Full Text Available Several applications require the tracking of attitude and position of a body based on velocity data. It is tempting to use direction cosine matrices (DCM), for example, to track attitude based on angular velocity data, and to integrate the linear...
Buckley, Gary I; Malouff, John M
In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a video, developed for this study and using principles of cognitive learning theory, to produce positive attitudinal change toward mental health treatment. The participants were 35 men and 45 women who were randomly assigned to watch either an experimental video, which included 3 positive 1st-person accounts of psychotherapy or a control video that focused on the psychological construct of self. Pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2-week follow-up levels of attitude toward mental health treatment were measured using the Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Help Scale (E. H. Fischer & J. L. Turner, 1970). The experimental video group showed a significantly greater increase in positive attitude than did the control group. These results support the effectiveness of using the vicarious reinforcement elements of cognitive learning theory as a basis for changing attitudes toward mental health treatment.
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the field of diversity studies with novel insights on how language diversity and communication frequency influence dissimilarity attitudes. Design/methodology/approach – The authors examine language diversity and communication frequency...... attitudes, namely openness to linguistic, visible and informational diversity. Contradicting our predictions, language diversity had positive associations with all variables portraying positive dissimilarity attitudes. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail. Originality/value – Few prior...... studies have dealt with the relations between language, communication and dissimilarity attitudes....
Bulsing, Patricia J; Smeets, Monique A M; van den Hout, Marcel A
Associations between certain odors and for instance health effects may lead to positive or negative attitudes toward these odors. However, in experiments we conducted using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), we encountered attitudes even to odor "words." The IAT is based on the principle that reaction times measuring the association between words from a target dimension (in this case, odor vs. a neutral reference category) and an attribute dimension (i.e., positive or negative words) reflect the attitude to the target, where attitude-congruent associations between target and attribute are reflected by shorter reaction times. In a first experiment, we found distinctly positive attitudes to the concept odor in a student sample, which was replicated in a second experiment. In the main experiment, subjects in the aromatherapy group, who prefer using scented consumer products for relaxation purposes, showed a significantly more positive attitude toward odor words in the IAT than a control group, who did not have such a preference. The fact that results from the implicit test were not always associated with explicitly stated attitudes toward the odor words attests to the fact that the IAT measures the attitude of interest in a different way. As such, the IAT has added value in circumstances where explicit tests can be biased.
Teamwork, productivity, and reducing exposure are admirable goals presented to the workers in a nuclear power plant. A common thread to achievement in these areas resides in worker attitudes toward the tasks presented. A positive, alert, and cooperative attitude is an element in a worker's mind that must be created and maintained by good leadership and management practices. At the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, management has used certain strategies to foster good positive worker attitudes toward radiation protection and quality workmanship in all tasks. Strategies differ from management by objectives in that they have no deadlines or timetables in and of themselves. Rather, strategies are preplanned methods that can be called upon when the opportunity arises to improve worker attitudes. A series of five strategies for positive attitude development are described in the full paper. The strategies are identified with buzz words to allow the user a recall mechanism (as with the acronyms abounding in the nuclear industry). They cover the range of management techniques from example setting to reward/recognition. Although not unique to radiation exposure management, nor all inclusive, the strategies provide some though stimulation in creating productive worker attitudes
Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol
Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school's administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school's climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support.
Full Text Available A positive attitude is a powerful tool that fosters enthusiasm, promotes self-esteem, and creates an atmosphere conducive to learning. Achievement in a target language relies not only on intellectual capacity, but also on the learner’s attitudes towards language learning. Attitudes could be viewed as a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing, idea, person, situation etc. The attitudes that the students should have are attitude towards the language, attitude towards learning the language, attitude towards the language teacher, and attitude towards school in general. This study focuses on discussing about encouraging students to have positive attitudes toward learning English.
Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura K.; Drain, Bethany A.; Heineck, James T.; Durston, Donald A.
Stereo photogrammetry was used to measure the position and attitude of a slender body of revolution during nozzle-plume/shock-wave interaction tests in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The model support system was designed to allow the model to be placed at many locations in the test section relative to a pressure rail on one sidewall. It included a streamwise traverse as well as a thin blade that offset the model axis from the sting axis. With these features the support system was more flexible than usual resulting in higher-than-usual uncertainty in the position and attitude of the model. Also contributing to this uncertainty were the absence of a balance, so corrections for sting deflections could not be applied, and the wings-vertical orientation of the model, which precluded using a gravity-based accelerometer to measure pitch angle. Therefore, stereo photogrammetry was chosen to provide independent measures of the model position and orientation. This paper describes the photogrammetry system and presents selected results from the test.
A positive attitude is a powerful tool that fosters enthusiasm, promotes self-esteem, and creates an atmosphere conducive to learning. Achievement in a target language relies not only on intellectual capacity, but also on the learner’s attitudes towards language learning. Attitudes could be viewed as a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing, idea, person, situation etc. The attitudes that the students should have are attitude towards the language, attitude toward...
Janet L Fitzakerley
Full Text Available The primary recommendation of the 2010 President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology report on K-12 education was to inspire more students so that they are motivated to study science. Scientists' visits to classrooms are intended to inspire learners and increase their interest in science, but verifications of this impact are largely qualitative. Our primary goal was to evaluate the impact of a longstanding Brain Awareness classroom visit program focused on increasing learners understanding of their own brains. Educational psychologists have established that neuroscience training sessions can improve academic performance and shift attitudes of students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. Our secondary goal was to determine whether short interactive Brain Awareness scientist-in-the-classroom sessions could similarly alter learners' perceptions of their own potential to learn. Teacher and student surveys were administered in 4(th-6(th grade classrooms throughout Minnesota either before or after one-hour Brain Awareness sessions that engaged students in activities related to brain function. Teachers rated the Brain Awareness program as very valuable and said that the visits stimulated students' interest in the brain and in science. Student surveys probed general attitudes towards science and their knowledge of neuroscience concepts (particularly the ability of the brain to change. Significant favorable improvements were found on 10 of 18 survey statements. Factor analyses of 4805 responses demonstrated that Brain Awareness presentations increased positive attitudes toward science and improved agreement with statements related to growth mindset. Overall effect sizes were small, consistent with the short length of the presentations. Thus, the impact of Brain Awareness presentations was positive and proportional to the efforts expended, demonstrating that short, scientist-in-the-classroom visits can make a positive contribution to
Fitzakerley, Janet L; Michlin, Michael L; Paton, John; Dubinsky, Janet M
The primary recommendation of the 2010 President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology report on K-12 education was to inspire more students so that they are motivated to study science. Scientists' visits to classrooms are intended to inspire learners and increase their interest in science, but verifications of this impact are largely qualitative. Our primary goal was to evaluate the impact of a longstanding Brain Awareness classroom visit program focused on increasing learners understanding of their own brains. Educational psychologists have established that neuroscience training sessions can improve academic performance and shift attitudes of students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. Our secondary goal was to determine whether short interactive Brain Awareness scientist-in-the-classroom sessions could similarly alter learners' perceptions of their own potential to learn. Teacher and student surveys were administered in 4(th)-6(th) grade classrooms throughout Minnesota either before or after one-hour Brain Awareness sessions that engaged students in activities related to brain function. Teachers rated the Brain Awareness program as very valuable and said that the visits stimulated students' interest in the brain and in science. Student surveys probed general attitudes towards science and their knowledge of neuroscience concepts (particularly the ability of the brain to change). Significant favorable improvements were found on 10 of 18 survey statements. Factor analyses of 4805 responses demonstrated that Brain Awareness presentations increased positive attitudes toward science and improved agreement with statements related to growth mindset. Overall effect sizes were small, consistent with the short length of the presentations. Thus, the impact of Brain Awareness presentations was positive and proportional to the efforts expended, demonstrating that short, scientist-in-the-classroom visits can make a positive contribution to primary school
Fitzakerley, Janet L.; Michlin, Michael L.; Paton, John; Dubinsky, Janet M.
The primary recommendation of the 2010 President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology report on K-12 education was to inspire more students so that they are motivated to study science. Scientists’ visits to classrooms are intended to inspire learners and increase their interest in science, but verifications of this impact are largely qualitative. Our primary goal was to evaluate the impact of a longstanding Brain Awareness classroom visit program focused on increasing learners understanding of their own brains. Educational psychologists have established that neuroscience training sessions can improve academic performance and shift attitudes of students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. Our secondary goal was to determine whether short interactive Brain Awareness scientist-in-the-classroom sessions could similarly alter learners’ perceptions of their own potential to learn. Teacher and student surveys were administered in 4th-6th grade classrooms throughout Minnesota either before or after one-hour Brain Awareness sessions that engaged students in activities related to brain function. Teachers rated the Brain Awareness program as very valuable and said that the visits stimulated students’ interest in the brain and in science. Student surveys probed general attitudes towards science and their knowledge of neuroscience concepts (particularly the ability of the brain to change). Significant favorable improvements were found on 10 of 18 survey statements. Factor analyses of 4805 responses demonstrated that Brain Awareness presentations increased positive attitudes toward science and improved agreement with statements related to growth mindset. Overall effect sizes were small, consistent with the short length of the presentations. Thus, the impact of Brain Awareness presentations was positive and proportional to the efforts expended, demonstrating that short, scientist-in-the-classroom visits can make a positive contribution to primary school
Positive mood has been repeatedly shown to affect risk attitudes in laboratory settings, where subjects’ exposure to movie clips is among the most widely used and effective mood-induction procedures. Yet, conflicting lab results about the estimated sign of the mood effect have led researchers...... moodshifting mechanism commonly employed in lab studies. More specifically, I exploit the time-series variation in the domestic theatrical release of comedy movies as a natural experiment for testing the impact that happy mood (proxied by weekend comedy movie attendance) has on investment in risky assets...... (proxied by the performance of the U.S. stock market on the following Monday). My hypothesis rests upon the evidence that individual investors are more likely to ponder trading decisions during the weekend and trade on Mondays. To control for unobserved factors that may contemporaneously affect movie...
Stark, Tobias; Flache, Andreas; Veenstra, René
The generalization of attitudes toward individual outgroup members into attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole can affect intergroup relations. However, little is known about the relative strengths of the generalization of negative and positive interpersonal attitudes into attitudes about the
Adank, Patti; Stewart, Andrew J; Connell, Louise; Wood, Jeffrey
People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other's speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else's speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian) of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating) the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants). After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers' perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.
Full Text Available People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other’s speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else’s speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants. After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers’ perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.
Stoeber, Joachim; Mutinelli, Sofia; Corr, Philip J.
In today's uncertain job market, university students who show positive attitudes in their career planning have an advantage. Yet, we know little what personality characteristics are associated with individual differences in career planning attitudes. The present study examined 177 university students to investigate whether perfectionism (self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed) predicted students' positive career planning attitudes (career adaptability, career optimism, and per...
Full Text Available The path tracking control algorithm is one of the key problems in the control system design of autonomous vehicle. In this paper, we have conducted dynamic modeling for autonomous vehicle, the relationship between course deviation and yaw rate and centroid deflection angle. From the angle of the dynamics and geometrical, this paper have described the path tracking problem, analyzed the emergence of the eight autonomous vehicles pose binding - position and attitude alternate control methods to identify the relationship between posture and the controlling variables, and design a controller, the experimental results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this control method.
Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zheng, En-Hui
A synthesis control method is proposed to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the dynamical model of a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), where the dynamical model is underactuated, highly-coupled and nonlinear. Firstly, the dynamical model is divided into a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, a controller of the fully actuated subsystem is designed through a novel robust terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) algorithm, which is utilized to guarantee all state variables converge to their desired values in short time, the convergence time is so small that the state variables are acted as time invariants in the underactuated subsystem, and, a controller of the underactuated subsystem is designed via sliding mode control (SMC), in addition, the stabilities of the subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, the aerodynamic forces and moments and air drag taken as external disturbances are taken into account, the obtained simulation results show that the synthesis control method has good performance in terms of position and attitude tracking when faced with external disturbances. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
Students' attitudes towards teaching and learning must be addressed with the same seriousness and effort as we address content. Establishing a personal connection and addressing our students' basic psychological needs will produce positive attitudes towards teaching and learning and develop life-long learners. It will also promote constructive…
Brown, Alison; Silva, Randy
.... When the GPS satellite signals are denied, either through intentional jamming or by natural conditions such as urban or terrain masking, the positioning and attitude performance will rapidly degrade...
Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah
Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.
Public opposition and intervention in the siting and development of nuclear power plants has become more of a limiting factor than technological issues. Attitude surveys indicate that, while the majority of Americans support nuclear power, the utilities would do well to respond to the concerns and opinions of local residents when projects are in the planning stages. Recent polls are analyzed to identify the demographic and perceptive factors of opposition. Demographic studies indicate that the greatest opposition comes from women, young people, urban residents, farmers, low-income groups, and the unemployed. Perceptual opposition is associated with anticipated negative impacts in the form of hazards and social disruption. Since there appears to be a correlation between access to pertinent information and level of support, utility planners could develop educational programs to provide this information on the advantages of nuclear power. 10 references
to formulate two alternative theories. The affect infusion model (AIM) argues that happy moods foster risk-prone behavior, whereas the mood-maintenance hypothesis (MMH) takes the opposite stance. In this paper I test the predictions of these two theories using real-world financial data and focusing on the same...... moodshifting mechanism commonly employed in lab studies. More specifically, I exploit the time-series variation in the domestic theatrical release of comedy movies as a natural experiment for testing the impact that happy mood (proxied by weekend comedy movie attendance) has on investment in risky assets...
Chen, Lang; Bae, Se Ri; Battista, Christian; Qin, Shaozheng; Chen, Tianwen; Evans, Tanya M; Menon, Vinod
Positive attitude is thought to impact academic achievement and learning in children, but little is known about its underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. Using a large behavioral sample of 240 children, we found that positive attitude toward math uniquely predicted math achievement, even after we accounted for multiple other cognitive-affective factors. We then investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the link between positive attitude and academic achievement in two independent cohorts of children (discovery cohort: n = 47; replication cohort: n = 28) and tested competing hypotheses regarding the differential roles of affective-motivational and learning-memory systems. In both cohorts, we found that positive attitude was associated with increased engagement of the hippocampal learning-memory system. Structural equation modeling further revealed that, in both cohorts, increased hippocampal activity and more frequent use of efficient memory-based strategies mediated the relation between positive attitude and higher math achievement. Our study is the first to elucidate the neurocognitive mechanisms by which positive attitude influences learning and academic achievement.
There is trend in spacecraft engineering toward distributed systems where a number of smaller spacecraft work as a larger satellite. However, in order to make the small satellites work together as a single large platform, the precise relative positions (baseline) and orientations (attitude) of the
Knowledge, Attitude, Beliefs and Perception of HIV-positive women towards PMTCT program services in NAUTH Nnewi, Nigeria. ... Data were collected using a pre-tested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and analysed by means of the SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the respondents was ...
The attitudinal factorial model with positive and negative attitudes which is proposed in this study adds depth to the factorial models already existing in the literature, since it includes general export attitudes, export stimulation attitudes and attitudes on export barriers The synthesis of export attitudes in this study improves the structure of the model. There are numerous statistically significant differences among the segments of the model such as organizational parameters (sales ...
Gao, Chen; Yuan, Jianping; Zhao, Yakun
This paper addresses the problem of spacecraft attitude and position synchronization in libration point orbits between a leader and a follower. Using dual quaternion, the dimensionless relative coupled dynamical model is derived considering computation efficiency and accuracy. Then a model-independent dimensionless cascade pose-feedback active disturbance rejection controller is designed to spacecraft attitude and position tracking control problems considering parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. Numerical simulations for the final approach phase in spacecraft rendezvous and docking and formation flying are done, and the results show high-precision tracking errors and satisfactory convergent rates under bounded control torque and force which validate the proposed approach.
This thesis explores the methods for enhancing the performance of using low cost, single frequency Carrier phase Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (CDGNSS) in real-time, safety or liability critical applications. This is done by improving the integer ambiguity resolution performance and carrier phase error modeling. CDGNSS is considered for a broad range of real-time applications which require both a high precision relative positioning and attitude determination system. This is because of the drift-free nature of the GNSS measurement errors and the precise nature of the carrier phase measurement. The key to making full use of the precise nature of the carrier phase measurement is to fix the integer ambiguity quickly and reliably. This poses the biggest challenge for a low cost single frequency system. For the attitude determination problem, the precisely known baseline lengths can be used to improve the integer ambiguity resolution performance. Traditionally, the relative positioning problem was solved independently of the attitude determination problem and, thus could not leverage the precisely known baseline lengths of the attitude determination system. However, by integrating the two systems together, the precisely known baseline lengths can be used to improve the relative positioning system as well. The first part of the thesis develops an integration framework to improve the integer ambiguity resolution performance for the relative positioning system and the attitude determination system simultaneously. The second part of the thesis provides a GNSS antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV) error model development to improve the accuracy of the integrated system. It also examines the feasibility analysis of using the developed error model for a real-time dynamic application. The challenging of using this in the real time lies in the fact that PCV error magnitude is small (less than 2cm) and the developed error model is a function of unknown parameter
Saide Umut ZEYBEK
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of Coping Attitudes Scale: Measure of Positive Attitudes in Depression (CAS among Turkish young adult community sample and determine the psychometric properties (validity and reliability of this scale. This study was conducted with 419 students attending different departments in Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Education in the spring semester of academic year of 2015-2016. Positive Functional Attitudes Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Automatic Thoughts Scale, Positivity Scale and Developed Automatic Thoughts Scale.were used as data collection tools. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used for investigation of the psychometric properties of the PFAS. Also, criterion-related validity, test-retest validity, and internal consistency were used calculated. The CFA results showed that standardized item estimates of the CAS ranged between 0.45 and 0.47. Also the CFA results showed that the original factor structure of the PFAS confirmed on the Turkish sample. internal consistency was calculated using the total community samples PFAS score. Cronbachs alpha coefficient ort he total scale (.93 was high. Test-retest results of the subscales were 0.76. The findings showed that factor structures of the PFAS life perspective, personal accomplishment, positive future, self-worth, coping with problems had psychometric quality in Turkish version. As a result of the study, the Turkish version of PFAS has good validity and reliability for young adult community sample. [JCBPR 2017; 6(2.000: 59-66
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
Departing from Lawrence Bobo’s suggestion that Blumer’s group position theory embodies the most comprehensive and parsimonious framework for understanding not only the dynamics of prejudice toward minority groups, but also for examining potential threats that emanate from policy issues such as af......Departing from Lawrence Bobo’s suggestion that Blumer’s group position theory embodies the most comprehensive and parsimonious framework for understanding not only the dynamics of prejudice toward minority groups, but also for examining potential threats that emanate from policy issues...... economic threat as more important in informing attitudes toward immigration than objective economic conditions; and social and ethnic location threat. Our findings are consistent with and confirm Blumer’s argument that prejudice as a sense of group position is primarily derived from feelings, and are...
Lin, Ching Fang
A special navigation system is being developed to provide high-quality information on the position and attitude of a moving platform (an aircraft or spacecraft), for use in pointing and stabilization of a hyperspectral remote-sensing system carried aboard the platform. The system also serves to enable synchronization and interpretation of readouts of all onboard sensors. The heart of the system is a commercially available unit, small enough to be held in one hand, that contains an integral combination of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, a differential GPS subsystem, and ancillary data-processing subsystems. The system utilizes GPS carrier-phase measurements to generate time data plus highly accurate and continuous data on the position, attitude, rotation, and acceleration of the platform. Relative to prior navigation systems based on IMU and GPS subsystems, this system is smaller, is less expensive, and performs better. Optionally, the system can easily be connected to a laptop computer for demonstration and evaluation. In addition to airborne and spaceborne remote-sensing applications, there are numerous potential terrestrial sensing, measurement, and navigation applications in diverse endeavors that include forestry, environmental monitoring, agriculture, mining, and robotics.
Knifsend, Casey A; Juvonen, Jaana
This study examined processes by which extracurricular participation is linked with positive ethnic intergroup attitudes in multiethnic middle schools in California. Specifically, the mediating roles of activity-related cross-ethnic friendships and social identities including alliances with multiple groups were examined in a sample including African American or Black, East or South-East Asian, White, and Latino youth (N = 1,446; M age = 11.60 in sixth grade). Results of multilevel modeling suggested that in addition to activity-related cross-ethnic friendships, complex social identities mediated the association between availability of cross-ethnic peers in activities and ethnic intergroup attitudes. Results are discussed in terms of how activities can be structured to promote cross-ethnic relationships and complex social identities, as well as positive ethnic intergroup attitudes. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Zambianchi, Manuela; Carelli, Maria Grazia
The current study investigates the relevance of positive attitudes toward Internet technologies for psychological well-being and social well-being in old age. A sample of 245 elderly people ( Mean age = 70; SD =9.1) filled in the Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire, the Social Well-Being Questionnaire, and Attitudes Toward Technologies Questionnaire (ATTQ). Favorable attitudes toward Internet technologies showed positive correlations with overall social well-being and all its components with the exception of social acceptance. Positive correlations with overall psychological well-being and two of its components, namely, personal growth and purpose in life, were also found. Two hierarchical multiple regression models underscored that positive attitudes toward Internet technologies constitute the most important predictor of social well-being, and it appears to be a significant predictor for psychological well-being as well. Results are discussed and integrated into the Positive Technology theoretical framework that sustains the value of technological resources for improving the quality of personal experience and well-being.
Fulmer, Gavin W.
Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.
Fulmer, Gavin W.
Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.
Dalege, J.; Borsboom, D.; Harreveld, F. van; Berg, H. van den; Conner, M.; Maas, H.L.J. van der
This article introduces the Causal Attitude Network (CAN) model, which conceptualizes attitudes as networks consisting of evaluative reactions and interactions between these reactions. Relevant evaluative reactions include beliefs, feelings, and behaviors toward the attitude object. Interactions
Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo
Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations, understa......Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations......, understanding them as embedded into a wider attitude system that consists of attitudes towards objects of different abstraction levels, ranging from personal value orientations over general socio-political attitudes to evaluations of specific characteristics of agricultural production systems. It is assumed...... that evaluative affect propagates through the system in such a way that the system becomes evaluatively consistent and operates as a schema for the generation of evaluative judgments. In the empirical part of the paper, the causal structure of an attitude system from which people derive their evaluations of pork...
Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon
To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Juan Pablo Román-Calderón
Full Text Available Socially oriented ventures have provided livelihoods and social recognition to disadvantaged communities in different corners of the world. In some cases, these ventures are the result of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR programs. In Latin America, this type of undertaking has responded positively to unmet social needs. The social cause drives these organizations and their human resources and they give high value to organizational cause-fit. This paper presents empirical evidence of the effects of perceived cause-fit on several worker attitudes and behaviors. Psychological contract theory was adopted as theoretical background. Employees working in a hybrid (for-profit/socially oriented Colombian organization created by a CSR program participated in the survey. Data provided by 218 employees were analyzed using PLS structural equation modeling. The results suggest the ideological components of the employee-employer relationship predict positive attitudes and cooperative organizational behaviors towards hybrid organizations.
Bussert-webb, Kathy M.; Zhang, Zhidong
Many assume low-income, emergent bilingual Latinos have poor reading attitudes. To investigate this issue, we surveyed 1,503 Texas public high school students through stratified cluster sampling to determine their reading attitudes. Most represented Latinos and mixed-race Latinos/Whites who heard Spanish at home and whose mother tongue was…
Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J G
Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0:8, matching the theoretical gain of √ 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station.
