WorldWideScience

Sample records for model potential energy

  1. Research on potential user identification model for electric energy substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Huaijian; Chen, Meiling; Lin, Haiying; Yang, Shuo; Miao, Bo; Zhu, Xinzhi

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of energy substitution plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in china. Energy service management platform of alternative energy users based on the data in the enterprise production value, product output, coal and other energy consumption as a potential evaluation index, using principal component analysis model to simplify the formation of characteristic index, comprehensive index contains the original variables, and using fuzzy clustering model for the same industry user’s flexible classification. The comprehensive index number and user clustering classification based on constructed particle optimization neural network classification model based on the user, user can replace electric potential prediction. The results of an example show that the model can effectively predict the potential of users’ energy potential.

  2. Collisionless Plasma Modeling in an Arbitrary Potential Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.

    1997-01-01

    A new technique for calculating a collisionless plasma along a field line is presented. The primary feature of the new model is that it can handle an arbitrary (including nonmonotonic) potential energy distribution. This was one of the limiting constraints on the existing models in this class, and these constraints are generalized for an arbitrary potential energy composition. The formulation for relating current density to the field-aligned potential as well as formulas for density, temperature and energy flux calculations are presented for several distribution functions, ranging from a bi-Lorentzian with a loss cone to an isotropic Maxwellian. A comparison of these results with previous models shows that the formulation reduces.to the earlier models under similar assumptions.

  3. Generalized Potential Energy Finite Elements for Modeling Molecular Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzieleftheriou, Stavros; Adendorff, Matthew R; Lagaros, Nikos D

    2016-10-24

    The potential energy of molecules and nanostructures is commonly calculated in the molecular mechanics formalism by superimposing bonded and nonbonded atomic energy terms, i.e. bonds between two atoms, bond angles involving three atoms, dihedral angles involving four atoms, nonbonded terms expressing the Coulomb and Lennard-Jones interactions, etc. In this work a new, generalized numerical simulation is presented for studying the mechanical behavior of three-dimensional nanostructures at the atomic scale. The energy gradient and Hessian matrix of such assemblies are usually computed numerically; a potential energy finite element model is proposed herein where these two components are expressed analytically. In particular, generalized finite elements are developed that express the interactions among atoms in a manner equivalent to that invoked in simulations performed based on the molecular dynamics method. Thus, the global tangent stiffness matrix for any nanostructure is formed as an assembly of the generalized finite elements and is directly equivalent to the Hessian matrix of the potential energy. The advantages of the proposed model are identified in terms of both accuracy and computational efficiency. In the case of popular force fields (e.g., CHARMM), the computation of the Hessian matrix by implementing the proposed method is of the same order as that of the gradient. This analysis can be used to minimize the potential energy of molecular systems under nodal loads in order to derive constitutive laws for molecular systems where the entropy and solvent effects are neglected and can be approximated as solids, such as double stranded DNA nanostructures. In this context, the sequence dependent stretch modulus for some typical base pairs step is calculated.

  4. Modelling thermal stratification in the North Sea: Application of a 2-D potential energy model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; St. John, Michael

    2001-01-01

    dynamics we have developed and tested a potential energy model of thermal stratification based on the energy equation (for turbulence). The energy equation relates the temporal and spatial changes of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), the production of TKE and the dissipation of TKE to the change of potential...... energy as water masses of different densities are mixed in the field of gravity. A constant ratio between the gain in potential energy and the production of TKE is assumed, known as the flux Richardson number. The model is comprised of 0·5m vertical layers with a temporal time step of 1 day. The model...... is forced with wind, dew point temperature from Ekofisk oilfield in the central North Sea, and tidal current and atmospheric radiation. The model is used to simulate the seasonal cycle of stratification in the central North Sea in the years 1988, 1989 and 1990 and is compared to density profiles...

  5. On intermediate energy heavy ion optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihan, T.H.; Awin, A.M.

    1992-08-01

    We derive in this paper an approximate analytical expression for the heavy ion optical potential by solving the inversion problem based on the McIntyre parametrization of the S-matrix. The quasi-classical limit of high energy approximation is modified in our approach so as to account for the Coulomb distortion of the trajectory. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  6. TRIAD AND MODUS MODEL REALIZATION OF POTENTIAL ENERGY AND RESOURCE SAVINGS ON THE ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Klimchuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studied categories of the resource, energy and potential energy savings that resulted in the development of triad and modus model of potential energy and resource savings enterprises based on the concept of “environmental economics”. To assess the level of energy efficiency in the company it is proposed to use a definition of “potential of energy and resource savings” which is interpreted as a synergistic approach to improve energy conservation reserves through intensification of production based on the rationalization of the use of all resources. Keywords: potential of energy savings, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environmental economics, energy resource.

  7. Relationship of the Williams-Poulios and Manning-Rosen Potential Energy Models for Diatomic Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Chun-Sheng; Peng, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liang, Guang-Chuan; Tang, Hong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    By employing the dissociation energy and the equilibrium bond length for a diatomic molecule as explicit parameters, we generate an improved form of the Williams-Poulios potential energy model. It is found that the negative Williams-Poulios potential model is equivalent to the Manning-Rosen potential model for diatomic molecules. We observe that the Manning-Rosen potential is superior to the Morse potential in reproducing the interaction potential energy curves for the a 3 Σ + u state of the 6 Li 2 molecule and the X 1 Σ + state of the SiF + molecule. (author)

  8. Estimating potential saving with energy consumption behaviour model in higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizal Ishak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards sustainable Higher Education Institutions (HEIs, energy consumption behaviour is one of several issues that require an attention by facilities manager. Information from the behavioural aspect would be useful for facilities manager on managing the energy and determining potential energy saving. A lack of information negatively affects this aim. Hence, this paper proposes a methodology for assessing the energy consumption behaviour with the objective determining potential energy saving. The method used energy culture framework as basis and joined with centrographic approach and multiple-regression analysis. A self-administrated survey carried out involving 1400 respondents in selected HEIs. There are four types of energy use among students in HEIs namely, 'high', 'low', ‘medium’ and 'conserve' determined from the centrographic analysis. The energy consumption behaviour model was developed and tested against the holdout sample. Through the model's application, there is a vast potential for energy savings with over 55 kWh daily among the students.

  9. Macroscopic-microscopic model of nuclear potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagno, Pierre; Bouland, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Moller, Peter

    2017-09-01

    To improve the evaluation of nuclear observables, refined models are to be used more and more as underlying analysis tools. Fission is a complex process and is the less accurately described with current models. Standard evaluation models rely on the Hill-Wheeler formalism for the fission transmission coefficient, which in turns is based on phenomenological parameters "reflecting" the fission barrier heights and widths. To reduce the weight of phenomenology in the evaluation process, nuclear structure models are expected to embed more and more microscopic descriptions. As models are rarely exact, evaluators are often compelled to "tune" model parameters so that observables can be properly reproduced. Related computation time can thus be a major hindrance to the use of advanced models in evaluation as final adjustments are expected to remain necessary. For this reason, a macroscopic-microscopic model has been selected to replace the current phenomenological description of fission barriers. The Finite-Range Liquid-Drop Model (FRLDM) has been implemented in the CONRAD evaluation code and its present implementation shows remarkable consistency with experimental and published benchmark data. The CONRAD code can be used to provide expectation values but also related uncertainties and covariance data. Sensitivity of FRLDM parameters and the correlation matrix between these parameters have been obtained so that further uncertainty propagation on barrier heights can be carried out in the near future.

  10. Assessing the Validity of the Simplified Potential Energy Clock Model for Modeling Glass-Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dai, Steve Xunhu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Glass-ceramic seals may be the future of hermetic connectors at Sandia National Laboratories. They have been shown capable of surviving higher temperatures and pressures than amorphous glass seals. More advanced finite-element material models are required to enable model-based design and provide evidence that the hermetic connectors can meet design requirements. Glass-ceramics are composite materials with both crystalline and amorphous phases. The latter gives rise to (non-linearly) viscoelastic behavior. Given their complex microstructures, glass-ceramics may be thermorheologically complex, a behavior outside the scope of currently implemented constitutive models at Sandia. However, it was desired to assess if the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model is capable of capturing the material response. Available data for SL 16.8 glass-ceramic was used to calibrate the SPEC model. Model accuracy was assessed by comparing model predictions with shear moduli temperature dependence and high temperature 3-point bend creep data. It is shown that the model can predict the temperature dependence of the shear moduli and 3- point bend creep data. Analysis of the results is presented. Suggestions for future experiments and model development are presented. Though further calibration is likely necessary, SPEC has been shown capable of modeling glass-ceramic behavior in the glass transition region but requires further analysis below the transition region.

  11. Modelling of solar energy potential in Nigeria using an artificial neural network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadare, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) based model for prediction of solar energy potential in Nigeria (lat. 4-14 o N, log. 2-15 o E) was developed. Standard multilayered, feed-forward, back-propagation neural networks with different architecture were designed using neural toolbox for MATLAB. Geographical and meteorological data of 195 cities in Nigeria for period of 10 years (1983-1993) from the NASA geo-satellite database were used for the training and testing the network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, mean temperature, and relative humidity) were used as inputs to the network, while the solar radiation intensity was used as the output of the network. The results show that the correlation coefficients between the ANN predictions and actual mean monthly global solar radiation intensities for training and testing datasets were higher than 90%, thus suggesting a high reliability of the model for evaluation of solar radiation in locations where solar radiation data are not available. The predicted solar radiation values from the model were given in form of monthly maps. The monthly mean solar radiation potential in northern and southern regions ranged from 7.01-5.62 to 5.43-3.54 kW h/m 2 day, respectively. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for the application of the model. The model can be used easily for estimation of solar radiation for preliminary design of solar applications.

  12. Resource requirements, impacts, and potential constraints associated with various energy futures. Annual report. [Energy Supply Planning Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, J.M.; Barany, R.; Paskert, P.F.; Zimmerman, R.G.J.

    1977-03-01

    This is the first annual report describing an effort by Bechtel Corporation to adapt and apply the Energy Supply Planning Model (ESPM) to the support of the systems analysis activities of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. Office of the Assistant Administrator for Planning Analysis and Evaluation (ERDA/APAE). The primary emphasis of this program is the identification of resource requirements and the associated impacts and potential constraints associated with various future energy options for this country. Accomplishments in 1976 include model application and analysis of energy scenarios derived from the 1976 update of the ERDA National Plan and the ''1976 National Energy Outlook'' of the Federal Energy Administration; analysis of the availability of engineers, manual manpower, and selected materials and equipment commodities; addition of aluminum, carbon steel, and alloy steel materials requirements to the model data base; the addition of several kinds of energy facilities to the modeling system; and refinement of the various aspects of the model and data base. This program shows the need for a clear statement of national energy policy.

  13. Enhancement of the REMix energy system model : global renewable energy potentials, optimized power plant siting and scenario validation

    OpenAIRE

    Stetter, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    As electricity generation based on volatile renewable resources is subject to fluctuations, data with high temporal and spatial resolution on their availability is indispensable for integrating large shares of renewable capacities into energy infrastructures. The scope of the present doctoral thesis is to enhance the existing energy modelling environment REMix in terms of (i.) extending the geographic coverage of the potential assessment tool REMix-EnDaT from a European to a global scal...

  14. Deformed potential energy of $^{263}Db$ in a generalized liquid drop model

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Bao Qiu; Zhao Yao Lin; 10.1088/0256-307X/20/11/009

    2003-01-01

    The macroscopic deformed potential energy for super-heavy nuclei /sup 263/Db, which governs the entrance and alpha decay channels, is determined within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). A quasi- molecular shape is assumed in the GLDM, which includes volume-, surface-, and Coulomb-energies, proximity effects, mass asymmetry, and an accurate nuclear radius. The microscopic single particle energies derived from a shell model in an axially deformed Woods- Saxon potential with a quasi-molecular shape. The shell correction is calculated by the Strutinsky method. The total deformed potential energy of a nucleus can be calculated by the macro-microscopic method as the summation of the liquid-drop energy and the Strutinsky shell correction. The theory is applied to predict the deformed potential energy of the experiment /sup 22/Ne+/sup 241/Am to /sup 263/Db* to /sup 259/Db+4 n, which was performed on the Heavy Ion Accelerator in Lanzhou. It is found that the neck in the quasi-molecular shape is responsible for t...

  15. Modeling Irrigation Networks for the Quantification of Potential Energy Recovering: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Pérez-Sánchez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water irrigation systems are required to provide adequate pressure levels in any sort of network. Quite frequently, this requirement is achieved by using pressure reducing valves (PRVs. Nevertheless, the possibility of using hydraulic machines to recover energy instead of PRVs could reduce the energy footprint of the whole system. In this research, a new methodology is proposed to help water managers quantify the potential energy recovering of an irrigation water network with adequate conditions of topographies distribution. EPANET has been used to create a model based on probabilities of irrigation and flow distribution in real networks. Knowledge of the flows and pressures in the network is necessary to perform an analysis of economic viability. Using the proposed methodology, a case study has been analyzed in a typical Mediterranean region and the potential available energy has been estimated. The study quantifies the theoretical energy recoverable if hydraulic machines were installed in the network. Particularly, the maximum energy potentially recovered in the system has been estimated up to 188.23 MWh/year with a potential saving of non-renewable energy resources (coal and gas of CO2 137.4 t/year.

  16. Exploring the potential for energy conservation in French households through hybrid modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudet, Louis-Gaëtan; Guivarch, Céline; Quirion, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Although the building sector is recognized as having major potential for energy conservation and carbon dioxide emission mitigation, conventional bottom–up and top–down models are limited in their ability to capture the complex economic and technological dynamics of the sector. This paper introduces a hybrid framework developed to assess future household energy demand in France. Res-IRF, a bottom–up module of energy consumption for space heating, has several distinctive features: (i) a clear separation between energy efficiency, i.e. investment in energy efficient technologies, and sufficiency, i.e. changes in the utilization of energy consuming durables which allows the rebound effect to be assessed; (ii) the inclusion of barriers to energy efficiency in the form of intangible costs, consumer heterogeneity parameters and the learning-by-doing process; (iii) an endogenous determination of retrofitting which represents trade-offs between retrofit quantity and quality. Subsequently, Res-IRF is linked to the IMACLIM-R computable general equilibrium model. This exercise shows that, compared to a 37% reduction in final energy demand achievable in business as usual in existing dwellings in 2050, an additional reduction of 21% could be achieved if relevant barriers to efficiency and sufficiency were overcome. - Highlights: ► The paper introduces a hybrid framework developed to assess future household energy demand in France. ► The model offers a clear separation between investment in energy efficient technologies and changes in their utilization. ► Intangible costs, heterogeneous discount rates and learning-by-doing functions mimic some barriers to energy efficiency. ► Simulations show that a 37% energy demand reduction could be achieved in business as usual in existing dwellings in 2050. ► An additional reduction of 21% could be achieved if relevant barriers to energy conservation were overcome.

  17. Projecting Wind Energy Potential Under Climate Change with Ensemble of Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.; Shashikanth, K.; Ghosh, S.; Mukherjee, P. P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed an increasing global concern over energy sustainability and security, triggered by a number of issues, such as (though not limited to): fossil fuel depletion, energy resource geopolitics, economic efficiency versus population growth debate, environmental concerns and climate change. Wind energy is a renewable and sustainable form of energy in which wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of wind into electrical energy. Global warming and differential surface heating may significantly impact the wind velocity and hence the wind energy potential. Sustainable design of wind mills requires understanding the impacts of climate change on wind energy potential, which we evaluate here with multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs). GCMs simulate the climate variables globally considering the greenhouse emission scenarios provided as Representation Concentration path ways (RCPs). Here we use new generation climate model outputs obtained from Coupled model Intercomparison Project 5(CMIP5). We first compute the wind energy potential with reanalysis data (NCEP/ NCAR), at a spatial resolution of 2.50, where the gridded data is fitted to Weibull distribution and with the Weibull parameters, the wind energy densities are computed at different grids. The same methodology is then used, to CMIP5 outputs (resultant of U-wind and V-wind) of MRI, CMCC, BCC, CanESM, and INMCM4 for historical runs. This is performed separately for four seasons globally, MAM, JJA, SON and DJF. We observe the muti-model average of wind energy density for historic period has significant bias with respect to that of reanalysis product. Here we develop a quantile based superensemble approach where GCM quantiles corresponding to selected CDF values are regressed to reanalysis data. It is observed that this regression approach takes care of both, bias in GCMs and combination of GCMs. With superensemble, we observe that the historical wind energy density resembles quite well with

  18. New statistical potential for quality assessment of protein models and a survey of energy functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rykunov Dmitry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoring functions, such as molecular mechanic forcefields and statistical potentials are fundamentally important tools in protein structure modeling and quality assessment. Results The performances of a number of publicly available scoring functions are compared with a statistical rigor, with an emphasis on knowledge-based potentials. We explored the effect on accuracy of alternative choices for representing interaction center types and other features of scoring functions, such as using information on solvent accessibility, on torsion angles, accounting for secondary structure preferences and side chain orientation. Partially based on the observations made, we present a novel residue based statistical potential, which employs a shuffled reference state definition and takes into account the mutual orientation of residue side chains. Atom- and residue-level statistical potentials and Linux executables to calculate the energy of a given protein proposed in this work can be downloaded from http://www.fiserlab.org/potentials. Conclusions Among the most influential terms we observed a critical role of a proper reference state definition and the benefits of including information about the microenvironment of interaction centers. Molecular mechanical potentials were also tested and found to be over-sensitive to small local imperfections in a structure, requiring unfeasible long energy relaxation before energy scores started to correlate with model quality.

  19. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 3 - Analysis of potentially applicable distributed energy opportunities. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The third task built upon the findings of the previous two and undertook an analysis of potentially applicable distributed energy opportunities. These opportunities were analysed given a number of different parameters, which were decided upon in consultation with the CVRD. The primary output of this task was a series of cost figures for the various technologies, thus allowing comparison on a cents/kWh basis. All of the cost figures from this task have been entered into a tailor made Excel model. This 'technology cost' model is linked to the Excel scenario model utilised in task 4. As a result, as technology costs change, they can be updated accordingly and be reflected in the scenarios. Please note, that the technologies considered at present in the technology cost model are well-proven technologies, available in the market today, even though the output is being used for an analysis of development until 2050. Task 3 results are detailed in this report and both presents an initial screening for various local renewable energies, and provides the CVRD with the means of evaluating the costs and benefits of local energy productions versus

  20. Potential of Solar Energy in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah: An Estimate Using a Photovoltaic System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, F. M.; Sentian, J.

    2016-04-01

    Solar energy is becoming popular as an alternative renewable energy to conventional energy source, particularly in the tropics, where duration and intensity of solar radiation are longer. This study is to assess the potential of solar energy generated from solar for Kota Kinabalu, a rapidly developing city in the State of Sabah, Malaysia. A year data of solar radiation was obtained using pyranometer, which was located at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (6.0367° N, 116.1186° E). It was concluded that the annual average solar radiation received in Kota Kinabalu was 182 W/m2. In estimating the potential energy generated from solar for Kota Kinabalu city area, a photovoltaic (PV) system model was used. The results showed that, Kota Kinabalu is estimated to produce 29,794 kWh/m2 of electricity from the solar radiation received in a year. This is equivalent to 0.014 MW of electricity produced just by using one solar panel. Considering the power demand in Sabah by 2020 is 1,331 MW, this model showed that the solar energy can contribute around 4% of energy for power demand, with 1 MW capacity of the PV system. 1 MW of PV system installation will require about 0.0328% from total area of the city. This assessment could suggest that, exploration for solar power energy as an alternative source of renewable energy in the city can be optimised and designed to attain significant higher percentage of contribution to the energy demand in the state.

  1. Potential of Solar Energy in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah: An Estimate Using a Photovoltaic System Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, F M; Sentian, J

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy is becoming popular as an alternative renewable energy to conventional energy source, particularly in the tropics, where duration and intensity of solar radiation are longer. This study is to assess the potential of solar energy generated from solar for Kota Kinabalu, a rapidly developing city in the State of Sabah, Malaysia. A year data of solar radiation was obtained using pyranometer, which was located at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (6.0367° N, 116.1186° E). It was concluded that the annual average solar radiation received in Kota Kinabalu was 182 W/m 2 . In estimating the potential energy generated from solar for Kota Kinabalu city area, a photovoltaic (PV) system model was used. The results showed that, Kota Kinabalu is estimated to produce 29,794 kWh/m 2 of electricity from the solar radiation received in a year. This is equivalent to 0.014 MW of electricity produced just by using one solar panel. Considering the power demand in Sabah by 2020 is 1,331 MW, this model showed that the solar energy can contribute around 4% of energy for power demand, with 1 MW capacity of the PV system. 1 MW of PV system installation will require about 0.0328% from total area of the city. This assessment could suggest that, exploration for solar power energy as an alternative source of renewable energy in the city can be optimised and designed to attain significant higher percentage of contribution to the energy demand in the state. (paper)

  2. Upcrowding energy co-operatives - Evaluating the potential of crowdfunding for business model innovation of energy co-operatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Mathias Georg; Jovanović, Tanja; Voigt, Kai-Ingo

    2017-08-01

    Practice and theory have proven the relevance of energy co-operatives for civic participation in the energy turnaround. However, due to a still low awareness and changing regulation, there seems an unexploited potential of utilizing the legal form 'co-operative' in this context. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the crowdfunding implementation in the business model of energy co-operatives in order to cope with the mentioned challenges. Based on a theoretical framework, we derive a Business Model Innovation (BMI) through crowdfunding including synergies and differences. A qualitative study design, particularly a multiple-case study of energy co-operatives, was chosen to prove the BMI and to reveal barriers. The results show that although most co-operatives are not familiar with crowdfunding, there is strong potential in opening up predominantly local structures to a broader group of members. Building on this, equity-based crowdfunding is revealed to be suitable for energy co-operatives as BMI and to accompany other challenges in the same way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling Molecular Interactions in Water: From Pairwise to Many-Body Potential Energy Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Almost 50 years have passed from the first computer simulations of water, and a large number of molecular models have been proposed since then to elucidate the unique behavior of water across different phases. In this article, we review the recent progress in the development of analytical potential energy functions that aim at correctly representing many-body effects. Starting from the many-body expansion of the interaction energy, specific focus is on different classes of potential energy functions built upon a hierarchy of approximations and on their ability to accurately reproduce reference data obtained from state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations and experimental measurements. We show that most recent potential energy functions, which include explicit short-range representations of two-body and three-body effects along with a physically correct description of many-body effects at all distances, predict the properties of water from the gas to the condensed phase with unprecedented accuracy, thus opening the door to the long-sought “universal model” capable of describing the behavior of water under different conditions and in different environments. PMID:27186804

  4. Empirical models for predicting wind potential for wind energy applications in rural locations of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odo, F.C. [National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Akubue, G.U.; Offiah, S.U.; Ugwuoke, P.E. [National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we use the correlation between the average wind speed and ambient temperature to develop models for predicting wind potentials for two Nigerian locations. Assuming that the troposphere is a typical heterogeneous mixture of ideal gases, we find that for the studied locations, wind speed clearly correlates with ambient temperature in a simple polynomial of 3rd degree. The coefficient of determination and root-mean-square error of the models are 0.81; 0.0024 and 0.56; 0.0041, respectively, for Enugu (6.40N; 7.50E) and Owerri (5.50N; 7.00E). These results suggest that the temperature-based model can be used, with acceptable accuracy, in predicting wind potentials needed for preliminary design assessment of wind energy conversion devices for the locations and others with similar meteorological conditions.

  5. Progress in the development of global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus optical model potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madland, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Two existing global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus phenomenological optical model potentials are described and compared with experiment and with each other. The first of these employs a Dirac approach (second-order reduction) that is global in projectile energy and projectile isospin and applies to the target nucleus 208 Pb. The second of these employs a relativistic equivalent to the Schroedinger equation (including relativistic kinematics) that is global in projectile energy, projectile isospin, and target (Z,A). Finally, current work is described and the influence of the nuclear bound state problem (treated in relativistic mean field theory) on the Dirac scattering problem is mentioned. Spherical target nuclei are treated in the present work and strongly-collective target nuclei (rotational and vibrational) requiring coupled-channels approaches will be treated in a future paper. (author)

  6. Analyses of the energy-dependent single separable potential models for the NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Beghi, L.

    1981-08-01

    Starting from a systematic study of the salient features regarding the quantum-mechanical two-particle scattering off an energy-dependent (ED) single separable potential and its connection with the rank-2 energy-independent (EI) separable potential in the T-(K-) amplitude formulation, the present status of the ED single separable potential models due to Tabakin (M1), Garcilazo (M2) and Ahmad (M3) has been discussed. It turned out that the incorporation of a self-consistent optimization procedure improves considerably the results of the 1 S 0 and 3 S 1 scattering phase shifts for the models (M2) and (M3) up to the CM wave number q=2.5 fm -1 , although the extrapolation of the results up to q=10 fm -1 reveals that the two models follow the typical behaviour of the well-known super-soft core potentials. It has been found that a variant of (M3) - i.e. (M4) involving one more parameter - gives the phase shifts results which are generally in excellent agreement with the data up to q=2.5 fm -1 and the extrapolation of the results for the 1 S 0 case in the higher wave number range not only follows the corresponding data qualitatively but also reflects a behaviour similar to the Reid soft core and Hamada-Johnston potentials together with a good agreement with the recent [4/3] Pade fits. A brief discussion regarding the features resulting from the variations in the ED parts of all the four models under consideration and their correlations with the inverse scattering theory methodology concludes the paper. (author)

  7. Studies on nuclear fusion energy potential based on a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Fujino, J.; Asaoka, Y.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates introduction conditions and potential of nuclear fusion energy as energy supply and CO 2 mitigation technologies in the 21st century. Time horizon of the 21st century, 10 regionally allocated world energy/environment model (Linearized Dynamic New Earth 21) is used for this study. Following nuclear fusion technological data are taken into consideration: cost of electricity (COE) in nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and maximum regional plant capacity constraints by maximum plant construction speed. We made simulation under a constraint of atmospheric CO 2 concentration of 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv) targeted at year 2100, assuming that sequestration technologies and unknown innovative technologies for CO 2 reduction are available. The results indicate that under the 550ppm scenario with nuclear fusion within maximum construction speed, 66mill/kWh is required for introducing nuclear fusion in 2050, 92 mill/kWh in 2060, and 106 mill/kWh in 2070. Therefore, tokamak type nuclear fusion reactors of present several reactor cost estimates are expected to be introduced between 2060 and 2070, and electricity generation fraction by nuclear fusion will go around 20% in 2100 if nuclear fusion energy growth is limited only by the maximum construction speed. CO 2 reduction by nuclear fusion introduced in 2050 from business-as-usual (BAU) scenario without nuclear fusion is about 20% of total reduction amount in 2100. In conclusion, nuclear fusion energy is revealed to be one of the candidates of energy supply technologies and CO 2 mitigation technologies. Cost competitiveness and removal of capacity constraint factors are desired for use of nuclear fusion energy in a large scale. (author)

  8. Modeling Potential Energy Surfaces: From First-Principle Approaches to Empirical Force Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Ballone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Explicit or implicit expressions of potential energy surfaces (PES represent the basis of our ability to simulate condensed matter systems, possibly understanding and sometimes predicting their properties by purely computational methods. The paper provides an outline of the major approaches currently used to approximate and represent PESs and contains a brief discussion of what still needs to be achieved. The paper also analyses the relative role of empirical and ab initio methods, which represents a crucial issue affecting the future of modeling in chemical physics and materials science.

  9. The geothermal energy potential in Denmark - updating the database and new structural and thermal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Sparre Andersen, Morten; Balling, Niels; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Fuchs, Sven; Leth Hjuler, Morten; Kristensen, Lars; Mathiesen, Anders; Olivarius, Mette; Weibel, Rikke

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of structural, hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. In the framework of a project under the Danish Research program 'Sustainable Energy and Environment' funded by the 'Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation', fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the utilization of geothermal energy in Denmark was compiled, analyzed and re-interpreted. A 3D geological model was constructed and used as structural basis for the development of a national subsurface temperature model. In that frame, all available reflection seismic data were interpreted, quality controlled and integrated to improve the regional structural understanding. The analyses and interpretation of available relevant data (i.e. old and new seismic profiles, core and well-log data, literature data) and a new time-depth conversion allowed a consistent correlation of seismic surfaces for whole Denmark and across tectonic features. On this basis, new topologically consistent depth and thickness maps for 16 geological units from the top pre-Zechstein to the surface were drawn. A new 3D structural geological model was developed with special emphasis on potential geothermal reservoirs. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well-logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal properties of potential geothermal reservoirs and to develop a parameterized numerical 3D conductive subsurface temperature model. Reservoir properties and quality were estimated by integrating petrography and diagenesis studies with porosity-permeability data. Detailed interpretation of the reservoir quality of the geological formations was made by estimating net reservoir sandstone thickness based on well-log analysis, determination of mineralogy including sediment provenance analysis, and burial history data. New local surface heat-flow values (range: 64-84 mW/m2) were determined for the Danish

  10. Solar energy potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of solar energy as a national resource is discussed. Research and development programs for the development of eleven concepts are described to show the proposed funding for each year over a fifteen year period. The estimated energy contributions by period for each of the solar concepts are analyzed. The estimated impact of the solar concepts to the year 2020 are tabulated.

  11. Assessment of renewable energy potential. Calculation model “AREP-LP”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penchev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Bulgaria is a country rich in renewable energy sources. There are all types of RES including: solar, geothermal, biomass, wind energy and hydropower. Per capita it ranks among the top in Europe. Bulgaria's target for 2020 is 16% of final consumption of electricity should be from renewable energy. To achieve this goal, the first and most important task is assessing the potential of renewable energy and its geographical distribution. Creating a database of renewable energy is essential for implementation of investment projects in this area. Key words: Renewable Energy (RES), Renewable Technologies (RET), Theoretical Potential, Technical Potential, Municipalities, Regions, Energy Planning(EP), Emission Reduction (EmR), Market Assessment (MA), Data base(DB)

  12. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of biomass energy technologies in Vietnam using the long range energy alternative planning system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amit; Bhattacharya, S.C.; Pham, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potentials of number of selected Biomass Energy Technologies (BETs) have been assessed in Vietnam. These include Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) based on wood and bagasse, direct combustion plants based on wood, co-firing power plants and Stirling engine based on wood and cooking stoves. Using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, different scenarios were considered, namely the base case with no mitigation options, replacement of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) by biogas stove, substitution of gasoline by ethanol in transport sector, replacement of coal by wood as fuel in industrial boilers, electricity generation with biomass energy technologies and an integrated scenario including all the options together. Substitution of coal stoves by biogas stove has positive abatement cost, as the cost of wood in Vietnam is higher than coal. Replacement of kerosene and LPG cookstoves by biomass stove also has a positive abatement cost. Replacement of gasoline by ethanol can be realized after a few years, as at present the cost of ethanol is more than the cost of gasoline. The replacement of coal by biomass in industrial boiler is also not an attractive option as wood is more expensive than coal in Vietnam. The substitution of fossil fuel fired plants by packages of BETs has a negative abatement cost. This option, if implemented, would result in mitigation of 10.83 million tonnes (Mt) of CO 2 in 2010

  13. Quantum models with energy-dependent potentials solvable in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel, E-mail: axgeschu@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Roy, Pinaki, E-mail: pinaki@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India)

    2017-03-15

    We construct energy-dependent potentials for which the Schrödinger equations admit solutions in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials. Our method of construction is based on certain point transformations, applied to the equations of exceptional Hermite, Jacobi and Laguerre polynomials. We present several examples of boundary-value problems with energy-dependent potentials that admit a discrete spectrum and the corresponding normalizable solutions in closed form.

  14. Quantum models with energy-dependent potentials solvable in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Roy, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    We construct energy-dependent potentials for which the Schrödinger equations admit solutions in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials. Our method of construction is based on certain point transformations, applied to the equations of exceptional Hermite, Jacobi and Laguerre polynomials. We present several examples of boundary-value problems with energy-dependent potentials that admit a discrete spectrum and the corresponding normalizable solutions in closed form.

  15. Enhancement of the REMix energy system model. Global renewable energy potentials, optimized power plant siting and scenario validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetter, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    As electricity generation based on volatile renewable resources is subject to fluctuations, data with high temporal and spatial resolution on their availability is indispensable for integrating large shares of renewable capacities into energy infrastructures. The scope of the present doctoral thesis is to enhance the existing energy modelling environment REMix in terms of (i.) extending the geographic coverage of the potential assessment tool REMix-EnDaT from a European to a global scale, (ii.) adding a new plant siting optimization module REMix-PlaSMo, capable of assessing siting effects of renewable power plants on the portfolio output and (iii.) adding a new alternating current power transmission model between 30 European countries and CSP electricity imports from power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East via high voltage direct current links into the module REMix-OptiMo. With respect to the global potential assessment tool, a thorough investigation is carried out creating an hourly global inventory of the theoretical potentials of the major renewable resources solar irradiance, wind speed and river discharge at a spatial resolution of 0.45°x0.45°. A detailed global land use analysis determines eligible sites for the installation of renewable power plants. Detailed power plant models for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power allow for the assessment of power output, cost per kWh and respective full load hours taking into account the theoretical potentials, technological as well as economic data. The so-obtined tool REMix-EnDaT can be used as follows: First, as an assessment tool for arbitrary geographic locations, countries or world regions, deriving either site-specific or aggregated installable capacities, cost as well as full load hour potentials. Second, as a tool providing input data such as installable capacities and hourly renewable electricity generation for further assessments using the modules REMix-PlasMo and OptiMo. The plant siting tool

  16. Rapid energy modeling for existing buildings: Testing the business and environmental potential through an experiment at Autodesk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deodhar, Aniruddha; Stewart, Emma; Young, Rahul; Khan, Haider

    2010-09-15

    Retrofits of existing buildings represent a huge, growing market and an opportunity to achieve some of the most sizable and cost-effective carbon reductions in any sector of the economy. More 'zero energy' and 'carbon neutral' buildings are being conceived daily by combining energy efficiency measures with renewable energy technologies. However, for all the progress, the building industry faces technical and cost challenges in identifying the highest potential retrofit candidates. This presentation investigates one potential solution, a technology driven workflow called rapid energy modeling, to accelerate and scale the process of analyzing performance for existing buildings in prioritizing improvements.

  17. Discovering the energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes: An input–output model for a metropolis case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Li, Zhaoling; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A waste-to-energy system is constructed incorporating various urban wastes and technologies. • Waste-to-energy industries are formed and introduced into current socioeconomic system. • A novel input–output simulation model is developed and applied to a metropolis. • Complete energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes are discovered. - Abstract: Tremendous amounts of wastes are generated in urban areas due to accelerating industrialization and urbanization. The current unreasonable waste disposal patterns and potential energy value of urban wastes necessitates the promotion of waste-to-energy implementation. This study is intent on discovering the complete energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes taking municipal solid wastes, waste oil, organic wastewater and livestock manure into consideration. A waste-to-energy system is constructed incorporating these wastes and five waste-to-energy technologies. A novel input–output simulation model is developed and applied to a metropolis to introduce the waste-to-energy system into the current socioeconomic system and form five waste-to-energy industries. The trends in waste generation and energy recovery potential, economic benefits and greenhouse gas mitigation contribution for the study area are estimated and explored from 2011 to 2025. By 2025, biodiesel production and power generation could amount to 72.11 thousand t and 1.59 billion kW h respectively. Due to the highest energy recovery and the most subsidies, the organic wastewater biogas industry has the highest output and net profit, followed by the waste incineration power generation industry. In total 17.97 million t (carbon dioxide-equivalent) accumulative greenhouse gas emission could be mitigated. The organic wastewater biogas industry and waste incineration power generation industry are more advantageous for the study area in terms of better energy, economic and environmental performances. The

  18. Austria's wind energy potential – A participatory modeling approach to assess socio-political and market acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höltinger, Stefan; Salak, Boris; Schauppenlehner, Thomas; Scherhaufer, Patrick; Schmidt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Techno-economic assessments confirm the potential of wind energy to contribute to a low carbon bioeconomy. The increasing diffusion of wind energy, however, has turned wind energy acceptance into a significant barrier with respect to the deployment of wind turbines. This article assesses whether, and at what cost, Austrian renewable energy targets can be met under different expansion scenarios considering the socio-political and market acceptance of wind energy. Land-use scenarios have been defined in a participatory modeling approach with stakeholders from various interest groups. We calculated the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for all of the potential wind turbine sites, which we used to generate wind energy supply curves. The results show that wind energy production could be expanded to 20% of the final end energy demand in three out of four scenarios. However, more restrictive criteria increase LCOE by up to 20%. In contrast to common views that see local opposition against wind projects as the main barrier for wind power expansion, our participatory modeling approach indicates that even on the level of key stakeholders, the future possible contribution of wind energy to Austrian renewable energy targets reaches from almost no further expansion to very high shares of wind energy. - Highlights: • Including social barriers could reduce Austria’s wind potential from 92.78 to 3.89 TWh • Costs for attaining a 20% wind energy share vary by 20% between the scenarios • Socially acceptable wind area potential ranges from 0.1 to 3.9% of Austria’s total area • Excluding forest areas lowers the maximum wind energy potential by 45%

  19. Recent results in the development of a global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus optical-model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madland, D.G.

    1988-02-01

    Initial results are presented for the determination of a global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus phenomenological optical-model potential using a relativistic Schroedinger representation. The starting point for this work is the global phenomenological optical-model potential of Schwandt /ital et al./, which is based on measured elastic scattering cross sections and analyzing power for polarized protons ranging from 80 to 180 MeV. This potential is optimally modified to reproduce experimental proton reaction cross sections as a function of energy, while allowing only minimal deterioration in the fits to the elastic cross sections and analyzing powers. Further modifications in the absorptive potential were found necessary to extrapolate the modified potential to higher energies. The final potential is converted to a neutron-nucleus potential by use of standard Lane model assumptions and by accounting approximately for the Coulomb correction. Comparisons of measured and calculated proton reaction and neutron total cross sections are presented for 27 Al, 56 Fe, and 208 Pb. Medium-energy optical-model potentials for complex projectiles are briefly discussed in an appendix. 7 refs., 20 figs

  20. Community Energy Companies in the UK: A Potential Model for Sustainable Development in “Local” Energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Saintier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of renewable energy sources (RES comes with a shift in attention from government and market energy governance to local community initiatives and self-regulation. Although this shift is generally welcome at domestic and EU level, the regulatory dimension, at both levels, is nevertheless not adapted to this multi-actor market since prosumers are not empowered and energy justice is far from achieved. The rise, in the UK, of Community Interest Companies (consumers and local actors’ collectives in the energy sector provides an interesting perspective as it allows a whole system’s view. Research was conducted with six energy community organizations in the South West of England in order to evaluate their role and identity and assess whether this exemplar of “the rise of a social sphere in regulation” could be used as a model for a more sustainable social approach to the governance of economic relations. Findings illustrate that such organizations undoubtedly play an important role in the renewable energy sector and they also help to alleviate some aspects of “energy injustice”. Yet, the failure to recognize, in terms of energy policy, at domestic and EU level, the importance of such actors undermines their role. The need to embed and support such organizations in policy is necessary if one is to succeed to put justice at the core of the changing energy landscape.

