality versus quantity of data based on the Syracuse PHYSPROP database partly used by EPISuite software. We will review our automated approaches to examining key datasets related to the EPISuite data to validate across chemical structure representations (e.g., mol file and SMILES) and identifiers (chemical names and registry numbers) and approaches to standardize data into QSAR-ready formats prior to modeling procedures. Our efforts to quantify and segregate data into quality categories has allowed us to evaluate the resulting models that can be developed from these data slices and to quantify to what extent efforts developing high-quality datasets have the expected pay-off in terms of predicting performance. The most accur

  11. Endothelial Senescence Contributes to Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction in an Aging Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Andreas B; Shakeri, Hadis; Leloup, Arthur J; Van Hove, Cor E; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Vrints, Christiaan J; Lemmens, Katrien; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M

    2017-06-01

    Because of global aging, the prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) continues to rise. Although HFpEF pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, endothelial inflammation is stated to play a central role. Cellular senescence is a process of cellular growth arrest linked with aging and inflammation. We used mice with accelerated aging to investigate the role of cellular senescence in HFpEF development. Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM, n=18) and control mice with normal senescence (n=15) were fed normal chow or a high-fat, high-salt diet (WD). Vascular and cardiac function was assessed at 8, 16, and 24 weeks of age. At 24 weeks, both SAM on WD (SAM-WD) and SAM on regular diet displayed endothelial dysfunction, as evidenced by impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aortic segments and reduced basal nitric oxide. At week 24, SAM-WD had developed HFpEF, characterized by diastolic dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial dilatation, and interstitial fibrosis. Also, exercise capacity was reduced and lung weight increased. Cardiovascular inflammation and senescence were assessed by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining of hearts and aortas. SAM-WD showed increased endothelial inflammation (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression) and increased endothelial senescence (acetyl-p53/CD31 costaining). The latter correlated with diastolic function and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression. SAM develop endothelial dysfunction. Adding a high-salt, high-fat diet accelerates endothelial senescence and instigates endothelial inflammation. This coincides with hemodynamic and structural changes typical of HFpEF. Targeting endothelial senescence could be a new therapeutic avenue in HFpEF. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy used to develop understanding of a diamond preservation index model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambissa, M. T.; Forder, S. D.; Bingham, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy has provided precise and accurate iron redox ratios Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ in ilmenite, FeTiO 3 , found within kimberlite samples from the Catoca and Camatxia kimberlite pipes from N.E. Angola. Ilmenite is one of the key indicator minerals for diamond survival and it is also one of the iron-bearing minerals with iron naturally occurring in one or both of the oxidation states Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ . For this reason it is a good indicator for studying oxygen fugacities (fO 2 ) in mineral samples, which can then be related to iron redox ratios, Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ . In this paper we demonstrate that the oxidation state of the ilmenite mineral inclusion from sampled kimberlite rock is a key indicator of the oxidation state of the host kimberlite assemblage, which in turn determines the genesis of diamond, grade variation and diamond quality. Ilmenite samples from the two different diamondiferous kimberlite localities (Catoca and Camatxia) in the Lucapa graben, N.E. Angola, were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffractometry, in order to infer the oxidation state of their source regions in the mantle, oxygen partial pressure and diamond preservation conditions. The iron redox ratios, obtained using Mössbauer spectroscopy, show that the Catoca diamond kimberlite is more oxidised than kimberlite found in the Camatxia pipe, which is associated within the same geological tectonic structure. Here we demonstrate that 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy can assist geologists and mining engineers to effectively evaluate and determine whether kimberlite deposits are economically feasible for diamond mining.

  13. Arrhenius equation modeling for the shelf life prediction of tomato paste containing a natural preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Ganje, Mohammad; Dehnad, Danial; Ghanbari, Vahid; Hajitabar, Javad

    2017-12-01

    The shelf life of tomato paste with microencapsulated olive leaf extract was compared with that of samples containing a commercial preservative by accelerated shelf life testing. Based on previous studies showing that olive leaf extract as a rich source of phenolic compounds can have antimicrobial properties, application of its encapsulated form to improve the storage stability of tomato paste is proposed here. Regarding total soluble solids, the control and the sample containing 1000 µg g -1 sodium benzoate had the lowest (Q 10  = 1.63) and highest (Q 10  = 1.88) sensitivity to temperature changes respectively; also, the microencapsulated sample containing 1000 µg g -1 encapsulated olive leaf extract (Q 10  = 1.83) followed the sample containing 1000 µg g -1 sodium benzoate in terms of the highest kinetic rates. In the case of consistency, the lowest and highest activation energies (E a ) corresponded to samples containing 1000 µg g -1 non-encapsulated olive leaf extract and 1000 µg g -1 microencapsulated olive leaf extract respectively. Interestingly, samples containing microencapsulated olive leaf extract could maintain the original quality of the tomato paste very well, while those with non-encapsulated olive leaf extract rated the worst performance (among all specimens) in terms of maintaining their quality indices for a long time period. Overall, the shelf life equation was able to predict the consistency index of all tomato paste samples during long-time storage with high precision. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Privacy Preserving Authentication Model by Features Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user’s activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user’s medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user’s privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration.

  15. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  16. Models of Dispersal Evolution Highlight Several Important Issues in Evolutionary and Ecological Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocedi, Greta; Travis, Justin M J

    2016-01-01

    Previous results showing that lack of information on local population density leads to higher emigration probabilities in unpredictable environments but to lower emigration probabilities in constant or highly predictable scenarios have recently been challenged by Poethke et al. By reimplementing both our model and that of Poethke and colleagues, we demonstrate that our original results indeed hold to the presented critiques and do not contradict previous findings. The comment by Poethke and colleagues does, however, present potentially intriguing results suggesting that negative density-dependent dispersal evolves under white noise for some model formulations. Here, through intermodel comparison, we seek to better understand the source of the differences in results obtained in our study and theirs. We conclude that the apparent negative density dependence reported by Poethke et al. is effectively density independence and that the shape of the reaction norm they obtain is a model artefact. Further, this response provides an opportunity to elaborate on some important issues in evolutionary and ecological modeling regarding (i) the importance of carefully considering different models' assumptions in comparisons among models, (ii) the need to consider the role of stochasticity and uncertainty when presenting and interpreting results from stochastic individual-based models, (iii) the adequate choice of the underlying ecological model that creates the selective pressures determining the evolution of behavioral reaction norms, and (iv) the appropriate choice of mutation models.

  17. Preserving the Public Good: Presenting an Organizational Model for the Changing Future of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Stephanie Parra

    2011-01-01

    Institutions of higher education face financial pressure to become self-sustaining (Gumport, 2001; 2000). This rapidly growing economic demand is negatively affecting the social mission of higher education (Kezar, 2004). Scholars suggest the implementation of a new model of higher education, one that blends a for-profit model with the traditional…

  18. Importance of Dynamic Inflow Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Knudsen, Torben; Overgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of including dynamic inflow in the model based design of wind turbine controller has been discussed for many years in the wind energy community with out getting to a safe conclusion. This paper delivers a good argument in favor of including dynamic inflow. The main contributions...... pronounces. For this the well accepted NREL 5MW reference turbine simulated with FAST is used. The main result is a reduction in tower fatigue load at 22% while power error, rotor speed error, generator torque and pitch rate is improved from 2 to 33%....

  19. Assessing information and service needs of young adults with cancer at a single institution: the importance of information on cancer diagnosis, fertility preservation, diet, and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abha A; Edelstein, Kim; Albert-Green, Alisha; D'Agostino, Norma

    2013-09-01

    Young adults (YA) with cancer have unique psychosocial and medical needs. The objective of this study was to identify information and service needs important to YA cancer patients. A supportive care needs survey was administered to ambulatory patients (information or resources on a scale from 1 to 10. The relationship between gender, type of cancer, current treatment status, and marital status on the importance of these factors was explored using ANOVA. Median age of 243 respondents was 28 years (range 17-35); 61% male. The most common diagnoses were: lymphoma (28%), leukemia (19%), testis (16%), CNS (9.5%), and sarcoma (8.6%). Forty percent were currently receiving treatment; the majority were single/never married (67%). Thirty-eight percent of respondents felt it was important or very important to receive care in a dedicated unit with other young people. More than 80% rated the following items at least 8/10 in importance: information on their specific malignancy (treatment, risk of recurrence), effects of treatment on fertility, information on maintaining a healthy diet, and exercise/physical fitness during cancer treatment. Women were more likely to consider information/service needs more important than men. YA's have clear supportive care preferences and needs. Developing programs that incorporate the services identified as important should improve quality of life, psychosocial adjustment, and other outcomes during and after cancer therapy.

  20. Non-image-forming light driven functions are preserved in a mouse model of autosomal dominant optic atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Perganta

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA is a slowly progressive optic neuropathy that has been associated with mutations of the OPA1 gene. In patients, the disease primarily affects the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and causes optic nerve atrophy and visual loss. A subset of RGCs are intrinsically photosensitive, express the photopigment melanopsin and drive non-image-forming (NIF visual functions including light driven circadian and sleep behaviours and the pupil light reflex. Given the RGC pathology in ADOA, disruption of NIF functions might be predicted. Interestingly in ADOA patients the pupil light reflex was preserved, although NIF behavioural outputs were not examined. The B6; C3-Opa1(Q285STOP mouse model of ADOA displays optic nerve abnormalities, RGC dendropathy and functional visual disruption. We performed a comprehensive assessment of light driven NIF functions in this mouse model using wheel running activity monitoring, videotracking and pupillometry. Opa1 mutant mice entrained their activity rhythm to the external light/dark cycle, suppressed their activity in response to acute light exposure at night, generated circadian phase shift responses to 480 nm and 525 nm pulses, demonstrated immobility-defined sleep induction following exposure to a brief light pulse at night and exhibited an intensity dependent pupil light reflex. There were no significant differences in any parameter tested relative to wildtype littermate controls. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the number of melanopsin-expressing RGCs, cell morphology or melanopsin transcript levels between genotypes. Taken together, these findings suggest the preservation of NIF functions in Opa1 mutants. The results provide support to growing evidence that the melanopsin-expressing RGCs are protected in mitochondrial optic neuropathies.

  1. Particle size - An important factor in environmental consequence modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.C.; MacFarlane, D.

    1991-01-01

    Most available environmental transport and dosimetry codes for radiological consequence analysis are designed primarily for estimating dose and health consequences to specific off-site individuals as well as the population as a whole from nuclear facilities operating under either normal or accident conditions. Models developed for these types of analyses are generally based on assumptions that the receptors are at great distances (several kilometers), and the releases are prolonged and filtered. This allows the use of simplified approaches such as averaged meteorological conditions and the use of a single (small) particle size for atmospheric transport and dosimetry analysis. Source depletion from particle settling, settle-out, and deposition is often ignored. This paper estimates the effects of large particles on the resulting dose consequences from an atmospheric release. The computer program AI-RISK has been developed to perform multiparticle-sized atmospheric transport, dose, and pathway analyses for estimating potential human health consequences from the accidental release of radioactive materials. The program was originally developed to facilitate comprehensive analyses of health consequences, ground contamination, and cleanup associated with possible energetic chemical reactions in high-level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at a US Department of Energy site

  2. Extensive cardinal parameter model to predict growth of pseudomonads in salt-reduced lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    and including terms for temperature, pH, aw/NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acids (Martinez-Rios et al., Int. J. Food Microbiol. 216. 110-120, 2016). MIC-values for acetic-, benzoic- and citric acids were determined in broth and terms modelling their antimicrobial effect were added to the model. The new and expanded...... reformulation as shown here for brined shrimps at 8°C, pH of 5.8 and water phase organic acid concentrations of 3000 ppm (citric), 1200 ppm (benzoic) and 500 ppm (sorbic). When the water phase salt concentration in this product is reduced from 3% to 1% growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads change from none...... was to develop an extensive predictive model that allows growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads to be predicted in brined and marinated seafood with a range of different organic acids The new model was developed by expanding an existing cardinal parameter-type model for growth of pseudomonads in dairy products...

  3. Three-Dimensional Model for Preservation and Restoration of Architectural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Thc aim of the research will be to create a model, three-dimensional mathematical. implementation. consultation and assistance to "large" restoration projects that will assist the structural analysis, allowing easier display of dynamic strain. analysis and lighting noise. It could also be a valuable tool for decision support. therefore. may simulate several possible scenarios for intervention, This model appears therefore an excellent support for recovering. ordering and monitoring information about materials and data (stage of restoration. photographs. sampling points. results of diagnostic tests, etc.) collected dynamically during the "life" of the cultural heritage. allowing to document its complete history

  4. Thiel embalming method for cadaver preservation: a review of new training model for urologic skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Samuel E; Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Biyani, Chandra Shekhar; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W; Nabi, Ghulam

    2015-03-01

    The use of endourology training models is on the rise. Surgical practice is moving toward a more minimally invasive approach and deficits in surgical exposure by enforcement of the European Working Time Directive call for simulation models to be anatomically sound. Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been found to demonstrate efficacy in tissue quality, elasticity, and handling in addition to playing a role in teaching and training. This review summarizes the current status of the Thiel method and its role in urologic skills training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear knowledge preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)

  6. Hypercapnic Acidosis Preserves Gastric Mucosal Microvascular Oxygen Saturation in a Canine Model of Hemorrhage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartges, Ingo; Picker, Olaf; Beck, Christopher; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Schwarte, Lothar A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors aimed to clarify the effects of hypercapnic acidosis and its timing on gastric mucosal oxygenation in a canine model of hemorrhage. This was designed as a prospective, controlled, randomized animal study set in a university research laboratory. Five chronically instrumented dogs were

  7. Analysis Preservation and Systematic Reinterpretation within the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Lukas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC data analysis software used in order to derive and publish experimental results is an important asset that is necessary to preserve in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of a given measurement. Among others, important use cases of analysis preservation are the reproducibility of the original results and the reusability of the analysis procedure in the context of new scientific studies. A prominent use-case for the latter is the systematic reinterpretation of searches for new Physics in terms of signal models that not studied in the original publication (RECAST). This paper presents the usage of the graph-based workflow description language yadage to drive the reinterpretation of preserved HEP analyses. The analysis software for individual states in the analysis is preserved using Docker containers, while the workflow structure is preserved using plain JSON documents. This allows the re-execution of complex analysis workflows on industry standard container-based distributed computing clust...

  8. Analysis Preservation and Systematic Reinterpretation within the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Lukas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC data analysis software used in order to derive and publish experimental results is an important asset that is necessary to preserve in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of a given measurement. An important use-case is the re-usability of the analysis procedure in the context of new scientific studies such as the reinterpretation of searches for new Physics in terms of signal models that not studied in the original publication (RECAST). We present the usage of the graph-based workflow description language yadage to drive the reinterpretation of preserved HEP analyses. The analysis software is preserved using Docker containers, while the workflow structure is preserved using plain JSON documents. This allows the re-execution of complex analysis workflows on modern distributed container orchestration systems and enables a systematic reinterpretation service based on such preserved analysis.

  9. Suppressing thyroid hormone signaling preserves cone photoreceptors in mouse models of retinal degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Hongwei; Thapa, Arjun; Morris, Lynsie; Redmond, T. Michael; Baehr, Wolfgang; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Photoreceptors degenerate in a wide array of hereditary retinal diseases and age-related macular degeneration. There is currently no treatment available for retinal degenerations. While outnumbered roughly 20:1 by rods in the human retina, it is the cones that mediate color vision and visual acuity, and their survival is critical for vision. In this communication, we investigate whether thyroid hormone (TH) signaling affects cone viability in retinal degeneration mouse models. TH signaling is...

  10. Preserving charge and oxidation state of Au(III) ions in an agent-functionalized nanocrystal model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Stefan; Schöfberger, Wolfgang; Rashidi, Mohammad; Lengauer, Thomas; Klappenberger, Florian; Diller, Katharina; Kara, Kamuran; Barth, Johannes V; Rauls, Eva; Schmidt, Wolf Gero; Koch, Reinhold

    2011-08-23

    Supporting functional molecules on crystal facets is an established technique in nanotechnology. To preserve the original activity of ionic metallorganic agents on a supporting template, conservation of the charge and oxidation state of the active center is indispensable. We present a model system of a metallorganic agent that, indeed, fulfills this design criterion on a technologically relevant metal support with potential impact on Au(III)-porphyrin-functionalized nanoparticles for an improved anticancer-drug delivery. Employing scanning tunneling microscopy and -spectroscopy in combination with photoemission spectroscopy, we clarify at the single-molecule level the underlying mechanisms of this exceptional adsorption mode. It is based on the balance between a high-energy oxidation state and an electrostatic screening-response of the surface (image charge). Modeling with first principles methods reveals submolecular details of the metal-ligand bonding interaction and completes the study by providing an illustrative electrostatic model relevant for ionic metalorganic agent molecules, in general. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Plant cytoplasm preserved by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X

    2004-10-01

    Usually only an organism with hard parts may be preserved in the fossil record. Cytoplasm, which is a physiologically active part of a plant, is rarely seen in the fossil record. Two Cretaceous plant fossils older than 100 million years with exceptional preservation of cytoplasm are reported here. Some cytoplasm is well preserved with subcellular details while other cytoplasm is highly hydrolyzed in the cortex of the same fossil even though both of preservations may be less than 2 microm away. The unique preservation pattern, sharp contrast of preservation in adjacent cells and the exceptional preservation of cytoplasm in the cortex suggest that lightning should play an important role in the preservation of cytoplasm and that cytoplasmic membranes may be more stable than the cell contents. Interpreting the preservation needs knowledge scattering in several formerly unrelated fields of science, including geophysics, botany, biophysics, cytology and microwave fixation technology. This new interpretation of fossilization will shed new light on preservation of cytoplasm and promote cytoplasm fossils from a position of rarity to a position of common research objects available for biological research. The importance of the identification of cytoplasm in fossil lies not in itself but in how much it influences the future research in paleobotany.

  12. Parametric Accuracy: Building Information Modeling Process Applied to the Cultural Heritage Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagnani, S.; Manferdini, A. M.

    2013-02-01

    Since their introduction, modeling tools aimed to architectural design evolved in today's "digital multi-purpose drawing boards" based on enhanced parametric elements able to originate whole buildings within virtual environments. Semantic splitting and elements topology are features that allow objects to be "intelligent" (i.e. self-aware of what kind of element they are and with whom they can interact), representing this way basics of Building Information Modeling (BIM), a coordinated, consistent and always up to date workflow improved in order to reach higher quality, reliability and cost reductions all over the design process. Even if BIM was originally intended for new architectures, its attitude to store semantic inter-related information can be successfully applied to existing buildings as well, especially if they deserve particular care such as Cultural Heritage sites. BIM engines can easily manage simple parametric geometries, collapsing them to standard primitives connected through hierarchical relationships: however, when components are generated by existing morphologies, for example acquiring point clouds by digital photogrammetry or laser scanning equipment, complex abstractions have to be introduced while remodeling elements by hand, since automatic feature extraction in available software is still not effective. In order to introduce a methodology destined to process point cloud data in a BIM environment with high accuracy, this paper describes some experiences on monumental sites documentation, generated through a plug-in written for Autodesk Revit and codenamed GreenSpider after its capability to layout points in space as if they were nodes of an ideal cobweb.

  13. Postscript: Making Important Distinctions--Diagnostic Models, Theoretical Models, and the Mnemonic Model of PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Scott M.; Mineka, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Our commentary was intended to stimulate discussion about what we perceive to be shortcomings of the mnemonic model and its research base, in the hope of shedding some light on key questions for understanding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In our view, Berntsen, Rubin, and Bohni have responded only to what they perceive to be shortcomings…

  14. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine. PMID:25949219

  15. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine.

  16. Plant micro-reserves in Valencia (E. Spain: A model to preserve threatened flora in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Fos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Valencian Community (eastern Spain was the pioneer territory establishing plant micro-reserves (PMRs. Its model to protect small sites for endemic and endangered plants has been exported to several countries around the globe. This paper highlights 1 the role of PMRs to complement the protection provided by large protected areas, 2 how the establishment of PMRs fosters the increase of floristic knowledge, and 3 the fact that continuous monitoring of PMRs also yields new records of endangered species found within the same PMRs. The flexibility of the PMR approach -it can be adapted to other national and regional legislations- allows its transfer to other rich-biodiversity regions and countries such as China.

  17. Development Model Sustainable Promoted by the Family Agriculture in Function of Environmental Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Agra Zamith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to indicate directions of alternatives to self-sustainable development outlined at the principle of a family socioeconomic context, and sustainability, environmental  protection  promoted  by  family  agriculture.  The  inclusion  of  Family agriculture model in the discussion, of the preliminary verification of the agricultural production methods used by family units at the time ensuring the livelihood and allows the marketing  of  surplus  production  levels.  The  method  employed  was  the  hypothetical- deductive, with explanatory purpose, which means corresponded to the selection of authors who have the necessary support to the understanding of the precautionary principle in environmental law.

  18. Nicotinamide Riboside Preserves Cardiac Function in a Mouse Model of Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diguet, Nicolas; Trammell, Samuel A J; Tannous, Cynthia; Deloux, Robin; Piquereau, Jérôme; Mougenot, Nathalie; Gouge, Anne; Gressette, Mélanie; Manoury, Boris; Blanc, Jocelyne; Breton, Marie; Decaux, Jean-François; Lavery, Gareth; Baczkó, István; Zoll, Joffrey; Garnier, Anne; Li, Zhenlin; Brenner, Charles; Mericskay, Mathias

    2017-12-07

    Background -Myocardial metabolic impairment is a major feature in chronic heart failure (HF). As the major coenzyme in fuel oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and a substrate for enzymes signaling energy stress and oxidative stress response, NAD + is emerging as a metabolic target in a number of diseases including HF. Little is known on mechanisms regulating homeostasis of NAD + in the failing heart. Methods -To explore possible alterations of NAD + homeostasis in the failing heart, we quantified expression of NAD + biosynthetic enzymes in human failing heart and in the heart of a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) triggered by SRF transcription factor depletion in the heart (SRF HKO ) or of cardiac hypertrophy triggered by transverse aorta constriction (TAC). We studied the impact of NAD + precursor supplementation on cardiac function in both mouse models. Results -We observed a 30% loss in levels of NAD + in the murine failing heart of both DCM and TAC mice that was accompanied by a decrease in expression of the NAMPT enzyme that recycles the nicotinamide (NAM) precursor whereas the nicotinamide riboside kinase 2 (NMRK2) that phosphorylates the nicotinamide riboside (NR) precursor is increased, to a higher level in the DCM (40 fold) than in TAC (4 fold). This shift was also observed in human failing heart biopsies compared to non-failing controls. We show that the Nmrk2 gene is an AMPK and PPARalpha responsive gene that is activated by energy stress and NAD + depletion in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. NR efficiently rescues NAD + synthesis in response to FK866-mediated inhibition of NAMPT and stimulates glycolysis in cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, we show that NR supplementation in food attenuates the development of HF in mice, more robustly in DCM, and partially after TAC, by stabilizing myocardial NAD + levels in the failing heart. NR treatment also robustly increases the myocardial levels of three metabolites, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide

  19. The historical importance and architectonic relevance of the applications of the "extinct" Arrabida Breccia - proposals for its preservation and future uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, José; Prego, António

    2017-04-01

    The upper Oxfordian Arrábida Breccia is a unique lithological type in Portugal and probably in the world because it was formed through several particular geological conditions acting simultaneously. The rock is a conglomerate composed of carbonate pebbles of different colors, cemented by a red, ferruginous, clayey carbonate. It is the expression of a fossilized karst that marks one of the major unconformities of the Lusitanian Basin, associated with the early stages of the opening of the North Atlantic. The use of Arrábida Breccia dates back to Roman times, as a structural element. But it was from the fifteenth century onwards that its use gained importance, mainly as an architectural element during the Manueline period (the end of the Gothic) and, later, during the Baroque, as a decorative element. The exploration of this ornamental stone ended in 1973 with the creation of the Arrábida Natural Park. The Arrábida Breccia assumes a structural and ornamental preponderance in the building up of Jesus Monastery, in the city of Setúbal. This monument has great importance in the portuguese artistic panorama, since that is the forerunner of Manueline arquitecture. One of the key episodes of national history was held in this monastery in 1494: the ratification of the Treaty of Tordesillas, the agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered throughout the world. There are several examples Arrábida Breccia applications in other monuments, that form part of the national heritage. Most of them were built at the reign of king Manuel I (1469 - 1521), that had a personal preference for this rock. There are also vestiges of the use of Arrábida Breccia in a few emblematic buildings of this reign that have been destroyed by the great earthquake of Lisbon, in 1755. Some uses of the Arrábida Breccia are known beyond Portuguese borders, namely in Spain and Brazil. And there is a possible more extensive use in France, within the

  20. Mobile augmented reality applications for heritage preservation in UNESCO world heritage sites through adopting the UTAUT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Low Wei; Siang, Tan Gek; Zakaria, Mohd Hafiz bin; Emran, Muhammad Helmy

    2017-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology has undergone enormous advancement and now AR applications can be seamlessly executed using modern-day smartphones. This study aims to develop a mobile AR application which consists of 3D AR models of historical monuments located within the UNESCO World Heritage Site in Melaka. The application allows tourists to obtain information of the monuments from the AR models, which provide an alternative way of visiting the actual monuments to prevent overcrowding effect and promote heritage preservation. Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (PEU), Facilitating Conditions (FC), and Perceived Playfulness (PP) are proposed as the determinants of user's Behavioural Intention to Use (BI) the application. Using 50 tourists in Melaka as respondents, a pilot study has been conducted to determine user's acceptance of the AR mobile application based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Cronbach's Alpha test validated the internal consistency of the measures. Multiple Linear Regression analysis suggested that the proposed determinants explained 51.2% in user's BI the application. PU was the strongest determinant followed by FC while PEU and PP were found to be insignificant.

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans ATPase inhibitor factor 1 (IF1 MAI-2 preserves the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm and is important to induce germ cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Fernández-Cárdenas

    Full Text Available When the electrochemical proton gradient is disrupted in the mitochondria, IF1 (Inhibitor Factor-1 inhibits the reverse hydrolytic activity of the F1Fo-ATP synthase, thereby allowing cells to conserve ATP at the expense of losing the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm. The function of IF1 has been studied mainly in different cell lines, but these studies have generated contrasting results, which have not been helpful to understand the real role of this protein in a whole organism. In this work, we studied IF1 function in Caenorhabditis elegans to understand IF1´s role in vivo. C. elegans has two inhibitor proteins of the F1Fo-ATPase, MAI-1 and MAI-2. To determine their protein localization in C. elegans, we generated translational reporters and found that MAI-2 is expressed ubiquitously in the mitochondria; conversely, MAI-1 was found in the cytoplasm and nuclei of certain tissues. By CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we generated mai-2 mutant alleles. Here, we showed that mai-2 mutant animals have normal progeny, embryonic development and lifespan. Contrasting with the results previously obtained in cell lines, we found no evident defects in the mitochondrial network, dimer/monomer ATP synthase ratio, ATP concentration or respiration. Our results suggest that some of the roles previously attributed to IF1 in cell lines could not reflect the function of this protein in a whole organism and could be attributed to specific cell lines or methods used to silence, knockout or overexpress this protein. However, we did observe that animals lacking IF1 had an enhanced Δψm and lower physiological germ cell apoptosis. Importantly, we found that mai-2 mutant animals must be under stress to observe the role of IF1. Accordingly, we observed that mai-2 mutant animals were more sensitive to heat shock, oxidative stress and electron transport chain blockade. Furthermore, we observed that IF1 is important to induce germ cell apoptosis under certain types of

  2. Critical role of the STAT3 pathway in the cardioprotective efficacy of zoniporide in a model of myocardial preservation - the rat isolated working heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L; Tsun, J; Sun, L; Kwan, J; Watson, A; Macdonald, P S; Hicks, M

    2011-02-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury plays an important role in the development of primary allograft failure after heart transplantation. Inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger is one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for treating ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here we have characterized the cardioprotective efficacy of zoniporide and the underlying mechanisms in a model of myocardial preservation using rat isolated working hearts. Rat isolated hearts subjected to 6 h hypothermic (1-4°C) storage followed by 45 min reperfusion at 37°C were treated with zoniporide at different concentrations and timing. Recovery of cardiac function, levels of total and phosphorylated protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, glycogen synthase kinase-3β and STAT3 as well as cleaved caspase 3 were measured at the end of reperfusion. Lactate dehydrogenase release into coronary effluent before and post-storage was also measured. Zoniporide concentration-dependently improved recovery of cardiac function after reperfusion. The functional recovery induced by zoniporide was accompanied by up-regulation of p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p-STAT3, and by reduction in lactate dehydrogenase release and cleaved caspase 3. There were no significant differences in any of the above indices when zoniporide was administered before, during or after ischemia. The STAT3 inhibitor, stattic, abolished zoniporide-induced improvements in functional recovery and up-regulation of p-STAT3 after reperfusion. Zoniporide is a potent cardioprotective agent and activation of STAT3 plays a critical role in the cardioprotective action of zoniporide. This agent shows promise as a supplement to storage solutions to improve preservation of donor hearts. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Critical role of the STAT3 pathway in the cardioprotective efficacy of zoniporide in a model of myocardial preservation – the rat isolated working heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L; Tsun, J; Sun, L; Kwan, J; Watson, A; Macdonald, PS; Hicks, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ischemia-reperfusion injury plays an important role in the development of primary allograft failure after heart transplantation. Inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger is one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for treating ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here we have characterized the cardioprotective efficacy of zoniporide and the underlying mechanisms in a model of myocardial preservation using rat isolated working hearts. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rat isolated hearts subjected to 6 h hypothermic (1–4°C) storage followed by 45 min reperfusion at 37°C were treated with zoniporide at different concentrations and timing. Recovery of cardiac function, levels of total and phosphorylated protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, glycogen synthase kinase-3β and STAT3 as well as cleaved caspase 3 were measured at the end of reperfusion. Lactate dehydrogenase release into coronary effluent before and post-storage was also measured. KEY RESULTS Zoniporide concentration-dependently improved recovery of cardiac function after reperfusion. The functional recovery induced by zoniporide was accompanied by up-regulation of p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p-STAT3, and by reduction in lactate dehydrogenase release and cleaved caspase 3. There were no significant differences in any of the above indices when zoniporide was administered before, during or after ischemia. The STAT3 inhibitor, stattic, abolished zoniporide-induced improvements in functional recovery and up-regulation of p-STAT3 after reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Zoniporide is a potent cardioprotective agent and activation of STAT3 plays a critical role in the cardioprotective action of zoniporide. This agent shows promise as a supplement to storage solutions to improve preservation of donor hearts. PMID:20942815

  4. Data Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Meghini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital information is a vital resource in our knowledge economy, valuable for research and education, science and the humanities, creative and cultural activities, and public policy (The Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, 2010. New high-throughput instruments, telescopes, satellites, accelerators, supercomputers, sensor networks, and running simulations are generating massive amounts of data (Thanos, 2011. These data are used by decision makers for improving the quality of life of citizens. Moreover, researchers are employing sophisticated technologies to analyse these data to address questions that were unapproachable just a few years ago (Helbing & Balietti, 2011. Digital technologies have fostered a new world of research characterized by immense datasets, unprecedented levels of openness among researchers, and new connections among researchers, policy makers, and the public (The National Academy of Sciences, 2009.

  5. Power Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    Power Preservation (Abstract) In the 17th century, just as today, coalitions needed ‘lead nations’. This was assumed to be a power with great military and economic potentials, and Denmark endeavoured to act as such a leader in the Thirty Years War from 1626 to 28. The results were not encouraging...... in the military field and they were disastrous as far as fiscal matters were concerned. Sweden took over the leadership of the protestant side and she took over Denmark’s place amongst the great powers of the Baltic Region. From that time onwards, Danish influence and options on the international stage gradually...... declined. Thus, Denmark of the 17th century is not to be counted amongst the great powers, but since Christian V’s accession to the throne in 1670 Denmark-Norway has developed into one of Europe’s most highly militarised states. Apart from a permanently combat ready navy, the country maintains a standing...

  6. The Importance of Precise Digital Elevation Models (DEM) in Modelling Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Gokben; Akyurek, Zuhal

    2016-04-01

    Digital elevation Models (DEM) are important inputs for topography for the accurate modelling of floodplain hydrodynamics. Floodplains have a key role as natural retarding pools which attenuate flood waves and suppress flood peaks. GPS, LIDAR and bathymetric surveys are well known surveying methods to acquire topographic data. It is not only time consuming and expensive to obtain topographic data through surveying but also sometimes impossible for remote areas. In this study it is aimed to present the importance of accurate modelling of topography for flood modelling. The flood modelling for Samsun-Terme in Blacksea region of Turkey is done. One of the DEM is obtained from the point observations retrieved from 1/5000 scaled orthophotos and 1/1000 scaled point elevation data from field surveys at x-sections. The river banks are corrected by using the orthophotos and elevation values. This DEM is named as scaled DEM. The other DEM is obtained from bathymetric surveys. 296 538 number of points and the left/right bank slopes were used to construct the DEM having 1 m spatial resolution and this DEM is named as base DEM. Two DEMs were compared by using 27 x-sections. The maximum difference at thalweg of the river bed is 2m and the minimum difference is 20 cm between two DEMs. The channel conveyance capacity in base DEM is larger than the one in scaled DEM and floodplain is modelled in detail in base DEM. MIKE21 with flexible grid is used in 2- dimensional shallow water flow modelling. The model by using two DEMs were calibrated for a flood event (July 9, 2012). The roughness is considered as the calibration parameter. From comparison of input hydrograph at the upstream of the river and output hydrograph at the downstream of the river, the attenuation is obtained as 91% and 84% for the base DEM and scaled DEM, respectively. The time lag in hydrographs does not show any difference for two DEMs and it is obtained as 3 hours. Maximum flood extents differ for the two DEMs

  7. Xenografting of sheep testis tissue and isolated cells as a model for preservation of genetic material from endangered ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Lucía; Rathi, Rahul; Megee, Susan O; Honaramooz, Ali; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Dobrinski, Ina

    2008-07-01

    Recovery of germ cells could be an option for preservation of the genetic pool of endangered animals. In immature males, xenografting of testis tissue provides the opportunity to recover sperm from these animals. In adult animals, xenografting has been less successful, but de novo morphogenesis of functional testis tissue from dissociated testis cells could be an alternative. To assess the potential use of these techniques in endangered bovid species, the domestic sheep was used as a model. Testes from 2-week-old lambs were grafted as tissue fragments or cell suspensions into nude mice. Grafts were recovered at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post grafting. For isolated cells, two additional time points at 35 and 40 weeks after grafting were added. In addition, to analyse the possible effect of social stress among mice within a group on the development of the grafts, testis tissue grafts were recovered 13 weeks post grafting from mice housed individually and in groups. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in sheep testis xenografts at 12 weeks, similar to the situation in situ. Isolated sheep testis cells were able to reorganize and form functional testicular tissue de novo. Housing mice individually or in groups did not have any effect on the development of xenografts. Xenografting of testis tissue might be useful to obtain sperm from immature endangered ungulates that die prematurely. Testis tissue de novo morphogenesis from isolated cells could open interesting options to recover germ cells from mature males with impaired spermatogenesis.

  8. Lipoic acid, but not tempol, preserves vascular compliance and decreases medial calcification in a model of elastocalcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, E; Liberman, M; Martinatti, M K; Bortolotto, L A; Laurindo, F R M

    2014-02-01

    Vascular calcification decreases compliance and increases morbidity. Mechanisms of this process are unclear. The role of oxidative stress and effects of antioxidants have been poorly explored. We investigated effects of the antioxidants lipoic acid (LA) and tempol in a model of atherosclerosis associated with elastocalcinosis. Male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg) were fed regular chow (controls) or a 0.5% cholesterol (chol) diet+104 IU/day vitamin D2 (vitD) for 12 weeks, and assigned to treatment with water (vehicle, n=20), 0.12 mmol·kg-1·day-1 LA (n=11) or 0.1 mmol·kg-1·day-1 tempol (n=15). Chol+vitD-fed rabbits developed atherosclerotic plaques associated with expansive remodeling, elastic fiber disruption, medial calcification, and increased aortic stiffness. Histologically, LA prevented medial calcification by ∼60% and aortic stiffening by ∼60%. LA also preserved responsiveness to constrictor agents, while intima-media thickening was increased. In contrast to LA, tempol was associated with increased plaque collagen content, medial calcification and aortic stiffness, and produced differential changes in vasoactive responses in the chol+vitD group. Both LA and tempol prevented superoxide signals with chol+vitD. However, only LA prevented hydrogen peroxide-related signals with chol+vitD, while tempol enhanced them. These data suggest that LA, opposite to tempol, can minimize calcification and compliance loss in elastocalcionosis by inhibition of hydrogen peroxide generation.

  9. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  10. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  11. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... feel fertility preservation and the ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be ... preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve ...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility preservation options available and having your ... improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be aware there are options for preserving ...

  13. Modeling lactose hydrolysis for efficiency and selectivity: Toward the preservation of sialyloligosaccharides in bovine colostrum whey permeate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura Bell, Juliana M L N; Aquino, Leticia F M C; Liu, Yan; Cohen, Joshua L; Lee, Hyeyoung; de Melo Silva, Vitor L; Rodrigues, Maria I; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose has been shown to improve the efficiency and selectivity of membrane-based separations toward the recovery of bioactive oligosaccharides. Achieving maximum lactose hydrolysis requires intrinsic process optimization for each specific substrate, but the effects of those processing conditions on the target oligosaccharides are not well understood. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of pH (3.25-8.25), temperature (35-55°C), reaction time (6 to 58 min), and amount of enzyme (0.05-0.25%) on the efficiency of lactose hydrolysis by β-galactosidase and on the preservation of biologically important sialyloligosaccharides (3'-siallylactose, 6'-siallylactose, and 6'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine) naturally present in bovine colostrum whey permeate. A central composite rotatable design was used. In general, β-galactosidase activity was favored at pH values ranging from 3.25 to 5.75, with other operational parameters having a less pronounced effect. A pH of 4.5 allowed for the use of a shorter reaction time (19 min), lower temperature (40°C), and reduced amount of enzyme (0.1%), but complete hydrolysis at a higher pH (5.75) required greater values for these operational parameters. The total amount of sialyloligosaccharides was not significantly altered by the reaction parameters evaluated, suggesting specificity of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae toward lactose as well as the stability of the oligosaccharides at pH, temperature, and reaction time evaluated. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A new preservation solution (SCOT 15) Improves the islet isolation process from pancreata of non-heart-beating donors: a Murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, S; Hauet, T; Eugene, M; Mauco, G; Barrou, B

    2009-10-01

    Due to the organ shortage, there is increased use of organs harvested from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD). These organs have been subjected to a period of warm ischemia that is most deleterious to functional recovery. We have designed a new preservation solution, "Solution de Conservation des Organes et des Tissus" (SCOT 15; Macopharma, Tourcoing, France) which contains an extracellular ionic composition including PEG 20 kD (15 g/L) as a colloid. Our objective was to compare SCOT 15 with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution or islet culture medium CMRL 1066 + 1% of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), as the working and preservation solution for islet isolation from pancreata subjected to warm ischemia using a murine model. Warm ischemia decreased the islet yield and cellular viability regardless of the preservation solution. Either when the pancreas was or was not subjected to warm ischemia, the best islet yield was obtained with SCOT 15 (P < .05 vs UW or CMRL 1066). The same results were observed for islet viability as assessed using the 3,(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test; namely, better viability with SCOT 15 as compared with UW or CMRL 1066 (P < .01). In a murine model SCOT 15 was a better preservation solution for islet isolation than UW solution or culture medium (CMRL 1066).