O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A
How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kozlowska, Katarzyna; Szczecinka, A.; Roszkowski, Wojciech
Objectives: To determine (i) the extent to which recommended lifestyle healthy behaviors are adopted and the existence of positive attitudes to health; (ii) the relative influence of socio-demographic variables on multiple healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health; (iii......) the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health. Design: two distinct healthy behavioral measures were developed: (i) healthy lifestyles based on physical activity, no cigarette smoking, no/moderate alcohol drinking, maintaining a "healthy" weight and having no sleeping...... problems and (ii) positive health attitudes based on having positive emotional attitudes, such as: self-perceived good health status, being calm, peaceful and happy for most of the time, not expecting health to get worse and regular health check-ups. A composite healthy lifestyle index, ranging from 0...
Full Text Available During a time of intensifying competition for land, Protected Areas (PAs are coming under increasing pressure to justify their status. Positive local attitudes to a PA are a potentially important component of any such justification, especially in the developing world where human pressure on natural resources is often high. However, despite numerous studies our understanding of what drives positive attitudes to PAs is still exceedingly limited. Here, we review the literature on local attitudes towards PAs in developing countries. Our survey reveals a highly fragmented research area where studies typically lack an explicit conceptual basis, and where there is wide variation in choice of statistical approach, explanatory and response variables, and incorporation of contextual information. Nevertheless, there is a relatively high degree of concordance between studies, with certain variables showing strong associations with attitudes. We recommend that PA attitude researchers in developing countries adopt a more rigorous model building approach based on a clear conceptual framework and drawing on the extensive empirical literature. Such an approach would improve the quality of research, increase comparability, and provide a stronger basis to support conservation decision-making.
Robertson, Amy D.; Daane, Abigail R.
Promoting positive attitudes about science among teachers has important implications for teachers' classroom practice and for their relationship to science as a discipline. In this paper, we report positive shifts in teachers' attitudes about science, as measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science (CLASS) survey, over the course of their participation in a professional development course that emphasized the flexible use of energy representations to understand real world scenarios. Our work contributes to the larger effort to make the case that professional development matters for teacher learning and attitudes.
Amy D. Robertson
Full Text Available Promoting positive attitudes about science among teachers has important implications for teachers’ classroom practice and for their relationship to science as a discipline. In this paper, we report positive shifts in teachers’ attitudes about science, as measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science (CLASS survey, over the course of their participation in a professional development course that emphasized the flexible use of energy representations to understand real world scenarios. Our work contributes to the larger effort to make the case that professional development matters for teacher learning and attitudes.
Lys, K.; Pernice, R.
This New Zealand study examined attitudes toward persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) via a survey of 35 people with SCI, 27 SCI rehabilitation workers, 16 outpatient hospital rehabilitation workers, and 37 people from the general population. Results were analyzed in terms of age, ethnic identity, gender, professional training, and amount of…
Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Ting; Cui, Bota; He, Zhi; Xiang, Jie; Long, Chuyan; Peng, Zhaoyuan; Li, Pan; Huang, Guangming; Ji, Guozhong; Zhang, Faming
Abstract Few studies have been conducted on the attitudes of patients seeking fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). This study aimed to investigate the reasons for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) seeking FMT and their attitude changes after FMT. In this prospective study, all included patients were diagnosed with CD for at least 6 months and intended to receive FMT. A questionnaire was designed to investigate the history of medical visits and patients’ attitudes toward FMT. Only refractory patients who failed to clinically respond to previous treatment were selected for undergoing FMT. Three months after the first FMT, patients were required to complete the second questionnaire on attitudes toward the first FMT. A total of 207 patients with CD were included for questionnaire survey. In 118 refractory patients, 94.07% sought FMT because they had no other choice. In 89 nonrefractory patients, 78.65% sought FMT for the reason that they wanted to achieve better clinical results or even a cure, although the current treatment was effective for them. In all, 118 refractory patients received FMT. Three months after the first FMT, 88.98% (105/118) patients completed the questionnaire on patients’ attitudes toward FMT. Of these 105 patients, 56.19% reported to have satisfactory clinical efficacy and 74.29% were willing to receive the second FMT. Moreover, 89.52% (94/105) showed their willingness to recommend FMT to other patients. In conclusion, this study at least first time demonstrated that patients with CD were willing to accept FMT due to its efficacy. PMID:27472679
Many research findings have stated that the use of technology in EFL classroom results invaluable achievements and develops positive attitudes. Technology may integrate sounds, pictures, motions, and colors that fi ure out a natural picture of real life. The aim of the study was to enhance the students' attitude toward learning English by using…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data (IPPLV1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 and 610 POS AV systems flown...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude (IPAPP1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 POS AV system flown with the Digital...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge GPS/IMU L1B Primary Position and Attitude Solution (IPUTG1B) data set contains elevation, roll, pitch, heading, north-south acceleration,...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge GPS/IMU L1B Primary Position and Attitude Solution (IPUTG1B) data set contains elevation, roll, pitch, heading, north-south acceleration,...
Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Capelos, Tereza; Lorimer, Jessica; Stocks, Thomas
Inducing emotional reactions toward social groups can influence individuals' political tolerance. This study examines the influence of incidental fear and happiness on adolescents' tolerant attitudes and feelings toward young Muslim asylum seekers. In our experiment, 219 16- to 21-year-olds completed measures of prejudicial attitudes. After being induced to feel happiness, fear, or no emotion (control), participants reported their tolerant attitudes and feelings toward asylum-seeking young people. Participants assigned to the happiness condition demonstrated more tolerant attitudes toward asylum-seeking young people than did those assigned to the fear or control conditions. Participants in the control condition did not differ from participants in the fear condition. The participants in the happiness condition also had more positive feelings toward asylum-seeking young people than did participants in the control condition. The findings suggest that one way to increase positive attitudes toward asylum-seeking young people is to improve general emotional state.
Kavanaugh, Megan L.; Moore, Ann M.; Akinyemi, Odunayo; Adewole, Isaac; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Awolude, Olutosin; Arulogun, Oyedunni
Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcome of an HIV-positive woman’s pregnancy – induced abortion or birth – to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards...
Mai Kikumori; Akinori Ono
Most research has shown that positive electric word-of-mouth (e-WOM) has positive effects, while negative e-WOM has negative effects on consumer attitude towards a product. However, negative e-WOM may have positive impacts rather than negative impacts. Using ANOVA in three experiments, this study found that negative e-WOM can have a positive impact on consumer attitude under some conditions, including when the e-WOM is in regard to hedonic products, when expert consumers read attribute-centri...
Karen Robinson; Robert C. Burns; Alan Graefe
This study explored the attitudes and perceptions of U.S. Forest Service employees concerning the Recreation Fee Demonstration Program (RFDP) in the Pacific Northwest Region (Region 6, Oregon and Washington), and their perceptions of how recreation fees should be used once the money is collected. Employees who reported that they were in a recreationrelated position...
An experimental study was embarked upon to ascertain the effectiveness or otherwise of a drug counselling programme in facilitating the formation of positive ... Counselling Programme be incorporated into the counsellor education programme of all training institutions and that the counsellor should be part of the team ...
Moore, Ann M.; Akinyemi, Odunayo; Adewole, Isaac; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Awolude, Olutosin; Arulogun, Oyedunni
Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcome of an HIV-positive woman’s pregnancy – induced abortion or birth – to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards each outcome. Data come from community-based interviews with reproductive-aged men and women, 2401 in Zambia and 2452 in Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from both countries overwhelmingly favoured continued childbearing for HIV-positive pregnant women, but support for induced abortion was slightly higher in scenarios in which anti-retroviral therapy (ART) was unavailable. Zambian respondents held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than did Nigerian respondents. Women held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than men, particularly in Zambia. From a sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective, efforts to assist HIV-positive women in preventing unintended pregnancy and to support them in their pregnancy decisions when they do become pregnant should be encouraged in order to combat the social stigma documented in this paper. PMID:23173695
Kavanaugh, Megan L; Moore, Ann M; Akinyemi, Odunayo; Adewole, Isaac; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Awolude, Olutosin; Arulogun, Oyedunni
Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcomes of an HIV-positive woman's pregnancy - induced abortion or birth - to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards each outcome. Data come from community-based interviews with reproductive-aged men and women, 2401 in Zambia and 2452 in Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from both countries overwhelmingly favoured continued childbearing for HIV-positive pregnant women, but support for induced abortion was slightly higher in scenarios in which anti-retroviral therapy (ART) was unavailable. Zambian respondents held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than did Nigerian respondents. Women held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than men, particularly in Zambia. From a sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective, efforts to assist HIV-positive women in preventing unintended pregnancy and to support them in their pregnancy decisions when they do become pregnant should be encouraged in order to combat the social stigma documented in this paper.
Full Text Available In the actual debate on refugees in Germany the media’s role was heavily disputed. To understand this controversy, this study examines hostile media perceptions from the audience perspective. Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes towards refugees as well as of mainstream media, social media and interpersonal communication on hostile media perceptions. Using survey data (N=1005 and applying structural equation modelling, several hypotheses on the effects of attitudes and communication variables were tested. The results demonstrate that perceptions of media bias are strongly influenced by people’s negative and positive attitudes towards refugees and the basic hostile media hypothesis was confirmed. Moreover, our findings reveal that the perceived intensity of media coverage on contested aspects of the refugee issue also has an effect on perceptions of hostility. However, the various communication variables did not prove to have direct effects, whereas mainstream media use, social media use, and interpersonal communication with refugees had indirect effects on the hostile media perception.
Alfawzan, Norah Saad
Despite opportunities for female leadership in the field of higher education made available through gender-segregation policies, women leaders are underrepresented in Saudi Arabia (Jamjoom & Kelly, 2013). There are obstacles that Saudi women face when seeking leadership positions in higher education, including societal attitudes on gender. Due…
Plants are an integral part of nature. Many plant species in almost any part of the world are under serious threats due to various reasons such as deforestation, pollution--of air, water and soil--caused by industrialisation, overgrazing and rapid population growth. It is likely that people have strong positive attitudes towards conservation of…
Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Zakaria, Roza Hazli; Satar, NurulHuda Mohd; Ng, Kok Peng; Lim, Soo Kun
Malaysia, which currently uses the informed consent system (ICS), is suffering from a severe shortage of organs for transplantation. Family members of dialysis patients (FMDPs) are expected to have a positive attitude toward deceased organ donation (DOD) because they have a close relative in need of a kidney donation. This study explores FMDPs' attitude toward DOD under the ICS and the presumed consent system (PCS). The attitude of 350 FMDPs toward DOD under the ICS and PCS were sought between June and October 2013 in 3 dialysis institutions in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Under the ICS, 6.6% of respondents were registered donors, 6.6% were ready to register at the time of the survey, 38.6% were willing to donate but not ready to register at the time of the survey, and 48.2% were unwilling to donate organs upon death. If the PCS were implemented, 57.7% of respondents (28.7% of the willing donors and 88.7% of the unwilling respondents) stated that they would officially object to organ donation. FMDPs' attitude toward DOD is not more positive or significantly better than that of the general public (based on earlier studies). The PCS may increase the number of donors, but it may also worsen the attitude of FMDPs toward DOD. Strategies aiming to promote DOD in Malaysia should be revised, and should perhaps be focused on enhancing trust of the medical system.
Full Text Available Purpose: The paper deals with the mathematical description of the gimballed attitude and heading reference systems, which can be applied in design of strategic precision navigation systems. The main goal is to created mathematical description taking into consideration the necessity to use different navigations operating modes of this class of navigation systems. To provide the high accuracy the indirect control is used when the position of the gimballed platform is controlled by signals of gyroscopic devices, which are corrected using accelerometer’s signals. Methods: To solve the given problem the methods of the classical theoretical mechanics, gyro theory, and inertial navigation are used. Results: The full mathematical model of the gimballed attitude and heading reference system is derived including descriptions of different operating modes. The mathematical models of the system Expressions for control and correction moments in the different modes are represented. The simulation results are given. Conclusions: The represented results prove efficiency of the proposed models. Developed mathematical models can be useful for design of navigation systems of the wide class of moving vehicles.