  1. Comparison between the double folding model and the energy density approach for calculating the ion-ion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Osman, M.; Guirguis, J.W.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Zahra, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the present work, we use the energy density formalism derived from both the conventional Skyrme force with parameter sets SI, SII and SIII together with the extended Skyrme force with parameters SKE1, SKE2, SKE3 and SKE4 to study the real part of the ion-ion potential between different pairs of nuclei. We have first modified the Skyrme energy density to include the energy dependence of the ion-ion potential. Then we have calculated the interaction potential between different pairs of nuclei at the strong absorption radius. We have compared our results with those deduced from experiment and with the predictions of the double folding model with M3Y force. We found that our results, obtained using a suitable approximation of the kinetic energy density, agree satisfactorily with experiment. The agreement is better than the agreement found in other papers. (author)

  2. Assessing the Wave Energy Potential of Jamaica, a Greater Antilles Island, through Dynamic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, A. P., Jr.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Taylor, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Globally wave energy has been on the rise as a result of the impacts of climate change and continuous fluctuation in oil prices. The water's inertia provides waves with greater stability than that of other renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Jamaica is part of the Greater Antilles Arc and has over 1000 km of coast line with an abundance of shallow water approximately 80% within a 50km band. This configuration provides a wealth of sites for wave exploitation even in minimal wave energy conditions. Aside from harnessing the oceans waves converters can be viewed as a tool for protection of coastal areas against natural marine occurrences. Jamica has done extensive studies where solar, hydro and wind resouces are concerned. However, there has been no studies done to date on the country's wave energy resources.The aim of this study is to bridge this gap by characterizing Jamaica's wave energy resources generating in a half-closed Caribbean Sea using data available from: buoys, altimetric satellite, and numerical model. Available data has been used to assess the available resource on the coastal area for the last 12 years. Statistical analysis of the available energy is determined using the sea state (Hs, Tp and Dir) and the atmospheric forcing (10m-wind, atmospheric pressure, sea-air temperature) relating to the season.The chain of dynamical model is presented (WW3-SWAN-SWASH), allowing for the tracking of the propagation of the wave energy from an offshore region to nearshore zone along with their interaction with areas of shallow depth. This will provide a better assessment of the energy and the quality of the waves closer to the electrical grid.Climate prediction is used to estimate the sea state and wave energy exploitable up to 2100. An analysis of the possible usage of the available coastal resource up to 2100. The main results present small but exploitable resources with seasonal variability in the energy available but not wave direction.

  3. A model for predicting the potential diffusion of solar energy systems in complex urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Gennusa, Maria; Lascari, Giovanni; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Scaccianoce, Gianluca; Sorrentino, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    The necessity to reduce greenhouse gases emission produced by energy building consumptions and to cut the energy bill (mainly due to the use of fossil sources) leads to the employment of renewable energy sources in new planned scenarios. In particular, more and more often municipal energy and environmental plans pay great attention to the possibilities of employment of the solar technologies at urban scale. Solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) systems are, by far, the most suitable tools to be utilized in urban areas. Obviously, the proper adoption of such systems in buildings does call for the availability of calculation methods suitable to provide the actual level of exploitation of solar energy in urban layouts. In this work, a procedure for evaluating the geographical energy potential of building roofs in urban areas is proposed; in particular, the amount of surface on the roof that could be used for the installation of systems able to capture solar radiation for the energy production is investigated. The proposed procedure is based on the use of the GIS technology and 3D cartography. The effectiveness of the proposed method is assessed by means of an application to the town of Palermo (Italy). - Highlights: → The GIS techniques allow to analyze various future scenarios about urban planning. → We propose a procedure for assessing the extension of superficial urban areas useable for the installation of solar systems. → This procedure allow to compile a scale of priority of intervention. → The cost for financing such interventions is compared to the penalty to pay for not achieving the Kyoto goals.

  4. A model for predicting the potential diffusion of solar energy systems in complex urban environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Gennusa, Maria; Lascari, Giovanni; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Scaccianoce, Gianluca [Dipartimento dell' Energia, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze - Building 9, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Sorrentino, Giancarlo, E-mail: sorrentino@dream.unipa.it [Dipartimento dell' Energia, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze - Building 9, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    The necessity to reduce greenhouse gases emission produced by energy building consumptions and to cut the energy bill (mainly due to the use of fossil sources) leads to the employment of renewable energy sources in new planned scenarios. In particular, more and more often municipal energy and environmental plans pay great attention to the possibilities of employment of the solar technologies at urban scale. Solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) systems are, by far, the most suitable tools to be utilized in urban areas. Obviously, the proper adoption of such systems in buildings does call for the availability of calculation methods suitable to provide the actual level of exploitation of solar energy in urban layouts. In this work, a procedure for evaluating the geographical energy potential of building roofs in urban areas is proposed; in particular, the amount of surface on the roof that could be used for the installation of systems able to capture solar radiation for the energy production is investigated. The proposed procedure is based on the use of the GIS technology and 3D cartography. The effectiveness of the proposed method is assessed by means of an application to the town of Palermo (Italy). - Highlights: > The GIS techniques allow to analyze various future scenarios about urban planning. > We propose a procedure for assessing the extension of superficial urban areas useable for the installation of solar systems. > This procedure allow to compile a scale of priority of intervention. > The cost for financing such interventions is compared to the penalty to pay for not achieving the Kyoto goals.

  5. Improved modelling of thermal energy savings potential in the existing residential stock using a newly available data source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineen, D.; Rogan, F.; Ó Gallachóir, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bottom up approach to modelling the energy savings potential of energy efficiency improvement measures to be applied through retrofit of the existing dwelling stock. It takes advantage of a newly available, rich dataset on the construction characteristics of the 2011 housing stock in Ireland. The methodological innovation centres on the use of wall construction type in the modelling and analysis. While Ireland is the focus, this approach is applicable to any EU member state for which data on dwelling characteristics exists from surveys carried as part of Energy Performance Certificate calculations. The model is calibrated to the national energy balance for 2011 by varying the internal temperature assumptions. Sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of internal temperature and rebound. The paper also highlights some limitations posed by data availability on the accuracy and sophistication of models that can currently be developed, specifically in the Irish case. - Highlights: • Archetype model of energy savings potential from retrofit of existing dwelling stock. • Takes advantage of rich dataset on the construction characteristics of the Irish housing stock. • Innovative use of wall construction types in archetype definition possible due to improved data. • Results calibrated to top down estimate of heating demand by adjusting internal temperature. • Highlights limitations on the accuracy and sophistication of models posed by data availability.

  6. Generalized Extreme Value Distribution Models for the Assessment of Seasonal Wind Energy Potential of Debuncha, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of generalized extreme value family of distributions (Weibull, Gumbel, and Frechet is employed for the first time to assess the wind energy potential of Debuncha, South-West Cameroon, and to study the variation of energy over the seasons on this site. The 29-year (1983–2013 average daily wind speed data over Debuncha due to missing values in the years 1992 and 1994 is gotten from NASA satellite data through the RETScreen software tool provided by CANMET Canada. The data is partitioned into min-monthly, mean-monthly, and max-monthly data and fitted using maximum likelihood method to the two-parameter Weibull, Gumbel, and Frechet distributions for the purpose of determining the best fit to be used for assessing the wind energy potential on this site. The respective shape and scale parameters are estimated. By making use of the P values of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic (K-S and the standard error (s.e analysis, the results show that the Frechet distribution best fits the min-monthly, mean-monthly, and max-monthly data compared to the Weibull and Gumbel distributions. Wind speed distributions and wind power densities of both the wet and dry seasons are compared. The results show that the wind power density of the wet season was higher than in the dry season. The wind speeds at this site seem quite low; maximum wind speeds are listed as between 3.1 and 4.2 m/s, which is below the cut-in wind speed of many modern turbines (6–10 m/s. However, we recommend the installation of low cut-in wind turbines like the Savonius or Aircon (10 KW for stand-alone low energy need.

  7. An algorithm to use higher order invariants for modelling potential energy surface of nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Shweta; Bulusu, Satya S.

    2018-02-01

    In order to fit potential energy surface (PES) of gold nanoclusters, we have integrated bispectrum features with artificial neural network (ANN) learning technique in this work. We have also devised an algorithm for selecting the frequencies that need to be coupled for extracting the phase information between different frequency bands. We have found that higher order invariant like bispectrum is highly efficient in exploring the PES as compared to other invariants. The sensitivity of bispectrum can also be exploited in acting as an order parameter for calculating many thermodynamic properties of nanoclusters.

  8. Development of advanced mathematical predictive models for assessing damage avoided accidents on potentially-dangerous sea-based energy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, Aleksandr; Gumenyuk, Vasily; Tumanov, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the development of mathematical model for assessing the harm accidents on potentially-dangerous sea-based energy object. Made choice of regression mathematical model that best represents the relationship of the integral indicator with a set of risk factors of emergency situations their probabilities. Shows the main parameters of the model and result indicators. A mathematical model in which risk assessment in addition to the probability of the adverse events, risk factors and possible consequences taken into account the vulnerability of the object.

  9. Evolution of the potential energy landscape with static pulling force for two model proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2012-07-26

    The energy landscape is analyzed for off-lattice bead models of protein L and protein G as a function of a static pulling force. Two different pairs of attachment points (pulling directions) are compared in each case, namely, residues 1/56 and 10/32. For the terminal residue pulling direction 1/56, the distinct global minimum structures are all extended, aside from the compact geometry that correlates with zero force. The helical turns finally disappear at the highest pulling forces considered. For the 10/32 pulling direction, the changes are more complicated, with a variety of competing arrangements for beads outside the region where the force is directly applied. These alternatives produce frustrated energy landscapes, with low-lying minima separated by high barriers. The calculated folding pathways in the absence of force are in good agreement with previous work. The N-terminal hairpin folds first for protein L and the C-terminal hairpin for protein G, which exhibits an intermediate. However, for a relatively low static force, where the global minimum retains its structure, the folding mechanisms change, sometimes dramatically, depending on the protein and the attachment points. The scaling relations predicted by catastrophe theory are found to hold in the limit of short path lengths.

  10. Low-energy defibrillation research using a rabbit ventricular model: optimizing the potential gradient distribution using multiple epicardial electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianfei Wang; Lian Jin; Xiaomei Wu; Biao Song; Li Qian; Weiqi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac potential gradient distribution directly affects defibrillation efficacy, and the electrode configuration that ensures optimal distribution is yet to be determined. In this study, a rabbit ventricular finite element conductor model containing blood perfusion in ventricular cavities was developed. The electric field was solved on the model by using 95% myocardial volume potential gradient higher than 5 V/cm as the successful defibrillation threshold (DFT). Multiple epicardial electrodes (MEE) protocols and a SCAN protocol were used to identify the optimum defibrillation method. Results showed that when using the SCAN protocol, DFT energy reduced to 4.3% that of the control group which had the traditional implantable cardioverter defibrillator current path. Rapidly switching scanning stimuli generated using MEE pairs is a promising low-energy defibrillation method. For multiple electrodes defibrillation, the distribution of the electrode pairs determine the defibrillation efficacy, and the counteraction effect has negative effect on defibrillation. These findings can provide suggestions for clinical applications.

  11. Potential Energy Flexibility for a Hot-Water Based Heating System in Smart Buildings Via Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Awadelrahman M. A.; Zong, Yi; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2017-01-01

    water tank as active thermal energy storage, where two optimization problems are integrated together to optimize both the heat pump electricity consumption and the building heating consumption. A sensitivity analysis for the system flexibility is examined. The results revealed that the proposed......This paper studies the potential of shifting the heating energy consumption in a residential building to low price periods based on varying electricity price signals suing Economic Model Predictive Control strategy. The investigated heating system consists of a heat pump incorporated with a hot...

  12. Diffusion Monte Carlo determination of the binding energy of the sup 4 He nucleus for model Wigner potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, R.F. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology); Buendia, E. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Moderna); Flynn, M.F. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Physics); Guardiola, R. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica y Nuclear)

    1992-02-01

    The diffusion Monte Carlo method is used to integrate the four-body Schroedinger equation corresponding to the {sup 4}He nucleus for several model potentials of Wigner type. Good importance sampling trial functions are used, and the sampling is large enough to obtain the ground-state energy with an error of only 0.01 to 0.02 MeV. (author).

  13. Decadal predictability of wind energy potentials over Germany in the Earth System Model of the Max-Planck-Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2015-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of wind energy potentials in the framework of the ongoing MiKlip consortium (www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM), that can provide skillful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system of the MPI-ESM are analysed here with respect to wind energy potentials on the regional and local scale. Ensembles of uninitialized historical and yearly initialized hindcast experiments are used to assess the forecast skill for wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations, which are based on different hindcast initialisations, show some forecast skill for wind energy potentials on yearly and multi-yearly time scales over Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Benelux. In general, the predictive skill for the two latest MPI-ESM generations (baseline1 and prototype) is higher than for the first generation (baseline0). The predictability varies with different leading-time periods and declines with increasing time since initialisation. Regarding seasonal means, skill scores are lowest during winter, and persist longest for autumn in all three generations. In the summer months, differences between the three generations are more pronounced than for the other seasons. In general, forecast skill for wind energy potential is found for all three MPI-ESM ensemble generations. This skill is

  14. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Chevalier, B.

    1996-01-01

    Four different building models are described - two from France and two from Denmark. For each country a single family house and a centrally located flat in a multi storey building have been chosen. The buildings is built according to the French and the Danish building code respectively...

  15. Modelling the potential supply of energy crops in Ireland: results from a probit model examining the factors affecting willingness to adopt

    OpenAIRE

    James Breen; Darragh Clancy; Brian Moran; Fiona Thorne

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies exist reporting estimates of the theoretical potential for growing energy crops in the Ireland; however a knowledge gap exists on the extent to which Irish farmers would actually choose to grow these crops. We investigated the influence of selected individual and farm characteristics on willingness to consider growing energy crops among farm operators in Ireland. A sample of 958 operators selected by stratified sampling technique was used. A probit model was used to determine...

  16. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  17. Modeling solvation contributions to conformational free energy changes of biomolecules using a potential of mean force expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, M.; Doniach, S.

    1995-01-01

    The standard free energy perturbation (FEP) techniques for the calculation of conformational free energy changes of a solvated biomolecule involve long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We have developed a method for performing the same calculations many orders of magnitude faster. We model the average solvent density around a solute as the product of the relevant solute--solvent correlation functions (CF), following the work of Garcia, Hummer, and Soumpasis. We calculate the CF's by running Monte Carlo simulations of a single solute atom in a box of explicit water molecules and also angular dependent CF's for selected pairs of solute atoms. We then build the water shell around a larger solute (e.g., alanine dipeptide) by taking the product of the appropriate CF's. Using FEP techniques we are able to calculate free energy changes as we rotate the dihedral angles of the alanine dipeptide and we find they are in close agreement with the MD results. We also compute the potential of mean force as a function of distance between two solvated methanes and calculate the contribution of the solvent to the free energy change that results from rotating n-butane about its dihedral angle. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. The potential of biogas energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acaroglu, M.; Hepbasli, A.; Kocar, G.

    2005-01-01

    Biogas technology has been known about for a long time, but in recent years the interest in it has significantly increased, especially due to the higher costs and the rapid depletion of fossil fuels as well as their environmental considerations. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of biogas energy in the 15 European Union (EU) countries and in Turkey, which is seeking admission to the EU and is trying to meet EU environmental standards. Biogas energy potential of the 15 EU countries is estimated to be about 800 PJ. Besides this, Turkey's annual animal waste potential is obtained to be about 11.81 million tons with a biogas energy equivalent of 53.6 PJ. It is expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies towards the optimum utilization of biogas energy. (author)

  19. Nuclear energy: potentiality and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, Gawdat

    2008-01-01

    After a discussion about a broad definition of energy security and about the main challenges facing a potential nuclear renaissance, the article analyses how the European Union and the United States have addressed these challenges. There is no doubt that nuclear power will remain an important component of global energy mix, but it should not be seen as a panacea to the flows in the global energy markets [it

  20. Energy modelling software

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has turned to energy modelling in order to assist them in reducing the amount of energy consumed by buildings. However, while the energy loads of buildings can be accurately modelled, energy models often under...

  1. Biowaste energy potential in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nzila, Charles; Dewulf, Jo; van Langenhove, Herman; Spanjers, Henri; Kiriamiti, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Energy affects all aspects of national development. Hence the current global energy crisis demands greater attention to new initiatives on alternative energy sources that are renewable, economically feasible and sustainable. The agriculture-dependent developing countries in Africa can mitigate the energy crisis through innovative use of the available but underutilised biowaste such as organic residues from maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane. Biogas technology is assumed to have the capacity to economically and sustainably convert these vast amounts of biowaste into renewable energy, thereby replacing the unsustainable fossil energy sources, and reducing dependency on fossil fuels. However, the total energy potential of biogas production from crop residues available in Kenya has never been evaluated and quantified. To this end, we selected five different types of residues (maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane) from Kenya and evaluated their energy potential through biomethane potential analysis at 30 C and a test time of 30 days. The specific methane yields for maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane residues obtained under batch conditions were respectively 363, 271, 365, 67 and 177 m 3 per tonne volatile solids. In terms of energy potential, maize, cotton and barley residues were found to be better substrates for methane production than tea and sugarcane residues and could be considered as potential substrates or supplements for methane production without compromising food security in the country. The evaluated residues have a combined national annual maximum potential of about 1313 million cubic meters of methane which represent about 3916 Gigawatt hour (GWh) of electricity and 5887 GWh of thermal energy. The combined electrical potential is equivalent to 73% of the country's annual power production of 5307 GWh. Utilization of the residues that are readily available on a 'free on site' basis for energy production could substitute the fossil fuels that

  2. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  3. Challenging fission cross section simulation with long standing macro-microscopic model of nucleus potential energy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamagno, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The work presented here aims to improve models used in the fission cross section evaluation. The results give insights for a significant breakthrough in this field and yielded large extensions of the evaluation code CONRAD. Partial cross sections are inherently strongly correlated together as of the competition of the related reactions must yield the total cross section. Therefore improving fission cross section benefits to all partial cross sections. A sound framework for the simulation of competitive reactions had to be settled in order to further investigate on the fission reaction; this was implemented using the TALYS reference code as guideline. After ensuring consistency and consistency of the framework, focus was made on fission. Perspective resulting from the use of macroscopic-microscopic models such as the FRDM and FRLDM were analyzed; these models have been implemented and validated on experimental data and benchmarks. To comply with evaluation requirements in terms of computation time, several specific numerical methods have been used and parts of the program were written to run on GPU. These macroscopic-microscopic models yield potential energy surfaces that can be used to extract a one-dimensional fission barrier. This latter can then be used to obtained fission transmission coefficients that can be used in a Hauser-Feshbach model. This method has been finally tested for the calculation of the average fission cross section for 239 Pu(n,f). (author) [fr

  4. Renewable energy potential in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

  5. Potential environmental impact of tidal energy extraction in the Pentland Firth at large spatial scales: results of a biogeochemical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, J.; Ruardij, P.; Greenwood, N.

    2016-01-01

    A model study was carried out of the potentiallarge-scale (> 100 km) effects of marine renewabletidal energy generation in the Pentland Firth, using the 3-D hydrodynamics–biogeochemistry model GETM-ERSEMBFM.A realistic 800MW scenario and a high-impact scenariowith massive expansion of tidal energy

  6. Energy intensities: Prospects and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the previous chapter, the author described how rising activity levels and structural change are pushing toward higher energy use in many sectors and regions, especially in the developing countries. The extent to which more activity leads to greater energy use will depend on the energy intensity of end-use activities. In this chapter, the author presents an overview of the potential for intensity reductions in each sector over the next 10-20 years. It is not the author's intent to describe in detail the various technologies that could be employed to improve energy efficiency, which has been done by others (see, for example, Lovins ampersand Lovins, 1991; Goldembert et al., 1987). Rather, he discusses the key factors that will shape future energy intensities in different parts of the world, and gives a sense for the changes that could be attained if greater attention were given to accelerate efficiency improvement. The prospects for energy intensities, and the potential for reduction, vary among sectors and parts of the world. In the majority of cases, intensities are tending to decline as new equipment and facilities come into use and improvements are made on existing stocks. The effect of stock turnover will be especially strong in the developing countries, where stocks are growing at a rapid pace, and the Former East Bloc, where much of the existing industrial plant will eventually be retired and replaced with more modern facilities. While reductions in energy intensity are likely in most areas, there is a large divergence between the technical and economic potential for reducing energy intensities and the direction in which present trends are moving. In the next chapter, the author presents scenarios that illustrate where trends are pointing, and what could be achieved if improving energy efficiency were a focus of public policies. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Assessment of commercially available energy-efficient room air conditioners including models with low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, N. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, W. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Improving the energy efficiency of room air conditioners (RACs) while transitioning to low global-warming-potential (GWP) refrigerants will be a critical step toward reducing the energy, peak load, and emissions impacts of RACs while keeping costs low. Previous research quantified the benefits of leapfrogging to high efficiency in tandem with the transition to low-GWP refrigerants for RACs (Shah et al., 2015) and identified opportunities for initial action to coordinate energy efficiency with refrigerant transition in economies constituting about 65% of the global RAC market (Shah et al., 2017). This report describes further research performed to identify the best-performing (i.e., most efficient and low-GWP-refrigerant using) RACs on the market, to support an understanding of the best available technology (BAT). Understanding BAT can help support market-transformation programs for high-efficiency and low-GWP equipment such as minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), labeling, procurement, and incentive programs. We studied RACs available in six economies—China, Europe, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United States—that together account for about 70% of global RAC demand, as well as other emerging economies. The following are our key findings: • Highly efficient RACs using low-GWP refrigerants, e.g., HFC-32 (R-32) and HC-290 (R-290), are commercially available today at prices comparable to similar RACs using high-GWP HCFC-22 (R-22) or HFC-410A (R-410A). • High efficiency is typically a feature of high-end products. However, highly efficient, cost-competitive (less than 1,000 or 1,500 U.S. dollars in retail price, depending on size) RACs are available. • Where R-22 is being phased out, high GWP R-410A still dominates RAC sales in most mature markets except Japan, where R-32 dominates. • In all of the economies studied except Japan, only a few models are energy efficient and use low-GWP refrigerants. For example, in Europe, India, and Indonesia

  8. The potential of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Energy efficiency in the German pulp and paper industry. A model-based assessment of saving potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleiter, T.; Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fehrenbach, D. [European Institute for Energy Research, Emmy-Noether-Str. 11, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Worrell, E. [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Paper production is an energy-intensive process and accounted for about 9% of industrial energy demand in Germany in 2008. There have only been slow improvements in energy efficiency in the paper industry over the past twenty years. Policies can accelerate the progress made, but knowledge about the remaining efficiency potentials and their costs is a prerequisite for their success. We assess 17 process technologies to improve energy efficiency in the German pulp and paper industry up to 2035 using a techno-economic approach. These result in a saving potential of 34 TJ/a for fuels and 12 TJ/a for electricity, which equal 21% and 16% of fuel and electricity demand, respectively. The energy savings can be translated into mitigated CO2 emissions of 3 Mt. The larger part of this potential is found to be cost-effective from a firm's perspective. The most influential technologies are heat recovery in paper mills and the use of innovative paper drying technologies. In conclusion, significant saving potentials are still available, but are limited if we assume that current paper production processes will not change radically. Further savings would be available if the system boundaries of this study were extended to e.g. include cross-cutting technologies.

  10. Potential energy function of CN-

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špirko, Vladimír; Polák, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 248, č. 1 (2008), s. 77-80 ISSN 0022-2852 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550511; GA AV ČR IAA400400504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : potential energy curve * fundamental transition * spectroscopic constants Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.636, year: 2008

  11. On consistent definitions of momentum and energy fluxes for molecular dynamics models with multi-body interatomic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojie; Li, Xiantao

    2015-01-01

    Results from molecular dynamics simulations often need to be further processed to understand the physics on a larger scale. This paper considers the definitions of momentum and energy fluxes obtained from a control-volume approach. To assess the validity of these defined quantities, two consistency criteria are proposed. As examples, the embedded atom potential and the Tersoff potential are considered. The consistency is verified using analytical and numerical methods.

  12. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolai, Sibylle; Pallauf, Kathrin; Huebbe, Patricia; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Energy restriction (ER; also known as caloric restriction) is the only nutritional intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase lifespan in model organisms and may delay ageing in humans. In the present review we discuss current scientific literature on ER and its molecular, metabolic and hormonal effects. Moreover, criteria for the classification of substances that might induce positive ER-like changes without having to reduce energy intake are summarised. Additionally, the putative ER mimetics (ERM) 2-deoxy-d-glucose, metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, spermidine and lipoic acid and their suggested molecular targets are discussed. While there are reports on these ERM candidates that describe lifespan extension in model organisms, data on longevity-inducing effects in higher organisms such as mice remain controversial or are missing. Furthermore, some of these candidates produce detrimental side effects such as immunosuppression or lactic acidosis, or have not been tested for safety in long-term studies. Up to now, there are no known ERM that could be recommended without limitations for use in humans.

  13. Wind energy potential in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Though located in the tropics, India is endowed with substantial wind resources because of its unique geographical location which gets fully exposed to both the south-west and north-east monsoon winds. The westerly winds of the south-west monsoons provide bulk of the wind potential. Areas with mean annual wind speed exceeding 18 k mph and areas with mean annual power density greater than 140 W/m 2 have been identified using the wind data collected by the wind monitoring project funded by the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES). Seasonal variations in wind speed at selected locations are discussed as also the frequency distribution of hourly wind speed. Annual capacity factors for 250 kW wind electric generators have been calculated for several typical locations. A good linear correlation has been found between mean annual wind speed and mean annual capacity factor. A method is described for assessing wind potential over an extended region where adequate data is available. It is shown that the combined wind energy potential over five selected areas of limited extent in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu alone amounts to 22,000 MW under the assumption of 20 per cent land availability for installing wind farms. For a higher percentage of land availability, the potential will be correspondingly higher. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Theoretical study on optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Hung Gi.

    1984-08-01

    The optical model potential of non-local effect on the rounded edge of the potential is derived. On the basis of this potential the functional form of the optical model potential, the energy dependence and relationship of its parameters, and the dependency of the values of the parameters on energy change are shown in this paper. (author)

  15. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  16. An intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave potential energy densities from METOP GPS radio occultation measurements and ECMWF model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Kaifler, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    Temperature profiles based on radio occultation (RO) measurements with the operational European METOP satellites are used to derive monthly mean global distributions of stratospheric (20-40 km) gravity wave (GW) potential energy densities (EP) for the period July 2014-December 2016. In order to test whether the sampling and data quality of this data set is sufficient for scientific analysis, we investigate to what degree the METOP observations agree quantitatively with ECMWF operational analysis (IFS data) and reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data. A systematic comparison between corresponding monthly mean temperature fields determined for a latitude-longitude-altitude grid of 5° by 10° by 1 km is carried out. This yields very low systematic differences between RO and model data below 30 km (i.e., median temperature differences is between -0.2 and +0.3 K), which increases with height to yield median differences of +1.0 K at 34 km and +2.2 K at 40 km. Comparing EP values for three selected locations at which also ground-based lidar measurements are available yields excellent agreement between RO and IFS data below 35 km. ERA-Interim underestimates EP under conditions of strong local mountain wave forcing over northern Scandinavia which is apparently not resolved by the model. Above 35 km, RO values are consistently much larger than model values, which is likely caused by the model sponge layer, which damps small-scale fluctuations above ˜ 32 km altitude. Another reason is the well-known significant increase of noise in RO measurements above 35 km. The comparison between RO and lidar data reveals very good qualitative agreement in terms of the seasonal variation of EP, but RO values are consistently smaller than lidar values by about a factor of 2. This discrepancy is likely caused by the very different sampling characteristics of RO and lidar observations. Direct comparison of the global data set of RO and model EP fields shows large correlation coefficients (0

  17. Estimating the potential of energy saving and carbon emission mitigation of cassava-based fuel ethanol using life cycle assessment coupled with a biogeochemical process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Tian, Guangjin; Ding, Fangyu

    2017-09-14

    Global warming and increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) have prompted considerable interest in the potential role of energy plant biomass. Cassava-based fuel ethanol is one of the most important bioenergy and has attracted much attention in both developed and developing countries. However, the development of cassava-based fuel ethanol is still faced with many uncertainties, including raw material supply, net energy potential, and carbon emission mitigation potential. Thus, an accurate estimation of these issues is urgently needed. This study provides an approach to estimate energy saving and carbon emission mitigation potentials of cassava-based fuel ethanol through LCA (life cycle assessment) coupled with a biogeochemical process model-GEPIC (GIS-based environmental policy integrated climate) model. The results indicate that the total potential of cassava yield on marginal land in China is 52.51 million t; the energy ratio value varies from 0.07 to 1.44, and the net energy surplus of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 92,920.58 million MJ. The total carbon emission mitigation from cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 4593.89 million kgC. Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian are identified as target regions for large-scale development of cassava-based fuel ethanol industry. These results can provide an operational approach and fundamental data for scientific research and energy planning.

  18. Renewable energy in India: Status and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, Indu R.; Banerjee, Rangan [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2009-08-15

    A majority of the Indian population does not have access to convenient energy services (LPG, electricity). Though India has made significant progress in renewable energy, the share of modern renewables in the energy mix is marginal. This paper reviews the status and potential of different renewables (except biomass) in India. This paper documents the trends in the growth of renewables in India and establishes diffusion model as a basis for setting targets. The diffusion model is fitted tot the past trends for wind, small hydro and solar water heating and is used to establish future targets. The economic viability and green house gas (GHG) saving potential is estimated for each option. Several renewables have high growth rates, for example wind, Photovoltaic (PV) module manufacture and solar water heaters. New technologies like Tidal, OTEC, Solar thermal power plants and geothermal power plants are at the demonstration stage and future dissemination will depend on the experience of these projects. (author)

  19. Wave energy potential in Galicia (NW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; López, Mario; Carballo, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    harsh wave climate; in this work its potential for energy production is assessed based on three-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (WAM) covering the period 1996 - 2005. Taking into account the results of this assessment along with other relevant considerations such as the location...... of ports, navigation routes, and fishing and aquaculture zones, an area is selected for wave energy exploitation. The transformation of the offshore wave field as it propagates into this area is computed by means of a nearshore wave model (SWAN) in order to select the optimum locations for a wave farm. Two...

  20. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, especially in downtown areas, which makes the determination of roof solar energy potential a challenging task. The object of this study is to estimate the solar radiation on building roofs in an urban area in Shanghai, China, and select suitable spaces for installing solar panels that can effectively utilize solar energy. A Graphic Processing Unit (GPU-based solar radiation model named SHORTWAVE-C simulating direct and non-direct solar radiation intensity was developed by adding the capability of considering cloud influence into the previous SHORTWAVE model. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data was used as the input of the SHORTWAVE-C model and to investigate the morphological characteristics of the study area. The results show that the SHORTWAVE-C model can accurately estimate the solar radiation intensity in a complex urban environment under cloudy conditions, and the GPU acceleration method can reduce the computation time by up to 46%. Two sites with different building densities and rooftop structures were selected to illustrate the influence of urban morphology on the solar radiation and solar illumination duration. Based on the findings, an object-based method was implemented to identify suitable places for rooftop solar panel installation that can fully utilize the solar energy potential. Our study provides useful strategic guidelines for the selection and assessment of roof solar energy potential for urban energy planning.

  1. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 1 - GIS mapping of potential renewable energy resources in the CVRD. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The first task in the project was the production of a series of thematic GIS maps and associated databases of potential renewable energy resources in the CVRD. The renewable energy sources mapped were solar, wind, micro hydro, and biomass (residues and waste). Other sources were also discussed (e.g. geothermal heat) but not mapped due to lack of spatially explicit input data. The task 1 findings are detailed in this report. (LN)

  2. Energy Foundations - Potential for Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmingway, Phil; Long, Michael (Michael M.)

    2011-01-01

    With one of the highest energy dependencies in the European Union, Ireland must adapt quickly to renewable energy technologies or risk paying the penalty in the form of high energy prices in years to come. Escalating energy costs have led to a renewed interest in alternative energy technologies and ground source energy is one such resource which is being increasingly considered. This paper presents some of the practical considerations of energy foundations, evidenced from the i...

  3. Estimating the potential of energy saving and carbon emission mitigation of cassava-based fuel ethanol using life cycle assessment coupled with a biogeochemical process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Tian, Guangjin; Ding, Fangyu

    2017-09-01

    Global warming and increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) have prompted considerable interest in the potential role of energy plant biomass. Cassava-based fuel ethanol is one of the most important bioenergy and has attracted much attention in both developed and developing countries. However, the development of cassava-based fuel ethanol is still faced with many uncertainties, including raw material supply, net energy potential, and carbon emission mitigation potential. Thus, an accurate estimation of these issues is urgently needed. This study provides an approach to estimate energy saving and carbon emission mitigation potentials of cassava-based fuel ethanol through LCA (life cycle assessment) coupled with a biogeochemical process model—GEPIC (GIS-based environmental policy integrated climate) model. The results indicate that the total potential of cassava yield on marginal land in China is 52.51 million t; the energy ratio value varies from 0.07 to 1.44, and the net energy surplus of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 92,920.58 million MJ. The total carbon emission mitigation from cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 4593.89 million kgC. Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian are identified as target regions for large-scale development of cassava-based fuel ethanol industry. These results can provide an operational approach and fundamental data for scientific research and energy planning.

  4. Correlation energy generating potentials for molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.S.; Thakkar, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of local correlation energy functionals are currently in use. All of them depend, to some extent, on modeling the correlation energy of a homogeneous electron fluid. Since atomic and molecular charge densities are neither uniform nor slowly varying, it is important to attempt to use known high accuracy wave functions to learn about correlation energy functionals appropriate to such systems. We have extended the definition of the correlation energy generating potentials V/sub c/ introduced by Ros. A charge density response to correlation has been allowed for by inclusion of an electron--nuclear component V/sup e/n/sub c/ in addition to the electron--electron component V/sup e/e/sub c/. Two different definitions of V/sup e/n/sub c/ are given. We present the first calculations of V/sub c/ for a molecular system: H 2 . The results show that V/sup e/n/sub c/, in either definition, is by no means negligible. Moreover, V/sup e/e/sub c/ and both forms of V/sup e/n/sub c/ show significant nonlocal dependence on the charge density. Calculations with ten different model correlation energy functionals show that none of them is particularly sensitive to the charge density. However, they are quite sensitive to the parametrization of the electron fluid correlation energy. The schemes which include self-interaction corrections (SIC) are found to be superior to those of Kohn--Sham type. The correlation energy generating potentials implied by the SIC type and empirical correlation energy functionals are found to correspond roughly to averages of one of the accurate potentials

  5. Photovoltaic energy potential of Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.; Thomas, R.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from a study concerning the potential of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Quebec to the year 2010. The different PV applications which are or will be economically viable in Quebec for the study period are identified and evaluated in comparison with the conventional energy sources used for these applications. Two penetration scenarios are proposed. One considers little change at the level of policies established for commercialization of PV sources, and the other considers certain measures which accelerate the implementation of PV technology in certain niches. While the off-grid market is already motivated to adopt PV technology for economic reasons, it is forecast that all encouragement from lowering costs would accelerate PV sales, offering a larger purchasing power to all interested parties. Above all, lowered PV costs would open up the network market. Photovoltaics would have access to a much larger market, which will accelerate changes in the very nature of the industry and bring with it new reductions in the costs of producing PV systems. 5 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  6. Microscopic optical potential at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malecki, A.

    1979-01-01

    The problems concerning a microscopic optical model for the elastic nuclear collisions at medium energies are discussed. We describe the method for constructing the optical potential which makes use of the particular properties of quantum scattering in the eikonal limit. The resulting potential is expressed in terms of the nuclear wave functions and the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes. This potential has a dynamic character since by including the effects of multiple scattering it allows for the possibility of intermediate excitations of the projectile and target nuclei. The use of the potential in the exact wave equation accounts for the most important mechanisms present in the collisions between composite particles. The microscopic optical model was successfully applied in the analysis of elastic scattering of protons and α-particles on atomic nuclei in the energy range of 300-1000 MeV/nucleon. The dynamic optical potential in this case represents a considerable improvement over the eikonal Glauber model and the static optical potential of Watson. The possibilities to extend the microscopic description of the proton-nucleus interaction by considering the spin dependence of the elementary amplitude and the Majorana exchange effects were investigated. (author)

  7. Offshore wind energy potential in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Möller, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates available offshore wind energy resources in China’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) with the aid of a Geographical Information System (GIS), which allows the influence of technical, spatial and economic constraints on offshore wind resources being reflected in a continuous...... of each spatial constraint as well as various scenarios of spatial constraints on marginal production costs of offshore wind energy. Furthermore, the impacts of differing Feed-in-tariff (FIT) standards on the economic potential are calculated. It confirms that economic potential of offshore wind energy...... and economic costs. However, the influence of tropical cyclone risks on these regions and detailed assessments at regional or local scale are worth of further discussions. Nevertheless, the models and results provide a foundation for a more comprehensive regional planning framework that would address...

  8. Growth potential of blue mussels (M. edulis) exposed to different salinities evaluated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Saurel, Camille; Landes, Anja

    2015-01-01

    For bluemussels,Mytilus edulis, onemajor constrain in the Baltic Sea is the low salinities that reduce the efficiency of mussel production. However, the effects of living in low and variable salinity regimes are rarely considered in models describing mussel growth. The aim of the present study...... was to incorporate the effects of low salinity into an eco-physiological model of blue mussels and to identify areas suitable for mussel production. A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model was modified with respect to i) the morphological parameters (DW/WW-ratio, shape factor), ii) change in ingestion rate and iii......) metabolic costs due to osmoregulation in different salinity environments. Themodified DEBmodel was validated with experimental data fromdifferent locations in the Western Baltic Sea (including the Limfjorden) with salinities varying from 8.5 to 29.9 psu. The identified areas suitable for mussel production...