  15. Lipoic acid, but not tempol, preserves vascular compliance and decreases medial calcification in a model of elastocalcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bassi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification decreases compliance and increases morbidity. Mechanisms of this process are unclear. The role of oxidative stress and effects of antioxidants have been poorly explored. We investigated effects of the antioxidants lipoic acid (LA and tempol in a model of atherosclerosis associated with elastocalcinosis. Male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg were fed regular chow (controls or a 0.5% cholesterol (chol diet+104 IU/day vitamin D2 (vitD for 12 weeks, and assigned to treatment with water (vehicle, n=20, 0.12 mmol·kg-1·day-1 LA (n=11 or 0.1 mmol·kg-1·day-1 tempol (n=15. Chol+vitD-fed rabbits developed atherosclerotic plaques associated with expansive remodeling, elastic fiber disruption, medial calcification, and increased aortic stiffness. Histologically, LA prevented medial calcification by ∼60% and aortic stiffening by ∼60%. LA also preserved responsiveness to constrictor agents, while intima-media thickening was increased. In contrast to LA, tempol was associated with increased plaque collagen content, medial calcification and aortic stiffness, and produced differential changes in vasoactive responses in the chol+vitD group. Both LA and tempol prevented superoxide signals with chol+vitD. However, only LA prevented hydrogen peroxide-related signals with chol+vitD, while tempol enhanced them. These data suggest that LA, opposite to tempol, can minimize calcification and compliance loss in elastocalcionosis by inhibition of hydrogen peroxide generation.

  16. The models for financial crisis detection in Indonesia based on import, export, and foreign exchange reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto; Wibowo, Supriyadi; Rizky Aristina Suwardi, Vivi

    2017-12-01

    The severity of the financial crisis that occurred in Indonesia required an early warning system of financial crisis. The financial crisis in Indonesia can be detected based on imports, exports, and foreign exchange reserves. The purpose of the research is to determine an appropriate model to detect the financial crisis in Indonesia based on imports, exports, and foreign exchange reserves. Markov switching is an alternative framework for the approach often used in financial crisis detection. Combined volatility and Markov switching model with three states assumptions can be established if an AR and volatility models have been obtained. Imports, exports, and foreign exchange reserves data from January 1990 to December 2016 have the heteroscedasticity effect so that an ARCH model is used as a volatility model. Research shows that SWARCH(3.1) model is an appropriate model for detecting financial crisis in Indonesia based on imports, exports, and foreign exchange reserves.

  17. A Clustering Approach for the l-Diversity Model in Privacy Preserving Data Mining Using Fractional Calculus-Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan R. Bhaladhare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In privacy preserving data mining, the l-diversity and k-anonymity models are the most widely used for preserving the sensitive private information of an individual. Out of these two, l-diversity model gives better privacy and lesser information loss as compared to the k-anonymity model. In addition, we observe that numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed in data mining, namely, k-means, PSO, ACO, and BFO. Amongst them, the BFO algorithm is more stable and faster as compared to all others except k-means. However, BFO algorithm suffers from poor convergence behavior as compared to other optimization algorithms. We also observed that the current literature lacks any approaches that apply BFO with l-diversity model to realize privacy preservation in data mining. Motivated by this observation, we propose here an approach that uses fractional calculus (FC in the chemotaxis step of the BFO algorithm. The FC is used to boost the computational performance of the algorithm. We also evaluate our proposed FC-BFO and BFO algorithms empirically, focusing on information loss and execution time as vital metrics. The experimental evaluation shows that our proposed FC-BFO algorithm derives an optimal cluster as compared to the original BFO algorithm and existing clustering algorithms.

  18. A symmetry-preserving discretisation and regularisation model for compressible flow with application to turbulent channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, W.; Kok, J. C.; Verstappen, R. W. C. P.; Veldman, A. E. P.

    2014-01-01

    Most simulation methods for compressible flow attain numerical stability at the cost of swamping the fine turbulent flow structures by artificial dissipation. This article demonstrates that numerical stability can also be attained by preserving conservation laws at the discrete level. A new

  19. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What is fertility preservation? Fertility preservation is the process of saving or protecting ... children in the future. Who can benefit from fertility preservation? People with certain diseases, disorders, and life ...

  20. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  1. Educating for preserving biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez, I. E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “culture of diversity” is presented in a new dimension. “That of educating for preserving biodiversity” is advanced together with its main challenges. The need of educating the masses for preserving biodiversity is perhaps the most outstanding to be faced, particularly if pedagogic requirements and the diversity of population is to be met. Likewise, it should help to put individuals in contact with the many elements conforming biodiversity and lead them to recognize its value ethically and esthetically. The research presents the framework for designing educating programs enhancing the genetic level, the ecosystem and the qualitative dimension and including materials and energy flood and its meaning for the homeostasis and autopoiesis of the system, together with its interactions with other components for achieving an equilibrium and stability. The importance of the natural evolution tendency is highlighted.

  2. Investigating Importance Weighting of Satisfaction Scores from a Formative Model with Partial Least Squares Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Lung Hung; Tsai, Ying-Mei

    2009-01-01

    This study introduced a formative model to investigate the utility of importance weighting on satisfaction scores with partial least squares analysis. Based on the bottom-up theory of satisfaction evaluations, the measurement structure for weighted/unweighted domain satisfaction scores was modeled as a formative model, whereas the measurement…

  3. The importance of information goods abstraction levels for information commerce process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A process model, in the context of e-commerce, is an organized set of activities for the creation, (re-)production, trade and delivery of goods. Electronic commerce studies have created important process models for the trade of physical goods via Internet. These models are not easily suitable for

  4. A new process sensitivity index to identify important system processes under process model and parametric uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Heng [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ye, Ming [Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee Florida USA; Walker, Anthony P. [Environmental Sciences Division and Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee USA; Chen, Xingyuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological models are always composed of multiple components that represent processes key to intended model applications. When a process can be simulated by multiple conceptual-mathematical models (process models), model uncertainty in representing the process arises. While global sensitivity analysis methods have been widely used for identifying important processes in hydrologic modeling, the existing methods consider only parametric uncertainty but ignore the model uncertainty for process representation. To address this problem, this study develops a new method to probe multimodel process sensitivity by integrating the model averaging methods into the framework of variance-based global sensitivity analysis, given that the model averaging methods quantify both parametric and model uncertainty. A new process sensitivity index is derived as a metric of relative process importance, and the index includes variance in model outputs caused by uncertainty in both process models and model parameters. For demonstration, the new index is used to evaluate the processes of recharge and geology in a synthetic study of groundwater reactive transport modeling. The recharge process is simulated by two models that converting precipitation to recharge, and the geology process is also simulated by two models of different parameterizations of hydraulic conductivity; each process model has its own random parameters. The new process sensitivity index is mathematically general, and can be applied to a wide range of problems in hydrology and beyond.

  5. The importance of variables and parameters in radiolytic chemical kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepho, M.G.; Turner, P.J.; Reimus, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    Many of the pertinent radiochemical reactions are not completely understood, and most of the associated rate constants are poorly characterized. To help identify the important radiochemical reactions, rate constants, species, and environmental conditions, an importance theory code, SWATS (Sensitivitiy With Adjoint Theory-Sparse version)-LOOPCHEM, has been developed for the radiolytic chemical kinetics model in the radiolysis code LOOPCHEM. The LOOPCHEM code calculates the concentrations of various species in a radiolytic field over time. The SWATS-LOOPCHEM code efficiently calculates: the importance (relative to a defined response of interest) of each species concentration over time, the sensitivity of each parameter of interest, and the importance of each equation in the radiolysis model. The calculated results will be used to guide future experimental and modeling work for determining the importance of radiolysis on waste package performance. A demonstration (the importance of selected concentrations and the sensitivities of selected parameters) of the SWATS-LOOPCHEM code is provided for illustrative purposes

  6. ASYMMETRIC PRICE TRANSMISSION MODELING: THE IMPORTANCE OF MODEL COMPLEXITY AND THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SELECTION CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry de-Graft Acquah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Criteria provides an attractive basis for selecting the best model from a set of competing asymmetric price transmission models or theories. However, little is understood about the sensitivity of the model selection methods to model complexity. This study therefore fits competing asymmetric price transmission models that differ in complexity to simulated data and evaluates the ability of the model selection methods to recover the true model. The results of Monte Carlo experimentation suggest that in general BIC, CAIC and DIC were superior to AIC when the true data generating process was the standard error correction model, whereas AIC was more successful when the true model was the complex error correction model. It is also shown that the model selection methods performed better in large samples for a complex asymmetric data generating process than with a standard asymmetric data generating process. Except for complex models, AIC's performance did not make substantial gains in recovery rates as sample size increased. The research findings demonstrate the influence of model complexity in asymmetric price transmission model comparison and selection.

  7. Role Modeling in Medical Education: The Importance of a Reflective Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Benbassat, Jochanan

    2014-01-01

    The medical literature almost uniformly addresses the positive aspects of role modeling. Still, some authors have questioned its educational value, a disagreement that is probably due to differing definitions of role modeling. If defined as demonstration of skills, provision of feedback, and emulation of specific professional behaviors, then role modeling is an important component of clinical training. However, if it is defined as a learner?s unselective imitation of role models and uncritica...

  8. Importance of prediction outlier diagnostics in determining a successful inter-vendor multivariate calibration model transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenard, Robert D; Wehlburg, Christine M; Pell, Randy J; Haaland, David M

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports on the transfer of calibration models between Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) instruments from four different manufacturers. The piecewise direct standardization (PDS) method is compared with the new hybrid calibration method known as prediction augmented classical least squares/partial least squares (PACLS/PLS). The success of a calibration transfer experiment is judged by prediction error and by the number of samples that are flagged as outliers that would not have been flagged as such if a complete recalibration were performed. Prediction results must be acceptable and the outlier diagnostics capabilities must be preserved for the transfer to be deemed successful. Previous studies have measured the success of a calibration transfer method by comparing only the prediction performance (e.g., the root mean square error of prediction, RMSEP). However, our study emphasizes the need to consider outlier detection performance as well. As our study illustrates, the RMSEP values for a calibration transfer can be within acceptable range; however, statistical analysis of the spectral residuals can show that differences in outlier performance can vary significantly between competing transfer methods. There was no statistically significant difference in the prediction error between the PDS and PACLS/PLS methods when the same subset sample selection method was used for both methods. However, the PACLS/PLS method was better at preserving the outlier detection capabilities and therefore was judged to have performed better than the PDS algorithm when transferring calibrations with the use of a subset of samples to define the transfer function. The method of sample subset selection was found to make a significant difference in the calibration transfer results using the PDS algorithm, while the transfer results were less sensitive to subset selection when the PACLS/PLS method was used.

  9. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  10. A holistic approach to bit preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which...... is to keep bits intact and readable, is far more complex than first anticipated, even in this narrow definition. This paper takes a more holistic approach to bit preservation, and looks at how an optimal bit preservation strategy can be found, when requirements like confidentiality, availability and costs...... are taken into account. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the various findings from previous research which have led to the holistic approach to bit preservation. This paper also includes an introduction to digital preservation with a focus on the role of bit preservation, which sets...

  11. Preservation versus non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement: a meta-analysis of 3835 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Ferraz, Paulo Ernando; Escobar, Rodrigo Renda; Martins, Wendell Santos; de Araújo e Sá, Frederico Browne Correia; Lustosa, Pablo César; Vasconcelos, Frederico Pires; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Resection of the chordopapillary apparatus during mitral valve replacement has been associated with a negative impact on survival. Mitral valve replacement with the preservation of the mitral valve apparatus has been associated with better outcomes, but surgeons remain refractory to its use. To determine if there is any real difference in preservation vs non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement in terms of outcomes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles to search for clinical studies that compared outcomes (30-day mortality, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome or 5-year mortality) between preservation vs non-preservation during mitral valve replacement from 1966 to 2011. The principal summary measures were odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval and P-values (that will be considered statistically significant when <0.05). The ORs were combined across studies using a weighted DerSimonian–Laird random-effects model. The meta-analysis was completed using the software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Twenty studies (3 randomized and 17 non-randomized) were identified and included a total of 3835 patients (1918 for mitral valve replacement preservation and 1917 for mitral valve replacement non-preservation). There was significant difference between mitral valve replacement preservation and mitral valve replacement non-preservation groups in the risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.418, P <0.001), postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (OR 0.299, P <0.001) or 5-year mortality (OR 0.380, P <0.001). No publication bias or important heterogeneity of effects on any outcome was observed. In conclusion, we found evidence that argues in favour of the preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement. PMID:23027596

  12. Modeling abundance using N-mixture models: the importance of considering ecological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Liana N; Elkin, Ché; Martin, Tara G; Possinghami, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    Predicting abundance across a species' distribution is useful for studies of ecology and biodiversity management. Modeling of survey data in relation to environmental variables can be a powerful method for extrapolating abundances across a species' distribution and, consequently, calculating total abundances and ultimately trends. Research in this area has demonstrated that models of abundance are often unstable and produce spurious estimates, and until recently our ability to remove detection error limited the development of accurate models. The N-mixture model accounts for detection and abundance simultaneously and has been a significant advance in abundance modeling. Case studies that have tested these new models have demonstrated success for some species, but doubt remains over the appropriateness of standard N-mixture models for many species. Here we develop the N-mixture model to accommodate zero-inflated data, a common occurrence in ecology, by employing zero-inflated count models. To our knowledge, this is the first application of this method to modeling count data. We use four variants of the N-mixture model (Poisson, zero-inflated Poisson, negative binomial, and zero-inflated negative binomial) to model abundance, occupancy (zero-inflated models only) and detection probability of six birds in South Australia. We assess models by their statistical fit and the ecological realism of the parameter estimates. Specifically, we assess the statistical fit with AIC and assess the ecological realism by comparing the parameter estimates with expected values derived from literature, ecological theory, and expert opinion. We demonstrate that, despite being frequently ranked the "best model" according to AIC, the negative binomial variants of the N-mixture often produce ecologically unrealistic parameter estimates. The zero-inflated Poisson variant is preferable to the negative binomial variants of the N-mixture, as it models an ecological mechanism rather than a

  13. Damage to pancreatic acinar cells and preservation of islets of Langerhans in a rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcano-Diaz, Katya; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Segoviano-Ramirez, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Loera-Arias, Maria de Jesus; Garcia-Juarez, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    Karwinskia humboldtiana (Kh) is a poisonous plant that grows in some regions of the American continent. Consuming large amounts of Kh fruit results in acute intoxication leading to respiratory failure, culminating in death within days. There is evidence of histological damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys following accidental and experimental Kh intoxication. To date, the microscopic effect of Kh consumption on the pancreas has not been described. We examined the early effects of Kh fruit on pancreatic tissue at different stages of acute intoxication in the Wistar rat. We found progressive damage confined to the exocrine pancreas, starting with a reduction in the number of zymogen granules, loss of acinar architecture, the presence of autophagy-like vesicles, apoptosis and inflammatory infiltrate. The pancreatic pathology culminated in damaged acini characterized by necrosis and edema, with a complete loss of lobular architecture. Interestingly, the morphology of the islets of Langerhans was conserved throughout our evaluations. Taken together, our results indicate the damage induced by a high dose of Kh fruit in the Wistar rat is consistent with an early acute necrotizing pancreatitis that exclusively affects the exocrine pancreas. Therefore, this system might be useful as an animal model to study the treatment of pancreatic diseases. More importantly, as the islets of Langerhans were preserved, the active compounds of Kh fruit could be utilized for the treatment of acinar pancreatic cancer. Further studies might provide insight into the severity of acute Kh intoxication in humans and influence the design of treatments for pancreatic diseases and acinar pancreatic cancer.

  14. Locality-preserving logical operators in topological stabilizer codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Paul; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2018-01-01

    Locality-preserving logical operators in topological codes are naturally fault tolerant, since they preserve the correctability of local errors. Using a correspondence between such operators and gapped domain walls, we describe a procedure for finding all locality-preserving logical operators admitted by a large and important class of topological stabilizer codes. In particular, we focus on those equivalent to a stack of a finite number of surface codes of any spatial dimension, where our procedure fully specifies the group of locality-preserving logical operators. We also present examples of how our procedure applies to codes with different boundary conditions, including color codes and toric codes, as well as more general codes such as Abelian quantum double models and codes with fermionic excitations in more than two dimensions.

  15. Risk-based maintenance modeling. Prioritization of maintenance importances and quantification of maintenance effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W.E.; Rezos, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes methods for prioritizing the risk importances of maintenances using a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Approaches then are described for quantifying their reliability and risk effects. Two different PRA importance measures, minimal cutset importances and risk reduction importances, were used to prioritize maintenances; the findings show that both give similar results if appropriate criteria are used. The justifications for the particular importance measures also are developed. The methods developed to quantify the reliability and risk effects of maintenance actions are extensions of the usual reliability models now used in PRAs. These extended models consider degraded states of the component, and quantify the benefits of maintenance in correcting degradations and preventing failures. The negative effects of maintenance, including downtimes, also are included. These models are specific types of Markov models. The data for these models can be obtained from plant maintenance logs and from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). To explore the potential usefulness of these models, the authors analyzed a range of postulated values of input data. These models were used to examine maintenance effects on a components reliability and performance for various maintenance programs and component data. Maintenance schedules were analyzed to optimize the component`s availability. In specific cases, the effects of maintenance were found to be large.

  16. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norberg, E.

    1996-01-01

    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed

  17. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed.

  18. Knowledge Preservation and Web-tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreman, Douglas; Dyer, John; Ahmad, Rashed

    1998-01-01

    We propose a library of "netbooks" as part of a national effort, preserving the wisdom of the early Space Program. NASA is losing its rocket scientists who designed the great systems of the past. Few new systems of similar ambition are being built; much of the expertise that took us to the Moon is evaporating. With retiring NASA designers, we work to preserve something of the expertise of these individuals, developed at great national cost. We show others the tools that make preservation easy and cheap. Retiring engineers and scientists can be coached into speaking (without charge) into recording devices about ideas not widely appreciated but of potential future value. Transcripts of the recordings and the audio itself are combined (cheaply) in netbooks accessible via a standard web-browser (free). Selected netbooks are indexed into a rapidly searchable system, an electronic Library. We recruit support in establishing a standards committee for that Library. The system is to be a model for access by the blind as well as for preservation of important, technical knowledge.

  19. Scientist Role Models in the Classroom: How Important Is Gender Matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Laura D. Carsten; Danielson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Gender-matched role models are often proposed as a mechanism to increase identification with science among girls, with the ultimate aim of broadening participation in science. While there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that role models can be effective, there is mixed support in the literature for the importance of gender matching. We used…

  20. Why Knowledge Modeling is Important for Business and for a Danish Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2011-01-01

    , and possibly other languages, so information must be freely retrievable and communicable in several languages. In this paper I will give examples of why knowledge modeling is important for businesses, and why knowledge modeling is a central part of the DanTermBank project, the aim of which is to lay...

  1. The importance of the reference populations for coherent mortality forecasting models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Vaupel, James W.

    -population mortality models aiming to find the optimal of the set of countries to use as reference population and analyse the importance of the selection of countries. The two multi-population mortality models used are the Li-Lee model and the Double-Gap life expectancy forecasting model. The reference populations...... is calculated taking into account all the possible combinations of a set of 20 industrialized countries. The different reference populations possibilities are compared by their forecast performance. The results show that the selection of countries for multi-population mortality models has a significant effect...

  2. ARIMA MODEL BUILDING AND FORECASTING ON IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farooqi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From the day one, mankind has always been interested in to the future. As the civilization advanced with growing sophistication in all phases of life, the need to look in to the future also grew with it. Today every government, public private organizations, as well as an individual would like to predict and plan for the future. In order to attain a better growth in the economy of a country, modeling and forecasting is the most important tool now a day, this can be done by one of the statistical technique called a Time series analysis. In this paper we tried to build a time series model called ARIMA (Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average model with particular reference of Box and Jenkins approach on annually total Imports and Exports of Pakistan from the year 1947 to the year 2013 with useful statistical software R. Validity of the fitted model is tested using standard statistical techniques. The fitted model is then use to forecast some future values of Imports and export of Pakistan. It is found that an ARIMA (2, 2, 2 and ARIMA (1, 2, 2 model looks suitable to forecast the annual Imports and Exports of Pakistan respectively. We also found an increasing trend both in case of Imports and Exports during this study.

  3. The Importance of Understanding MHC-I Diversity in Nonhuman Primate Models of Human Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research, including the 1996 Nobel Prize in Medicine, confirm the evolutionary and immunological importance of CD8 T lymphocytes (TCD8+) that target peptides bound by the highly variable major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins. However, their perceived importance has varied dramatically over the past decade. Regardless, there remains myriad reasons to consider the diversity of MHC-I alleles and the TCD8+ that target them as enormously important in infectious disease research. Thus, understanding these molecules in the best animal models of human disease could be a necessity for optimizing the translational potential of these models. Knowledge of macaque MHC has substantially improved their utility for modeling HIV and could aid in modeling other viruses as well, both in the context of distribution of alleles across treatment groups in vaccine trials and in deciphering mechanisms of immune control of pathogens for which specific MHC alleles demonstrate differential impacts on disease.

  4. Importance of demand modelling in network water quality models : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, E.J.M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Buchberger, S.G.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Today, there is a growing interest in network water quality modelling. The water quality issues of interest relate to both dissolved and particulate substances. For dissolved substances the main interest is in residual chlorine and (microbiological) contaminant propagation; for particulate

  5. Analysis of functional importance of binding sites in the Drosophila gap gene network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Konstantin; Gursky, Vitaly V; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V; Dymova, Arina; Samsonova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The statistical thermodynamics based approach provides a promising framework for construction of the genotype-phenotype map in many biological systems. Among important aspects of a good model connecting the DNA sequence information with that of a molecular phenotype (gene expression) is the selection of regulatory interactions and relevant transcription factor bindings sites. As the model may predict different levels of the functional importance of specific binding sites in different genomic and regulatory contexts, it is essential to formulate and study such models under different modeling assumptions. We elaborate a two-layer model for the Drosophila gap gene network and include in the model a combined set of transcription factor binding sites and concentration dependent regulatory interaction between gap genes hunchback and Kruppel. We show that the new variants of the model are more consistent in terms of gene expression predictions for various genetic constructs in comparison to previous work. We quantify the functional importance of binding sites by calculating their impact on gene expression in the model and calculate how these impacts correlate across all sites under different modeling assumptions. The assumption about the dual interaction between hb and Kr leads to the most consistent modeling results, but, on the other hand, may obscure existence of indirect interactions between binding sites in regulatory regions of distinct genes. The analysis confirms the previously formulated regulation concept of many weak binding sites working in concert. The model predicts a more or less uniform distribution of functionally important binding sites over the sets of experimentally characterized regulatory modules and other open chromatin domains.

  6. PDGF-BB Preserves Mitochondrial Morphology, Attenuates ROS Production, and Upregulates Neuroglobin in an Astrocytic Model Under Rotenone Insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Ricardo; Vega-Vela, Nelson E; González-Sanmiguel, Juliana; González, Janneth; Esquinas, Paula; Echeverria, Valentina; Barreto, George E

    2017-05-02

    Platelet-derived growth factor, subtype BB (PDGF-BB) is a mitogenic growth factor produced in different cell types such as platelets, fibroblasts, neurons, and astrocytes. Previous reports have shown that different PDGF isoforms exert a neuroprotective effect in neurons and astrocytes against multiple degenerative insults. Previously, we showed that pretreatment with PDGF-BB for 24 h increased cell viability, preserved nuclear morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential following stimulation with rotenone, and reduced free radical production nearly to control conditions. In the present study, we explored the potential mechanisms associated with PDGF-BB protection against oxidative damage. Our results showed that PDGF-BB protected astrocytic cells through multiple responses, including decrease in the expression of cytoskeleton proteins, attenuated free radicals (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) production, preservation of mitochondrial ultrastructure, and improved expression of neuroglobin (Ngb1). In summary, these findings point out that PDGF-BB protects astrocytic cells by a reduction in ROS production and activation of antioxidant mechanisms.

  7. An exceptionally preserved Late Devonian actinopterygian provides a new model for primitive cranial anatomy in ray-finned fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Sam; Darras, Laurent; Clément, Gaël; Blieck, Alain; Friedman, Matt

    2015-10-07

    Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) are the most diverse living osteichthyan (bony vertebrate) group, with a rich fossil record. However, details of their earliest history during the middle Palaeozoic (Devonian) 'Age of Fishes' remains sketchy. This stems from an uneven understanding of anatomy in early actinopterygians, with a few well-known species dominating perceptions of primitive conditions. Here we present an exceptionally preserved ray-finned fish from the Late Devonian (Middle Frasnian, ca 373 Ma) of Pas-de-Calais, northern France. This new genus is represented by a single, three-dimensionally preserved skull. CT scanning reveals the presence of an almost complete braincase along with near-fully articulated mandibular, hyoid and gill arches. The neurocranium differs from the coeval Mimipiscis in displaying a short aortic canal with a distinct posterior notch, long grooves for the lateral dorsal aortae, large vestibular fontanelles and a broad postorbital process. Identification of similar but previously unrecognized features in other Devonian actinopterygians suggests that aspects of braincase anatomy in Mimipiscis are apomorphic, questioning its ubiquity as stand-in for generalized actinopterygian conditions. However, the gill skeleton of the new form broadly corresponds to that of Mimipiscis, and adds to an emerging picture of primitive branchial architecture in crown gnathostomes. The new genus is recovered in a polytomy with Mimiidae and a subset of Devonian and stratigraphically younger actinopterygians, with no support found for a monophyletic grouping of Moythomasia with Mimiidae. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Development and validation of an extensive growth and growth boundary model for Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved and ready-to-eat shrimp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2009-01-01

    An existing cardinal parameter growth and growth boundary model for Listeria monocytogenes (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, J. Food Prot. 70:70-84 and 2485-2497, 2007) was expanded with terms for the effects of acetic, benzoic, citric, and sorbic acids to include a total of 12 environmental parameters...... and their interactive effects. The new model predicted growth rates (mu(max) values) of L. monocytogenes accurately with bias and accuracy factors of 1.0 and 1.5, respectively, for 16 batches of brined shrimp with benzoic, citric, and sorbic acids. Corresponding values of 0.9 and 1.2, respectively, were obtained...... degree of complexity. The high number of environmental parameters, inclu! ding six organic acids (acetic acid, benzoic acid, citric acid, diacetate, lactic acid, and sorbic acid), allows the new model to predict the effect of substituting one set of preserving parameters for another. The new model also...

  9. The importance of spatial models for estimating the strength of density dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Skaug, Hans J.; Kristensen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    for an entire population. However, it is increasingly recognized that spatial heterogeneity in population densities has implications for population and community dynamics. We therefore adapt the Gompertz model to approximate local densities over continuous space instead of population-wide abundance...... the California Coast. In this case, the nonspatial model estimates implausible oscillatory dynamics on an annual time scale, while the spatial model estimates strong autocorrelation and is supported by model selection tools. We conclude by discussing the importance of improved data archiving techniques, so...

  10. Importance analysis for models with correlated variables and its sparse grid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Luyi; Lu, Zhenzhou

    2013-01-01

    For structural models involving correlated input variables, a novel interpretation for variance-based importance measures is proposed based on the contribution of the correlated input variables to the variance of the model output. After the novel interpretation of the variance-based importance measures is compared with the existing ones, two solutions of the variance-based importance measures of the correlated input variables are built on the sparse grid numerical integration (SGI): double-loop nested sparse grid integration (DSGI) method and single loop sparse grid integration (SSGI) method. The DSGI method solves the importance measure by decreasing the dimensionality of the input variables procedurally, while SSGI method performs importance analysis through extending the dimensionality of the inputs. Both of them can make full use of the advantages of the SGI, and are well tailored for different situations. By analyzing the results of several numerical and engineering examples, it is found that the novel proposed interpretation about the importance measures of the correlated input variables is reasonable, and the proposed methods for solving importance measures are efficient and accurate. -- Highlights: •The contribution of correlated variables to the variance of the output is analyzed. •A novel interpretation for variance-based indices of correlated variables is proposed. •Two solutions for variance-based importance measures of correlated variables are built

  11. Tests of Cloud Computing and Storage System features for use in H1 Collaboration Data Preservation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łobodziński, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the currently developing strategy for data preservation and long-term analysis in HEP tests of possible future Cloud Computing based on the Eucalyptus Private Cloud platform and the petabyte scale storage open source system CEPH were performed for the H1 Collaboration. Improvements in computing power and strong development of storage systems suggests that a single Cloud Computing resource supported on a given site will be sufficient for analysis requirements beyond the end-date of experiments. This work describes our test-bed architecture which could be applied to fulfill the requirements of the physics program of H1 after the end date of the Collaboration. We discuss the reasons why we choose the Eucalyptus platform and CEPH storage infrastructure as well as our experience with installations and support of these infrastructures. Using our first test results we will examine performance characteristics, noticed failure states, deficiencies, bottlenecks and scaling boundaries.

  12. The importance of variables and parameters in radiolytic chemical kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepho, M.G.; Turner, P.J.; Reimus, P.W.

    1988-07-01

    Many pertinent radiochemical reactions are not completely understood, and most of the associated rate constants are poorly characterized. To help identify the important radiochemical reactions, rate constants, species, and environmental conditions, an importance theory code, SWATS (Sensitivity With Adjoint Theory-Sparse version)-LOOPCHEM, has been developed for the radiolytic chemical kinetics model in the radiolysis code LOOPCHEM. The LOOPCHEM code calculates the concentrations of various species in a radiolytic field over time. The SWATS-LOOPCHEM code efficiently calculates: (1) the importance (relative to a defined response of interest) of each species concentration over time, (2) the sensitivity of each parameter of interest, and (3) the importance of each equation in the radiolysis model. The calculated results will be used to guide future experimental and modeling work for determining the importance of radiolysis on waste package performance. A demonstration (the importance of selected concentrations and the sensitivities of selected parameters) of the SWATS-LOOPCHEM code is provided for illustrative purposes, and no attempt is made at this time to interpret the results for waste package performance assessment purposes. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Latent-variable approaches to the Jamesian model of importance-weighted averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalas, L Francesca; Marsh, Herbert W; Nagengast, Benjamin; Morin, Alexandre J S

    2013-01-01

    The individually importance-weighted average (IIWA) model posits that the contribution of specific areas of self-concept to global self-esteem varies systematically with the individual importance placed on each specific component. Although intuitively appealing, this model has weak empirical support; thus, within the framework of a substantive-methodological synergy, we propose a multiple-item latent approach to the IIWA model as applied to a range of self-concept domains (physical, academic, spiritual self-concepts) and subdomains (appearance, math, verbal self-concepts) in young adolescents from two countries. Tests considering simultaneously the effects of self-concept domains on trait self-esteem did not support the IIWA model. On the contrary, support for a normative group importance model was found, in which importance varied as a function of domains but not individuals. Individuals differentially weight the various components of self-concept; however, the weights are largely determined by normative processes, so that little additional information is gained from individual weightings.

  14. Ab Initio Study of 40Ca with an Importance Truncated No-Core Shell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, R; Navratil, P

    2007-05-22

    We propose an importance truncation scheme for the no-core shell model, which enables converged calculations for nuclei well beyond the p-shell. It is based on an a priori measure for the importance of individual basis states constructed by means of many-body perturbation theory. Only the physically relevant states of the no-core model space are considered, which leads to a dramatic reduction of the basis dimension. We analyze the validity and efficiency of this truncation scheme using different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and compare to conventional no-core shell model calculations for {sup 4}He and {sup 16}O. Then, we present the first converged calculations for the ground state of {sup 40}Ca within no-core model spaces including up to 16{h_bar}{Omega}-excitations using realistic low-momentum interactions. The scheme is universal and can be easily applied to other quantum many-body problems.

  15. Some important results from the air pollution distribution model STACKS (1988-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbrink, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is paid to the results of the study on the distribution of air pollutants by high chimney-stacks of electric power plants. An important product of the study is the integrated distribution model STACKS (Short Term Air-pollutant Concentrations Kema modelling System). The improvements and the extensions of STACKS are described in relation to the National Model, which has been used to estimate the environmental effects of individual chimney-stacks. The National Model shows unacceptable variations for high pollutant sources. Based on the results of STACKS revision of the National model has been taken into consideration. By means of the revised National Model a more realistic estimation of the environmental effects of electric power plants can be carried out

  16. IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT MODELS IN DECISION MAKING, EXPLAINING THE STRATEGIC BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano de Oliveira Maciel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the different models of decision process analyzing the organizational strategy. The article presents the strategy according to a cognitive approach. The discussion about that approach has three models of decision process: rational actor model, organizational behavior, and political model. These models, respectively, present some improvement in the decision making results, search for a good decision facing the cognitive restrictions of the administrator, and lots of talks for making a decision. According to the emphasis of each model, the possibilities for analyzing the strategy are presented. The article also shows that it is necessary to take into account the three different ways of analysis. That statement is justified once the analysis as well as the decision making become more complex, mainly those which are more important for the organizations.

  17. Exploratory regression analysis: a tool for selecting models and determining predictor importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Michael T; Oswald, Frederick L

    2011-06-01

    Linear regression analysis is one of the most important tools in a researcher's toolbox for creating and testing predictive models. Although linear regression analysis indicates how strongly a set of predictor variables, taken together, will predict a relevant criterion (i.e., the multiple R), the analysis cannot indicate which predictors are the most important. Although there is no definitive or unambiguous method for establishing predictor variable importance, there are several accepted methods. This article reviews those methods for establishing predictor importance and provides a program (in Excel) for implementing them (available for direct download at http://dl.dropbox.com/u/2480715/ERA.xlsm?dl=1) . The program investigates all 2(p) - 1 submodels and produces several indices of predictor importance. This exploratory approach to linear regression, similar to other exploratory data analysis techniques, has the potential to yield both theoretical and practical benefits.

  18. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  19. Multinomial Response Models, for Modeling and Determining Important Factors in Different Contraceptive Methods in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Haji Nejad

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Difference aspects of multinomial statistical modelings and its classifications has been studied so far. In these type of problems Y is the qualitative random variable with T possible states which are considered as classifications. The goal is prediction of Y based on a random Vector X ? IR^m. Many methods for analyzing these problems were considered. One of the modern and general method of classification is Classification and Regression Trees (CART. Another method is recursive partitioning techniques which has a strange relationship with nonparametric regression. Classical discriminant analysis is a standard method for analyzing these type of data. Flexible discriminant analysis method which is a combination of nonparametric regression and discriminant analysis and classification using spline that includes least square regression and additive cubic splines. Neural network is an advanced statistical method for analyzing these types of data. In this paper properties of multinomial logistics regression were investigated and this method was used for modeling effective factors in selecting contraceptive methods in Ghom province for married women age 15-49. The response variable has a tetranomial distibution. The levels of this variable are: nothing, pills, traditional and a collection of other contraceptive methods. A collection of significant independent variables were: place, age of women, education, history of pregnancy and family size. Menstruation age and age at marriage were not statistically significant.

  20. Preservation of Newspapers: Theoretical Approaches and Practical Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenay, Damir; Krtalic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of newspapers is the main topic of this paper. A theoretical overview of newspaper preservation is given, with an emphasis on the importance of a systematic and comprehensive approach. Efficient newspaper preservation implies understanding the meaning of preservation in general, as well as understanding specific approaches,…

  1. The better model to predict and improve pediatric health care quality: performance or importance-performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rebecca M; Bryant, Carol A; McDermott, Robert J; Ortinau, David

    2013-01-01

    The perpetual search for ways to improve pediatric health care quality has resulted in a multitude of assessments and strategies; however, there is little research evidence as to their conditions for maximum effectiveness. A major reason for the lack of evaluation research and successful quality improvement initiatives is the methodological challenge of measuring quality from the parent perspective. Comparison of performance-only and importance-performance models was done to determine the better predictor of pediatric health care quality and more successful method for improving the quality of care provided to children. Fourteen pediatric health care centers serving approximately 250,000 patients in 70,000 households in three West Central Florida counties were studied. A cross-sectional design was used to determine the importance and performance of 50 pediatric health care attributes and four global assessments of pediatric health care quality. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five dimensions of care (physician care, access, customer service, timeliness of services, and health care facility). Hierarchical multiple regression compared the performance-only and the importance-performance models. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and a direct cognitive structural analysis identified 50 health care attributes included in a mailed survey to parents(n = 1,030). The tailored design method guided survey development and data collection. The importance-performance multiplicative additive model was a better predictor of pediatric health care quality. Attribute importance moderates performance and quality, making the importance-performance model superior for measuring and providing a deeper understanding of pediatric health care quality and a better method for improving the quality of care provided to children. Regardless of attribute performance, if the level of attribute importance is not taken into consideration, health care organizations may spend valuable

  2. A Framework for Distributed Preservation Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schmidt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Planets Project is developing a service-oriented environment for the definition and evaluation of preservation strategies for human-centric data. It focuses on the question of logically preserving digital materials, as opposed to the physical preservation of content bit-streams. This includes the development of preservation tools for the automated characterisation, migration, and comparison of different types of Digital Objects as well as the emulation of their original runtime environment in order to ensure long-time access and interpretability. The Planets integrated environment provides a number of end-user applications that allow data curators to execute and scientifically evaluate preservation experiments based on composable preservation services. In this paper, we focus on the middleware and programming model and show how it can be utilised in order to create complex preservation workflows.

  3. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Identification and simplified modeling of economically important radwaste variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, P.E.; Godfrey, W.L.; Henry, J.L.; Postles, R.L.

    1983-09-01

    An extensive computer model describing the mass balance and economic characteristics of radioactive waste disposal systems was exercised in a series of runs designed using linear statistical methods. The most economically important variables were identified, their behavior characterized, and a simplified computer model prepared which runs on desk-top minicomputers. This simplified model allows the investigation of the effects of the seven most significant variables in each of four waste areas: Liquid Waste Storage, Liquid Waste Solidification, General Process Trash Handling, and Hulls Handling. 8 references, 1 figure, 12 tables

  4. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dutkiewicz

    2015-07-01

    This new model that captures bio-optical feedbacks will be important for improving our understanding of the role of light and optical constituents on ocean biogeochemistry, especially in a changing environment. Further, resolving surface upwelling irradiance will make it easier to connect to satellite-derived products in the future.

  5. Freedom of Expression: Importing European & US Constitutional Models in Transitional Democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belavusau, U.

    2013-01-01

    This book considers the issue of free speech in transitional democracies focusing on the socio-legal developments in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland. In showing how these Central and Eastern European countries have engaged with free speech models imported from the Council of Europe / EU and

  6. Important limitations in the modeling of activated sludge : biased calibration of the hydrolysis process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insel, G.; Gul, Ö.K.; Orhon, D.

    2002-01-01

    ), provides the majority of the required experimental database. However, currently used procedures still involve a number of basic and practical problems. Model evaluation of the OUR data may generate a distorted image of the processes involved. Hydrolysis is the most important, yet the most vulnerable...

  7. Water quality modeling based on landscape analysis: Importance of riparian hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Grabs

    2010-01-01

    Several studies in high-latitude catchments have demonstrated the importance of near-stream riparian zones as hydrogeochemical hotspots with a substantial influence on stream chemistry. An adequate representation of the spatial variability of riparian-zone processes and characteristics is the key for modeling spatiotemporal variations of stream-water quality. This...

  8. Numerically Accelerated Importance Sampling for Nonlinear Non-Gaussian State Space Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Lucas, A.; Scharth, M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a general likelihood evaluation method for nonlinear non-Gaussian state-space models using the simulation-based method of efficient importance sampling. We minimize the simulation effort by replacing some key steps of the likelihood estimation procedure by numerical integration. We refer

  9. Assessment of the Stakeholders’ Importance Using AHP Method – Modeling and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danka Knezević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Attention to stakeholders, which means that companies bear responsibility for the implications of their actions, is emerging as a critical strategic issue. Hence, meeting legitimate stakeholders’ requests would enhance the reputation of a company and increase its competitiveness on product markets. That is why an accurate identification of stakeholders and assessment of their importance is so significant for the companies. Through an integration of the earlier models of excellence, models for identification and classification of stakeholders, models for assessing the quality of a company and the AHP method, widely applicable in various fields, a new model for assessment of stakeholders’ significance is proposed in this paper. The model also provides an assessment of a company based on the degree of the importance and satisfaction of stakeholders. The results of this model could be useful for companies and their management when it comes to defining a proper business strategy, monitoring the system changes over time, creating a basis for comparison with other similar systems or with itself. A practical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.