Cardinal, Bradley J.; Cardinal, Marita K.
Compared the role modeling attitudes and physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors of undergraduate students majoring in physical education and in elementary education. Student teacher surveys indicated that physical education majors had more positive attitudes toward role modeling physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors and…
i’attitude SPG ainsi que les erreurs d’attitude observdes durant ressai en mer. II caracterise ces erreurs come 6tant des procedures stochastiques. ..-’II...the multipath error, which changes with satellite geometry. The satellites, in 12 hour orbits , move through about 33 degrees in 4,000 seconds, which
Zahra Sharifi Feriz
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to examine home culture attachment construct and its underlying variables among Iranian English as Foreign Language learners as well as their attitudes towards English language learning. Pearson correlation is used with a sample of 411 English major university students from different provinces in Iran, mainly Khorasan Razavi, Khoran Jonoubi and Sistan Baluchestan participated in this study. As for the quantitative phase of data collection, the study employed home culture attachment and attitude towards English language learning questionnaires. The reliability and validity of these questionnaires are reported. A home culture attachment model and an attitude model are also developed and tested using structural equation modeling. The results suggest that all three subscales of attitudes (emotional, behavioral, and cognitive are positive and significant predictors of students' western attachment. From three subscales of attitude, only behavioral attitude is negative and significant predictors of students' religious attachment. In addition, Iranian attachment is influenced by cognitive attitudes and emotional attitudes. Besides, cognitive attitude is a positive and significant predictor of students' cultural attachment. It is also found that, artistic attachment is influenced by behavioral attitudes and emotional attitudes. Finally, the pedagogical implications are discussed in light of foreign language achievement.
Lawson, Janelle E; Cruz, Rebecca A; Knollman, Gregory A
Providing equal-status contact between those with and without disabilities can improve attitudes and reduce discrimination toward individuals with disabilities. This study investigated community service learning as a means by which to provide college students with equal-status contact with individuals with disabilities and increase their positive attitudes toward those with disabilities. A total of 166 college students in one university in the United States enrolled in an Introduction to Disability course received content on disability in society and participated in community service involving 20h of direct contact with individuals with disabilities. Findings indicated that college students who had prior contact with individuals with disabilities had more positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities than college students who did not have prior contact at the start of the course. For the college students who did not have any prior contact, their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities became significantly more positive at the end of the community service learning course. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuang, D.; Rim, H. J.; Schutz, B. E.; Abusali, P. A. M.
High precision geodetic applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) require highly precise ephemerides of the GPS satellites. An accurate model for the non-gravitational forces on the GPS satellites is a key to high quality GPS orbit determination, especially in long arcs. In this paper the effect of the satellite solar panel orientation error is investigated. These effects are approximated by empirical functions to model the satellite attitude variation in long arc orbit fit. Experiments show that major part of the long arc GPS orbit errors can be accommodated by introducing a periodic variation of the satellite solar panel orientation with respect to the satellite-Sun direction, the desired direction for solar panel normal vector, with an amplitude of about 1 degree and with a frequency of once per orbit revolution.
Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised. It is found that support for spanking (N=10,725) and valuing of obedience (N=10,043) are inversely related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of one's family of origin, and that these associations are robust to controls for one's current SES. A disadvantaged family background is found to increase support for spanking most among those with high current SES. Strong associations (robust to controls for SES indicators) are additionally found between African-American racial identity and support for authoritarian parenting. Prior research indicates that authoritarian parenting practices such as spanking may be harmful to children. Thus, if the parenting attitudes analyzed here translate into parenting practices, then this study's findings may point to a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test a cause-and-effect model of factors affecting sexual health among Taiwanese adolescents. A structural equation model was proposed in which the relationships among sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and safe sex behaviour were explored. The study collected data from 823 adolescent students at a junior college in Central Taiwan. Participants were assessed using the Sexual Knowledge Scale, Sexual Attitudes Scale, and Safe Sex Behaviour Questionnaire and the demographic data were collected. The preliminary model fit criteria, overall model fit, and fit of internal structure of model was used to assess the sexual health model fit. Results revealed that sexual knowledge had a negative effect on sex attitudes and had no significant effect on safe sex behaviour. Adolescents with more sexual knowledge had less positive sexual attitudes and did not show increased practices of safe sex behaviour. No significant correlation was found between sexual knowledge and safe sex behaviour of adolescents. Improvements in sexual attitudes were found to be irrelevant to the promotion of safe sex behaviour of adolescents. In order to ensure safe sexual health, it is strongly suggested that adolescents learn to be responsible for their own behaviours and attitudes and obtain correct knowledge about their understandings and evaluations of sexuality.
Pala, Andrea Norcini; Villano, Paola; Clinton, Lauren
Attitudes of Italian heterosexual men and women toward gay men, both HIV positive and negative, are poorly investigated. Italian culture is still extremely conservative and provides limited support to the gay community (e.g., lack of same-sex marriage recognition). Consequently, gay men experience social exclusion and disparities. The present study explores the association between homophobia and closeness with sexual orientation and HIV status. 261 heterosexual Italian men and women were asse...
Full Text Available A survey of nurse ward leaders understanding of, and their attitude to, community/ problem based learning (CPBL approach adopted for the education of nursing students in the degree programme of the University of Natal in Durban (UND was conducted. This was with a view to intervening, if necessary, to ensure positive understanding and attitude among the nurse leaders towards the non-traditional CPBL of UND nursing students. It was hypothesised that focused discussions, between facilitators and nurse ward leaders, aimed at providing information and explanation about the advantages of changing from traditional to non-traditional educational programmes in nursing would enhance positive attitude towards the students and their education programme. Using a questionnaire developed for this study, quantitative and qualitative data were twice collected at intervals of 5-6 months from 54 nurse ward leaders who interacted with the CPBL students in 27 wards of 2 provincial hospitals. The data, collected in the early part of the students’ deployment and at 5-6 months after included information about the participants understanding of CPBL; their rating of CPBL students in terms of expected knowledge and practice; and their attitude towards CPBL nursing students in clinical settings. Contact sessions were held with the participants in between the measures for a discussion about the CPBL programme and the expectations of the learners. Analysis of the pre and post measures showed more favourable attitude, improved understanding, and tolerance towards the students by the nurse ward leaders in the post-measures than in the pre-measures. The writers concluded that if students in this type of programme must experience satisfaction with less intimidation, implementers of CPBL programmes in nursing should relentlessly involve the qualified nurses and other professionals working with the students in informative discussions about the purpose and the process of learning
Full Text Available We have developed an attitude sensing S/W system, one of modules of Mission Analysis System(MAS, which simulates attitude sensing data as almost the same as the real sensor of a satellite in orbit. When attitude elements(¥á,¥ä of a satellite and positions of Earth, Moon, and Sun are given, the S/W system calculates look angles and dihedral angles of each celestial bodies relative to the rotations axis of the satellite. It consists of two sub-modules : One is ephemeris service module which consider the perturbations of four planets(Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn for positions of Sun and Moon and 4 x 4 earth gravitational potential terms for a satellite's position. The other is attitude simulation module which generates attitude sensing data. Varying the rotational axis of a satellite and it's orbital elements, we simulated the generating attitude sensing data with this S/W system and discussed their results.
Kolp, Haley M; Hershberger, Alexandra R; Sanders, Jasmyn; Um, Miji; Aalsma, Matthew; Cyders, Melissa A
Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms cooccur at high rates with illicit drug use in juvenile justice involved youth, which results in poorer outcomes; however, research has not identified where best to intervene in this relationship, limiting the identification of modifiable risk factors to reduce negative effects of CD symptoms. Two mediation models were examined to investigate the potential for CD symptoms to influence a reciprocal relationship between illicit drug use and positive drug attitudes, controlling for age, gender, and race. Data were examined for 245 juvenile justice involved youth (mean age = 15.46, SD = 1.30, range 12-18, 64.9% Black, 80.4% male) who completed court-ordered psychological assessments. Findings indicate: (1) Positive attitudes toward illicit drug use significantly mediated the relationship between CD symptoms and illicit drug use (β = 0.16, CI 0.09-0.27; test for indirect effect z = 4.17, p drug use significantly mediated the relationship between CD symptoms and positive attitudes toward illicit drug use (β = 0.20, CI 0.12-0.32; test for indirect effect z = 4.87, p drug use both indirectly, through more positive attitudes toward illicit drug use, and directly, which further strengthens positive attitudes toward illicit drug use.
Heise, Barbara A; Johnsen, Vickie; Himes, Deborah; Wing, Debra
Despite the increase of the older adult population, there exists a shortage of health care professionals trained to help this population remain independent as long as possible. Ageism, common among younger adults, affects the capacity building of health care for older adults. Research has indicated that increased knowledge about older adults, as well as exposure to the elderly, may alter nursing students' attitudes regarding careers in gerontological nursing. However, questions remain as to what are the most effective ways to provide gerontological content in nursing programs and enhance attitudes toward older adults.With the understanding that younger adults see a need to balance work and play, a baccalaureate nursing program provides examples of ways to accomplish this through integration of courses, simulations, positive images of aging, and learning activities that enhance empathy for both frail and healthy older adults.
Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.
Ghoochani, Omid M; Ghanian, Mansour; Baradaran, Masoud; Azadi, Hossein
Organisms that have been genetically engineered and modified (GM) are referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Bt crops are plants that have been genetically modified to produce certain proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which makes these plants resistant to certain lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetically Modified (GM) rice was produced in 2006 by Iranian researchers from Tarom Mowla'ii and has since been called 'Bt rice'. As rice is an important source of food for over 3 billion inhabitants on Earth, this study aims to use a correlational survey in order to shed light on the predicting factors relating to the extent of stakeholders' behavioral intentions towards Bt rice. It is assumed and the results confirm that "attitudes toward GM crops" can be used as a bridge in the Attitude Model and the Behavioral Intention Model in order to establish an integrated model. To this end, a case study was made of the Southwest part of Iran in order to verify this research model. This study also revealed that as a part of the integrated research framework in the Behavior Intention Model both constructs of attitude and the subjective norm of the respondents serve as the predicting factors of stakeholders' intentions of working with Bt rice. In addition, the Attitude Model, as the other part of the integrated research framework, showed that the stakeholders' attitudes toward Bt rice can only be determined by the perceived benefits (e.g. positive outcomes) of Bt rice.
Valia Alina Crespo Almeira
Full Text Available The paper addresses the importance of postural attitude in environmental ergonomics considering that ergonomics is a multidisciplinary discipline that studies the systemic interactions between human machine in the development of different physical activities in their environment with the purpose of obtaining a state health, safety, mechanical efficiency and productivity to prevent repetitive strain injuries, positions held and musculoskeletal problems which can develop over time and can reach disabilities short or long term. Considering the influence of the environment on man to work: thermal, sound, light environments and its impact on health; anthropometric and biomechanical data: measures of bone, amplitudes segments of joint movements; the characteristics of muscular effort: The efficiency and effectiveness in physical activities in its various manifestations is contingent on first order to study the physical conditions such as; thermal environment, noise levels, air conditioning level, vibration hygienic conditions, including conditions schedules and secondly the attitude that sums the man in front of the activities which in one way or another affect job performance. It addresses the influence of postural attitude in environmental ergonomics while performing physical activities of man from the importance and prevalence of health problems related to the non-application of standards of environmental ergonomics.