  9. Pseudo potentials and model potentials in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, O.; Jouin, H.; Fuentealba, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, it is discussed the main differences between the use of pseudo-potentials and model potentials in collision problems . It is shown the potential energy curves for distinct systems obtained with both kinds of potentials. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  10. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Washington single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Colorado single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Delaware single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  13. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Kentucky single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  14. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Minnesota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Nebraska single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  16. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Illinois single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  17. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Iowa single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Wisconsin single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Wyoming single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  20. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Oregon single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  1. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-17

    Energy used by Georgia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  2. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Ohio single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  3. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Arkansas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  4. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Indiana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Vermont single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Missouri single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Energy used by Alabama single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Nevada single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by California single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Tennessee single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Maine single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Florida single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  13. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Pennsylvania single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  14. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Virginia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Oklahoma single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  16. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Idaho single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  17. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Michigan single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Arizona single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Texas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  20. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Kansas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  1. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-21

    Energy used by Massachusetts single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  2. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Mississippi single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  3. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Connecticut single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  4. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Montana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Maryland single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Utah single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Louisiana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  8. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  9. Biowaste energy potential in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzila, C.; DeWulf, J.; Spanjers, H.; Kiriamiti, H.; Langenhove, H.

    2010-01-01

    Energy affects all aspects of national development. Hence the current global energy crisis demands greater attention to new initiatives on alternative energy sources that are renewable, economically feasible and sustainable. The agriculture-dependent developing countries in Africa can mitigate the

  10. GIS-Based Suitability Model for Assessment of Forest Biomass Energy Potential in a Region of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinta-Nova, Luis; Fernandez, Paulo; Pedro, Nuno

    2017-12-01

    This work focuses on developed a decision support system based on multicriteria spatial analysis to assess the potential for generation of biomass residues from forestry sources in a region of Portugal (Beira Baixa). A set of environmental, economic and social criteria was defined, evaluated and weighted in the context of Saaty’s analytic hierarchies. The best alternatives were obtained after applying Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The model was applied to the central region of Portugal where forest and agriculture are the most representative land uses. Finally, sensitivity analysis of the set of factors and their associated weights was performed to test the robustness of the model. The proposed evaluation model provides a valuable reference for decision makers in establishing a standardized means of selecting the optimal location for new biomass plants.

  11. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Fischedick, Manfred; Moomaw, William; Weir, Tony; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  12. The use of available potential energy to evaluate the impact of satellite data on numerical model analysis during FGGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Lyle H.; Koehler, Thomas L.; Whittaker, Linda M.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the FGGE satellite observing system, the following two data sets were compared by examining the available potential energy (APE) and extratropical cyclone activity within the entire global domain during the first Special Observing Period: (1) the complete FGGE IIIb set, which incorporates satellite soundings, and (2) a NOSAT set which incorporates only conventional data. The time series of the daily total APEs indicate that NOSAT values are larger than the FGGE values, although in the Northern Hemisphere the differences are negligible. Analyses of cyclone scale features revealed only minor differences between the Northern Hemisphere FGGE and NOSAT analyses. On the other hand, substantial differences were revealed in the two Southern Hemisphere analyses, where the satellite soundings apparently add detail to the FGGE set.

  13. Brazilian energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    A summary of the energy situation in Brazil is presented. Energy consumption rates, reserves of primary energy, and the basic needs and strategies for meeting energy self sufficiency are discussed. Conserving energy, increasing petroleum production, and utilizing other domestic energy products and petroleum by-products are discussed. Specific programs are described for the development and use of alcohol fuels, wood and charcoal, coal, schist, solar and geothermal energy, power from the sea, fresh biomass, special batteries, hydrogen, vegetable oil, and electric energy from water power, nuclear, and coal. Details of the energy model for 1985 are given. Attention is also given to the energy demands and the structure of global energy from 1975 to 1985.

  14. Per-residue energy decomposition pharmacophore model to enhance virtual screening in drug discovery: a study for identification of reverse transcriptase inhibitors as potential anti-HIV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cele FN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Favourite N Cele, Muthusamy Ramesh, Mahmoud ES Soliman Molecular Modelling and Drug Design Research Group, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa Abstract: A novel virtual screening approach is implemented herein, which is a further improvement of our previously published “target-bound pharmacophore modeling approach”. The generated pharmacophore library is based only on highly contributing amino acid residues, instead of arbitrary pharmacophores, which are most commonly used in the conventional approaches in literature. Highly contributing amino acid residues were distinguished based on free binding energy contributions obtained from calculation from molecular dynamic (MD simulations. To the best of our knowledge; this is the first attempt in the literature using such an approach; previous approaches have relied on the docking score to generate energy-based pharmacophore models. However, docking scores are reportedly unreliable. Thus, we present a model for a per-residue energy decomposition, constructed from MD simulation ensembles generating a more trustworthy pharmacophore model, which can be applied in drug discovery workflow. This work is aimed at introducing a more rational approach to the field of drug design, rather than comparing the validity of this approach against those previously reported. We recommend additional computational and experimental work to further validate this approach. This approach was used to screen for potential reverse transcriptase inhibitors using the pharmacophoric features of compound GSK952. The complex was subjected to docking, thereafter, MD simulation confirmed the stability of the system. Experimentally determined inhibitors with known HIV-reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity were used to validate the protocol. Two potential hits (ZINC46849657 and ZINC54359621 showed a significant potential with regard to free binding energy. Reported results obtained from

  15. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawieja, Iwona

    2017-11-01

    On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4), it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  16. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawieja Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4, it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  17. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  18. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    A review of several publications of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program, and final reports from the herbaceous crop screening trials suggests that there were several technical and non-technical factors that influenced the decision to focus on one herbaceous "model" crop species. The screening trials funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the late 1980's to early 1990's assessed a wide range of about 34 species with trials being conducted on a wide range of soil types in 31 different sites spread over seven states in crop producing regions of the U.S. While several species, including sorghums, reed canarygrass and other crops, were identified as having merit for further development, the majority of institutions involved in the herbaceous species screening studies identified switchgrass as having high priority for further development. Six of the seven institutions included switchgrass among the species recommended for further development in their region and all institutions recommended that perennial grasses be given high research priority. Reasons for the selection of switchgrass included the demonstration of relatively high, reliable productivity across a wide geographical range, suitability for marginal quality land, low water and nutrient requirements, and positive environmental attributes. Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a "model" or "prototype" species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and

  19. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-05-01

    While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road

  20. Energy potential of Finnish peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, K. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kuopio (Finland)); Valpola, S. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kokkola (Finland)), e-mail: kimmo.virtanen@gtk.fi, e-mail: samu.valpola@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    One-third of the Finnish land area is covered by mires and peat. GTK has investigated 2.0 million ha of the 9.3 million ha area covered by mires in Finland. According to the EU Commission, the broadly-based Finnish energy economy, with various energy sources, is the best in the EU. As a fuel, peat fulfils the goals of the EU energy policy in Finland well: it is local, its availability is good and the price is stable. The use of peat also enhances national security. At present, peat is used in around one hundred larger applications that co-generate electricity and heat. In Finland, the development of mires has led to several mire complex types and three main types: raised bogs in Southern Finland, aapa mires in Ostrobothnia and Lapland, and palsa mires in Northern Lapland. Peat layers are deepest in southern Finland and partly in the southern Finnish Lake area, the Region of North Karelia and in the area of central Lapland. The mean depth of geological mires is 1.41 m and the thickest drilled peat is 12.3 m. According to peat investigations, the national peat reserve totals 69.3 billion m3 in situ (peatlands larger than 20 hectares). The dry solids of peat are estimated at 6.3 billion tones. Sphagnum peat accounts for 54% and Carex peat for 45% of feasible peat reserves. Peatlands that are technically suitable for the peat industry cover a total area of 1.2 million ha and contain 29.6 billion m3 of peat in situ. Slightly humified peat suitable for horticultural and environmental use totals 5.9 billion m3 in situ. The energy peat reserve is 23.7 billion m3 in situ and its energy content is 12 800 TWh. (orig.)

  1. Energy sector and wind energy potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogulata, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    Turkey has very limited indigenous energy resources and has to import around 65% of primary energy to meet her needs. It is a large importer of primary energy despite having ample renewable energy sources. Turkey's vibrant economy has led to increased energy demand in recent years. This situation is expected to continue in the near future because its economy is dependent mainly on imported oil, natural gas and electricity. This paper presents the prevailing and the expected energy situation and energy demand. Wind energy potential in Turkey is also discussed. (author)

  2. Energy potential of agricultural crops in Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahiti, Naser; Sfishta, Avni; Gramatikov, Plamen

    2015-01-01

    Primary energy mix in Kosovo with 98 % consisting of lignite and only 2 % of water is far from portfolio of primary energy sources which could contribute to a sustainable and environmental friendly energy supply of the country. In order to improve the situation, government is supporting activities in favor of upgrading of electricity production capacities based on Renewable Energy Sources. Corresponding action plans and feed in tariffs are already in place. However, prior to any investment, one needs specific results on available potential. Current study provides results of the analysis of Kosovo potential for energy production by using of agricultural crops. Study is based on national statistics on available agricultural crops in Kosovo and provides results on biomass potential of crops, corresponding energy potential and an assessment of financial cost of energy produced.

  3. Energy efficiency in the German pulp and paper industry - A model-based assessment of saving potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleiter, T.; Fehrenbach, D.; Worrell, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; Eichhammer, W.

    2012-01-01

    Paper production is an energy-intensive process and accounted for about 9% of industrial energy demand in Germany in 2008. There have only been slow improvements in energyefficiency in the paperindustry over the past twenty years. Policies can accelerate the progress made, but knowledge about the

  4. Ab initio and DFT derived potential energy functions in simulations of selected polyesters based on atomistic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Johanna Marjaana

    This study focuses on atomistic simulations of polyesters, the main interest being in the performance of classical models. The Polymer Consistent Force Field (PCFF), developed for synthetic polymers, forms the basis for the simulations. The calculated properties of synthetic polymers depend strongly on the conformational statistics of the polymer chains, and the force field is, therefore, of crucial importance for the reliability of the simulations. Thus, the PCFF has been tested by comparing its results for model molecules of the polyesters studied with those of quantum mechanical ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations regarding the rotational behaviour of typical bonds in these polyesters. The calculations showed that there were severe disagreements between the quantum mechanical and the PCFF studies, leading thus to re-optimisation of the particular torsion potentials of the PCFF. The quantum mechanical methods used were also compared, and though they gave mostly similar results, the DFT methods were found to underestimate some of the torsional barriers. The modified PCFF was shown to yield results in good agreement with experimental data for single chain properties of the selected polyesters. The dependence of the RIS Metropolis Monte Carlo (RMMC) method, used for these property calculations, on different run parameters, was discussed in more detail. The RMMC method, using the original and modified PCFFs, was also used in studies on the flexibility of some polyesters, which are known to be biodegradable, i.e. of polylactic (PLA) and polyglycolic (PGA) acids and some of their copolymers. The original PCFF was found to reproduce the flexibilities of these polyesters in contradiction with the results obtained with the modified PCFF. Finally, the modified PCFF was applied to molecular dynamics simulations on the constructed amorphous models for PLA and PGA and some of their copolymers to study the probability for hydrolysis as the first stage of

  5. Unlocking potential for energy reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, John

    2013-05-01

    In the latest of our series of articles designed to provide healthcare engineers with sound technical guidance on equipment or technology-related topics, John O'Leary, key account manager at Trend Controls (who in April's HEJ discussed the benefits of natural ventilation in healthcare settings), explains the functions of a building energy management system (BEMS), and the vital that role such equipment can play in helping healthcare estates teams reduce carbon emissions and save money, as well as ensuring the most comfortable environment for patients, staff, and visitors.

  6. Model-based assessment of the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery as a groundwater ecosystem service for the Brussels-Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    transport models on several pilot sites within this region, our study aims to better quantify the potential for ATES systems in these aquifers. Covering several dozen square kilometres, the models investigate interaction processes between ATES installations and other competing groundwater usages, including groundwater abstraction. Based on the model results ecological and economical balance calculations should better define the effects of ATES systems. Aimed at experts and decision makers this research project delivers a detailed foundation for the exploitation of seasonal aquifer thermal storage in the aquifers of the Brussels-Capital Region as an ecosystem service, and should assist in establishing guidelines for planning, building and maintaining high performing ATES systems. References BONTE, M., STUYFZAND, P.J., HULSMANN, A., VAN BEELEN, P. (2011): Underground thermal energy storage: environmental risks and policy developments in the Netherlands and European Union. Ecology and Society 16 (1): 22. VITO, (2007): Studie van de geothermische en hydrothermische technieken die toepasbaar zijn in Brussel: wettelijke context, milieu-impact, goede praktijk en economisch potentieel (in Dutch); Mol, Belgium. ZUURBIER, K.G., HARTOG, N., VALSTAR, J., POST, V.E., VAN BREUKELEN, B.M., (2013): The impact of low temperature seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (SATES) systems on chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater: modeling of spreading and degradation. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 147: 1-13.

  7. Potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.F. III.

    1976-01-01

    Research into potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 is described. Topics covered include: the fuzzy interface between surface chemistry catalysis and organometallic chemistry; potential energy surfaces for elementary fluorine hydrogen reactions; structure, energetics, and reactivity of carbenes; and the theory of self-consistent electron pairs

  8. Storing unsteady energy, like photovoltaically generated electric energy, as potential energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kutz, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    A proposal to store unsteady energy in potential energy via lifting masses with a rough quantitative overview. Some applications and methods to harvest the potential energy are also given. A focus is put on photovoltaically generated energy.

  9. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  10. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  11. Energy potential mapping for energy-producing neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelsteen, van den A.; Broersma, S.; Stremke, S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past five years, the method of energy potential mapping (EPM) has evolved from a cartoonish charting of climatic features with energy consequences to a detailed methodology for the development of spatial plans based on energy-effective foundations. By means of EPM the rudimentary features

  12. Conservation energy - potential and practice in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstong, G.T.

    1980-06-24

    As energy prices increase and as more is learned about the technology and overall costs and benefits of substituting conservation (and renewable) energy for conventional energy, what may be termed conservation energy will become more widely used in Canada. As a result, conservation energy sources will significantly increase their share of the energy services market through the 1980s. This paper concentrates on the sources of this energy services input, after reviewing the pattern of Canadian energy demands and some major aspects of conservation energy. From the review it is evident that there is great potential in Canada for the use of conservation energy that does not entail cutting-back and that is competitive with conventional energy. Attempts have been made to quantify the costs of conservation energy and some results of this work are presented. Success in capitalizing on conservation energy opportunities will improve economic performance by efficiently reducing the proportion of expenditure outlays on conventional energy. There are also opportunities to improve Canadian capabilities in what may be termed the energy conservation industries. In developing these industries, there is a great need to design conservation and renewable energy technologies that operate efficiently in Canadian climatic conditions. 2 refs., 4 figs., 21 tabs.

  13. Energy-economic policy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanstad, Alan H.

    2018-01-01

    Computational models based on economic principles and methods are powerful tools for understanding and analyzing problems in energy and the environment and for designing policies to address them. Among their other features, some current models of this type incorporate information on sustainable energy technologies and can be used to examine their potential role in addressing the problem of global climate change. The underlying principles and the characteristics of the models are summarized, and examples of this class of model and their applications are presented. Modeling epistemology and related issues are discussed, as well as critiques of the models. The paper concludes with remarks on the evolution of the models and possibilities for their continued development.

  14. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Okano, K.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Konishi, S.; Nishio, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-01-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO 2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO 2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW -1 h -1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO 2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW -1 h -1 . Uncertainties resulting from the CO 2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10-30 mill kW -1 h -1 , (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70-130 mill kW -1 h -1 ) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and

  15. Zeta-function approach to Casimir energy with singular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khusnutdinov, Nail R.

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of zeta-function approach the Casimir energy for three simple model system: single delta potential, step function potential and three delta potentials are analyzed. It is shown that the energy contains contributions which are peculiar to the potentials. It is suggested to renormalize the energy using the condition that the energy of infinitely separated potentials is zero which corresponds to subtraction all terms of asymptotic expansion of zeta-function. The energy obtained in this way obeys all physically reasonable conditions. It is finite in the Dirichlet limit, and it may be attractive or repulsive depending on the strength of potential. The effective action is calculated, and it is shown that the surface contribution appears. The renormalization of the effective action is discussed

  16. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary material provides theoretical details and tables of data and parameters that enable this extensive database to be adapted to a variety of energy systems modelling frameworks. -- Highlights: ► Global energy potentials for all major energy resources are reported. ► Theory and methodology for calculating economic energy potentials is given. ► An uncertainty analysis for all energy economic potentials is carried out.

  17. Energy audit: potential of energy - conservation in Jordanian ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adas, H.; Taher, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper represents the findings of the preliminary energy-audits performed by the Rational Use of Energy Division at the National Energy Research Center (NERC), as well as the findings of a detailed energy-audit carried out in the largest Ceramic plant in Jordan (Jordan Ceramic industries).These studies were preceded by a survey of the ceramic factories in Jordan. The survey was carried out in 1997. The performed preliminary energy-audits showed that an average saving-potential in most of theses plants is about 25 % of the total energy-bills in these plants, which constitutes a considerable portion of the total production-cost. This fact was verified through the detailed energy-audit performed by NERC team for the largest Ceramic Plant in Jordan in June 2003, which showed an energy-saving potential of about 30 %. This saving can be achieved by some no-cost or low-cost measures, in addition to some measures that need reasonable investments with an average pay-back period of about two years. This detailed energy-audit covered electrical systems, refrigeration systems, compressed-air systems, and kilns. The results of the detailed energy-audit can be disseminated to other Ceramic plant, because of the similarity in the production process between these plants and the plant where the detailed energy-audit was carried out. (author)

  18. Energy development potential: An analysis of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perobelli, Fernando Salgueiro; Oliveira, Caio Cézar Calheiros de

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an indicator for the energy development potential (EDP) of 27 Brazilian states. This indicator uses data on a state's infrastructure and its supply of and demand for energy. The indicator measures the data for three periods: the first part of the 1990s, which is a period of low economic growth; the first part of the 2000s, which is a period of high economic growth but with a historical crisis in the Brazilian energy sector; and 2009–2011, which is a period of economic growth after the energy crisis. Using a factor analysis, we are able to identify three factors for EDP. They are the demand for energy, the supply of renewable energy, and the supply of nonrenewable energy. We use these factors to classify the Brazilian states according to their EDP and to perform an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) by using the Moran indicators and the local indicators of spatial association (LISA). - Highlights: • This paper deals with the spatial dimension of the Brazilian energy sector. • We construct an index of the energy development potential for Brazilian states. • Energy issues are defined over time and space, thus have spatial dimensions. • The spatial results show that there are two well-defined spatial patterns

  19. Energy saving potential of energy services - experimentation on the life cycle of energy conversion equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, M.

    2006-12-01

    Energy efficiency services are growing in Europe but their role is still limited. In order to evaluate the potential, we focused first of all on policy, economical and environmental mechanisms that support their development. European natural gas and electricity markets, that are now almost wholly de-regulated, are analysed and compared to their historical structure. By introducing uncertainty on energy prices, this new deal translates better the real energy costs. Energy performance contracts (EPC) limit the impact of these uncertainties on the customer energy bills by guaranteeing a financial result. As a result of the modelling of these contracts, namely operation and maintenance ones, we prove that they transfer technical and financial risks from building owners to energy service companies (ESCO) making energy saving measures easier and less expensive at the same time. These contracts are relatively widespread for heating or compressed-air processes but remain marginal for air-conditioning systems. So new methods were needed to guarantee on the long terms the efficiency of air-conditioning systems demand (1) to master the process and its performances and (2) to be able to determine precisely the energy saving potential and its realisation costs. A detailed energy audit is thus necessary for which we propose a guidance. Conclusions of audits carried out prove that energy saving potential is mainly located in equipment management and control. These optimizations are not always carried out because of a lack of contractual incentive and due to the weaknesses of audit methods. Through the involvement of an independent expert, the mandatory and regular inspection of air-conditioning systems may allow to verify and guide such practices. A three-step analysis procedure has been developed in order to maximize the inspection potential and to get higher benefits from service contracts. (author)

  20. Centrifugal potential energy : an astounding renewable energy concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduniyi, I.A. [Aled Conglomerate Nigeria Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)

    2010-07-01

    A new energy concept known as centrifugal potential energy was discussed. This new energy concept is capable of increasing the pressure, temperature and enthalpy of a fluid, without having to apply work or heat transfer to the fluid. It occurs through a change in the centrifugal potential energy of the flowing fluid in a rotating frame of reference or a centrifugal force field, where work is performed internally by the centrifugal weight of the fluid. This energy concept has resulted in new energy equations, such as the Rotational Frame Bernoulli's Equation for liquids and the Rotational Frame Steady-Flow Energy Equation for gases. Applications of these equations have been incorporated into the design of centrifugal field pumps and compressors. Rather than compressing a fluid with a physical load transfer, these devices can compress a fluid via the effect of centrifugal force applied to the object. A large amount of energy is therefore produced when this high pressure compressed working fluid expands in a turbine. When water is used as the working fluid, it could reach renewable energy densities in the range of 25-100 kJ/kg of water. When atmospheric air is used, it could reach energy densities in the range of 500-1,500 kJ/kg of air.

  1. Energy balance climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  2. On the hypothetical utilization of atmospheric potential energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Frisius

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric potential energy is typically divided into an available and a nonavailable part. In this article a hypothetical utilization of a fraction of the nonavailable potential energy is described. This part stems from the water vapor that can be converted into the liquid phase. An energy gain results when the potential energy of the condensate relative to a reference height exceeds the energy necessary to condensate the water vapor. It is shown that this can be the case in a saturated atmosphere without convective available potential energy. Finally, simulations with the numerical cloud model HURMOD are performed to estimate the usability of the device in practice. Indeed, a positive energy output results in a simulation with immediate gathering of the condensate. On the contrary, potential energy gained falls significantly short of the necessary energy for forming the condensate when a realistic cloud microphysical scheme allowing re-evaporation of condensate is applied. Taken together it can be concluded that, a utilization of atmospheric potential energy is hypothetically possible but the practical realization is probably not feasible.

  3. Standard Model Effective Potential from Trace Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jora

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By analogy with the low energy QCD effective linear sigma model, we construct a standard model effective potential based entirely on the requirement that the tree level and quantum level trace anomalies must be satisfied. We discuss a particular realization of this potential in connection with the Higgs boson mass and Higgs boson effective couplings to two photons and two gluons. We find that this kind of potential may describe well the known phenomenology of the Higgs boson.

  4. Estimating the energy saving potential of telecom operators in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tian-Jian; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Huang, Jin; Peng, Ruo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    A set of models are employed to estimate the potential of total energy saved of productions and segmented energy saving for telecom operators in China. During the estimation, the total energy saving is divided into that by technology and management, which are derived from technical reform and progress, and management control measures and even marketing respectively, and the estimating methodologies for energy saving potential of each segment are elaborated. Empirical results from China Mobile indicate that, first, the technical advance in communications technology accounts for the largest proportion (70%–80%) of the total energy saved of productions in telecom sector of China. Second, technical reform brings about 20%–30% of the total energy saving. Third, the proportions of energy saving brought by marketing and control measures appear relatively smaller, just less than 3%. Therefore, China's telecom operators should seize the opportunity of the revolution of communications network techniques in recent years to create an advanced network with lower energy consumption

  5. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author's knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author)

  6. Energy dependence of nonlocal optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A. E.; Bacq, P.-L.; Capel, P.; Nunes, F. M.; Titus, L. J.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a variety of studies have shown the importance of including nonlocality in the description of reactions. The goal of this work is to revisit the phenomenological approach to determining nonlocal optical potentials from elastic scattering. We perform a χ2 analysis of neutron elastic scattering data off 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb at energies E ≈5 -40 MeV, assuming a Perey and Buck [Nucl. Phys. 32, 353 (1962), 10.1016/0029-5582(62)90345-0] or Tian et al. [Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 24, 1550006 (2015), 10.1142/S0218301315500068] nonlocal form for the optical potential. We introduce energy and asymmetry dependencies in the imaginary part of the potential and refit the data to obtain a global parametrization. Independently of the starting point in the minimization procedure, an energy dependence in the imaginary depth is required for a good description of the data across the included energy range. We present two parametrizations, both of which represent an improvement over the original potentials for the fitted nuclei as well as for other nuclei not included in our fit. Our results show that, even when including the standard Gaussian nonlocality in optical potentials, a significant energy dependence is required to describe elastic-scattering data.

  7. Energy model in regional energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, P.G.; Baccoli, R.; Carlini, U.; Innamorati, R.; Mariotti, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this report is presented a computational model for analysis of energy, materials and mass flux in a complex energy system, at regional scale level. Specifically is described a calculation model of electric power generation for emission forecasting of CO 2 , SO x , NO x , particulate matter, ashes, limestone, chalks [it

  8. Spatial mapping of renewable energy potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, T.V. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Energy Research Group, CES RNO 215, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Shruthi, B.V. [Energy Research Group, CES RNO 215, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2007-09-15

    An energy resource that is renewed by nature and whose supply is not affected by the rate of consumption is often termed as renewable energy. The need to search for renewable, alternate and non-polluting sources of energy assumes top priority for self-reliance in the regional energy supply. This demands an estimation of available energy resources spatially to evolve better management strategies for ensuring sustainability of resources. The spatial mapping of availability and demand of energy resources would help in the integrated regional energy planning through an appropriate energy supply-demand matching. This paper discusses the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to map the renewable energy potential talukwise in Karnataka State, India. Taluk is an administrative division in the federal set-up in India to implement developmental programmes like dissemination of biogas, improved stoves, etc. Hence, this paper focuses talukwise mapping of renewable energy (solar, wind, bioenergy and small hydroenergy) potential for Karnataka using GIS. GIS helps in spatial and temporal analyses of the resources and demand and also aids as Decision Support System while implementing location-specific renewable energy technologies. Regions suitable for tapping solar energy are mapped based on global solar radiation data, which provides a picture of the potential. Coastal taluks in Uttara Kannada have higher global solar radiation during summer (6.31 kWh/m{sup 2}), monsoon (4.16 kWh/m{sup 2}) and winter (5.48 kWh/m{sup 2}). Mapping of regions suitable for tapping wind energy has been done based on wind velocity data, and it shows that Chikkodi taluk, Belgaum district, has higher potential during summer (6.06 m/s), monsoon (8.27 m/s) and winter (5.19 m/s). Mysore district has the maximum number of small hydropower plants with a capacity of 36 MW. Talukwise computation of bioenergy availability from agricultural residue, forest, horticulture, plantation and livestock

  9. NVU dynamics. III. Simulating molecules at constant potential energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Dyre, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series that introduces geodesic molecular dynamics at constant potential energy. This dynamics is entitled NVU dynamics in analogy to standard energy-conserving Newtonian NVE dynamics. In the first two papers [T. S. Ingebrigtsen, S. Toxvaerd, O. J. Heilmann, T. B....... In this paper, the NVU algorithm for atomic systems is extended to be able to simulate the geodesic motion of molecules at constant potential energy. We derive an algorithm for simulating rigid bonds and test this algorithm on three different systems: an asymmetric dumbbell model, Lewis-Wahnström o......-terphenyl (OTP) and rigid SPC/E water. The rigid bonds introduce additional constraints beyond that of constant potential energy for atomic systems. The rigid-bond NVU algorithm conserves potential energy, bond lengths, and step length for indefinitely long runs. The quantities probed in simulations give results...

  10. Future bio-energy potential under various natural constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Vliet, Jasper van; Stehfest, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Potentials for bio-energy have been estimated earlier on the basis of estimates of potentially available land, excluding certain types of land use or land cover (land required for food production and forests). In this paper, we explore how such estimates may be influenced by other factors such as land degradation, water scarcity and biodiversity concerns. Our analysis indicates that of the original bio-energy potential estimate of 150, 80 EJ occurs in areas classified as from mild to severe land degradation, water stress, or with high biodiversity value. Yield estimates were also found to have a significant impact on potential estimates. A further 12.5% increase in global yields would lead to an increase in bio-energy potential of about 50%. Changes in bio-energy potential are shown to have a direct impact on bio-energy use in the energy model TIMER, although the relevant factor is the bio-energy potential at different cost levels and not the overall potential.

  11. Natural gas decompression energy recovery: Energy savings potential in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, A.; Piemonte, C.; Rampini, E.; Vatrano, F.; Techint SpA, Milan; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveyed the natural gas distribution systems employed in the Italian civil, industrial and thermoelectric sectors to identify those installations which can make use of gas decompression energy recovery systems (consisting of turbo-expanders or alternative expanders) to economically generate electric power. Estimates were then made of the total amount of potential energy savings. The study considered as eligible for energy savings interventions only those plants with a greater than 5,000 standard cubic meter per hour plant capacity. It was evaluated that, with suitable decompression equipment installed at 50 key installations (33 civil, 15 industrial), about 200 GWh of power could be produced annually, representing potential savings of about 22,000 petroleum equivalent tonnes of energy. A comparative analysis was done on three investment alternatives involving inputs of varying amounts of Government financial assistance

  12. Vibration Energy Harvesting Potential for Turbomachinery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian STOICESCU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vibration energy harvesting process represents one of the research directions for increasing power efficiency of electric systems, increasing instrumentation nodes autonomy in hard to reach locations and decreasing total system mass by eliminating cables and higher-power adapters. Research based on the possibility of converting vibration energy into useful electric energy is used to evaluate the potential of its use on turbomachinery applications. Aspects such as the structure and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, harvesting networks, their setup and optimization, are considered. Finally, performance test results are shown using piezoelectric systems on a turbine engine.

  13. Fermi energy anomaly in the nucleon-nucleus potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlay, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Careful comparisons of the parameters of the nucleon-nucleus optical potential at energy (E 20 MeV) have revealed discrepancies. Commonly used ''global optical models'' tend to fail in one energy region or the other. Improved agreement with the data can be restored in phenomenological models in which certain geometrical parameters of the model are allowed to depend explicitly on neutron energy. The origin of this effect in the n+ 208 Pb system has been explained in terms of the dispersion correction to the real part of the standard local optical potential. In dispersion theory, the magnitude of this correction is obtained from the energy dependence of the phenomenological imaginary potential. The phenomenological parameters for n and p on 208 Pb are re-examined. The dispersion theory explanation of the low energy behaviour of the neutron potential is supported by the present analysis, but no similar analyses suggest that the Fermi energy anomaly for the p+ 208 Pb potential is located at energies well below the Coulomb barrier

  14. Energy efficiency potential study for New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The economic and environmental impacts associated with economically attractive energy savings identified in each of four sectors in New Brunswick are analyzed. The results are derived through a comparison of two potential future scenarios. The frozen efficiency scenario projects what future energy expenditures would be if no new energy efficiency initiatives are introduced. The economic potential scenario projects what those expenditures would be if all economically attractive energy efficiency improvements were gradually implemented over the next 20 years. Energy related emissions are estimated under scenarios with and without fuel switching. The results show, for example, that New Brunswick's energy related CO 2 emissions would be reduced by ca 5 million tonnes in the year 2000 under the economic potential scenario. If fuel switching is adopted, an additional 1 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions could be saved in the year 2000 and 1.6 million tonnes in 2010. The economic impact analysis is restricted to efficiency options only and does not consider fuel switching. Results show the effect of the economic potential scenario on employment, government revenues, and intra-industry distribution of employment gains and losses. The employment impact is estimated as the equivalent of the creation of 2,424 jobs annually over 1991-2010. Government revenues would increase by ca $24 million annually. The industries benefitting most from energy efficiency improvements would be those related to construction, retail trade, finance, real estate, and food/beverages. Industries adversely affected would be the electric power, oil, and coal sectors. 2 figs., 37 tabs

  15. Potential Energy Curve of N2 Revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špirko, Vladimír; Xiangzhu, L.; Paldus, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 4 (2011), s. 327-341 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GAP208/11/0436 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : reduced multireference coupled-cluster method * reduced potential curve method * nitrogen molecule potential energy curves Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  16. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  17. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 {yields} 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely.

  18. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozen, Adnan; Ozalp, Mehmet [Gazi Univ., Mechanical Education Dept., Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kirikkale (Turkey); Kanit, E. Galip [Turkish State Meteorological Office, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000-2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingol, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkopru, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koycegiz, Manavgat, Dortyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely (Author)

  19. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 → 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R 2 value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R 2 =0.9998). The MAPE and R 2 for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely

  20. Potential energy surface of alanine polypeptide chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2006-01-01

    The multidimensional potential energy surfaces of the peptide chains consisting of three and six alanine (Ala) residues have been studied with respect to the degrees of freedom related to the twist of these molecules relative to the peptide backbone (these degrees of freedom are responsible...

  1. Timing of potential and metabolic brain energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, Jakob; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2007-01-01

    The temporal relationship between cerebral electro-physiological activities, higher brain functions and brain energy metabolism is reviewed. The duration of action potentials and transmission through glutamate and GABA are most often less than 5 ms. Subjects may perform complex psycho-physiological

  2. Energy transfer in scattering by rotating potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum mechanical scattering theory is studied for time-dependent Schrödinger operators, in particular for particles in a rotating potential. Under various assumptions about the decay rate at infinity we show uniform boundedness in time for the kinetic energy of scattering states, existence and completeness of wave ...

  3. Energy Transfer in Scattering by Rotating Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum mechanical scattering theory is studied for time-dependent Schrödinger operators, in particular for particles in a rotating potential. Under various assumptions about the decay rate at infinity we show uniform boundedness in time for the kinetic energy of scattering states, existence and completeness of wave ...

  4. Energy transfer in scattering by rotating potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Quantum mechanical scattering theory is studied for time-dependent. Schrödinger operators, in particular for particles in a rotating potential. Under various assumptions about the decay rate at infinity we show uniform boundedness in time for the kinetic energy of scattering states, existence and completeness of ...

  5. Energy potential of the Estonian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reihan, Alvina; Kovalenko, Olga

    2002-01-01

    In the current study the river runoff, its long-term distribution and river slope were considered as factors in the evaluation of the hydro energy potential of the Estonian rivers. The analyses of the long-term runoff hydrographs showed the increase of the maximum discharges and the decrease of the minimum discharges, at the same time mean annual discharges were almost unchanged. It indicated that seasonal variability of the runoff decreased. The evaluation of the hydro energy potential of rivers showed, that the Narva and Paernu rivers are the most suitable for hydro energy production, then in decreasing order - the Kasari, Pedja, Piusa, Halliste, Vohandu, Jaegala rivers etc. The analyses of the Rannapungerja river runoff showed, that the activity of the restored Tudulinna hydropower plant had an influence on runoff in 2001: the minimum discharge was less than permitted by the legislative acts. Thus, the environmental aspects should have a high priority in hydropower plants reconstruction(author)

  6. Timing of potential and metabolic brain energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, Jakob; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2007-01-01

    -physiological tasks within 50 to 200 ms, and perception of conscious experience requires 0.5 to 2 s. Activation of cerebral oxygen consumption starts after at least 100 ms and increases of local blood flow become maximal after about 1 s. Current imaging technologies are unable to detect rapid physiological brain......The temporal relationship between cerebral electro-physiological activities, higher brain functions and brain energy metabolism is reviewed. The duration of action potentials and transmission through glutamate and GABA are most often less than 5 ms. Subjects may perform complex psycho...... functions. We introduce the concepts of potential and metabolic brain energy to distinguish trans-membrane gradients of ions or neurotransmitters and the capacity to generate energy from intra- or extra-cerebral substrates, respectively. Higher brain functions, such as memory retrieval, speaking...

  7. Energy independent optical potential and inverse scattering from non-local potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    An energy-independent optical potential for nucleon-nucleus scattering is formally derived. A simple relation between energy-dependent and energy-independent potentials is established, showing that the latter has the same thresholds as the former. A generalized dispersion relation for energy-independent potentials is found and compared with the conventional dispersion relations of the generalized energy-dependent optical potentials. An inverse scattering method for non-local potential is developed to obtain this energy-independent optical potential anti U. Unlike the case of local potential, in addition to the bound-state information, the knowledge of the off-shell effect in the continuum is required for a unique construction of this non-local potential. A numerical method, known as the interpolation method, is proposed for the calculation of anti U. It is shown that a unique construction of anti U can be attained with the elastic scattering wave function and all bound-state energies and functions. Another method, known as the perturbative method, is also proposed and applied to calculations of anti U for elastic (n, 40 Ca) scatterings from empirical energy-dependent optical model potentials U(E) of the Woods-Saxon type. The perturbative method is found to converge satisfactorily when the energy dependence of the underlying U(e) potential is weak, as in the case of the empirical optical model potentials. The anti U from both the inverse scattering method and the perturbative one has the same elastic scattering wave function as for U(E)

  8. Determination of wave energy potential of black sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bingölbali, Bilal; Akpınar, Adem; van Vledder, G.P.; Lynett, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess wave energy potential and its long-term spatial and temporal characteristics in the Black Sea within the TUBITAK research project (Akpınar et al., 2015). With this purpose, a wave model (SWAN model version 41.01 driven by the CFSR winds) over the entire Black Sea was

  9. In Search of the Wind Energy Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide advancement of wind energy is putting high demands on a number of underlying technologies such as wind turbine aerodynamics, structural dynamics, gearbox design, electrical grid connections, and so on. As wind is the only fuel for wind power plants, naturally, wind......-meteorology and wind-climatology are essential for any utilization of wind energy. This is what we are concerned about here with a view on what has happened in wind energy potential assessments in the last 25 years where the utilization of wind turbines in national power supply has accelerated and what......., The New Worldwide Microscale Wind Resource Assessment Data on IRENA's Global Atlas (The EUDP Global Wind Atlas, 2015)], and finally, the perspective for the current work with the New European Wind Atlas [E. L. Petersen et al., Energy Bull. 17, 34–39 (2014); Environ. Res. Lett. 8(1), 011005 (2013...

  10. Energy independent optical potentials: construction and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Moniz, E.J.