  10. Importance and variability in processes relevant to environmental tritium ingestion dose models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Barry, P.

    1997-01-01

    The Aiken List was devised in 1990 to help decide which transport processes should be investigated experimentally so as to derive the greatest improvement in performance of environmental tritium assessment models. Each process was rated high, medium and low on each of two criteria. These were ''Importance'', which rated processes by how much each contributed to ingestion doses, and ''State of Modelling'', which rated the adequacy of the knowledge base on which models were built. Ratings, though unanimous, were, nevertheless, qualitative and subjective opinions. This paper describes how we have tried to quantify the ratings. To do this, we use, as measures of ''Importance'', sensitivities of predicted ingestion doses to changes in values of parameters in mathematical descriptions of individual processes. Measures of ''ModellinStatus'' were taken from a recently completed BIOMOVS study of HTO transport model performance and based either on by how much predicted transport by individual processes differed amongst participating modellers or by the variety of different ways that modellers chose to describe individual processes. The tritium transport model UFOTRI was used, and because environmental transport of HTO varies according to the weather at and after release time, sensitivities were measured in a sample of all conditions likely to arise in central Europe. (Author)

  11. Modeling and forecasting energy consumption in China: Implications for Chinese energy demand and imports in 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F. Gerard; Shachmurove, Yochanan

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese economy is in a stage of energy transition: from low efficiency solid fuels to oil, gas, and electric power, from agriculture to urbanization and industrialization, from heavy industry to lighter and high tech industry, from low motorization to rapid growth of the motor vehicle population. Experts fear that continued rapid economic growth in China will translate into a massive need to expand imports of oil, coal, and gas. We build an econometric model of the Chinese energy economy based on the energy balance. We use that model to forecast Chinese energy consumption and imports to 2020. The study suggests that China will, indeed, require rapidly growing imports of oil, coal, and gas. This growth is not so sensitive to the rate of economic growth as to increases in motorization. It can be offset, but probably only in small part, by increasing domestic energy production or by improvements in the efficiency of use, particularly in the production of electric power. (author)

  12. The importance of distance to resources in the spatial modelling of bat foraging habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rainho

    Full Text Available Many bats are threatened by habitat loss, but opportunities to manage their habitats are now increasing. Success of management depends greatly on the capacity to determine where and how interventions should take place, so models predicting how animals use landscapes are important to plan them. Bats are quite distinctive in the way they use space for foraging because (i most are colonial central-place foragers and (ii exploit scattered and distant resources, although this increases flying costs. To evaluate how important distances to resources are in modelling foraging bat habitat suitability, we radio-tracked two cave-dwelling species of conservation concern (Rhinolophus mehelyi and Miniopterus schreibersii in a Mediterranean landscape. Habitat and distance variables were evaluated using logistic regression modelling. Distance variables greatly increased the performance of models, and distance to roost and to drinking water could alone explain 86 and 73% of the use of space by M. schreibersii and R. mehelyi, respectively. Land-cover and soil productivity also provided a significant contribution to the final models. Habitat suitability maps generated by models with and without distance variables differed substantially, confirming the shortcomings of maps generated without distance variables. Indeed, areas shown as highly suitable in maps generated without distance variables proved poorly suitable when distance variables were also considered. We concluded that distances to resources are determinant in the way bats forage across the landscape, and that using distance variables substantially improves the accuracy of suitability maps generated with spatially explicit models. Consequently, modelling with these variables is important to guide habitat management in bats and similarly mobile animals, particularly if they are central-place foragers or depend on spatially scarce resources.

  13. The Importance of Distance to Resources in the Spatial Modelling of Bat Foraging Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainho, Ana; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2011-01-01

    Many bats are threatened by habitat loss, but opportunities to manage their habitats are now increasing. Success of management depends greatly on the capacity to determine where and how interventions should take place, so models predicting how animals use landscapes are important to plan them. Bats are quite distinctive in the way they use space for foraging because (i) most are colonial central-place foragers and (ii) exploit scattered and distant resources, although this increases flying costs. To evaluate how important distances to resources are in modelling foraging bat habitat suitability, we radio-tracked two cave-dwelling species of conservation concern (Rhinolophus mehelyi and Miniopterus schreibersii) in a Mediterranean landscape. Habitat and distance variables were evaluated using logistic regression modelling. Distance variables greatly increased the performance of models, and distance to roost and to drinking water could alone explain 86 and 73% of the use of space by M. schreibersii and R. mehelyi, respectively. Land-cover and soil productivity also provided a significant contribution to the final models. Habitat suitability maps generated by models with and without distance variables differed substantially, confirming the shortcomings of maps generated without distance variables. Indeed, areas shown as highly suitable in maps generated without distance variables proved poorly suitable when distance variables were also considered. We concluded that distances to resources are determinant in the way bats forage across the landscape, and that using distance variables substantially improves the accuracy of suitability maps generated with spatially explicit models. Consequently, modelling with these variables is important to guide habitat management in bats and similarly mobile animals, particularly if they are central-place foragers or depend on spatially scarce resources. PMID:21547076

  14. The importance of multiphase and multicomponent modeling in consequence and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, David W.; Marx, Jeffrey D.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the consequences of a hazardous fluid release is dependent on three things: the knowledge of the modeler, the quality of the model that is used, and the quality of the input parameters. One of the most difficult problems in consequence modeling is the prediction of post-release multiphase behavior, especially when a multicomponent mixture is involved. Releases from gas/oil wells often fit this description. The wellstream will produce a light crude oil and a gas stream when flashed into a separator. If accidentally released to the atmosphere, the gas, aerosol, and liquid fractions rarely match the phase separations in the separator, or the expectations of the modeler. And, since the wellstream has a wide range of hydrocarbon components, the need to accurately predict the multicomponent behavior becomes more important. Over the years, modelers have used several 'rules of thumb' to provide the source term input parameters for modeling multiphase/multicomponent releases and subsequent dispersion. These modeling assumptions can lead to hazard predictions that are very different from reality. The biggest problem with rules of thumb is their inability to account for thermodynamics; thus, they cannot approximate the phase splits and composition changes that do occur. The aim of this paper is to improve the knowledge of the modeler by providing some insight into the selection of the proper input parameters for multiphase releases of multicomponent fluids. The application of a multiphase release model with multicomponent thermodynamics to a wellstream release is used to illustrate the importance of good modeling techniques

  15. Rate heterogeneity across Squamata, misleading ancestral state reconstruction and the importance of proper null model specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, S; Reeder, T W

    2017-02-01

    The binary-state speciation and extinction (BiSSE) model has been used in many instances to identify state-dependent diversification and reconstruct ancestral states. However, recent studies have shown that the standard procedure of comparing the fit of the BiSSE model to constant-rate birth-death models often inappropriately favours the BiSSE model when diversification rates vary in a state-independent fashion. The newly developed HiSSE model enables researchers to identify state-dependent diversification rates while accounting for state-independent diversification at the same time. The HiSSE model also allows researchers to test state-dependent models against appropriate state-independent null models that have the same number of parameters as the state-dependent models being tested. We reanalyse two data sets that originally used BiSSE to reconstruct ancestral states within squamate reptiles and reached surprising conclusions regarding the evolution of toepads within Gekkota and viviparity across Squamata. We used this new method to demonstrate that there are many shifts in diversification rates across squamates. We then fit various HiSSE submodels and null models to the state and phylogenetic data and reconstructed states under these models. We found that there is no single, consistent signal for state-dependent diversification associated with toepads in gekkotans or viviparity across all squamates. Our reconstructions show limited support for the recently proposed hypotheses that toepads evolved multiple times independently in Gekkota and that transitions from viviparity to oviparity are common in Squamata. Our results highlight the importance of considering an adequate pool of models and null models when estimating diversification rate parameters and reconstructing ancestral states. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...

  17. What is important to get right when modelling the Greenland ice sheet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, Ruth; Langen, Peter; Boberg, Fredrik; Fausto, Robert; Vandecrux, Baptiste; Box, Jason; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Ice sheet and glacier models need accurate surface mass balance inputs to accurately reproduce ice sheet extent and likely evolution. In recent years a number of different regional climate models (RCMs) have produced subtly different estimates of ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) for the Greenland ice sheet. While the total ice sheet SMB number is often similar from these, there can be substantial differences spatially and in terms of the components of surface mass balance: precipitation, melt, runoff, retention and sublimation. The substantial increase in the amount of observational data available from Greenland allows us to compare not only models and data but also to optimize models to get the best SMB estimates. Using carefully designed sensitivity experiments we explore the importance of albedo, retention and refreezing parameters choices, precipitation, model resolution and topography in HIRHAM5, a typical RCM run at 5km resolution over Greenland, to create the best possible representations of surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. Our analysis shows that the 5km resolution of HIRHAM more accurately captures precipitation over the ice sheet, compared with the old 25km resolution. Compared with 68 ice cores from the accumulation area the simulated mean annual net accumulation bias is -5% (correlation coefficient of 0.90). The retention scheme of the model is able to reproduce the subsurface temperature structure and occurrence of perennial firn aquifers and perched ice layers. However, small differences in parameter choices, while important locally, are not significant over the whole ice sheet. Modelled SMB compares favourably with 1041 PROMICE observations. Varying parameter choices means that a regression slope of 0.95-0.97 can be obtained (depending on model configuration) with a correlation coefficient of 0.75-0.86 and mean bias -3%. Our experiments clearly show that albedo choices are more important to modelled SMB than retention parameters

  18. From Genes to Ecosystems in Microbiology: Modeling Approaches and the Importance of Individuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Ulrich Kreft

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Models are important tools in microbial ecology. They can be used to advance understanding by helping to interpret observations and test hypotheses, and to predict the effects of ecosystem management actions or a different climate. Over the past decades, biological knowledge and ecosystem observations have advanced to the molecular and in particular gene level. However, microbial ecology models have changed less and a current challenge is to make them utilize the knowledge and observations at the genetic level. We review published models that explicitly consider genes and make predictions at the population or ecosystem level. The models can be grouped into three general approaches, i.e., metabolic flux, gene-centric and agent-based. We describe and contrast these approaches by applying them to a hypothetical ecosystem and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. An important distinguishing feature is how variation between individual cells (individuality is handled. In microbial ecosystems, individual heterogeneity is generated by a number of mechanisms including stochastic interactions of molecules (e.g., gene expression, stochastic and deterministic cell division asymmetry, small-scale environmental heterogeneity, and differential transport in a heterogeneous environment. This heterogeneity can then be amplified and transferred to other cell properties by several mechanisms, including nutrient uptake, metabolism and growth, cell cycle asynchronicity and the effects of age and damage. For example, stochastic gene expression may lead to heterogeneity in nutrient uptake enzyme levels, which in turn results in heterogeneity in intracellular nutrient levels. Individuality can have important ecological consequences, including division of labor, bet hedging, aging and sub-optimality. Understanding the importance of individuality and the mechanism(s underlying it for the specific microbial system and question investigated is essential for selecting the

  19. Sworn testimony of the model evidence: Gaussian Mixture Importance (GAME) sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Elena; Schoups, Gerrit; Firmani, Giovanni; Vrugt, Jasper A.

    2017-07-01

    What is the "best" model? The answer to this question lies in part in the eyes of the beholder, nevertheless a good model must blend rigorous theory with redeeming qualities such as parsimony and quality of fit. Model selection is used to make inferences, via weighted averaging, from a set of K candidate models, Mk; k=>(1,…,K>), and help identify which model is most supported by the observed data, Y>˜=>(y˜1,…,y˜n>). Here, we introduce a new and robust estimator of the model evidence, p>(Y>˜|Mk>), which acts as normalizing constant in the denominator of Bayes' theorem and provides a single quantitative measure of relative support for each hypothesis that integrates model accuracy, uncertainty, and complexity. However, p>(Y>˜|Mk>) is analytically intractable for most practical modeling problems. Our method, coined GAussian Mixture importancE (GAME) sampling, uses bridge sampling of a mixture distribution fitted to samples of the posterior model parameter distribution derived from MCMC simulation. We benchmark the accuracy and reliability of GAME sampling by application to a diverse set of multivariate target distributions (up to 100 dimensions) with known values of p>(Y>˜|Mk>) and to hypothesis testing using numerical modeling of the rainfall-runoff transformation of the Leaf River watershed in Mississippi, USA. These case studies demonstrate that GAME sampling provides robust and unbiased estimates of the evidence at a relatively small computational cost outperforming commonly used estimators. The GAME sampler is implemented in the MATLAB package of DREAM and simplifies considerably scientific inquiry through hypothesis testing and model selection.

  20. Alveolar ridge dimensional changes following ridge preservation procedure: part-2 - CBCT 3D analysis in non-human primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Mostafa; Min, Seiko; Abdelhamid, Alaa; Liu, Yi; Zadeh, Homayoun H

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ridge preservation involving novel devices used for obturation of socket orifice (Socket cap; SocketKAP(™) ) and resorbable cage used for space maintenance in sites with facial wall dehiscence (Socket cage; SocketKAGE(™) ). Eight teeth were extracted in each of six Macaca fascicularis non-human primates. Six intervention groups consisted of the following: Group A: intact socket negative control. Group B: intact socket: socket cap. Group C: intact socket filled with anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) + socket cap. Group D: dehiscence: negative control. Group E: dehiscence: socket cap + socket cage. Group F: dehiscence: filled with ABBM + socket cap + socket cage. CBCT scans were obtained preoperatively and at 6 and 12 weeks following intervention. The pre- and postoperative scans were superimposed, to quantify 3D volumetric alveolar bone changes. Volumetric bone loss occurred in all sockets, not only within the cretal zone (0-3 mm) to the ridge crest, as has been commonly reported by other investigators, but significant bone loss was also detected in the zone which was 3-6 mm apical to the alveolar crest. For intact sockets, socket cap + ABBM led to significantly greater percentages of remaining bone volume when compared to groups A and B. A significant difference favoring socket cap + socket cage + ABBM treatment was observed for sockets with facial dehiscence defects compared to groups D and E. Socket cap in conjunction with ABBM appears effective in limiting post-extraction volumetric bone loss in intact sockets, while socket cap + socket cage + ABBM appears effective in limiting post-extraction bone loss in sockets with dehiscence defects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy used to develop understanding of a diamond preservation index model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yambissa, M. T.; Forder, S. D.; Bingham, P. A., E-mail: p.a.bingham@shu.ac.uk [Sheffield Hallam University, Materials and Engineering Research Institute Faculty of Arts, Computing, Engineering and Sciences (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy has provided precise and accurate iron redox ratios Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} in ilmenite, FeTiO{sub 3}, found within kimberlite samples from the Catoca and Camatxia kimberlite pipes from N.E. Angola. Ilmenite is one of the key indicator minerals for diamond survival and it is also one of the iron-bearing minerals with iron naturally occurring in one or both of the oxidation states Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}. For this reason it is a good indicator for studying oxygen fugacities (fO{sub 2}) in mineral samples, which can then be related to iron redox ratios, Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+}. In this paper we demonstrate that the oxidation state of the ilmenite mineral inclusion from sampled kimberlite rock is a key indicator of the oxidation state of the host kimberlite assemblage, which in turn determines the genesis of diamond, grade variation and diamond quality. Ilmenite samples from the two different diamondiferous kimberlite localities (Catoca and Camatxia) in the Lucapa graben, N.E. Angola, were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffractometry, in order to infer the oxidation state of their source regions in the mantle, oxygen partial pressure and diamond preservation conditions. The iron redox ratios, obtained using Mössbauer spectroscopy, show that the Catoca diamond kimberlite is more oxidised than kimberlite found in the Camatxia pipe, which is associated within the same geological tectonic structure. Here we demonstrate that{sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy can assist geologists and mining engineers to effectively evaluate and determine whether kimberlite deposits are economically feasible for diamond mining.

  2. General extrapolation model for an important chemical dose-rate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1984-12-01

    In order to extrapolate material accelerated aging data, methodologies must be developed based on sufficient understanding of the processes leading to material degradation. One of the most important mechanisms leading to chemical dose-rate effects in polymers involves the breakdown of intermediate hydroperoxide species. A general model for this mechanism is derived based on the underlying chemical steps. The results lead to a general formalism for understanding dose rate and sequential aging effects when hydroperoxide breakdown is important. We apply the model to combined radiation/temperature aging data for a PVC material and show that this data is consistent with the model and that model extrapolations are in excellent agreement with 12-year real-time aging results from an actual nuclear plant. This model and other techniques discussed in this report can aid in the selection of appropriate accelerated aging methods and can also be used to compare and select materials for use in safety-related components. This will result in increased assurance that equipment qualification procedures are adequate

  3. Important limitations in the modeling of activated sludge : biased calibration of the hydrolysis process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insel, G.; Gul, Ö.K.; Orhon, D.

    2002-01-01

    ), provides the majority of the required experimental database. However, currently used procedures still involve a number of basic and practical problems. Model evaluation of the OUR data may generate a distorted image of the processes involved. Hydrolysis is the most important, yet the most vulnerable...... process as far as the experimental assessment of accurate kinetic parameters is concerned. This study intends to provide an overview of major experimental limitations in the modeling of activated sludge, with emphasis on the appropriate experimental design for the assessment of the hydrolysis rate....

  4. Modeling Pre- and Post- Wildfire Hydrologic Response to Vegetation Change in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, A. E.; Benedict, K. K.; Zhang, S.; Savickas, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large scale, high severity wildfires in forests have become increasingly prevalent in the western United States due to fire exclusion. Although past work has focused on the immediate consequences of wildfire (ie. runoff magnitude and debris flow), little has been done to understand the post wildfire hydrologic consequences of vegetation regrowth. Furthermore, vegetation is often characterized by static parameterizations within hydrological models. In order to understand the temporal relationship between hydrologic processes and revegetation, we modularized and partially automated the hydrologic modeling process to increase connectivity between remotely sensed data, the Virtual Watershed Platform (a data management resource, called the VWP), input meteorological data, and the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). This process was used to run simulations in the Valles Caldera of NM, an area impacted by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire, in PRMS before and after the Las Conchas to evaluate hydrologic process changes. The modeling environment addressed some of the existing challenges faced by hydrological modelers. At present, modelers are somewhat limited in their ability to push the boundaries of hydrologic understanding. Specific issues faced by modelers include limited computational resources to model processes at large spatial and temporal scales, data storage capacity and accessibility from the modeling platform, computational and time contraints for experimental modeling, and the skills to integrate modeling software in ways that have not been explored. By taking an interdisciplinary approach, we were able to address some of these challenges by leveraging the skills of hydrologic, data, and computer scientists; and the technical capabilities provided by a combination of on-demand/high-performance computing, distributed data, and cloud services. The hydrologic modeling process was modularized to include options for distributing meteorological data, parameter space

  5. On the Importance of Displacement History in Soft-Body Contact Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    from contact mechanics, from physically measurable properties for the materials of the contacting bodies, such as Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio...friction angle for uniform quartz spheres cannot be expected to be the same as that of quartz spheres (or well-rounded quartz sand) with a log-normal par...On the Importance of Displacement History in Soft-Body Contact Models Jonathan Fleischmann∗, Radu Serban, Dan Negrut Simulation Based Engineering

  6. A model for assessing the degree of importance of ergonomics criteria to human machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Cesar Ribeiro de; Domech More, Jesus; Silva, Aretha Felix Thomaz da

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to show a model to help us to incorporate ergonomics criteria into the usability of the human computer interface (HCI). The techniques based on fuzzy set theory are appropriate tools for the treatment of subjective and vague concepts that are inherent to usability for the HCI. The application consists of analysis concepts. This approach allows the use of natural language expressions of importance in ergonomics criteria estimation. The above-mentioned model shows the degree of importance of the ergonomics criteria present in the software interface used in the medical area. In this work, as entry data, the system developer opinions are used and as a result we had the hierarchy of 18 ergonomic criteria. The ergonomic criteria are those already validated by the market, which are linked to the ErgoList checklists. The fuzzy model created will allow knowing the most important criteria to health governmental companies. Its Information Technology (IT) professionals will concentrate efforts when treating the usability of the software interface and its systems. (author)

  7. [Fertility preservation in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Laure; Grémeau, Anne-Sophie; Vorilhon, Solène; Pons, Hanae; Chabrot, Cécile; Grèze, Victoria; Pouly, Jean-Luc; Brugnon, Florence

    2018-01-01

    Since the improvement of cancer diagnosis and treatment, survival rates of these patients increase. Gonadal damages are frequent consequences of cancer treatments with different evidence of impaired fertility. In this context, fertility preservation should be proposed to patients exposed to potentially gonadotoxic treatments. Different preservation approaches may be proposed depending on patient age, sex, cancer type and type of treatment. The indications of fertility preservation depend on sexual maturity. In young girls, ovarian cortex cryopreservation is the only technique feasible in order to preserve their reproductive potential. Vitrification of oocytes which needs ovarian stimulation or oocytes in vitro maturation is becoming more commonly performed for pubertal women to preserve their fertility. Ovarian cortex freezing could be offered to emergency fertility preservation of adult female cancer patients. In prepubertal boys, testicular tissue cryopreservation is the only line treatment for fertility preservation. For future use, various approaches are being evaluated such as spermatogonial stem cell injection or in vitro maturation. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa is, today, an established and successful technique for male adults. When there are no spermatozoa in ejaculate, sperm can be retrieved after treatment of testicular biopsy. The French bioethics law clearly indicates that fertility preservation should be proposed to patients exposed to potentially gonadotoxic treatment. Today, many approaches are possible. Fertility preservation indications are based on multidisciplinary consultations within platforms for the fertility preservation in order to optimize the patient care. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The importance of correct specification of tribological parameters in dynamical systems modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaci, S.; Ciornei, F. C.; Romanu, I. C.; Ciornei, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    When modelling the behaviour of dynamical systems, the friction phenomenon cannot be neglected. Dry and fluid friction may occur, but dry friction has more severe effects upon the behaviour of the systems, based on the fact that the introduced discontinuities are more important. In the modelling of dynamical systems, dry friction is the main cause of occurrence of the bifurcation phenomenon. These aspects become more complex if, in the case of dry friction, static and dynamic frictions are put forward. The behaviour of a simple dynamical system is studied, consisting in a prismatic body linked to the ground by a spring, placed on a conveyor belt. The theoretical model is described by a nonlinear differential equation which after numerical integration leads to the conclusion that the steady motion of the prism is an un-damped oscillatory motion. The system was qualitatively modelled using specialised software for dynamical analysis. It was impractical to obtain a steady uniform translational motion of a rigid, therefore the conveyor belt was replaced by a metallic disc in uniform rotation motion. The attempts to compare the CAD model to the theoretical model were unsuccessful because the efforts of selecting the tribological parameters directed to the conclusion that the motion of the prism is a damped oscillation. To decide which of the methods depicts reality, a test-rig was assembled and it indicated a sustained oscillation. The conclusion is that the model employed by the dynamical analysis software cannot describe the actual model and a more complex model is required in the description of the friction phenomenon.

  9. Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district, Kenya. ... Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices. In this study, existing ...

  10. Preservation of documentary heritage in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    explored the preservation of documentary heritage in Malawi as there was there is lack of appreciation on the importance of preservation of documentary heritage by policy makers making it a least government priority. The study employed a multi-method design in order to collect both qualitative and quantitative. The study.

  11. Preservation of documentary heritage in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2006). In Malawi while archivists appreciate the importance of documentary heritage, policy makers question their relevance. This lack of appreciation leads to inadequate support to the preservation of these precious materials that provide national identity. Documentary heritage have to be appreciated so that preservation ...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... preservation and the ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be aware there are ...

  13. Towards Building a Blog Preservation Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Kasioumis, Nikos; Kalb, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Social media content and user participation has increased dramatically since the advent of Web 2.0. Blogs have become relevant to every aspect of business and personal life. Nevertheless, we do not have the right tools to aggregate and preserve blog content correctly, as well as to manage blog archives effectively. Given the rising importance of blogs, it is crucial to build systems to facilitate blog preservation, safeguarding an essential part of our heritage that will prove valuable for current and future generations. In this paper, we present our work in progress towards building a novel blog preservation platform featuring robust digital preservation, management and dissemination facilities for blogs. This work is part of the BlogForever project which is aiming to make an impact to the theory and practice of blog preservation by creating guidelines and software that any individual or organization could use to preserve their blogs.

  14. Modelling of Limestone Dissolution in Wet FGD Systems: The Importance of an Accurate Particle Size Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Danish limestone types with very different particle size distributions (PSDs). All limestones were of a high purity. Model predictions were found to be qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data without any use of adjustable parameters. Deviations between measurements and simulations were...... attributed primarily to the PSD measurements of the limestone particles, which were used as model inputs. The PSDs, measured using a laser diffrac-tion-based Malvern analyser, were probably not representative of the limestone samples because agglomeration phenomena took place when the particles were......In wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plants, the most common sorbent is limestone. Over the past 25 years, many attempts to model the transient dissolution of limestone particles in aqueous solutions have been performed, due to the importance for the development of reliable FGD simu-lation tools...

  15. Importance of facial physical attractiveness of audiovisual models in descriptions and preferences of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cristina; Conde, Elena; Torres, Esteban

    2005-08-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study with three age groups (8, 14, and 17 years) to evaluate developmental differences in stereotyped beliefs about physical attractiveness and the value of this as perceived by the participants. Given the current importance of television in the development of social knowledge, television models were used. The children and adolescents were asked to evaluate, using bipolar open scales, the physical attractiveness, likeableness, generosity, intelligence, fun, and altruism of 12 television models of both sexes, previously selected by judges, as well as the desire to resemble or feel close to the models. Analysis showed developmental differences across age groups both in the concept of physical attractiveness and in stereotyped beliefs about this. As in other areas of social knowledge, the younger children's responses were bipolar, global, and much more stereotyped, while the adolescents introduced subtle distinctions and elaborated their responses. Nevertheless, physical attractiveness appeared a desirable characteristic for all age groups.

  16. Why Knowledge Modeling is Important for Business and for a Danish Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2011-01-01

    , and possibly other languages, so information must be freely retrievable and communicable in several languages. In this paper I will give examples of why knowledge modeling is important for businesses, and why knowledge modeling is a central part of the DanTermBank project, the aim of which is to lay......Businesses and organizations, including public authorities, have a growing need for organizing and handling large amounts of data. In order to manage complex knowledge, knowledge must be modeled and structured. One very powerful method used for structuring knowledge is the use of ontologies....... Businesses and organizations need efficient tools for building domain-specific ontologies and systems for managing knowledge. Most medium-sized and large Danish businesses and organizations operate in a bilingual or multilingual environment, where knowledge is transferred and stored in Danish and/or English...

  17. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Hickman, A. E.; Jahn, O.; Gregg, W. W.; Mouw, C. B.; Follows, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    We present a numerical model of the ocean that couples a three-stream radiative transfer component with a marine biogeochemical-ecosystem component in a dynamic three-dimensional physical framework. The radiative transfer component resolves the penetration of spectral irradiance as it is absorbed and scattered within the water column. We explicitly include the effect of several optically important water constituents (different phytoplankton functional types; detrital particles; and coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM). The model is evaluated against in situ-observed and satellite-derived products. In particular we compare to concurrently measured biogeochemical, ecosystem, and optical data along a meridional transect of the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation captures the patterns and magnitudes of these data, and estimates surface upwelling irradiance analogous to that observed by ocean colour satellite instruments. We find that incorporating the different optically important constituents explicitly and including spectral irradiance was crucial to capture the variability in the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum. We conduct a series of sensitivity experiments to demonstrate, globally, the relative importance of each of the water constituents, as well as the crucial feedbacks between the light field, the relative fitness of phytoplankton types, and the biogeochemistry of the ocean. CDOM has proportionally more importance at attenuating light at short wavelengths and in more productive waters, phytoplankton absorption is relatively more important at the subsurface Chl a maximum, and water molecules have the greatest contribution when concentrations of other constituents are low, such as in the oligotrophic gyres. Scattering had less effect on attenuation, but since it is important for the amount and type of upwelling irradiance, it is crucial for setting sea surface reflectance. Strikingly, sensitivity experiments in which absorption by any of the

  18. Digital Preservation and Copyright: An International Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June M. Besek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the International Study on the Impact of Copyright Law on Digital Preservation was to review current copyright and related laws and their impact on digital preservation, as well as to make recommendations to help libraries, archives and other preservation institutions sustain digital works. Study partners are based in Australia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. The study found that, in many cases, digital works are not being preserved in a systematic way. This is partly because digital preservation entails more difficult copyright issues than preservation of non-digital material. All the surveyed countries have some form of exception for preservation activities. However, there is inconsistency in the details between the countries’ laws and uncertainty in how they apply in the digital environment. None of the countries surveyed have a uniform national system yet for collecting digital materials. Technological protection measures and licensing arrangements may, in some cases, present significant practical barriers to preservation. Current approaches to address these barriers are ad hoc and include requesting permissions from individual rights holders and some use of model licence terms that permit preservation. Moreover, as yet, there are no effective solutions to the general issue of orphan works. Recommendations of the study include suggestions for drafting national policies and adapting laws to allow digital preservation to be undertaken as necessary, in accordance with international best practice standards, and for promoting national systems for the collection of digital materials by relevant state and national collecting institutions.

  19. Preserving reptiles for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  20. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  1. Forty years of 9Sr in situ migration: importance of soil characterization in modeling transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.M.; Piault, E.; Macouillard, D.; Juncos, C.

    2006-01-01

    In 1960 experiments were carried out on the transfer of 9 Sr between soil, grapes and wine. The experiments were conducted in situ on a piece of land limited by two control strips. The 9 Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied by performing radiological and physico-chemical characterizations of the soil on eight 70 cm deep cores. The vertical migration modeling of 9 Sr required the definition of a triple layer conceptual model integrating the rainwater infiltration at constant flux as the only external factor of influence. Afterwards the importance of a detailed soil characterization for modeling was discussed and satisfactory simulation of the 9 Sr vertical transport was obtained and showed a calculated migration rate of about 1.0 cm year -1 in full agreement with the in situ measured values. The discussion was regarding some of the key parameters such as granulometry, organic matter content (in the Van Genuchten parameter determination), Kd and the efficient rainwater infiltration. Besides the experimental data, simplifying assumptions in modeling such as water-soil redistribution calculation and factual discontinuities in conceptual model were examined

  2. Does the Assumption on Innovation Process Play an Important Role for Filtered Historical Simulation Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Altun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the financial institutions compute the Value-at-Risk (VaR of their trading portfolios using historical simulation-based methods. In this paper, we examine the Filtered Historical Simulation (FHS model introduced by Barone-Adesi et al. (1999 theoretically and empirically. The main goal of this study is to find an answer for the following question: “Does the assumption on innovation process play an important role for the Filtered Historical Simulation model?”. For this goal, we investigate the performance of FHS model with skewed and fat-tailed innovations distributions such as normal, skew normal, Student’s-t, skew-T, generalized error, and skewed generalized error distributions. The performances of FHS models are evaluated by means of unconditional and conditional likelihood ratio tests and loss functions. Based on the empirical results, we conclude that the FHS models with generalized error and skew-T distributions produce more accurate VaR forecasts.

  3. Is the person-situation debate important for agent-based modeling and vice-versa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sznajd-Weron

    Full Text Available Agent-based models (ABM are believed to be a very powerful tool in the social sciences, sometimes even treated as a substitute for social experiments. When building an ABM we have to define the agents and the rules governing the artificial society. Given the complexity and our limited understanding of the human nature, we face the problem of assuming that either personal traits, the situation or both have impact on the social behavior of agents. However, as the long-standing person-situation debate in psychology shows, there is no consensus as to the underlying psychological mechanism and the important question that arises is whether the modeling assumptions we make will have a substantial influence on the simulated behavior of the system as a whole or not.Studying two variants of the same agent-based model of opinion formation, we show that the decision to choose either personal traits or the situation as the primary factor driving social interactions is of critical importance. Using Monte Carlo simulations (for Barabasi-Albert networks and analytic calculations (for a complete graph we provide evidence that assuming a person-specific response to social influence at the microscopic level generally leads to a completely different and less realistic aggregate or macroscopic behavior than an assumption of a situation-specific response; a result that has been reported by social psychologists for a range of experimental setups, but has been downplayed or ignored in the opinion dynamics literature.This sensitivity to modeling assumptions has far reaching consequences also beyond opinion dynamics, since agent-based models are becoming a popular tool among economists and policy makers and are often used as substitutes of real social experiments.

  4. The importance of expressing antimicrobial agents on water basis in growth/no growth interface models: a case study for Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T D T; Vermeulen, A; Mertens, L; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2011-01-31

    In a previous study on Zygosaccharomyces bailii, three growth/no growth models have been developed, predicting growth probability of the yeast at different conditions typical for acidified foods (Dang, T.D.T., Mertens, L., Vermeulen, A., Geeraerd, A.H., Van Impe, J.F., Debevere, J., Devlieghere, F., 2010. Modeling the growth/no growth boundary of Z. bailii in acidic conditions: A contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives. International Journal of Food Microbiology 137, 1-12). In these broth-based models, the variables were pH, water activity and acetic acid, with acetic acid concentration expressed in volume % on the total culture medium (i.e., broth). To continue the previous study, validation experiments were performed for 15 selected combinations of intrinsic factors to assess the performance of the model at 22°C (60days) in a real food product (ketchup). Although the majority of experimental results were consistent, some remarkable deviations between prediction and validation were observed, e.g., Z. bailii growth occurred in conditions where almost no growth had been predicted. A thorough investigation revealed that the difference between two ways of expressing acetic acid concentration (i.e., on broth basis and on water basis) is rather significant, particularly for media containing high amounts of dry matter. Consequently, the use of broth-based concentrations in the models was not appropriate. Three models with acetic acid concentration expressed on water basis were established and it was observed that predictions by these models well matched the validation results; therefore a "systematic error" in broth-based models was recognized. In practice, quantities of antimicrobial agents are often calculated based on the water content of food products. Hence, to assure reliable predictions and facilitate the application of models (developed from lab media with high dry matter contents), it is important to express

  5. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Development and validation of a stochastic model for potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Bøknæs, Niels; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    A new stochastic model for the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was developed and validated on data from naturally contaminated samples of cold-smoked Greenland halibut (CSGH) and cold-smoked salmon (CSS). During industrial processing these samples were......) values of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated samples of CSGH and CSS were accurately predicted by the stochastic model based on measured variability in product characteristics and storage conditions. Results comparable to those from the stochastic model were obtained, when product characteristics...... to CSGH and CSS was confirmed as a suitable mitigation strategy against the risk of growth by L. monocytogenes as both types of products were in compliance with the EU regulation on ready-to-eat foods....

  7. Hydrostratigraphic modeling of a complex, glacial-drift aquifer system for importation into MODFLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Beverly L; Larson, David R; Abert, Curtis C; Wilson, Steven D; Roadcap, George S

    2003-01-01

    Deposition from at least three episodes of glaciation left a complex glacial-drift aquifer system in central Illinois. The deepest and largest of these aquifers, the Sankoty-Mahomet Aquifer, occupies the lower part of a buried bedrock valley and supplies water to communities throughout central Illinois. Thin, discontinuous aquifers are present within glacial drift overlying the Sankoty-Mahomet Aquifer. This study was commissioned by local governments to identify possible areas where a regional water supply could be obtained from the aquifer with minimal adverse impacts on existing users. Geologic information from more than 2,200 existing water well logs was supplemented with new data from 28 test borings, water level measurements in 430 wells, and 35 km of surface geophysical profiles. A three-dimensional (3-D) hydrostratigraphic model was developed using a contouring software package, a geographic information system (GIS), and the 3-D geologic modeling package, EarthVision. The hydrostratigraphy of the glacial-drift sequence was depicted as seven uneven and discontinuous layers, which could be viewed from an infinite number of horizontal and vertical slices and as solid models of any layer. Several iterations were required before the 3-D model presented a reasonable depiction of the aquifer system. Layers from the resultant hydrostratigraphic model were imported into MODFLOW, where they were modified into continuous layers. This approach of developing a 3-D hydrostratigraphic model can be applied to other areas where complex aquifer systems are to be modeled and is also useful in helping lay audiences visualize aquifer systems.

  8. Importance estimation in Monte Carlo modelling of neutron and photon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickael, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    The estimation of neutron and photon importance in a three-dimensional geometry is achieved using a coupled Monte Carlo and diffusion theory calculation. The parameters required for the solution of the multigroup adjoint diffusion equation are estimated from an analog Monte Carlo simulation of the system under investigation. The solution of the adjoint diffusion equation is then used as an estimate of the particle importance in the actual simulation. This approach provides an automated and efficient variance reduction method for Monte Carlo simulations. The technique has been successfully applied to Monte Carlo simulation of neutron and coupled neutron-photon transport in the nuclear well-logging field. The results show that the importance maps obtained in a few minutes of computer time using this technique are in good agreement with Monte Carlo generated importance maps that require prohibitive computing times. The application of this method to Monte Carlo modelling of the response of neutron porosity and pulsed neutron instruments has resulted in major reductions in computation time. (Author)

  9. Implementation of Equilibrium-Price Model to the Estimation of Import Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadulla Hasanli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the the import inflationary processes as a result of feedbacks of mutual economic relations of World countries. It is used Equilibrium Price Model to estimate the import inflationary processes in CIS countries. The study investigates the further results regarding the import inflationary processes in the CIS countries on the scenario of increasing the Value Added norm in Russia. As well as by standpoint of economic growth and price stability, the recent revaluation of US dollar in the World and its impacts to total output of other countries have been investigated in details. In other words due to revaluation of the US dollar, if the final product decreases in USA, this decreasing impact how to be transmitted to the world countries have been estimated by the Input-Output Table in this study as well. The work is fulfilled on the Input-Output data for the year 2011. This study assumes theoretical and practical importance in defining the monetary policy.

  10. Importance sampling for Lambda-coalescents in the infinitely many sites model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkner, Matthias; Blath, Jochen; Steinrücken, Matthias

    2011-06-01

    We present and discuss new importance sampling schemes for the approximate computation of the sample probability of observed genetic types in the infinitely many sites model from population genetics. More specifically, we extend the 'classical framework', where genealogies are assumed to be governed by Kingman's coalescent, to the more general class of Lambda-coalescents and develop further Hobolth et al.'s (2008) idea of deriving importance sampling schemes based on 'compressed genetrees'. The resulting schemes extend earlier work by Griffiths and Tavaré (1994), Stephens and Donnelly (2000), Birkner and Blath (2008) and Hobolth et al. (2008). We conclude with a performance comparison of classical and new schemes for Beta- and Kingman coalescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ignorant of the fact that preservative treated wood products (PTWP) are not as lethal as pesticides. In this paper, a careful review is made of the environmental and health ...

  12. Donor pretreatment with carbamylated erythropoietin in a brain death model reduces inflammation more effectively than erythropoietin while preserving renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Willemijn N.; Ottens, Petra J.; van Dijk, Antony; van Goor, Harry; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.

    Objective: We hypothesized that donor treatment of deceased brain dead donors would lead to a decrease in inflammatory responses seen in brain death and lead to a restoration of kidney function. Design: A standardized slow-induction rat brain death model followed by evaluation of kidney function in

  13. Modelling Southern Africa Air Quality and Atmosphere: Importance and Interplay of Natural and Anthropogenic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, R. M.; Naidoo, M.; Dedekind, Z.; Sibiya, B.; Piketh, S.; Engelbrecht, C. J.; Engelbrecht, F.