Full Text Available In a fully mechanized coal-mining face, the positioning and attitude of the shearer and scraper conveyor are inaccurate. To overcome this problem, a joint positioning and attitude solving method that considers the effect of an uneven floor is proposed. In addition, the real-time connection and coupling relationship between the two devices is analyzed. Two types of sensors, namely, the tilt sensor and strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS, are used to measure the shearer body pitch angle and the scraper conveyor shape, respectively. To improve the accuracy, two pieces of information are fused using the adaptive information fusion algorithm. It is observed that, using a marking strategy, the shearer body pitch angle can be reversely mapped to the real-time shape of the scraper conveyor. Then, a virtual-reality (VR software that can visually simulate this entire operation process under different conditions is developed. Finally, experiments are conducted on a prototype experimental platform. The positioning error is found to be less than 0.38 times the middle trough length; moreover, no accumulated error is detected. This method can monitor the operation of the shearer and scraper conveyor in a highly dynamic and precise manner and provide strong technical support for safe and efficient operation of a fully mechanized coal-mining face.
Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam
Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Xue; Mak, Winnie W S; Ho, Connie Y Y; Chidgey, Andrew
The present study examines the mediating effect of love attitude on the associations between relationship quality with self-stigma and mental health among HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). Participants included 211 HIV-positive MSM (M age = 41.77 years, SD = 11.10) and they were assessed on their relationship quality, love attitudes, HIV-positive self-stigma, and mental health. Structural equation modeling showed that the model fit the data well, χ 2 (50) = 152.80, p love attitude. The indirect effect of love attitude on mental health was significant through reduced self-stigma. The outcomes differed by the number of partners, partner's knowledge of HIV-positive status, relationship nature, and marital status. Implications for developing a positive self-in-love to diminish self-stigma were discussed.
Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling of a flexure-based precisionpositioning system for micro-positioning uses. The positioningsystem is featured with monolithic architecture, flexure-basedjoints and ultra fine adjustment screws. Its workspace has beenevaluated via analytical approaches. Reduction mechanism isoptimally designed. The mathematical model of the positioningsystem has been derived, which is verified by resorting to finiteelement analysis (FEA. The established analytical and (FEAmodels are helpful for a reliable architecture optimization andperformance improvement of the positioning system.
Terkamo-Moisio, Anja; Kvist, Tarja; Laitila, Teuvo; Kangasniemi, Mari; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Pietilä, Anna-Maija
The debate about euthanasia is ongoing in several countries including Finland. However, there is a lack of information on current attitudes toward euthanasia among general Finnish public. The traditional model for predicting individuals' attitudes to euthanasia is based on their age, gender, educational level, and religiosity. However, a new evaluation of religiosity is needed due to the limited operationalization of this factor in previous studies. This study explores the connections between the factors of the traditional model and the attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public in the Finnish context. The Finnish public's attitudes toward euthanasia have become remarkably more positive over the last decade. Further research is needed on the factors that predict euthanasia attitudes. We suggest two different explanatory models for consideration: one that emphasizes the value of individual autonomy and another that approaches euthanasia from the perspective of fears of death or the process of dying.
Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios
Purpose – Values-attitudes hierarchical models are quite frequent in the consumer behaviour literature. In attitudinal models speciﬁc to food produced in an environmentally friendly way (i.e. “green” food), past research evidence mainly originating in Western cultures posits that the strongest path...... of the model can be found among collectivistic consumer values, general environmental attitudes, and attitudes speciﬁc to green food. On the other hand, in non-Western cultures (i.e. China), green food (e.g. organic) is perceived by consumers as safer to consume. With this as point of departure, the present...... 2009 through a mall-intercept method. A total number of 479 respondents were recruited, equally distributed among the six cities. Findings – Collectivistic values and environmental attitudes were still found to be strong determinants of Chinese consumers’ attitudes towards green foods; contrary...
Crawley, Frank E.; Kobala, Thomas R., Jr.
Presents a summary of models and methods of attitude research which are embedded in the theoretical tenets of social psychology and in the broader framework of constructivism. Focuses on the construction of social reality rather than the construction of physical reality. Models include theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and…
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Modeling Determinants of Discriminatory Attitude towards HIV/AIDS. Patients in Zambia: A Generalized Additive Mixed Model. Oluwayemisi Oyeronke ALABA. Department of Statistics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria and Department of Statistics, University of South Africa, email@example.com. Abstract. The 2007 ...
Full Text Available Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Cognitive theory assumes a pivotal role of negative core beliefs about the self in dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression. Meanwhile, the role of positive core beliefs about the self in cognitive vulnerability to depression is unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship of negative and positive core beliefs about the self with dysfunctional attitudes in three aspects of life.Methods: The subjects were 311 Japanese volunteers. Core beliefs of negative-self and positive-self were evaluated by the corresponding subscales of the Brief Core Schema Scales. Dysfunctional attitudes in the areas of achievement, dependency and self-control were measured by the corresponding subscales of the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale.Results: The negative-self subscale was correlated with the achievement, dependency and self-control subscales. The positive-self subscale was correlated with the achievement and self-control subscales.Conclusion: The present study suggests that negative core beliefs about the self underlie all types of dysfunctional attitudes, while positive core beliefs about the self have some connections with dysfunctional attitudes related to achievement and self-control. Keywords: negative-self, achievement, dependency, self-control, depression
Norcini Pala, Andrea; Villano, Paola; Clinton, Lauren
Attitudes of Italian heterosexual men and women toward gay men, both HIV positive and negative, are poorly investigated. Italian culture is still extremely conservative and provides limited support to the gay community (e.g., lack of same-sex marriage recognition). Consequently, gay men experience social exclusion and disparities. The present study explores the association between homophobia and closeness with sexual orientation and HIV status. 261 heterosexual Italian men and women were assessed for feelings of closeness and homophobia after reading a vignette where the character was C1: heterosexual and HIV negative; C2: gay and HIV negative; or C3: gay and HIV positive. Experiences of homophobia and closeness varied depending on gender of participant and condition assigned, and higher levels of homophobia were correlated with lower levels of closeness regardless of HIV status. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Sridhar, Banavar; Chatterji, Gano B.; Soni, Tarun; Showman, Robert D. (Technical Monitor)
This paper investigates the use of imaging sensors to estimate the position of an aircraft with respect to the runway during landing. Passive vision techniques to estimate aircraft position during landing rely on the known runway model, images acquired by onboard imaging sensor, orientation information provided by the inertial navigation system and the position estimate provided by devices such as the global positioning system. Point features in the runway model are compared with the onboard sensor images of the features and the difference between the two is used to correct the aircraft position and orientation. In this paper the sensitivity of point features is examined as a means of determining the accuracy of such position estimation techniques. Expressions are derived for the sensitivity of image point to errors in the position and orientation of the sensor. Using these, the sensitivity of the image to aircraft position and orientation errors along a typical landing glide path is studied. A least squares technique based on this sensitivity analysis is described for the correction of position and orientation estimates. The final version of the paper will include results from the application of this analysis to real image sequences collected in flight.
The aim of this thesis is to present algorithms for autonomous control of tilt-rotor quadcopter UAV. In particular, this research work describes position, attitude and fault tolerant control in tilt-rotor quadcopter. Quadcopters are one of the most popular and reliable unmanned aerial systems because of the design simplicity, hovering capabilities and minimal operational cost. Numerous applications for quadcopters have been explored all over the world but very little work has been done to explore design enhancements and address the fault-tolerant capabilities of the quadcopters. The tilting rotor quadcopter is a structural advancement of traditional quadcopter and it provides additional actuated controls as the propeller motors are actuated for tilt which can be utilized to improve efficiency of the aerial vehicle during flight. The tilting rotor quadcopter design is accomplished by using an additional servo motor for each rotor that enables the rotor to tilt about the axis of the quadcopter arm. Tilting rotor quadcopter is a more agile version of conventional quadcopter and it is a fully actuated system. The tilt-rotor quadcopter is capable of following complex trajectories with ease. The control strategy in this work is to use the propeller tilts for position and orientation control during autonomous flight of the quadcopter. In conventional quadcopters, two propellers rotate in clockwise direction and other two propellers rotate in counter clockwise direction to cancel out the effective yawing moment of the system. The variation in rotational speeds of these four propellers is utilized for maneuvering. On the other hand, this work incorporates use of varying propeller rotational speeds along with tilting of the propellers for maneuvering during flight. The rotational motion of propellers work in sync with propeller tilts to control the position and orientation of the UAV during the flight. A PD flight controller is developed to achieve various modes of the
Edo-Gual, Montserrat; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín
To analyse the relationship between death attitudes, emotional intelligence, resilience and self-esteem in a sample of nursing undergraduates. The death attitudes held by nursing students may influence the care they offer to end-of-life patients and their families. Emotional intelligence, resilience and self-esteem are important social and emotional competencies for coping positively with death and dying. Cross-sectional and correlational study. Participants were 760 nursing undergraduates from four nursing schools in Spain. Data were collected in 2013-2014. The students responded anonymously to a self-report questionnaire that gathered socio-demographic data and which assessed the following aspects: fear of death (Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale), death anxiety (Death Anxiety Inventory-Revised), perceived emotional intelligence (Trait Meta-Mood Scale, with its three dimensions: attention, clarity and repair), resilience (Brief Resilient Coping Scale) and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). In addition to descriptive statistics, analyses of variance, mean differences, correlations and regression analyses were computed. Linear regression analysis indicated that attention to feelings, resilience and self-esteem are the significant predictors of death anxiety. The results show that death anxiety and fear of death are modulated by social and emotional competencies associated with positive coping. The training offered to future nurses should include not only scientific knowledge and technical skills but also strategies for developing social and emotional competencies. In this way, they will be better equipped to cope positively and constructively with the suffering and death they encounter at work, thus helping them to offer compassionate patient-centred care and minimising the distress they experience in the process. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy σ σ < 0.5 deg. In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.
Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their participation in the modelling activity changed as the activity proceeded. Overall, it can be said that three of the four group members acted as insiders, while the fourth acted as an outsider, and only, towards the end of the group's work on the activity, he acted as an insider. Moreover, the research findings point at four factors that affected the group members' positionings and emotions during the modelling activity: the member's characteristics, the member's history of learning experiences, the activity characteristics and the modelling phases. Furthermore, the different positionings of the group members in the different modelling phases were accompanied by different emotions experienced by them, where being an insider and a collaborator resulted in positive emotions, while being an outsider resulted in negative emotions.
Joseba González Ardeo
Full Text Available This exploratory small-scale study focuses on the attitude towards learning English and levels of motivation of 132 engineering students from the University of the Basque Country (Spain. The extent to which they consider themselves competent in three languages (Basque/Spanish/English is also evaluated. For assessing these variables, a 35-item questionnaire is used. The participants were taking an ESP (English for Specific Purposes course and were familiar with English as a vehicular language through CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning and/or EMI (English Medium Instruction courses. The results demonstrate that their attitude is positive, and it has improved since 2003, despite certain historical events concerning the minority language (Basque. With regard to motivation, the students show a high level of instrumental orientation but a low level of extrinsic-integrative motivation. Relatively high levels of intrinsic motivation are also observed, not far from extrinsic-instrumental motivation levels. The students’ mother tongue (Basque vs. Spanish vs. Basque/Spanish does not affect results significantly. Finally, high levels of self-perceived confidence with respect to their command of English are observed.
Dorothee Arlt; Jens Wolling
In the actual debate on refugees in Germany the media’s role was heavily disputed. To understand this controversy, this study examines hostile media perceptions from the audience perspective. Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes towards refugees as well as of mainstream media, social media and interpersonal communication on hostile medi...
The paper proposes an integrative model of the antecedents and consequences of brand extension attitude based on the dominant cognitive paradigm. The four key processes of the model are : (1) the perception of fit, (2) the formation of primary attitudes towards the extension, (3) the link between extension attitude and marketplace behaviour and (4) the reciprocal effect of brand extension attitude on parent brand/extension category attitude. Moderator and control variables of these processes ...