    1983-11-01

    Properties of the energy-independent potential U sup(-) which is wave-function-equivalent to the usual optical potential U(E) are constructed and examined. A simple procedure is presented for constructing U sup(-) in the uniform medium, and physical examples are discussed. The general result for finite systems, a recursive expansion in powers of U(E), is used to investigate the multiple scattering expansion of U sup(-); the energy-independent potential is found to have serious short-comings for direct microscopic construction or phenomenological parametrization. The microscopic theory, as exemplified here by the multiple scattering approach, does not lead to a reliable approximation scheme. Phenomenological approaches to U sup(-) are unattractive because the physics does not guide the parametrization effectively: the structure of the nonlocality is not tied directly to the dynamics; Im U sup(-) changes sign; different elements of the physics, separate in U(E), are completely entangled in U sup(-). (Author) [pt

  11. Computing the Free Energy Barriers for Less by Sampling with a Coarse Reference Potential while Retaining Accuracy of the Target Fine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Nikolay V

    2014-08-12

    Proposed in this contribution is a protocol for calculating fine-physics (e.g., ab initio QM/MM) free-energy surfaces at a high level of accuracy locally (e.g., only at reactants and at the transition state for computing the activation barrier) from targeted fine-physics sampling and extensive exploratory coarse-physics sampling. The full free-energy surface is still computed but at a lower level of accuracy from coarse-physics sampling. The method is analytically derived in terms of the umbrella sampling and the free-energy perturbation methods which are combined with the thermodynamic cycle and the targeted sampling strategy of the paradynamics approach. The algorithm starts by computing low-accuracy fine-physics free-energy surfaces from the coarse-physics sampling in order to identify the reaction path and to select regions for targeted sampling. Thus, the algorithm does not rely on the coarse-physics minimum free-energy reaction path. Next, segments of high-accuracy free-energy surface are computed locally at selected regions from the targeted fine-physics sampling and are positioned relative to the coarse-physics free-energy shifts. The positioning is done by averaging the free-energy perturbations computed with multistep linear response approximation method. This method is analytically shown to provide results of the thermodynamic integration and the free-energy interpolation methods, while being extremely simple in implementation. Incorporating the metadynamics sampling to the algorithm is also briefly outlined. The application is demonstrated by calculating the B3LYP//6-31G*/MM free-energy barrier for an enzymatic reaction using a semiempirical PM6/MM reference potential. These modifications allow computing the activation free energies at a significantly reduced computational cost but at the same level of accuracy compared to computing full potential of mean force.

  12. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  13. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  14. Model project in Thuringia points the way. Systematic analysis of energy saving potentials in real estates; Modellprojekt in Thueringen weist den Weg. Systematische Analyse von Energieeinsparpotenzialen in Immobilien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    The potentials in energy conservation by using real estates are enormous, but lie fallow yet. A project in the Thuringian district Schmalkalden-Meiningen shows how it could continue on the building site of climate protection. Together with competent local partners, more than 300 municipal buildings were screened energetically. Simple measures can reduce the energy costs by an average of about a quarter. Dr.-Ing. Dirk Schramm from IfE GmbH (Meiningen, Federal Republic of Germany) says that the energy cost can be reduced by 25 % by means of simple measures. He has the local utilities and energy providers in mind for which the energy consultancy of this kind is an ideal field of action.

  15. Synergy potential for oil and geothermal energy exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziabakhsh-Ganji, Zaman; Nick, Hamidreza M.; Donselaar, Marinus E.

    2018-01-01

    and feasibility analyses of the synergy potential of thermally-enhanced oil recovery and geothermal energy production are performed. A series of simulations are carried out to examine the effects of reservoir properties on energy consumption and oil recovery for different injection rates and injection temperature......A new solution for harvesting energy simultaneously from two different sources of energy by combining geothermal energy production and thermal enhanced heavy oil recovery is introduced. Numerical simulations are employed to evaluate the feasibility of generating energy from geothermal resources......, both for thermally enhanced oil recovery from a heavy oil reservoir and for direct heating purposes. A single phase non-isothermal fluid flow modeling for geothermal doublet system and a two-phase non-isothermal fluid flow modelling for water flooding in an oil reservoir are utilised. Sensitivity...

  16. Synergy potential for oil and geothermal energy exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziabakhsh-Ganji, Zaman; Nick, Hamidreza M.; Donselaar, Marinus E.

    2018-01-01

    A new solution for harvesting energy simultaneously from two different sources of energy by combining geothermal energy production and thermal enhanced heavy oil recovery is introduced. Numerical simulations are employed to evaluate the feasibility of generating energy from geothermal resources......, both for thermally enhanced oil recovery from a heavy oil reservoir and for direct heating purposes. A single phase non-isothermal fluid flow modeling for geothermal doublet system and a two-phase non-isothermal fluid flow modelling for water flooding in an oil reservoir are utilised. Sensitivity...... and feasibility analyses of the synergy potential of thermally-enhanced oil recovery and geothermal energy production are performed. A series of simulations are carried out to examine the effects of reservoir properties on energy consumption and oil recovery for different injection rates and injection temperature...

  17. Analyses of relativistic optical potential for medium energy proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dachun; Liu Wenqin; Ma Zhongyu

    1993-01-01

    The influence of the parameters of the relativistic optical potential on the nucleon scattering properties, such as cross sections, angular distributions and spin observables etc., is studied based on a set of global Dirac phenomenological optical potentials. It is show that, in contrast with the case at low energies, the total scattering cross sections vary slowly as the energy and weakly depend on the potentials at E p <200 MeV. The differential cross sections and spin observables depend not only on the volume integrals of the optical potentials, but also on their strengths and shapes. The applicability of the relativistic microscopic optical potential based on Walecka model in the medium energy region is also discussed

  18. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  19. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).

  20. Potential energy surface of triplet O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukku, Yuliya; Varga, Zoltan; Truhlar, Donald G

    2018-03-28

    We present a global ground-state potential energy surface (PES) for the triplet spin state of O 4 that is suitable for treating high-energy vibrational-rotational energy transfer and collision-induced dissociation in electronically adiabatic spin-conserving O 2 -O 2 collisions. The surface is based on MS-CASPT2/maug-cc-pVTZ electronic structure calculations with scaled external correlation; the active space has 16 electrons in 12 orbitals. The global ground-state potential energy surface was fitted by a many-body approach with an accurate O-O pairwise interaction and a fit of the many-body interaction potential to 10 180 electronic structure data points. The many-body fit is based on permutationally invariant polynomials in terms of bond-order functions of the six interatomic distances; the bond-order functions are mixed exponential-Gaussian functions. The geometries calculated and used for the fit include geometry scans corresponding to dissociative and vibrationally excited diatom-diatom collisions of O 2 , scans corresponding to O 3 interacting with O, additional geometries identified by running trajectories, and geometries along linear synchronous transit paths connecting randomly selected points. The global O 4 PES includes subsurfaces describing the interaction of diatomic molecules with other diatomic molecules or interactions of triatomic molecules and an atom. The interaction of ozone with a ground-state oxygen atom occurs on the triplet O 4 surface, and our surface includes high-energy points with O 3 -O geometries as well as O 2 -O 2 geometries and O 2 -O-O geometries.

  1. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  2. Energy models: methods and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, A.; Kuehner, R.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    1996-01-01

    Energy environmental and economical systems do not allow for experimentation since this would be dangerous, too expensive or even impossible. Instead, mathematical models are applied for energy planning. Experimenting is replaced by varying the structure and some parameters of 'energy models', computing the values of depending parameters, comparing variations, and interpreting their outcomings. Energy models are as old as computers. In this article the major new developments in energy modeling will be pointed out. We distinguish between 3 reasons of new developments: progress in computer technology, methodological progress and novel tasks of energy system analysis and planning

  3. The wind energy potential in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P

    2005-01-01

    The wind energy are increasing its contribution to large scale electricity generation in many countries.The high technical maturity reached by modern wind turbines returns it viable and competitive in many regions, specially in those where a suitable legal framework stimulates the generation from renewable sources of energy.As this regard, the objective of this report is to demonstrate that, far from being limited to provide energy to remote, dispersed or geographically isolated sites not served by conventional networks, the wind energy has fully potential to supply a pretty relevant part of the electrical consumption of the great urban centers located in those zones of the country favored with this resource.For it, two preliminary estimations has done: the total 'windy' surface area in geographic proximity of the high voltage lines and electrical substations of the Argentine System of Interconnection (SADI) able 'to be seeded' with wind turbines, and the total electrical energy feasible of being generated from them.The paper supposes the exclusion of important non apt areas by virtue of strictly geographic, economic or environmental considerations.Even so, the result of the final calculation is extraordinarily high and promissory: if only 4% of the total surface of the contiguous land areas (in a maximum radius of 62 km) to the high voltage transmission system (in which the annual mean wind speed surpasses the 5.55 m/s) would be filled with power wind turbines, the annual average energy produced by them would be equivalent to 89% of the estimated national electrical consumption for year 2013.The usable wind potential in favorable technical conditions for commercial generation rounds this way around 40,000 MW, that would report an annual average energy of 100,000 GWh, occupying an area near 5000 km 2 .The total wind energy potential is (of course) considerably greater. Anyway, given the random nature of the wind and the consequent characteristics of not firm power

  4. Exploring futures from an energy perspective. A natural capital accounting model study into the long-term economic development potential of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorman, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    The need to quantify economic activity in physical flows has been stressed several times elsewhere. To relate economic development with 'physical reality', in this thesis Resource Accounting (or Natural Capital Accounting) has been adopted as a method. This physical perspective on sustainable development has been made operational by designing an ECCO (Enhancement of Capital Creation Options) model for the Netherlands using energy as a physical numeraire. The purpose of the model is to investigate the long-term physical aspects of contemporary and future (economic or political) strategies to move the economy towards a more sustainable state and to explore the dynamics of such a process. Chapter 2 deals with the physical nature of economic processes and the fundamental role of thermodynamics in an economic system. Chapter 3 discusses the application of the ECCO paradigm within the context of Natural Capital Accounting methodology. Furthermore, the main structure of an ECCO model is presented. Chapter 4 elaborates on the Dutch model. Historical trends in direct energy use and the methodology of I-O analysis as well as the results of I-O analysis are presented in chapter 5. A method has been developed to estimate the primary energy captured in capital stocks in the diverse ECCO sectors. This method as well as the results, derived from applying this method, are presented in chapter 6. In chapter 7 the application of ECCO as a tool for assessing long term physical consequences of different development strategies is discussed. With respect to reducing the throughput of matter and energy, this study concentrates on energy conservation to reduce the demand for primary energy and the transition to a more sustainable energy supply sector by introducing renewable energy sources. figs., tabs., appendices, refs

  5. Energy saving potential in existing industrial compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorini, Diego; Cipollone, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Air Sector accounts for a mean 10% worldwide electricity consumption, which ensures about its importance, when energy saving and CO 2 emissions reduction are in question. Since the compressors alone account for 15% overall industry electricity consumption, it appears vital to pay attention to machine performances. The paper presents an overview of present compressor technology and focuses on saving directions for screw and sliding vanes machines, according to data provided by the Compressed Air and Gas Institute and PNEUROP. Data were processed to obtain consistency with fixed reference pressures and organized as a function of main operating parameters. Each sub-term, contributing to the overall efficiency (adiabatic, volumetric, mechanical, electric, organic), was considered separately: the analysis showed that the thermodynamic improvement during compression achievable by splitting the compression in two stages, with a lower compression ratio, opens the way to significantly reduce the energy specific consumption. - Highlights: • Compressors technology overview in industrial compressed air systems. • Market compressors efficiency baseline definition. • Energy breakdown and evaluation of main efficiency terms. • Assessment of air cooling-related energy saving potential. • Energy specific consumption reduction through dual stage compression.

  6. Potentials of interaction between medium energy particles and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhnoj, Yu.A.; Molev, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of interaction between mean-energy particles and atomic nuclei is determined as a solution of an integral equation relating it to the scattering matrix. Potentials involving the central and spin-orbital or isospin parts are reconstructed on the basis of the scattering matrix of the diffraction model. Approximated expressions for central and spin-orbital potentials in the case of weak refraction are obtained. The effect of nuclear parameters on the shape of central potential of interaction between 156 MeV protons and the 208 Pb nuclei is considered. The calculated and phenomenological central and spin-orbital potentials of interaction between 185 MeV protons and the 90 Zr, 208 Pb nuclei are in good agreement only in the surface region of nuclei. The central and isospin potentials of interaction between the 3 He nuclei with 217 MeV energy and the 9 Be nuclei are studied

  7. Geothermal energy in Yugoslavia, potentials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreli, F.; Paradjanin, Lj.; Stankovic, Srb.

    2002-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of Geothermal energy (GTE) in Serbia, and argues that while GTE is both a viable and environmentally friendly energy source, as demonstrated elsewhere in the world, there is also a multitude of opportunities in this region, and the local knowledge and capabilities required for implementing the GTE plants. First, a general introduction to GTE in is given. The basis of GTE is the thermal energy accumulated in fluids and rocks masses in the Earth's Crust. The main GTE advantage compared to the traditional energy sources like thermo-electric plants is the absence of environmental deterioration, however GTE also has advantages compared to other NARES, as the GT sources are permanently available and independent of weather conditions. Worldwide energy potential of GTE is huge, as the reduction of Earth Crust temperature for just 0.1 deg. C would give enough Energy to produce Electrical Energy, at the present dissipation level, for the next 15,000 years. An overview of the regions in Yugoslavia which have a high GTE potential is given. There are two distinct regions with higher GTE values in Serbia: the first is a part of the South Panonian basin including Vojvodina, with Macva and Yu-part along Danube and Morava rivers. This is a sedimental part of the Tercier's Panonic Sea 'Parathetis', with partial depression and Backa subsupression, and is well investigated due to oil and gas holeboring. The second region includes Central and Southern part of Serbia, south from the Panonia basin, with pretercier's and tercier's magmatic volcanic intrusions, which produce a very high and stable thermal flux. This Region is rich in GT-warm water springs with stable yields, and includes 217 locations with 970 natural springs with temperature above 20 deg. C. These compare very favorably with international locations where GTE is exploited. GTE can be used for Electric Energy production using corresponding heat pump systems, for house heating and warm water

  8. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.

  9. The neutron optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The present status of optical model calculations of neutron scattering and interactions is reviewed, with special emphasis on more recent developments and the more promising lines of research. The use of dispersion relations to provide an extra constraint on the potential is discussed, together with their application to studies of the Fermi surface anomaly. The application of potential inversion techniques to determine the form of the potential is also considered. (author). 39 refs, figs

  10. Development potential of wind energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Akova

    2011-07-01

    energy potential, as part of the renewable energy sources of Turkey, are highly important and each of these two sources has the technical potential to cover the electric production in 2008. The recent increase in the number of wind energy power stations can be related to the preparation of Turkish Wind Atlas, the preparation of legal arrangements to support private sector entrepreneurs and the rise in oil prices. Wind energy power stations are active in Marmara, Aegean region and the Mediterreanean region witnessing more constant and strong winds and are anticipated to be founded in other geographical regions as well in the future.

  11. On the use of big-bang method to generate low-energy structures of atomic clusters modeled with pair potentials of different ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, J M C; Pais, A A C C; Abreu, P E

    2012-02-05

    The efficiency of the so-called big-bang method for the optimization of atomic clusters is analysed in detail for Morse pair potentials with different ranges; here, we have used Morse potentials with four different ranges, from long- ρ = 3) to short-ranged ρ = 14) interactions. Specifically, we study the efficacy of the method in discovering low-energy structures, including the putative global minimum, as a function of the potential range and the cluster size. A new global minimum structure for long-ranged ρ = 3) Morse potential at the cluster size of n= 240 is reported. The present results are useful to assess the maximum cluster size for each type of interaction where the global minimum can be discovered with a limited number of big-bang trials. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.B. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.

  13. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    A new global potential energy surface (PES) is being generated for O(P-3) + H2 yields OH + H. This surface is being fit using the rotated Morse oscillator method, which was used to fit the previous POL-CI surface. The new surface is expected to be more accurate and also includes a much more complete sampling of bent geometries. A new study has been undertaken of the reaction N + O2 yields NO + O. The new studies have focused on the region of the surface near a possible minimum corresponding to the peroxy form of NOO. A large portion of the PES for this second reaction has been mapped out. Since state to state cross sections for the reaction are important in the chemistry of high temperature air, these studies will probably be extended to permit generation of a new global potential for reaction.

  14. He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene intermolecular potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, Cristian R.; Henriksen, Christian; Felker, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Using the CCSD(T) model, we evaluated the intermolecular potential energy surfaces of the He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene complexes. We considered a representative number of intermolecular geometries for which we calculated the corresponding interaction energies with the augmented (He complex) and double......-phosgene surfaces were found to have absolute minima of -72.1, -140.4, and -326.6 cm -1 at distances between the rare-gas atom and the phosgene center of mass of 3.184, 3.254, and 3.516 Å, respectively. The potentials were further used in the evaluation of rovibrational states and the rotational constants...

  15. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa

    2016-08-01

    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task—especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version.

  16. Italian energy scenarios: Markal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Energy scenarios carried out through formal models comply with scientific criteria such as internal coherence and transparency. Besides, Markal methodology allows a good understanding of the complex nature of the energy system. The business-as-usual scenario carried out through the Markal-Italy model shows that structural changes occurring in end-use sectors will continue to drive up energy consumption, in spite of the slow economic growth and the quite high energy prices [it

  17. Study of heavy quarkonium with energy dependent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Pramila; Mehrotra, I

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that charmonium and bottonium states can be calculated by using a nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation. The basic reasons are: 1) the mass of charm and bottom quarks is much larger than QCD scale, which makes this system free of strong normalization effects and 2) the binding energy is small compared to the mass energy ψ and γ states in terms of nonrelativistic qq system governed by more or less phenomenological potentials. In the present work we have studied mass spectra of charmonium and bottonium using the following energy dependent model in the framework of nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation

  18. Three-dimensional potential energy surface of Ar–CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumiyoshi, Yoshihiro, E-mail: y-sumiyoshi@gunma-u.ac.jp [Division of Pure and Applied Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 4-2 Aramaki, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8510 (Japan); Endo, Yasuki [Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2015-01-14

    A three-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface of the Ar–CO complex has been determined by fitting most of the previously reported spectroscopic data, where observed transition frequencies by microwave, millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave, and infrared spectroscopy were reproduced simultaneously within their experimental accuracies. A free rotor model Hamiltonian considering all the freedom of motions for an atom-diatom system was applied to calculate vibration-rotation energies. A three-dimensional potential energy surface obtained by ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pV5Z level of theory was parameterized by a model function consisting of 46 parameters. They were used as initial values for the least-squares analysis of the experimental data. A total of 20 parameters were optimized to reproduce all the spectroscopic data.

  19. Potential energy savings by using direct current for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the potential energy savings by implementing dc distribution systems for residential applications. In general, it is commonly accepted that the use of dc voltage improves the efficiency of the distribution, due to a decrease in the conduction losses and an efficiency...... improvement in the power converter units. However, for residential applications, the efficiency is not always improved. A grid connected residential microgrid, with renewable energy sources (RES), energy storage systems (ESS) and local loads, is presented in this work. The microgrid has been modelled...... loads. However, for isolated microgrids, the use of dc voltage has the potential to bring a significant efficiency improvement. Nevertheless the potential for cost reduction in all scenarios is very promising....

  20. Potential for natural evaporation as a reliable renewable energy resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Ahmet-Hamdi; Chen, Xi; Gentine, Pierre; Sahin, Ozgur

    2017-09-26

    About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth's surface drives evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower. Recent advances demonstrate our nascent ability to convert evaporation energy into work, yet there is little understanding about the potential of this resource. Here we study the energy available from natural evaporation to predict the potential of this ubiquitous resource. We find that natural evaporation from open water surfaces could provide power densities comparable to current wind and solar technologies while cutting evaporative water losses by nearly half. We estimate up to 325 GW of power is potentially available in the United States. Strikingly, water's large heat capacity is sufficient to control power output by storing excess energy when demand is low, thus reducing intermittency and improving reliability. Our findings motivate the improvement of materials and devices that convert energy from evaporation.The evaporation of water represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Building on previous models of evaporation, Cavusoglu et al. show that the power available from this natural resource is comparable to wind and solar power, yet it does not suffer as much from varying weather conditions.

  1. Energy models for the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    1976-01-01

    The development and application of energy models as helping factors in planning and decision making has gained more importance in all regions of energy economy and energy policy in recent times. This development not only covered models for the single branches and companies like, for example, for improving power plant systems, but also models showing the whole energy system. These models aim at analizing the possibilities of developing the energy supply with regard to aspects of the entire system, paying special attention to the integration of the energy system into economic and ecological side conditions. The following essay briefly explains the energy models developed for the Federal Republic of Germany after analizing the set of problems of energy and the demands on the energy planning methods arising from them. The energy model system developed by the programming team 'Systems research and technological development' of the nuclear research plant in Juelich is dealt with very intensively, explaining some model results as examples. Finally, the author gives his opinion on the problem of the integration and conversion of model studies in the process of decision making. (orig.) [de

  2. Inventory of state energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, A.G.; Gist, R.L.; Underwood, R.G.; Weber, J.C.

    1980-03-31

    These models address a variety of purposes, such as supply or demand of energy or of certain types of energy, emergency management of energy, conservation in end uses of energy, and economic factors. Fifty-one models are briefly described as to: purpose; energy system; applications;status; validation; outputs by sector, energy type, economic and physical units, geographic area, and time frame; structure and modeling techniques; submodels; working assumptions; inputs; data sources; related models; costs; references; and contacts. Discussions in the report include: project purposes and methods of research, state energy modeling in general, model types and terminology, and Federal legislation to which state modeling is relevant. Also, a state-by-state listing of modeling efforts is provided and other model inventories are identified. The report includes a brief encylopedia of terms used in energy models. It is assumed that many readers of the report will not be experienced in the technical aspects of modeling. The project was accomplished by telephone conversations and document review by a team from the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute and the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines. A Technical Committee (listed in the report) provided advice during the course of the project.

  3. Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzman, Murray

    2013-03-01

    Earthquakes attributable to human activities-``induced seismic events''-have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.

  4. Modelling of Integrated Renewable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, A. K.; Saini, R. P.; Sharma, M. P.

    2007-10-01

    Energy is supplied in the form of electricity, heat or fuels and an energy supply system must guarantee sufficient production and distribution of energy. An energy supply system based on renewable energy can be utilized as integrated renewable energy system (IRES), which can satisfy the energy needs of an area in appropriate & sustainable manner. Given the key role of renewable energy in rural electrification of remote rural areas, the IRES for a given area can be modeled & optimized for meeting the energy needs. In the present paper, Jaunpur block of Uttaranchal state of India has been selected as remote area. Based upon the data collected, the resource potential and energy demand has been calculated & presented. The model on the basis of unit cost of the energy has been optimized using LINDO software 6.10 version. The results indicated that the optimized model has been found to the best choice for meeting the energy needs of the area. The results further indicated that for the above area, either an IRES consisting of the above sources can provide a feasible solution in terms of energy fulfillments in the range of EPDF from 1.0 to 0.75.

  5. Impacts of Model Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivaraman, Deepak [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, Rosemarie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) periodically evaluates national and state-level impacts associated with energy codes in residential and commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), funded by DOE, conducted an assessment of the prospective impacts of national model building energy codes from 2010 through 2040. A previous PNNL study evaluated the impact of the Building Energy Codes Program; this study looked more broadly at overall code impacts. This report describes the methodology used for the assessment and presents the impacts in terms of energy savings, consumer cost savings, and reduced CO2 emissions at the state level and at aggregated levels. This analysis does not represent all potential savings from energy codes in the U.S. because it excludes several states which have codes which are fundamentally different from the national model energy codes or which do not have state-wide codes. Energy codes follow a three-phase cycle that starts with the development of a new model code, proceeds with the adoption of the new code by states and local jurisdictions, and finishes when buildings comply with the code. The development of new model code editions creates the potential for increased energy savings. After a new model code is adopted, potential savings are realized in the field when new buildings (or additions and alterations) are constructed to comply with the new code. Delayed adoption of a model code and incomplete compliance with the code’s requirements erode potential savings. The contributions of all three phases are crucial to the overall impact of codes, and are considered in this assessment.

  6. Energy modelling in sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schmidt

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are one of the key enabling technologies for the vision of ambient intelligence. Energy resources for sensor nodes are very scarce. A key challenge is the design of energy efficient communication protocols. Models of the energy consumption are needed to accurately simulate the efficiency of a protocol or application design, and can also be used for automatic energy optimizations in a model driven design process. We propose a novel methodology to create models for sensor nodes based on few simple measurements. In a case study the methodology was used to create models for MICAz nodes. The models were integrated in a simulation environment as well as in a SDL runtime framework of a model driven design process. Measurements on a test application that was created automatically from an SDL specification showed an 80% reduction in energy consumption compared to an implementation without power saving strategies.

  7. The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000-2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997-2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms.

  8. The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000–2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997–2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms. PMID:27355042

  9. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1988-01-01

    The minimum energy path for the addition of a hydrogen atom to N2 is characterized in CASSCF/CCI calculations using the (4s3p2d1f/3s2p1d) basis set, with additional single point calculations at the stationary points of the potential energy surface using the (5s4p3d2f/4s3p2d) basis set. These calculations represent the most extensive set of ab initio calculations completed to date, yielding a zero point corrected barrier for HN2 dissociation of approx. 8.5 kcal mol/1. The lifetime of the HN2 species is estimated from the calculated geometries and energetics using both conventional Transition State Theory and a method which utilizes an Eckart barrier to compute one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling effects. It is concluded that the lifetime of the HN2 species is very short, greatly limiting its role in both termolecular recombination reactions and combustion processes.

  10. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  11. Potential energy consumption reduction of automotive climate control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Filip; Uddheim, Åsa; Dalenbäck, Jan-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Twenty-on energy saving measures for vehicle interior climate were evaluated. • Few single energy saving measures could reduce the energy use significantly. • The operation of the system in intermediate conditions determines the energy use. • Required heating/cooling of passenger compartment had small effect on energy use. - Abstract: In recent years fuel consumption of passenger vehicles has received increased attention by customers, the automotive industry, regulatory agencies and academia. One area which affect the fuel consumption is climate control systems. Twenty-one energy saving measures were evaluated regarding the total energy use for vehicle interior climate using simulation. Evaluated properties were heat flow into the passenger compartment, electrical and mechanical work. The simulation model included sub models of the passenger compartment, air-handling unit, Air Conditioning (AC) system, engine and engine cooling system. A real-world representative test cycle, which included tests in cold, intermediate and warm conditions, was used for evaluation. In general, few single energy saving measures could reduce the energy use significantly. The measures with most potential were increased blower efficiency with a reduction of 46% of the electrical work and increased AC-system disengage temperature with a reduction of 27% of the mechanical work. These results show that the operation of the climate control system had a large effect on the energy use, especially compared to the required heating and cooling of the passenger compartment. As a result energy saving measures need to address how heating and cooling is generated before reducing the heat flow into the passenger compartment.

  12. Energy models for commercial energy prediction and substitution of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniyan, S.; Suganthi, L.; Samuel, Anand A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, three models have been projected namely Modified Econometric Mathematical (MEM) model, Mathematical Programming Energy-Economy-Environment (MPEEE) model, and Optimal Renewable Energy Mathematical (OREM) model. The actual demand for coal, oil and electricity is predicted using the MEM model based on economic, technological and environmental factors. The results were used in the MPEEE model, which determines the optimum allocation of commercial energy sources based on environmental limitations. The gap between the actual energy demand from the MEM model and optimal energy use from the MPEEE model, has to be met by the renewable energy sources. The study develops an OREM model that would facilitate effective utilization of renewable energy sources in India, based on cost, efficiency, social acceptance, reliability, potential and demand. The economic variations in solar energy systems and inclusion of environmental constraint are also analyzed with OREM model. The OREM model will help policy makers in the formulation and implementation of strategies concerning renewable energy sources in India for the next two decades

  13. Potential model description of heavy ion elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Calculations for a potential-model description of heavy-ion elastic and inelastic scattering attempt to follow the readjustments that the two ions must make as they begin to interact and imply modifications of the kinetic energy of relative motion as well as the potential energy. Phenomenology and the data, deep or shallow potentials, inelastic scattering, and folded potential models are treated with particular emphasis on the last

  14. Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Nienhaus, Kristina [German Aerospace Center e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Klessmann, Corinna; Capone, Carolin; Stricker, Eva [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Graus, Wina; Hoogwijk, Monique [Ecofys Netherlands BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Winterfeld, Uta von; Samadi, Sascha [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The analysis of different global energy scenarios in part I of the report confirms that the exploitation of energy efficiency potentials and the use of renewable energies play a key role in reaching global CO2 reduction targets. An assessment on the basis of a broad literature research in part II shows that the technical potentials of renewable energy technologies are a multiple of today's global final energy consumption. The analysis of cost estimates for renewable electricity generation technologies and even long term cost projections across the key studies in part III demonstrates that assumptions are in reasonable agreement. In part IV it is shown that by implementing technical potentials for energy efficiency improvements in demand and supply sectors by 2050 can be limited to 48% of primary energy supply in IEA's ''Energy Technology Perspectives'' baseline scenario. It was found that a large potential for cost-effective measures exists, equivalent to around 55-60% of energy savings of all included efficiency measures (part V). The results of the analysis on behavioural changes in part VI show that behavioural dimensions are not sufficiently included in energy scenarios. Accordingly major research challenges are revealed. (orig.)

  15. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Zhang, Xiliang

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO 2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously. In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy system. The conclusion is that China's domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system in China is not unreasonable. (author)

  16. Potential for energy technologies in residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M.M.

    1979-11-01

    The residential-commercial energy technology model was developed as a planning tool for policy analysis in the residential and commercial building sectors. The model and its procedures represent a detailed approach to estimating the future acceptance of energy-using technologies both in new construction and for retrofit into existing buildings. The model organizes into an analytical framework all relevant information and data on building energy technology, building markets, and government policy, and it allows for easy identification of the relative importance of key assumptions. The outputs include estimates of the degree of penetration of the various building energy technologies, the levels of energy use savings associated with them, and their costs - both private and government. The model was designed to estimate the annual energy savings associated with new technologies compared with continued use of conventional technology at 1975 levels. The amount of energy used under 1975 technology conditions is referred to as the reference case energy use. For analytical purposes the technologies were consolidated into ten groupings: electric and gas heat pumps; conservation categories I, II, and III; solar thermal (hot water, heating, and cooling); photovoltaics, and wind systems. These groupings clearly do not allow an assessment of the potential for individual technologies, but they do allow a reasonable comparison of their roles in the R/C sector. Assumptions were made regarding the technical and economic performances of the technologies over the period of the analysis. In addition, the study assessed the non-financial characteristics of the technologies - aesthetics, maintenance complexity, reliability, etc. - that will also influence their market acceptability.

  17. Potential energy landscape of TIP4P/2005 water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Sciortino, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    We report a numerical study of the statistical properties of the potential energy landscape of TIP4P/2005, one of the most accurate rigid water models. We show that, in the region where equilibrated configurations can be generated, a Gaussian landscape description is able to properly describe the model properties. We also find that the volume dependence of the landscape properties is consistent with the existence of a locus of density maxima in the phase diagram. The landscape-based equation of state accurately reproduces the TIP4P/2005 pressure-vs-volume curves, providing a sound extrapolation of the free-energy at low T. A positive-pressure liquid-liquid critical point is predicted by the resulting free-energy.

  18. Potential energy landscape of TIP4P/2005 water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H; Sciortino, Francesco

    2018-04-07

    We report a numerical study of the statistical properties of the potential energy landscape of TIP4P/2005, one of the most accurate rigid water models. We show that, in the region where equilibrated configurations can be generated, a Gaussian landscape description is able to properly describe the model properties. We also find that the volume dependence of the landscape properties is consistent with the existence of a locus of density maxima in the phase diagram. The landscape-based equation of state accurately reproduces the TIP4P/2005 pressure-vs-volume curves, providing a sound extrapolation of the free-energy at low T. A positive-pressure liquid-liquid critical point is predicted by the resulting free-energy.

  19. Nuclear energy role and potential for global sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Matsui, K.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term energy supply simulation that optimizes the energy system cost until 2100 for the world is being performed, by using the energy module of GRAPE model, where energy demand under the C02 emission constraint etc. is assumed. The model has been taken up for the trial calculation in I PCC the third report . Role and potential of nuclear energy system in the energy options is discussed here from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming. Taking the effort for energy conservation as major premise, carbon-sequestration for fossil fuel, renewable energy and nuclear energy should be altogether developed under the C02 constraint. Especially, fast breeder reactor will be attached importance to, as the 22nd century is approaching, due to its carbon free and resource limitless features when the nuclear generation cost is cheap as a current light water reactor level. It takes time around 30 years in order for breeding of Pu, a fast breeder reactor will begin to be introduced from around 2030. If the period for the technology establish of nuclear fuel cycle is assumed to be 30 years, it is necessary to start technical development right now. If the Kyoto Protocol, the emission constraint on only the developed countries, is extended in 21st century, it will promote the growth of nuclear power in the developed countries in the first half of the century. After 2050, the developing countries will face the shortage of uranium and plutonium. Carbon emission constraint should be covered all countries in the World not only for the developed countries but also for the developing countries. Therefore, it is important that the developing countries will use nuclear power effectively from the viewpoint of harmonization of energy growth and global environment. The policy that nuclear power is considered as Clean Development Mechanism would mitigate such global warming problems

  20. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  1. Potential energy surface for ? dissociation including spin-orbit effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Matthew R.; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; de Jong, Wibe A.; Granucci, Giovanni; Hase, William L.

    2012-10-01

    Previous experiments [J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 2833 (2012)] have studied the dissociation of 1,2-diiodoethane radical cation ( ? ) and found a one-dimensional distribution of translational energy, an odd finding considering most product relative translational energy distributions are two-dimensional. The goal of this study is to obtain an accurate understanding of the potential energy surface (PES) topology for the unimolecular decomposition reaction ? → C2H4I+ + I•. This is done through comparison of many single-reference electronic structure methods, coupled-cluster single-point (energy) calculations, and multi-reference energy calculations used to quantify spin-orbit (SO) coupling effects. We find that the structure of the ? reactant has a substantial effect on the role of the SO coupling on the reaction energy. Both the BHandH and MP2 theories with an ECP/6-31++G** basis set, and without SO coupling corrections, provide accurate models for the reaction energetics. MP2 theory gives an unsymmetric structure with different C-I bond lengths, resulting in a SO energy for ? similar to that for the product I-atom and a negligible SO correction to the reaction energy. In contrast, DFT gives a symmetric structure for ? , similar to that of the neutral C2H4I2 parent, resulting in a substantial SO correction and increasing the reaction energy by 6.0-6.5 kcalmol-1. Also, we find that, for this system, coupled-cluster single-point energy calculations are inaccurate, since a small change in geometry can lead to a large change in energy.

  2. Renewable Energy Potential for New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    RE-Powering America's Land: Renewable Energy on Contaminated Land and Mining Sites was presented by Penelope McDaniel, during the 2008 Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop.

  3. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    , the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously....... In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish...... system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy...

  4. The energy dependence of the nucleon-nucleus potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, R.S.; Cooper, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    By way of evaluating a new procedure for energy-dependent inversion we have compared the energy dependence of the local potential phase equivalent to the Perey-Buck non-local potential with the energy dependence of local potentials derived from RGM and phenomenology. (author)

  5. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    Results of simulations carried out on four different buildings with common windows, commercial low-energy windows and xerogel windows are presented. The results are the annual energy consumption for space heating and the indoor air temperature level.......Results of simulations carried out on four different buildings with common windows, commercial low-energy windows and xerogel windows are presented. The results are the annual energy consumption for space heating and the indoor air temperature level....

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by New York single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by South Carolina single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by New Hampshire single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by New Jersey single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Carolina single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by New Mexico single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  13. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by West Virginia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  14. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Rhode Island single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by South Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  16. Langevin model of low-energy fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierk, Arnold J.

    2017-09-01

    Background: Since the earliest days of fission, stochastic models have been used to describe and model the process. For a quarter century, numerical solutions of Langevin equations have been used to model fission of highly excited nuclei, where microscopic potential-energy effects have been neglected. Purpose: In this paper I present a Langevin model for the fission of nuclei with low to medium excitation energies, for which microscopic effects in the potential energy cannot be ignored. Method: I solve Langevin equations in a five-dimensional space of nuclear deformations. The macroscopic-microscopic potential energy from a global nuclear structure model well benchmarked to nuclear masses is tabulated on a mesh of approximately 107 points in this deformation space. The potential is defined continuously inside the mesh boundaries by use of a moving five-dimensional cubic spline approximation. Because of reflection symmetry, the effective mesh is nearly twice this size. For the inertia, I use a (possibly scaled) approximation to the inertia tensor defined by irrotational flow. A phenomenological dissipation tensor related to one-body dissipation is used. A normal-mode analysis of the dynamical system at the saddle point and the assumption of quasiequilibrium provide distributions of initial conditions appropriate to low excitation energies, and are extended to model spontaneous fission. A dynamical model of postscission fragment motion including dynamical deformations and separation allows the calculation of final mass and kinetic-energy distributions, along with other interesting quantities. Results: The model makes quantitative predictions for fragment mass and kinetic-energy yields, some of which are very close to measured ones. Varying the energy of the incident neutron for induced fission allows the prediction of energy dependencies of fragment yields and average kinetic energies. With a simple approximation for spontaneous fission starting conditions

  17. Regions in Energy Market Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.

    2007-02-01

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model--and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  18. Regions in Energy Market Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  19. Construction of molecular potential energy curves by an optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Blake, A. J.; McCoy, D. G.; Torop, L.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for determining the potential energy curves for diatomic molecules from measurements of diffused or continuum spectra is presented. It is based on a numerical procedure which minimizes the difference between the calculated spectra and the experimental measurements and can be used in cases where other techniques, such as the conventional RKR method, are not applicable. With the aid of suitable spectral data, the associated dipole electronic transition moments can be simultaneously obtained. The method is illustrated by modeling the "longest band" of molecular oxygen to extract the E 3Σ u- and B 3Σ u- potential curves in analytical form.

  20. Renewable energy - its potential and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Several renewable energy options are discussed, namely solar energy, passive solar systems, photovoltaics, wind energy and biomass. Although technical feasibility has been shown for various systems, there has been slow growth in their implementation. Some aspects of this slow growth are in the domains of economic viability, long term reliability, the training of operators and installers, public perception and education and govenmental attitudes. It is estimated that the increased use of renewable energy depends on several factors which include government policies, funding, energy conservation, pricing policies, reliable commercial products, public education and adequate training. 11 refs

  1. Potential energy efficiency improvements in Swedish energy intensive industries using an Energy Efficiency Obligation Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2014-01-01

    Energy Efficiency Obligation Schemes (EEOS) as suggested in the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) could help remove barriers to energy efficiency. However, despite the fact that such schemes have been successfully implemented and proven cost-effective in several Member States, not all countries are convinced of their potential benefits. In this paper, we investigate the policy instruments that Sweden has introduced or is planning to introduce for achieving increased industrial efficiency unde...