    2017-12-01

    Many parts of the southern hemisphere are linked in part due to the strong impact that emissions from natural sources, such as large biomass burning events and marine sources, as well as growing anthropogenic emission sources. Most of southern Africa has an arid to semi-arid climate that is strongly impacted by biomass burning, biogenic and dust emissions. In addition, there are areas of growing industrialization and urbanization that contributes to poor air quality. This air pollution can impact not only human health, but also agriculture, ecosystems, and the climate. This presentation will highlight on-going research to simulate the southern Africa atmosphere and impacts, with a focus on the interplay and relative importance of natural and anthropogenic emissions. The presentation will discuss the simulated sensitivity of the southern African climate to aerosol particles to highlight the importance of natural sources. These historical simulations (1979-2012) were performed with CCAM and are towards the development of the first Africa-led earth systems model. The analysis focused on the simulated sensitivity of the climate and clouds off the southwestern coast of Africa to aerosol particles. The interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources on air pollution will be highlighted using the Waterberg region of South Africa as a case study. CAMx was run at 2km resolution for 2013 using local emission inventories and meteorological output from CCAM to simulate the air quality of the region. These simulations estimate that, on average in the summer, up to 20% of ozone in and around a power plant plume is attributable to biogenic sources of VOCs, with ozone peaks of up to 120ppb; highlighting the importance of understanding the mix of pollutants in this area. In addition to presenting results from this study, the challenges in modelling will be highlighted. These challenges include very few or no measurements that are important to understand, and then accurately

  14. Understanding the relationship between Kano model's customer satisfaction scores and self-stated requirements importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O C; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is the result of product quality and viability. The place of the perceived satisfaction of users/customers for a software product cannot be neglected especially in today competitive market environment as it drives the loyalty of customers and promotes high profitability and return on investment. Therefore understanding the importance of requirements as it is associated with the satisfaction of users/customers when their requirements are met is worth the pain considering. It is necessary to know the relationship between customer satisfactions when their requirements are met (or their dissatisfaction when their requirements are unmet) and the importance of such requirement. So many works have been carried out on customer satisfaction in connection with the importance of requirements but the relationship between customer satisfaction scores (coefficients) of the Kano model and users/customers self-stated requirements importance have not been sufficiently explored. In this study, an attempt is made to unravel the underlying relationship existing between Kano model's customer satisfaction indexes and users/customers self reported requirements importance. The results of the study indicate some interesting associations between these considered variables. These bivariate associations reveal that customer satisfaction index (SI), and average satisfaction coefficient (ASC) and customer dissatisfaction index (DI) and average satisfaction coefficient (ASC) are highly correlated (r = 96 %) and thus ASC can be used in place of either SI or DI in representing customer satisfaction scores. Also, these Kano model's customer satisfaction variables (SI, DI, and ASC) are each associated with self-stated requirements importance (IMP). Further analysis indicates that the value customers or users place on requirements that are met or on features that are incorporated into a product influences the level of satisfaction such customers derive from the product. The

  15. Importance of the Hydrogen Isocyanide Isomer in Modeling Hydrogen Cyanide Oxidation in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul

    2017-01-01

    constants for HNC + O2 and HNC + OH, it is possible to reconcile the modeling issues and provide a satisfactory prediction of a wide range of experimental results on HCN oxidation. In the burned gases of fuel-rich flames, HCN and the CN radical are partially equilibrated and the sequence HCN →+M HNC →+OH...... HNCO is the major consumption path for HCN. Under lean conditions, HNC is shown to be less important than indicated by the early work by Lin and co-workers, but it acts to accelerate HCN oxidation and promotes the formation of HNCO....

  16. Importance of the Hydrogen Isocyanide Isomer in Modeling Hydrogen Cyanide Oxidation in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul

    2017-01-01

    + O2 reaction is studied by ab initio methods and is shown to have a high barrier. Consequently, the omission of this reaction in recent modeling studies is justified. With the present knowledge of the HNC chemistry, including an accurate value of the heat of formation for HNC and improved rate...... constants for HNC + O2 and HNC + OH, it is possible to reconcile the modeling issues and provide a satisfactory prediction of a wide range of experimental results on HCN oxidation. In the burned gases of fuel-rich flames, HCN and the CN radical are partially equilibrated and the sequence HCN →+M HNC →+OH...... HNCO is the major consumption path for HCN. Under lean conditions, HNC is shown to be less important than indicated by the early work by Lin and co-workers, but it acts to accelerate HCN oxidation and promotes the formation of HNCO....

  17. MODELING THE DETERMINANTS OF EXPORTS AND IMPORTS: ASSESSMENT OF THE MACEDONIAN COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce PETRESKI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available So far Macedonia has undergone an unsuccessful attempt to transition,distinguished by low growth rates, high unemployment, extensive poverty,balance of payments unfavorable position, technological lag etc. The externalsector, as a core element to growth perspectives of a small open economy iscritically dependant upon the export competitiveness. Consequently, thispaper will address some critical points of the Macedonian economy,particularly the vulnerability of the external sector alongside with the priceand trade liberalization. The set of analyses is to be carried out to explore theforeign trade structure, current account developments, as well as the majoraspects of qualitative competitiveness. In addition, we have examined theimpact of macroeconomic variables on exports and imports within theselected timeframe. We have therefore applied a comprehensive approach ofdynamic modeling based upon a vector - autoregression model determinedto control for endogeneity and set to estimate the long - run equilibriumrelations, as well as the short-run dynamics of the key variables.

  18. The Importance of Business Model Factors for Cloud Computing Adoption: Role of Previous Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogataj Habjan Kristina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Bringing several opportunities for more effective and efficient IT governance and service exploitation, cloud computing is expected to impact the European and global economies significantly. Market data show that despite many advantages and promised benefits the adoption of cloud computing is not as fast and widespread as foreseen. This situation shows the need for further exploration of the potentials of cloud computing and its implementation on the market. The purpose of this research was to identify individual business model factors with the highest impact on cloud computing adoption. In addition, the aim was to identify the differences in opinion regarding the importance of business model factors on cloud computing adoption according to companies’ previous experiences with cloud computing services.

  19. Alveolar ridge dimensional changes following ridge preservation procedure with novel devices: part 3 - histological analysis in non-human primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingying; Tang, Jianxia; Min, Seiko; Guo, Lijia; Liu, Yitong; Xie, Yilin; Xiong, Jimin; Wang, Songlin; Araújo, Mauricio G; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Liu, Yi

    2017-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the histological changes following tooth extraction, ridge preservation and augmentation, using novel devices designed to obturate the oral orifice of extraction sockets (SocketKAP™) and provide structural support for sockets with defective bony walls (SocketKAGE™) in a non-human primate model. Six Macaca fascicularis were imaged by cone beam computed tomography to register their preoperative alveolar bone. Three teeth were extracted in each animal, yielding intact socket walls and were divided into three intervention groups: unassisted healing negative control (Group A); SocketKAP™ (Group B); filled with anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) + SocketKAP™ (Group C). Three additional teeth were extracted in each animal, followed by surgical resection of the entire buccal alveolar bone and divided into three groups: negative control (Group D); SocketKAP™ + SocketKAGE™ (Group E); ABBM + SocketKAP™ + SocketKAGE™ (Group F). Animals were euthanized after 12 weeks, and treatment sites were examined by histology and histomorphometric analysis. Control sockets with unassisted healing (Groups A and D) underwent severe loss of bone width, height and total area (approximately 40-60% loss). Application of SocketKAP™ in sites with intact walls, as well as SocketKAP™ plus SocketKAGE™ in sites with defective buccal walls lead to higher preservation of alveolar bone height after 12 weeks post-intervention. Addition of ABBM leads to the highest degree of alveolar bone dimensional preservation. Control sites with unassisted healing (Groups A and D), as well as sites treated with extraction socket devices (Groups B and E) without ABBM yielded higher percentage of vital bone, compared with sites filled with ABBM (Groups C and F). No adverse histological responses were noted to SocketKAP™ or SocketKAGE™ devices. SocketKAP™ + SocketKAGE™ devices proved effective in reducing post-extraction alveolar bone resorption

  20. OAIS and Distributed Digital Preservation in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    The aim of the paper is to illustrate how the distributed aspects of digital preservation can be aligned in practice, with the concepts and principles of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. There has been a growing awareness within the digital preservation community of th...... examples of applying the model have been sparse. This paper provides detailed descriptions of how the need for the OO-IO model emerged, how it has been used for both design and audit of the Danish bit repository, how we plan to use it for minimal effort ingest, and what other use cases...... there are for applying the OO-IO model for distributed digital preservation purposes. This will illustrate how using the OO-IO model can assist in the analysis of complex digital preservation tasks of a distributed OAIS-conformant repository, where the OO-IO model provides terminology and contribute to break down...... analysis and audit questions....

  1. Bayesian assessment of moving group membership: importance of models and prior knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinhee; Song, Inseok

    2018-04-01

    Young nearby moving groups are important and useful in many fields of astronomy such as studying exoplanets, low-mass stars, and the stellar evolution of the early planetary systems over tens of millions of years, which has led to intensive searches for their members. Identification of members depends on the used models sensitively; therefore, careful examination of the models is required. In this study, we investigate the effects of the models used in moving group membership calculations based on a Bayesian framework (e.g. BANYAN II) focusing on the beta-Pictoris moving group (BPMG). Three improvements for building models are suggested: (1) updating a list of accepted members by re-assessing memberships in terms of position, motion, and age, (2) investigating member distribution functions in XYZ, and (3) exploring field star distribution functions in XYZ and UVW. The effect of each change is investigated, and we suggest using all of these improvements simultaneously in future membership probability calculations. Using this improved MG membership calculation and the careful examination of the age, 57 bona fide members of BPMG are confirmed including 12 new members. We additionally suggest 17 highly probable members.

  2. Modelling explicit tides in the Indonesian seas: An important process for surface sea water properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Dwiyoga; Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Gaspar, Philippe; Lyard, Florent; Reffray, Guillaume; Tranchant, Benoit

    2017-06-16

    Very intense internal tides take place in Indonesian seas. They dissipate and affect the vertical distribution of temperature and currents, which in turn influence the survival rates and transports of most planktonic organisms at the base of the whole marine ecosystem. This study uses the INDESO physical model to characterize the internal tides spatio-temporal patterns in the Indonesian Seas. The model reproduced internal tide dissipation in agreement with previous fine structure and microstructure observed in-situ in the sites of generation. The model also produced similar water mass transformation as the previous parameterization of Koch-Larrouy et al. (2007), and show good agreement with observations. The resulting cooling at the surface is 0.3°C, with maxima of 0.8°C at the location of internal tides energy, with stronger cooling in austral winter. The cycle of spring tides and neap tides modulates this impact by 0.1°C to 0.3°C. These results suggest that mixing due to internal tides might also upwell nutrients at the surface at a frequency similar to the tidal frequencies. Implications for biogeochemical modelling are important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  4. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  5. Ages and transit times as important diagnostics of model performance for predicting carbon dynamics in terrestrial vegetation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Richardson, Andrew D.; Sierra, Carlos A.

    2018-03-01

    The global carbon cycle is strongly controlled by the source/sink strength of vegetation as well as the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems to retain this carbon. These dynamics, as well as processes such as the mixing of old and newly fixed carbon, have been studied using ecosystem models, but different assumptions regarding the carbon allocation strategies and other model structures may result in highly divergent model predictions. We assessed the influence of three different carbon allocation schemes on the C cycling in vegetation. First, we described each model with a set of ordinary differential equations. Second, we used published measurements of ecosystem C compartments from the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site to find suitable parameters for the different model structures. And third, we calculated C stocks, release fluxes, radiocarbon values (based on the bomb spike), ages, and transit times. We obtained model simulations in accordance with the available data, but the time series of C in foliage and wood need to be complemented with other ecosystem compartments in order to reduce the high parameter collinearity that we observed, and reduce model equifinality. Although the simulated C stocks in ecosystem compartments were similar, the different model structures resulted in very different predictions of age and transit time distributions. In particular, the inclusion of two storage compartments resulted in the prediction of a system mean age that was 12-20 years older than in the models with one or no storage compartments. The age of carbon in the wood compartment of this model was also distributed towards older ages, whereas fast cycling compartments had an age distribution that did not exceed 5 years. As expected, models with C distributed towards older ages also had longer transit times. These results suggest that ages and transit times, which can be indirectly measured using isotope tracers, serve as important diagnostics of model structure

  6. Ages and transit times as important diagnostics of model performance for predicting carbon dynamics in terrestrial vegetation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ceballos-Núñez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The global carbon cycle is strongly controlled by the source/sink strength of vegetation as well as the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems to retain this carbon. These dynamics, as well as processes such as the mixing of old and newly fixed carbon, have been studied using ecosystem models, but different assumptions regarding the carbon allocation strategies and other model structures may result in highly divergent model predictions. We assessed the influence of three different carbon allocation schemes on the C cycling in vegetation. First, we described each model with a set of ordinary differential equations. Second, we used published measurements of ecosystem C compartments from the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site to find suitable parameters for the different model structures. And third, we calculated C stocks, release fluxes, radiocarbon values (based on the bomb spike, ages, and transit times. We obtained model simulations in accordance with the available data, but the time series of C in foliage and wood need to be complemented with other ecosystem compartments in order to reduce the high parameter collinearity that we observed, and reduce model equifinality. Although the simulated C stocks in ecosystem compartments were similar, the different model structures resulted in very different predictions of age and transit time distributions. In particular, the inclusion of two storage compartments resulted in the prediction of a system mean age that was 12–20 years older than in the models with one or no storage compartments. The age of carbon in the wood compartment of this model was also distributed towards older ages, whereas fast cycling compartments had an age distribution that did not exceed 5 years. As expected, models with C distributed towards older ages also had longer transit times. These results suggest that ages and transit times, which can be indirectly measured using isotope tracers, serve as important

  7. Grafts for Ridge Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, Amal; Cohen, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome. PMID:26262646

  8. The importance of data quality for generating reliable distribution models for rare, elusive, and cryptic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith B Aubry

    Full Text Available The availability of spatially referenced environmental data and species occurrence records in online databases enable practitioners to easily generate species distribution models (SDMs for a broad array of taxa. Such databases often include occurrence records of unknown reliability, yet little information is available on the influence of data quality on SDMs generated for rare, elusive, and cryptic species that are prone to misidentification in the field. We investigated this question for the fisher (Pekania pennanti, a forest carnivore of conservation concern in the Pacific States that is often confused with the more common Pacific marten (Martes caurina. Fisher occurrence records supported by physical evidence (verifiable records were available from a limited area, whereas occurrence records of unknown quality (unscreened records were available from throughout the fisher's historical range. We reserved 20% of the verifiable records to use as a test sample for both models and generated SDMs with each dataset using Maxent. The verifiable model performed substantially better than the unscreened model based on multiple metrics including AUCtest values (0.78 and 0.62, respectively, evaluation of training and test gains, and statistical tests of how well each model predicted test localities. In addition, the verifiable model was consistent with our knowledge of the fisher's habitat relations and potential distribution, whereas the unscreened model indicated a much broader area of high-quality habitat (indices > 0.5 that included large expanses of high-elevation habitat that fishers do not occupy. Because Pacific martens remain relatively common in upper elevation habitats in the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada, the SDM based on unscreened records likely reflects primarily a conflation of marten and fisher habitat. Consequently, accurate identifications are far more important than the spatial extent of occurrence records for generating reliable SDMs

  9. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are important. Understanding there may be fertility preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be ...

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility preservation options available and ... 121 Chicago, IL, 60611 (312) 503-2504 Social Media Parking Maps Shuttles Directory Bookstore Library

  11. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation and the ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility ... specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be ...

  12. An Efficient Context-Aware Privacy Preserving Approach for Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of smartphones and the usage of the smartphone apps, privacy preservation has become an important issue. The existing privacy preservation approaches for smartphones usually have less efficiency due to the absent consideration of the active defense policies and temporal correlations between contexts related to users. In this paper, through modeling the temporal correlations among contexts, we formalize the privacy preservation problem to an optimization problem and prove its correctness and the optimality through theoretical analysis. To further speed up the running time, we transform the original optimization problem to an approximate optimal problem, a linear programming problem. By resolving the linear programming problem, an efficient context-aware privacy preserving algorithm (CAPP is designed, which adopts active defense policy and decides how to release the current context of a user to maximize the level of quality of service (QoS of context-aware apps with privacy preservation. The conducted extensive simulations on real dataset demonstrate the improved performance of CAPP over other traditional approaches.

  13. The importance of volumetric canopy morphology when modelling drag around riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Richard; Hardy, Richard; Warburton, Jeff; Marjoribanks, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetation has a significant impact on the hydraulic functioning of river systems. The bulk of past work concerned with modelling the influence of vegetation on flow has considered vegetation to be morphologically simple, and has generally neglected the complexity and porosity of natural plants, defined herein as the volumetric canopy morphology. However, the volumetric canopy morphology can influence the mean and turbulent properties of the flow, producing spatially heterogeneous downstream velocity fields. By explicitly accounting for this in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, and representing the plant as a porous blockage, complex flow structures and drag can be modelled. For a riparian species, Hebe odora, good agreement with flume measurements are found. Plant shear layer turbulence is shown to be dominated by Kelvin-Helmholtz and Görtler-type vortices, generated through shear instability. Porous representations of the plants, that allow for flow to pass through the plant canopy interior, are compared against fully impermeable plant representations. Penetration of fluid through the canopy in the porous case resembles 'bleed-flow', and this results in a plant wake region that significantly differs from the impermeable case, which is characteristic of wake flow around a traditional bluff body. These results demonstrate the significant effect that the volumetric canopy morphology and porosity of natural plants has on the three-dimensional flow and in-stream drag, and enables a re-evaluation of vegetative flow resistance. The modelled results allow a species dependent Manning's n to be calculated, and this presents an opportunity to move away from the conventional methods of representing vegetation in hydraulic models, in favour of a more physically determined approach. Given the importance of vegetation in river corridor management, and the increasing application of UAV imagery to map riparian vegetation, the numerical scheme developed here

  14. Overexpression of mitochondrial oxodicarboxylate carrier (ODC1 preserves oxidative phosphorylation in a yeast model of Barth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxence de Taffin de Tilques

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiolipin (CL is a diglycerol phospholipid mostly found in mitochondria where it optimizes numerous processes, including oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS. To function properly, CL needs to be unsaturated, which requires the acyltransferase tafazzin. Loss-of-function mutations in this protein are responsible for Barth syndrome (BTHS, presumably because of a diminished OXPHOS capacity. Here, we show that overexpressing Odc1p, a conserved oxodicarboxylic acid carrier located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, fully restores oxidative phosphorylation in a yeast model (taz1Δ of BTHS. The rescuing activity involves the recovery of normal expression of key components that sustain oxidative phosphorylation, including cytochrome c and electron transport chain complexes IV and III, which are strongly downregulated in taz1Δ yeast. Interestingly, overexpression of Odc1p was also shown previously to rescue yeast models of mitochondrial diseases caused by defects in the assembly of ATP synthase and by mutations in the MPV17 protein that result in hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome. These findings define the transport of oxodicarboxylic acids across the inner membrane as a potential therapeutic target for a large spectrum of mitochondrial diseases, including BTHS.

  15. Estimating cross-validatory predictive p-values with integrated importance sampling for disease mapping models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longhai; Feng, Cindy X; Qiu, Shi

    2017-06-30

    An important statistical task in disease mapping problems is to identify divergent regions with unusually high or low risk of disease. Leave-one-out cross-validatory (LOOCV) model assessment is the gold standard for estimating predictive p-values that can flag such divergent regions. However, actual LOOCV is time-consuming because one needs to rerun a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis for each posterior distribution in which an observation is held out as a test case. This paper introduces a new method, called integrated importance sampling (iIS), for estimating LOOCV predictive p-values with only Markov chain samples drawn from the posterior based on a full data set. The key step in iIS is that we integrate away the latent variables associated the test observation with respect to their conditional distribution without reference to the actual observation. By following the general theory for importance sampling, the formula used by iIS can be proved to be equivalent to the LOOCV predictive p-value. We compare iIS and other three existing methods in the literature with two disease mapping datasets. Our empirical results show that the predictive p-values estimated with iIS are almost identical to the predictive p-values estimated with actual LOOCV and outperform those given by the existing three methods, namely, the posterior predictive checking, the ordinary importance sampling, and the ghosting method by Marshall and Spiegelhalter (2003). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The importance of the strain rate and creep on the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Omar F.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Schvartzman, Monica M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is a nuclear, power, petrochemical, and other industries equipment and components (like pressure vessels, nozzles, tubes, accessories) life degradation mode, involving fragile fracture. The stress corrosion cracking failures can produce serious accidents, and incidents which can put on risk the safety, reliability, and efficiency of many plants. These failures are of very complex prediction. The stress corrosion cracking mechanisms are based on three kinds of factors: microstructural, mechanical and environmental. Concerning the mechanical factors, various authors prefer to consider the crack tip strain rate rather than stress, as a decisive factor which contributes to the process: this parameter is directly influenced by the creep strain rate of the material. Based on two KAPL-Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory experimental studies in SSRT (slow strain rate test) and CL (constant load) test, for prediction of primary water stress corrosion cracking in nickel based alloys, it has done a data compilation of the film rupture mechanism parameters, for modeling PWSCC of Alloy 600 and discussed the importance of the strain rate and the creep on the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms and models. As derived from this study, a simple theoretical model is proposed, and it is showed that the crack growth rate estimated with Brazilian tests results with Alloy 600 in SSRT, are according with the KAPL ones and other published literature. (author)

  17. The Importance of Being Hybrid for Spatial Epidemic Models:A Multi-Scale Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Banos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the spread of a disease within an urban system, definedas a network of interconnected cities. The first step consists of comparing two differentapproaches: a macroscopic one, based on a system of coupled Ordinary DifferentialEquations (ODE Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR systems exploiting populations onnodes and flows on edges (so-called metapopulational model, and a hybrid one, couplingODE SIR systems on nodes and agents traveling on edges. Under homogeneous conditions(mean field approximation, this comparison leads to similar results on the outputs on whichwe focus (the maximum intensity of the epidemic, its duration and the time of the epidemicpeak. However, when it comes to setting up epidemic control strategies, results rapidlydiverge between the two approaches, and it appears that the full macroscopic model is notcompletely adapted to these questions. In this paper, we focus on some control strategies,which are quarantine, avoidance and risk culture, to explore the differences, advantages anddisadvantages of the two models and discuss the importance of being hybrid when modelingand simulating epidemic spread at the level of a whole urban system.

  18. The role of spatial information in the preservation of the shrimp nursery function of mangroves: a spatially explicit bio-economic model for the assessment of land use trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavalloni, Matteo; Groeneveld, Rolf A; van Zwieten, Paul A M

    2014-10-01

    Conversion to aquaculture affects the provision of important ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems, and this effect depends strongly on the location of the conversion. We introduce in a bio-economic mathematical programming model relevant spatial elements that affect the provision of the nursery habitat service of mangroves: (1) direct or indirect connection of mangroves to watercourses; (2) the spatial allocation of aquaculture ponds; and (3) the presence of non-linear relations between mangrove extent and juvenile recruitment to wild shrimp populations. By tracing out the production possibilities frontier of wild and cultivated shrimp, the model assesses the role of spatial information in the trade-off between aquaculture and the nursery habitat function using spatial elements relevant to our model of a mangrove area in Ca Mau Province, Viet Nam. Results show that where mangrove forests have to coexist with shrimp aquaculture ponds, the inclusion of specific spatial information on ecosystem functions in considerations of land allocation can achieve aquaculture benefits while largely preserving the economic benefits generated by the nursery habitat function. However, if spatial criteria are ignored, ill-advised land allocation decisions can easily lead to a collapse of the mangrove's nursery function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Global Sensitivity Analysis for Identifying Important Parameters of Nitrogen Nitrification and Denitrification under Model and Scenario Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, M.; Chen, Z.; Shi, L.; Zhu, Y.; Yang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen reactive transport modeling is subject to uncertainty in model parameters, structures, and scenarios. While global sensitivity analysis is a vital tool for identifying the parameters important to nitrogen reactive transport, conventional global sensitivity analysis only considers parametric uncertainty. This may result in inaccurate selection of important parameters, because parameter importance may vary under different models and modeling scenarios. By using a recently developed variance-based global sensitivity analysis method, this paper identifies important parameters with simultaneous consideration of parametric uncertainty, model uncertainty, and scenario uncertainty. In a numerical example of nitrogen reactive transport modeling, a combination of three scenarios of soil temperature and two scenarios of soil moisture leads to a total of six scenarios. Four alternative models are used to evaluate reduction functions used for calculating actual rates of nitrification and denitrification. The model uncertainty is tangled with scenario uncertainty, as the reduction functions depend on soil temperature and moisture content. The results of sensitivity analysis show that parameter importance varies substantially between different models and modeling scenarios, which may lead to inaccurate selection of important parameters if model and scenario uncertainties are not considered. This problem is avoided by using the new method of sensitivity analysis in the context of model averaging and scenario averaging. The new method of sensitivity analysis can be applied to other problems of contaminant transport modeling when model uncertainty and/or scenario uncertainty are present.

  20. Pterostilbene reduces oxidative stress, prevents hypertrophy and preserves systolic function of right ventricle in cor pulmonale model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Lacerda, Denise; Türck, Patrick; Gazzi de Lima-Seolin, Bruna; Colombo, Rafael; Duarte Ortiz, Vanessa; Poletto Bonetto, Jéssica Hellen; Campos-Carraro, Cristina; Bianchi, Sara Elis; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Linck Bassani, Valquiria; Sander da Rosa Araujo, Alex

    2017-10-01

    In cor pulmonale, the increased afterload imposed on the right ventricle (RV) generates a maladaptive response, impairing the contractile cardiac function. Oxidative mechanisms play an important role in the pathophysiology and progression of this disease. The administration of pterostilbene (PTS), a phytophenol with antioxidant potential, may represent a therapeutic option. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of PTS complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) on hypertrophy, contractile function and oxidative parameters in the RV of rats with pulmonary hypertension, induced by the administration of monocrotaline (MCT). The rats received daily doses of the PTS : HPβCD complex at 25, 50 or 100 mg·kg -1 , p.o., for 14 days. The diastolic function, E/A ratio, and systolic function, shortening fraction, fractional area change (FAC) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) of the RV were determined by echocardiography. The PTS : HPβCD complex reduced the production of NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide anions and oxidative stress in the RV of MCT-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. At higher doses it prevented the reduction in FAC and TAPSE in MCT-treated animals. The PTS : HPβCD complex prevented the maladaptative remodelling and protected systolic function in the RV of rats with pulmonary hypertension. These cardioprotective mechanisms may be related, in part, to the antioxidant potential of PTS, favoured by the increased p.o. bioavailability promoted by the presence of HPβCD in the complex. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Dimethyloxalylglycine preserves the intestinal microvasculature and protects against intestinal injury in a neonatal mouse NEC model: role of VEGF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Rakhee M; Yan, Xiaocai; Managlia, Elizabeth; Liu, Shirley X L; Marek, Catherine; Tan, Xiao-Di; De Plaen, Isabelle G

    2018-02-01

    BackgroundNecrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating neonatal disease characterized by intestinal necrosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has a critical role in cellular oxygen homeostasis. Here, we hypothesized that prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibition, which stabilizes HIF-1α, protects against NEC by promoting intestinal endothelial cell proliferation and improving intestinal microvascular integrity via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling.MethodsTo assess the role of PHD inhibition in a neonatal mouse NEC model, we administered dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) or vehicle to pups before or during the NEC protocol, and determined mortality and incidence of severe intestinal injury. We assessed intestinal VEGF by western blot analysis and quantified endothelial cell and epithelial cell proliferation following immunofluorescence.ResultsDMOG decreased mortality and incidence of severe NEC, increased intestinal VEGF expression, and increased intestinal villus endothelial and epithelial cell proliferation in experimental NEC. Inhibiting VEGFR2 signaling eliminated DMOG's protective effect on intestinal injury severity, survival, and endothelial cell proliferation while sparing DMOG's protective effect on intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.ConclusionDMOG upregulates intestinal VEGF, promotes endothelial cell proliferation, and protects against intestinal injury and mortality in experimental NEC in a VEGFR2 dependent manner. DMOG's protective effect on the neonatal intestinal mucosa may be mediated via VEGFR2 dependent improvement of the intestinal microvasculature.

  2. The Importance of Role Modeling in Mentoring Women: Lessons from Pat Summitt Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picariello Manuela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of mentoring for women in sports industry has gathered attention among researchers in the past years (Bower, 2009; Bower, & Hums 2009, 2014; Weaver, & Chelladurai, 1999, 2002. Since few women are in leadership positions (Acosta, & Carpenter, 2014, cross-gender mentoring relationships are more likely to happen (Hopkins et al., 2008. However, according to Kram (1985, cross-gender mentoring relationships are more complex in terms of individual development and quality of the developmental relationship. In particular, role modeling function is limited (Kram, 1985. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the functions of the same gender mentoring relationships looking at coach Pat Summitt, the winningest coach in NCAA Division I basketball history and a woman in leadership position (Becker & Wrisberg, 2008. Due to the exploratory nature of the study and the huge impact of Pat Summitt on sport (Janssen, & Dale, 2002, De Marco, & Mccullick, 1997, a single case study design to analyze her relationships from the staff and players’ perspectives was utilized as the method for data collection. This study collected data published on American news sites located using Internet search engines Google News (http://www.google.com for 7 days. The dataset included content published through national and regional online news media, radio, television and entertainment websites and blogs. Texts were qualitatively reviewed with a content analysis and coded (Patton, 2002. This study identified career and psychosocial functions that were important in developing an effective mentoring relationships. In particular, the psychosocial functions of “role modeling” was identified as the most important for the relationship. In fact a female mentor as a role model can be perceived as a woman that has successfully overcome discriminatory barriers to career advancement.

  3. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells in neurological disease modeling: the importance of nonhuman primate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Z

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhifang Qiu,1,2 Steven L Farnsworth,2 Anuja Mishra,1,2 Peter J Hornsby1,21Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USAAbstract: The development of the technology for derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells from human patients and animal models has opened up new pathways to the better understanding of many human diseases, and has created new opportunities for therapeutic approaches. Here, we consider one important neurological disease, Parkinson's, the development of relevant neural cell lines for studying this disease, and the animal models that are available for testing the survival and function of the cells, following transplantation into the central nervous system. Rapid progress has been made recently in the application of protocols for neuroectoderm differentiation and neural patterning of pluripotent stem cells. These developments have resulted in the ability to produce large numbers of dopaminergic neurons with midbrain characteristics for further study. These cells have been shown to be functional in both rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP models of Parkinson's disease. Patient-specific iPS cells and derived dopaminergic neurons have been developed, in particular from patients with genetic causes of Parkinson's disease. For complete modeling of the disease, it is proposed that the introduction of genetic changes into NHP iPS cells, followed by studying the phenotype of the genetic change in cells transplanted into the NHP as host animal, will yield new insights into disease processes not possible with rodent models alone.Keywords: Parkinson's disease, pluripotent cell differentiation, neural cell lines, dopaminergic neurons, cell transplantation, animal models

  4. Import of TAT-Conjugated Propionyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Using Models of Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Renata; Majtan, Tomas; Park, Insun; Kraus, Jan P

    2018-03-15

    Propionic acidemia is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme propionyl coenzyme A carboxylase (PCC) located in the mitochondrial matrix. Cell-penetrating peptides, including transactivator of transcription (TAT), offer a potential to deliver a cargo into the mitochondrion. Here, we investigated the delivery of an α 6 β 6 PCC enzyme into mitochondria using the HIV TAT peptide at several levels: into isolated mitochondria, in patient fibroblast cells, and in a mouse model. Results from Western blots and enzyme activity assays confirmed the import of TAT-PCC into mitochondria, as well as into patient fibroblasts, where the colocalization of imported TAT-PCC and mitochondria was also confirmed by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, a single-dose intraperitoneal injection into PCC-deficient mice decreased the propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine (C3/C2) ratio toward the normal level. These results show that a cell-penetrating peptide can deliver active multimeric enzyme into mitochondria in vitro , in situ , and in vivo and push the size limit of intracellular delivery achieved so far. Our results are promising for other mitochondrion-specific deficiencies. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. A tool to convert CAD models for importation into Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuosalo, C.; Carlsmith, D.; Dasu, S.; Palladino, K.; LUX-ZEPLIN Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The engineering design of a particle detector is usually performed in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) program, and simulation of the detector’s performance can be done with a Geant4-based program. However, transferring the detector design from the CAD program to Geant4 can be laborious and error-prone. SW2GDML is a tool that reads a design in the popular SOLIDWORKS CAD program and outputs Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML), used by Geant4 for importing and exporting detector geometries. Other methods for outputting CAD designs are available, such as the STEP format, and tools exist to convert these formats into GDML. However, these conversion methods produce very large and unwieldy designs composed of tessellated solids that can reduce Geant4 performance. In contrast, SW2GDML produces compact, human-readable GDML that employs standard geometric shapes rather than tessellated solids. This paper will describe the development and current capabilities of SW2GDML and plans for its enhancement. The aim of this tool is to automate importation of detector engineering models into Geant4-based simulation programs to support rapid, iterative cycles of detector design, simulation, and optimization.

  6. Disjointness Preserving and Functional Type Disjointness Preserving Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ganesa Moorthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new concept called functional type disjointness preserving operators is introduced and structure of disjointness preserving and functional type disjointness preserving operators on some function spaces are analysed.

  7. Light neutron-rich hypernuclei from the importance-truncated no-core shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Roland; Roth, Robert

    2018-04-01

    We explore the systematics of ground-state and excitation energies in singly-strange hypernuclei throughout the helium and lithium isotopic chains - from He5Λ to He11Λ and from Li7Λ to Li12Λ - in the ab initio no-core shell model with importance truncation. All calculations are based on two- and three-baryon interaction from chiral effective field theory and we employ a similarity renormalization group transformation consistently up to the three-baryon level to improve the model-space convergence. While the absolute energies of hypernuclear states show a systematic variation with the regulator cutoff of the hyperon-nucleon interaction, the resulting neutron separation energies are very stable and in good agreement with available data for both nucleonic parents and their daughter hypernuclei. We provide predictions for the neutron separation energies and the spectra of neutron-rich hypernuclei that have not yet been observed experimentally. Furthermore, we find that the neutron drip lines in the helium and lithium isotopic chains are not changed by the addition of a hyperon.

  8. OPR-PPR, a Computer Program for Assessing Data Importance to Model Predictions Using Linear Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew J. Tonkin; Claire R. Tiedeman; D. Matthew Ely; and Mary C. Hill

    2007-08-16

    The OPR-PPR program calculates the Observation-Prediction (OPR) and Parameter-Prediction (PPR) statistics that can be used to evaluate the relative importance of various kinds of data to simulated predictions. The data considered fall into three categories: (1) existing observations, (2) potential observations, and (3) potential information about parameters. The first two are addressed by the OPR statistic; the third is addressed by the PPR statistic. The statistics are based on linear theory and measure the leverage of the data, which depends on the location, the type, and possibly the time of the data being considered. For example, in a ground-water system the type of data might be a head measurement at a particular location and time. As a measure of leverage, the statistics do not take into account the value of the measurement. As linear measures, the OPR and PPR statistics require minimal computational effort once sensitivities have been calculated. Sensitivities need to be calculated for only one set of parameter values; commonly these are the values estimated through model calibration. OPR-PPR can calculate the OPR and PPR statistics for any mathematical model that produces the necessary OPR-PPR input files. In this report, OPR-PPR capabilities are presented in the context of using the ground-water model MODFLOW-2000 and the universal inverse program UCODE_2005. The method used to calculate the OPR and PPR statistics is based on the linear equation for prediction standard deviation. Using sensitivities and other information, OPR-PPR calculates (a) the percent increase in the prediction standard deviation that results when one or more existing observations are omitted from the calibration data set; (b) the percent decrease in the prediction standard deviation that results when one or more potential observations are added to the calibration data set; or (c) the percent decrease in the prediction standard deviation that results when potential information on one

  9. OPR-PPR, a Computer Program for Assessing Data Importance to Model Predictions Using Linear Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Matthew J.; Tiedeman, Claire; Ely, D. Matthew; Hill, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    The OPR-PPR program calculates the Observation-Prediction (OPR) and Parameter-Prediction (PPR) statistics that can be used to evaluate the relative importance of various kinds of data to simulated predictions. The data considered fall into three categories: (1) existing observations, (2) potential observations, and (3) potential information about parameters. The first two are addressed by the OPR statistic; the third is addressed by the PPR statistic. The statistics are based on linear theory and measure the leverage of the data, which depends on the location, the type, and possibly the time of the data being considered. For example, in a ground-water system the type of data might be a head measurement at a particular location and time. As a measure of leverage, the statistics do not take into account the value of the measurement. As linear measures, the OPR and PPR statistics require minimal computational effort once sensitivities have been calculated. Sensitivities need to be calculated for only one set of parameter values; commonly these are the values estimated through model calibration. OPR-PPR can calculate the OPR and PPR statistics for any mathematical model that produces the necessary OPR-PPR input files. In this report, OPR-PPR capabilities are presented in the context of using the ground-water model MODFLOW-2000 and the universal inverse program UCODE_2005. The method used to calculate the OPR and PPR statistics is based on the linear equation for prediction standard deviation. Using sensitivities and other information, OPR-PPR calculates (a) the percent increase in the prediction standard deviation that results when one or more existing observations are omitted from the calibration data set; (b) the percent decrease in the prediction standard deviation that results when one or more potential observations are added to the calibration data set; or (c) the percent decrease in the prediction standard deviation that results when potential information on one

  10. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus......When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  11. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  12. Preservation of information resources in libraries : new challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kademani, B. S.; Kalyane, V. L.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance and need of preservation of information resources in libraries, factors that affect degradation and deterioration of library materials and methods of tackling them. It also discusses the preservation problems that are associated with the digital information and the challenges faced by the librarians in preserving the intellectual content contained in the digital media.

  13. Towards Long-Term Preservation Policy in Electronic Archive

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Karim Bjaja

    2005-01-01

    A Study about long-term preservation policy in electronic archives, it deals the important of the electronic government, then the challenges of preservation in electronic archives, and the media which use in preservation, and puts a policy for managing the electronic archives.

  14. Role of hepatocytes and bile duct cells in preservation-reperfusion injury of liver grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukan, M; Haddad, P S

    2001-05-01

    In liver transplantation, it is currently hypothesized that nonparenchymal cell damage and/or activation is the major cause of preservation-related graft injury. Because parenchymal cells (hepatocytes) appear morphologically well preserved even after extended cold preservation, their injury after warm reperfusion is ascribed to the consequences of nonparenchymal cell damage and/or activation. However, accumulating evidence over the past decade indicated that the current hypothesis cannot fully explain preservation-related liver graft injury. We review data obtained in animal and human liver transplantation and isolated perfused animal livers, as well as isolated cell models to highlight growing evidence of the importance of hepatocyte disturbances in the pathogenesis of normal and fatty graft injury. Particular attention is given to preservation time-dependent decreases in high-energy adenine nucleotide levels in liver cells, a circumstance that (1) sensitizes hepatocytes to various stimuli and insults, (2) correlates well with graft function after liver transplantation, and (3) may also underlie the preservation time-dependent increase in endothelial cell damage. We also review damage to bile duct cells, which is increasingly being recognized as important in the long-lasting phase of reperfusion injury. The role of hydrophobic bile salts in that context is particularly assessed. Finally, a number of avenues aimed at preserving hepatocyte and bile duct cell integrity are discussed in the context of liver transplantation therapy as a complement to reducing nonparenchymal cell damage and/or activation.

  15. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  16. The Importance of Preservation of Autochthonous Biotope of Pannonian Plane in the Area of Special Nature Reserve “Pašnjaci Velike Droplje“ for Education and Ecotourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Pasic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past the region of Vojvodina was dominated by vast steppes, saline areas, marshes and flooded terrains. Wet terrains were converted into steppes during the Holocene climate changes, but the land under cultivation is gradually taking their place, too. Autochthonous biotope is preserved in some regions of Vojvodina. These regions are under state protection. Special nature reserve “Pašnjaci velike droplje“consists of saline areas and vast steppes and it is the only habitat of Great Bustard in Serbia. Reserve is located in north Banat. Development of ecotourism is based upon endangered ornithology species, heterogeneous fauna as well as upon up the educational purpose of the reserve. There are also possibilities for organizing of photo safaris and nature schools in the reserve. In order to protect autochthonous biotope, legal regulations on protection should be obeyed, fields should be revitalized i.e. they should be transformed into former state of natural mosaic of vast steppes and saline areas.

  17. Evaluating the importance of surface soil contributions to reservoir sediment in alpine environments: a combined modelling and fingerprinting approach in the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, L.; Gaspar, L.; Latorre, B.; Blake, W. H.; Navas, A.

    2014-09-01

    Soil in alpine environments plays a key role in the development of ecosystem services and in order to maintain and preserve this important resource, information is required on processes that lead to soil erosion. Similar to other mountain alpine environments, the Benasque catchment is characterised by temperatures below freezing that can last from November to April, intense rainfall events, typically in spring and autumn, and rugged topography which makes assessment of erosion challenging. Indirect approaches to soil erosion assessment, such as combined model approaches, offer an opportunity to evaluate soil erosion in such areas. In this study (i) the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrological and erosion model and (ii) sediment fingerprinting procedures were used in parallel to assess the viability of a combined modelling and tracing approach to evaluate soil erosion processes in the area of the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park (central Spanish Pyrenees). Soil erosion rates and sediment contribution of potential sediment sources defined by soil type (Kastanozems/Phaeozems; Fluvisols and Cambisols) were assessed. The SWAT model suggested that, with the highest specific sediment yields, Cambisols are the main source of sediment in the Benasque catchment and Phaeozems and Fluvisols were identified as the lowest sediment contributors. Spring and winter model runs gave the highest and lowest specific sediment yield, respectively. In contrast, sediment fingerprinting analysis identified Fluvisols, which dominate the riparian zone, as the main sediment source at the time of sampling. This indicates the importance of connectivity as well as potential differences in the source dynamic of material in storage versus that transported efficiently from the system at times of high flow. The combined approach enabled us to better understand soil erosion processes in the Benasque alpine catchment, wherein SWAT identified areas of potential high sediment yield in large flood

  18. Applying volumetric weather radar data for rainfall runoff modeling: The importance of error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Delobbe, L.; Weerts, A.; Reggiani, P.

    2009-04-01

    In the current study half a year of volumetric radar data for the period October 1, 2002 until March 31, 2003 is being analyzed which was sampled at 5 minutes intervals by C-band Doppler radar situated at an elevation of 600 m in the southern Ardennes region, Belgium. During this winter half year most of the rainfall has a stratiform character. Though radar and raingauge will never sample the same amount of rainfall due to differences in sampling strategies, for these stratiform situations differences between both measuring devices become even larger due to the occurrence of a bright band (the point where ice particles start to melt intensifying the radar reflectivity measurement). For these circumstances the radar overestimates the amount of precipitation and because in the Ardennes bright bands occur within 1000 meter from the surface, it's detrimental effects on the performance of the radar can already be observed at relatively close range (e.g. within 50 km). Although the radar is situated at one of the highest points in the region, very close to the radar clutter is a serious problem. As a result both nearby and farther away, using uncorrected radar results in serious errors when estimating the amount of precipitation. This study shows the effect of carefully correcting for these radar errors using volumetric radar data, taking into account the vertical reflectivity profile of the atmosphere, the effects of attenuation and trying to limit the amount of clutter. After applying these correction algorithms, the overall differences between radar and raingauge are much smaller which emphasizes the importance of carefully correcting radar rainfall measurements. The next step is to assess the effect of using uncorrected and corrected radar measurements on rainfall-runoff modeling. The 1597 km2 Ourthe catchment lies within 60 km of the radar. Using a lumped hydrological model serious improvement in simulating observed discharges is found when using corrected radar

  19. Nuclear Knowledge Preservation in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2006-01-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna, Austria) was founded in 1957 as an autonomous intergovernmental organization, it was authorized for exchange of technical and scientific information on peaceful uses of atomic energy. 35 years ago the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) was established from IAEA as an international bibliographic database in the nuclear field and in nuclear related areas. INIS as an instrument for a comprehensive and systematic dissemination of all information and knowledge becomes a big technological and science information system with 134 Members (114 countries and 20 international organizations). In INIS Membership Arrangements all Members are responsible for the collection, selection, description of information and providing the Agency with the full text of each item of non-conventional literature. Participation of each Member is important because decentralized information management is an operational philosophy of INIS. During all these years status of nuclear power changed significantly in the world. Some developing countries started to develop nuclear power programme and some developed countries showed tendency to decrease use of nuclear power. Anyway, expert knowledge accumulated over decades and the achievements in the field of nuclear science and technology have to be preserved and later transferred to future generations. It became obvious that the INIS is practically a pioneer in the area of nuclear knowledge preservation with well defined goals of knowledge preservation: selection of the most valuable information to convey to the future, ensuring that it remains accessible, readable and understandable and management of technological change. Main components of knowledge preservation are: selection of information for preservation including evaluation and prioritisation by value, use and risk, information capture (purchasing, copy, digitise, web links), describing, classifying, store and access

  20. Importance-truncated no-core shell model for fermionic many-body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, Helena

    2017-03-15

    The exact solution of quantum mechanical many-body problems is only possible for few particles. Therefore, numerical methods were developed in the fields of quantum physics and quantum chemistry for larger particle numbers. Configuration Interaction (CI) methods or the No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) allow ab initio calculations for light and intermediate-mass nuclei, without resorting to phenomenology. An extension of the NCSM is the Importance-Truncated No-Core Shell Model, which uses an a priori selection of the most important basis states. The importance truncation was first developed and applied in quantum chemistry in the 1970s and latter successfully applied to models of light and intermediate mass nuclei. Other numerical methods for calculations for ultra-cold fermionic many-body systems are the Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo method (FN-DMC) and the stochastic variational approach with Correlated Gaussian basis functions (CG). There are also such method as the Coupled-Cluster method, Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) method, et cetera, used for calculation of many-body systems. In this thesis, we adopt the IT-NCSM for the calculation of ultra-cold Fermi gases at unitarity. Ultracold gases are dilute, strongly correlated systems, in which the average interparticle distance is much larger than the range of the interaction. Therefore, the detailed radial dependence of the potential is not resolved, and the potential can be replaced by an effective contact interaction. At low energy, s-wave scattering dominates and the interaction can be described by the s-wave scattering length. If the scattering length is small and negative, Cooper-pairs are formed in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime. If the scattering length is small and positive, these Cooper-pairs become strongly bound molecules in a Bose-Einstein-Condensate (BEC). In between (for large scattering lengths) is the unitary limit with universal properties. Calculations of the energy spectra

  1. Production inventory model for two-level trade credit financing under the effect of preservation technology and learning in supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the inventory model for a retailer under two levels of trade credit to reflect the supply chain management. Supplier offers trade credit period of M to the retailer while in turn retailer provides a trade credit period of N to his/her customers. The supplier is willing to provide the retailer a full trade credit period for payments and the retailer offers the partial trade credit period to his/her customers. Here, selling items are considered as perishable items such as fruits, fresh fishes, gasoline, photographic films, etc. so that its potential worth decreases. It is assumed that decay in potential worth of items can be increased by using preservation technology. The demand is considered as the function of selling price and trade credit. Ordering cost can be reducing due to learning by doing phenomenon. By applying convex fractional programming results, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions of an optimal solution. Some theorems are developed to determine retailer’s optimal ordering policies and numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems. In addition, some managerial insights from the numerical examples are also concluded.

  2. Uniform low-level dystrophin expression in the heart partially preserved cardiac function in an aged mouse model of Duchenne cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasala, Nalinda B; Yue, Yongping; Vance, Jenna; Duan, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Dystrophin deficiency results in Duchenne cardiomyopathy, a primary cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Gene therapy has shown great promise in ameliorating the cardiac phenotype in mouse models of DMD. However, it is not completely clear how much dystrophin is required to treat dystrophic heart disease. We and others have shown that mosaic dystrophin expression at the wild-type level, depending on the percentage of dystrophin positive cardiomyocytes, can either delay the onset of or fully prevent cardiomyopathy in dystrophin-null mdx mice. Many gene therapy strategies will unlikely restore dystrophin to the wild-type level in a cardiomyocyte. To determine whether low-level dystrophin expression can reduce the cardiac manifestations in DMD, we examined heart histology, ECG and hemodynamics in 21-m-old normal BL6 and two strains of BL6-background dystrophin-deficient mice. Mdx3cv mice show uniform low-level expression of a near full-length dystrophin protein in every myofiber while mdx4cv mice have no dystrophin expression. Immunostaining and western blot confirmed marginal level dystrophin expression in the heart of mdx3cv mice. Although low-level expression did not reduce myocardial histopathology, it significantly ameliorated QRS prolongation and normalized diastolic hemodynamic deficiencies. Our study demonstrates for the first time that low-level dystrophin can partially preserve heart function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intracerebroventricular gene therapy that delays neurological disease progression is associated with selective preservation of retinal ganglion cells in a canine model of CLN2 disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Rebecca E H; Jensen, Cheryl A; Pearce, Jacqueline W; Gillespie, Lauren E; Bristow, Daniel E; Katz, Martin L

    2016-05-01

    CLN2 disease is one of a group of lysosomal storage disorders called the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs). The disease results from mutations in the TPP1 gene that cause an insufficiency or complete lack of the soluble lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1). TPP1 is involved in lysosomal protein degradation, and lack of this enzyme results in the accumulation of protein-rich autofluorescent lysosomal storage bodies in numerous cell types including neurons throughout the central nervous system and the retina. CLN2 disease is characterized primarily by progressive loss of neurological functions and vision as well as generalized neurodegeneration and retinal degeneration. In children the progressive loss of neurological functions typically results in death by the early teenage years. A Dachshund model of CLN2 disease with a null mutation in TPP1 closely recapitulates the human disorder with a progression from disease onset at approximately 4 months of age to end-stage at 10-11 months. Delivery of functional TPP1 to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), either by periodic infusion of the recombinant protein or by a single administration of a TPP1 gene therapy vector to the CSF, significantly delays the onset and progression of neurological signs and prolongs life span but does not prevent the loss of vision or modest retinal degeneration that occurs by 11 months of age. In this study we found that in dogs that received the CSF gene therapy treatment, the degeneration of the retina and loss of retinal function continued to progress during the prolonged life spans of the treated dogs. Eventually the normal cell layers of the retina almost completely disappeared. An exception was the ganglion cell layer. In affected dogs that received TPP1 gene therapy to the CSF and survived an average of 80 weeks, ganglion cell axons were present in numbers comparable to those of normal Dachshunds of similar age. The selective preservation of the retinal ganglion cells suggests

  4. Importance of biogeochemical processes in modeling stream chemistry in two watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, Thomas; Brown, Aaron; Bales, Roger C.

    1998-11-01

    Two small (0.22 and 0.48 ha) alpine watersheds in the Sierra Nevada of California were studied during the 1992 and 1993 snowmelt seasons to evaluate the importance of soil properties and processes on chemical concentrations in the discharges from each watershed. Watershed 1 was surveyed as having 26% soil cover, whereas watershed 2 was 10% soil covered. Watershed 2 had greater H+ and nitrogen consumption than watershed 1 but similar cation and sulfate concentrations despite having one fourth the surveyed soil volume per unit area as watershed 1. Daily stream concentrations simulated with the Alpine Hydrochemical Model (AHM) matched the data well, after a systematic model calibration with a subset of the data. We found that the structure of the AHM and the hydrologic parameters developed for the nearby 1.2 km2 Emerald Lake watershed could be applied to these watersheds with only small adjustments; chemical parameters required considerably more adjustment, reflecting a greater degree of chemical versus physical heterogeneity at this scale. Calibration for watershed 2 gave a higher percent base saturation (19 versus 4%) and lower streamversus 10-2.6 atm) than for watershed 1 and three times the soil reactivity (expected) of a field survey. Areas mapped as exposed bedrock in the catchments apparently contributed cations and alkalinity to stream water to a greater extent than did neighboring areas of soil. Areas of exposed bedrock were a larger nitrogen sink than the adjoining areas of soil. The pH and acid-neutralizing capacity of surface runoff in both catchments were less sensitive to changes in atmospheric deposition than at the nearby Emerald Lake watershed. This decreased sensitivity was due to (1) a less pronounced ionic pulse, (2) less retention of sulfate in the soil, and (3) greater nitrate retention.

  5. Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Climate Change Adaptation Methods Relating to the Preservation of Urban Coastal Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, B. R.; Routhier, M.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Gopalakrishnan, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Government Accountability Office’s report, Climate Change Adaption, examines federal, state, local, and international mitigation actions for climate change and sea-level rise. The report specifically addresses the dearth of Site-Specific Information relating to the effects of climate change on a localized scale and the challenges this poses for the development of adaption strategies. We are developing a model that will begin to regionalize climate change projections for the purpose of projecting the effects of climate change on coastal cultural heritage. As global sea level increases, so too will the number of historically significant landscapes that are threatened due to sea-level rise. Because of this, historical preservationists will require a greater availability of pertinent information in order to contend with the threats posed by climate change and rising sea levels. These threats will have a far greater impact on Low Elevation Coastal Zones (LECZ) areas. The US ranks third for land mass classified as LECZ and has an estimated population of 22 million people living within these regions. Many of these areas have had high population densities due to the concentration of marine fishery resources, ease of transportation, and agricultural associations with river deltas. These areas have acted as catalysts for the evolution of various societies and cultures, and contain a concentrated stratification of cultural heritage deposits. The development of models for the assessment of spatial/temporal impacts of climate change on coastal cultural heritage will play a significant role in defining long-term preservation needs on a regional scale. We are coordinating ground water seepage models, tidal estuary models, and the regionalized Global Climate Models with localized geophysical assessments and GIS data sets. Through the digitization and rectification of various contemporary and historical maps we have developed a GIS data set that reflects the evolution of the

  6. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about VA...

  7. Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Nielsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    History preserving bisimilarity (hp-bisimilarity) and hereditary history preserving bisimilarity (hhp-bisimilarity) are behavioural equivalences taking into account causal relationships between events of concurrent systems. Their prominent feature is being preserved under action refinement......, an operation important for the top-down design of concurrent systems. We show that-unlike hp-bisimilarity-checking hhp-bisimilarity for finite labelled asynchronous transition systems is not decidable, by a reduction from the halting problem of 2-counter machines. To make the proof more transparent we...

  8. The importance of examining movements within the US health care system: sequential logit modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chioun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Utilization of specialty care may not be a discrete, isolated behavior but rather, a behavior of sequential movements within the health care system. Although patients may often visit their primary care physician and receive a referral before utilizing specialty care, prior studies have underestimated the importance of accounting for these sequential movements. Methods The sample included 6,772 adults aged 18 years and older who participated in the 2001 Survey on Disparities in Quality of Care, sponsored by the Commonwealth Fund. A sequential logit model was used to account for movement in all stages of utilization: use of any health services (i.e., first stage, having a perceived need for specialty care (i.e., second stage, and utilization of specialty care (i.e., third stage. In the sequential logit model, all stages are nested within the previous stage. Results Gender, race/ethnicity, education and poor health had significant explanatory effects with regard to use of any health services and having a perceived need for specialty care, however racial/ethnic, gender, and educational disparities were not present in utilization of specialty care. After controlling for use of any health services and having a perceived need for specialty care, inability to pay for specialty care via income (AOR = 1.334, CI = 1.10 to 1.62 or health insurance (unstable insurance: AOR = 0.26, CI = 0.14 to 0.48; no insurance: AOR = 0.12, CI = 0.07 to 0.20 were significant barriers to utilization of specialty care. Conclusions Use of a sequential logit model to examine utilization of specialty care resulted in a detailed representation of utilization behaviors and patient characteristics that impact these behaviors at all stages within the health care system. After controlling for sequential movements within the health care system, the biggest barrier to utilizing specialty care is the inability to pay, while racial, gender, and educational disparities

  9. Implementing digital preservation in repositories: Knowledge and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Groposo Pavão

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital preservation has to be undertaken by institutional repositories, which are responsible for the preservation of the scientific output from academic institutions. However, due to the constant evolution of the field, to gain domain knowledge and recognise best practices is a complex task for people responsible for digital preservation in those institutions. Digital preservation research, practices and solutions address specific problems, such as formats, curation, reference models, authenticity, policies and preservation plans, tools, etc., while stakeholders need an integrated, contextualized and applicable overview. This paper focuses on the implementation of digital preservation in repositories, from the perspective of the team responsible for the project, regarding the necessary knowledge and best practices. Initially, it defines and contextualizes digital preservation repositories. The following section presents a conceptual model of digital preservation, synthesized from conceptual models developed in influential projects in the field, which allows us to identify the domain knowledge in digital preservation. Finally, aspects represented in the model are discussed in the light of the performance of teams implementing digital preservation repositories. It provides recommendations, guides and examples that may be useful for the implementation of digital preservation. It points to the need to strengthen the relationship between domain knowledge in digital preservation repositories with practices developed in numerous projects developed worldwide.

  10. Rabbit models as tools for preclinical cardiac electrophysiological safety testing: Importance of repolarization reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczkó, István; Jost, Norbert; Virág, László; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Varró, András

    2016-07-01

    It is essential to more reliably assess the pro-arrhythmic liability of compounds in development. Current guidelines for pre-clinical and clinical testing of drug candidates advocate the use of healthy animals/tissues and healthy individuals and focus on the test compound's ability to block the hERG current and prolong cardiac ventricular repolarization. Also, pre-clinical safety tests utilize several species commonly used in cardiac electrophysiological studies. In this review, important species differences in cardiac ventricular repolarizing ion currents are considered, followed by the discussion on electrical remodeling associated with chronic cardiovascular diseases that leads to altered ion channel and transporter expression and densities in pathological settings. We argue that the choice of species strongly influences experimental outcome and extrapolation of results to human clinical settings. We suggest that based on cardiac cellular electrophysiology, the rabbit is a useful species for pharmacological pro-arrhythmic investigations. In addition to healthy animals and tissues, the use of animal models (e.g. those with impaired repolarization reserve) is suggested that more closely resemble subsets of patients exhibiting increased vulnerability towards the development of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. IntPath--an integrated pathway gene relationship database for model organisms and important pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hufeng; Jin, Jingjing; Zhang, Haojun; Yi, Bo; Wozniak, Michal; Wong, Limsoon

    2012-01-01

    Pathway data are important for understanding the relationship between genes, proteins and many other molecules in living organisms. Pathway gene relationships are crucial information for guidance, prediction, reference and assessment in biochemistry, computational biology, and medicine. Many well-established databases--e.g., KEGG, WikiPathways, and BioCyc--are dedicated to collecting pathway data for public access. However, the effectiveness of these databases is hindered by issues such as incompatible data formats, inconsistent molecular representations, inconsistent molecular relationship representations, inconsistent referrals to pathway names, and incomprehensive data from different databases. In this paper, we overcome these issues through extraction, normalization and integration of pathway data from several major public databases (KEGG, WikiPathways, BioCyc, etc). We build a database that not only hosts our integrated pathway gene relationship data for public access but also maintains the necessary updates in the long run. This public repository is named IntPath (Integrated Pathway gene relationship database for model organisms and important pathogens). Four organisms--S. cerevisiae, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, H. Sapiens and M. musculus--are included in this version (V2.0) of IntPath. IntPath uses the "full unification" approach to ensure no deletion and no introduced noise in this process. Therefore, IntPath contains much richer pathway-gene and pathway-gene pair relationships and much larger number of non-redundant genes and gene pairs than any of the single-source databases. The gene relationships of each gene (measured by average node degree) per pathway are significantly richer. The gene relationships in each pathway (measured by average number of gene pairs per pathway) are also considerably richer in the integrated pathways. Moderate manual curation are involved to get rid of errors and noises from source data (e.g., the gene ID errors in WikiPathways and

  12. Religion and settlement as preservers of ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjaktarović Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A separate ethnic group living in an isolated settlement could preserve ethnic identity even when surrounded by an alien ethnic environment. This is even more likely to happen if the ethnic group in question has a different religious affiliation than the rest, since the religious affiliation and ethnicity were often equated in the area examined. This paper presents a few cases of ethnicity preservation (sometimes its loss, namely: (1 The Sarakačans group (a Greek speaking ancient Balkan population; that is, its lineage Ašana in Goč (nearby Kraljevo; (2 Serbs in White Krajina (Slovenia and Zumberka (Croatia; (3 Serbs from former Montenegro settled in the village of Peroj, in Istria; (4 Catholic Albanians, tribe Klimenti settled in Srem' villages Nikinci, Hrtkovci and Jarak, who declare themselves to be Croatians today; (5 A Serbian population from Montenegro and parts of Herzegovina (various tribes from Ceklina, Bjelopavlić, Riječka nahija, Njeguš, Grahovo and Zubac, from Petlovo Selo, in northeast Serbia (6 Torbeša families, from the group Mijaka, an originally Slav-Islamic population in the Crni Drim area, that immigrated in the 1960's to Izmir, in Turkey; (7. Janjevci, Catholics of a mixed Slavic origin, from Janjevo near Priština; in the past they declared themselves natives of Dubrovnik but lately declared themselves Croatians; (8. Slovak Adventists from Gospođinci, in Srem, who declare themselves to be Serbs; and (9. Slovaks Greco-Catholic, from Kučura, Bačka, who declare themselves as Ruthenians although their native language is Slovakian. In conclusion, the author argues that ethnic identity preservation depends on a lot of factors and circumstances, among which the most important are settlement and religious affiliation. Many of the positive experiences of multilingual, multinational and multireligious tolerances in the area could serve as a model in other potentially troubled multicultural environments.

  13. The importance of connexin hemichannels during chondroprogenitor cell differentiation in hydrogel versus microtissue culture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrobback, Karsten; Klein, Travis Jacob; Woodfield, Tim B F

    2015-06-01

    Appropriate selection of scaffold architecture is a key challenge in cartilage tissue engineering. Gap junction-mediated intercellular contacts play important roles in precartilage condensation of mesenchymal cells. However, scaffold architecture could potentially restrict cell-cell communication and differentiation. This is particularly important when choosing the appropriate culture platform as well as scaffold-based strategy for clinical translation, that is, hydrogel or microtissues, for investigating differentiation of chondroprogenitor cells in cartilage tissue engineering. We, therefore, studied the influence of gap junction-mediated cell-cell communication on chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) and articular chondrocytes. Expanded human chondrocytes and BM-MSCs were either (re-) differentiated in micromass cell pellets or encapsulated as isolated cells in alginate hydrogels. Samples were treated with and without the gap junction inhibitor 18-α glycyrrhetinic acid (18αGCA). DNA and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and gene expression levels (collagen I/II/X, aggrecan, and connexin 43) were quantified at various time points. Protein localization was determined using immunofluorescence, and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) was measured in conditioned media. While GAG/DNA was higher in alginate compared with pellets for chondrocytes, there were no differences in chondrogenic gene expression between culture models. Gap junction blocking reduced collagen II and extracellular ATP in all chondrocyte cultures and in BM-MSC hydrogels. However, differentiation capacity was not abolished completely by 18αGCA. Connexin 43 levels were high throughout chondrocyte cultures and peaked only later during BM-MSC differentiation, consistent with the delayed response of BM-MSCs to 18αGCA. Alginate hydrogels and microtissues are equally suited culture platforms for the chondrogenic (re-)differentiation of expanded human articular

  14. Modeling Leptospirosis in Trinidad, West Indies: A Waterborne Zoonosis of Increasing Public Health Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, M. C.; Opadeyi, J.

    2012-12-01

    draining soils, percentage of imperfectly draining soils, percentage of impeded draining soils and mean annual rainfall. These covariables together with socio-economic data were used to set up the GWR models. Local model correlation (R^{2}) was 0.78, higher than the global correlation of 0.58 and there was found to be a clear spatial correlation between covariables and leptospirosis cases. Percentage of draining soils and topography were found to be significant (p<0.01 and 0.00) indicating spatial variability in the influence of these factors on the occurrence of leptospirosis in Trinidad communities. Composition of the soils and their lack of drainage may be an important factor influencing leptospirosis occurrence. Leptospires do not have a waterproof membrane therefore for their survival they must remain submersed in water. Previous studies have found leptospires to be associated with soils of high moisture and organic matter content.

  15. Preserving geomorphic data records of flood disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah; Meade, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    No central database or repository is currently available in the USA to preserve long-term, spatially extensive records of fluvial geomorphic data or to provide future accessibility. Yet, because of their length and continuity these data are valuable for future research. Therefore, we built a public accessible website to preserve data records of two examples of long-term monitoring (40 and 18 years) of the fluvial geomorphic response to natural disturbances. One disturbance was ∼50-year flood on Powder River in Montana in 1978, and the second disturbance was a catastrophic flood on Spring Creek following a ∼100-year rainstorm after a wildfire in Colorado in 1996.Two critical issues arise relative to preserving fluvial geomorphic data. The first is preserving the data themselves, but the second, and just as important, is preserving information about the location of the field research sites where the data were collected so the sites can be re-located and re-surveyed in the future. The latter allows long-term datasets to be extended into the future and to provide critical background data for interpreting future landscape changes. Data were preserved on a website to allow world-wide accessibility and to upload new data to the website as they become available. We describe the architecture of the website, lessons learned in developing the website, future improvements, and recommendations on how also to preserve information about the location of field research sites.

  16. Dimensionality Reduction with Subspace Structure Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Arpit, Devansh; Nwogu, Ifeoma; Govindaraju, Venu

    2014-01-01

    Modeling data as being sampled from a union of independent subspaces has been widely applied to a number of real world applications. However, dimensionality reduction approaches that theoretically preserve this independence assumption have not been well studied. Our key contribution is to show that $2K$ projection vectors are sufficient for the independence preservation of any $K$ class data sampled from a union of independent subspaces. It is this non-trivial observation that we use for desi...

  17. Planets: Integrated Services for Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Farquhar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Planets Project is developing services and technology to address core challenges in digital preservation. This article introduces the motivation for this work, describes the extensible technical architecture and places the Planets approach into the context of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS Reference Model. It also provides a scenario demonstrating Planets’ usefulness in solving real-life digital preservation problems and an overview of the project’s progress to date.

  18. Planets: Integrated Services for Digital Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Farquhar, Adam; Hockx-Yu, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Planets Project is developing services and technology to address core challenges in digital preservation. This article introduces the motivation for this work, describes the extensible technical architecture and places the Planets approach into the context of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. It also provides a scenario demonstrating Planets’ usefulness in solving real-life digital preservation problems and an overview of the project’s progress to date.

  19. Sworn testimony of the model evidence : Gaussian Mixture Importance (GAME) sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpi, Elena; Schoups, G.H.W.; Firmani, Giovanni; Vrugt, Jasper A.

    2017-01-01

    What is the “best” model? The answer to this question lies in part in the eyes of the beholder, nevertheless a good model must blend rigorous theory with redeeming qualities such as parsimony and quality of fit. Model selection is used to make inferences, via weighted averaging, from a set of K

  20. This presentation will discuss how PLOS ONE collaborates with many different scientific communities to help create, share, and preserve the scholarly works produced by their researchers with emphasis on current common difficulties faced by communities, practical solutions, and a broader view of the importance of open data and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroffe, K.

    2017-12-01

    The mission of the Public Library of Science is to accelerate progress in science and medicine by leading a transformation in research communication. Researchers' ability to share their work without restriction is essential, but critical to sharing is open data, transparency in peer review, and an open approach to science assessment. In this session, we will discuss how PLOS ONE collaborates with many different scientific communities to help create, share, and preserve the scholarly works produced by their researchers with emphasis on current common difficulties faced by communities, practical solutions, and a broader view of the importance of open data and reproducibility.

  1. Preserved heart rate variability during therapeutic hypothermia correlated to 96 hrs neurological outcomes and survival in a pig model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqin; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Guan, Jun; Barbut, Denise; Bisera, Joe; Weil, Max Harry; Tang, Wanchun

    2012-02-01

    correlation between 4-hr heart rate variability and 96-hr cerebral performance category was observed in this study. Selective head cooling maintains a certain level of autonomic nervous system function in this pig model of cardiac arrest. The preserved heart rate variability during postresuscitation hypothermia was associated with favorable 96-hr neurologic recovery and survival.

  2. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  3. Preserving the Dnipro River

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These ideas call for a fundamental change in the structure of our scientific methodology and technological approaches, in addition to a fundamental change in our ...... This is the ideology and the administrative philosophy that is capable of preserving common humanitarian values, or natural values in a time of globalisation, ...

  4. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients of reprodu......In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...... data was encouraged. On the basis of the data presented, as well as the expertise of the invited speakers, a total of ten recommendations were discussed and prepared with the aim to help physicians in counseling their young patients interested in fertility preservation.Although there is a great...

  5. Estimation of Import Demand for Fishery Products in the U.S. Using the Source-Differentiated AIDS Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojin; Reed, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Fishery product imports by the U.S. have been gradually increasing in recent years. The leading exporting countries include Canada, Chile, China, Ecuador, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam. A source-differentiated Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model and its Error Correction Model (ECM) version are employed to investigate the static and dynamic U.S. import demand for fishery products from the top seven countries using monthly data from January 1999 to September 2012. Long-run and short-run ...

  6. Fertility preservation methods for female neoplastic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Pup, L.; Campagnutta, E.; Giorda, G.; De Piero, G.; Sopracordevole, F.; Sisto, R.

    2006-01-01

    Background. The ability to have biological children is of great importance to cancer patients and fertility preservation before the oncological treatment is nowadays not rare. Oncologists have the responsibility to inform patients about the risks that their cancer treatment will permanently impair fertility and about the ways to limit this iatrogenic damage. Methods of fertility preservation are evolving quickly, yet the medical oncology literature is still poor regarding this topic. Indications and contraindications, limits and controversies of the fertility sparing techniques are reviewed in order to help the oncologist to counsel patients. Conclusions. Any oncologist seeing reproductive-aged patients should discuss the fertility implications of the oncological treatment and the fertility preservation options. A referral to appropriate fertility specialists as early as possible is recommended. People attempting fertility preservation in the context of cancer treatment are encouraged to enrol in clinical trials. (author)

  7. Streamflow characteristics from modelled runoff time series: Importance of calibration criteria selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Sandra; Vis, Marc; Knight, Rodney; Seibert, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Ecologically relevant streamflow characteristics (SFCs) of ungauged catchments are often estimated from simulated runoff of hydrologic models that were originally calibrated on gauged catchments. However, SFC estimates of the gauged donor catchments and subsequently the ungauged catchments can be substantially uncertain when models are calibrated using traditional approaches based on optimization of statistical performance metrics (e.g., Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency). An improved calibration strategy for gauged catchments is therefore crucial to help reduce the uncertainties of estimated SFCs for ungauged catchments. The aim of this study was to improve SFC estimates from modeled runoff time series in gauged catchments by explicitly including one or several SFCs in the calibration process. Different types of objective functions were defined consisting of the Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency, single SFCs, or combinations thereof. We calibrated a bucket-type runoff model (HBV – Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenavdelning – model) for 25 catchments in the Tennessee River basin and evaluated the proposed calibration approach on 13 ecologically relevant SFCs representing major flow regime components and different flow conditions. While the model generally tended to underestimate the tested SFCs related to mean and high-flow conditions, SFCs related to low flow were generally overestimated. The highest estimation accuracies were achieved by a SFC-specific model calibration. Estimates of SFCs not included in the calibration process were of similar quality when comparing a multi-SFC calibration approach to a traditional model efficiency calibration. For practical applications, this implies that SFCs should preferably be estimated from targeted runoff model calibration, and modeled estimates need to be carefully interpreted.

  8. A Qualitative Examination of the Importance of Female Role Models in Investment Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Sealy, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    A number of practitioner surveys across a range of industries have cited the lack of senior female role models as a barrier to career progression. There is very little academic literature to explain this at a senior organizational level. An initial review of the extant role model literature led to the inclusion of two further related areas – organizational demographics, as a contextual factor affecting the availability of role models, and work identity development as a link bet...

  9. Streamflow characteristics from modeled runoff time series - importance of calibration criteria selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Sandra; Vis, Marc J. P.; Knight, Rodney R.; Seibert, Jan

    2017-11-01

    Ecologically relevant streamflow characteristics (SFCs) of ungauged catchments are often estimated from simulated runoff of hydrologic models that were originally calibrated on gauged catchments. However, SFC estimates of the gauged donor catchments and subsequently the ungauged catchments can be substantially uncertain when models are calibrated using traditional approaches based on optimization of statistical performance metrics (e.g., Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency). An improved calibration strategy for gauged catchments is therefore crucial to help reduce the uncertainties of estimated SFCs for ungauged catchments. The aim of this study was to improve SFC estimates from modeled runoff time series in gauged catchments by explicitly including one or several SFCs in the calibration process. Different types of objective functions were defined consisting of the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency, single SFCs, or combinations thereof. We calibrated a bucket-type runoff model (HBV - Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenavdelning - model) for 25 catchments in the Tennessee River basin and evaluated the proposed calibration approach on 13 ecologically relevant SFCs representing major flow regime components and different flow conditions. While the model generally tended to underestimate the tested SFCs related to mean and high-flow conditions, SFCs related to low flow were generally overestimated. The highest estimation accuracies were achieved by a SFC-specific model calibration. Estimates of SFCs not included in the calibration process were of similar quality when comparing a multi-SFC calibration approach to a traditional model efficiency calibration. For practical applications, this implies that SFCs should preferably be estimated from targeted runoff model calibration, and modeled estimates need to be carefully interpreted.

  10. Integrating retention soil filters into urban hydrologic models - Relevant processes and important parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann-Machnik, Anna; Meyer, Daniel; Waldhoff, Axel; Fuchs, Stephan; Dittmer, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    Retention Soil Filters (RSFs), a form of vertical flow constructed wetlands specifically designed for combined sewer overflow (CSO) treatment, have proven to be an effective tool to mitigate negative impacts of CSOs on receiving water bodies. Long-term hydrologic simulations are used to predict the emissions from urban drainage systems during planning of stormwater management measures. So far no universally accepted model for RSF simulation exists. When simulating hydraulics and water quality in RSFs, an appropriate level of detail must be chosen for reasonable balancing between model complexity and model handling, considering the model input's level of uncertainty. The most crucial parameters determining the resultant uncertainties of the integrated sewer system and filter bed model were identified by evaluating a virtual drainage system with a Retention Soil Filter for CSO treatment. To determine reasonable parameter ranges for RSF simulations, data of 207 events from six full-scale RSF plants in Germany were analyzed. Data evaluation shows that even though different plants with varying loading and operation modes were examined, a simple model is sufficient to assess relevant suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4 emissions from RSFs. Two conceptual RSF models with different degrees of complexity were assessed. These models were developed based on evaluation of data from full scale RSF plants and column experiments. Incorporated model processes are ammonium adsorption in the filter layer and degradation during subsequent dry weather period, filtration of SS and particulate COD (XCOD) to a constant background concentration and removal of solute COD (SCOD) by a constant removal rate during filter passage as well as sedimentation of SS and XCOD in the filter overflow. XCOD, SS and ammonium loads as well as ammonium concentration peaks are discharged primarily via RSF overflow not passing through the filter bed. Uncertainties of the integrated

  11. PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Cérin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

    Scientific data collected with modern sensors or dedicated detectors exceed very often the perimeter of the initial scientific design. These data are obtained more and more frequently with large material and human efforts. A large class of scientific experiments are in fact unique because of their large scale, with very small chances to be repeated and to superseded by new experiments in the same domain: for instance high energy physics and astrophysics experiments involve multi-annual developments and a simple duplication of efforts in order to reproduce old data is simply not affordable. Other scientific experiments are in fact unique by nature: earth science, medical sciences etc. since the collected data is "time-stamped" and thereby non-reproducible by new experiments or observations. In addition, scientific data collection increased dramatically in the recent years, participating to the so-called "data deluge" and inviting for common reflection in the context of "big data" investigations. The new knowledge obtained using these data should be preserved long term such that the access and the re-use are made possible and lead to an enhancement of the initial investment. Data observatories, based on open access policies and coupled with multi-disciplinary techniques for indexing and mining may lead to truly new paradigms in science. It is therefore of outmost importance to pursue a coherent and vigorous approach to preserve the scientific data at long term. The preservation remains nevertheless a challenge due to the complexity of the data structure, the fragility of the custom-made software environments as well as the lack of rigorous approaches in workflows and algorithms. To address this challenge, the PREDON project has been initiated in France in 2012 within the MASTODONS program: a Big Data scientific challenge, initiated and supported by the Interdisciplinary Mission of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). PREDON is a study group formed by

  12. Importance of fish behaviour in modelling conservation problems: food limitation as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Railsback; Bret Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Simulation experiments using the inSTREAM individual-based brown trout Salmo trutta population model explored the role of individual adaptive behaviour in food limitation, as an example of how behaviour can affect managers’ understanding of conservation problems. The model includes many natural complexities in habitat (spatial and temporal variation in characteristics...

  13. Landscape-based population viability models demonstrate importance of strategic conservation planning for birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; D. Todd. Jones-Farland

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve regional biodiversity in the face of global climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation will depend on approaches that consider population processes at multiple scales. By combining habitat and demographic modeling, landscape-based population viability models effectively relate small-scale habitat and landscape patterns to regional population...

  14. Importance of hydrological parameters in contaminant transport modeling in a terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuduki, Katsunori; Matsunaga, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    A grid type multi-layered distributed parameter model for calculating discharge in a watershed was described. Model verification with our field observation resulted in different sets of hydrological parameter values, all of which reproduced the observed discharge. The effect of those varied hydrological parameters on contaminant transport calculation was examined and discussed by simulation of event water transfer. (author)

  15. Biological mechanisms of normal tissue damage : Importance for the design of NTCP models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trott, Klaus-Ruediger; Doerr, Wolfgang; Facoetti, Angelica; Hopewell, John; Langendijk, Johannes; van Luijk, Peter; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Smyth, Vere

    2012-01-01

    The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models that are currently being proposed for estimation of risk of harm following radiotherapy are mainly based on simplified empirical models, consisting of dose,distribution parameters, possibly combined with clinical or other treatment-related

  16. On the importance of observational data properties when assessing regional climate model performance of extreme precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, Ole Bøssing

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of climate studies addressing changes in extreme precipitation. A common step in these studies involves the assessment of the climate model performance. This is often measured by comparing climate model output with observational data. In t...

  17. Tattoo preservation during surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stefania Tenna, Pietro Francesco Delle Femmine, Alfonso Luca Pendolino, Beniamino Brunetti, Paolo Persichetti Plastic Surgery Unit, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, University of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: In recent years, the number of people getting tattoos has continued to increase. Tattoos are much more than cultural fads and cosmetic complements, and nowadays often represent events that express the patient's personality without words. The presence of a tattoo in the surgical field may be a problem for both the patient and the surgeon. However, the relevant literature is mostly based on complications related to application of tattoos or methods used to remove them. To date, few reports have focused on the importance of preserving a tattoo during a surgical procedure, and no organized studies could be found. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the range of solutions that surgeons can use to preserve tattoos during surgery. A PubMed database search was done to assess other surgeons' experience. The terms "tattoo" in combination with "incision", "surgery", "surgical", or "operative" were used as key words. Following a review of the literature, photographs of patients presenting with a tattoo in the last 5 years at University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome were identified in order to determine the frequency of patients presenting with tattoos in our department. The patients were classified according to sex, age, type of surgery, number of tattoos, and tattoo location. Specific requests to preserve tattoos were recorded. Finally, an algorithm of treatment according to tattoo dimension and location is proposed. Knowledge of all the strategies available for saving tattoos is important for plastic and cosmetic surgeons. If a tattooed area needs to be operated on, surgeons should attempt, when possible, to avoid altering the tattoo in order to maximize the final cosmetic result. Keywords: tattoo incision, body contouring, surgery

  18. Modeling the Encephalopathy of Prematurity in Animals: The Important Role of Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah C. Kinney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Translational research in preterm brain injury depends upon the delineation of the human neuropathology in order that animal models faithfully reiterate it, thereby ensuring direct relevance to the human condition. The major substrate of human preterm brain injury is the encephalopathy of prematurity that is characterized by gray and white matter lesions reflecting combined acquired insults, altered developmental trajectories, and reparative phenomena. Here we highlight the key features of human preterm brain development and the encephalopathy of prematurity that are critical for modeling in animals. The complete mimicry of the complex human neuropathology is difficult in animal models. Many models focus upon mechanisms related to a specific feature, for example, loss of premyelinating oligodendrocytes in the cerebral white matter. Nevertheless, animal models that simultaneously address oligodendrocyte, neuronal, and axonal injury carry the potential to decipher shared mechanisms and synergistic treatments to ameliorate the global consequences of the encephalopathy of prematurity.