  2. Alternate Models to Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, Kenath; Gudennavar, S B; Prasad, A; Sivaram, C

    2017-01-01

    One of the unresolved questions currently in cosmology is that of the non-linear accelerated expansion of the universe. This has been attributed to the so called Dark Energy (DE). The accelerated expansion of the universe is deduced from measurements of Type Ia supernovae. Here we propose alternate models to account for the Type Ia supernovae measurements without invoking dark energy.

  3. Alternate models to dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Kenath; Gudennavar, S. B.; Prasad, A.; Sivaram, C.

    2018-01-01

    One of the unresolved questions currently in cosmology is that of the non-linear accelerated expansion of the universe. This has been attributed to the so called Dark Energy (DE). The accelerated expansion of the universe is deduced from measurements of Type Ia supernovae. Here we propose alternate models to account for the Type Ia supernovae measurements without invoking dark energy.

  4. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    When buildings are to undergo energy upgrading in Denmark, the national compliance checker, Be10, is often used to calculate expected energy savings for different energy-saving measures. The Be10 calculation is, however, very dependent on a variety of standard assumptions concerning the building...... and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible before...... the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single-family houses...

  5. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)

  6. Renewable energy potential in Southern Africa: conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This conference, held in Cape Town from 8-10 September 1986, consist of many papers discussing the renewalble energy potential in Southern Africa. The papers delivered at the conference include topics such as wind energy, ocean energy, hydroelectric resources, solar resources, wave energy, agroforestry, fuelwood, hydrogen energy and the production of energy from biomass. Several papers were delivered on solar water heating and one on nuclear vs renewable energy

  7. Study of the potential of energy storage - Investigation report - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Arnaud; Fournie, Laurent; Girardeau, Pierre; Chammas, Maxime; Tarel, Guillaume; Chiche, Alice; De Freminville; Pierre; Lacroix, Olivier; Rakotojaona, Loic; Payen, Luc; Riu, Delphine; Kerouedan, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess, for France and its overseas territories, the potential of energy storage by 2030, and to identify the technological sectors which are the most economically relevant. A global surplus has been calculated, as well as the benefit from additional storage capacities. This benefit has been compared with cost predictions by 2030 for different storage technologies. Economically viable powers and types of energy storages are assessed with respect to different scenarios, and impacts in terms of associated jobs are assessed. The document reports and discusses the surplus assessment for the community, describes the various services provided by energy storage, presents the modelling scenarios and hypotheses, discusses the main results of valorisation for the community, presents the various energy storage technologies (gravity, thermodynamic, electrochemical, electrostatic, inertial, latent thermal, thermo-chemical, and power to gas), presents business models and deployment potential for different applications (mass storage of electricity in France, electricity storage in a non-connected area, decentralised electricity storage as a response to grid congestion, valorisation of an electricity storage, thermal storage on a heat network, cold storage, management of diffuse demand of hot water), and discusses implications regarding employment

  8. A generalization of CAPE into potential-energy convertibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Guichard, Françoise

    2005-04-01

    The concept of the potential-energy convertibility (PEC) is proposed as a generalization of convective available potential energy (CAPE). It is defined as a vertical integral of buoyancy weighted by a non-dimensional normalized vertical momentum. This is a measure of convertibility of potential energy into kinetic energy in the sense that the actual conversion rate is recovered when PEC evaluated by the convective-scale local buoyancy and vertical momentum, as available from cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations, is multiplied by the normalization factor for the vertical momentum. It reduces to CAPE, when the standard parcel-lifted buoyancy and a unit value for the normalized vertical momentum are used. It is equivalent to Arakawas-Schubert's cloud work function, when the buoyancy and the vertical momentum profile for an entraining plume are used. PEC evaluated from locally defined buoyancy and vertical momentum in CRM simulations correlates better with the convective precipitation than CAPE. The evaluation of PEC within a convective parametrization may be possible with an appropriate definition of the effective entrainment rate, for example, which is expected to improve CAPE-based convective parametrizations.

  9. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible before...... the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single-family houses......, 3) Domestic hot water consumption and 4) Air change rate. Based on the analysis, a methodology is established that can be used to make more realistic and accurate predictions of expected energy savings associated with energy upgrading taking into account user behaviour....

  10. Constructing ab initio and empirical potential energy surfaces for water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kain, Jacqueline Sophie

    2001-01-01

    The infrared spectrum of water is possibly one of the most well studied and yet portions of it are still poorly understood. Recently, significant advances have been made in assigning water spectra using variational nuclear calculations. The major factor determining the accuracy of ro-vibrational spectra of water is the accuracy of the underlying Potential Energy Surface. Even the most accurate ab initio Potential Energy Surface does not reproduce the Born-Oppenheimer surface to sufficient accuracy for spectroscopic studies. Furthermore, effects beyond this model such as the adiabatic correction, the relativistic correction and the non-adiabatic correction have to be considered. This thesis includes a discussion on how the relativistic correction was calculated, for the water molecule, from first-order perturbation theory. The relativistic correction improved vibrational stretching motion while making the prediction of the bending modes far worse. For rotational motion the relativistic effect had an increasing effect with increasing Ka. A further alteration to the ab initio calculations is introduced by adjusting the barrier to linearity in the water potential. This alteration to the barrier was considered in order to compensate for the lack of convergence of quantum chemical calculations of the Born-Oppenheimer surface. This barrier attempts to represent the change in the potential from linear to equilibrium. We show the improvements this has on the calculated energy levels by comparison with the HITRAN database. This then led the way to the improved spectroscopic potential presented here in this thesis. This new spectroscopic potential reduces the overall standard deviation significantly for vibrational and rotational energy levels. (author)

  11. Renewable Energy in Reunion: Potentials and Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baddour, Julien; Percebois, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Renewable, environmentally friendly and evenly distributed across the globe, renewable energy (RES for Renewable Energy Resources) is an excellent means of taking up the global energy challenge, i.e. enabling developing countries in the south to make progress without harming the environment. Since it is particularly well suited to an island territory's character and local needs, RE is also an excellent tool that could enable France's overseas Departments and Territories to reduce their energy dependence, preserve their environment and ensure their sustainable development. In Reunion, RES benefit from marked political support and from a very favourable financial and institutional environment, which has allowed the Reunion region to become a national pioneer in the realm of thermal energy and photovoltaics. Nonetheless, RES are not a panacea as they are subject to a number of flaws. It is currently expensive and uncompetitive, intermittent and insufficiently powerful, and not always available to keep up with demand. This explains why RES cannot aspire to be a complete substitute for fossil fuels. The two energy systems complement one another to meet the region's total energy needs. This article also highlights the negative consequences of the support measures for RES (inflated costs and negative prices on the electricity markets) and underscores the need for a complementary energy policy in pricing electricity, as well as effecting energy savings, which must remain our priority. (authors)

  12. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    –airflow simulations of 27 common cases of dwellings (considered as one thermal zone) based on the combination of specific features of the building design, occupancy and climate conditions. The energy saving potential is assessed then by the use of a new assessment method suitable for large-scale scenarios using......The objective of this article is to show the potential of natural ventilation as a passive cooling method within the residential sector of countries which are located in warm conditions using Mexico as a case study. The method is proposed as performing, with a simplified ventilation model, thermal...... the actual number of air-conditioned dwellings distributed among the 27 cases. Thereby, the energy saving is presented as the difference in the cooling demand of the dwelling during one year without and with natural ventilation, respectively. Results indicate that for hot-dry conditions, buildings with high...

  13. Modeling renewable energy company risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2012-01-01

    The renewable energy sector is one of the fastest growing components of the energy industry and along with this increased demand for renewable energy there has been an increase in investing and financing activities. The tradeoff between risk and return in the renewable energy sector is, however, precarious. Renewable energy companies are often among the riskiest types of companies to invest in and for this reason it is necessary to have a good understanding of the risk factors. This paper uses a variable beta model to investigate the determinants of renewable energy company risk. The empirical results show that company sales growth has a negative impact on company risk while oil price increases have a positive impact on company risk. When oil price returns are positive and moderate, increases in sales growth can offset the impact of oil price returns and this leads to lower systematic risk.

  14. Potential for Geothermal Energy in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin Soe Moe

    2010-12-01

    Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself from kilometers deep into the earth's crust in some places of world. It is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. It is a renewable energy source because the heat is continuously produced inside the earth. Geothermal energy originates from the heat retained within the Earth's core since the orginal formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Most high temperature geothermal heat is harvested in regions close to tectonic plate boundaries where volcanic activity rises up to the surface of the Earth. It is one of the best renewable sources of energy and is capable of maintaining its temperature. The heating cost is very low. It uses less electricity and 75 per cent more efficient than the oil furnace and 48 per cent more efficient than the gas furnace. The energy is not only used for heating a place but also for cooling down the site. It generates uniform energy and creates no sound pollution. Maintenance cost is very cheap. The life of the underground piping is more than 50 year.

  15. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  16. Potential Advantages of Reusing Potentially Contaminated Land for Renewable Energy Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA promotes the reuse of potentially contaminated lands and landfills for renewable energy. This strategy creates new markets for potentially contaminated lands, while providing a sustainable land development strategy for renewable energy.

  17. Energy usage and technical potential for energy saving measures in the Swedish residential building stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Érika; Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the current energy usage (net energy and final energy by fuels) and associated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions of the Swedish residential building stock, which includes single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. Twelve energy saving measures (ESMs) are assessed using a bottom–up modeling methodology, in which the Swedish residential stock is represented by a sample of 1400 buildings (based on data from the year 2005). Application of the ESMs studied gives a maximum technical reduction potential in energy demand of 53%, corresponding to a 63% reduction in CO 2 emissions. Although application of the investigated ESMs would reduce CO 2 emissions, the measures that reduce electricity consumption for lighting and appliances (LA) will increase CO 2 emissions, since the saved electricity production is less CO 2 -intensive than the fuel mix used for the increased space heating required to make up for the loss in indirect heating obtained from LA. - Highlights: ► Analysis of year 2005energy use and CO2 emissions of Swedish residential buildings. ► Includes all single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. ► Bottom–up modeling of building stock represented by 1400 buildings. ► Technical effects of 12 energy saving measures are assessed. ► Energy demand can be reduced by53% and associated CO 2 emissions by 63%

  18. Estimates of the potential for energy conservation in the Chinese steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Boqiang; Wu Ya; Zhang Li

    2011-01-01

    The study evaluates the energy saving potential of the Chinese steel industry by studying its potential future energy efficiency gap. In order to predict the future energy efficiency gap, a multivariate regression model combined with risk analysis is developed to estimate future energy intensity of China's steel industry. It is found that R and D intensity, energy saving investment, labor productivity and industry concentration are all important variables that affect energy intensity. We assess the possible measures as to how China's steel industry can narrow the energy efficiency gap with Japan by means of scenario analysis. Using Japan's current energy efficiency level as baseline, the energy saving potential of China's steel industry is more than 200 million ton coal equivalent in 2008, and it would fall to zero in 2020. However, if greater efforts were made to conserve energy, it would be possible to narrow down the energy efficiency gap between China and Japan by around 2015. Finally, using the results of the scenario analysis, future policy priorities for energy conservation in China's steel industry are assessed in this paper. - Highlights: → The energy saving potential of the Chinese steel industry is evaluated. → A multivariate regression model combined with risk analysis is developed. → R and D, energy saving investment, labor, and structure affect energy intensity.→ The energy saving potential of China's steel industry would fall to zero in 2020.→ Future policy for energy conservation in China's steel industry are assessed.

  19. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yan; Chen, Zuoqi; Wu, Bin; Chen, Liang; Mao, Weiqing; Zhao, Feng; Wu, Jianping; Wu, Junhan; Yu, Bailang

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, espe...

  20. Quantifying and Disaggregating Consumer Purchasing Behavior for Energy Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer behaviors such as energy conservation, adoption of more efficient technologies, and fuel switching represent significant potential for greenhouse gas mitigation. Current efforts to model future energy outcomes have tended to use simplified economic assumptions ...

  1. Analysis on Potential of Electric Energy Market based on Large Industrial Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyi; Zhu, Xinzhi; Yang, Shuo; Xia, Huaijian; Yang, Di; Li, Hao; Lin, Haiying

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of electric energy substitution by enterprises plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in china. In order to explore alternative energy potential of industrial enterprises, to simulate and analyze the process of industrial enterprises, identify high energy consumption process and equipment, give priority to alternative energy technologies, and determine the enterprise electric energy substitution potential predictive value, this paper constructs the evaluation model of the influence factors of the electric energy substitution potential of industrial enterprises, and uses the combined weight method to determine the weight value of the evaluation factors to calculate the target value of the electric energy substitution potential. Taking the iron and steel industry as an example, this method is used to excavate the potential. The results show that the method can effectively tap the potential of the electric power industry

  2. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  3. Potential for energy recovery from humid air streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard H. Rosen

    1979-01-01

    The potential for energy recovery from the vent stream of dryers is examined by assuming the vent stream transfers its energy in a regenerative heat exchanger. Tables present energy recovery over a range of conditions. Example problems demonstrate the use of the energy recovery tables.

  4. Energy potential in the food industry; Store energipotensialer i naeringsmiddelindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, E; Risberg, T M; Mydske, H J; Helgerud, H E

    2007-07-01

    The food industry is one of the most power consuming industries (excluding the heavy industry) and has large potential for reducing the energy consumption. This report explains the most energy efficient measures and if the injunctions are followed

  5. Onshore wind energy potential over Iberia: present and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochinha, Carlos A.; Santos, João A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    Onshore grid-connected wind power generation has been explored for more than three decades in the Iberian Peninsula. Further, increasing attention has been devoted to renewable energy sources in a climate change context. While advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, its distribution is not spatially homogeneous and not uniform throughout the year. Hence, understanding these spatial-temporal distributions is critical in power system planning. The present study aims at assessing the potential power output estimated from 10 m wind components simulated by a regional climate model (CCLM), driven by ERA40 reanalysis. Datasets are available on a grid with a high spatial resolution (approximately 20 km) and over a 40-yr period (1961-2000). Furthermore, several target sites, located in areas with high installed wind generation capacity, are selected for local-to-regional scale assessments. The results show that potential wind power is higher over northern Iberia, mostly in Cantabria and Galicia, while Andalucía and Cataluña record the lowest values. With respect to the intra-annual variability, summer is by far the season with the lowest potential energy outputs. Furthermore, the inter-annual variability reveals an overall downward long-term trend over the 40-yr period, particularly in the winter time series. A CCLM transient experiment, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario, is also discussed for a future period (2041-2070), after a model validation/calibration process (bias corrections). Significant changes in the wind power potential are projected for the future throughout Iberia, but their magnitude largely depends on the locations. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  6. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: the potential for energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on "Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)". An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental

  7. Energy transfer in scattering by rotating potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In this section we study bounds of the kinetic energy on incoming and outgoing scattering states. These bounds follow from ... Let H(t) = H0 + Vt be a self-adjoint family of operators which satisfies (2.1), (2.2) and generates a unitary propagator U(t,s) ...... Math. Soc. Transl. of Math. Monographs (RI: Providence) (1992) vol. 105.

  8. Assessment of algorithms for computing moist available potential energy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Bethan L.; Tailleux, Remi

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric moist available potential energy (MAPE) has been traditionally defined as the potential energy of a moist atmosphere relative to that of the adiabatically sorted reference state defining a global potential energy minimum. Finding such a reference state was recently shown to be a linear assignment problem, and therefore exactly solvable. However, this is computationally extremely expensive, so there has been much interest in developing heuristic methods for computing MAPE in practi...

  9. Comparing energy levels in isotropic and anisotropic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikovski, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative information about the quantized energy levels of a system can be of great value. We study the relationship between the bound-state energies of an anisotropic potential and those of its spherical average. It is shown that the two ground-state energies satisfy an inequality, and there is a similar inequality for the first excited states. - Highlights: • Quantized energy levels in an arbitrary non-central potential are studied. • We derive inequalities between energies in a potential and its spherical average. • The results hold in three and two dimensions for any ground state and, with additional symmetry requirements for the first excited state.

  10. Understanding usage patterns of electric kettle and energy saving potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.M.; Liao, J.; Stankovic, L.; Stankovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Time-of-use analysis to motivate kettle usage and consumption prediction. • Identification of households whose kettle usage and consumption is outside the norm. • Mathematical model to estimate water volume from consumed power measurements only. • Quantification of energy savings if a household uses its kettle more efficiently. • Kettle usage and demand prediction using an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. - Abstract: The availability of smart metering and smart appliances enables detecting and characterising appliance use in a household, quantifying energy savings through efficient appliance use and predicting appliance-specific demand from load measurements is possible. With growing electric kettle ownership and usage, lack of any efficiency labelling guidelines for the kettle, slow technological progress in improving kettle efficiency relative to other domestic appliances, and current consumer attitudes, urgent investigation into consumer kettle usage patterns is warranted. From an efficiency point of view, little can be done about the kettle, which is more efficient than other methods of heating water such as the stove top kettle. However, since a majority households use the kettle inefficiently by overfilling, in order to meet energy targets, it is imperative to quantify inefficient usage and predict demand. For the purposes of scalability, we propose tools that depend only on load measurement data for quantifying and visualising kettle usage and energy consumption, assessing energy wastage through overfilling via our proposed electric kettle model, and predicting kettle-specific demand, from which we can estimate potential energy savings in a household and across a housing stock. This is demonstrated using data from a longitudinal study across a sample of 14 UK households for a two-year period.

  11. Free energy via thermostatted dynamic potential-energy changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, B.L.; Posch, H.A.; Hoover, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Three dynamical methods for computing canonical-ensemble Helmholtz free energies are discussed and compared for a thermostatted six-body harmonic chain. We use a Martyna-Klein-Tuckerman thermostat [J. Chem. Phys. 97, 2635 (1992)] with six time-reversible friction coefficients to study both single-trajectory and ensemble-averaged free-energy changes. Though all three dynamic methods produce identical long-time averages, the one based on Kirkwood's coupling-parameter theory [J. Chem. Phys. 3, 300 (1935)] converges much more rapidly than do the two based on time-integrated heat transfer

  12. Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Buildings on a Global Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter contributes to the debate around net-zero energy concept from a global perspective. By means of comprehensive modelling, it analyses how much global building energy consumption could be reduced through utilisation of building-integrated solar energy technologies and energy......-efficiency improvements. Valuable insights on the locations and building types, in which it is feasible to achieve a net-zero level of energy performance through solar energy utilisation, are presented in world maps....

  13. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  14. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  15. Model of Nordic energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, E.; Johnsen, T.; Mysen, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    Simulation results are given of the consumption of electricity and oil in Denmark, Norway and Sweden based on the demand section of a Nordic energy market model which is in the process of being developed in Oslo under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The model incorporates supply, and trade between countries so that it can be analyzed how trading can contribute to goals within energy and environmental policies and to cost effective activities aimed at reducing pollution. The article deals in some detail with the subject of how taxation on carbon dioxide emission can influence pollution abatement and with energy consumption development within individual sectors in individual Northern countries. The model of energy demand is described with emphasis on the individual sectors of industry, transport, service and private households. Simulation results giving the effects of energy consumption and increased taxation on fossil fuels are given. On this background the consequences of the adaption of power plants is discussed and a sketch is given of a Nordic electric power market incorporating trading. (AB) (15 refs.)

  16. Energy and Development. A Modelling Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ruijven, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid economic growth of developing countries like India and China implies that these countries become important actors in the global energy system. Examples of this impact are the present day oil shortages and rapidly increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Global energy models are used to explore possible future developments of the global energy system and identify policies to prevent potential problems. Such estimations of future energy use in developing countries are very uncertain. Crucial factors in the future energy use of these regions are electrification, urbanisation and income distribution, issues that are generally not included in present day global energy models. Model simulations in this thesis show that current insight in developments in low-income regions lead to a wide range of expected energy use in 2030 of the residential and transport sectors. This is mainly caused by many different model calibration options that result from the limited data availability for model development and calibration. We developed a method to identify the impact of model calibration uncertainty on future projections. We developed a new model for residential energy use in India, in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Science. Experiments with this model show that the impact of electrification and income distribution is less univocal than often assumed. The use of fuelwood, with related health risks, can decrease rapidly if the income of poor groups increases. However, there is a trade off in terms of CO2 emissions because these groups gain access to electricity and the ownership of appliances increases. Another issue is the potential role of new technologies in developing countries: will they use the opportunities of leapfrogging? We explored the potential role of hydrogen, an energy carrier that might play a central role in a sustainable energy system. We found that hydrogen only plays a role before 2050 under very optimistic assumptions. Regional energy

  17. Energy and Development. A Modelling Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ruijven, B.J.

    2008-12-17

    Rapid economic growth of developing countries like India and China implies that these countries become important actors in the global energy system. Examples of this impact are the present day oil shortages and rapidly increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Global energy models are used to explore possible future developments of the global energy system and identify policies to prevent potential problems. Such estimations of future energy use in developing countries are very uncertain. Crucial factors in the future energy use of these regions are electrification, urbanisation and income distribution, issues that are generally not included in present day global energy models. Model simulations in this thesis show that current insight in developments in low-income regions lead to a wide range of expected energy use in 2030 of the residential and transport sectors. This is mainly caused by many different model calibration options that result from the limited data availability for model development and calibration. We developed a method to identify the impact of model calibration uncertainty on future projections. We developed a new model for residential energy use in India, in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Science. Experiments with this model show that the impact of electrification and income distribution is less univocal than often assumed. The use of fuelwood, with related health risks, can decrease rapidly if the income of poor groups increases. However, there is a trade off in terms of CO2 emissions because these groups gain access to electricity and the ownership of appliances increases. Another issue is the potential role of new technologies in developing countries: will they use the opportunities of leapfrogging? We explored the potential role of hydrogen, an energy carrier that might play a central role in a sustainable energy system. We found that hydrogen only plays a role before 2050 under very optimistic assumptions. Regional energy

  18. World status of geothermal energy use: past and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, John

    2000-01-01

    The past and potential development of geothermal energy is reviewed, and the use of geothermal energy for power generation and direct heat utilisation is examined. The energy savings that geothermal energy provides in terms of fuel oil and carbon savings are discussed. Worldwide development of geothermal electric power (1940-2000) and direct heat utilisation (1960 to 2000), regional geothermal use in 2000, the national geothermal contributions of geothermal energy, and the installed geothermal electric generating capacities in 2000 are tabulated

  19. Renewable energy resources in Pakistan: status, potential and information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides some details regarding the characteristic properties, potential and assessment of renewable energy compared with other forms of energy sources. It gives status of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. It also lights about the agencies providing technical information regarding renewable energy in Pakistan as well as suggestions and recommendations for the development of these resources, and over view the present status of renewable energy sources. (author)

  20. The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000?2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind...

  1. Wood Energy Potential in Northwestern South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. McMinn

    1986-01-01

    The quantity of unused wood in an Ill-county area in northwestern South Carolina was projected to be more than 16 million tons annually. Wood that is unsuitable for products other than fuel amounts to nearly 9 million tons annually.The most likely energy demand by industrial plants that are good candidates for wood fuel systems is 1.5 million tons annually.Maximum...

  2. Realizing the potential of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.

    1982-01-01

    The future of nuclear power, just as the future of America, can be viewed with optimism. There is hope in America's record of overcoming obstacles, but growth is essential for that hope to be realized. Despite the downturn in energy demand made possible by conservation, we will need a 35% growth in total energy for new workers and production. Electricity generated by nuclear or coal can make US production more cost-competitive, and it can power mass-transit systems, electric heat pumps, and communications and information systems. Changes in electricity and gross national product (GNP) have been more closely in step since 1973 than have total energy and GNP. The nuclear power units now under construction will add 80,000 megawatts to the 56,000 now on line. It is important to note that, while utilities are cancelling plans for nuclear plants, they aren't ordering new coal plants, which shows the impact of the high cost of money. Interest rates must come down and public-relations efforts to sell electricity must improve to change the situation. Although capital shortages are real, waste disposal is a problem of perception that was politically induced because the government failed to provide a demonstration of safety as the French are doing. Streamlined regulatory and insurance procedures can help to justify optimism in the nuclear option. 4 figures

  3. Chameleon dark energy models with characteristic signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannouji, Radouane; Moraes, Bruno; Polarski, David; Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    In chameleon dark energy models, local gravity constraints tend to rule out parameters in which observable cosmological signatures can be found. We study viable chameleon potentials consistent with a number of recent observational and experimental bounds. A novel chameleon field potential, motivated by f(R) gravity, is constructed where observable cosmological signatures are present both at the background evolution and in the growth rate of the perturbations. We study the evolution of matter density perturbations on low redshifts for this potential and show that the growth index today γ 0 can have significant dispersion on scales relevant for large scale structures. The values of γ 0 can be even smaller than 0.2 with large variations of γ on very low redshifts for the model parameters constrained by local gravity tests. This gives a possibility to clearly distinguish these chameleon models from the Λ-cold-dark-matter (ΛCDM) model in future high-precision observations.

  4. Economic potential of renewable energy in Vietnam's power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ha-Duong, Minh

    2009-01-01

    A bottom-up Integrated Resource Planning model is used to examine the economic potential of renewable energy in Vietnam's power sector. In a baseline scenario without renewables, coal provides 44% of electricity generated from 2010 to 2030. The use of renewables could reduce that figure to 39%, as well as decrease the sector's cumulative emission of CO 2 by 8%, SO 2 by 3%, and NO x by 4%. In addition, renewables could avoid installing 4.4 GW in fossil fuel generating capacity, conserve domestic coal, decrease coal and gases imports, improving energy independence and security. Wind could become cost-competitive assuming high but plausible on fossil fuel prices, if the cost of the technology falls to 900 US$/kW. (author)

  5. The geothermal energy, a model energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This book, largely illustrated by photos maps and schemes, takes stock on the knowledge on the geothermal energy, the low and high energy applications and the evolutions. Examples describe the french context and the channels of heat and electric power production. (A.L.B.)

  6. The potential of new renewable energy sources in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, P.; Kaiser, T.; Wokaun, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the results of an evaluation made by the so-called 'Swiss Energy Trialogue' ETS on the potential offered by new renewable energy sources in Switzerland. The evaluation forecasts an important contribution to Swiss energy supply by renewable energy sources by the year 2050. The authors are of the opinion that, in spite of a considerable increase in the offers of renewable energy and the full use of energy saving potential, a discrepancy will exist between estimates of energy needs and the actual energy available from renewable resources if large-scale power generation facilities are not built. Activities proposed by the Swiss government are discussed and analysed. In particular, possible contributions to be made by renewable energy sources are examined. Suggestions made by ETS concerning possible courses of action are discussed

  7. Energy-balance climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  8. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  9. Geothermal energy potential in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The background of the area itself is investigated considering the geography, population, economy, attitudes of residents, and energy demands of the area. The requirements for geothermal energy development are considered, including socio-economic, institutional, and environmental conditions as well as some technical aspects. The current, proposed, and potential geothermal energy developments are described. The summary, conclusions, and methodology are included. (MHR)

  10. Achieving wood energy potentials: evidence in northeastern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Bradley; David C. Lothner

    1987-01-01

    A study of wood energy potential in northeastern Minnesota concludes that (1) the forests of the region could support a much larger wood energy harvest without significant cost increases for other forest products; (2) existing stands are predominantly overmature and cutting more now will enhance future wood supplies for all users; (3) converting to wood energy could...

  11. The potential for microfluidics in electrochemical energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modestino, Miquel A.; Fernandez Rivas, David; Hashemi, Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Psaltis, Demetri

    2016-01-01

    Flow based electrochemical energy conversion devices have the potential to become a prominent energy storage technology in a world driven by renewable energy sources. The optimal design of these devices depends strongly on the tradeoffs between the losses associated with multiple transport

  12. Energy saving potential of emerging technologies in milk powder production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The food industry has a large potential for energy reduction which, with an eye on the future, has to be exploited. Milk powder production consists of many thermal processes and is responsible for 15% of the total energy use in the dairy industry. A reduction in energy consumption can be

  13. Physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes from sawmills in Benin metropolis, Nigeria. ... The results are indications that the wood wastes are suitable as feedstock for renewable energy generation with little or no threat to the environment. Keywords: Benin Metropolis; Bio-energy; Calorific value; ...

  14. Vector performance of a potential energy functional representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagana, A.; Ciccarelli, L.; Garcia, E.

    1987-01-01

    In computer codes based on classical mechanics treatments of the molecular dynamics the bottleneck to vectorization is the evaluation of the potential energy and of its derivatives. These calculations are usually confined inside ad hoc routines. Quite often these routines have a complex structure motivated by the complex form of the functional adopted for representing the molecular interaction. Typical examples of potential energy routines difficult to restructure for taking advantage of vector architectures are those concerned with interactions obtained by assembling different functional forms individually designed for describing accurately particular regions of the potential energy surface. A more favourable case are global representations of the potential energy. The authors' suggestion is to follow a multi-body expansion of the interaction. This representation of the potential energy of a triatomic system is not only quite accurate, but it is also easy to vectorize. Several ways of vectorizing related codes and their performances are discussed. Applications to chemical reactions are made

  15. The potential role of hydrogen energy in India and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.; Lakshmikanth, H.D.; van Vuuren, D.P.; de Vries, B.

    2008-01-01

    We used the TIMER energy model to explore the potential role of hydrogen in the energy systems of India and Western Europe, looking at the impacts on its main incentives: climate policy, energy security and urban air pollution. We found that hydrogen will not play a major role in both regions

  16. Four-parameter analytical local model potential for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Yu; Jiu-Xun, Sun; Rong-Gang, Tian; Wei, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Analytical local model potential for modeling the interaction in an atom reduces the computational effort in electronic structure calculations significantly. A new four-parameter analytical local model potential is proposed for atoms Li through Lr, and the values of four parameters are shell-independent and obtained by fitting the results of X a method. At the same time, the energy eigenvalues, the radial wave functions and the total energies of electrons are obtained by solving the radial Schrödinger equation with a new form of potential function by Numerov's numerical method. The results show that our new form of potential function is suitable for high, medium and low Z atoms. A comparison among the new potential function and other analytical potential functions shows the greater flexibility and greater accuracy of the present new potential function. (atomic and molecular physics)

  17. The radial shapes of intermediate energy microscopic optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qingbiao; Wang Chang; Tian Ye; Zhuo Yizhong

    1984-01-01

    The radial shapes of intermediate energy proton microscopic optical potentials of 40 Ca are calculated with nuclear matter approach by Skyrme interactions. The calculated results show that the real central potential in central region of nucleus changes from attractive to repulsive when the energy of incident nucleon is above 150 MeV and appears apparently a 'wine-bottle-bottom' shape in the transition energy region (from 150 MeV to 300 MeV). This tendency is consistent with empirical optical potential obtained through fitting experiments and microscopic optical potential calculated with relativistic mean field theory as well as with the BHF theory. The calculated imaginary part of the microscopic optical potential changes from the dominant surface absorption into the volume absorption and its absolute value become larger as energy increases. The effects of Skyrme force parameters to the radial shape of the calculated microscopic optical potential are analysed in detail

  18. Innovative Basis of Research of Energy-Efficient Potential and Effectiveness of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanov Seymur Latif oglu; Hasanov Elnur Latif oglu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, countries of the world have been trying to attract new energy sources (wind, sun, biogas, waves, drainage, non-conventional energy sources such as hydroelectric power of small rivers) in their fuel-energy balance. Azerbaijan has renewable natural resources, favorable for its energy-efficient potential, according to the amount of sunny and windy days. In this article was given total information about renewable energy potential of Azerbaijan Republic. In this article we use inf...

  19. Global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hairui; Su, Xinwu; Liang, Haiying; Xu, Yongli; Han, Yinlu; Shen, Qingbiao

    2017-09-01

    The global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha with the incident energy up to 400 MeV are obtained. The global phenomenological optical model potential is extracted by simultaneously fitting the experimental data of total reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions in the mass range of target nuclei 20 ≤ A ≤ 209. The microscopic optical model potential is obtained by the Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme nucleon-nucleon interaction. Both optical model potentials are used to calculate the reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions for the target nuclei in the mass range 12 ≤ A ≤ 209 at incident alpha energies up to 400 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data, and the calculated results by phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials are also compared with each other.

  20. Global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hairui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha with the incident energy up to 400 MeV are obtained. The global phenomenological optical model potential is extracted by simultaneously fitting the experimental data of total reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions in the mass range of target nuclei 20 ≤ A ≤ 209. The microscopic optical model potential is obtained by the Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme nucleon-nucleon interaction. Both optical model potentials are used to calculate the reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions for the target nuclei in the mass range 12 ≤ A ≤ 209 at incident alpha energies up to 400 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data, and the calculated results by phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials are also compared with each other.

  1. Ukraine’s renewable energy potential as promising investment area

    OpenAIRE

    Sivitska, Svitlana

    2013-01-01

    In this research types of enewable energy have been considered, the necessity of investing has been substantiated and the main factors for alternative energy development in Ukraine have been identified.The most promising regions for investment in alternative energy on the basis of a comparison of its development potential in each regions of Ukraine have been identified and also the territorial aspect of each renewable energy sources type development has been analyzed.

  2. To the Problem of the Clay Particles Energy Potential Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Seredin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clay is a natural material, which surface of the particles is energetically active. This clay property is widely used in the industry as sorbents. However, clay sorption activity is different for various pollutants, and work aimed to increase their sorption activity is still under way. This work objective was to study the pressure influences on the activity of the clay particles surface. The experiments showed that increase of pressure results in the decrease in the content of clay minerals, while other minerals change in different manner. It has been statistically proved that pressures P = 125 MPa and P = 750 MPa are bounding values that allows identifying the three classes. The first class is related to the pressures under 125 MPa, the second comprises the range from 125 MPa to 750 MPa, and the third class is for the pressures above 750 MPa. In each class, the intensity and direction of the proceeding of processes of mineral clay composition alteration have specific features. Based on theoretical and experimental studies it was established that the less the value of indicator Mk, the higher the energy potential of the particle surface. It achieves the maximum values (Mk = 14.7 in montmorillonite clay under pressure of 125 MPa, and, conversely, with an increase in pressure up to 2200 MPa the Mk value decreases (Mk = 17.7. A different behavior was observed in kaolinite clay. The energy potential on the particle surface increases with an increase in pressure from Mk = 26.3 to Mk = 18.8 (P = 2000 MPa. Mathematical models, which make it possible to predict energy potential on the surface of montmorillonite and kaolinite particles depending on the pressure, have been developed based on the found statistical relations

  3. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on Public Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-02-01

    This report represents an initial activity of the Bureau of Land Managements (BLM) proposed National Energy Policy Implementation Plan: identify and evaluate renewable energy resources on federal lands and any limitations on accessing them. Ultimately, BLM will prioritize land-use planning activities to increase industrys development of renewable energy resources. These resources include solar, biomass, geothermal, water, and wind energy. To accomplish this, BLM and the Department of Energys National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) established a partnership to conduct an assessment of renewable energy resources on BLM lands in the western United States. The objective of this collaboration was to identify BLM planning units in the western states with the highest potential for private-sector development of renewable resources. The assessment resulted in the following findings: (1) 63 BLM planning units in nine western states have high potential for one or more renewable energy technologies; and (2) 20 BLM planning units in seven western states have high potential for power production from three or more renewable energy sources. This assessment report provides BLM with information needed to prioritize land-use planning activities on the basis of potential for the development of energy from renewable resources.

  4. A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Turkey is an energy importing country; more than two-thirds of her energy requirement is supplied by imports. In this context, geothermal energy appears to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Since geothermal energy will be used more and more in the future, its current potential, usage, and assessment in Turkey is the focus of the present study. The paper not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the geothermal energy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  5. Estimating energy conservation potential in China's commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Wang, Ailun

    2015-01-01

    With low energy intensity and great potential for growth, the commercial sector has become one of the key sectors for energy conservation and emission reduction in the context of China's rapid urbanization process. Based on the EIA (Energy Information Administration) statistical methods, this paper calculates the energy consumption of China's commercial sector from 1981 to 2012, specifies the determinants of commercial energy demand, forecasts future energy consumption and estimates the energy conservation potentials using the Johansen co-integration methodology. The results indicate: (i) GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and urbanization have positive effects on the energy consumption of the commercial sector while labor productivity and energy price contribute to reduction in the sector's energy consumption. (ii) Under the basic scenario, energy consumption of the commercial sector will be 317.34 and 469.84 Mtce (million tons of coal equivalent) in 2015 and 2020 respectively. (iii) Under the moderate and advanced scenario, about 187.00 and 531.45 Mtce respectively of the energy consumption of the commercial sector can be conserved from 2013 to 2020. The findings have important implications for policy-makers to enact energy-saving policies. - Highlights: • Calculation of China's commercial energy consumption and saving potential. • Co-integration model is applied to estimate commercial energy efficiency. • Decomposition of driving forces of energy consumption. • Future policies for commercial energy efficiency are discussed

  6. Higher-order semiclassical energy expansions for potentials with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    we obtain an explicit asymptotic energy expansion of symmetric odd power potentials x 2 j·1 (j- positive integer). We then show how to develop approximate semiclassical expansions for potentials x α when α is any positive real number. Keywords. Eigenenergies; asymptotic; WKB; polynomial potentials. PACS Nos 03.65.

  7. San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential" explains how the City of San Jose used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  8. Balmorel open source energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Frauke; Bramstoft, Rasmus; Koduvere, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    As the world progresses towards a cleaner energy future with more variable renewable energy sources, energy system models are required to deal with new challenges. This article describes design, development and applications of the open source energy system model Balmorel, which is a result of a l...... transport of local biomass as part of the optimisation and speeding up the model....