  19. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  20. Relative importance of fuel management, ignition management and weather for area burned: Evidence from five landscape-fire-succession models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey J. Cary; Mike D. Flannigan; Robert E. Keane; Ross A. Bradstock; Ian D. Davies; James M. Lenihan; Chao Li; Kimberley A. Logan; Russell A. Parsons

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of five landscape fire models (CAFE, FIRESCAPE, LAMOS(HS), LANDSUM and SEMLAND) was compared in a standardised modelling experiment. The importance of fuel management approach, fuel management effort, ignition management effort and weather in determining variation in area burned and number of edge pixels burned (a measure of potential impact on assets...

  1. On the importance of methods in hydrological modelling. Perspectives from a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicia, Fabrizio; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2017-04-01

    The hydrological community generally appreciates that developing any non-trivial hydrological model requires a multitude of modelling choices. These choices may range from a (seemingly) straightforward application of mass conservation, to the (often) guesswork-like selection of constitutive functions, parameter values, etc. The application of a model itself requires a myriad of methodological choices - the selection of numerical solvers, objective functions for model calibration, validation approaches, performance metrics, etc. Not unreasonably, hydrologists embarking on ever ambitious projects prioritize hydrological insight over the morass of methodological choices. Perhaps to emphasize "ideas" over "methods", some journals have even reduced the fontsize of the methodology sections of its articles. However, the very nature of modelling is that seemingly routine methodological choices can significantly affect the conclusions of case studies and investigations - making it dangerous to skimp over methodological details in an enthusiastic rush towards the next great hydrological idea. This talk shares modelling insights from a hydrological study of a 300 km2 catchment in Luxembourg, where the diversity of hydrograph dynamics observed at 10 locations begs the question of whether external forcings or internal catchment properties act as dominant controls on streamflow generation. The hydrological insights are fascinating (at least to us), but in this talk we emphasize the impact of modelling methodology on case study conclusions and recommendations. How did we construct our prior set of hydrological model hypotheses? What numerical solver was implemented and why was an objective function based on Bayesian theory deployed? And what would have happened had we omitted model cross-validation, or not used a systematic hypothesis testing approach?

  2. The Importance of Pressure Sampling Frequency in Models for Determination of Critical Wave Loadingson Monolithic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Meinert, Palle

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of wave load sampling frequency on calculated sliding distance in an overall stability analysis of a monolithic caisson. It is demonstrated by a specific example of caisson design that for this kind of analyses the sampling frequency in a small scale model could...... be as low as 100 Hz in model scale. However, for design of structure elements like the wave wall on the top of a caisson the wave load sampling frequency must be much higher, in the order of 1000 Hz in the model. Elastic-plastic deformations of foundation and structure were not included in the analysis....

  3. Markov Switching Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (SWARCH) Model to Detect Financial Crisis in Indonesia Based on Import and Export Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto; Zukhronah, Etik; Susanti, Yuliana; Rahma Dwi, Sisca

    2017-06-01

    A country is said to be a crisis when the financial system is experiencing a disruption that affects systems that can not function efficiently. The performance efficiency of macroeconomic indicators especially in imports and exports can be used to detect the financial crisis in Indonesia. Based on the import and export indicators from 1987 to 2015, the movement of these indicators can be modelled using SWARCH three states. The results showed that SWARCH (3,1) model was able to detect the crisis that occurred in Indonesia in 1997 and 2008. Using this model, it can be concluded that Indonesia is prone to financial crisis in 2016.

  4. LIBER's Involvement in Supporting Digital Preservation in Member Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ayris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital curation and preservation represent new challenges for universities. LIBER has invested considerable effort to engage with the new agendas of digital preservation and digital curation. Through two successful phases of the LIFE project, LIBER is breaking new ground in identifying innovative models for costing digital curation and preservation. Through LIFE’s input into the US-UK Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, LIBER is aligned with major international work in the economics of digital preservation. In its emerging new strategy and structures, LIBER will continue to make substantial contributions in this area, mindful of the needs of European research libraries.

  5. The SSI TOOLBOX Source Term Model SOSIM - Screening for important radionuclides and parameter sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Moreno, R.; Barrdahl, R.; Haegg, C.

    1995-05-01

    The main objective of the present study was to carry out a screening and a sensitivity analysis of the SSI TOOLBOX source term model SOSIM. This model is a part of the SSI TOOLBOX for radiological impact assessment of the Swedish disposal concept for high-level waste KBS-3. The outputs of interest for this purpose were: the total released fraction, the time of total release, the time and value of maximum release rate, the dose rates after direct releases of the biosphere. The source term equations were derived and simple equations and methods were proposed for calculation of these. A literature survey has been performed in order to determine a characteristic variation range and a nominal value for each model parameter. In order to reduce the model uncertainties the authors recommend a change in the initial boundary condition for solution of the diffusion equation for highly soluble nuclides. 13 refs

  6. Critical importance of stimulus unawareness for the production of subliminal psychodynamic activation effects. An attributional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, R F

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes a new theoretical model of subliminal psychodynamic activation (SPA) effects. The model conceptualizes subliminal-supraliminal differences in SPA effects as being due to differences in subjects' attributions for the changes in anxiety level that are produced by subliminal versus supraliminal SPA stimuli. Changes in anxiety level produced by supraliminal SPA stimuli can be attributed by subjects to the experimental procedures, diminishing the impact of these messages on subjects' responses. In contrast, subjects cannot attribute changes in anxiety level produced by subliminal SPA stimuli to the experimental procedures. Therefore, no "discounting" (i.e., situational) attributions for subliminally induced changes in anxiety levels are available to subjects, and subliminal SPA messages produce significantly stronger effects on responding than do supraliminal SPA messages. The attributional model of SPA effects is discussed in the context of other long-term research programs investigating subliminal phenomena. The implications of this model for clinical treatment and empirical research utilizing the SPA paradigm are discussed.

  7. The importance of human population characteristics in modeling Aedes aegypti distributions and assessing risk of mosquito-borne infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenauer, Julie F; Andrew Joyner, T; Harris, Joseph B

    2017-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti has long been a vector for human illness in the Southeastern United States. In the past, it has been responsible for outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever and, very recently, the Zika virus that has been introduced to the region. Multiple studies have modeled the geographic distribution of Ae . aegypti as a function of climate factors; however, this ignores the importance of humans to the anthropophilic biter. Furthermore, Ae . aegypti thrives in areas where humans have created standing water sites, such as water storage containers and trash. As models are developed to examine the potential impact of climate change, it becomes increasingly important to include the most comprehensive set of predictors possible. This study uses Maxent, a species distribution model, to evaluate the effects of adding poverty and population density to climate-only models. Performance was evaluated through model fit statistics, such as AUC, omission, and commission, as well as individual variable contributions and response curves. Models which included both population density and poverty exhibited better predictive power and produced more precise distribution maps. Furthermore, the two human population characteristics accounted for much of the model contribution-more so than climate variables. Modeling mosquito distributions without accounting for their dependence on local human populations may miss factors that are very important to niche realization and subsequent risk of infection for humans. Further research is needed to determine if additional human characteristics should be evaluated for model inclusion.

  8. Hearing preservation surgery: current opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald O'Connor, Edmund; O'Connor, Alec Fitzgerald

    2010-01-01

    Although the indications and surgical technique for cochlear implantation are well formalized, the introduction of hearing preservation surgery and electric acoustic stimulation have posed new questions for the cochlear implant clinician. This study was designed to crystallize the contemporary views of the implant community on how best to implement these new strategies. An anonymized questionnaire was made available to members of the Politzer Society and a selected group of implant surgeons via the Internet. Five questions required the respondent to choose a specific answer from the text on technique and 17 questions assessed the relative importance attached to the statements relating to the surgical process. A final question inquired on what basis the opinions were derived. The country of origin was also identified. The questionnaire was sent to 180 clinicians of whom 62 replied (34%). Tacit agreement was obtained in 2 of the specific questions and in 10 of the relative importance inquiries. There were varying degrees of opinions on the remaining questions. It is clear that there is still limited consensus between surgeons when considering ways of maximizing outcomes in hearing preservation surgery and electric acoustic stimulation. More protocol-driven studies are required before an accepted gold standard approach can be achieved. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Management modelling behaviour: An important prerequisite for the implementation of business ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. van Zyl

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers agree that ethics and ethical behaviour have become two of the most important topics of the new millennium. Reasons for this can include changing business conditions as well as the growing public demand for quality services, reasonable prices and honest treatment. Furthermore, the present wave of corruption in South African business makes it important to focus on management-related factors that seem to influence employees’ decisions to behave ethically at work. These phenomena will be used as a basis to make practical suggestions on how to improve the situation.

  10. Long-term Preservation of Data Analysis Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C.; Arviset, C.; Ibarra, A.; Pollock, A.

    2015-09-01

    While the long-term preservation of scientific data obtained by large astrophysics missions is ensured through science archives, the issue of data analysis software preservation has hardly been addressed. Efforts by large data centres have contributed so far to maintain some instrument or mission-specific data reduction packages on top of high-level general purpose data analysis software. However, it is always difficult to keep software alive without support and maintenance once the active phase of a mission is over. This is especially difficult in the budgetary model followed by space agencies. We discuss the importance of extending the lifetime of dedicated data analysis packages and review diverse strategies under development at ESA using new paradigms such as Virtual Machines, Cloud Computing, and Software as a Service for making possible full availability of data analysis and calibration software for decades at minimal cost.

  11. Tidal marsh susceptibility to sea-level rise: importance of local-scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing concern over sea-level rise impacts to coastal tidal marsh ecosystems has led to modeling efforts to anticipate outcomes for resource management decision making. Few studies on the Pacific coast of North America have modeled sea-level rise marsh susceptibility at a scale relevant to local wildlife populations and plant communities. Here, we use a novel approach in developing an empirical sea-level rise ecological response model that can be applied to key management questions. Calculated elevation change over 13 y for a 324-ha portion of San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California, USA, was used to represent local accretion and subsidence processes. Next, we coupled detailed plant community and elevation surveys with measured rates of inundation frequency to model marsh state changes to 2100. By grouping plant communities into low, mid, and high marsh habitats, we were able to assess wildlife species vulnerability and to better understand outcomes for habitat resiliency. Starting study-site conditions were comprised of 78% (253-ha) high marsh, 7% (30-ha) mid marsh, and 4% (18-ha) low marsh habitats, dominated by pickleweed Sarcocornia pacifica and cordgrass Spartina spp. Only under the low sea-level rise scenario (44 cm by 2100) did our models show persistence of some marsh habitats to 2100, with the area dominated by low marsh habitats. Under mid (93 cm by 2100) and high sea-level rise scenarios (166 cm by 2100), most mid and high marsh habitat was lost by 2070, with only 15% (65 ha) remaining, and a complete loss of these habitats by 2080. Low marsh habitat increased temporarily under all three sea-level rise scenarios, with the peak (286 ha) in 2070, adding habitat for the endemic endangered California Ridgway’s rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus. Under mid and high sea-level rise scenarios, an almost complete conversion to mudflat occurred, with most of the area below mean sea level. Our modeling assumed no marsh migration upslope due to human

  12. Applying Regression Models with Mixed Frequency Data in Modeling and Prediction of Iran's Wheat Import Value (Generalized OLS-based ARDL Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra jalerajabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of the import management, this study applies generalized ARDL approach to estimate MIDAS regression for wheat import value and to compare the accuracy of forecasts with those competed by the regression with adjusted data model. Mixed frequency sampling models aim to extract information with high frequency indicators so that independent variables with lower frequencies are modeled and foorcasted. Due to a more precise identification of the relationships among the variables, more accurate prediction is expected. Based on the results of both estimated regression with adjusted frequency models and MIDAS for the years 1978-2003 as a training period, wheat import value with internal products and exchange rate was positively related, while the relative price variable had an adverse relation with the Iran's wheat import value. Based on the results from the conventional statistics such as RMSE, MAD, MAPE and the statistical significance, MIDAS models using data sets of annual wheat import value, internal products, relative price and seasonal exchange rate significantly improves prediction of annual wheat import value for the years2004-2008 as a testing period. Hence, it is recommended that applying prediction approaches with mixed data improves modeling and prediction of agricultural import value, especially for strategic import products.

  13. Animal models and their importance to human physiological responses in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Two prominent theories to explain the physiological effects of microgravity relate to the cascade of changes associated with the cephalic shifts of fluids and the absence of tissue deformation forces. One-g experiments for humans used bed rest and the head-down tilt (HDT) method, while animal experiments have been conducted using the tail-suspended, head-down, and hindlimbs non-weightbearing model. Because of the success of the HDT approach with rats to simulate the gravitational effects on the musculoskeletal system exhibited by humans, the same model has been used to study the effects of gravity on the cardiopulmonary systems of humans and other vertebrates. Results to date indicate the model is effective in producing comparable changes associated with blood volume, erythropoiesis, cardiac mass, baroreceptor responsiveness, carbohydrate metabolism, post-flight VO2max, and post-flight cardiac output during exercise. Inherent with these results is the potential of the model to be useful in investigating responsible mechanisms. The suspension model has promise in understanding the capillary blood PO2 changes in space as well as the arterial PO2 changes in subjects participating in a HDT experiment. However, whether the model can provide insights on the up-or-down regulation of adrenoreceptors remains to be determined, and many investigators believe the HDT approach should not be followed to study gravitational influences on pulmonary function in either humans or animals. It was concluded that the tail-suspended animal model had sufficient merit to study in-flight and post-flight human physiological responses and mechanisms.

  14. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

  15. A review of successful aging models: Proposing proactive coping as an important additional strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, C.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    Successful aging is an important concept, and one that has been the subject of much research. During the last 15 years, the emphasis of this research has shifted from formulating criteria for successful aging to describing the processes involved in successful aging. The main purpose of the present

  16. A review of successful aging models: proposing proactive coping as an important additional strategy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, C.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Bensing, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Successful aging is an important concept, and one that has been the subject of much research. During the last 15 years, the emphasis of this research has shifted from formulating criteria for successful aging to describing the processes involved in successful aging. The main purpose of the present

  17. On the importance of aerosol nitrate over Europe : data analysis and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, M.

    2003-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the nitrate content of aerosols (or particulate matter (PM)). Aerosols play an important role in the climate system by scattering and/or absorbing solar radiation. In the last decades research has been devoted to quantify the radiative forcing of aerosols

  18. A new modeling approach estimates the relative importance of different community assembly processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Fons; Janzen, Thijs; Ordonez, Alejandro; Fokkema, Wimke; Reinders, Josephine; Etienne, Rampal S.; Olff, Han

    The relative importance of niche-based (e.g., competitive or stress-based) and stochastic (e.g., random dispersal) processes in structuring ecological communities is frequently analyzed by studying trait distributions of co-occurring species. While filtering processes, such as the exclusion of

  19. Mechanical modelling quantifies the functional importance of outer tissue layers during root elongation and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rosemary J; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Band, Leah R; Fernandes, Anwesha N; French, Andrew P; Fozard, John A; Hodgman, T Charlie; Kenobi, Kim; Pridmore, Tony P; Stout, Michael; Wells, Darren M; Wilson, Michael H; Bennett, Malcolm J; Jensen, Oliver E

    2014-01-01

    Root elongation and bending require the coordinated expansion of multiple cells of different types. These processes are regulated by the action of hormones that can target distinct cell layers. We use a mathematical model to characterise the influence of the biomechanical properties of individual cell walls on the properties of the whole tissue. Taking a simple constitutive model at the cell scale which characterises cell walls via yield and extensibility parameters, we derive the analogous tissue-level model to describe elongation and bending. To accurately parameterise the model, we take detailed measurements of cell turgor, cell geometries and wall thicknesses. The model demonstrates how cell properties and shapes contribute to tissue-level extensibility and yield. Exploiting the highly organised structure of the elongation zone (EZ) of the Arabidopsis root, we quantify the contributions of different cell layers, using the measured parameters. We show how distributions of material and geometric properties across the root cross-section contribute to the generation of curvature, and relate the angle of a gravitropic bend to the magnitude and duration of asymmetric wall softening. We quantify the geometric factors which lead to the predominant contribution of the outer cell files in driving root elongation and bending. PMID:24641449

  20. Beneficial bread without preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Zapryana; Denkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    Besides their inherent nutritional value functional foods contain substances that have beneficial impact on the functioning of organs and systems in the human body and reduce the risk of disease. Bread and bakery goods are basic foods in the diet of contemporary people. Preservatives are added to the composition of foods in order to ensure their microbiological safety, but these substances affect directly the balance of microflora in the tract. A great problem is mold and bacterial spoilage (...

  1. How to preserve foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.; Vadassova, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gamma and fast electron radiations for food preservation is described. Examples are given of the application of ionizing radiation for retarding potato germination, onion growth, and fruit ripening, for limiting the action of microorganisms, and removing salmonella from meat products. The method has remarkable prospects although it may not be considered to be a general-purpose method. Geographic and economic conditions should always be taken into consideration. (J.P.)

  2. Natural Preservatives: An Alternative for Chemical Preservative Used in Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Zerrin Erginkaya; Gözde Konuray

    2017-01-01

    Microbial degradation of foods is defined as a decrease of food safety due to microorganism activity. Organic acids, sulfur dioxide, sulfide, nitrate, nitrite, dimethyl dicarbonate and several preservative gases have been used as chemical preservatives in foods as well as natural preservatives which are indigenous in foods. It is determined that usage of herbal preservatives such as blueberry, dried grape, prune, garlic, mustard, spices inhibited several microorganisms. Moreover, it is determ...

  3. Consistently modeling the same movement strategy is more important than model skill level in observational learning contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John J; Dean, Noah

    2014-02-01

    The experiment undertaken was designed to elucidate the impact of model skill level on observational learning processes. The task was bimanual circle tracing with a 90° relative phase lead of one hand over the other hand. Observer groups watched videos of either an instruction model, a discovery model, or a skilled model. The instruction and skilled model always performed the task with the same movement strategy, the right-arm traced clockwise and the left-arm counterclockwise around circle templates with the right-arm leading. The discovery model used several movement strategies (tracing-direction/hand-lead) during practice. Observation of the instruction and skilled model provided a significant benefit compared to the discovery model when performing the 90° relative phase pattern in a post-observation test. The observers of the discovery model had significant room for improvement and benefited from post-observation practice of the 90° pattern. The benefit of a model is found in the consistency with which that model uses the same movement strategy, and not within the skill level of the model. It is the consistency in strategy modeled that allows observers to develop an abstract perceptual representation of the task that can be implemented into a coordinated action. Theoretically, the results show that movement strategy information (relative motion direction, hand lead) and relative phase information can be detected through visual perception processes and be successfully mapped to outgoing motor commands within an observational learning context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The iconographic model of the Minerva from Collippo and its historic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Hipólito Correia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A statue head representing Minerva from the ancient Collippo (S. Sebastião do Freixo, Batalha is studied and its iconographic model is identified in a similar piece from the temple of Apollo Sosianus in Rome; other pieces of the same model are identified.It is proposed that this piece represents a remain of an intervention in the forum of the ancient town probably dating from the Claudio‑neronian period and its relation to similar processes occurring in the capital of the province of Lusitania is discussed.http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2183-1718_66_16

  5. Importance of metabolism variations in a model of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, S; Desaive, T; Morimont, Ph; Lambermont, B; Dauby, P C

    2016-08-01

    Extracorporeal CO2 Removal device is used in clinics when a patient suffers from a pulmonary insufficiency like Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and allows to decarboxylate blood externally. In this work, a model of the respiratory system coupled with such a device is proposed to analyze the decrease of CO2 partial pressure in blood. To validate the model, some parameters are estimated thanks to experimental data. Metabolism is a crucial parameter and we show that its time evolution must be taken into account in order to have correct CO2 partial pressure simulations in arteries and in veins.

  6. Preservation Benefits Geoscientific Investigations Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, L. A.; Latysh, N.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2005, the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program (NGGDPP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has distributed financial grants to state geological surveys to preserve, archive, and make available valuable geoscientific samples and data to researchers and the public. States have cataloged and preserved materials that include geophysical logs, geotechnical reports, fragile historical documents, maps, geologic samples, and legacy aerial and field-investigation photographs. Approximately 3 million metadata records describing preserved data and artifacts are cataloged in the National Digital Catalog, a component of the USGS ScienceBase data management infrastructure. Providing a centralized domain in the National Digital Catalog for uniformly described records has enabled discovery of important geoscientific assets across the Nation. Scientific investigations continue to be informed by preserved materials and data. Tennessee Geological Survey's preserved collection of historical documents describing coal mining activities in the State was used to identify vulnerable areas overlying abandoned underground coal mines, which caused surface collapses and sinkholes in populated areas. Missouri Geological Survey's preserved collection of legacy field notebooks was used to identify thousands of abandoned mines, many of which have significant soil or groundwater lead contamination and are located in areas that now have residential development. The information enabled the evaluation of risk to human health, environment, and infrastructure and identification of needed remedial actions. Information in the field notebooks also assisted the Missouri Department of Transportation responding to highway collapses and assessing collapse potential in abandoned coal mining lands. Digitization of natural gamma ray logs allowed Minnesota Geological Survey staff to directly access well data in the field, accelerating the ability to address geoscientific questions

  7. DIAGNOSIS IMPORTANCE OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL AGROFORESTAL IN PEASANT COMMUNITIES OF SIERRA DE HUAUTLA

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Uribe-Gómez; Artemio Cruz-León; Dionicio Juárez-Ramón; Alejandro Lara-Bueno; José L. Romo-Lozano; Ramón Valdivia-Alcalá; Marcos Portillo-Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Family agricultural is socioeconomically important in rural areas, but in Mexico, from the 80's this production system presents social stagnation. This type of agriculture presents a dynamic reality in the interests of each producer and limiting access to factors of production (land, labor and capital). In this investigation a methodology for analysis and diagnosis of production systems in rural areas, in two communities in the Country Sierra de Huautla Tepalcingo, Morelos, Mexico was applied...

  8. IMPORTANCE OF TEMPERATURE IN MODELLING PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN FOOD WEB

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most food web models, the exposure temperature of a food web is typically defined using a single spatial compartment. This essentially assumes that the predator and prey are exposed to the same temperature. However, in a large water body such as Lake Michigan, due to the spati...

  9. How important is diversity for capturing environmental-change responses in ecosystem models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowe, Friederike; Pahlow, M.; Dutkiewicz, S.

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystem models used to investigate how global change affects ocean ecosystems and their functioning typically omit pelagic plankton diversity. Diversity, however, may affect functions such as primary production and their sensitivity to environmental changes. Here we use a global ocean ec...

  10. An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…

  11. The importance of data quality for generating reliable distribution models for rare, elusive, and cryptic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith B. Aubry; Catherine M. Raley; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2017-01-01

    The availability of spatially referenced environmental data and species occurrence records in online databases enable practitioners to easily generate species distribution models (SDMs) for a broad array of taxa. Such databases often include occurrence records of unknown reliability, yet little information is available on the influence of data quality on SDMs generated...

  12. The Importance of Representing Certain Key Vegetation Canopy Processes Explicitly in a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoly, A.; Boone, A. A.; Martin, E.; Samuelsson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface models are moving to more detailed vegetation canopy descriptions in order to better represent certain key processes, such as Carbon dynamics and snowpack evolution. Since such models are usually applied within coupled numerical weather prediction or spatially distributed hydrological models, these improvements must strike a balance between computational cost and complexity. The consequences of simplified or composite canopy approaches can be manifested in terms of increased errors with respect to soil temperatures, estimates of the diurnal cycle of the turbulent fluxes or snow canopy interception and melt. Vegetated areas and particularly forests are modeled in a quite simplified manner in the ISBA land surface model. However, continuous developments of surface processes now require a more accurate description of the canopy. A new version of the the model now includes a multi energy balance (MEB) option to explicitly represent the canopy and the forest floor. It will be shown that certain newly included processes such as the shading effect of the vegetation, the explicit heat capacity of the canopy, and the insulating effect of the forest floor turn out to be essential. A detailed study has been done for four French forested sites. It was found that the MEB option significantly improves the ground heat flux (RMSE decrease from 50W/m2 to 10W/m2 on average) and soil temperatures when compared against measurements. Also the sensible heat flux calculation was improved primarily owing to a better phasing with the solar insulation owing to a lower vegetation heat capacity. However, the total latent heat flux is less modified compared to the classical ISBA simulation since it is more related to water uptake and the formulation of the stomatal resistance (which are unchanged). Next, a benchmark over 40 Fluxnet sites (116 cumulated years) was performed and compared with results from the default composite soil-vegetation version of ISBA. The results show

  13. Fertility preservation for patients with gynecologic malignancies: The Korean Society for Fertility Preservation clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Kim, Tak; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Fertility preservation plays a central role in cancer care since an increasingly large number of cancer patients are surviving as a result of improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Physicians who take part in the initial diagnosis and management of gynecologic cancer should understand the importance of fertility preservation. Since indications for fertility preservation are limited to early-stage gynecologic cancer, a surgeon must carefully consider each indication. Before performing fertility-sparing surgery, health professionals should compare its oncologic and pregnancy outcomes with those of other standard treatments. Individualized treatment strategies should be delivered depending on the patient's situation, and physicians should provide timely information and appropriate counseling.

  14. Assessing Sexual Dicromatism: The Importance of Proper Parameterization in Tetrachromatic Visual Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Paul Bitton

    Full Text Available Perceptual models of animal vision have greatly contributed to our understanding of animal-animal and plant-animal communication. The receptor-noise model of color contrasts has been central to this research as it quantifies the difference between two colors for any visual system of interest. However, if the properties of the visual system are unknown, assumptions regarding parameter values must be made, generally with unknown consequences. In this study, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of the receptor-noise model using avian visual system parameters to systematically investigate the influence of variation in light environment, photoreceptor sensitivities, photoreceptor densities, and light transmission properties of the ocular media and the oil droplets. We calculated the chromatic contrast of 15 plumage patches to quantify a dichromatism score for 70 species of Galliformes, a group of birds that display a wide range of sexual dimorphism. We found that the photoreceptor densities and the wavelength of maximum sensitivity of the short-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptor 1 (SWS1 can change dichromatism scores by 50% to 100%. In contrast, the light environment, transmission properties of the oil droplets, transmission properties of the ocular media, and the peak sensitivities of the cone photoreceptors had a smaller impact on the scores. By investigating the effect of varying two or more parameters simultaneously, we further demonstrate that improper parameterization could lead to differences between calculated and actual contrasts of more than 650%. Our findings demonstrate that improper parameterization of tetrachromatic visual models can have very large effects on measures of dichromatism scores, potentially leading to erroneous inferences. We urge more complete characterization of avian retinal properties and recommend that researchers either determine whether their species of interest possess an ultraviolet or near-ultraviolet sensitive SWS1

  15. Use in practice of importance sampling for repeated MCMC for Poisson models : IS for repeated MCMC for Poisson models

    OpenAIRE

    Gajda, Dorota; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Rousseau, Judith; Mengersen, Kerrie,; Nur, Darfiana

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Abstract: The Importance Sampling method is used as an alternative approach to MCMC in repeated Bayesian estimations. In the particular context of numerous data sets, MCMC algorithms have to be called on several times which may become computationally expensive. Since Importance Sampling requires a sample from a posteriodistribution, our idea is to use MCMC to generate only a certain number of Markov chains and use them later in the subsequent IS estimations. For each I...

  16. Training development for pavement preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement : preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some ca...

  17. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... requirements for package formats used for long term preserved digital material, and using these requirements as the basis for analysing a range of package formats. The result of the concrete investigation is that the WARC format is the package format best suited for the listed requirements. Fulfilling...... the listed requirements will ensure mitigating a number of risks of information loss. Thus WARC is the best choice for a package format in cases where these same risks are judged most important. Similar analysis will need to be carried out in cases where the requirements differ from the ones described here...

  18. An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms, violence exposure, and sociodemographic risk factors predict school-aged anxiety symptoms. This longitudinal, prospective study was conducted in a representative birth cohort (n=1109). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized associations between risk factors measured in toddlerhood/preschool (age=3.0 years) and anxiety symptoms measured in kindergarten (age=6.0 years) and second grade (age= 8.0 years). Early child risk factors (anxiety symptoms and temperament) emerged as the most robust predictor for both parent-and child-reported anxiety outcomes and mediated the effects of maternal and family risk factors. Implications for early intervention and prevention studies are discussed. PMID:21153696

  19. On determining important aspects of mathematical models: Application to problems in physics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    1987-01-01

    The use of parametric and functional gradient sensitivity analysis techniques is considered for models described by partial differential equations. By interchanging appropriate dependent and independent variables, questions of inverse sensitivity may be addressed to gain insight into the inversion of observational data for parameter and function identification in mathematical models. It may be argued that the presence of a subset of dominantly strong coupled dependent variables will result in the overall system sensitivity behavior collapsing into a simple set of scaling and self similarity relations amongst elements of the entire matrix of sensitivity coefficients. These general tools are generic in nature, but herein their application to problems arising in selected areas of physics and chemistry is presented.

  20. Importance of Lorentz structure in the parton model: Target mass corrections, transverse momentum dependence, positivity bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alesio, U.; Leader, E.; Murgia, F.

    2010-01-01

    We show that respecting the underlying Lorentz structure in the parton model has very strong consequences. Failure to insist on the correct Lorentz covariance is responsible for the existence of contradictory results in the literature for the polarized structure function g 2 (x), whereas with the correct imposition we are able to derive the Wandzura-Wilczek relation for g 2 (x) and the target-mass corrections for polarized deep inelastic scattering without recourse to the operator product expansion. We comment briefly on the problem of threshold behavior in the presence of target-mass corrections. Careful attention to the Lorentz structure has also profound implications for the structure of the transverse momentum dependent parton densities often used in parton model treatments of hadron production, allowing the k T dependence to be derived explicitly. It also leads to stronger positivity and Soffer-type bounds than usually utilized for the collinear densities.

  1. The importance of nature's invisible fabric: food web structure mediates modeled responses to river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, R.; Benjamin, J.; Newsom, M.; Bountry, J.; Dombroski, D.

    2016-12-01

    Restoration is frequently aimed at the recovery of target species, but also influences the larger food web in which these species participate. Effects of restoration on this broader network of organisms can influence target species both directly and indirectly via changes in energy flow through food webs. To help incorporate these complexities into river restoration planning we constructed a food web model that links river food web dynamics to in-stream physical habitat and riparian vegetation conditions. We present an application of this model to the Methow River, Washington (USA), a location of on-going restoration aimed at recovering salmon. Three restoration strategies were simulated: riparian vegetation restoration, nutrient augmentation via salmon carcass addition, and floodplain reconnection. To explore how food web structure mediates responses to these actions, we modified the food web by adding populations of invasive aquatic snails and nonnative fish. Simulations suggest that floodplain reconnection may be a better strategy than carcass addition and vegetation planting for improving conditions for salmon in this river segment. However, modeled responses were strongly sensitive to changes in the structure of the food web. The addition of invasive snails and nonnative fishes modified pathways of energy through the food web, which negated restoration improvements. This finding illustrates that forecasting responses to restoration may require accounting for the structure of food webs, and that changes in this structure—as might be expected with the spread of invasive species—could compromise restoration outcomes. By elucidating the direct and indirect pathways by which restoration affects target species, dynamic food web models can improve restoration planning by fostering a deeper understanding of system connectedness and dynamics.

  2. Modelling the elastic scattering in diagnostic radiology: the importance of structure form factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, S. C.; Gonçalves, O. D.; Schechter, H.; Eichler, J.

    2003-07-01

    The importance of structure form factors in describing elastic scattering in diagnostic radiology was studied through a Monte Carlo code built to reproduce scattering in large water samples. The code, developed by us, considers all relevant interactions, including multiple scattering and interference due to scattering by the liquid structure. Geometrical conditions and energies similar to those found in radiology were used. The secondary to primary radiation ratio using the usual free atom approximation and the structure form factor was obtained and both approaches were compared. Calculations of radiological parameters such as the angular distribution of photons incident on the detector and the fraction of scattered photons stopped by anti-scattering grids were also performed considering mammography, thorax and abdomen radiography conditions. The results have shown that S(beta)/P depends on the experimental set-up, being more important for low momentum transfers and sample sizes for which the multiple scattering is not expected to be significant, as in the case of mammography. It was also verified that large samples increase the probability of multiple scattering, masking the structure peak in S(beta) and making the sample structure important just for relatively thin samples. Considering mammography-like geometry, the maximum of the S(beta)/P distribution considering structure form factors occurs around 15° while the correspondent maximum without considering the structure factors occurs around 10° for any sample thickness. S(beta)/P is almost independent of the irradiation field, with the maximum remaining at 15° and 10° for the SFF and FAFF, respectively. The cases studied in this paper stress some conditions in which it is mandatory to use SFF, but since it requires no further significant efforts, the SFF approach is recommended as a standard procedure when describing the elastic scattering process in radiology.

  3. The importance of land cover change across urban-rural typologies for climate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Jason; Habeeb, Dana; Stone, Brian

    2013-01-15

    Land cover changes affect local surface energy balances by changing the amount of solar energy reflected, the magnitude and duration over which absorbed energy is released as heat, and the amount of energy that is diverted to non-heating fluxes through evaporation. However, such local influences often are only crudely included in climate modeling exercises, if at all. A better understanding of local land conversion dynamics can serve to inform inputs for climate models and increase the role for land use planning in climate management policy. Here we present a new approach for projecting and incorporating metropolitan land cover change into mesoscale climate and other environmental assessment models. Our results demonstrate the relative contributions of different land development patterns to land cover change and conversion and suggest that regional growth management strategies serving to increase settlement densities over time can have a significant influence on the rate of deforestation per unit of population growth. Employing the approach presented herein, the impacts of land conversion on climate change and on parallel environmental systems and services, such as ground water recharge, habitat provision, and food production, may all be investigated more closely and managed through land use planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The importance of modeling nonhydrostatic processes for dense water reproduction in the Southern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellafiore, Debora; McKiver, William J.; Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg

    2018-05-01

    Dense water (DW) formation commonly occurs in the shallow Northern Adriatic Sea during winter outbreaks, when there is a combination of the cooling of surface waters by the winds and high salinity as a result of reduced river inputs. These DWs subsequently propagate southwards over a period of weeks/months, eventually arriving in the Southern Adriatic Sea. The investigation is based on a new nonhydrostatic (NH) formulation of the 3D finite element model SHYFEM that is validated for a number of theoretical test cases. Subsequently this model is used to simulate, through high-resolution numerical simulations, an extreme DW event that occurred in the Adriatic Sea in 2012. We perform both hydrostatic (HY) and NH simulations in order to explicitly see the impact of NH processes on the DW dynamics. The modeled results are compared to observations collected in the field campaign of March-April 2012 in the Southern Adriatic Sea. The NH run correctly reproduces the across isobath bottom-trapped gravity current characterizing the canyon DW pathways. It also more accurately captures the frequency and intensity of dense water cascading pulsing events, as the inclusion of NH processes produces stronger currents with different DW mixing characteristics. Finally, the NH run simulates internal gravity waves (IGW), generated during the cascading at the edge of the canyon, which propagate downslope. This IGW activity is not captured in the HY case.

  5. Fee-for-service as a business model of growing importance: the academic biobank experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sandra A; Sommerkamp, Kara; Egan-Palmer, Maureen; Kharasch, Karen; Holtschlag, Victoria

    2012-10-01

    Biorepositories offer tremendous scientific value to a wide variety of customer groups (academic, commercial, industrial) in their ability to deliver a centralized, standardized service model, encompassing both biospecimen storage and related laboratory services. Generally, the scientific expertise and economies of scale that are offered in centralized, properly resourced research biobanks has yielded value that has been well-recognized by universities, pharmaceutical companies, and other sponsoring institutions. However, like many facets of the economy, biobanks have been under increasing cost pressure in recent years. This has been a particular problem in the academic arena, where direct support from grant sources (both governmental and philanthropic) typically now is more difficult to secure, or provides reduced financial support, relative to previous years. One way to address this challenge is to establish or enhance a well-defined fee-for-service model which is properly calibrated to cover operational costs while still offering competitive value to users. In this model, customers are never charged for the biospecimens themselves, but rather for the laboratory services associated with them. Good communication practices, proper assessment of value, implementation of best practices, and a sound business plan are all needed for this initiative to succeed. Here we summarize our experiences at Washington University School of Medicine in the expectation they will be useful to others.

  6. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Friedman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for seven PCB congeners, and we demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that midlatitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  7. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carey L.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2016-03-01

    We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for seven PCB congeners, and we demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that midlatitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  8. On the importance of valve modelling, reflected pressures, and wall friction, in CATHENA water hammer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuthe, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    The results of code and modelling developments outlined in this paper show that CATHENA can be used to accurately model the behaviour of valve slam generated water hammer if sufficient care and detail are used to model the characteristics of the valve. It also shows that CATHENA can accurately predict the reflection and transmission of travelling water pressure waves at expansions, contractions, and dead ends. Finally, although CATHENA is capable of accurately predicting the critical phenomena observed in water hammer, the inter-peak timing of the pressure excursions is not well predicted when significant bulk flows occur. The use of an unsteady wall friction factor to correct for this discrepancy has been examined, but the implementation of relationships suggested in the literature provided too much damping. A good match between experimental and simulation data can be achieved, but it is suggested that the default implementation of such a relationship take place only after an investigation of further potential loss terms can be completed. (author)

  9. The Importance of Self-Efficacy in Parental Emergency Preparedness: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Meagan T; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Wirtz, Philip W

    2017-08-01

    Disasters occur without warning and can have devastating consequences. Emergency preparedness can reduce negative effects. It is especially important that parents prepare, as children are particularly vulnerable after disasters. This study tested 2 hypotheses: (1) adults with more children are likely to be better prepared than those with fewer or no children because greater caretaking is linked to greater perceived threat of disaster leading to greater preparedness and (2) the strength of this mediational link varies as a function of parental self-efficacy. Data from an online survey about human-made disasters (terrorism) with a community convenience sample were used to test the hypothesis that perceived threat mediates the relationship between parental status (number of children cared for) and preparedness behaviors, moderated by level of self-efficacy for emergency preparedness. A bootstrapping analysis with relevant covariates supported the hypothesized mediating effect of threat on the relationship between parental status and preparedness. This relationship was strengthened at higher levels of parental preparedness self-efficacy. The results of this study are particularly relevant for preparedness interventions. Because threat leads to preparedness, particularly for parents with high self-efficacy, it is important to focus attention on factors that can improve parents' sense of self-efficacy. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 7).

  10. Creating preservation metadata from XML-metadata profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Bertelmann, Roland; Gebauer, Petra; Hasler, Tim; Klump, Jens; Kirchner, Ingo; Peters-Kottig, Wolfgang; Mettig, Nora; Rusch, Beate

    2014-05-01

    Registration of dataset DOIs at DataCite makes research data citable and comes with the obligation to keep data accessible in the future. In addition, many universities and research institutions measure data that is unique and not repeatable like the data produced by an observational network and they want to keep these data for future generations. In consequence, such data should be ingested in preservation systems, that automatically care for file format changes. Open source preservation software that is developed along the definitions of the ISO OAIS reference model is available but during ingest of data and metadata there are still problems to be solved. File format validation is difficult, because format validators are not only remarkably slow - due to variety in file formats different validators return conflicting identification profiles for identical data. These conflicts are hard to resolve. Preservation systems have a deficit in the support of custom metadata. Furthermore, data producers are sometimes not aware that quality metadata is a key issue for the re-use of data. In the project EWIG an university institute and a research institute work together with Zuse-Institute Berlin, that is acting as an infrastructure facility, to generate exemplary workflows for research data into OAIS compliant archives with emphasis on the geosciences. The Institute for Meteorology provides timeseries data from an urban monitoring network whereas GFZ Potsdam delivers file based data from research projects. To identify problems in existing preservation workflows the technical work is complemented by interviews with data practitioners. Policies for handling data and metadata are developed. Furthermore, university teaching material is created to raise the future scientists awareness of research data management. As a testbed for ingest workflows the digital preservation system Archivematica [1] is used. During the ingest process metadata is generated that is compliant to the

  11. Modelling parasite transmission in a grazing system: the importance of host behaviour and immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi J Fox

    Full Text Available Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts' immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites' free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes

  12. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, Aaron V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  13. Model selection emphasises the importance of non-chromosomal information in genetic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Rawi

    Full Text Available Ever since the case of the missing heritability was highlighted some years ago, scientists have been investigating various possible explanations for the issue. However, none of these explanations include non-chromosomal genetic information. Here we describe explicitly how chromosomal and non-chromosomal modifiers collectively influence the heritability of a trait, in this case, the growth rate of yeast. Our results show that the non-chromosomal contribution can be large, adding another dimension to the estimation of heritability. We also discovered, combining the strength of LASSO with model selection, that the interaction of chromosomal and non-chromosomal information is essential in describing phenotypes.

  14. Radiofrequency ablation: importance of background tissue electrical conductivity--an agar phantom and computer modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, Stephanie A; Liu, Zhengjun; Lobo, S Melvyn; Ahmed, Muneeb; Hines-Peralta, Andrew U; Lenkinski, Robert E; Goldberg, S Nahum

    2005-08-01

    To determine whether radiofrequency (RF)-induced heating can be correlated with background electrical conductivity in a controlled experimental phantom environment mimicking different background tissue electrical conductivities and to determine the potential electrical and physical basis for such a correlation by using computer modeling. The effect of background tissue electrical conductivity on RF-induced heating was studied in a controlled system of 80 two-compartment agar phantoms (with inner wells of 0.3%, 1.0%, or 36.0% NaCl) with background conductivity that varied from 0.6% to 5.0% NaCl. Mathematical modeling of the relationship between electrical conductivity and temperatures 2 cm from the electrode (T2cm) was performed. Next, computer simulation of RF heating by using two-dimensional finite-element analysis (ETherm) was performed with parameters selected to approximate the agar phantoms. Resultant heating, in terms of both the T2cm and the distance of defined thermal isotherms from the electrode surface, was calculated and compared with the phantom data. Additionally, electrical and thermal profiles were determined by using the computer modeling data and correlated by using linear regression analysis. For each inner compartment NaCl concentration, a negative exponential relationship was established between increased background NaCl concentration and the T2cm (R2= 0.64-0.78). Similar negative exponential relationships (r2 > 0.97%) were observed for the computer modeling. Correlation values (R2) between the computer and experimental data were 0.9, 0.9, and 0.55 for the 0.3%, 1.0%, and 36.0% inner NaCl concentrations, respectively. Plotting of the electrical field generated around the RF electrode identified the potential for a dramatic local change in electrical field distribution (ie, a second electrical peak ["E-peak"]) occurring at the interface between the two compartments of varied electrical background conductivity. Linear correlations between the E

  15. Modelling the decadal trend of ecosystem carbon fluxes demonstrates the important role of functional changes in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; Jansson, P.E.; van der Linden, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Temperate forests are globally important carbon sinks and stocks. Trends in net ecosystem exchange have been observed in a Danish beech forest and this trend cannot be entirely attributed to changing climatic drivers. This study sought to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed trend......, using a dynamic ecosystem model (CoupModel) and model data fusion with multiple constraints and model experiments. Experiments with different validation datasets showed that a multiple constraints model data fusion approach that included the annual tree growth, the seasonal canopy development......, the latent and sensible heat fluxes and the CO2 fluxes decreased the parameter uncertainty considerably compared to using CO2 fluxes as validation data alone. The fitted model was able to simulate the observed carbon fluxes well (R2=0.8, mean error=0.1gCm−2d−1) but did not reproduce the decadal (1997...

  16. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara CORTINA TRILLA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them corresponding to 2007 and collected by the Spanish Statistical Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.

  17. The effect of thought importance on stress responses: a test of the metacognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Lora; Morrison, Anthony P; Wells, Adrian

    2018-03-01

    Negative metacognitive beliefs are central determinants of distress in the metacognitive model of psychological vulnerability to stress. The current study tested this assertion in 75 undergraduate students assigned to either experimental (metacognitive belief manipulation) or control (no metacognitive belief manipulation) condition. All participants underwent a fake EEG, where they were told that the EEG would detect negative thoughts. The experimental subjects were informed that if they had a negative thought they may be exposed to a contingent burst of loud noise, while the control condition was told that they may be exposed to a burst of loud noise at random. Participants also underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. The results showed that on physiological measures (skin conductance level) there were no significant differences between groups. However, on self-report measures (positive and negative affect) participants in the experimental condition reported greater levels of negative affect and lower levels of positive affect in response to stress and maintained low positive affect at recovery. The results are consistent with the metacognitive model and suggest that metacognitive beliefs impact on positive and negative affect in reaction to and recovery from stress exposure.

  18. On the importance of paleoclimate modelling for improving predictions of future climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Hargreaves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We use an ensemble of runs from the MIROC3.2 AGCM with slab-ocean to explore the extent to which mid-Holocene simulations are relevant to predictions of future climate change. The results are compared with similar analyses for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and pre-industrial control climate. We suggest that the paleoclimate epochs can provide some independent validation of the models that is also relevant for future predictions. Considering the paleoclimate epochs, we find that the stronger global forcing and hence larger climate change at the LGM makes this likely to be the more powerful one for estimating the large-scale changes that are anticipated due to anthropogenic forcing. The phenomena in the mid-Holocene simulations which are most strongly correlated with future changes (i.e., the mid to high northern latitude land temperature and monsoon precipitation do, however, coincide with areas where the LGM results are not correlated with future changes, and these are also areas where the paleodata indicate significant climate changes have occurred. Thus, these regions and phenomena for the mid-Holocene may be useful for model improvement and validation.

  19. Flatworm models in pharmacological research: the importance of compound stability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmans, Sofie; Willems, Maxime; Adriaens, Els; Remon, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Matthias; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2014-10-01

    Flatworms possess adult pluripotent stem cells, which make them extraordinary experimental model organisms to assess in vivo the undesirable effects of substances on stem cells. Currently, quality practices, implying evaluation of the stability of the test compound under the proposed experimental conditions, are uncommon in this research field. Nevertheless, performing a stability study during the rational design of in vivo assay protocols will result in more reliable assay results. To illustrate the influence of the stability of the test substance on the final experimental outcome, we performed a short-term International Conference on Harmonization (ICH)-based stability study of cyclophosphamide in the culture medium, to which a marine flatworm model Macrostomum lignano is exposed. Using a validated U(H)PLC method, it was demonstrated that the cyclophosphamide concentration in the culture medium at 20°C is lowered to 80% of the initial concentration after 21days. The multiwell plates, flatworms and diatoms, as well as light exposure, did not influence significantly the cyclophosphamide concentration in the medium. The results of the stability study have practical implications on the experimental set-up of the carcinogenicity assay like the frequency of medium renewal. This case study demonstrates the benefits of applying appropriate quality guidelines already during fundamental research increasing the credibility of the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  1. Naturalness Preserved Image Enhancement Usinga prioriMulti-Layer Lightness Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhang; Luo, Gang

    2018-02-01

    Enhancement of non-uniformly illuminated images often suffers from over-enhancement and produces unnatural results. This paper presents a naturalness preserved enhancement method for non-uniformly illuminated images, using a priori multi-layer lightness statistics acquired from high-quality images. Our work makes three important contributions: designing a novel multi-layer image enhancement model; deriving the multi-layer lightness statistics of high-quality outdoor images, which are incorporated into the multi-layer enhancement model; and showing that the overall quality rating of enhanced images is consistent with a combination of contrast enhancement and naturalness preservation. Two separate human observer evaluation studies were conducted on naturalness preservation and overall image quality. The results showed the proposed method outperformed four compared state-of-the-art enhancement methods.

  2. ATLAS Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Roger; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Complementary to parallel open access and analysis preservation initiatives, ATLAS is taking steps to ensure that the data taken by the experiment during run-1 remain accessible and available for future analysis by the collaboration. An evaluation of what is required to achieve this is underway, examining the ATLAS data production chain to establish the effort required and potential problems. Several alternatives are explored, but the favoured solution is to bring the run 1 data and software in line with the equivalent to that which will be used for run 2. This will result in a coherent ATLAS dataset for the data already taken and that to come in the future.

  3. Radiation preservation of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, A.; Tasnim, A.; Khan, M.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation for preservation of red hot pepper has been explained in report, as it can kill the harmful organisms without altering the organolpetic properties. The sample were dried and reduced to pass through 20 mesh. The samples were irradiated at different dose levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and results have been shown after different time intervals. Radiation and packaging treatments resulted normaly no effect on the color of dry fruits. (A.B)

  4. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A micro-structured optical fibre having a cladding comprising a number of elements having a non-circular cross-section. Each element has at least one part extending outside a circle having the same cross-sectional area as the element. These extending parts are directed in the same direction....... This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  5. The Importance of Topography in Modeling the Climates of Potentially Habitable Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, L. E.; Chandler, M. A.; Way, M.; Jonas, J.

    2017-12-01

    The surface features of distant potentially habitable worlds are unknown and likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. As a result, 3-D general circulation model (GCM) simulations of the climates of these worlds commonly utilize an aquaplanet configuration (no emergent land). We highlight here the differences in simulated climates that are produced when using realistic, reconstructed, or idealized continental distributions. Paleo-Earth scenarios as analogues of habitable exoplanets with emergent land exist back to 2 Gyr. There is high confidence in continental reconstructions back to 300 Myr, with moderate confidence reconstructions dating to at least 1 Gyr. A range of habitable states exists throughout the last two billion years of Earth history, including periods that are representative of both inner and outer edge environments, i.e., Snowball Earth and the Cretaceous Greenhouse. Using reconstructed land/ocean distributions with the GCM permits us to test hypotheses based on conceptual models (does a supercontinent at tropical latitudes encourage global cooling via albedo feedbacks?) as well as explore far-field climate teleconnections that may explain enhanced habitability (does the closing of an equatorial seaway drive increased heating in polar regions?). Paleo-Venus simulations, using current topography and a slow rotation rate, have shown that large land fraction in the tropics combined with modest amounts of water actually limits the amount of planetary warming to habitable levels, moreso than aquaplanets, given the equivalent solar flux - thus showing the inner edge of the HZ to be more transitional than previously described. For distant exoplanets or paleo-Earth prior to 2 Gyr, idealized continents or modern Earth topography help illustrate the range of possible habitable states for a given case. With idealized continents, varying the land fraction and location produces as much as a 20˚C difference in global MAT for otherwise identical simulations

  6. Modeling Karst Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange: The Importance of Ventilation for Carbonate Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, M.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Godderis, Y.; Kowalski, A. S.; Janssens, I.

    2011-12-01

    Global carbonate weathering is considered a small carbon flux when compared with biogenic CO2 fluxes. This is, however, a question of time and space. In karst regions, it has been shown that biogenic fluxes are not always dominant. CO2 exchange patterns have been reported there that cannot be explained by biological processes: disproportionate outgassing during daytime or nighttime CO2 uptake during periods when all vegetation is senescent. These phenomena have previously been attributed to carbonate weathering reactions or biocrust activity, but their associated CO2 exchange rates are considered too small [Serrano-Ortiz et al., 2010]. Here, we report a novel mechanism through which carbonate weathering, exacerbated by subterranean ventilation, dominates the diel pattern of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange in karst areas. Ventilation is an efficient air mass transfer process (including pressure pumping, deep penetration of eddies and thermal expansion of air) that occurs in all porous media, when pores are connected and not blocked by water. Due to its high porosity and the presence of caves, fissures and cracks, karts systems are very prone to ventilation. When soil CO2 concentrations are rapidly brought into disequilibrium by ventilation, CO2 fluxes associated with carbonate weathering can exceed those associated with biological activity. The biology-based standardized partitioning schemes that are used by a large community of scientists, are then no longer applicable and gas exchange measurements fail to reveal any information on the biological activity. By incorporating ventilation processes into the mineral weathering model WITCH [Goddéris et al., 2006], we were able to quantify the contribution of carbonate geochemistry to the synoptic CO2 fluxes on karst ecosystems. [1] Goddéris, Y., L. M. Francois, A. Probst, J. Schott, D. Moncoulon, D. Labat, and D. Viville (2006), Modelling weathering processes at the catchment scale: The WITCH numerical model, Geochim

  7. The importance of magnetic methods for soil mapping and process modelling. Case study in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr; Sukhorada, Anatoliy

    2016-04-01

    The correct planning of agriculture areas is fundamental for a sustainable future in Ukraine. After the recent political problems in Ukraine, new challenges emerged regarding sustainability questions. At the same time the soil mapping and modelling are intensively developing all over the world (Pereira et al., 2015; Brevik et al., in press). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) methods are low cost and accurate for the developing maps of agricultural areas, fundamental for Ukrain's economy.This allow to colleact a great amount of soil data, usefull for a better understading of the spatial distribution of soil properties. Recently, this method have been applied in other works in Ukraine and elsewhere (Jordanova et al., 2011; Menshov et al., 2015). The objective of this work is to study the spatial distribution of MS and humus content on the topsoils (0-5 cm) in two different areas. The first is located in Poltava region and the second in Kharkiv region. The results showed that MS depends of soil type, topography and anthropogenic influence. For the interpretation of MS spatial distribution in top soil we consider the frequency and time after the last tillage, tilth depth, fertilizing, and the puddling regarding the vehicle model. On average the soil MS of the top soil of these two cases is about 30-70×10-8 m3/kg. In Poltava region not disturbed soil has on average MS values of 40-50×10-8 m3/kg, for Kharkiv region 50-60×10-8 m3/kg. The tilled soil of Poltava region has on average an MS of 60×10-8 m3/kg, and 70×10-8 m3/kg in Kharkiv region. MS is higher in non-tilled soils than in the tilled ones. The correlation between MS and soil humus content is very high ( up to 0.90) in both cases. Breivik, E., Baumgarten, A., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Jordán, A. Soil mapping, classification, and modelling: history and future directions. Geoderma (in press), doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.05.017 Jordanova D., Jordanova N., Atanasova A., Tsacheva T., Petrov P

  8. Model, First-Principle Calculation of Ammonia Dissociation on Si(100 Surface. Importance of Proton Tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Z. Zgierski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The dissociation of an ammonia molecule on a cluster of Si atoms simulating the 100 silicon crystal structure with two Si dimers has been investigated by means of the DFT and an approximate instanton methods. The model corresponds to the low coverage limit of the surface. Absolute rate constants of two different dissociation paths are evaluated together with deuterium isotope effects. It is demonstrated that, even at room temperatures, the process is dominated by tunneling and that dissociation to a silicon atom of the adjacent dimer, rather than a silicon within the same dimer, is the prevailing mechanism. This leads to creation of a metastable structure which will slowly decay through a two-step hydrogen atom migration towards the absolute minimum on the potential energy surface corresponding to the NH2 group and the hydrogen atom residing in the same dimer.

  9. Evaluating the importance of characterizing soil structure and horizons in parameterizing a hydrologic process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the influence of soil structure and horizons into parameterizations of distributed surface water/groundwater models remains a challenge. Often, only a single soil unit is employed, and soil-hydraulic properties are assigned based on textural classification, without evaluating the potential impact of these simplifications. This study uses a distributed physics-based model to assess the influence of soil horizons and structure on effective parameterization. This paper tests the viability of two established and widely used hydrogeologic methods for simulating runoff and variably saturated flow through layered soils: (1) accounting for vertical heterogeneity by combining hydrostratigraphic units with contrasting hydraulic properties into homogeneous, anisotropic units and (2) use of established pedotransfer functions based on soil texture alone to estimate water retention and conductivity, without accounting for the influence of pedon structures and hysteresis. The viability of this latter method for capturing the seasonal transition from runoff-dominated to evapotranspiration-dominated regimes is also tested here. For cases tested here, event-based simulations using simplified vertical heterogeneity did not capture the state-dependent anisotropy and complex combinations of runoff generation mechanisms resulting from permeability contrasts in layered hillslopes with complex topography. Continuous simulations using pedotransfer functions that do not account for the influence of soil structure and hysteresis generally over-predicted runoff, leading to propagation of substantial water balance errors. Analysis suggests that identifying a dominant hydropedological unit provides the most acceptable simplification of subsurface layering and that modified pedotransfer functions with steeper soil-water retention curves might adequately capture the influence of soil structure and hysteresis on hydrologic response in headwater catchments.

  10. Baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: PCA parametrization and importance of extreme baryonic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Irshad [Fermilab; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Fermilab

    2017-07-07

    Baryonic effects are amongst the most severe systematics to the tomographic analysis of weak lensing data which is the principal probe in many future generations of cosmological surveys like LSST, Euclid etc.. Modeling or parameterizing these effects is essential in order to extract valuable constraints on cosmological parameters. In a recent paper, Eifler et al. (2015) suggested a reduction technique for baryonic effects by conducting a principal component analysis (PCA) and removing the largest baryonic eigenmodes from the data. In this article, we conducted the investigation further and addressed two critical aspects. Firstly, we performed the analysis by separating the simulations into training and test sets, computing a minimal set of principle components from the training set and examining the fits on the test set. We found that using only four parameters, corresponding to the four largest eigenmodes of the training set, the test sets can be fitted thoroughly with an RMS $\\sim 0.0011$. Secondly, we explored the significance of outliers, the most exotic/extreme baryonic scenarios, in this method. We found that excluding the outliers from the training set results in a relatively bad fit and degraded the RMS by nearly a factor of 3. Therefore, for a direct employment of this method to the tomographic analysis of the weak lensing data, the principle components should be derived from a training set that comprises adequately exotic but reasonable models such that the reality is included inside the parameter domain sampled by the training set. The baryonic effects can be parameterized as the coefficients of these principle components and should be marginalized over the cosmological parameter space.

  11. Importance of fish behaviour in modelling conservation problems: food limitation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, S F; Harvey, B C

    2011-12-01

    Simulation experiments using the inSTREAM individual-based brown trout Salmo trutta population model explored the role of individual adaptive behaviour in food limitation, as an example of how behaviour can affect managers' understanding of conservation problems. The model includes many natural complexities in habitat (spatial and temporal variation in characteristics such as depth and velocity, temperature, hiding and feeding cover, drift-food supply and predation risk), fish physiology (especially, how food intake and growth vary with hydrodynamics, cover, fish size and temperature) and behaviour. When drift-food concentration was increased over a wide range in 7 year simulations, the simulated population was always food limited. In fact, as food supply increased, the population increased at an increasing rate and consumed a higher percentage of the food supply, apparently because higher food concentrations make more stream area energetically profitable for drift feeders. The behaviour most responsible for this response was activity selection: when food was abundant, fish chose to feed less frequently and more nocturnally, thereby reducing predation mortality so more fish survived longer. These results indicate that the traditional concept of food limitation, that food availability stops limiting population size when it exceeds some threshold level, may not be useful and can be misleading. Results also strongly contradict the concept that a salmonid population is not food limited if the total food supply is greater than the population's consumption. Explicit consideration of adaptive behaviour produced a novel but believable understanding of food effects on salmonid populations. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Atmospheric dispersion models for integrated pollution control. The use of second generation models and the importance of plume rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, P.R.; Cooper, N.S.; Fisher, B.E.A.; Venter, A.

    1999-07-01

    This report has updated a previous review on available atmospheric dispersion models and has made an assessment of the advantages of including second generation atmospheric dispersion methods in the APPRAISE software. The comparisons were made principally with ADMS 2 and with AERMOD. There are large discrepancies in ground level concentrations predicted under convective conditions by the different models and this can be partly attributed to plume rise conditions and constraints. The adoption of alternative plume rise expressions and approaches taken by the commercial models is a problematic approach for APPRAISE. However, by using analytical expressions, based on the Briggs recommendations for plume rise, an approximation to the governing conditions can be made without the need for extended pre-processing times for meteorological data. Illustrative emission conditions were calculated for a range of power generators - from a steam boiler to a large power station. A limited set of circumstances were assessed but distinct differences were indicated and demonstrated the sensitivity of downstream concentrations to plume rise. Recommendations were put forward for, the adaptation of APPRAISE to take account of plume rise effects. Feasibly the other advantages of second generation air dispersion models could be incorporated but this would probably mean close co-operation with one of the principal model suppliers. 36 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Modeling vehicle emissions in different types of Chinese cities: Importance of vehicle fleet and local features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Zhang Qiang; He Kebin; Yao Zhiliang; Wang Xintong; Zheng Bo; Streets, David G.; Wang Qidong; Ding Yan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method to simulate vehicle emissions in Chinese cities of different sizes and development stages. Twenty two cities are examined in this study. The target year is 2007. Among the cities, the vehicle emission factors were remarkably different (the highest is 50-90% higher than the lowest) owing to their distinct local features and vehicle technology levels, and the major contributors to total vehicle emissions were also different. A substantial increase in vehicle emissions is foreseeable unless stronger measures are implemented because the benefit of current policies can be quickly offset by the vehicle growth. Major efforts should be focused on all cities, especially developing cities where the requirements are lenient. This work aims a better understanding of vehicle emissions in all types of Chinese cities. The proposed method could benefit national emission inventory studies in improving accuracy and help in designing national and local policies for vehicle emission control. - Highlights: → We examine vehicle emissions in 22 Chinese cities of different types and locations. → Vehicle emission factors of the cities differ by 50-90% due to distinct local features. → Each vehicle type contributes differently to total emissions among the cities. → A substantial increase in vehicle emissions in most Chinese cities is foreseeable. → City-specific fleet and local features are important in research and policy making. - Vehicle emission characteristics of Chinese cities are remarkably different, and local features need to be taken into account in vehicle emission studies and control strategy.

  14. A Hybrid Monte Carlo importance sampling of rare events in Turbulence and in Turbulent Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margazoglou, Georgios; Biferale, Luca; Grauer, Rainer; Jansen, Karl; Mesterhazy, David; Rosenow, Tillmann; Tripiccione, Raffaele

    2017-11-01

    Extreme and rare events is a challenging topic in the field of turbulence. Trying to investigate those instances through the use of traditional numerical tools turns to be a notorious task, as they fail to systematically sample the fluctuations around them. On the other hand, we propose that an importance sampling Monte Carlo method can selectively highlight extreme events in remote areas of the phase space and induce their occurrence. We present a brand new computational approach, based on the path integral formulation of stochastic dynamics, and employ an accelerated Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm for this purpose. Through the paradigm of stochastic one-dimensional Burgers' equation, subjected to a random noise that is white-in-time and power-law correlated in Fourier space, we will prove our concept and benchmark our results with standard CFD methods. Furthermore, we will present our first results of constrained sampling around saddle-point instanton configurations (optimal fluctuations). The research leading to these results has received funding from the EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 642069, and from the EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under ERC Grant Agreement No. 339032.

  15. Locality-Preserving Logical Operators in Topological Stabiliser Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Paul; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Locality-preserving logical operators in topological codes are naturally fault-tolerant, since they preserve the correctability of local errors. Using a correspondence between such operators and gapped domain walls, we describe a procedure for finding all locality-preserving logical operators admitted by a large and important class of topological stabiliser codes. In particular, we focus on those equivalent to a stack of a finite number of surface codes of any spatial dimension, where our pro...

  16. The importance of becoming double-stranded: Innate immunity and the kinetic model of HIV-1 central plus strand synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschla, Eric, E-mail: poeschla.eric@mayo.edu

    2013-06-20

    Central initiation of plus strand synthesis is a conserved feature of lentiviruses and certain other retroelements. This complication of the standard reverse transcription mechanism produces a transient “central DNA flap” in the viral cDNA, which has been proposed to mediate its subsequent nuclear import. This model has assumed that the important feature is the flapped DNA structure itself rather than the process that produces it. Recently, an alternative kinetic model was proposed. It posits that central plus strand synthesis functions to accelerate conversion to the double-stranded state, thereby helping HIV-1 to evade single-strand DNA-targeting antiviral restrictions such as APOBEC3 proteins, and perhaps to avoid innate immune sensor mechanisms. The model is consistent with evidence that lentiviruses must often synthesize their cDNAs when dNTP concentrations are limiting and with data linking reverse transcription and uncoating. There may be additional kinetic advantages for the artificial genomes of lentiviral gene therapy vectors. - Highlights: • Two main functional models for HIV central plus strand synthesis have been proposed. • In one, a transient central DNA flap in the viral cDNA mediates HIV-1 nuclear import. • In the other, multiple kinetic consequences are emphasized. • One is defense against APOBEC3G, which deaminates single-stranded DNA. • Future questions pertain to antiviral restriction, uncoating and nuclear import.

  17. Minimal important change (MIC) based on a predictive modeling approach was more precise than MIC based on ROC analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, B.; Eekhout, I.; Terwee, C.B.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To present a new method to estimate a "minimal important change" (MIC) of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scales, based on predictive modeling, and to compare its performance with the MIC based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. To illustrate how the new method

  18. The importance of becoming double-stranded: Innate immunity and the kinetic model of HIV-1 central plus strand synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschla, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Central initiation of plus strand synthesis is a conserved feature of lentiviruses and certain other retroelements. This complication of the standard reverse transcription mechanism produces a transient “central DNA flap” in the viral cDNA, which has been proposed to mediate its subsequent nuclear import. This model has assumed that the important feature is the flapped DNA structure itself rather than the process that produces it. Recently, an alternative kinetic model was proposed. It posits that central plus strand synthesis functions to accelerate conversion to the double-stranded state, thereby helping HIV-1 to evade single-strand DNA-targeting antiviral restrictions such as APOBEC3 proteins, and perhaps to avoid innate immune sensor mechanisms. The model is consistent with evidence that lentiviruses must often synthesize their cDNAs when dNTP concentrations are limiting and with data linking reverse transcription and uncoating. There may be additional kinetic advantages for the artificial genomes of lentiviral gene therapy vectors. - Highlights: • Two main functional models for HIV central plus strand synthesis have been proposed. • In one, a transient central DNA flap in the viral cDNA mediates HIV-1 nuclear import. • In the other, multiple kinetic consequences are emphasized. • One is defense against APOBEC3G, which deaminates single-stranded DNA. • Future questions pertain to antiviral restriction, uncoating and nuclear import

  19. Importance of Housekeeping gene selection for accurate RT-qPCR in a wound healing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabelidze, Anna; Guo, Shujuan; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in the field of wound healing have utilized a variety of different housekeeping genes for RT-qPCR analysis. However, nearly all of these studies assume that the selected normalization gene is stably expressed throughout the course of the repair process. The purpose of our current investigation was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes for studying gene expression in mouse wound healing using RT-qPCR. To identify which housekeeping genes are optimal for studying gene expression in wound healing, we examined all articles published in Wound Repair and Regeneration that cited RT-qPCR during the period of Jan/Feb 2008 until July/August2009. We determined that ACTIN, GAPDH, 18S and β2M were the most frequently used housekeeping genes in human, mouse, and pig studies. We also investigated nine commonly used housekeeping genes that are not generally used in wound healing models: GUS, TBP, RPLP2, ATP5B, SDHA, UBC, CANX, CYC1, and YWHAZ. We observed that wounded and unwounded tissues have contrasting housekeeping gene expression stability. The results demonstrate that commonly used housekeeping genes must be validated as accurate normalizing genes for each individual experimental condition. PMID:20731795

  20. On The Importance of A Socio-Culturally Designed Teaching Model in an EFL Writing Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiyeh Abdollahzadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a means of articulating ideas, arousing feelings, persuading and convincing other people, but the procedure of writing has become arduous and labyrinthine for Iranian EFL learners. The educational system in Iran is structure-based and it ignores the communicative role of writing, so students' performance in writing wouldn’t be desirable. To tackle the mentioned problem, the present paper develops a scaffolding environment to maximize students writing dexterities through the application of various scaffolding means coined by Tharp and Gallimore (1988 during the stages of Seow's process model. The purpose was to determine the procedure of teacher guidance in a process- oriented situation and trace the scaffolding means which had a pre-eminent role in enhancing students' writing proficiency by observing the class and conducting an interview. To this end, 15 female students within the age range of 15-18 studying in Be’sat Language Institute in Salmas, Iran participated in this study. The results elucidated that students could benefit from the established situation in different ways during the accomplishment of their writing tasks. At the end, the study provided some pedagogical implications for teachers in terms of teaching writing.

  1. Economic and Social Models in Europe and the Importance of Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heipertz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on European economic and social models. It provides a comparative assessment of fiscal and regulatory policies in 17 industrialised countries (the EU15, US and Japan and presents the records of these countries in attaining key economic and social objectives. Social and economic systems that feature efficient public sectors and flexible market structures tend to experience reasonably sustainable public finances, high economic growth, education standards and employment, and well-functioning markets. Anglo-Saxon countries broadly fit this mould, albeit, seemingly, at some cost of income equality. A more pronounced emphasis on welfare state policies and the corresponding relatively high levels of public spending bring benefit to income distribution in the Nordic countries while the resulting inefficiencies in their economies are counterbalanced by flexibility in labour and particularly product markets. Also, a number of reform-minded European countries have improved their fiscal and regulatory policies while significantly enhancing the functioning of markets, fiscal sustainability and economic performance. This was generally attained without jeopardising social objectives. On the other hand, those continental and Mediterranean countries that maintain market inefficiencies and at the same time sustain expensive and inefficient welfare states generally suffer from low growth and employment and less well-functioning markets and face serious risks to their economies’ fiscal sustainability. The findings of this note support calls for the comprehensive reform of fiscal policies, as well as of product and labour markets.

  2. Preserving Perishables (Dormavac)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A new commercial product that can preserve perishable commodities for weeks without freezing, so that they can be shipped fresh without the cost of air freight, has been developed by Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, Long Island, New York. The development benefited from the company's experience in developing the environmental control system for the Lunar Module, which delivered Apollo astronauts to the surface of the moon. Called Dormavac, the system provides a commodity-preserving environment within an aluminum container that can be transported by truck, rail or ship. Dormavac creates a cold-but above freezing-environment with high relative humidity and very low air pressure. The saturated air minimizes commodity weight loss and the air is automatically changed several times an hour to flush away odors and harmful gases released by the commodities. According to company literature, Dormavac significantly extends the transportation life of perishables. For example, pork has a normal cold storage life of about seven days, beef two weeks and tomatoes three weeks; with Dormavac, pork remains fresh for three weeks, beef more than six weeks and tomatoes seven weeks or more. Dormavac is manufactured and marketed by Grumman Allied Industries, Woodbury, New York. In developing the system, Grumman Allied drew upon the technological resources of another company subsidiary, Grumman Aerospace. Engineers who had earlier worked on Lunar Module environmental control brought their know-how and experience to the Dormavac development.

  3. Categorical Inputs, Sensitivity Analysis, Optimization and Importance Tempering with tgp Version 2, an R Package for Treed Gaussian Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Gramacy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the new features in version 2.x of the tgp package for R, implementing treed Gaussian process (GP models. The topics covered include methods for dealing with categorical inputs and excluding inputs from the tree or GP part of the model; fully Bayesian sensitivity analysis for inputs/covariates; sequential optimization of black-box functions; and a new Monte Carlo method for inference in multi-modal posterior distributions that combines simulated tempering and importance sampling. These additions extend the functionality of tgp across all models in the hierarchy: from Bayesian linear models, to classification and regression trees (CART, to treed Gaussian processes with jumps to the limiting linear model. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the baseline functionality of the package, outlined in the first vignette (Gramacy 2007.

  4. Determining the importance of model calibration for forecasting absolute/relative changes in streamflow from LULC and climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, Rewati; Meixner, Thomas; Norman, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) and climate changes are important drivers of change in streamflow. Assessing the impact of LULC and climate changes on streamflow is typically done with a calibrated and validated watershed model. However, there is a debate on the degree of calibration required. The objective of this study was to quantify the variation in estimated relative and absolute changes in streamflow associated with LULC and climate changes with different calibration approaches. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied in an uncalibrated (UC), single outlet calibrated (OC), and spatially-calibrated (SC) mode to compare the relative and absolute changes in streamflow at 14 gaging stations within the Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona, USA. For this purpose, the effect of 3 LULC, 3 precipitation (P), and 3 temperature (T) scenarios were tested individually. For the validation period, Percent Bias (PBIAS) values were >100% with the UC model for all gages, the values were between 0% and 100% with the OC model and within 20% with the SC model. Changes in streamflow predicted with the UC and OC models were compared with those of the SC model. This approach implicitly assumes that the SC model is “ideal”. Results indicated that the magnitude of both absolute and relative changes in streamflow due to LULC predicted with the UC and OC results were different than those of the SC model. The magnitude of absolute changes predicted with the UC and SC models due to climate change (both P and T) were also significantly different, but were not different for OC and SC models. Results clearly indicated that relative changes due to climate change predicted with the UC and OC were not significantly different than that predicted with the SC models. This result suggests that it is important to calibrate the model spatially to analyze the effect of LULC change but not as important for analyzing the relative change in streamflow due to climate change. This

  5. Theoretical seismic models of Mars: the importance of the iron content of the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocquet, A.; Vacher, P.; Grasset, O.; Sotin, C.

    1996-11-01

    Present-day averaged temperature profiles of the mantle of Mars are computed through numerical convection experiments performed with axisymmetrical geometry, for different values of core radii and different boundary conditions at the core-mantle boundary. Internal heating of the mantle is considered in each case. It is found that the temperature profiles of the mantle are very stable whatever the imposed conditions at the core-mantle boundary. A 300 km thick thermal lithosphere, displaying a temperature gradient equal to 4.4 K km -1 is followed at greater depths by a quasi-isothermal mantle, the temperature of which is found in a 1200-1600 K temperature range. A mean temperature equal to 1400 K is in a good agreement with the low Q of Mars at tidal frequencies. These characteristics, together with the small increase of pressure with depth, of the order of 0.01 GPa km -1, induce the presence of a low-velocity zone similar to the Earth's one, down to 300 km depth. Densities and seismic velocities corresponding to these thermodynamical conditions are computed using Grüneisen's and third-order finite strain theory for different values of the iron content of mantle minerals. Below 300 km depth, the values of magnitude as within the Earth's transition zone. An increase of the iron content of the Martian mantle with respect to the Earth's one results (1) in an increase of density, and a decrease of seismic velocities, which can reach more than 2% of the values expected from an Earth like composition, (2) in a homogenization of mantle structure through the smoothing out of seismic discontinuities over a thickness of a few hundred kilometres. This smoothing process is due to the large pressure domains of coexistence between different phases of olivine when the iron content of this latter mineral increases. Plausible domains of core density and core radius are finally checked back for each of the computed models of mantle density. These tests show that the principal moment

  6. What is important for hearing aid satisfaction? Application of the expectancy-disconfirmation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carly; Hickson, Louise; Khan, Asad; Walker, David

    2014-01-01

    Between 68.1-89.5% of clients report that they are satisfied with their hearing aids. Two variables that are thought to contribute to dissatisfaction with hearing aids are product performance, and a mismatch between performance and client prefitting expectations about hearing-aid performance (i.e., disconfirmation). A focus on variables related to satisfaction is relevant to improving hearing rehabilitation services. The aim of this study was to determine if measures of hearing-aid performance and disconfirmation, specifically related to hearing ability and hearing-aid problems, were associated with overall hearing-aid satisfaction among a sample of hearing-aid users. A retrospective research design was employed. A total of 123 individuals participated in the study (57% male; mean age: 72 yr). All participants owned hearing aids. A personal details questionnaire and the Profile of Hearing Aid Consumer Satisfaction questionnaire (Wong et al, 2009) were completed by participants, 3-12 mo after they obtained hearing aids. Overall hearing-aid satisfaction was a dichotomized variable (satisfaction vs. dissatisfaction); therefore, logistic regression modeling was applied to the data to determine which variables were associated with overall hearing-aid satisfaction. Sixty-one percent of the sample reported that they were satisfied with their hearing aids. Hearing-aid satisfaction was associated with the ability to hear with hearing aids and better-than-expected performance in this same area; fewer hearing-aid problems; and fewer problems with hearing-aid manipulation, hearing-aid appearance, and wearer discomfort than were anticipated before hearing-aid fitting. It is recommended that to improve hearing-aid satisfaction, clinicians should ensure optimal hearing-aid benefit in the listening situations that the person with hearing impairment most wants to hear better; reduce the likelihood of hearing-aid problems occurring; and promote positive disconfirmation (performance

  7. Decent wage is more important than absolution of debts: A smallholder socio-hydrological modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    We present a framework to understand the socio-hydrological system dynamics of a small holder. Small holders are farmers who own less than 2 ha of farmland. It couples the dynamics of 6 main variables that are most relevant at the scale of a small holder: local storage (soil moisture and other water storage), capital, knowledge, livestock production, soil fertility and grass biomass production. The hydroclimatic variability is at sub-annual scale and influences the socio-hydrology at annual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms (for example: adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers, selling livestocks etc.) of small holders when they face adverse socio-hydrological conditions, such as low annual rainfall, higher intra-annual variability in rainfall or variability in agricultural prices. We apply the framework to understand the socio-hydrology of a sugarcane small holder in Aurangabad, Maharashtra. This district has witnessed suicides of many sugarcane farmers who could not extricate themselves out of the debt trap. These farmers lack irrigation and are susceptible to fluctuating sugar prices and intra-annual hydro-climatic variability. We study the sensitivity of annual total capital averaged over 30 years, an indicator of small holder wellbeing, to initial capital that a small holder starts with and the prevalent wage rates. We find that a smallholder well being is low (below Rs 30000 per annum, a threshold above which a smallholder can afford a basic standard of living) and is rather insensitive to initial capital at low wage rates. Initial capital perhaps matters to small holder livelihoods at higher wage rates. Further, the small holder system appears to be resilient at around Rs 115/mandays in the sense that small perturbations in wage rates around this rate still sustains the smallholder above the basic standard of living. Our results thus indicate that government intervention to absolve the debt of farmers is not enough. It

  8. The PROMIS model to highlight the importance of the foetus to the validation of a pregnant woman model

    OpenAIRE

    AURIAULT, Florent; THOLLON, Lionel; PERES, Jérémie; DELOTTE, J; KAYVANTASH, K; BRUNET, Christian; BEHR, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The percentage of trauma during pregnancy related to road accident is between 50% and 75%. This type of trauma can result in premature birth or even foetal loss. To analyse and understand the injury mechanisms in pregnant women involved in a car accident, several studies proposed computational or physical tools to simulate accidents. Specific dummy and numerical models have been proposed and validated using experimental data from post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) scaled with the equal-stress...

  9. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen

    2004-01-01

    and patients receive daily subcutaneous injections of GH for many years. Patient compliance is therefore of critical importance to ensure treatment benefit. One of the major factors influencing compliance is injection pain. Besides the injection device used, pain perception and local tissue reaction following...... injection are dependent on the preservative used in the formulation and the concentration of GH. Injection pain may also be related to the buffer substance and injection volume. A liquid formulation of GH, Norditropi SimpleXx, has been developed that dispenses with the need for reconstitution before...... administration. The formulation uses phenol (3 mg/ml) as a preservative (to protect product from microbial degradation or contamination) and histidine as a buffer. Alternative preservatives used in other GH formulations include m-cresol (9 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (3-9 mg/ml). Buffering agents include citrate...