  9. Energy conservation potential in China’s petroleum refining industry: Evidence and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Xie, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A long-term equilibrium relationship of energy demand in China’s petroleum refining industry is established. • The sectoral energy conservation potential is evaluated by using scenarios analysis. • Energy prices, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure affect electricity intensity. • Future policy for energy conservation in China’s petroleum refining industry is suggested. - Abstract: China is currently the second largest petroleum refining country in the world due to rapid growth in recent years. Because the petroleum refining industry is energy-intensive, the rapid growth in petroleum refining and development caused massive energy consumption. China’s urbanization process will guarantee sustained growth of the industry for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to study the energy conservation potential of the petroleum industry. This paper estimates the energy conservation potential of the industry by applying a cointegration model to investigate the long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption and some factors such as energy price, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure. The results show that R and D investment has the greatest reduction impact on energy intensity, and the growth of market participants (i.e. the decline of the share of state-owned companies) can improve energy efficiency of this industry. Under the advanced energy-saving scenario, the accumulated energy conservation potential will reach 230.18 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Finally, we provide some targeted policy recommendations for industrial energy conservation

  10. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  11. Geothermal energy in Italy - its importance, potential and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the perspectives for the use of geothermal energy in Italy. Starting with an overview of the principles of the use of geothermal energy in general, the article goes on to review Italy's geothermal resources and their relevance to energy supply. Figures are given on the political situation in Italy concerning energy and the rapidly increasing demands made on electricity supply. Political support for renewable energy in Italy is looked at and models for financing projects are examined. Examples of geothermal energy projects are given and the perspectives for further developments in this industry are looked at

  12. Intermolecular potential energy surface for CS2 dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhpour, Hossein; Mombeini, Zainab; Namazian, Mansoor; Coote, Michelle L

    2011-04-15

    A new four-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface for CS(2) dimer is obtained by ab initio calculation of the interaction energies for a range of configurations and center-of-mass separation distances for the first time. The calculations were performed using the supermolecular approach at the Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MP2) level of theory with the augmented correlation consistent basis sets (aug-cc-pVxZ, x = D, T) and corrected for the basis-set superposition error using the full counterpoise correction method. A two-point extrapolation method was used to extrapolate the calculated energy points to the complete basis set limit. The effect of using the higher levels of theory, quadratic configuration interaction containing single, double, and perturbative triple excitations QCISD(T) and coupled cluster singles, doubles and perturbative triples excitations CCSD(T), on the shape of potential energy surface was investigated. It is shown that the MP2 level of theory apparently performs extremely poorly for describing the intermolecular potential energy surface, overestimating the total energy by a factor of nearly 1.73 in comparison with the QCISD(T) and CCSD(T) values. The value of isotropic dipole-dipole dispersion coefficient (C(6) ) of CS(2) fluid was obtained from the extrapolated MP2 potential energy surface. The MP2 extrapolated energy points were fitted to well-known analytical potential functions using two different methods to represent the potential energy surface analytically. The most stable configuration of the dimer was determined at R = 6.23 au, α = 90°, β = 90°, and γ = 90°, with a well depth of 3.980 kcal mol(-1) at the MP2 level of theory. Finally, the calculated second virial coefficients were compared with experimental values to test the quality of the presented potential energy surface. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Inflation with hyperbolic potential in the braneworld model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study inflationary dynamics with a scalar field in an inverse coshyperbolic potential in the braneworld model. We note that a sufficient inflation may be obtained with the potential considering slow-roll approximation in the high energy limit. We determine the minimum values of the initial inflaton field required ...

  14. A comprehensive framework to quantify energy savings potential from improved operations of commercial building stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Elie; Menassa, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    While studies highlight the significant impact of actions performed by occupants and facility managers on building energy performance, current policies ignore the importance of human actions and the potential energy savings from a more efficient operation of building systems. This is mainly attributed to the lack of methods that evaluate non-technological drivers of energy use for large stocks of commercial buildings to support policy making efforts. Therefore, this study proposes a scientific approach to quantifying the energy savings potential due to improved operations of any stock of commercial buildings. The proposed framework combines energy modeling techniques, studies on human actions in buildings, and surveying and sampling methods. The contributions of this study to energy policy are significant as they reinforce the role of human actions in energy conservation, and support efforts to integrate operation-focused solutions in energy conservation policy frameworks. The framework's capabilities are illustrated in a case study performed on the stock of office buildings in the United States (US). Results indicate a potential 21 percent reduction in the current energy use levels of these buildings through realistic changes in current building operation patterns. - Highlights: • Human actions highly influence energy performance of commercial building stocks. • It is challenging to quantify operation-related energy savings potential. • The proposed framework quantifies potential energy savings from improved operations. • The framework can be applied on any stock of commercial buildings. • Applications include support for operation-focused solutions in energy policies

  15. Potential of Tidal Plants and Offshore Energy Storage in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2008-01-01

    After a discussion of the future needs of electric power in India, the author discusses the perspectives offered by different possible sources of electric energy in this country: coal, hydro, nuclear, wind, solar. These two last ones seem very promising. In order to solve the intermittency problem raised by wind and solar energy, the author discusses and assesses the needs, potentials and costs of energy storage. Then, he evokes the opportunities and possible sites for the development of tidal energy, proposes a schedule of investments for energy

  16. Potential contribution of biomass to the sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, M. Fatih; Balat, Mustafa; Balat, Havva

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy source and its importance will increase as national energy policy and strategy focuses more heavily on renewable sources and conservation. Biomass is considered the renewable energy source with the highest potential to contribute to the energy needs of modern society for both the industrialized and developing countries worldwide. The most important biomass energy sources are wood and wood wastes, agricultural crops and their waste byproducts, municipal solid waste, animal wastes, waste from food processing, and aquatic plants and algae. Biomass is one potential source of renewable energy and the conversion of plant material into a suitable form of energy, usually electricity or as a fuel for an internal combustion engine, can be achieved using a number of different routes, each with specific pros and cons. Currently, much research has been focused on sustainable and environmental friendly energy from biomass to replace conventional fossil fuels. The main objective of the present study is to investigate global potential and use of biomass energy and its contribution to the sustainable energy development by presenting its historical development.

  17. Renewable energy development strategy and market potential in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongpeng

    2000-01-01

    Renewable energy development in China is at a critical crossroads. With large increases in energy demand a certainty over the long term, development of large-scale renewable energy supply is strategically important for local, regional and global environmental sustainability. Chinese government has paid great attention to renewable energy development and formulated a series policy to promote renewable energy utilization. This paper will provide an overview of China's efforts to adopt and implement a more market-oriented renewable energy development strategy. Furthermore, along with its economic growth and sustainable development, China's development program for promising renewable energy technologies, and specific priority areas create opportunities for investment and cooperation. This paper will also explain the present situation of ongoing market penetration projects and analyse the market potential of renewable energy technologies in the future. (author)

  18. Modelling distributed energy resources in energy service networks

    CERN Document Server

    Acha, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on modelling two key infrastructures (natural gas and electrical) in urban energy systems with embedded technologies (cogeneration and electric vehicles) to optimise the operation of natural gas and electrical infrastructures under the presence of distributed energy resources

  19. Potential environmental effects of the leading edge hydrokinetic energy technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Volpe Center evaluated potential environmental challenges and benefits of the ARPA-E funded research project, Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Harvesting Using Cyber-Physical Systems, led by Brown University. The Leading Edge research team develo...

  20. Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

  1. Representing Global Reactive Potential Energy Surfaces Using Gaussian Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Brian; Marshall, Paul; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2017-04-06

    Representation of multidimensional global potential energy surfaces suitable for spectral and dynamical calculations from high-level ab initio calculations remains a challenge. Here, we present a detailed study on constructing potential energy surfaces using a machine learning method, namely, Gaussian process regression. Tests for the 3 A″ state of SH 2 , which facilitates the SH + H ↔ S( 3 P) + H 2 abstraction reaction and the SH + H' ↔ SH' + H exchange reaction, suggest that the Gaussian process is capable of providing a reasonable potential energy surface with a small number (∼1 × 10 2 ) of ab initio points, but it needs substantially more points (∼1 × 10 3 ) to converge reaction probabilities. The implications of these observations for construction of potential energy surfaces are discussed.

  2. Potential energy curves for neutral and multiply charged carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Potential energy curves of various electronic states of CO+ (0 ≤ ≤ 6) are generated at MRCI/CASSCF level using cc-pvQZ basis set and the results are compared with available experimental and theoretical data.

  3. Ab initio adiabatic and quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces of H ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    s12039-015-1022-8. Ab initio adiabatic and quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces of H. ++. CN system. BHARGAVA ANUSURI and SANJAY KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India.

  4. Ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for CS2: determination of molecular vibrational energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Ekadashi; Carreón-Macedo, José-Luis; Cuervo, Javier E; Schröder, Markus; Brown, Alex

    2013-08-15

    The ground state potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for CS2 have been determined at the CASPT2/C:cc-pVTZ,S:aug-cc-pV(T+d)Z level of theory. The potential energy surface has been fit to a sum-of-products form using the neural network method with exponential neurons. A generic interface between neural network potential energy surface fitting and the Heidelberg MCTDH software package is demonstrated. The potential energy surface has also been fit using the potfit procedure in MCTDH. For fits to the low-energy regions of the potential, the neural network method requires fewer parameters than potfit to achieve high accuracy; global fits are comparable between the two methods. Using these potential energy surfaces, the vibrational energies have been computed for the four most abundant CS2 isotopomers. These results are compared to experimental and previous theoretical data. The current potential energy surfaces are shown to accurately reproduce the low-lying vibrational energies within a few wavenumbers. Hence, the potential energy and dipole moments surfaces will be useful for future study on the control of quantum dynamics in CS2.

  5. Energy Generation Potential of West African Ocean Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the West African ocean current energy generating potential is carried out. The peculiarity of the West African ocean characteristic is discussed and the challenges noted. Based on this review, it is found that ocean current represents an alternative source of renewable energy in West Africa in a streamed regular ...

  6. 7Li breakup polarization potential at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubian, J. . E-mail lubian@if.uff.br; Correa, T.; Paes, B.; Figueira, J.M.; Abriola, D.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O.A.; de Barbara, E.; Marti, G.V.; Martinez Heinmann, D.; Negri, A.E.; Pacheco, A.J.; Padron, I.; Gomes, P.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Inelastic and one neutron transfer cross sections at energies around the Coulomb barrier were used to derive dynamic polarization potential (DPP) for the 7 Li + 27 Al system. The DPP due to breakup, obtained in a simple way, indicates that its real part is repulsive at near barrier energies

  7. Li breakup polarization potential at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubian, F. J.; Correa, T.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Paes, B; Figueira, J. M.; Abriola, D.; Fernandez, J. O.; Capurro, O. A.; Marti, G.V.; Martinez, D.; Heimann; Negri, A.; Pacheco, A. J.; Padron, I.

    2007-01-01

    Inelastic and one neutron transfer cross sections at energies around the Coulomb barrier were used to derive dynamic polarization potential (DPP) for the 7 Li + 27 Al system. The DPP due to breakup, obtained in a simple way, indicates that its real part is repulsive at nearbarrier energies. (Author)

  8. Energy use reduction potential of passenger transport in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, ME; Moll, HC

    2000-01-01

    To contribute to a sustainable society, considerable reduction in energy use and CO2 emissions should be achieved. This paper presents the results of calculations exploring the energy use reduction potential of passenger transport for Western Europe (OECD Europe minus Turkey). For these

  9. Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

    2013-02-01

    This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

  10. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy.......This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  11. Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than$100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)

  12. Metallic bionanocatalysts: potential applications as green catalysts and energy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskie, Lynne E; Mikheenko, Iryna P; Omajai, Jacob B; Stephen, Alan J; Wood, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Microbially generated or supported nanocatalysts have potential applications in green chemistry and environmental application. However, precious (and base) metals biorefined from wastes may be useful for making cheap, low-grade catalysts for clean energy production. The concept of bionanomaterials for energy applications is reviewed with respect to potential fuel cell applications, bio-catalytic upgrading of oils and manufacturing 'drop-in fuel' precursors. Cheap, effective biomaterials would facilitate progress towards dual development goals of sustainable consumption and production patterns and help to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Potential reduction of energy consumption in public university library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noranai, Z.; Azman, ADF

    2017-09-01

    Efficient electrical energy usage has been recognized as one of the important factor to reduce cost of electrical energy consumption. Various parties have been emphasized about the importance of using electrical energy efficiently. Inefficient usage of electrical energy usage lead to biggest factor increasing of administration cost in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. With this in view, a project the investigate potential reduction electrical energy consumption in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia was carried out. In this project, a case study involving electrical energy consumption of Perpustakaan Tunku Tun Aminah was conducted. The scopes of this project are to identify energy consumption in selected building and to find the factors that contributing to wastage of electrical energy. The MS1525:2001, Malaysian Standard - Code of practice on energy efficiency and use of renewable energy for non-residential buildings was used as reference. From the result, 4 saving measure had been proposed which is change type of the lamp, install sensor, decrease the number of lamp and improve shading coefficient on glass. This saving measure is suggested to improve the efficiency of electrical energy consumption. Improve of human behaviour toward saving energy measure can reduce 10% from the total of saving cost while on building technical measure can reduce 90% from total saving cost.

  14. Energy Blocks — A Physical Model for Teaching Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Most physics educators would agree that energy is a very useful, albeit abstract topic. It is therefore important to use various methods to help the student internalize the concept of energy itself and its related ideas. These methods include using representations such as energy bar graphs, energy pie charts, or energy tracking diagrams. Activities and analogies like Energy Theater and Richard Feynman's blocks, as well as the popular money (or wealth) analogy, can also be very effective. The goal of this paper is to describe a physical model of Feynman's blocks that can be employed by instructors to help students learn the following energy-related concepts: 1. The factors affecting each individual mechanical energy storage mode (this refers to what has been traditionally called a form of energy, and while the Modeling Method of instruction is not the focus of this paper, much of the energy related language used is specific to the Modeling Method). For example, how mass or height affects gravitational energy; 2. Energy conservation; and 3. The graphical relationships between the energy storage mode and a factor affecting it. For example, the graphical relationship between elastic energy and the change in length of a spring.

  15. Investigating Energy-Saving Potentials in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

  16. Investigating energy-saving potentials in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-02-20

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit.

  17. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - CFD modelling evaluation - Summary of WindSim CFD modelling procedure and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Cattin, R. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The report describes the development of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. The report deals with the use of computational fluid dynamics and wind simulation modelling techniques and their validation. Recommendations on the use of the results are made.

  18. Study of the potential of wave energy in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wan Ching; Chan, Keng Wai; Ooi, Heivin

    2017-07-01

    Renewable energy is generally defined as energy harnessed from resources which are naturally replenished. It is an alternative to the current conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal, which are nonrenewable. Besides being nonrenewable, the harnessing of these resources generally produce by-products which could be potentially harmful to the environment. On the contrary, the generation from renewable energy does not pose environmental degradation. Some examples of renewable energy sources are sunlight, wind, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Wave energy is considered as one of the most promising marine renewable resources and is becoming commercially viable quicker than other renewable technologies at an astonishing growth rate. This paper illustrates the working principle of wave energy converter (WEC) and the availability of wave energy in Malaysia oceans. A good understanding of the behaviour of ocean waves is important for designing an efficient WEC as the characteristics of the waves in shallow and deep water are different. Consequently, wave energy converters are categorized into three categories on shore, near shore and offshore. Therefore, the objectives of this study is ought to be carried out by focusing on the formation of waves and wave characteristics in shallow as well as in deep water. The potential sites for implementation of wave energy harvesting technology in Malaysia and the wave energy available in the respective area were analysed. The potential of wave energy in Malaysia were tabulated and presented with theoretical data. The interaction between motion of waves and heave buoys for optimum phase condition by using the mass and diameter as the variables were investigated.

  19. Morphing ab initio potential energy curve of beryllium monohydride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špirko, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 330, Dec (2016), s. 89-95 ISSN 0022-2852 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : beryllium monohydride * potential energy function * reduced potential * homotopic morphing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.618, year: 2016

  20. Analytical potential energy function for the Br + H2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru

    2001-01-01

    Analytical functions with a many-body expansion for the ground and first-excited-state potential energy surfaces for the Br+H 2 system are newly presented in this work. These functions describe the abstraction and exchange reactions qualitatively well, although it has been found that the function for the ground-state potential surface is still quantitatively unsatisfactory. (author)

  1. Potential geothermal energy applications for Idaho Elks Rehabilitation Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    Several potential applications of geothermal energy for the Idaho Elks Rehabilitation Hospital are outlined. A brief background on the resource and distribution system, is provided; which hospital heating systems should be considered for potential geothermal retrofit is discussed; and technical and economic feasibility are addressed.

  2. An extension of the Marcus equation: the Marcus potential energy function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Oliva, Soledad; Herrera, Bárbara; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2018-03-24

    An analytic potential function consistent with the Marcus equation for activation energy is formulated and used to reveal new insights into the activation process in chemical reactions. As for the Marcus equation, the new potential function depends only on two parameters, the reaction energy and the activation energy (or the so-called Marcus intrinsic activation energy). Combination of the Marcus potential with the reaction force analysis provides two-parameter analytic expressions for the reaction force, reaction force constant, and reaction works. Moreover, since the parameters necessary to define the Marcus potential energy function can be obtained experimentally, the present model may produce experimental analytic potentials allowing for new and interesting applications, thus emerging as a powerful tool to characterize activation processes in chemical reactions.

  3. Systems Engineering Model for ART Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Mollye C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The near-term objective of the EC team is to establish an operating, commercially scalable Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) to be constructed for the NE - STEP demonstration system (demo) with the lowest risk possible. A systems engineering approach is recommended to ensure adequate requirements gathering, documentation, and mode ling that supports technology development relevant to advanced reactors while supporting crosscut interests in potential applications. A holistic systems engineering model was designed for the ART Energy Conversion program by leveraging Concurrent Engineering, Balance Model, Simplified V Model, and Project Management principles. The resulting model supports the identification and validation of lifecycle Brayton systems requirements, and allows designers to detail system-specific components relevant to the current stage in the lifecycle, while maintaining a holistic view of all system elements.

  4. Calculation of molecular free energies in classical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, Asaf; Singh, Bipin

    2016-01-01

    Free energies of molecules can be calculated by quantum chemistry computations or by normal mode classical calculations. However, the first can be computationally impractical for large molecules and the second is based on the assumption of harmonic dynamics. We present a novel, accurate and complete calculation of molecular free energies in standard classical potentials. In this method we transform the molecule by relaxing potential terms which depend on the coordinates of a group of atoms in that molecule and calculate the free energy difference associated with the transformation. Then, since the transformed molecule can be treated as non-interacting systems, the free energy associated with these atoms is analytically or numerically calculated. This two-step calculation can be applied to calculate free energies of molecules or free energy difference between (possibly large) molecules in a general environment. We demonstrate the method in free energy calculations for methanethiol and butane molecules in vacuum and solvent. We suggest the potential application of free energy calculation of chemical reactions in classical molecular simulations. (paper)

  5. Exploring the potential of wind energy for a coastal state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, C.-D.; Yang, M.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Adequate recognition of the wind energy potential of coastal states may have far-reaching effects on the development of the energy systems of these countries. This study evaluates wind energy resources in Taiwan with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS), which allows local potentials and restrictions such as climate conditions, land uses, and ecological environments to be considered. The findings unveiled in this study suggest a significant role for offshore wind energy resources, which may constitute between 94% and 98% of overall wind resources in Taiwan. Total power yield from wind energy could reach between 150 and 165 TWh, which would have, respectively, accounted for between 62% and 68% of Taiwan's total power generation of 243 TWh in 2007. Based on the Taiwan's current emission factor of electricity, wind energy has the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions by between 94 and 102 million ton per year in Taiwan, which is, respectively, equivalent to 28% and 31% of the national net equivalent CO 2 emissions released in 2002. However, the challenge of managing the variability of wind power has to be addressed before the considerable contribution of wind energy to domestic energy supply and CO 2 reduction can be realized.

  6. Rogeaulito: A World Energy Scenario Modeling Tool for Transparent Energy System Thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benichou, Léo; Mayr, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic, and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  7. Modeling energy flexibility of low energy buildings utilizing thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    to match the production patterns, shifting demand from on-peak hours to off-peak hours. Buildings could act as flexibility suppliers to the energy system, through load shifting potential, provided that the large thermal mass of the building stock could be utilized for energy storage. In the present study......In the future energy system a considerable increase in the penetration of renewable energy is expected, challenging the stability of the system, as both production and consumption will have fluctuating patterns. Hence, the concept of energy flexibility will be necessary in order for the consumption...... the load shifting potential of an apartment of a low energy building in Copenhagen is assessed, utilizing the heat storage capacity of the thermal mass when the heating system is switched off for relieving the energy system. It is shown that when using a 4-hour preheating period before switching off...

  8. Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Michael

    2010-09-15

    This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

  9. Modelling the impact of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy taxation in Sweden is complicated and strongly guides and governs district energy production. Consequently, there is a need for methods for accurate calculation and analysis of effects that different energy tax schemes may have on district energy utilities. Here, a practicable method to analyse influence of such governmental policy measures is demonstrated. The Swedish Government has for some years now been working on a reform of energy taxation, and during this process, several interest groups have expressed their own proposals for improving and developing the system of energy taxation. Together with the present system of taxation, four new alternatives, including the proposed directive of the European Commission, are outlined in the paper. In a case study, an analysis is made of how the different tax alternatives may influence the choice of profitable investments and use of energy carriers in a medium-sized district-heating utility. The calculations are made with a linear-programming model framework. By calculating suitable types and sizes of new investments, if any, and the operation of existing and potential plants, total energy costs are minimized. Results of the analysis include the most profitable investments, which fuel should be used, roughly when during a year plants should be in operation, and at what output. In most scenarios, the most profitable measure is to invest in a waste incineration plant. However, a crucial assumption is, with reference to the new Swedish waste disposal act, a significant income from incinerating refuse. Without this income, different tax schemes result in different technical solutions being most profitable. An investment in cogeneration seems possible in only one scenario. It is also found that particular features of some alternatives seem to oppose both main governmental policy goals, and intentions of the district heating company. (Author)

  10. Regional energy autarky: Potentials, costs and consequences for an Austrian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; Schönhart, M.; Biberacher, M.; Guggenberger, T.; Hausl, S.; Kalt, G.; Leduc, S.; Schardinger, I.; Schmid, E.

    2012-01-01

    Local actors at community level often thrive for energy autarky to decrease the dependence on imported energy resources. We assess the potentials and trade-offs between benefits and costs of increasing levels of energy autarky for a small rural region of around 21,000 inhabitants in Austria. We use a novel modeling approach which couples a regional energy system model with a regional land use optimization model. We have collected and processed data on the spatial distribution of energy demand and potentials of biomass, photovoltaics and solar thermal resources. The impacts of increasing biomass production on the agricultural sector are assessed with a land-use optimization model that allows deriving regional biomass supply curves. An energy system model is subsequently applied to find the least cost solution for supplying the region with energy resources. Model results indicate that fossil fuel use for heating can be replaced at low costs by increasing forestry and agricultural biomass production. However, autarky in the electricity and the heating sector would significantly increase biomass production and require a full use of the potentials of photovoltaics on roof tops. Attaining energy autarky implies high costs to consumers and a decline in the local production of food and feed. - Highlights: ► Energy autarky strong vision for many regional actors. ► Assessment of consequences of energy autarky for a rural region in Austria. ► Novel modeling approach coupling energy system model with land use model. ► Power and heat autarky causes high costs and decline in regional food and feed production. ► Heat autarky achievable at lower costs by utilizing regional forestry and agricultural biomass.

  11. Consequences of Converting Graded to Action Potentials upon Neural Information Coding and Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Biswa; Laughlin, Simon Barry; Niven, Jeremy Edward

    2014-01-01

    Information is encoded in neural circuits using both graded and action potentials, converting between them within single neurons and successive processing layers. This conversion is accompanied by information loss and a drop in energy efficiency. We investigate the biophysical causes of this loss of information and efficiency by comparing spiking neuron models, containing stochastic voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels, with generator potential and graded potential models lacking voltage-gated Na+ channels. We identify three causes of information loss in the generator potential that are the by-product of action potential generation: (1) the voltage-gated Na+ channels necessary for action potential generation increase intrinsic noise and (2) introduce non-linearities, and (3) the finite duration of the action potential creates a ‘footprint’ in the generator potential that obscures incoming signals. These three processes reduce information rates by ∼50% in generator potentials, to ∼3 times that of spike trains. Both generator potentials and graded potentials consume almost an order of magnitude less energy per second than spike trains. Because of the lower information rates of generator potentials they are substantially less energy efficient than graded potentials. However, both are an order of magnitude more efficient than spike trains due to the higher energy costs and low information content of spikes, emphasizing that there is a two-fold cost of converting analogue to digital; information loss and cost inflation. PMID:24465197

  12. Consequences of converting graded to action potentials upon neural information coding and energy efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Sengupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information is encoded in neural circuits using both graded and action potentials, converting between them within single neurons and successive processing layers. This conversion is accompanied by information loss and a drop in energy efficiency. We investigate the biophysical causes of this loss of information and efficiency by comparing spiking neuron models, containing stochastic voltage-gated Na(+ and K(+ channels, with generator potential and graded potential models lacking voltage-gated Na(+ channels. We identify three causes of information loss in the generator potential that are the by-product of action potential generation: (1 the voltage-gated Na(+ channels necessary for action potential generation increase intrinsic noise and (2 introduce non-linearities, and (3 the finite duration of the action potential creates a 'footprint' in the generator potential that obscures incoming signals. These three processes reduce information rates by ∼50% in generator potentials, to ∼3 times that of spike trains. Both generator potentials and graded potentials consume almost an order of magnitude less energy per second than spike trains. Because of the lower information rates of generator potentials they are substantially less energy efficient than graded potentials. However, both are an order of magnitude more efficient than spike trains due to the higher energy costs and low information content of spikes, emphasizing that there is a two-fold cost of converting analogue to digital; information loss and cost inflation.

  13. Economic modelling of energy services: Rectifying misspecified energy demand functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Lester C.; Ryan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well known that energy demand is derived, since energy is required not for its own sake but for the energy services it produces – such as heating, lighting, and motive power – energy demand models, both theoretical and empirical, often fail to take account of this feature. In this paper, we highlight the misspecification that results from ignoring this aspect, and its empirical implications – biased estimates of price elasticities and other measures – and provide a relatively simple and empirically practicable way to rectify it, which has a strong theoretical grounding. To do so, we develop an explicit model of consumer behaviour in which utility derives from consumption of energy services rather than from the energy sources that are used to produce them. As we discuss, this approach opens up the possibility of examining many aspects of energy demand in a theoretically sound way that have not previously been considered on a widespread basis, although some existing empirical work could be interpreted as being consistent with this type of specification. While this formulation yields demand equations for energy services rather than for energy or particular energy sources, these are shown to be readily converted, without added complexity, into the standard type of energy demand equation(s) that is (are) typically estimated. The additional terms that the resulting energy demand equations include, compared to those that are typically estimated, highlight the misspecification that is implicit when typical energy demand equations are estimated. A simple solution for dealing with an apparent drawback of this formulation for empirical purposes, namely that information is required on typically unobserved energy efficiency, indicates how energy efficiency can be captured in the model, such as by including exogenous trends and/or including its possible dependence on past energy prices. The approach is illustrated using an empirical example that involves

  14. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological...... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  15. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  16. Warm Body Temperature Facilitates Energy Efficient Cortical Action Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na+, and outward K+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37–42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code. PMID:22511855

  17. Split kinetic energy method for quantum systems with competing potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, H.; Chao, Sheng D.

    2012-01-01

    For quantum systems with competing potentials, the conventional perturbation theory often yields an asymptotic series and the subsequent numerical outcome becomes uncertain. To tackle such a kind of problems, we develop a general solution scheme based on a new energy dissection idea. Instead of dividing the potential energy into “unperturbed” and “perturbed” terms, a partition of the kinetic energy is performed. By distributing the kinetic energy term in part into each individual potential, the Hamiltonian can be expressed as the sum of the subsystem Hamiltonians with respective competing potentials. The total wavefunction is expanded by using a linear combination of the basis sets of respective subsystem Hamiltonians. We first illustrate the solution procedure using a simple system consisting of a particle under the action of double δ-function potentials. Next, this method is applied to the prototype systems of a charged harmonic oscillator in strong magnetic field and the hydrogen molecule ion. Compared with the usual perturbation approach, this new scheme converges much faster to the exact solutions for both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. When properly extended, this new solution scheme can be very useful for dealing with strongly coupling quantum systems. - Highlights: ► A new basis set expansion method is proposed. ► Split kinetic energy method is proposed to solve quantum eigenvalue problems. ► Significant improvement has been obtained in converging to exact results. ► Extension of such methods is promising and discussed.

  18. Modelling renewable energy economy in Ghana with autometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackah, Ishmael; Asomani, Mcomari [Africa Centre for Energy Policy, Accra (Ghana); Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2015-04-15

    Renewable energy consumption has been identified as a potential solution to the intermittent power supply in Ghana. Recently, a Renewable Energy Act has been passed which has a target of 10% of renewable energy component in Ghana's energy mix by 2020. Whilst effort is been made to enhance supply through feed in tariffs, education and tax reduction on renewable energy related equipment, there is the need to understand the drivers of renewable energy demand. In this study, the general unrestricted model through Autometrics is used to estimate the determinants of renewable energy demand in Ghana. The results indicate that both economic factors and non-economic affect the demand for renewable energy. In addition, the underlying energy demand trend exhibits energy using behaviour. The study recommends that economic factors such as consumer subsidies should be considered when promoting renewable energy demand.

  19. Modelling renewable energy economy in Ghana with autometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackah, Ishmael; Asomani, Mcomari

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy consumption has been identified as a potential solution to the intermittent power supply in Ghana. Recently, a Renewable Energy Act has been passed which has a target of 10% of renewable energy component in Ghana's energy mix by 2020. Whilst effort is been made to enhance supply through feed in tariffs, education and tax reduction on renewable energy related equipment, there is the need to understand the drivers of renewable energy demand. In this study, the general unrestricted model through Autometrics is used to estimate the determinants of renewable energy demand in Ghana. The results indicate that both economic factors and non-economic affect the demand for renewable energy. In addition, the underlying energy demand trend exhibits energy using behaviour. The study recommends that economic factors such as consumer subsidies should be considered when promoting renewable energy demand.

  20. One parameter model potential for noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, M.; Khwaja, F.A.; Razmi, M.S.K.

    1981-08-01

    A phenomenological one parameter model potential which includes s-d hybridization and core-core exchange contributions is proposed for noble metals. A number of interesting properties like liquid metal resistivities, band gaps, thermoelectric powers and ion-ion interaction potentials are calculated for Cu, Ag and Au. The results obtained are in better agreement with experiment than the ones predicted by the other model potentials in the literature. (author)

  1. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    1999-01-01

    The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devoted...... to what is termed lifestyle efficiency, including the cultural values and the ability of the economy to provide the services wanted. As explained, integrated resource planning with its optimizing the whole energy chain cannot be combined with sub-optimizing part of it, for instance the supply technology...... only. The need for including also the economic policy in the energy planning is illustrated with what is termed the efficiency pittfall. This points towards difficulties in imaging an integrated resource planning combined with a liberalized market. The three variable parameters, population, energy...

  2. An agent-based model for energy service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Marguerite; Varga, Liz; Allen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An agent-based model for household energy efficiency upgrades is considered. • Energy service companies provide an alternative to traditional utility providers. • Household self-financing is a limiting factor to widespread efficiency upgrading. • Longer term service contracts can lead to reduced household energy costs. • Future energy price increases enable service providers to retain their customer base. - Abstract: The residential housing sector is a major consumer of energy accounting for approximately one third of carbon emissions in the United Kingdom. Achieving a sustainable, low-carbon infrastructure necessitates a reduced and more efficient use of domestic energy supplies. Energy service companies offer an alternative to traditional providers, which supply a single utility product to satisfy the unconstrained demand of end users, and have been identified as a potentially important actor in sustainable future economies. An agent-based model is developed to examine the potential of energy service companies to contribute to the large scale upgrading of household energy efficiency, which would ultimately lead to a more sustainable and secure energy infrastructure. The migration of households towards energy service companies is described by an attractiveness array, through which potential customers can evaluate the future benefits, in terms of household energy costs, of changing provider. It is shown that self-financing is a limiting factor to the widespread upgrading of residential energy efficiency. Greater reductions in household energy costs could be achieved by committing to longer term contracts, allowing upgrade costs to be distributed over greater time intervals. A steadily increasing cost of future energy usage lends an element of stability to the market, with energy service companies displaying the ability to retain customers on contract expiration. The model highlights how a greater focus on the provision of energy services, as

  3. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z; Archer, Cristina L

    2012-09-25

    Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world's all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy.

  4. Growth rate in the dynamical dark energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsajanishvili, Olga; Arkhipova, Natalia A; Samushia, Lado; Kahniashvili, Tina

    Dark energy models with a slowly rolling cosmological scalar field provide a popular alternative to the standard, time-independent cosmological constant model. We study the simultaneous evolution of background expansion and growth in the scalar field model with the Ratra-Peebles self-interaction potential. We use recent measurements of the linear growth rate and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak positions to constrain the model parameter [Formula: see text] that describes the steepness of the scalar field potential.

  5. Potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campidoglio, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy. This would both reduce the supply shortage and the prices on the eligible market, increase competition on the contract-for-difference market, indicate a clear price to which regulated energy charges could be indexed, thus extending the auction benefits to the franchise market to avoid the reintroduction of cross-subsidies [it

  6. Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, W. B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - have been identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described. An awareness of probable shortages of strategic materials has been maintained in these suggested programs.

  7. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Conditioning Engineers BIM Building Information Model BLCC building life cycle costs BPA Building Performance Analysis CAD computer assisted...utilizes information on operations, geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generating Three-Dimensional (3D) Building Information Models ( BIM ...executed a demonstration of Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and conceptual energy

  8. Separable-potential model for the pion--nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    A separable potential which fits the low and intermediate π-N scattering is proposed which is more convenient for application than those separable models which use Regge parameterizations of the very high energy phase shifts. The form factors for this model are equal to zero for momenta q greater than 1 GeV/c, and are expected to provide more reasonable off-shell behavior than the form factors obtained from those models based on the Regge extrapolation

  9. Computing the biomass potentials for maize and two alternative energy crops, triticale and cup plant (Silphium perfoliatumL.), with the crop model BioSTAR in the region of Hannover (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauböck, Roland; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Kappas, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Lower Saxony (Germany) has the highest installed electric capacity from biogas in Germany. Most of this electricity is generated with maize. Reasons for this are the high yields and the economic incentive. In parts of Lower Saxony, an expansion of maize cultivation has led to ecological problems and a negative image of bioenergy as such. Winter triticale and cup plant have both shown their suitability as alternative energy crops for biogas production and could help to reduce maize cultivation. The model Biomass Simulation Tool for Agricultural Resources (BioSTAR) has been validated with observed yield data from the region of Hannover for the cultures maize and winter wheat. Predicted yields for the cultures show satisfactory error values of 9.36% (maize) and 11.5% (winter wheat). Correlations with observed data are significant ( P  alternative to maize in the region of Hanover and other places in Lower Saxony. The model BioSTAR simulated yields for maize and winter wheat in the region of Hannover at a good overall level of accuracy (combined error 10.4%). Due to input data aggregation, individual years show high errors though (up to 30%). Nevertheless, the BioSTAR crop model has proven to be a functioning tool for the prediction of agricultural biomass potentials under varying environmental and crop management frame conditions.

  10. Mapping Thermal Energy Resource Potentials from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neugebauer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater heat recovery via heat exchangers and heat pumps constitutes an environmentally friendly, approved and economically competitive, but often underestimated technology. By introducing the spatial dimension in feasibility studies, the results of calculations change considerably. This paper presents a methodology to estimate thermal energy resource potentials of wastewater treatment plants taking spatial contexts into account. In close proximity to settlement areas, wastewater energy can ideally be applied for heating in mixed-function areas, which very likely have a continuous heat demand and allow for an increased amount of full-load hours compared to most single-use areas. For the Austrian case, it is demonstrated that the proposed methodology leads to feasible results and that the suggested technology might reduce up to 17% of the Austrian global warming potential of room heating. The method is transferrable to other countries as the input data and calculation formula are made available. A broad application of wastewater energy with regard to spatial structures and spatial development potentials can lead to (1 increasing energy efficiency by using a maximum of waste heat and (2 a significant reduction of (fossil energy consumption which results in a considerable reduction of the global warming potential of the heat supply (GWP if electricity from renewables is used for the operation of heat pumps.

  11. Map of decentralised energy potential based on renewable energy sources in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D. R.; Ban, M.; Duic, N.; Bogdan, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Although the Republic of Croatia is almost completely electrified there are still regions where electricity network is not in place or network capacity is insufficient. These regions usually include areas of special state care (underdeveloped, war-affected or depopulated areas), islands, and mountainous areas. However, they often have good renewable energy potential. Decentralised energy generation based on renewable energy sources (wind power, hydropower, solar energy, biomass) has potential to ensure energy supply to users in remote and often isolated rural areas (off-grid applications). Such applications will primarily be related to tourism business in mountainous, rural and island/coastal regions. Also, agriculture, wood-processing and food-processing industries will potentially be interested in application of decentralised energy generation systems, most likely those using biomass as fuel (for example cogeneration facilities, connected on-grid).(author)

  12. Renewable, ethical? Assessing the energy justice potential of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Banerjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy justice is increasingly being used as a framework to conceptualize the impacts of energy decision making in more holistic ways and to consider the social implications in terms of existing ethical values. Similarly, renewable energy technologies are increasingly being promoted for their environmental and social benefits. However, little work has been done to systematically examine the extent to which, in what ways and in what contexts, renewable energy technologies can contribute to achieving energy justice. This paper assesses the potential of renewable electricity technologies to address energy justice in various global contexts via a systematic review of existing studies analyzed in terms of the principles and dimensions of energy justice. Based on publications including peer reviewed academic literature, books, and in some cases reports by government or international organizations, we assess renewable electricity technologies in both grid integrated and off-grid use contexts. We conduct our investigation through the rubric of the affirmative and prohibitive principles of energy justice and in terms of its temporal, geographic, socio-political, economic, and technological dimensions. Renewable electricity technology development has and continue to have different impacts in different social contexts, and by considering the different impacts explicitly across global contexts, including differences between rural and urban contexts, this paper contributes to identifying and understanding how, in what ways, and in what particular conditions and circumstances renewable electricity technologies may correspond with or work to promote energy justice.

  13. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Malcangi, Antonio; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Designers, in response to codes or voluntary " green building " programs, are increasingly concerned with building energy demand reduction, but they are not fully aware of the energy saving potential of architectural design. According to literature, building form, construction and material choices...... million different buildings constitute the optimization search space, and the most energy efficient design solutions were explored for 8 different climate zones. The building designs are varied by shape, orientation, window to wall ratio, component and construction types, materials, and different occupant...... results from building energy simulations made with limited computational resources available at the time. The research presented in this paper uses a genetic algorithms based approach for the optimization of heating, cooling and lighting energy demands of different building designs. In total, over 25...