  10. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  11. [The health preserving behavior in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bitskii, V Iu; Makeev, N I

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the results of study of health preserving behavior of 310 students of senior classes of high schools of town of Jukovsky of Moskovskaya oblast. The higher level of prevalence of harmful habits among adolescents is revealed. It is emphasized that among girls the prevalence of harmful habits is not at large lower than among boys. The lower level of medical activities of respondents is explained by mistrusting physicians of curative preventive establishments, fear of queues, self-confidence in one's own knowledge and low level of medical awareness. The priority of physical culture and sport in the life of adolescents is reducing. The reorientation of trends in modern fashion to the behavior stereotypes with motional activities restriction occurs. The making of conditions to develop consistent health preserving behavior can become the most important reserve of preservation and enhancement of adolescents' health.

  12. Globalization and Localization of Heritage Preservation in Taiwan – an Analysis Perspective under the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The key contribution to the legislation of heritage preservation in Taiwan primarily derived from the historical monument movements in the 1970s. Specific legislation results include the establishment of Council for Cultural Affairs and the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act in 1982. Although the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is the first subjective cultural act, its lack of structure during the initial commencement stages made it un-conducive to heritage preservation and thus unable to meet the people’s expectations. Therefore, throughout the 33 years after the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act, the Act has been amended 6 times. These amendments reflect the degree of importance that the society has attached to heritage preservation, and the innovative system also showcases the progress in preservation concepts and methods. These innovative orientations, such as emphasizing on the authenticity and integrity of heritage preservation, intangible cultural heritage, and cultural diversity, conform to the international preservation trends. They are also local trends such as encouraging community participation, adaptive-reuse, or enhancing the local governments’ powers to implement local cultural governance. This is particularly true for the fifth comprehensive revision in 2005, which has symbolic significance because its contents epitomized the heritage preservation work while moving Taiwan’s heritage preservation system towards globalization and localization. Therefore, we analyzed the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act amendment and revision processes over the past 33 years to highlight the innovations in Taiwan’s cultural heritage work and illustrate their globalization and localization features. Finally, we proposed recommendations for Taiwan’s preservation work in the future as the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is about to undergo its seventh amendment in 2015.

  13. Preservation of Chytridiomycota in culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Frank H; Mozley-Standridge, Sharon E; Porter, David; Boyle, Donna G; Hyatt, Alex D

    2007-02-01

    Methods for the preservation of fungi in the Chytridiomycota in culture collections are reviewed in this paper. The Chytridiomycota can be preserved with varying degrees of success using a number of different protocols including cryopreservation. The survival of fungi in the Chytridiomycota is sensitive to environmental factors such as lack of moisture, high temperatures, high osmotic potential, and availability of oxygen, all of which must be considered in designing preservation methods. The age of the culture at the initiation of preservation appears to be a particularly important determinant of viability. Recently, commonly used methods for preservation of other groups of fungi have been modified to improve the survival of the Chytridiomycota in culture collections. High rates of survival have been reported after cryopreservation of aerobic and anaerobic chytrids in 10 % glycerol or dimethyl sulphoxide as cryoprotectants. The rates of freezing and thawing must be carefully controlled in the methods for cryopreservation considered in this review. Further research on increasing long-term survival rates and morphological, physiological and genetic stability of Chytridiomycota at low temperatures is necessary.

  14. Looking beyond the importance of life goals. The personal goal model of subjective well-being in neuropsychological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nico; Doering, Bettina K; Rief, Winfried; Exner, Cornelia

    2010-05-01

    To identify subjective importance, attainability and success of life goals and their predictive value for subjective well-being in patients with acquired brain injury. Cross-sectional, descriptive. Two inpatient neurological rehabilitation centres. Patients with non-progressive neurological disorders. Survey using questionnaires. Life goal characteristics were assessed using a life goal questionnaire (GOALS). Subjective well-being (composite score) was measured using the Center of the Epidemic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Fifty-nine patients participated in the study. The most important life goals are intimacy (4.59/5), achievement (3.96/5) and altruism (3.89/5). The intimacy goals are considered most attainable (4.19/5) and patients feel most successful in this domain (3.98/5). Two important predictions of the personal goal model of subjective well-being could be confirmed. First, goal attainability moderates the relation between goal importance and goal success. Second, the influence of goal importance on subjective well-being is mediated by experienced success. The most powerful predictors for subjective well-being are success in the achievement domain (beta = 0.404) and discrepancy between importance and success in the intimacy domain (beta = -0.276). The subjective well-being of neurological patients depends not only on the appraised importance of life goals but also on their attainability and success.

  15. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    by taking the distributed structure of the system into account and improving the efficiency in terms of computation and communication by data packing. While our construction can be easily adjusted to a centralized or a distributed computing model, we rely on a set of particular users that help the service...... for distributed clustering that limits information leakage to the untrusted service provider that performs the clustering. To achieve this goal, we rely on cryptographic techniques, in particular homomorphic encryption, and further improve the state of the art of processing encrypted data in terms of efficiency...... provider with computations. Experimental results clearly indicate that the work we present is an efficient way of deploying a privacy-preserving clustering algorithm in a distributed manner....

  16. AUTOMATED MAPPING OF PERMANENT PRESERVATION AREAS ON HILLTOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Castro Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs on hilltops are among the many areas protected by the New Forest Code in Brazil. Mapping of these involves difficult interpretation and application of the Law, as well a complex task of translating it in map algebra. This paper aims to present, in detail, a methodological model for delimitation of PPAs on hilltops, according to the Brazilian new Forest Code (NFC, Law 12,651/2012. The model was developed in Model Builder for ArcGIS 10.2, and is able to map the PPAs in any digital terrain model. However, field validations are required to verify its efficiency. There is need for legal standardization of criteria that may cause subjectivity in delimitation. The organization of these data on a large scale is very important, as example, to the Rural Environmental Registry, which provides georeferencing of all rural properties and its protected areas in Brazil.

  17. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... a too narrow aesthetic goal, especially when it comes to the evaluation of built environments as a whole. Architectural value has therefore been perceived as a different concept than aesthetic value, primarily related to a static and unchanging expression. This fact creates problems in relation...... to current conservation tasks, which today include more and more untraditionally built environments, including cultural environments. Architectural value must in this case rather be associated with development, ongoing processes, and allow room for future change. The Danish architect Johannes Exner, defines...

  18. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  19. Data Preservation and Long Term Analysis in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Several important and unique experimental high-energy physics programmes at a variety of facilities are coming to an end, including those at HERA, the B-factories and the Tevatron. The wealth of physics data from these experiments is the result of a significant financial and human effort, and yet until recently no coherent strategy existed for data preservation and re-use. To address this issue, an inter-experimental study group on data preservation and long-term analysis in high-energy physics was convened at the end of 2008, publishing an interim report in 2009. The membership of the study group has since expanded, including the addition of the LHC experiments, and a full status report has now been released. This report greatly expands on the ideas contained in the original publication and provides a more solid set of recommendations, not only concerning data preservation and its implementation in high-energy physics, but also the future direction and organisational model of the study group. The main messages of the status report were presented for the first time at the 2012 International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics and are summarised in these proceedings.

  20. Latent tuberculosis infection in foreign-born communities: Import vs. transmission in The Netherlands derived through mathematical modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Korthals Altes

    Full Text Available While tuberculosis (TB represents a significant disease burden worldwide, low-incidence countries strive to reach the WHO target of pre-elimination by 2035. Screening for TB in immigrants is an important component of the strategy to reduce the TB burden in low-incidence settings. An important option is the screening and preventive treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI. Whether this policy is worthwhile depends on the extent of transmission within the country, and introduction of new cases through import. Mathematical transmission models of TB have been used to identify key parameters in the epidemiology of TB and estimate transmission rates. An important application has also been to investigate the consequences of policy scenarios. Here, we formulate a mathematical model for TB transmission within the Netherlands to estimate the size of the pool of latent infections, and to determine the share of importation-either through immigration or travel- versus transmission within the Netherlands. We take into account importation of infections due to immigration, and travel to the country of origin, focusing on the three ethnicities most represented among foreign-born TB cases (after exclusion of those overrepresented among asylum seekers: Moroccans, Turkish and Indonesians. We fit a system of ordinary differential equations to the data from the Netherlands Tuberculosis Registry on (extra-pulmonary TB cases from 1995-2013. We estimate that about 27% of Moroccans, 25% of Indonesians, and 16% of Turkish, are latently infected. Furthermore, we find that for all three foreign-born communities, immigration is the most important source of LTBI, but the extent of within-country transmission is much lower (about half for the Turkish and Indonesian communities than for the Moroccan. This would imply that contact investigation would have a greater yield in the latter community than in the former. Travel remains a minor factor contributing LTBI, suggesting that

  1. Igbo Traditional religion and Land Preservation | Udezo | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines Igbo Traditional Religion and Land Preservation in Igboland. The study disclosed that land is very important at the international and national levels especially in the sub-Saharan West Africa with emphasis on Igbo. It also revealed that a lot of cares is taken to preserve this valued and highly cherished gift ...

  2. Preserving local writers, genealogy, photographs, newspapers, and related materials

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Preserving Local Writers, Genealogy, Photographs, Newspapers, and Related Materials draws on the practical knowledge of archivists, preservationists, librarians, and others who share the goal of making local history accessible to future generations. Anyone who plans to start a local history project or preserve important historical materials will find plenty of tips, techniques, sample documents, project ideas, and inspiration in its pages.

  3. Effects of common ophthalmic preservatives on ocular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noecker, R

    2001-01-01

    Preservatives are an important component of ophthalmic preparations, providing antimicrobial activity in the bottle and preventing decomposition of active drug. Often underrecognized, however, are the significant cytotoxic effects of preservatives associated with long-term therapy and especially use of multiple preserved drugs. The most common preservatives in ophthalmic preparations for glaucoma and surface eye disease-benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorobutanol, sodium perborate, and stabilized oxychloro complex (SOC)-were reviewed. Compared with other preservatives, SOC caused the least amount of damage to rabbit corneal epithelial cells. BAK has demonstrated cytotoxic effects in cell culture, as well as in animal and human studies. Physicians should consider treatment with new-generation preparations containing low-risk preservatives such as SOC, especially in patients receiving multiple ophthalmic medications.

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  5. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  6. Formation of supermassive black holes in the center of galaxies. Importance of a multi-scale theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakatsu, Nozomu; Wada, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that most of normal galaxies have their central supermassive black holes (SMBHs). However, the formation and evolution of SMBHs is still open question and a hot topic in astrophysics. In this article, we review recent theoretical studies on the formation of SMBHs in the center of galaxies, and mention the importance of constructing a multi-scale theoretical model. (author)

  7. Contributions to Exceptional Fossil Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Muscente, Anthony Drew

    2016-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils—or fossils preserved with remains of originally non-biomineralized (i.e. soft) tissues—constitute a key resource for investigating the history of the biosphere. In comparison to fossils of biomineralized skeletal elements, which represent the majority of the fossil record but only a fraction of the total diversity that existed in the past, exceptionally preserved fossils are comparatively rare because soft tissues are rapidly destroyed in typical...

  8. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kompas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM, based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India, and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events.

  9. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompas, Tom; Che, Tuong Nhu

    2016-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG) market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM), based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India), and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events.

  10. Latent tuberculosis infection in foreign-born communities: Import vs. transmission in The Netherlands derived through mathematical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, Serieke; Cobelens, Frank; Bootsma, Martin

    2018-01-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) represents a significant disease burden worldwide, low-incidence countries strive to reach the WHO target of pre-elimination by 2035. Screening for TB in immigrants is an important component of the strategy to reduce the TB burden in low-incidence settings. An important option is the screening and preventive treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI). Whether this policy is worthwhile depends on the extent of transmission within the country, and introduction of new cases through import. Mathematical transmission models of TB have been used to identify key parameters in the epidemiology of TB and estimate transmission rates. An important application has also been to investigate the consequences of policy scenarios. Here, we formulate a mathematical model for TB transmission within the Netherlands to estimate the size of the pool of latent infections, and to determine the share of importation–either through immigration or travel- versus transmission within the Netherlands. We take into account importation of infections due to immigration, and travel to the country of origin, focusing on the three ethnicities most represented among foreign-born TB cases (after exclusion of those overrepresented among asylum seekers): Moroccans, Turkish and Indonesians. We fit a system of ordinary differential equations to the data from the Netherlands Tuberculosis Registry on (extra-)pulmonary TB cases from 1995–2013. We estimate that about 27% of Moroccans, 25% of Indonesians, and 16% of Turkish, are latently infected. Furthermore, we find that for all three foreign-born communities, immigration is the most important source of LTBI, but the extent of within-country transmission is much lower (about half) for the Turkish and Indonesian communities than for the Moroccan. This would imply that contact investigation would have a greater yield in the latter community than in the former. Travel remains a minor factor contributing LTBI, suggesting that targeting

  11. Preserving Employee Privacy in Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    The proposed "Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act" states that the collection of information about the manifested disease or disorder of a family member shall not be considered an unlawful acquisition of genetic information. The bill recognizes employee privacy protections that are already in place and includes specific language relating to nondiscrimination based on illness. Why did legislation expressly intending to "preserve wellness programs" generate such antipathy about wellness among journalists? This article argues that those who are committed to preserving employee wellness must be equally committed to preserving employee privacy. Related to this, we should better parse between discussions and rules about commonplace health screenings versus much less common genetic testing.

  12. Neural Stem Cells Derived by Small Molecules Preserve Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Morgans, Catherine W; Girman, Sergey; Luo, Jing; Zhao, Jiagang; Du, Hongjun; Lim, Sioklam; Ding, Sheng; Svendsen, Clive; Zhang, Kang; Wang, Shaomei

    2013-01-01

    The advances in stem cell biology hold a great potential to treat retinal degeneration. Importantly, specific cell types can be generated efficiently with small molecules and maintained stably over numerous passages. Here, we investigated whether neural stem cell (NSC) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by small molecules can preserve vision following grafting into the Royal College Surgeon (RCS) rats; a model for retinal degeneration. A cell suspension containing 3 × 10 4 NSCs or NSCs labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was injected into the subretinal space or the vitreous cavity of RCS rats at postnatal day (P) 22; animals injected with cell-carry medium and those left untreated were used as controls. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by testing optokinetic response, recording luminance threshold, and examining retinal histology. NSCs offered significant preservation of both photoreceptors and visual function. The grafted NSCs survived for long term without evidence of tumor formation. Functionally, NSC treated eyes had significantly better visual acuity and lower luminance threshold than controls. Morphologically, photoreceptors and retinal connections were well preserved. There was an increase in expression of cillary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in Müller cells in the graft-protected retina. This study reveals that NSCs derived from hESC by small molecules can survive and preserve vision for long term following subretinal transplantation in the RCS rats. These cells migrate extensively in the subretinal space and inner retina; there is no evidence of tumor formation or unwanted changes after grafting into the eyes. The NSCs derived from hESC by small molecules can be generated efficiently and provide an unlimited supply of cells for the treatment of some forms of human outer retinal degenerative diseases. The capacity of NSCs migrating into inner retina offers a potential as a vehicle to delivery drugs/factors to treat inner retinal

  13. The time has come to test the beta cell preserving effects of exercise in patients with new onset type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narendran, Parth; Solomon, Thomas; Kennedy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterised by immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Significant beta cell function is usually present at the time of diagnosis with type 1 diabetes, and preservation of this function has important clinical benefits. The last 30 years have seen a number...... for physical exercise as a therapy for the preservation of beta cell function in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. We highlight possible mechanisms by which exercise could preserve beta cell function and then present evidence from other models of diabetes that demonstrate that exercise preserves...... beta cell function. We conclude by proposing that there is now a need for studies to explore whether exercise can preserve beta cell in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes....

  14. a System Dynamics Model to Study the Importance of Infrastructure Facilities on Quality of Primary Education System in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Ozdamar, Linet; Weber, Gerhard-Wilhelm; Kropat, Erik

    2010-06-01

    The system dynamics approach is a holistic way of solving problems in real-time scenarios. This is a powerful methodology and computer simulation modeling technique for framing, analyzing, and discussing complex issues and problems. System dynamics modeling and simulation is often the background of a systemic thinking approach and has become a management and organizational development paradigm. This paper proposes a system dynamics approach for study the importance of infrastructure facilities on quality of primary education system in developing nations. The model is proposed to be built using the Cross Impact Analysis (CIA) method of relating entities and attributes relevant to the primary education system in any given community. We offer a survey to build the cross-impact correlation matrix and, hence, to better understand the primary education system and importance of infrastructural facilities on quality of primary education. The resulting model enables us to predict the effects of infrastructural facilities on the access of primary education by the community. This may support policy makers to take more effective actions in campaigns.

  15. The Importance of Non-neuronal Cell Types in hiPSC-Based Disease Modeling and Drug Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Gonzalez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Current applications of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC technologies in patient-specific models of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders tend to focus on neuronal phenotypes. Here, we review recent efforts toward advancing hiPSCs toward non-neuronal cell types of the central nervous system (CNS and highlight their potential use for the development of more complex in vitro models of neurodevelopment and disease. We present evidence from previous works in both rodents and humans of the importance of these cell types (oligodendrocytes, microglia, astrocytes in neurological disease and highlight new hiPSC-based models that have sought to explore these relationships in vitro. Lastly, we summarize efforts toward conducting high-throughput screening experiments with hiPSCs and propose methods by which new screening platforms could be designed to better capture complex relationships between neural cell populations in health and disease.

  16. Short Oxygenated Warm Perfusion With Prostaglandin E1 Administration Before Cold Preservation as a Novel Resuscitation Method for Liver Grafts From Donors After Cardiac Death in a Rat In Vivo Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Kai; Akamatsu, Yorihiro; Hara, Yasuyuki; Tokodai, Kazuaki; Miyagi, Shigehito; Kashiwadate, Toshiaki; Miyazawa, Koji; Kawagishi, Naoki; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2016-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that short oxygenated warm perfusion (SOWP) prevented warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat livers from donors after cardiac death (DCDs) in an ex vivo model. In the present study, we aimed to examine the in vivo effects of SOWP and SOWP with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in DCD rat liver transplants. We performed liver transplantation after 6-hour cold preservation using grafts retrieved from DCD rats, divided into nontreatment (NT), SOWP, and SOWP with PGE1 (SOWP + PG) treatment groups. The SOWP grafts were perfused with oxygenated buffer at 37°C for 30 minutes before cold preservation. Prostaglandin E1 was added to the SOWP + PG group perfusate. Eleven liver transplants from each group were performed to evaluate graft function and survival; 5 rats were used for data collection after 1-hour reperfusion, and 6 rats were used for the survival study. As a positive control, the same experiment was performed in a heart-beating donor group. In both the SOWP and SOWP + PG groups, serum liver enzymes, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 levels, and cellular damage were significantly decreased compared with the NT group. In the SOWP + PG group, bile production and energy status were significantly improved compared with the NT group. The 4-week survival was 0% (0/6), 67% (4/6), 83% (5/6), and 100% (6/6) in the NT, SOWP, SOWP + PG, and heart-beating donor group, respectively. Short oxygenated warm perfusion before cold preservation and the addition of PGE1 to SOWP were thus beneficial in an in vivo rat model.

  17. THE ECONOMICS OF NON-GMO SEGREGATION AND IDENTITY PRESERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, David S.; Desquilbet, Marion; Nitsi, Elisavet I.

    2000-01-01

    We survey grain and soybean handlers and producers in the U.S. and EU to estimate costs of preserving the identities of GMO and non-GMO crops in marketing channels. We introduce our estimates into the IFPRI IMPACT model to simulate the effects of identity preservation on farm incomes and consumer well-being.

  18. Financial mechanisms and social safety-oriented model of development of the Russian economy (based on import substitution and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article features of import substitution in the socially oriented model determined as economy with the high level of the state income redistribution of subjects of managing and developed on this basis of system of social protection are considered. Import substitution is considered from the traditional point of view – creation of new productions and technologies which are implemented at the expense of own and borrowed funds of investors. The financial mechanisms for implementation of innovations promoting import substitution are offered: industry plans and road maps as availability of reference points for creation of rational amounts of the budget payments and financial resources of the entities necessary for upgrade of productions, and also the directions of financial resources for implementation of specific most important national priorities and innovative investment projects. The volume of investment into the fixed capital correlated to its cost considerably grew from 3.5% in 2003 to 11.6% in 2009, but value of this indicator isn't enough as degree of depreciation of fixed assets in economy of the region constituted 44.9% in 2009. Direct foreign investments prevail: in Krasnoyarsk Krai their share constituted in 2009 – 45.4%, Krasnodar Region – 40.5%, the Nizhny Novgorod Region – 84.5%. In the Voronezh region such entities as KBHA, Federal State Unitary Enterprise State Research and Production Space Center branch of M. V. Khrunichev the Voronezh Mechanical Plant, JSC Sozvezdiye Concern having the high technologies making safety of the country and especially needing investments function. In plans of urgent strategy of social and economic development of the Voronezh region it is supposed to increase specific weight of innovative products of such entities and to increase the level of innovative activity till 2020. The socially oriented model considering import substitution domestic technologies and products needs strengthening of the

  19. Surgeon assessment of renal preservation with partial nephrectomy provides information comparable to measurement of volume preservation with 3-dimensional image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobert, Conrad M; Boelkins, Bradley; Culver, Shannon; Mammen, Leena; Kahnoski, Richard J; Lane, Brian R

    2014-05-01

    The strongest predictors of renal function after partial nephrectomy are the preoperative glomerular filtration rate and the amount of preserved parenchyma. Measuring volume preservation by 3-dimensional imaging is accurate but time-consuming. Percent functional volume preservation was designed to replace surgeon assessment of volume preservation with a less labor intensive, objective assessment. We compared volume preservation with 3-dimensional imaging, percent functional volume preservation and surgeon assessment of volume preservation as predictors of renal function after partial nephrectomy. We calculated volume preservation with 3-dimensional imaging, percent functional volume preservation and surgeon assessment of volume preservation in 41 patients with preoperative and postoperative cross-sectional imaging available. Surgeon assessment was validated internally in another 75 patients. Short-term and long-term renal function was assessed with univariate and multivariate linear regression models. Median parenchymal preservation was 85% (range 37% to 105%) by 3-dimensional imaging, 91% (range 51% to 114%) by percent functional preservation and 88% (range 45% to 99%) by surgeon assessment. Each method strongly correlated with nadir glomerular filtration rate (r(2) = 0.75, 0.65 and 0.78) and latest glomerular filtration rate (r(2) = 0.65, 0.66 and 0.67, respectively, each p preservation was the strongest predictor (p preservation with 3-dimensional imaging, percent functional volume preservation and surgeon assessment of volume preservation were statistically similar in the ability to predict the nadir and latest glomerular filtration rates. In an additional validation cohort surgeon assessment remained strongly correlated with nadir glomerular filtration rate (r(2) = 0.74) and latest glomerular filtration rate (r(2) = 0.73, each p preservation provides a reliable estimate of renal functional preservation with characteristics comparable to those of more time

  20. Biomarker Production and Preservation on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, J.; Schmidt, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    Future landing site selection and sampling techniques for Europa will concentrate on locations of high potential biomarker preservation, however it is unclear what the best targets might be. On Europa, the scenario is quite unlike the depositional surface environments of terrestrial planets we've studied thus far-Europa's surface is passively communicating with putative habitable niches below that extend throughout the ice shell, ocean and sea floor. In this work, I approach biomarker production and preservation on Europa based by considering the many hypotheses that govern the its habitability, the processes that occur within the sea floor, ocean, and ice and exchange between them, and the geologic hypotheses for the formation of its various surfaces to establish, what journey through the planet a biomarker might take to arrive, if possible, at the surface where it is accessible to near-term landed missions. The goal of this project is to construct a simple model through which to consider the context for sampled material that will provide us with the ability to identify limitations in our intuition, understanding of the Europan system, our current hypotheses and data, and provide a road map for developing both areas for new research and identifying technology gaps that we must overcome before we can confidently select a landing site or analyze a sample from the near surface of Europa. I first consider the nature of the environment, i.e. at the sea floor interface, the ocean, or ocean-ice interface, in order to establish what the likely "biomarker" could be and then trace its path through the system: downwelling through the shell, mixing through the ocean, and pathways to the surface. Importantly, many models exist for the production of Europa's surface and subsurface geology that could affect the integrity of a putative biomarker. Often we modulate such considerations as a function of the time-scales over which the geologic process occurs, however such processes

  1. The importance of object geometric properties for trajectory modeling of functional reach-to-grasp robotic therapy tasks - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Dominic; Jeutter, Dean C

    2009-01-01

    Reaching-to-grasp is essential for the performance of activities of daily living. Pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, etc. limit individuals from being able to perform meaningful upper extremity movements, leading to a reduced quality of life. Robotic aided therapy is gaining prevalence as a rehabilitation tool because it can provide consistent and quantitative therapy. Such systems are dependent upon models to generate trajectories that dictate their movements. Time scaled polynomial techniques have been extensively used for robotic model development and trajectory generation. However, this approach is limited because it cannot support functional therapy tasks. This is largely due to the influence of cognitive complexity not completely considered with regards to the activity performed. We examine the influence of task cognitive complexity as manifested through the geometric properties of each object on the movement trajectories and kinematic dependent variables tasks through a motion analysis study using healthy subjects (N=8). We then compare the predicted results from several robotic trajectory models with the actual motion analysis data. Our results show that there are differences present, between the trajectory data and kinematic properties for each task, that are specific to the geometric properties of each object. In addition, the predicted results from the robotic trajectory models do not fully correlate with the actual movement information. This study is important as it will help provide some insight with regards to factors that need to be considered during the development of future robotic trajectory models and controllers for upper extremity functional rehabilitation tasks.

  2. Diet before and during Pregnancy and Offspring Health: The Importance of Animal Models and What Can Be Learned from Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Chavatte-Palmer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article outlines epidemiologic studies that support the hypothesis that maternal environment (including early nutrition plays a seminal role in determining the offspring’s long-term health and metabolism, known as the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases (DOHaD. In this context, current concerns are particularly focused on the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes, particularly in youth and women of child-bearing age. We summarize key similarities, differences and limitations of various animal models used to study fetal programming, with a particular focus on placentation, which is critical for translating animal findings to humans. This review will assist researchers and their scientific audience in recognizing the pros and cons of various rodent and non-rodent animal models used to understand mechanisms involved in fetal programming. Knowledge gained will lead to improved translation of proposed interventional therapies before they can be implemented in humans. Although rodents are essential for fundamental exploration of biological processes, other species such as rabbits and other domestic animals offer more tissue-specific physiological (rabbit placenta or physical (ovine maternal and lamb birth weight resemblances to humans. We highlight the important maternal, placental, and fetal/neonatal characteristics that contribute to developmentally programmed diseases, specifically in offspring that were affected in utero by undernutrition, overnutrition or maternal diabetes. Selected interventions aimed at prevention are summarized with a specific focus on the 1000 days initiative in humans, and maternal exercise or modification of the n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA balance in the diet, which are currently being successfully tested in animal models to correct or reduce adverse prenatal programming. Animal models are essential to understand mechanisms involved in fetal programming and in order to

  3. A Topology Evolution Model Based on Revised PageRank Algorithm and Node Importance for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is a classical self-organizing communication network, and its topology evolution currently becomes one of the attractive issues in this research field. Accordingly, the problem is divided into two subproblems: one is to design a new preferential attachment method and the other is to analyze the dynamics of the network topology evolution. To solve the first subproblem, a revised PageRank algorithm, called Con-rank, is proposed to evaluate the node importance upon the existing node contraction, and then a novel preferential attachment is designed based on the node importance calculated by the proposed Con-rank algorithm. To solve the second one, we firstly analyze the network topology evolution dynamics in a theoretical way and then simulate the evolution process. Theoretical analysis proves that the network topology evolution of our model agrees with power-law distribution, and simulation results are well consistent with our conclusions obtained from the theoretical analysis and simultaneously show that our topology evolution model is superior to the classic BA model in the average path length and the clustering coefficient, and the network topology is more robust and can tolerate the random attacks.

  4. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  5. Photodegradation of bentazon, clopyralid, and triclopyr on model leaves: importance of a systematic evaluation of pesticide photostability on crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyheraguibel, Boris; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire

    2009-03-11

    Photolyses of three herbicides, bentazon, clopyralid, and triclopyr, were studied on plant leaves after crop treatment. The experiments were carried out on cuticular wax films, which are good models for leaf surfaces. The pure compounds and their commercial formulations were investigated under simulated solar light. At the recommended agricultural application rates, the three formulated herbicides photolyzed more rapidly on films than on soil or in water. Their photolysis is likely to be an important dissipation path from crops after treatment. The effects induced by the adjuvants in formulations were varied. Adjuvants slowed the photodegradation of bentazon slightly. In Garlon, in which triclopyr and clopyralid are combined, the adjuvants did not affect the photolysis of clopyralid even though they accelerated the rate of photolysis of triclopyr by a factor of 7. The kinetics were also affected by the application rates. This work also underscores the importance of assessing the photoreactivity of active ingredients in conditions similar to those of their application.

  6. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  7. Preserving and enhancing the functionality of highways in Texas : workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Workshop Objectives: To promote the importance of Highway Functionality To review functionality in highway lifecycle To provide how to materials to preserve, maintain, and enhance functionality To promote coordination between Tx...

  8. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: Researchers Study Strategies to Preserve Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Drug-Induced Hearing Loss Researchers Study Strategies to Preserve ... brain there was a sound. What are ototoxic drugs and why are they important? Ototoxic drugs are ...

  9. On the self-preservation of turbulent jet flows with variable viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaila, Luminita; Gauding, Michael; Varea, Emilien; Turbulence; mixing Team

    2017-11-01

    The concept of self-preservation has played an important role in shaping the understanding of turbulent flows. The assumption of complete self-preservation imposes certain constrains on the dynamics of the flow, allowing to express one-point or two-point statistics by choosing an appropriate unique length scale. Determining this length scale and its scaling is of high relevance for modeling. In this work, we study turbulent jet flows with variable viscosity from the self-preservation perspective. Turbulent flows encountered in engineering and environmental applications are often characterized by fluctuations of viscosity resulting for instance from variations of temperature or species composition. Starting from the transport equation for the moments of the mixture fraction increment, constraints for self-preservation are derived. The analysis is based on direct numerical simulations of turbulent jet flows where the viscosity between host and jet fluid differs. It is shown that fluctuations of viscosity do not affect the decay exponents of the turbulent energy or the dissipation but modify the scaling of two-point statistics in the dissipative range. Moreover, the analysis reveals that complete self-preservation in turbulent flows with variable viscosity cannot be achieved. Financial support from Labex EMC3 and FEDER is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Investigating the Importance of 3D Structure & Topography in Seismic Deformation Modeling: Case Study of the April 2015 Nepal Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, L.; Gharti, H. N.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, observations of deformation at plate boundaries have been greatly improved by the development of techniques in space geodesy. However, models of seismic deformation remain limited and are unable to account for realistic 3D structure in topography and material properties. We demonstrate the importance of 3D structure using a spectral-element method that incorporates fault geometry, topography, and heterogeneous material properties in a (non)linear viscoelastic domain. Our method is benchmarked against Okada's analytical technique and the PyLith software package. The April 2015 Nepal earthquake is used as a case study to examine whether 3D structure can affect the predictions of seismic deformation models. We find that the inclusion of topography has a significant effect on our results.

  11. Resveratrol nanosuspensions: interaction of preservatives with nanocrystal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobierski, S; Ofori-Kwakye, K; Müller, R H; Keck, C M

    2011-12-01

    The effect of six different preservatives on the production process and stability of resveratrol nanosuspensions was investigated. Nanosuspensions of the anti-oxidant resveratrol were prepared by high pressure homogenization (1,500 bar, 20 homogenization cycles). The preservatives used were: caprylyl glycol (0.75%), Euxyl PE 9010 (1.0%), Hydrolite-5 (2.0), Phenonip (0.75%), Rokonsal PB-5 (0.5%) and MultiEx Naturotics (2.0%). Preservation is essential for oral and dermal nanosuspensions, but can impair the stability. The effect of the preservatives on stability as a function of cycle numbers was determined by size measurements (photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser diffraction (LD) and light microscopy). Zeta potential measurements were performed for determination of the Stern potential (measurements in water) and as stability criterion (measurements in original dispersion medium), to elucidate the mechanism of destabilization. The preservatives could be placed into three groups. Hydrolite-5 did not affect the production process and the short term stability, sizes were practically identical to the preservative-free nanosuspension (e.g. PCS diameters 196 nm and 184 nm, respectively). All other preservatives impaired the stability medium to pronounced, being most pronounced for MultiEx Naturotics. Hydrolite-5 is recommended as preservative of choice. A mechanistic model was developed to explain the absence and the different degrees of destabilization. In general, when screening for suitable preservatives, suspensions are produced, different preservatives added and the size changes are monitored over long-term. The destabilizing effect of the preservatives on nanosuspensions became evident when added in the production process immediately, thus this can be used as a screening tool for optimal, non-destabilizing preservatives, replacing or minimizing time-consuming long-term stability studies.

  12. Towards a Theory of Digital Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Reagan

    2008-01-01

    A preservation environment manages communication from the past while communicating with the future. Information generated in the past is sent into the future by the current preservation environment. The proof that the preservation environment preserves authenticity and integrity while performing the communication constitutes a theory of digital preservation. We examine the representation information that is needed about the preservation environment for a theory of digital preservation. The re...

  13. Importance of dissolved organic nitrogen in the north Atlantic Ocean in sustaining primary production: a 3-D modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Charria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available An eddy-permitting coupled ecosystem-circulation model including dissolved organic matter is used to estimate the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON supply sustaining primary production in the subtropical north Atlantic Ocean.

    After an analysis of the coupled model performances compared to the data, a sensitivity study demonstrates the strong impact of parameter values linked to the hydrolysis of particulate organic nitrogen and remineralisation of dissolved organic nitrogen on surface biogeochemical concentrations.

    The physical transport of dissolved organic nitrogen contributes to maintain the level of primary production in this subtropical gyre. It is dominated by the meridional component. We estimate a meridional net input of 0.039 molN m−2 yr−1 over the domain (13–35° N and 71–40° W in the subtropical gyre. This supply is driven by the Ekman transport in the southern part and by non-Ekman transport (meridional current components, eddies, meanders and fronts in the northern part of the subtropical gyre. At 12° N, our estimate (18 kmolN s−1 confirms the estimation (17.9 kmolN s−1 made by Roussenov et al. (2006 using a simplified biogeochemical model in a large scale model. This DON meridional input is within the range (from 0.05 up to 0.24 molN m−2 yr−1 (McGillicuddy and Robinson, 1997; Oschlies, 2002 of all other possible mechanisms (mesoscale activity, nitrogen fixation, atmospheric deposition fuelling primary production in the subtropical gyre. The present study confirms that the lateral supply of dissolved organic nitrogen might be important in closing the N budget over the north Atlantic Ocean and quantifies the importance of meridional input of dissolved organic nitrogen.

  14. Hearing Preservation in Cochlear Implant Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Carvalho Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a “soft surgery” cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients.

  15. The role of biotechnology in art preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, José Luis; Santana, María A; Galindo-Castro, Iván; Gonzalez, Alvaro

    2005-12-01

    Biotechnology has played a key role in medicine, agriculture and industry for over 30 years and has advanced our understanding of the biological sciences. Furthermore, the tools of biotechnology have a great and largely untapped potential for the preservation and restoration of our cultural heritage. It is possible that these tools are not often applied in this context because of the inherent separation of the worlds of art and science; however, it is encouraging to see that during the past six years important biotechnological applications to artwork preservation have emerged and advances in biotechnology predict further innovation. In this article we describe and reflect upon a unique example of a group of scientists and art restoration technicians working together to study and treat of a piece of colonial art, and review some of the new applications in biotechnology for the preservation of mankind's cultural heritage. We predict an expansion in this field and the further development of biotechnological techniques, which will open up new opportunities to both biologists and artwork preservers.

  16. The importance of shared mental models and shared situation awareness for transforming robots from tools to teammates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ososky, Scott; Schuster, David; Jentsch, Florian; Fiore, Stephen; Shumaker, Randall; Lebiere, Christian; Kurup, Unmesh; Oh, Jean; Stentz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Current ground robots are largely employed via tele-operation and provide their operators with useful tools to extend reach, improve sensing, and avoid dangers. To move from robots that are useful as tools to truly synergistic human-robot teaming, however, will require not only greater technical capabilities among robots, but also a better understanding of the ways in which the principles of teamwork can be applied from exclusively human teams to mixed teams of humans and robots. In this respect, a core characteristic that enables successful human teams to coordinate shared tasks is their ability to create, maintain, and act on a shared understanding of the world and the roles of the team and its members in it. The team performance literature clearly points towards two important cornerstones for shared understanding of team members: mental models and situation awareness. These constructs have been investigated as products of teams as well; amongst teams, they are shared mental models and shared situation awareness. Consequently, we are studying how these two constructs can be measured and instantiated in human-robot teams. In this paper, we report results from three related efforts that are investigating process and performance outcomes for human robot teams. Our investigations include: (a) how human mental models of tasks and teams change whether a teammate is human, a service animal, or an advanced automated system; (b) how computer modeling can lead to mental models being instantiated and used in robots; (c) how we can simulate the interactions between human and future robotic teammates on the basis of changes in shared mental models and situation assessment.

  17. Building a Federated Infrastructure for Preservation of and Access to Research Data in the Netherlands: The Front Office-Back Office Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, P.K.; Dillo, I.; Witkamp, P.; Katre, Dinesh; Giaretta, David

    2014-01-01

    A federated data infrastructure is emerging in The Netherlands on the basis of the collaborative model proposed in the Riding the Wave report as a framework for the scholarly information system of the future. This federated model is elaborated as a layered front office – back office model, in which

  18. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M. L.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J. H.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C. L.; Choate, J. S.; Salathe, E.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-16

    , significant differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ Andrews’s ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at region scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies vs. direct modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; e.g., BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality (where VOCs are a primary indicator).

  19. On the Empirical Importance of the Conditional Skewness Assumption in Modelling the Relationship between Risk and Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipień, M.

    2008-09-01

    We present the results of an application of Bayesian inference in testing the relation between risk and return on the financial instruments. On the basis of the Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model, proposed by Merton we built a general sampling distribution suitable in analysing this relationship. The most important feature of our assumptions is that the skewness of the conditional distribution of returns is used as an alternative source of relation between risk and return. This general specification relates to Skewed Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic-in-Mean model. In order to make conditional distribution of financial returns skewed we considered the unified approach based on the inverse probability integral transformation. In particular, we applied hidden truncation mechanism, inverse scale factors, order statistics concept, Beta and Bernstein distribution transformations and also a constructive method. Based on the daily excess returns on the Warsaw Stock Exchange Index we checked the empirical importance of the conditional skewness assumption on the relation between risk and return on the Warsaw Stock Market. We present posterior probabilities of all competing specifications as well as the posterior analysis of the positive sign of the tested relationship.

  20. Bayesian importance parameter modeling of misaligned predictors: soil metal measures related to residential history and intellectual disability in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onicescu, Georgiana; Lawson, Andrew B.; McDermott, Suzanne; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Cai, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel spatial importance parameter hierarchical logistic regression modeling approach that includes measurement error from misalignment. We apply this model to study the relationship between the estimated concentration of soil metals at the residence of mothers and the development of intellectual disability (ID) in their children. The data consist of monthly computerized claims data about the prenatal experience of pregnant women living in nine areas within South Carolina and insured by Medicaid during January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2001 and the outcome of ID in their children during early childhood. We excluded mother-child pairs if the mother moved to an unknown location during pregnancy. We identified an association of the ID outcome with arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) concentration in soil during pregnancy, controlling for infant sex, maternal race, mother's age, and gestational weeks at delivery. There is some indication that Hg has a slightly higher importance in the third and fourth months of pregnancy, while As has a more uniform effect over all the months with a suggestion of a slight increase in risk in later months. PMID:24888618