  14. Predicting the potential of energy from agricultural wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifah Bahar; Ahmad Mahir Razali; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the prediction of the potential of energy supply from agricultural wastes in Malaysia until the year 2005. The exponential smoothing method is used to predict the supply of energy from these resources. The prediction is based on four scenarios namely (a) business as usual, (b) increase in the plantation area by 1 % (c) increase in productivity by 1 % with no increase in plantation area and (d) decrease in plantation area of 1%. The agricultural wastes considered are from rubber, oil palm ,cocoa, paddy, coconut and pineapple resources. In Peninsular Malaysia, these resources include groundnut, sugar cane, and tapioca. Assuming an energy conversion of 30%, only three agricultural wastes can contribute as an energy supply i.e. oil palm, paddy and sugar cane wastes. The contribution of these resources to the demand of energy for Malaysia is 21% in the year 2000 and 17% in the year 2005. (Author)

  15. Biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Sekoai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production has captured increasing global attention due to it social, economic and environmental benefits. Over the past few years, energy demands have been growing significantly in South Africa due to rapid economic and population growth. The South African parastatal power supplier i.e. Electricity Supply Commission (ESKOM has been unable to meet the country’s escalating energy needs. As a result, there have been widespread and persistent power cuts throughout the country. This prompts an urgent need for exploration and implementation of clean and sustainable energy fuels like biohydrogen production in order to address this crisis. Therefore, this paper discusses the current global energy challenges in relation to South Africa’s problems. It then examines the feasibility of using biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa. Finally, it reviews the hydrogen-infrastructure development plans in the country.

  16. On the potential energy landscape of supercooled liquids and glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodney, D.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The activation-relaxation technique (ART), a saddle-point search method, is applied to determine the potential energy landscape around supercooled and glassy configurations of a three-dimensional binary Lennard-Jones system. We show a strong relation between the distribution of activation energies...... of transitions undergone by the same supercooled liquid during a time trajectory simulated by molecular dynamics. We find that ART is biased towards more heterogeneous transitions with higher activation energies and more broken bonds than the MD simulation....

  17. Heavy quark free energies, potentials and the renormalized Polyakov loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarek, O.; Karsch, F.; Petreczky, P.; Zantow, F.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the renormalized free energy of a heavy quark anti-quark pair in the color singlet channel for quenched and full QCD at finite temperature. The temperature and mass dependence, as well as its short distance behavior is analyzed. Using the free energies we calculate the heavy quark potential and entropy in quenched QCD The asymptotic large distance behavior of the free energy is used to define the non-perturbatively renormalized Polyakov loop which is well behaved in the continuum limit. String breaking is studied in the color singlet channel in 2-flavor QCD

  18. Capabilities and accuracy of energy modelling software

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy modelling can be used in a number of different ways to fulfill different needs, including certification within building regulations or green building rating tools. Energy modelling can also be used in order to try and predict what the energy...

  19. Novel Thiazole Derivatives of Medicinal Potential: Synthesis and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour E. A. Abdel-Sattar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the synthesis of new thiazole derivatives that could be profitably exploited in medical treatment of tumors. Molecular electronic structures have been modeled within density function theory (DFT framework. Reactivity indices obtained from the frontier orbital energies as well as electrostatic potential energy maps are discussed and correlated with the molecular structure. X-ray crystallographic data of one of the new compounds is measured and used to support and verify the theoretical results.

  20. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  1. Impact of Weather and Occupancy on Energy Flexibility Potential of a Low-energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zilio, Emanuele; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Gianniou, Panagiota

    The introduction of renewable energy sources in the energy market leads to instability of the energy system itself; therefore, new solutions to increase its flexibility will become more common in the coming years. In this context the implementation of energy flexibility in buildings is evaluated...... solar radiation and the outdoor temperature appeared to have the larger impact on the thermal flexibility of the building. Specifically, the energy flexibility potential of the examined apartment can ensure its thermal autonomy up to 200 h in a typical sunny winter day......., using heat storage in the building mass. This study focuses on the influence of weather conditions and internal gains on the energy flexibility potential of a nearly-zero-energy building in Denmark. A specific six hours heating program is used to reach the scope. The main findings showed that the direct...

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    At a global level, it is essential that the world transfers from fossil fuels to renewable energy resources to minimize the implications of climate change, which has been clearly demonstrated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a). At a national level, for most countries......, the transition to renewable energy will improve energy security of supply, create new jobs, enhance trade, and consequently grow the national economy. However, even with such promising consequences, renewable energy only provided approximately 13% of the world's energy in 2007 (International Energy Agency, 2009a......). Therefore, identifying how to utilize more renewable energy is one of the most pressing challenges facing many countries at present. Owing to the ever-growing complexity of modern energy systems, energy-system-analysis tools are often used to analyze the potential of renewable energy in future energy...

  3. Regional total-factor energy efficiency and electricity saving potential of manufacturing industry in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkara, Yücel; Atak, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Regional energy and environmental efficiency measurement is a noteworthy research topic regarding regional development. Data Envelopment Analysis is a suitable technique in the studies of energy and environmental efficiency. This study investigates the efficiency and total-factor energy efficiency scores of the manufacturing industry in 26 regions of Turkey between the years 2003 and 2012, using four data envelopment analysis models supported by a total-factor framework. The first and the second models are based on absence and presence of undesirable outputs, respectively; the third model and the proposed new model aims to maximize energy saving potential considering undesirable outputs. The empirical results show that TR10-Istanbul region is the best performer and acts as a model for inefficient regions with its production composition. Total electricity saving potential is investigated per each region and for the manufacturing industry per each year between years 2003–2012. It is observed that Turkish manufacturing industry has an average electricity saving potential of 39.7%, which reaches its highest in 2004 and lowest in 2012. Another important finding of this study is the existence of a U-shaped relationship between gross value added per capita as regional development indicator and efficiency as well as total-factor energy efficiency index. - Highlights: • Four DEA models are used to measure efficiency and total factor energy efficiency. • A new non-radial DEA model is proposed to maximize energy saving potential. • Considering undesirable output and fixing non-energy inputs give more realistic results. • Electricity saving potential of Turkish manufacturing industry is estimated as 39.7%. • U-shaped relationship is found between regional development and efficiency.

  4. The potential biomass for energy production in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, I.; van Hooijdonk, A.; van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.; Weger, J.; Havlickova, K.

    2006-01-01

    Biomass production is a promising alternative for the Czech Republic's (CZ) agricultural sector. Biomass could cover the domestic bio-energy demand of 250PJa -1 (predicted for 2030), and could be exported as bio-fuels to other EU countries. This study assesses the CZ's biomass production potential on a regional level and provides cost-supply curves for biomass from energy crops and agricultural and forestry residues. Agricultural productivity and the amount of land available for energy crop production are key variables in determining biomass potentials. Six scenarios for 2030 with different crop-yield levels, feed conversion efficiencies and land allocation procedures were built. The demand for food and fodder production was derived from FAO predictions for 2030. Biomass potential in the CZ is mainly determined by the development of food and fodder crop yields because the amount of land available for energy crop production increases with increasing productivity of food and fodder crops. In most scenarios the NUTS-3 regions CZ020, 31 and 32 provided the most land for energy-crop production and the highest biomass potentials. About 110PJa -1 , mostly from agricultural and forestry residues, can be provided from biomass when the present Czech agricultural productivity is maintained. About 195PJa -1 (105PJ from energy crops) can be provided when production systems are optimised with regard to fertilizer regimes and 365PJa -1 (290PJ from energy crops) when the yield level of Dutch agriculture is reached. Costs for woody biomass decrease with increasing plantation yield and range between 2.58 and 4.76 GJ -1 . It was concluded that Czech agriculture could provide enough biomass for domestic demand and for export if agricultural productivity is increased. (author)

  5. European Climate - Energy Security Nexus. A model based scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we have provided an overview of the climate-security nexus in the European sector through a model based scenario analysis with POLES model. The analysis underline that under stringent climate policies, Europe take advantage of a double dividend in its capacity to develop a new cleaner energy model and in lower vulnerability to potential shocks on the international energy markets. (authors)

  6. European Climate - Energy Security Nexus. A model based scenario analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana

    2011-01-15

    In this research, we have provided an overview of the climate-security nexus in the European sector through a model based scenario analysis with POLES model. The analysis underline that under stringent climate policies, Europe take advantage of a double dividend in its capacity to develop a new cleaner energy model and in lower vulnerability to potential shocks on the international energy markets. (authors)

  7. Morse potential, symmetric Morse potential and bracketed bound-state energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 14 (2016), s. 1650088 ISSN 0217-7323 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum bound states * special functions * Morse potential * symmetrized Morse potential * upper and lower energy estimates * computer-assisted symbolic manipulations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2016

  8. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration

  9. Complexification of three potential models – II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . [1–10]. Few years ago, Bender and others [1,2,4,9] have looked at several complex potentials with PT symmetry and have shown that the energy eigenvalues are real when PT symmetry is unbroken, whereas they come in complex conjugate ...

  10. Underwater Noise Modelling of Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Future large-scale implementation of wave energy converts (WECs) will introduce an anthropogenic activity in the ocean which may contribute to underwater noise. The Ocean houses several marine species with acoustic sensibility; consequently the potential impact of the underwater noise needs to be addressed. At present, there are no acoustic impact studies based on acquired data. The WEAM project (Wave Energy Acoustic Monitoring) aims at developing an underwater noise monitoring plan for WECs. The development of an acoustic monitoring plan must consider the sound propagation in the ocean, identify noise sources, understand the operational characteristics and select adequate instrumentation. Any monitoring strategy must involve in-situ measurements. However, the vast distances which sound travels within the ocean, can make in-situ measurements covering the entire area of interest, impracticable. This difficulty can be partially overcome through acoustic numerical modelling. This paper presents a synthetic study, on the application of acoustic forward modelling and the evaluation of the impact of noise produced by wave energy devices on marine mammals using criteria based on audiograms of dolphins, or other species. The idea is to illustrate the application of that methodology, and to show to what extent it allows for estimating distances of impacts due to acoustic noise.

  11. A renewable energy policy concept for the rural district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen - Assessment of potential and modelling calculations; Potentiale und Modellrechnungen zur Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien im Landkreis Schmalkalden-Meiningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krah, N. [Fachhochschule Schmalkalden (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau

    2001-06-01

    The publication is based on previous studies, facts, information, analyses and project results. Using this available reservoir of information, the author examines the potentials and demonstrates that the rural district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen meets all requirements and owns all means to put into place an energy policy that focuses on the use of renewable energy sources and the relevant technologies. The aspects examined are: increasing the energy efficiency; rational use of energy and development of environmentally sound energy supply; use of renewable energy sources; reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (orig./CB) [German] Die Veroeffentlichung baut auf fruehere Untersuchungen, Fakten, Daten, Erkenntnisse und Projekten auf. Unter Verwendung dieser Quellen wird ein Energiekonzept fuer den Landkreis Schmalkalden-Meiningen erarbeitet, das die Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien in den Vordergrund stellt und zeigt, dass der Landkreis alle Voraussetzungen besitzt, um die folgenden Potentiale nutzbar zu machen oder auszubauen: Energieeinsparmoeglichkeiten; rationelle, umweltfreundliche Energieversorgung; Anwendung erneuerbarer Energien; Reduzierung der Schadstoffemissionen. (orig./CB)

  12. Progress report on research project 'Coupled-channels optical model potentials for calculations with coupling built on soft-rotator model for nucleon induced reactions up to 200 MeV incident energies in A =24-120 mass region'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhovitski, E.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: During these nine months the Research Contract activity was developing according to the schedule as fixed in the Contract. Developing a global optical potential for even-even nuclides with A = 24-120 mass for coupled-channels optical model calculations based on coupling built on soft-rotator nuclear model Hamiltonian wave functions we already: 1. Determined Nuclear Hamiltonian parameters describing low-lying collective levels of even-even nuclides with A = 24-120 mass for all nuclides having experimental optical data available. 2. Formatted all the available optical experimental data for even-even nuclides with A = 24-120 mass into input of OPTMAN code for optical potential search option. Data still unavailable in the EXFOR database was submitted to the Nuclear Data Section for inclusion. 3. Derived a local OMP parameters for even-even A = 24-120 mass nuclides. 4. Release the OPTMAN code's user guide with the support of our Japanese collaborators. The User guide was published as JAERI technical report as cited below: E.Sh. Soukhovitskii, S. Chiba, O. Iwamoto, K. Shibata, T. Fukahori, G.B. Morogovskij (JAERI technical report 'Programs OPTMAN and SHEMMAN Version 8 (2004)', JAERI/Data-Code 2005-002, 2005). It is freely available on request from Japanese Nuclear Data Center. Global optical potential for even-even nuclides with A=24-120 mass, which is the main goal of the Contract's first year activity, will be derived based on individual optical potential parameters already determined. This research contract made possible very fruitful international scientific cooperation aimed to incorporate ideas on dispersive relationships between imaginary and real parts of optical potential developed earlier by Roberto Capote (IAEA/NDS) and Jose Manuel Quesada (Seville University) in the CC optical code OPTMAN. The real possibility to use a modified OPTMAN code for high priority practical applications arises. These activities are coordinated through RIPL CRP. We

  13. Potential of Using Solar Energy for Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, S. S.; Batista, J.; Ahmad, S.

    2016-12-01

    Where water is essential to energy generation, energy usage is integral to life cycle processes of water extraction, treatment, distribution and disposal. Increasing population, climate change and greenhouse gas production challenges the water industry for energy conservation of the various water-related operations as well as limiting the associated carbon emissions. One of the ways to accomplish this is by incorporating renewable energy into the water sector. Treatment of drinking water, an important part of water life cycle processes, is vital for the health of any community. This study explores the feasibility of using solar energy for a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) with the long-term goal of energy independence and sustainability. A 10 MGD groundwater DWTP in southwestern US was selected, using the treatment processes of coagulation, filtration and chlorination. Energy consumption in units of kWh/day and kWh/MG for each unit process was separately determined using industry accepted design criteria. Associated carbon emissions were evaluated in units of CO2 eq/MG. Based on the energy consumption and the existing real estate holdings, the DWTP was sized for distributed solar. Results showed that overall the motors used to operate the pumps including the groundwater intake pumps were the largest consumers of energy. Enough land was available around DWTP to deploy distributed solar. Results also showed that solar photovoltaics could potentially be used to meet the energy demands of the selected DWTP, but warrant the use of a large storage capacity, and thus increased costs. Carbon emissions related to solar based design were negligible compared to the original case. For future, this study can be used to analyze unit processes of other DWTP based on energy consumption, as well as for incorporating sustainability into the DWTP design.

  14. Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out...... by 11 university and industry partners has improved the basis for decision-making within energy planning and energy scenario making by providing new and improved tools and methods for energy systems analyses....

  15. Energy aspects and potential energy savings of the new DASI process for milk sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, B.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park); Stewart, L.E.; Chandarana, D.; Wolfson, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the difference in total processing energy required by the DASI ultra-high temperature (UHT) system and a conventional high temperature short time (HTST) fluid milk system. Data available in the literature were used to develop an energy use profile for the current US fluid milk system from processor to consumer. The energy data measured and the profile developed were used to estimate the potential energy savings resulting from the introduction of sterile milk in the US fluid milk market. Savings of energy resulting from the introduction of sterile milk were estimated to be 12 million barrels of oil annually.

  16. Polymer-enhanced energy harvesting from streaming potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Xie, Yanbo; de Vreede, Lennart; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Fujii, T.; Hibara, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Fukuba, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we present the experimental results of energy conversion from the streaming potential when a polymer, polyacrylic acid (PAA) with concentration from 200 ppm to 4000 ppm in background electrolyte KCl solution was used as the working fluid. The results show that when PAA was

  17. Potential for sustainable energy with biogas from sewage purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, J.; Van Gastel, M.; De Jong, K.

    2005-04-01

    Insight is given into the possibility to produce biogas from sewage purification plants in the Netherlands. Attention is paid to the estimated potential of sustainable energy from biogas, the economic effectiveness of several scenarios, the critical success factors and bottlenecks [nl

  18. Density-scaling exponents and virial potential-energy correlation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates the relation between the density-scaling exponent γ and the virial potential energy correlation coefficient R at several thermodynamic state points in three dimensions for the generalized (2n, n) Lennard-Jones (LJ) system for n = 4, 9, 12, 18, as well as for the standard n = 6 LJ system in two,three, and ...

  19. Oxathiiranes 8 On the OCS2 Singlet Potential Energy Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1982-01-01

    as the fragmentations of the possible intermediates 1–5 have been studied theoretically within the semiempirical cndo/B framework as conceivable ground-state reactions. On the basis of mo correlations and potential energy changes along the reaction paths, supplementary with previously reported experimental data...

  20. Assessing the potential for biomass energy development in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Tim O. Adams; Tony G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of the potential for developing a sustainable biomass energy industry in South Carolina was conducted. Biomass as defined by Forest Inventory and Analysis is the aboveground dry weight of wood in the bole and limbs of live trees ≥1-inch diameter at breast height, and excludes tree foliage, seedlings, and understory...

  1. Scattering at zero energy for attractive homogeneous potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We compute up to a compact term the zero-energy scattering matrix for a class of potentials asymptotically behaving as −γ|x|−μ with 0 < μ < 2 and γ > 0. It turns out to be the propagator for the wave equation on the sphere at time ....

  2. RUSTEC: Greening Europe's energy supply by developing Russia's renewable energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boute, Anatole; Willems, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The North-West of Russia is characterized by a large renewable energy resource base in geographic proximity to the EU. At the same time, EU Member States are bound by mandatory renewable energy targets which could prove to be costly to achieve in the current budgetary context and which often face strong local opposition. Directive 2009/28/EC on Renewable Energy makes it possible for Member States to achieve their targets by importing electricity produced from renewable energy sources from non-EU countries. So far, most attention has been on the Mediterranean Solar Plan or Desertec. An EU–Russia Renewable Energy Plan or RUSTEC – being based on onshore wind/biomass/hydro energy and on-land interconnection, rather than solar power and subsea lines – could present a cost-efficient and short-term complement to Desertec. This article examines the political, geopolitical, economic, social and legal challenges and opportunities of exporting “green” energy from Russia to the EU. It argues that EU–Russian cooperation in the renewable energy field would present a win-win situation: Member States could achieve their targets on the basis of Russia's renewable energy potential, while Russia could begin to develop a national renewable energy industry without risking potential price increases for domestic consumers—a concern of great political sensitivity in Russia. - Highlights: ► Russia has a huge renewable energy potential in geographic proximity to the EU. ► This potential could help the EU decarbonize its electricity supply at least cost.► EU–Russia green energy export is a win-win situation but lacks political attention.► RUSTEC could be a short-term and cost-efficient complement to Desertec. ► RUSTEC would diversify EU energy imports/Russian exports and stimulate innovation.

  3. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A

    2016-04-28

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.

  4. Review of Potential Characterization Techniques in Approaching Energy and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. LePoire

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Societal prosperity is linked to sustainable energy and a healthy environment. However, tough global challenges include increased demand for fossil fuels, while approaching peak oil production and uncertainty in the environmental impacts of energy generation. Recently, energy use was identified as a major component of economic productivity, along with capital and labor. Other environmental resources and impacts may be nearing environmental thresholds, as indicated by nine planetary environmental boundaries, many of which are linked to energy production and use. Foresight techniques could be applied to guide future actions which include emphasis on (1 energy efficiency to bridge the transition to a renewable energy economy; (2 continued research, development, and assessment of new technologies; (3 improved understanding of environment impacts including natural capital use and degradation; (4 exploration of GDP alternative measures that include both economic production and environmental impacts; and (5 international cooperation and awareness of longer-term opportunities and their associated potential scenarios. Examples from the U.S. and the international community illustrate challenges and potential.

  5. Recognising the potential for renewable energy heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyboth, Kristin; Beurskens, Luuk; Langniss, Ole; Sims, Ralph E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Heating and cooling in the industrial, commercial, and domestic sectors constitute around 40-50% of total global final energy demand. A wide range of renewable energy heating and cooling (REHC) technologies exists but they are presently only used to meet around 2-3% of total world demand (excluding from traditional biomass). Several of these technologies are mature, their markets are growing, and their costs relative to conventional heating and cooling systems continue to decline. However, in most countries, policies developed to encourage the wider deployment of renewable electricity generation, transport biofuels and energy efficiency have over-shadowed policies aimed at REHC technology deployment. This paper, based on the findings of the International Energy Agency publication Renewables for Heating and Cooling-Untapped Potential, outlines the present and future markets and compares the costs of providing heating and cooling services from solar, geothermal and biomass resources. It analyses current policies and experiences and makes recommendations to support enhanced market deployment of REHC technologies to provide greater energy supply security and climate change mitigation. If policies as successfully implemented by the leading countries were to be replicated elsewhere (possibly after modification to better suit local conditions), there would be good potential to significantly increase the share of renewable energy in providing heating and cooling services

  6. Energy storage: potential analysis is still on the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane; Dejeu, Mathieu; Deschaseaux, Christelle; De Santis, Audrey; Cygler, Clement; Petitot, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    A set of articles gives an overview of the status and current evolutions of the energy storage sector. The different technologies (flywheel, lithium-ion batteries, NaS or Zebra batteries, compressed air energy storage or CAES, 2. generation CAES, pump storage power plants or PSP) have different applications areas, and also different technological maturity levels. PSPs have probably the best potential nowadays, but investors must be supported. In an interview, a member of the CNRS evokes the main researches, the obstacles in the development of solar thermodynamic plants, technology transfers, and the potential of hydrogen for massive energy storage. An article outlines the need to develop the battery market. Several technological examples and experiments are then presented: Nice Grid (storage at the source level), FlyProd (energy storage by flywheel). An article then addresses the issue of heat storage, notably in a situation of energy co-generation. Researches and prototype development are then presented, the objective of which is to obtain an adiabatic CAES. The last articles address the development of hydrogen to store energy (technologies) and a first technological demonstrator

  7. A parabolic model for dimple potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Melike Cibik; Uncu, Haydar; Deniz, Coskun

    2013-01-01

    We study the truncated parabolic function and demonstrate that it is a representation of the Dirac δ function. We also show that the truncated parabolic function, used as a potential in the Schrödinger equation, has the same bound state spectrum, tunneling and reflection amplitudes as the Dirac δ potential, as the width of the parabola approximates to zero. Dirac δ potential is used to model dimple potentials which are utilized to increase the phase-space density of a Bose–Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap. We show that a harmonic trap with a δ function at the origin is a limiting case of the harmonic trap with a symmetric truncated parabolic potential around the origin. Hence, the truncated parabolic is a better candidate for modeling the dimple potentials. (paper)

  8. Potential energy surfaces for electron dynamics modeled by floating and breathing Gaussian wave packets with valence-bond spin-coupling: An analysis of high-harmonic generation spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Koji

    2018-03-01

    A model of localized electron wave packets (EWPs), floating and breathing Gaussians with non-orthogonal valence-bond spin-coupling, is applied to compute the high-harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum from a LiH molecule induced by an intense laser pulse. The characteristic features of the spectrum, a plateau up to 50 harmonic-order and a cutoff, agreed well with those from the previous time-dependent complete active-space self-consistent-field calculation [T. Sato and K. L. Ishikawa, Phys. Rev. A 91, 023417 (2015)]. In contrast to the conventional molecular orbital picture in which the Li 2s and H 1s atomic orbitals are strongly mixed, the present calculation indicates that an incoherent sum of responses of single electrons reproduces the HHG spectrum, in which the contribution from the H 1s electron dominates the plateau and cutoff, whereas the Li 2s electron contributes to the lower frequency response. The results are comprehensive in terms of the shapes of single-electron potential energy curves constructed from the localized EWP model.

  9. Energy modelling towards low carbon development of Beijing in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jiang, Kejun

    2017-01-01

    scenario 2030, (ii) BAU (business as usual) scenario 2030 and (iii) RES (renewable energies) scenario 2030. The results shows that the share of renewables can increase to 100% of electricity and heat production in the RE scenario. The primary fuel consumption is reduced to 155.9 TWh, which is 72 % of fuel......Beijing, as the capacity capital of China, is under the pressure of climate change and pollution. Nonrenewable energy generation and consumption is one of the most important sources of CO2 emissions, which cause climate changes. This paper presents a study on the energy system modeling towards...... renewable energy and low carbon development for the city of Beijing. The analysis of energy system modeling is organized in two steps to explore the potential renewable energy alternative in Beijing. Firstly, a reference energy system of Beijing is created based on the available data in 2014. The Energy...

  10. Comparing holographic dark energy models with statefinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Jing-Lei; Zhang, Jing-Fei

    2014-01-01

    We apply the statefinder diagnostic to the holographic dark energy models, including the original holographic dark energy (HDE) model, the new holographic dark energy model, the new agegraphic dark energy (NADE) model, and the Ricci dark energy model. In the low-redshift region the holographic dark energy models are degenerate with each other and with the ΛCDM model in the H(z) and q(z) evolutions. In particular, the HDE model is highly degenerate with the ΛCDM model, and in the HDE model the cases with different parameter values are also in strong degeneracy. Since the observational data are mainly within the low-redshift region, it is very important to break this lowredshift degeneracy in the H(z) and q(z) diagnostics by using some quantities with higher order derivatives of the scale factor. It is shown that the statefinder diagnostic r(z) is very useful in breaking the low-redshift degeneracies. By employing the statefinder diagnostic the holographic dark energy models can be differentiated efficiently in the low-redshift region. The degeneracy between the holographic dark energy models and the ΛCDM model can also be broken by this method. Especially for the HDE model, all the previous strong degeneracies appearing in the H(z) and q(z) diagnostics are broken effectively. But for the NADE model, the degeneracy between the cases with different parameter values cannot be broken, even though the statefinder diagnostic is used. A direct comparison of the holographic dark energy models in the r-s plane is also made, in which the separations between the models (including the ΛCDM model) can be directly measured in the light of the current values {r 0 , s 0 } of the models. (orig.)

  11. Unjamming in models with analytic pairwise potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, S.; Lerner, E.

    Canonical models for studying the unjamming scenario in systems of soft repulsive particles assume pairwise potentials with a sharp cutoff in the interaction range. The sharp cutoff renders the potential nonanalytic but makes it possible to describe many properties of the solid in terms of the

  12. Potential Energy Savings in Refrigeration Systems Using Optimal Setpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Slot; Thybo, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components. This paper proposes an approach in line with this trend, where a suboptimal condenser pressure is found in order to minimize the energy consumption....... The objective is to give an idea of how this optimization scheme works as well as to show what amount of energy it is possible to save. A steady state model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as a basis for the optimization....

  13. Applications of GARCH models to energy commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, H. Brett

    This thesis uses GARCH methods to examine different aspects of the energy markets. The first part of the thesis examines seasonality in the variance. This study modifies the standard univariate GARCH models to test for seasonal components in both the constant and the persistence in natural gas, heating oil and soybeans. These commodities exhibit seasonal price movements and, therefore, may exhibit seasonal variances. In addition, the heating oil model is tested for a structural change in variance during the Gulf War. The results indicate the presence of an annual seasonal component in the persistence for all commodities. Out-of-sample volatility forecasting for natural gas outperforms standard forecasts. The second part of this thesis uses a multivariate GARCH model to examine volatility spillovers within the crude oil forward curve and between the London and New York crude oil futures markets. Using these results the effect of spillovers on dynamic hedging is examined. In addition, this research examines cointegration within the oil markets using investable returns rather than fixed prices. The results indicate the presence of strong volatility spillovers between both markets, weak spillovers from the front of the forward curve to the rest of the curve, and cointegration between the long term oil price on the two markets. The spillover dynamic hedge models lead to a marginal benefit in terms of variance reduction, but a substantial decrease in the variability of the dynamic hedge; thereby decreasing the transactions costs associated with the hedge. The final portion of the thesis uses portfolio theory to demonstrate how the energy mix consumed in the United States could be chosen given a national goal to reduce the risks to the domestic macroeconomy of unanticipated energy price shocks. An efficient portfolio frontier of U.S. energy consumption is constructed using a covariance matrix estimated with GARCH models. The results indicate that while the electric

  14. Model of sustainable development of energy system, case of Hamedan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahabmanesh, Aref; Saboohi, Yadollah

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable economic growth and improvement of the social welfare depend upon the sufficient supply of energy resources, while the utilization of energy resources is one of the main factors of environmental degradation. This research is involved with development of a sustainable energy system model and a new method for sustainability assessment. This model represents the flow of energy from primary resources through processing, conversion, and end-use technologies in an optimization framework where the useful energy demand in various social and economic sectors is met. The impact of energy supply and consumption chain on the environment at each level of energy system is also embedded in the model structure. A multi-criteria analysis of changes is then applied and sustainable development indices of the whole system are concluded. Finally, effects of the energy subsidy policy and high economic growth rate on sustainability of the energy system in three scenarios are analyzed. Results demonstrate that energy subsidy decelerates the improvement rate of the total sustainability index. Also, when a high economic growth is accompanied with the energy subsidy this index reduces considerably. Results show that how penetration of renewable energy potentials changes the sustainability situation of energy systems. - Highlights: • Developing a new model for sustainable energy systems. • Presenting a new method for sustainability assessment of energy systems. • Optimizing the energy flow and capacity expansion of Hamedan energy system. • Utilizing an MCDA approach to obtain sustainability indices of the whole system. • Analysis of energy subsidy and high economic growth on energy sustainability.

  15. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demand of Croatian households sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Duić, Neven

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long term energy demand of Croatian households sector has been modelled. ► Developed model can describe the whole households sector. ► Main modes include heating, cooling, electrical appliances, cooking and hot water. ► Different scenarios regarding future energy demand are presented and discussed. -- Abstract: Households represent one of the most interesting sectors, when analyzing Croatia’s energy balance. It makes up one of the largest energy consumers with around 75 PJ per year, which is almost 29% of Croatia’s final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing various mechanisms, which would lead to improvements in energy efficiency of this sector, seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems, important would be to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand of different sectors. Through this paper, long term energy demand projections of Croatian households sector will be shown. Focus of the paper will be on various mechanisms influencing future energy demand scenarios. Important would be to quantify this influence, whether positive or negative, and see which mechanisms would be the most significant. Energy demand projections in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and processes a large number of input data. The model will be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy and certain differences and conclusions will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which leads to lower GHG emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels.

  16. Hot-electron-mediated desorption rates calculated from excited-state potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Gavnholt, Jeppe; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for desorption induced by (multiple) electronic transitions [DIET (DIMET)] based on potential energy surfaces calculated with the delta self-consistent field extension of density-functional theory. We calculate potential energy surfaces of CO and NO molecules adsorbed on various...... transition-metal surfaces and show that classical nuclear dynamics does not suffice for propagation in the excited state. We present a simple Hamiltonian describing the system with parameters obtained from the excited-state potential energy surface and show that this model can describe desorption dynamics...... in both the DIET and DIMET regimes and reproduce the power-law behavior observed experimentally. We observe that the internal stretch degree of freedom in the molecules is crucial for the energy transfer between the hot electrons and the molecule when the coupling to the surface is strong....

  17. Energy efficiency potential study for New Brunswick: Commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the energy savings in the New Brunswick commercial sector. A description is presented of the current New Brunswick commercial building stock, including typical insulation levels, lighting levels, light loads, heating/ventilation/air conditioning equipment and operating hours for each building segment selected, as well as estimation of existing floor space and segment-specific growth and demolition rates. Key energy data for the commercial sector are described, including end-use energy intensities for existing and new building stock and estimation of fuel shares for each building segment and end use. Potential energy savings were calculated under three scenarios: frozen-efficiency, in which no new energy efficiency improvements are incorporated into existing buildings; technical potential, in which the most efficient commercially available technologies are incorporated into the building stock; and economic potential, in which the only technologies implemented are those whose installed cost is equal to, or less than, the economic cost of new supply. Results show that in the year 2000, total potential economic secondary electricity savings related to efficiency improvements are estimated to be ca 2,460 TJ; savings at the primary level would be ca 7,625 TJ. If fuel switching options are included, total electricity demand in the year 2000 would be further reduced from the frozen efficiency level of 2,969 GWh to 1,834 GWh. By the year 2010, the total potential for electricity reduction, due exclusively to fuel switching, increases to 765 GWh; over 90% of this reduction is due to space heat conversions. 11 figs., 122 tabs

  18. Study of the renewable energy potential and development in Alsace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This report is part of a study which aimed at assessing the possibility of a renewable energy production equal to or greater than Alsace energy production between 2020 and 2050. It comprised an analysis of potentials and deadlocks for the development of each renewable energy. After an overview of renewable energy production by the end of 2012, the report addresses the different sectors (solar, biomass fuel, geothermal, heat recovery, aero-thermal, wind, hydroelectricity, methanization, agricultural fuels, transports). For each of them, it proposes assessments for the different specific technical resources and processes. Then, after a synthesis of the obtained maximum theoretical resources, it reports the development of three scenarios (a trend-based one, a maximum one, and a proactive one) while addressing each resource within them

  19. Energy-dependent microscopic optical potential for scattering of nucleons on light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, M.Y.H.; Esmael, E.H. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Maridi, H.M. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Taiz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz (Yemen)

    2014-06-15

    We present an energy-dependent microscopic optical model potential for elastic scattering of nucleons on light nuclei. The single-folding model is used for the real part of the optical potential (OP), while the imaginary part is derived within the high-energy approximation theory. The energy dependence of the OP is determined from the parameterization of the volume integrals those calculated from the best-fit OP that fit the experimental data of the cross sections and analyzing powers. This energy-dependent OP is successfully applied to analyze the proton elastic scattering of {sup 4,6,i8}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9,10}Be nuclei at low and intermediate incident energies up to 200MeV/nucleon. (orig.)

  20. Technology Learning Ratios in Global Energy Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.

    2001-01-01

    The process of introduction of a new technology supposes that while its production and utilisation increases, also its operation improves and its investment costs and production decreases. The accumulation of experience and learning of a new technology increase in parallel with the increase of its market share. This process is represented by the technological learning curves and the energy sector is not detached from this process of substitution of old technologies by new ones. The present paper carries out a brief revision of the main energy models that include the technology dynamics (learning). The energy scenarios, developed by global energy models, assume that the characteristics of the technologies are variables with time. But this trend is incorporated in a exogenous way in these energy models, that is to say, it is only a time function. This practice is applied to the cost indicators of the technology such as the specific investment costs or to the efficiency of the energy technologies. In the last years, the new concept of endogenous technological learning has been integrated within these global energy models. This paper examines the concept of technological learning in global energy models. It also analyses the technological dynamics of the energy system including the endogenous modelling of the process of technological progress. Finally, it makes a comparison of several of the most used global energy models (MARKAL, MESSAGE and ERIS) and, more concretely, about the use these models make of the concept of technological learning. (Author) 17 refs

  1. Potential of forestry biomass for energy in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apalovic, R.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid increase in the world's population, the gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels and serious ecological problems are making developed countries more attentive to the utilization of renewable energy sources, mainly biomass, which should form part of the global energy mix during the twenty-first century. The economies in transition have been experiencing a transformation of their political, economic and social systems and a modernization of their industry, including the energy industry. Energy supply in the transition economies is based on coal, oil, gas and nuclear power. Of the renewable sources, only hydroelectric power is utilized to any significant extent. The forest biomass resources of these economies are quantified in this paper. The economies in transition have a big potential for biomass from forestry and timber industry wastes and agricultural wastes that are not being utilized and could become a source of energy. So far, biomass is used as a source of energy in only small amounts in the wood and pulp industries and as fuelwood in forestry. The governments of some countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia) have energy plans through the year 2010 that aim to develop renewable energy sources. Economic, institutional, technical and other barriers to the development of renewable sources and their utilization are analysed in this paper and some remedies are proposed. In cooperation with countries such as Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the United States of America and others, which have achieved remarkable results in the utilization of biomass for energy, it would be possible for the transition economies to quickly develop the technological know-how needed to satisfy the demand for energy of approximately 350 million inhabitants. (author)

  2. Dynamic energy models and carbon mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Luke A.

    In this dissertation I examine a specific class of energy models and their implications for carbon mitigation policies. The class of models includes a production function capable of reproducing the empirically observed phenomenon of short run rigidity of energy use in response to energy price changes and long run exibility of energy use in response to energy price changes. I use a theoretical model, parameterized using empirical data, to simulate economic performance under several tax regimes where taxes are levied on capital income, investment, and energy. I also investigate transitions from one tax regime to another. I find that energy taxes intended to reduce energy use can successfully achieve those goals with minimal or even positive impacts on macroeconomic performance. But the transition paths to new steady states are lengthy, making political commitment to such policies very challenging.

  3. Potentials for energy efficiency improvements and implementation of renewable energy sources in hotel industry in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, Vlatko

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation, potentials for energy efficiency improvements and implementation of renewable energy sources in hotel industry in Macedonia are discussed. This presentation was part of the research project entitled "Opportunities and Methods for Energy Substitution, Savings and Efficiency Improvements in the Hotel Industry" funded by the University "Goce Delcev", Stip, Macedonia. It was prsented at the joint workshop between University "Goce Delcev", Stip, Macedonia and the Bashkent Un...

  4. Contracting of energy services in Switzerland. Development, effects, market potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.; Baumgartner, W.; Kohn, L.

    1999-06-01

    The authors of this detailed report first define the contracting of energy services, this new reality of the market place, and analyse its current status in Switzerland. Contracting is mainly to be understood as the delegation of certain energy-related services by a company. The total investment for the operated energy systems considered by the study is about 120 millions USD, with an installed power of 160 MW. This market is highly unhomogeneous and is the answer to various goals. Globally, it brings a more efficient use of energy, including a more frequent involvement of renewable energy sources, along with a lower risk and significant advantages for all contractors. That is the reason for the energy policy authority to recommend contracting. The report goes on with the analysis of the factors leading the chief executives to consider contracting of energy services, or on the contrary to exclude it. The authors estimate the realistic potential market for contracting in Switzerland to 650 millions USD for the period 1999-2004. They conclude by giving recommendations which should result in an acceleration of the contracting's development on the market place

  5. PSO Method for Fitting Analytic Potential Energy Functions. Application to I-(H2O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, H N; Ma, X; Paul, A K; Smith, P; Hase, W L

    2018-03-13

    In this work a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was used to fit an analytic potential energy function to I - (H 2 O) intermolecular potential energy curves calculated with DFT/B97-1 theory. The analytic function is a sum of two-body terms, each written as a generalized sum of Buckingham and Lennard-Jones terms with only six parameters. Two models were used to describe the two-body terms between I - and H 2 O: a three-site model H 2 O and a four-site model including a ghost atom. The fits are compared with those obtained with a genetic/nonlinear least-squares algorithm. The ghost atom model significantly improves the fitting accuracy for both algorithms. The PSO fits are significantly more accurate and much less time-consuming than those obtained with the genetic/nonlinear least-squares algorithm. Eight I - ---H 2 O potential energy curves, fit with the PSO algorithm for the three- and four-site models, have RMSE of 1.37 and 0.22 kcal/mol and compute times of ∼20 and ∼68 min, respectively. The PSO fit for the four-site model is quite adequate for determining densities of states and partition functions for I - (H 2 O) n clusters at high energies and temperatures, respectively. The PSO algorithm was also applied to the eight potential energy curves, with the four-site model, for a short time ∼8 min fitting. The RMSE was small, only 0.37 kcal/mol, showing the high efficiency of the PSO algorithm with retention of a good fitting accuracy. The PSO algorithm is a good choice for fitting analytic potential energy functions, and for the work presented here was able to find an adequate fit to an I - (H 2 O) analytic intermolecular potential with a small number of parameters.

  6. Directory of Energy Information Administration models 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This directory revises and updates the Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1995, DOE/EIA-0293(95), Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy, July 1995. Four models have been deleted in this directory as they are no longer being used: (1) Market Penetration Model for Ground-Water Heat Pump Systems (MPGWHP); (2) Market Penetration Model for Residential Rooftop PV Systems (MPRESPV-PC); (3) Market Penetration Model for Active and Passive Solar Technologies (MPSOLARPC); and (4) Revenue Requirements Modeling System (RRMS).

  7. An Empirical Model for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scott, Paul [TransPower, Poway, CA (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Improved models of energy storage systems are needed to enable the electric grid’s adaptation to increasing penetration of renewables. This paper develops a generic empirical model of energy storage system performance agnostic of type, chemistry, design or scale. Parameters for this model are calculated using test procedures adapted from the US DOE Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage. We then assess the accuracy of this model for predicting the performance of the TransPower GridSaver – a 1 MW rated lithium-ion battery system that underwent laboratory experimentation and analysis. The developed model predicts a range of energy storage system performance based on the uncertainty of estimated model parameters. Finally, this model can be used to better understand the integration and coordination of energy storage on the electric grid.

  8. Neutron optical potential for nuclei of lead group in wide energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, A.G.; Rudenskaya, E.O.; Titarenko, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data on neutron scattering in lead and bismuth isotopes in the energy range up to 40 MeV published in literature are analysed within the scope of a spherical optical model. A search for a uniform set of neutron optical potential parameters from the condition of the best description of the given data of strength functions using total neutron and differential cross sections. Strength parameters of the potential demonstrate nonlinear dependence in a low-energy region on scattered neutron energy. 21 refs

  9. SYMMETRY PROPERTIES OF THE COULOMB POTENTIAL WITH A LINEAR DEPENDENCE ON ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Budaca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The D-dimensional Schr ̈odinger equation for a Coulomb potential with a coupling constant depending linearly on energy is analytically solved. The energy spectrum in the asymptotic regime of the slope parameter is found to be fully determined up to a scale only by its quantum numbers. The raising and lowering operators for this limiting model are determined from the recurrence properties of the associated solutions. It is shown that they satisfy the commutation relations of an SU(1,1 algebra and act on wave-functions which are normalized differently from the case of the usual bound state problem for an energy independent Coulomb potential.

  10. Numerical Modeling of a Wave Energy Point Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos; Frigaard, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with numerical modelling of the Wave Star Energy WSE device. Hereby, linear potential theory is applied via a BEM code on the wave hydrodynamics exciting the floaters. Time and frequency domain solutions of the floater response are determined for regular and irregular seas....... Furthermore, these results are used to estimate the power and the energy absorbed by a single oscillating floater. Finally, a latching control strategy is analysed in open-loop configuration for energy maximization....

  11. The Dilemmas of Energy: Essential energy services and potentially fatal risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    During their evolution, humans have made three energy transitions, each marked by the adoption of new ways of procuring energy with attendant changes in lifestyle. Modern civilization arose in the Third Energy Transition, and its major sources of energy come from coal, oil, gas, uranium, and hydropower. Unfortunately, despite its incalculable benefits, the Third Transition can’t provide sustainable energy services for the indefinite future. Climate change is the most serious problem. Criteria and standards for each of the currently available, nine primary energy sources indicate the potential feasibility of replacing most or all uses of coal, oil, gas, and uranium with hydropower, solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal. This is the Fourth Energy Transition, promotion of which is strongly supported by considerations of sustainability.

  12. Models for the energy performance of low-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    of buildings is needed both in order to assess energy-effciency and to operate modern buildings economically. Energy signatures are a central tool in both energy performance assessment and decision making related to refurbishment of buildings. Also for operation of modern buildings with installations......-building. The building is well-insulated and features large modern energy-effcient windows and oor heating. These features lead to increased non-linear responses to solar radiation and longer time constants. The building is equipped with advanced control and measuring equipment. Experiments are designed and performed...... in order to identify important dynamical properties of the building, and the collected data is used for modeling. The thesis emphasizes the statistical model building and validation needed to identify dynamical systems. It distinguishes from earlier work by focusing on modern low-energy construction...

  13. Matrix models with non-even potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzban, C.; Raju Viswanathan, R.

    1990-07-01

    We study examples of hermitian 1-matrix models with even and odd terms present in the potential. A definition of criticality is presented which in these cases leads to multicritical models falling into the same universality classes as those of the purely even potentials. We also show that, in our examples, for polynomial potentials ending in odd powers (unbounded) the coupling constants, in addition to their expected real critical values, also admit critical values which alternate between imaginary/real values in the odd/even terms. We find that, remarkably, the ensuing statistical models are insensitive to the real/imaginary nature of these critical values. This feature may be of relevance in the recently-studied connection between matrix models and the moduli space of Riemann surfaces. (author). 9 refs

  14. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Sulzer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  15. General business model patterns for Local Energy Management concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele eFacchinetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition towards a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed and compared. Through a market review a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  16. No strings attached potential vs. interaction energy in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1996-01-01

    In infrared-stable fixed-point field theories, the interaction energy of a test particle is proportional to the non-relativistic (heavy source) coordinate-space potential derived from the field strength produced by that source. This is no longer true in ultraviolet-stable fixed-point field theories (UVSFPFT) as they may not have a finite infrared fixed point. This leads to the possibility that UVSFPFTs may have quite conventional field strength distributions despite the unusual spatial dependence expected for the interaction energy

  17. Parallel unconstrained minimization of potential energy in LAMMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plantenga, T.

    1997-10-13

    This report describes a new minimization capability added to LAMMPS V4.0. Minimization of potential energy is used to find molecular conformations that are close to structures found in nature. The new minimization algorithm uses LAMMPS subroutines for calculating energy and force vectors, and follows the LAMMPS partitioning scheme for distributing large data objects on multiprocessor machines. Since gradient-based algorithms cannot tolerate nonsmoothness, a new Coulomb style that smoothly cuts off to zero at a finite distance is provided. This report explains the minimization algorithm and its parallel implementation within LAMMPS. Guidelines are given for invoking the algorithm and interpreting results.

  18. The electric energy potential of landfill biogas in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambeli Barros, Regina; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lúcio; Silva, Tiago Rodrigo da

    2014-01-01

    The increases in a country's energy capacity are related to its gross domestic product (GDP). In Brazil, increases in income and the consumption of goods and services have led to an increase in the generation of solid waste (SW), which is sent to landfills as a method of treatment and final disposal. The purpose of this study was to facilitate an increase in energy generation from renewable resources, specifically from landfills via thermal biogas plants, and the research was divided into two phases. The first phase involved the assessment of the potential population size contributing to the landfill, which could result in the installation of a financially viable enterprise to generate electricity in Brazil. Next, an estimate of the costs associated with the generation and collection of solid waste in Brazil was predicted by GDP prognoses, the latter being in accordance with the National Energy Balance (Balanço Energético Nacional – BEN) plan created by the Mines and Energy Ministry of Brazil (Ministério de Minas e Energia do Brasil – MME). The net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) of each enterprise scenario was used in the first stage to assess the plan's financial viability. In the second stage, estimation curves such as logistics, decreasing rate of growth, and logarithmic curves were used to establish relationships between the generation scenarios and the projected collection of SW and projected GDP. Thus, a range of possible landfill biogas/methane generation values and installed energy capacities were created, considering the extreme maximum and minimum values. These values were related to the energy sources from residual fuels reported by BEN. The results demonstrated that such values still represented a small percentage (0.00020% in 2010 and 0.44496–0.81042% in 2030) of the projected energy generation from residual fuels. Thus, an urgent need was identified to formulate policies that would encourage landfills as a

  19. Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This directory revises and updates the 1993 directory and includes 15 models of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Three other new models in use by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) have also been included: the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), Distillate Market Model (DMM), and the Propane Market Model (PPMM). This directory contains descriptions about each model, including title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included in this directory are 37 EIA models active as of February 1, 1994.

  20. Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This directory revises and updates the 1993 directory and includes 15 models of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Three other new models in use by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) have also been included: the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), Distillate Market Model (DMM), and the Propane Market Model (PPMM). This directory contains descriptions about each model, including title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included in this directory are 37 EIA models active as of February 1, 1994

  1. Energy flow modeling and optimal operation analysis of the micro energy grid based on energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tengfei; Wu, Junyong; Hao, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design a novel architecture for energy hub integrating power hub, cooling hub and heating hub. • The micro energy grid based on energy hub is introduced and its advantages are discussed. • Propose a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid. • Propose an optimal operation model for micro energy grid with considering demand response. • The roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. - Abstract: The energy security and environmental problems impel people to explore a more efficient, environment friendly and economical energy utilization pattern. In this paper, the coordinated operation and optimal dispatch strategies for multiple energy system are studied at the whole Micro Energy Grid level. To augment the operation flexibility of energy hub, the innovation sub-energy hub structure including power hub, heating hub and cooling hub is put forward. Basing on it, a generic energy hub architecture integrating renewable energy, combined cooling heating and power, and energy storage devices is developed. Moreover, a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid is proposed. To minimize the daily operation cost, a day-ahead dynamic optimal operation model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem with considering the demand response. Case studies are undertaken on a community Micro Energy Grid in four different scenarios on a typical summer day and the roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed energy flow modeling and optimal operation method are universal and effective over the entire energy dispatching horizon.

  2. Assessing Potential Wind Energy Resources in Saudi Arabia with a Skew-t Distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Tagle, Felipe

    2017-03-13

    Facing increasing domestic energy consumption from population growth and industrialization, Saudi Arabia is aiming to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and to broaden its energy mix by expanding investment in renewable energy sources, including wind energy. A preliminary task in the development of wind energy infrastructure is the assessment of wind energy potential, a key aspect of which is the characterization of its spatio-temporal behavior. In this study we examine the impact of internal climate variability on seasonal wind power density fluctuations using 30 simulations from the Large Ensemble Project (LENS) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Furthermore, a spatio-temporal model for daily wind speed is proposed with neighbor-based cross-temporal dependence, and a multivariate skew-t distribution to capture the spatial patterns of higher order moments. The model can be used to generate synthetic time series over the entire spatial domain that adequately reproduces the internal variability of the LENS dataset.

  3. Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsson, Simon; Grandell, Leena; Wachtmeister, Henrik; Höök, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have proposed fast transitions to energy systems based on renewable energy technology. Many of them dismiss potential physical constraints and issues with natural resource supply, and do not consider the growth rates of the individual technologies needed or how the energy systems are to be sustained over longer time frames. A case study is presented modelling potential growth rates of the wind energy required to reach installed capacities proposed in other studies, taking into account the expected service life of wind turbines. A sustained commissioning model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for analysing reasonable growth patterns for technologies that can be sustained in the future. The annual installation and related resource requirements to reach proposed wind capacity are quantified and it is concluded that these factors should be considered when assessing the feasibility, and even the sustainability, of fast energy transitions. Even a sustained commissioning scenario would require significant resource flows, for the transition as well as for sustaining the system, indefinitely. Recent studies that claim there are no potential natural resource barriers or other physical constraints to fast transitions to renewable energy appear inadequate in ruling out these concerns. - Highlights: • Growth rates and service life is important when evaluating energy transitions. • A sustained commissioning model is suggested for analysing renewable energy. • Natural resource requirements for renewable energy are connected to growth rates. • Arguments by recent studies ruling out physical constraints appear inadequate

  4. World energy projection system: Model documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The World Energy Project System (WEPS) is an accounting framework that incorporates projects from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product) and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by hydropower, geothermal, coal, and natural gas to produce projections of world energy consumption published annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the International Energy Outlook (IEO) (Figure 1). Two independently documented models presented in Figure 1, the Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model and the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES) provide projections of oil and nuclear power consumption published in the IEO. Output from a third independently documented model, and the International Coal Trade Model (ICTM), is not published in the IEO but is used in WEPS as a supply check on projections of world coal consumption produced by WEPS and published in the IEO. A WEPS model of natural gas production documented in this report provides the same type of implicit supply check on the WEPS projections of world natural gas consumption published in the IEO. Two additional models are included in Figure 1, the OPEC Capacity model and the Non-OPEC Oil Production model. These WEPS models provide inputs to the OMS model and are documented in this report

  5. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  6. A cultural model of household energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzenhiser, Loren

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the development of demand-side research, from an early interest in conservation behavior to a later focus on physical, economic, psychological and social models of energy consumption. Unfortunately, none of these models account satisfactorily for measured energy consumption in the residential sector. Growing interest in the end-uses of energy (e.g. in support of load forecasting, demand-side management and least-cost utility planning), increasing international studies of energy use, and continuing work in the energy and lifestyles research tradition now support an emerging cultural perspective on household energy use. The ecological foundations of the cultural model and its applications in energy research are discussed, along with some of the analytic consequences of this approach. (author)

  7. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  8. Modelling energy demand of Croatian industry sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medić, Zlatko Bačelić; Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    Industry represents one of the most interesting sectors when analysing Croatian final energy demand. Croatian industry represents 20% of nation's GDP and employs 25% of total labour force making it a significant subject for the economy. Today, with around 60 PJ of final energy demand...... it is the third most energy intensive sector in Croatia after transport and households. Implementing mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. Through this paper, long-term energy demand projections for Croatian industry will be shown. The central point...... for development of the model will be parameters influencing the industry in Croatia. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model. IED model produces results which can be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy. One of the conclusions shown in this paper is significant...

  9. Analytical relations between nuclear symmetry energy and single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming

    2011-01-01

    Using the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, we derive general expressions for the quadratic and quartic symmetry energies in terms of the isoscalar and isovector parts of single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. These expressions are useful for gaining deeper insights into the microscopic origins of the uncertainties in our knowledge on nuclear symmetry energies especially at supra-saturation densities. As examples, the formalism is applied to two model single-nucleon potentials that are widely used in transport model simulations of heavy-ion reactions.

  10. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  11. Energy splitting in a finite periodic multiple-well potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae-Yup

    2017-09-01

    The low-lying states for a one-dimensional potential consisting of N identical wells are considered, assuming that the wells are parabolic around the minima. The N localized approximate eigenfunctions, each of which matches an eigenfunction of the simple harmonic oscillator in one of the wells, are constructed, relying on the WKB approximation. Diagonalizing the Hamiltonian in the subspace spanned by the approximate eigenfunctions, a formula for the energy eigenvalues is obtained. The present work will be useful for introducing Bloch wave functions in a periodic potential to undergraduate and graduate students. It is shown that the formula for the eigenvalues can reproduce a known rigorous expression on the Mathieu equation.

  12. A high-resolution assessment of wind and wave energy potentials in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2016-08-24

    This study presents an assessment of the potential for harvesting wind and wave energy from the Red Sea based on an 18-year high-resolution regional atmospheric reanalysis recently generated using the Advanced Weather Research Forecasting model. This model was initialized with ERA-Interim global data and the Red Sea reanalysis was generated using a cyclic three-dimensional variational approach assimilating available data in the region. The wave hindcast was generated using WAVEWATCH III on a 5 km resolution grid, forced by the Red Sea reanalysis surface winds. The wind and wave products were validated against data from buoys, scatterometers and altimeters. Our analysis suggests that the distribution of wind and wave energy in the Red Sea is inhomogeneous and is concentrated in specific areas, characterized by various meteorological conditions including weather fronts, mesoscale vortices, land and sea breezes and mountain jets. A detailed analysis of wind and wave energy variation was performed at three hotspots representing the northern, central and southern parts of the Red Sea. Although there are potential sites for harvesting wind energy from the Red Sea, there are no potential sites for harvesting wave energy because wave energy in the Red Sea is not strong enough for currently available wave energy converters. Wave energy should not be completely ignored, however, at least from the perspective of hybrid wind-wave projects. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  14. Modeling Energy and Development : An Evaluation of Models and Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, Bas van; Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der; Vries, Bert de; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2008-01-01

    Most global energy models are developed by institutes from developed countries focusing primarily oil issues that are important in industrialized countries. Evaluation of the results for Asia of the IPCC/SRES models shows that broad concepts of energy and development. the energy ladder and the

  15. Energy from waste. Potentials and possibilities for usage; Energie aus Abfall. Potenziale und Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, Rainer; Fritz, Thomas [Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst (HAWK), Goettingen (DE). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik (NEUTec); Fricke, Klaus [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft

    2009-05-15

    In the present article the results of appraisal for the determination of the theoretical potential of energy and the current secondary energy supply of waste streams, which are relevant for the power production in Germany are represented. To sum up, the following conclusions arise from the balance: The theoretical primary energy supply potential of the examined waste streams amounts from 540 to 650 PJ/a and corresponds from 3.9 to 4.6% of the total primary energy consumption in Germany. In consideration of the system-dependent efficiencies and steering of flow patterns for materials altogether approx. 53 PJ electricity and 104 PJ (used) heat were produced as secondary energy within the regarded ranges in the year 2006 in Germany. This corresponds approx. to 1.7% of the final energy consumption in Germany. The outcome of the evaluated energy data for 2006 is a middle energy efficiency of approx. 26.5% (approx. 8.9% electrically and approx. 17.6% thermally). Under technically optimized conditions the power efficiency can be raised possibly on approx. 37%, whereby the share of the final energy consumption in Germany would increase to 2,3%. (orig.)

  16. Biomass energy in Jordan, and its potential contribution towards the total energy mix of the Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1994-04-01

    An evaluation of Jordan's bio-energy status was carried out. Available sources and the viability of exploitation were studied in order to identify the size of contribution that bio-energy could provide to the total energy mix of the Kingdom. The advantages of biogas technology were discussed, and a general description of Jordan's experience in this field was presented. Data on Jordan' animal, municipal, and agricultural wastes that are available as a potential source of bio-energy was tabulated. The report ascertained the economic feasibility of biogas utilization in Jordan, and concluded that the annual energy production potential from biogas, with only animal wastes being utilized, would amount to 80,000 ton oil equivalent. This amount of energy is equivalent to 2% of Jordan's total energy consumption in 1992. The utilization of biogas from municipal wastes would produce an additional 2.5% of the total energy consumption of Jordan. The annual value of utilizing animal and municipal wastes would reach 23 million Jordanian Dinars (JD). This value would increase to 61.5 million JD with the utilization of human wastes. The investment required for the utilization of bio-energy sources in Amman and its suburbs on the scale of family unit fermenters was estimated to be in the order of a million JD. The size of investment for industrial scale utilization for power generation with an electricity feed to the national grid, would range from 3 to 4 million JD. (A.M.H.). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  17. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  18. LHC Physics Potential vs. Energy: Considerations for the 2011 Run

    CERN Document Server

    Quigg, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I quantify the advantage of increasing the beam energy from 3.5 TeV to 4 TeV. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for $gg$, $u\\bar{d}$, $qq$, and $gq$ interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes. This note extends the analysis presented in arXiv:0908.3660. Full-size figures are available as pdf files at http://lutece.fnal.gov/PartonLum11/

  19. CO dimer: new potential energy surface and rovibrational calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Richard; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2013-08-15

    The spectrum of CO dimer was investigated by solving the rovibrational Schrödinger equation on a new potential energy surface constructed from coupled-cluster ab initio points. The Schrödinger equation was solved with a Lanczos algorithm. Several 4D (rigid monomer) global ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) were made using a previously reported interpolating moving least-squares (IMLS) fitting procedure specialized to describe the interaction of two linear fragments. The potential has two nonpolar minima giving rise to a complicated set of energy level stacks, which are very sensitive to the shapes and relative depths of the two wells. Although the CO dimer has defied previous attempts at an accurate purely ab initio description our best surface yields results in good agreement with experiment. Root-mean-square (rms) fitting errors of less than 0.1 cm(-1) were obtained for each of the fits using 2226 ab initio data at different levels. This allowed direct assessment of the quality of various levels of ab initio theory for prediction of spectra. Our tests indicate that standard CCSD(T) is slow to converge the interaction energy even when sextuple zeta bases as large as ACV6Z are used. The explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b method was found to recover significantly more correlation energy (from singles and doubles) at the CBS limit. Correlation of the core-electrons was found to be important for this system. The best PES was obtained by extrapolation of calculations at the CCSD(T)(AE)-F12b/CVnZ-F12 (n = 3,4) levels. The calculated energy levels were compared to 105 J ≤ 10 levels from experiment. The rms error for 68 levels with J ≤ 6 is only 0.29 cm(-1). The calculated energy levels were assigned stack labels using several tools. New stacks were found. One of them, stack y1, has an energy lower than many previously known stacks and may be observable.

  20. The fractional virial potential energy in two-component systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, φ = φ(y, m, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, m = Mj /Mi by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of m is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the (Oyφ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is y = Rj /Ri , and the fractional virial potential energy is φ = (Eji vir /(Eij vir . Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of N = 16 elliptical galaxies (EGs on the (Oyφ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, m, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, Ξu = Ru /r† , u = i, j, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, y, or fractional scaling radii, y† = r† /r† , deduced from sample objects.

  1. Model Property Based Material Balance and Energy Conservation Analysis for Process Industry Energy Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumin Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional historical data based material and energy balance analyses are static and isolated computations. Such methods cannot embody the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow in the process industry; furthermore, they cannot easily realize the effective evaluation and comparison of different energy transfer processes by alternating the model module. In this paper, a novel method for material balance and energy conservation analysis of process industry energy transfer system is developed based on model property. Firstly, a reconfigurable energy transfer process model, which is independent of energy types and energy-consuming equipment, is presented from the viewpoint of the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow. Thereafter the material balance determination is proposed based on both a dynamic incidence matrix and dynamic balance quantity. Moreover, the model-weighted conservation determination theorem is proved, and the energy efficiency analysis method is also discussed. Results confirmed the efficacy of the proposed methods, confirming its potential for use by process industry in energy efficiency analyses.

  2. Potential energy and transition dipole moment functions of C2-

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedivcová, Tereza; Špirko, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 104, 13/14 (2006), s. 1999-2005 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400550511; GA MŠk(CZ) LC512; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/05/H001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ab initio calculation * transition moments * potential energy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.690, year: 2006

  3. Electronic structure, molecular bonding and potential energy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedenberg, K. [Ames Laboratory, IA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    By virtue of the universal validity of the generalized Born-Oppenheimer separation, potential energy surfaces (PES`) represent the central conceptual as well as quantitative entities of chemical physics and provide the basis for the understanding of most physicochemical phenomena in many diverse fields. The research in this group deals with the elucidation of general properties of PES` as well as with the quantitative determination of PES` for concrete systems, in particular pertaining to reactions involving carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen molecules.

  4. New model. Local financing for local energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detroy, Florent

    2015-01-01

    While evoking the case of the VMH Energies company in the Poitou-Charentes region, and indicating the difference between France and Germany in terms of wind and photovoltaic energy production potential, of number of existing local companies, and of citizen-based funding, this article shows that renewable energies could put the energy production financing in France into question again, with a more important participation of local communities and of their inhabitants. The author describes how the law on energy transition makes this possible, notably with the strengthening of citizen participation. The author evokes some French local experiments and the case of Germany where this participation is already very much developed

  5. Bohm's quantum potential as an internal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Glen, E-mail: gdennis502@gmail.com [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Gosson, Maurice A. de, E-mail: maurice.de.gosson@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Mathematics, NuHAG, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hiley, Basil J., E-mail: b.hiley@bbk.ac.uk [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-26

    Highlights: • The quantum potential is seen as internal energy associated with a phase space region. • Fermi's trick shows that Bohm's particle is an extended structure in phase space. • We associate Bohm's quantum potential with a context-dependent energy redistribution. • A physically motivated derivation of Schrodinger's equation is provided. • We show the Fermi set associated with a 3-D coherent state contains a quantum blob. - Abstract: We pursue our discussion of Fermi's surface initiated by Dennis, de Gosson and Hiley and show that Bohm's quantum potential can be viewed as an internal energy of a quantum system, giving further insight into its role in stationary states. This implies that the ‘particle’ referred to in Bohm's theory is not a classical point-like object but rather has an extended structure in phase space which can be linked to the notion of a symplectic capacity, a topological feature of the underlying symplectic geometry. This structure provides us with a new, physically motivated derivation of Schrödinger's equation provided we interpret Gleason's theorem as a derivation of the Born rule from fundamental assumptions about quantum probabilities.

  6. Electromagnetic potentials basis for energy density and power flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puthoff, H E

    2016-01-01

    In rounding out the education of students in advanced courses in applied electromagnetics it is incumbent on us as mentors to raise issues that encourage appreciation of certain subtle aspects that are often overlooked during first exposure to the field. One of these has to do with the interplay between fields and potentials, with the latter often seen as just a convenient mathematical artifice useful in solving Maxwell’s equations. Nonetheless, to those practiced in application it is well understood that various alternatives in the use of fields and potentials are available within electromagnetic (EM) theory for the definitions of energy density, momentum transfer, EM stress–energy tensor, and so forth. Although the various options are all compatible with the basic equations of electrodynamics (e.g., Maxwell’s equations, Lorentz force law, gauge invariance), nonetheless certain alternative formulations lend themselves to being seen as preferable to others with regard to the transparency of their application to physical problems of interest. Here we argue for the transparency of an energy density/power flux option based on the EM potentials alone. (paper)

  7. Potential of Sugarcane in Modern Energy Development in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Horta Nogueira, Luiz A.; Watson, Helen K.; Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Elmissiry, Mosad; Cortez, Luís A. B.

    2016-01-01

    For more than half of the Southern African population, human development is limited by a lack of access to electricity and modern energy for cooking. Modern bioenergy merits consideration as one means to address this situation in areas where sufficient arable land is available. While numerous studies have concluded that Africa has significant biomass potential, they do not indicate by how much it can effectively reduce the use of traditional biomass and provide more accessible energy, especially at a country level. Here, we evaluate the potential of sugarcane to replace traditional biomass and fossil fuel and enlarge the access to electricity in Southern Africa. By using its current molasses for ethanol production, Swaziland could increase electricity generation by 40% using bagasse and replace 60% of cooking fuel or 30% of liquid fossil fuel. Sugarcane expansion over 1% of the pasture land in Angola, Mozambique, and Zambia could replace greater than 70% of cooking fuel. Bioelectricity generation from modest sugarcane expansion could be increased by 10% in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia and by 20% in Angola. Our results support the potential of sugarcane as a modern energy alternative for Southern Africa.

  8. Potential of Sugarcane in Modern Energy Development in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Simone P., E-mail: sp.souza@yahoo.com.br; Horta Nogueira, Luiz A. [Interdisciplinary Center for Energy Planning, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Watson, Helen K. [School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KZN (South Africa); Lynd, Lee Rybeck [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth, NH (United States); Elmissiry, Mosad [New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), Johannesburg, GT (South Africa); Cortez, Luís A. B. [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-12-26

    For more than half of the Southern African population, human development is limited by a lack of access to electricity and modern energy for cooking. Modern bioenergy merits consideration as one means to address this situation in areas where sufficient arable land is available. While numerous studies have concluded that Africa has significant biomass potential, they do not indicate by how much it can effectively reduce the use of traditional biomass and provide more accessible energy, especially at a country level. Here, we evaluate the potential of sugarcane to replace traditional biomass and fossil fuel and enlarge the access to electricity in Southern Africa. By using its current molasses for ethanol production, Swaziland could increase electricity generation by 40% using bagasse and replace 60% of cooking fuel or 30% of liquid fossil fuel. Sugarcane expansion over 1% of the pasture land in Angola, Mozambique, and Zambia could replace greater than 70% of cooking fuel. Bioelectricity generation from modest sugarcane expansion could be increased by 10% in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia and by 20% in Angola. Our results support the potential of sugarcane as a modern energy alternative for Southern Africa.

  9. Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    2001-01-01

    Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO(sub 2) emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO(sub 2) emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC

  10. Marine Planning for Potential Wave Energy Facility Placement Amongst a Crowded Sea of Existing Resource Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, B. E.; Fuller, E.; Plummer, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Conversion to renewable energy sources is a logical response to increasing pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean wave energy is the least developed renewable energy source, despite having the highest energy per unit area. While many hurdles remain in developing wave energy, assessing potential conflicts and evaluating tradeoffs with existing uses is essential. Marine planning encompasses a broad array of activities that take place in and affect large marine ecosystems, making it an ideal tool for evaluating wave energy resource use conflicts. In this study, we focus on the potential conflicts between wave energy conversion (WEC) facilities and existing marine uses in the context of marine planning, within the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. First, we evaluated wave energy facility development using the Wave Energy Model (WEM) of the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) toolkit. Second, we ran spatial analyses on model output to identify conflicts with existing marine uses including AIS based vessel traffic, VMS and observer based measures of commercial fishing effort, and marine conservation areas. We found that regions with the highest wave energy potential were distant from major cities and that infrastructure limitations (cable landing sites) restrict integration with existing power grids. We identified multiple spatial conflicts with existing marine uses; especially shipping vessels and various commercial fishing fleets, and overlap with marine conservation areas varied by conservation designation. While wave energy generation facilities may be economically viable in the California Current, this viability must be considered within the context of the costs associated with conflicts that arise with existing marine uses. Our analyses can be used to better inform placement of WEC devices (as well as other types of renewable energy facilities) in the context of marine planning by accounting for economic tradeoffs

  11. Potential energy surface and rovibrational energy levels of the H2-CS van der Waals complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Marinakis, Sarantos

    2012-12-21

    Owing to its large dipole, astrophysicists use carbon monosulfide (CS) as a tracer of molecular gas in the interstellar medium, often in regions where H(2) is the most abundant collider. Predictions of the rovibrational energy levels of the weakly bound complex CS-H(2) (not yet observed) and also of rate coefficients for rotational transitions of CS in collision with H(2) should help to interpret the observed spectra. This paper deals with the first goal, i.e., the calculation of the rovibrational energy levels. A new four-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface for the H(2)-CS complex is presented. Ab initio potential energy calculations were carried out at the coupled-cluster level with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations, using a quadruple-zeta basis set and midbond functions. The potential energy surface was obtained by an analytic fit of the ab initio data. The equilibrium structure of the H(2)-CS complex is found to be linear with the carbon pointing toward H(2) at the intermolecular separation of 8.6 a(o). The corresponding well depth is -173 cm(-1). The potential was used to calculate the rovibrational energy levels of the para-H(2)-CS and ortho-H(2)-CS complexes. The present work provides the first theoretical predictions of these levels. The calculated dissociation energies are found to be 35.9 cm(-1) and 49.9 cm(-1), respectively, for the para and ortho complexes. The second virial coefficient for the H(2)-CS pair has also been calculated for a large range of temperature. These results could be used to assign future experimental spectra and to check the accuracy of the potential energy surface.

  12. Critical insight into the influence of the potential energy surface on fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, K.; Schmitt, C.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Ademard, G.; Nadtochy, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to a careful investigation of the influence of the potential energy surface on the fission process. The time evolution of nuclei at high excitation energy and angular momentum is studied by means of three-dimensional Langevin calculations performed for two different parametrizations of the macroscopic potential: the Finite Range Liquid Drop Model (FRLDM) and the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD) prescription. Depending on the mass of the system, the topology of the potential throughout the deformation space of interest in fission is observed to noticeably differ within these two approaches, due to the treatment of curvature effects. When utilized in the dynamical calculation as the driving potential, the FRLDM and LSD models yield similar results in the heavy-mass region, whereas the predictions can be strongly dependent on the Potential Energy Surface (PES) for medium-mass nuclei. In particular, the mass, charge, and total kinetic energy distributions of the fission fragments are found to be narrower with the LSD prescription. The influence of critical model parameters on our findings is carefully investigated. The present study sheds light on the experimental conditions and signatures well suited for constraining the parametrization of the macroscopic potential. Its implication regarding the interpretation of available experimental data is briefly discussed.

  13. Energy balance of chosen crops and their potential to saturate energy consumption in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Hrčková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess and compare energy inputs and outputs of various crop managements in 2011–2012. Two main crops on arable land and three permanent grasslands were investigated. Silage maize (Zea mays L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were grown on lowland, whilst two semi-natural grasslands and grassland infested by tufted hair-grass (Deschampsia caespitose (L. P. Beauv were located in mountainous regions of Slovakia. In these crops and grasslands the dry matter yield was measured and subsequently the supplementary energy, energy gain and unifying energy value – tonne of oil equivalent (TOE – were calculated. Silage maize with 233.37 GJ*ha-1 has provided the highest energy gain. In the group of grasslands, grassland infested by tufted hair-grass has offered the highest energy gain (59.77 GJ*ha-1. And this grassland had the lowest requirement on the supplementary energy (3.66 GJ*ha-1, contrary to silage maize with highest one (12.37 GJ*ha-1. The total energy potential of the crop biomasses was confronted with energy consumption in Slovakia. Winter wheat has the biggest energy potential, but it could cover only 19.6% and 11.3% total consumption of electricity or natural gas, respectively. Large area of permanent grasslands and their spatial location make them an important energy reservoir for bioenergy production. But, it is not possible to replace all consumed fossil fuels by bioenergy from these tested renewable energy sources.

  14. Model-Driven Energy Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Buildings Integrator ECIP Environmental Conservation Investment Program ECM electronically commuted motors EISA Energy Independence and Security Act...FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard HBS Honeywell Building Solutions HQUSACE Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HVAC ...conditioning ( HVAC ) design, root causes for anomalous behavior can be more easily understood. Combined visualizations reveal the behavior of specific

  15. Stochastic Modelling of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis dynamic models of typical components in Danish heating systems are considered. Emphasis is made on describing and evaluating mathematical methods for identification of such models, and on presentation of component models for practical applications. The thesis consists of seven...... of component models, such as e.g. heat exchanger and valve models, adequate for system simulations. Furthermore, the thesis demonstrates and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using statistical methods in conjunction with physical knowledge in establishing adequate component models of heating...... research papers (case studies) together with a summary report. Each case study takes it's starting point in typical heating system components and both, the applied mathematical modelling methods and the application aspects, are considered. The summary report gives an introduction to the scope...

  16. Geophysical potential for wind energy over the open oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possner, Anna; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-10-24

    Wind turbines continuously remove kinetic energy from the lower troposphere, thereby reducing the wind speed near hub height. The rate of electricity generation in large wind farms containing multiple wind arrays is, therefore, constrained by the rate of kinetic energy replenishment from the atmosphere above. In recent years, a growing body of research argues that the rate of generated power is limited to around 1.5 W m -2 within large wind farms. However, in this study, we show that considerably higher power generation rates may be sustainable over some open ocean areas. In particular, the North Atlantic is identified as a region where the downward transport of kinetic energy may sustain extraction rates of 6 W m -2 and above over large areas in the annual mean. Furthermore, our results indicate that the surface heat flux from the oceans to the atmosphere may play an important role in creating regions where sustained high rates of downward transport of kinetic energy and thus, high rates of kinetic energy extraction may be geophysical possible. While no commercial-scale deep water wind farms yet exist, our results suggest that such technologies, if they became technically and economically feasible, could potentially provide civilization-scale power.

  17. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 ...

  18. GIS Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in California and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, R. K.; Snow, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Energy efficiency coupled with renewable energy technologies can provide most of the U.S. carbon emissions reductions needed to contain atmospheric carbon concentrations at 450-500 parts per million, considered by many to be a tipping point in mitigating climate change. Among the leaders in the alternative energy sector is wind power, which is now one of the largest sources of new power generation in the U.S. creating jobs and revenue for rural communities while powering our economy with an emissions-free source of energy. In 2006, wind turbines capable of generating more than 2,400 megawatts of electricity were installed in the U.S. and by 2007 this number had risen to 3,000 megawatts. The U.S. generated 31 billion kilowatt-hours of wind power in 2007, which is enough electricity to power the equivalent of nearly 3 million average homes. It is estimated that generating the same amount of electricity would require burning 16 million tons of coal or 50 million barrels of oil. This study examines the wind power potential of sites near populated areas in Florida and California to determine the practicability of installing wind turbines at these locations. A GIS was developed in order to conduct a spatial analysis of these sites based on mean annual wind speed measured in meters per second and wind power density ratings measured in watts per square meter. The analysis indicates that coastal areas of Cocoa Beach, Key West, Hollywood, and West Palm Beach, respectively, possess the greatest potential for wind energy in Florida with mean annual wind speeds of 4.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 171 w/m2 peaking at Cocoa Beach followed by wind speeds of 4.64 m/s and wind power ratings of 115 w/m2 at Key West. California wind energy potential is even greater than that of Florida with Fairfield exhibiting mean annual wind speeds of 5.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 327 w/m2 followed by the Mojave and Palmdale areas with mean annual wind speeds of

  19. Solar Pond Potential as A New Renewable Energy in South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadliah Baso, Nur; Chaerah Gunadin, Indar; Yusran

    2018-03-01

    Renewable energy sources need to be developed to maintain the electric energy availability by utilizing oceanic energy, namely solar pond energy. This energy is highly influenced by several factors including salinity, air temperature and solar radiation. This study was focused on finding the potential of solar pond in South Sulawesi, a region with fairly high solar radiation and abundant salt water raw materials availability. The method used in this study was analyzing the values from the mathematic models of daily horizontal solar radiation, air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure for the last 22 years which were finalized using MATLAB. The findings of this study will show the areas with good potentials to apply solar pond in South Sulawesi that can be utilized in various fields including power generator, industrial heating process, desalination and heating for biomass conversion.

  20. Dark energy observational evidence and theoretical models

    CERN Document Server

    Novosyadlyj, B; Shtanov, Yu; Zhuk, A

    2013-01-01

    The book elucidates the current state of the dark energy problem and presents the results of the authors, who work in this area. It describes the observational evidence for the existence of dark energy, the methods and results of constraining of its parameters, modeling of dark energy by scalar fields, the space-times with extra spatial dimensions, especially Kaluza---Klein models, the braneworld models with a single extra dimension as well as the problems of positive definition of gravitational energy in General Relativity, energy conditions and consequences of their violation in the presence of dark energy. This monograph is intended for science professionals, educators and graduate students, specializing in general relativity, cosmology, field theory and particle physics.