Bilgin, Nevruz; Dalkiran, Oguzhan
The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of sports education model and direct teaching model on the attitudes of the students, and the differences among the attitudes of students. The study group of the research included 29 students from 6th and 7th grade of a secondary school in the 2015-2016 academic years. The experimental group…
A model is proposed for a class of two-person games based on the occupation of positions on a board. Well-known games that can be rephrased within or with the help of the model are, for example, tic-tac-toe, qubic, go-moku, hex, and connect-four. The model is formulated in terms of a composite algebraic structure called board. A notion of board isomorphism is defined, a few concepts fundamental for positional board game playing are identified, and necessary and sufficient conditions for establishing the isomorphism of two boards are proved. The formalism of the model provides criteria for the description and analysis of a board that are more abstract than its physical characteristics such as size and dimensionality. The application of the isomorphism results to the implementation of more general and efficient software modules for game playing is discussed. Related work is briefly outlined and compared.
Del Carmen Giménez-Espert, María; Prado-Gascó, Vicente Javier
To analyse link between empathy and emotional intelligence (EI) as a predictor of nurses' attitudes towards communication while comparing the contribution of emotional aspects and attitudinal elements on potential behaviour. Nurses' attitudes towards communication, empathy and emotional intelligence are key skills for nurses involved in patient care. There are currently no studies analysing this link, and its investigation is needed because attitudes may influence communication behaviours. Correlational study. To attain this goal, self-reported instruments (attitudes towards communication of nurses (ACO), trait emotional intelligence (TMMS24), and Jefferson-scale empathy (JSNE)) were collected from 460 nurses between September 2015 and February 2016. Two different analytical methodologies were used: traditional regression models and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis models (fsQCA). The results of the regression model suggest that cognitive dimensions of attitude are a significant and positive predictor of the behavioural dimension. The perspective-taking dimension of empathy and the emotional-clarity dimension of emotional intelligence were significant positive predictors of the dimensions of attitudes towards communication, except for the affective dimension (for which the association was negative). The results of the fsQCA models confirm that the combination of high levels of cognitive dimension of attitudes, perspective-taking and emotional clarity explained high levels of the behavioural dimension of attitude. Empathy and EI are predictors of nurses' attitudes towards communication, and the cognitive dimension of attitude is a good predictor of the behavioural dimension of ACO in both regression models and fsQCA. In general, the fsQCA models appear to be better predictors than the regression models are. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Drake, Richard J; Nordentoft, Merete; Haddock, Gillian; Arango, Celso; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Glenthøj, Birte; Leboyer, Marion; Leucht, Stefan; Leweke, Markus; McGuire, Phillip; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Rujescu, Dan; Sommer, Iris E; Kahn, René S; Lewis, Shon W
We aimed to design a multimodal intervention to improve adherence following first episode psychosis, consistent with current evidence. Existing literature identified medication attitudes, insight, and characteristics of support as important determinants of adherence to medication: we examined medication attitudes, self-esteem, and insight in an early psychosis cohort better to understand their relationships. Existing longitudinal data from 309 patients with early Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nonaffective psychosis (83% first episode) were analyzed to test the hypothesis that medication attitudes, while meaningfully different from "insight," correlated with insight and self-esteem, and change in each influenced the others. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Birchwood Insight Scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale insight were assessed at presentation, after 6 weeks and 3 and 18 months. Drug Attitudes Inventory (DAI) and treatment satisfaction were rated from 6 weeks onward. Structural equation models of their relationships were compared. Insight measures' and DAI's predictive validity were compared against relapse, readmission, and remission. Analysis found five latent constructs best fitted the data: medication attitudes, self-esteem, accepting need for treatment, self-rated insight, and objective insight. All were related and each affected the others as it changed, except self-esteem and medication attitudes. Low self-reported insight at presentation predicted readmission. Good 6-week insight (unlike drug attitudes) predicted remission. Literature review and data modeling indicated that a multimodal intervention using motivational interviewing, online psychoeducation, and SMS text medication reminders to enhance adherence without damaging self-concept was feasible and appropriate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For
Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Melenberg, B.; Schumacher, J.M.
In this paper we test several risk management models for computing expected shortfall for one-period hedge errors of hedged derivatives positions.Contrary to value-at-risk, expected shortfall cannot be tested using the standard binomial test, since we need information of the distribution in the
Zhang, Ping; Ding, Lin; Mazur, Eric
This paper analyzes pre-post matched gains in the epistemological views of science students taking the introductory physics course at Beijing Normal University (BNU) in China. In this study we examined the attitudes and beliefs of science majors (n =441 ) in four classes, one taught using traditional (lecture) teaching methods, and the other three taught with Peer Instruction (PI). In two of the PI classes, student peer groups were constantly changing throughout the semester, while in the other PI class student groups remained fixed for the duration of the semester. The results of the pre- and post-test using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey showed that students in traditional lecture settings became significantly more novicelike in their beliefs about physics and learning physics over the course of a semester, a result consistent with what was reported in the literature. However, all three of the classes taught using the PI method improved student attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. In the PI class with fixed peer groups, students exhibited a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs than in the other PI class with changing peer groups. The study also looked at gender differences in student learning attitudes. Gender results revealed that female science majors in the PI classes achieved a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs after instruction than did male students.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes pre-post matched gains in the epistemological views of science students taking the introductory physics course at Beijing Normal University (BNU in China. In this study we examined the attitudes and beliefs of science majors (n=441 in four classes, one taught using traditional (lecture teaching methods, and the other three taught with Peer Instruction (PI. In two of the PI classes, student peer groups were constantly changing throughout the semester, while in the other PI class student groups remained fixed for the duration of the semester. The results of the pre- and post-test using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey showed that students in traditional lecture settings became significantly more novicelike in their beliefs about physics and learning physics over the course of a semester, a result consistent with what was reported in the literature. However, all three of the classes taught using the PI method improved student attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. In the PI class with fixed peer groups, students exhibited a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs than in the other PI class with changing peer groups. The study also looked at gender differences in student learning attitudes. Gender results revealed that female science majors in the PI classes achieved a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs after instruction than did male students.
Karman, Pieter; Kool, Nienke; Gamel, Claudia; van Meijel, Berno
Nurses experience feelings of frustration, anger and fear when caring for patients who self-harm. Training programmes were developed that aimed to positively influence nurses' knowledge, attitudes and skills. The aim of this study was to investigate professional behavior of mental health nurses with positively changed attitudes after following a training program. Using grounded theory, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 mental health nurses. Participants reported using less restrictive interventions, being more patient oriented, and choosing a more empathic and exploratory approach after the training. A work environment conductive to making autonomous professional decisions with supportive colleagues enabled these changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stanojević Dragana Z.
Full Text Available The concept of positive mental health represents not merely the absence of mental disease but presence of high level of happiness and well-being. In this paper we mentioned shortly the earliest concept of mental health, presented by Marie Jahoda in the mid-twentieth century. After that, we described two traditions in understanding and researching of subjective well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic approach. First approach focuses on investigation of positive affects and happiness as emotional and life satisfaction as cognitive component of subjective well-being. Second tradition emphasizes potentials and competences that person develops to the highest level, in personal and social area. Both psychological and social well-being are core concept of positive mental health psychology, designated together as positive functioning. The psychological well-being comprises six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose of life and personal growth. Social well-being consists of five dimensions: social integration, social acceptance, social contribution, social actualization and social coherence. By integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as well as absence of mental disease, Corey Keyes introduced concept of complete mental health. People with complete mental health have reported absence of disease during past year and presence of high level of emotional, psychological and social well-being (flourishing. People with incomplete mental health have also reported absence of mental disease but low level of positive functioning (languishing. Keyes thought there are people with complete and incomplete mental illness; both groups report presence of mental disease, but second group has high level of positive functioning. Models of positive mental health are widely used in research studies as well as in programs for prevention and promotion of mental health. .
A new global navigation satellite system (GNSS) carrier-phase attitude model and its solution are introduced in this contribution. This affine-constrained GNSS attitude model has the advantage that it avoids the computational complexity of the orthonormality-constrained GNSS attitude model, while it
Marković Ana Tripković
Full Text Available There are various definitions of tourist destination. All of them define tourist destination as an area with specific tourist facilities and attractions, (primary and secondary elements which tourists choose as their journey goal. Budva individually represents the largest tourist destination due to number of arrivals and overnight stays. During its life cycle Budva has gone through different phases as a tourist destination. This thesis implies that it is not enough to use only common quantitative indicator of visitor number to define proper the position of tourist destination and predict further development. This text is based on a comparative analysis of the attitudes of tourists and local stakeholders in the three field researches, conducted in the period between 2015 and 2016. The thesis comes to the conclusion that the actual growth is based on meeting the needs of existing markets and tourists. On the other side, aspect of desired market position disagrees with scores of tourist offer elements- which should be input for improvement and preparation for the next stage in the destination development.
Vingilis, Evelyn; Roseborough, James E W; Wiesenthal, David L; Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Nuzzo, Valentina; Fischer, Peter; Mann, Robert E
This study examined the short-term effects of risky driving motor vehicle television commercials on risk-positive attitudes, emotions and risky driving inclinations in video-simulated critical road traffic situations among males and females, within an experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three televised commercial advertising conditions embedded in a television show: a risky driving motor vehicle commercial condition, a non-risky driving motor vehicle commercial condition and a control non-motor vehicle commercial condition. Participants subsequently completed the Implicit Attitude Test (IAT) to measure risk-positive attitudes, Driver Thrill Seeking Scale (DTSS) to measure risk-positive emotions and the Vienna Risk-Taking Test - Traffic (WRBTV) to measure risky driving inclinations. ANOVA analyses indicated that type of commercial participants watched did not affect their performance on the IAT, DTSS or WRBTV. However, a main effect of heightened risk-positive emotions and risky driving inclinations was found for males. Despite public and governmental concern that risky driving motor vehicle commercials may increase the likelihood that people exposed to these commercials engage in risky driving, this experimental study found no immediate effect of brief exposure to a risky driving motor vehicle commercial on risk-positive attitudes, emotions or risky driving inclinations. Subsequent research should examine the effects of cumulative exposure to risky driving motor vehicle television commercials and print advertisements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora
Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…
Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael
This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants…
Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander
Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is…
Karman, P.; Kool, N.; Gamel, C.; van Meijel, B.
Nurses experience feelings of frustration, anger and fear when caring for patients who self-harm. Training programmes were developed that aimed to positively influence nurses' knowledge, attitudes and skills. The aim of this study was to investigate professional behavior of mental health nurses with
Nam, Chang Woo; Zellner, Ronald D.
This study investigated the effects of positive interdependence and group processing on student achievement and attitude in online learning. Students in three university courses received initial instruction about teamwork skills and cooperative learning and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups in each course. The "positive…
Wagner, Laura K; Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André
Previous research found that introducing difficulties and challenges during learning has desirable outcomes. With the present work, we investigated the question how the use of and the attitudes toward such learning strategies (so-called desirable difficulties ) are related to self-compassion, a concept that describes the tendency to be understanding and kind to oneself when confronted with negative experiences. Evidence suggests self-compassion to be linked to less fear of failing, and further to higher control beliefs and mastery goals in learning. Given that applying desirable difficulties in self-regulated learning implies increased challenges, and further, a higher likelihood to experience a feeling of failing, we expected that the use of desirable difficulties increases with levels of self-compassion. We tested this hypothesis in an online study ( N = 136) in which self-compassion and the self-reported use of and attitudes toward strategies of desirable difficulties were assessed via respective questionnaires. Results of a correlation analysis yielded first evidence for our idea. Decomposing self-compassion into a positive and a negative facet showed that the positive, but not the negative, facet is positively correlated with attitudes toward and the use of desirable difficulties. Additionally, a regression analysis showed that the positive but not the negative facet predicted attitudes toward and use of desirable difficulties, when entering both facets simultaneously as predictors. Practical implications for learners are discussed.
Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael
This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants hydroponically (in water without soil). Participants' attitudes toward science, including anxiety, desire, and self-concept, were examined through pre-post survey data ( n = 234) over the course of an afterschool program at three separate sites. Data showed that participants' anxiety decreased and desire increased for both male and female participants over the program. Self-concept increased for female participants at all three sites but did not change significantly for male participants. Participants' first language (English or Spanish) was not a factor in attitude outcomes. The primarily positive outcomes suggest that hydroponics can be a useful educational platform for engaging participants in garden-based programming year round, particularly for settings that do not have the physical space or climate to conduct outdoor gardening. Similarities in positive attitude outcomes at the three sites despite differences in format, implementation, and instructor background experience suggest that the program is resilient to variation in context. Understanding which aspects of the program facilitated positive outcomes in the varied contexts could be useful for the design of future programs.
Bendíková, Elena; Dobay, Beáta
The study explains the importance and the role of physical and sport education in development of a positive attitude toward physical activity and health in adulthood. The empirical study was aimed at finding the factor that contributed to the transfer of respondents' physical activity into their adulthood with regard to their health status. The…
Adibe, Maxwell O; Aluh, Deborah O
The incidence of cervical cancer (CC) in the sub-Saharan Africa region, where Nigeria is located, is amongst the highest in the world; it is estimated that 70,722 new cases of invasive cervical cancer occur annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunosuppression, especially due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is a predisposing factor for persistent infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) and the development of squamous intraepithelial lesions. Four hundred and fifty women who attended the HIV clinic at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly selected. They were given self-administered questionnaires which sought to determine their awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and prevention. The media 23% (n = 103) was the most common source of information amongst respondents who had heard about cervical cancer. For all the women surveyed, the average percentage knowledge was 9.95%. Having attitude scores greater than or equal to the mean attitude score of 55.16% was regarded as having a positive attitude while a score lower than that was regarded as negative attitude. About 43.5% (n = 195) respondents had a positive attitude towards cervical cancer screening and prevention. Cervical cancer awareness and knowledge amongst women attending the HIV clinic in the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, were very poor. Their attitude towards cervical cancer screening practices and prevention was also very poor.
Koh, Eugen; Shrimpton, Bradley
Exhibitions of art by people with experience of mental illness are increasingly being staged to improve awareness of mental health issues in the general community and to counter the stigma of mental illness. However, few exhibitions have incorporated research to ascertain their actual effectiveness. This paper reports the results of a study that considered the responses of 10,000 people after they viewed exhibitions of art produced by people with experience of mental illness. These works were selected from the Cunningham Dax Collection, one of the world's most extensive collection of artworks by people with experience of mental illness and/or psychological trauma. More than 90% of respondents agreed with three propositions that the exhibitions helped them: (1) gain a better understanding of mental illness; (2) gain a more sympathetic understanding of the suffering of people with mental illness; and (3) appreciate the ability and creativity of people with mental illness. The results suggest that exhibitions can successfully promote mental health literacy and contribute to positive attitudes towards people with experience of mental illness. This paper explores these findings and raises questions about how the presentation of artworks in an exhibition influences their effectiveness in mental health promotion.
Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil
Centenarians have been reported to share particular personality traits including low neuroticism and high extraversion and conscientiousness. Since these traits have moderate to high heritability and are associated with various health outcomes, personality appears linked to bio-genetic mechanisms which may contribute to exceptional longevity. Therefore, the present study sought to detect genetically-based personality phenotypes in a genetically homogeneous sample of centenarians through developing and examining psychometric properties of a brief measure of the personality of centenarians, the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS). The results generated two personality characteristics/domains, Positive Attitude Towards Life (PATL: optimism, easygoing, laughter, and introversion/outgoing) and Emotional Expression (EE: expressing emotions openly and not bottling up emotions). These domains demonstrated acceptable concurrent validity with two established personality measures, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Life Orientation Test-Revised. Additionally, centenarians in both groups had lower neuroticism and higher conscientiousness than the US adult population. Findings suggest that the POPS is a psychometrically sound measure of personality in centenarians and capture personality aspects of extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, as well as dispositional optimism which may contribute to successful aging.
Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida
Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer-reviewed r......Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...
Petrovic, Marija; Vasic, Vladimir; Petrovic, Oliver; Santric-Milicevic, Milena
To identify potential predictors of using only non-violent forms of discipline for children aged 2-14 years and of being against physical punishment among Roma and non-Roma parents/caregivers in Eastern European countries with similar cultural-historical backgrounds. UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data collected in 2010-2011 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia (total of 9973 respondents) were analysed using multivariate logistic regression modelling with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Approximately 27 % of the respondents practiced only non-violent child discipline. Roma children experienced only non-violent discipline less than half as often as their non-Roma counterparts. Household wealth index and child sex were significant predictors of positive parenting attitudes and practice. For Roma respondents, rural residence also contributed to being against physical punishment. Parents\\caregivers from more affluent households are more likely than those who are less affluent to be against physical punishment of children and are more likely to practice only non-violent discipline. Evidence-based interventions are required to support existing positive forms of child rearing. These should target less affluent households from Roma settlements in the studied countries.
Hawkins, Guy E; Marley, A A J; Heathcote, Andrew; Flynn, Terry N; Louviere, Jordan J; Brown, Scott D
Discrete choice experiments--selecting the best and/or worst from a set of options--are increasingly used to provide more efficient and valid measurement of attitudes or preferences than conventional methods such as Likert scales. Discrete choice data have traditionally been analyzed with random utility models that have good measurement properties but provide limited insight into cognitive processes. We extend a well-established cognitive model, which has successfully explained both choices and response times for simple decision tasks, to complex, multi-attribute discrete choice data. The fits, and parameters, of the extended model for two sets of choice data (involving patient preferences for dermatology appointments, and consumer attitudes toward mobile phones) agree with those of standard choice models. The extended model also accounts for choice and response time data in a perceptual judgment task designed in a manner analogous to best-worst discrete choice experiments. We conclude that several research fields might benefit from discrete choice experiments, and that the particular accumulator-based models of decision making used in response time research can also provide process-level instantiations for random utility models. © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Huang, Hui-Ru; Chen, Chi-Wen; Chen, Chin-Mi; Yang, Hsiao-Ling; Su, Wen-Jen; Wang, Jou-Kou; Tsai, Pei-Kwei
Health-promoting behaviors could serve as a major strategy to optimize long-term outcomes for adolescents with congenital heart disease. The associations assessed from a positive perspective of knowledge, attitudes, and practice model would potentially cultivate health-promoting behaviors during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between disease knowledge, resilience, family functioning, and health-promoting behaviors in adolescents with congenital heart disease. A total of 320 adolescents with congenital heart disease who were aged 12-18 years were recruited from pediatric cardiology outpatient departments, and participated in a cross-sectional survey. The participants completed the Leuven Knowledge Questionnaire for Congenital Heart Disease; Haase Adolescent Resilience in Illness Scale; Family Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve; and Adolescent Health Promotion scales. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and three multiple regression models. Greater knowledge of prevention of complications and higher resilience had a more powerful effect in enhancing health-promoting behaviors. Having symptoms and moderate or severe family dysfunction were significantly more negatively predictive of health-promoting behaviors than not having symptoms and positive family function. The third model explained 40% of the variance in engaging in health-promoting behaviors among adolescents with congenital heart disease. The findings of this study provide new insights into the role of disease knowledge, resilience, and family functioning in the health-promoting behavior of adolescents with congenital heart disease. Continued efforts are required to plan family care programs that promote the acquisition of sufficient disease knowledge and the development of resilience for adolescents with congenital heart disease.
Laurence, James; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles
This study advances the current literature investigating the relationship between contextual out-group exposure, inter-group attitudes and the role of inter-group contact. Firstly, it introduces the concept of contact-valence into this relationship; that is, whether contact is experienced positively or negatively. Secondly, it presents a comparative analysis of how processes of out-group exposure and frequency of (valenced) contact affect prejudice across both neighbourhoods and workplaces. Applying path analysis modelling to a nationally-representative sample of white British individuals in England, we demonstrate, across both contexts, that increasing out-group exposure is associated with higher rates of both positively- and negatively-valenced contact. This results in exposure exhibiting both positive and negative indirect associations with prejudice via more frequent inter-group mixing. These countervailing contact-pathways help explain how out-group exposure is associated with inter-group attitudes. In neighbourhoods, increasing numbers of individuals experiencing positive-contact suppress an otherwise negative effect of neighbourhood diversity (driven partly by increasing numbers of individuals reporting negative contact). Across workplaces the effect differs such that increasing numbers of individuals experiencing negative-contact suppress an otherwise positive effect of workplace diversity (driven largely by increasing numbers of individuals experiencing positive contact).
Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.
The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.
Wan, Zhi Hong; Lee, John Chi Kin
This study explored two under-researched areas on students' attitudes towards science, that is, the structural models representing these attitudes and the role played by school bands in moderating the gender differences in such attitudes. The participants were 360 ninth graders in Hong Kong from 3 school bands. The structural equation modelling…
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the success of developed countries in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS, the disease is expanding in developing countries where an unfavorable attitude exists among people, health professionals and employees. This study aimed to assess the stigmatized attitude among health care providers toward people living with HIV (PLWHA. Methods: The study is a cross-sectional survey. The data were gathered using a structured questionnaire. The study sample included 575 health care providers of public and private hospitals in Shiraz. The data were gathered using a structured questionnaire in spring 2014. Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 21. Results: The most dominant attitude of the health care providers toward HIV/AIDS patients was related to fear (42.42%. According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between stigmatized attitude of the health care providers and their religious beliefs, society stigmatized attitude, and knowledge of transmission routes. The relationship between social stigmatized attitude of health care providers and their knowledge of transmission routes, with their willingness to provide services to patients is significant, as well (P<0.05. 39.6% and 46.2% of the respondents preferred not to provide services to the prostitutes and homosexual patients. Conclusion: Fear of contamination and social stigmatized attitude are the main impediments to dealing with patients and providing services to them. Hence, it seems that creating an effective knowledge about transmission and correcting the socio-cultural beliefs of health providers are two key strategies to tackle this problem.
Adejumo, O; Ganga-Limando, M
A survey of nurse ward leaders understanding of, and their attitude to, community/problem based learning (CPBL) approach adopted for the education of nursing students in the degree programme of the University of Natal in Durban (UND) was conducted. This was with a view to intervening, if necessary, to ensure positive understanding and attitude among the nurse leaders towards the non-traditional CPBL of UND nursing students. It was hypothesised that focused discussions, between facilitators and nurse ward leaders, aimed at providing information and explanation about the advantages of changing from traditional to non-traditional educational programmes in nursing would enhance positive attitude towards the students and their education programme. Using a questionnaire developed for this study, quantitative and qualitative data were twice collected at intervals of 5-6 months from 54 nurse ward leaders who interacted with the CPBL students in 27 wards of 2 provincial hospitals. The data, collected in the early part of the students' deployment and at 5-6 months after included information about the participants understanding of CPBL; their rating of CPBL students in terms of expected knowledge and practice; and their attitude towards CPBL nursing students in clinical settings. Contact sessions were held with the participants in between the measures for a discussion about the CPBL programme and the expectations of the learners. Analysis of the pre and post measures showed more favourable attitude, improved understanding, and tolerance towards the students by the nurse ward leaders in the post-measures than in the pre-measures. The writers concluded that if students in this type of programme must experience satisfaction with less intimidation, implementers of CPBL programmes in nursing should relentlessly involve the qualified nurses and other professionals working with the students in informative discussions about the purpose and the process of learning in such programmes.
Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp
Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific
Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander
Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is mediated by increased daytime tiredness and lower self-discipline/behavioral persistence. Further, we address the question whether adolescents who start school modestly later (20 min; n = 343) receive more sleep and report better functioning. Sleeping less than an average of 8 h per night was related to more tiredness, inferior behavioral persistence, less positive attitude toward life, and lower school grades, as compared to longer sleep duration. Daytime tiredness and behavioral persistence mediated the relationship between short sleep duration and positive attitude toward life and school grades. Students who started school 20 min later received reliably more sleep and reported less tiredness. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Medeiros, Donald J.
The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college graduates and their underrepresentation in the STEM workforce, women provide the greatest opportunity for fulfilling this need. The term social model represents the individuals and media that shape children's self-perceptions. Social models have been shown to positively influence girl's perceptions of the value of math and science as well as their expectations of success. This study examined differences in attitudes towards math and science among student participants in corporate STEM programs. Differences were measured based on participant gender and ethnicity, their mentor's gender and ethnicity, and program design differences. The research purpose was to inform the design of corporate STEM programs to improve female participants' attitudes towards math and science and eventually increase the number of women in the STEM workforce. Over three hundred students in differing corporate STEM programs completed math and science attitudinal scales at the start and end of their programs. Study results revealed, prior to program start, female participants had a better attitude towards math and science than male participants. Analysis of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data showed similar results. Overall program results demonstrated higher post program math and science attitudes with no differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity of the participant or mentor. Participants with high program or mentor satisfaction were found to have higher attitudes towards math and science. These results may suggest improving female academic choice requires more focus on their expectations of success than perceived task
Joseph, Stephen; Linley, P. Alex
Comments on "Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions" by Seligman, Steen, Park, and Peterson (see record 2005-08033-003). Seligman and colleagues provided a progress report on positive psychology, reviewing the impressive developments over the past five years. We wholeheartedly support the positive psychology movement…
Rocklage, Matthew D; Fazio, Russell H
Despite the centrality of both attitude accessibility and attitude basis to the last 30 years of theoretical and empirical work concerning attitudes, little work has systematically investigated their relation. The research that does exist provides conflicting results and is not at all conclusive given the methodology that has been used. The current research uses recent advances in statistical modeling and attitude measurement to provide the most systematic examination of the relation between attitude accessibility and basis to date. Specifically, we use mixed-effects modeling which accounts for variation across individuals and attitude objects in conjunction with the Evaluative Lexicon (EL)-a linguistic approach that allows for the simultaneous measurement of an attitude's valence, extremity, and emotionality. We demonstrate across four studies, over 10,000 attitudes, and nearly 50 attitude objects that attitudes based on emotion tend to be more accessible in memory, particularly if the attitude is positive.
Javier Blanch, Francisco Gil
Full Text Available The objective of this article is twofold; firstly, we establish the theoretical boundaries of positive leadership and the reasons for its emergence. It is related to the new paradigm of positive psychology that has recently been shaping the scope of organizational knowledge. This conceptual framework has triggered the development of the various forms of positive leadership (i.e. transformational, servant, spiritual, authentic, and positive. Although the construct does not seem univocally defined, these different types of leadership overlap and share a significant affinity. Secondly, we review the empirical evidence that shows the impact of positive leadership in organizations and we highlight the positive relationship between these forms of leadership and key positive organizational variables. Lastly, we analyse future research areas in order to further develop this concept.
Full Text Available Background: The field of infertility medicine has witnessed a surge of scientific developments in recent years, but research on public attitudes towards infertility treatments has remained minimal. This study examined the social and demographic factors that affect women’s attitudes towards assisted reproductive technology (ART in general, as well as their opinions of specific issues related to ART. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2011 to April 2011 by means of an online survey administered to a sample of 287 women. Results: Women with a longer length of awareness of ART had significantly greater attitudinal favorability towards ART. Political affiliation was also significantly related to general attitudes, as well as several specific aspects of ART issues. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that several factors influence attitudes that women hold in regards to ART. Identifying some of these factors serves as a crucial starting point for devising strategies to increase public acceptance of ART.
Artyom Sergeyevich Dontsov
Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to identify whether teachers' attitudes towards the use of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL in the Republic of Kazakhstan can undergo significant changes if they study a course introducing them to the fundamentals of CLIL. Despite the country's plans to adopt English as one of the languages of education, stakeholders’ attitudes towards teaching through the medium of this language remain rather skeptical. A survey was held among Master’s degree students majoring in Education (n = 59 at Pavlodar State University before the course and after its completion. Since it is the affective component that largely determines the quality of attitudes, the levels of participants' anxiety, self-esteem and motivation were used as the indicators. The tools for measuring these variables were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Dembo-Rubinstein's Method of Self-esteem Measurement and Dubovitskaya's Diagnostics of Learning Motivation Orientation. The end-of-course results show a marked reduction in the level of participants' state anxiety, a growth in self-esteem in terms of the readiness to use CLIL, and a shift towards intrinsic motivation. It is argued that for attitudes shift to take place, it is necessary to adopt a constructivist approach to teaching and learning.
Standardized surveys are used in many contexts to measure people’s opinions and attitudes. Although it is widely assumed that survey answers represent the ‘true values’ of the concepts measured, a large body of research has shown that seemingly irrelevant question characteristics influence how
Ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Castelein, Stynke; Jansen, Wiebren; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie
Background: Previous studies have identified various reasons for students to choose a career in nursing. Students at the start of their programme hold a great variety of images and perceptions of nursing which can affect their orientation and attitudes towards their future profession. Objectives:
de Graaf, A.
This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of
Ma, Zexin; Nan, Xiaoli; Qin, Yan; Zhou, Peiyuan
Purpose: China and the USA are among the countries where depression is most prevalent. However, the treatment rate of depression is relatively low in these two countries. Negative attitudes toward depression is one of the major contributor to the low-treatment rate. The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of narratives to promote positive…
Lino, Stephanie; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Herring, R Patti; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Hilliard, Charles; Campbell, Danielle; Montgomery, Susanne
This cross-sectional study investigated whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs: attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to intention of dietary supplements use among African-American women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and/or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). A closed-ended questionnaire based on the TPB was utilized to explore the use of dietary supplements among a cohort of 153 HIV-positive African-American women. Overall, 45% of the respondents used dietary supplements to manage/control their HIV. Combined, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of intention toward dietary supplement use (69% of the variance explained, pbehavioral control (β=0.45, pBehavioral intention and proximal TPB constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), as well as their underlying beliefs about dietary supplements use, were all found to be significantly more positive in users of dietary supplements compared to non-users (pbehavioral control are important predictors in the intention to use dietary supplements for control of HIV among African-American women. Implications from this study suggest that the TPB can be used to better identify and understand salient beliefs that surround intentions to use alternative therapies for management of disease. These beliefs can be used to develop interventions surrounding HIV treatment and care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) positioning and orientation measurements for the University of Alaska...
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in scholarly interest in corporate social responsibility and its impact on employee attitudes. We intend to add to this literature by introducing unique explanatory and contextual variables. The study explains the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR on employee attitudes through justice within the context of cooperative employee relations. We argue that the concept of justice, which is implied in both socially responsible organizational policies and cooperative employee-employer relations, may be an important addition as a mediating variable. In essence, the study explores the mediating effects of the two primary types of justice, i.e., distributive and procedural, on the relationship between perceived corporate social responsibility, and job satisfaction, and affective commitment. Additionally, we introduce ethics-based psychological foundations, i.e., heuristic and deontic fairness theories to explain the studied relationship. The study also examines the moderated mediation effects of the cooperative industrial relations climate on perceived corporate social responsibility and justice perceptions. Our analysis supports the mediating role of both distributive and procedural justice perceptions. However, a moderated mediation role of the industrial relations climate was only found in the relationship between perceived corporate social responsibility, procedural justice, and employee attitudes. Implications of the study are discussed.
Dykstra, Piter; Jager, Wander; Elsenbroich, Corinna; Verbrugge, Rineke; De Lavalette, Gerard Renardel
We present DIAL, a model of group dynamics and opinion dynamics. It features dialogues, in which agents gamble about reputation points. Intra-group radicalisation of opinions appears to be an emergent phenomenon. We position this model within the theoretical literature on opinion dynamics and social
Full Text Available Many contradictory notions have been appearing in the area of health care in recent years, including those related to attitudes towards vaccination. On the basis of their understanding of the phenomenon some parents oppose to the vaccination. The purpose of this study was to compare mental models of laymen with expert models and examine the correlation of the mental models of vaccination and the trust in doctors and healthcare system with the parental attitudes on childhood vaccination. In doing so, we have considered the demographic characteristics of the parents and cultural differences between parents from Slovenia and Macedonia. We were also interested in the role of compulsory and optional vaccination, because in the latter the behavioral intention is expressed more clearly. The methods used in our study of mental models was based on the approach of Morgan, Fischhoff, Bostrom and Atman (2002 which has three phases: (1 obtaining expert mental models, (2 getting mental models of the laymen (e.g., parents and (3 comparison of both mental models. Expert models of vaccination were obtained from five doctors from Slovenia and five doctors from Macedonia. Laymen models of vaccination were obtained in structured interviews with 33 parents from Slovenia and 30 from Macedonia. Based on comparisons of expert and laymental models it can be concluded that the mental models of vaccination from parents of one-year old children differ from expert mental models. Most parents, both Macedonian and Slovenian, have also responded that they have greater confidence in the doctors rather than the healthcare system, mainly due to positive experiences with the selected pediatrician. In some Slovenian parents, a tendency to identify compulsory vaccination with force was noticed.
de Montigny, Francine; Gervais, Christine; Meunier, Sophie; Dubeau, Diane
This Université du Québec en Outaouais study examined professionals' attitudes towards fathers, their perceived self-efficacy when working with them and their perceptions of the importance of including fathers in family interventions. Professionals in Québec, Canada, working in childcare fields such as education, social services, health, community services and management answered a self-report questionnaire between 2013 and 2015. The 296 respondents (90% females) had a mean age of 39 (20-65), were from urban, semi-urban and rural settings and provided services to families with children up to five years of age. Social service professionals perceived fathers more negatively than did other professionals. Even though male professionals perceived fathers more negatively, they felt more confident working with them than did their female counterparts. Positive perceptions of fathers were associated with more favourable attitudes towards including them in family interventions, and this association was mediated by the professionals' perceptions of their own self-efficacy. The most negative attitudes were reported by social service professionals. Male professionals viewed fathers more negatively but were more confident working with them than were female colleagues. Improving professionals' perceptions of fathers could help to promote their inclusion in family interventions. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Noncooperative target spacecrafts are those assets in orbit that cannot convey any information about their states (position, attitude, and velocities or facilitate rendezvous and docking/berthing (RVD/B process. Designing a guidance, navigation, and control (GNC module for the chaser in a RVD/B mission with noncooperative target should be inevitably solved for on-orbit servicing technologies. The proximity operations and the guidance for achieving rendezvous problems are addressed in this paper. The out-of-plane maneuvers of proximity operations are explored with distinct subphases, including a chaser far approach in the target’s orbit to the first hold point and a closer approach to the final berthing location. Accordingly, guidance solutions are chosen for each subphase from the standard Hill based Closhessy-Willtshire (CW solution, elliptical fly-around, and Glideslope algorithms. The control is based on a linear quadratic regulator approach (LQR. At the final berthing location, attitude tracker based on a proportional derivative (PD form is tested to synchronize the chaser and target attitudes. The paper analyzes the performance of both controllers in terms of the tracking ability and the robustness. Finally, it prescribes any restrictions that may be imposed on the guidance during any subphase which can help to improve the controllers tracking ability.
Raisa Anatolyevna Rogozhnikova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of humane attitude to a person in medical students. Despite all declarations everyday medical practice shows a lot of examples of soulless attitude to patients. There is an acute necessity to elaborate the problem of development of humane attitude to a person in future doctors who deal with the sick requiring special care and attention. The work presents a theoretical model of the educational process aimed at the development of humane attitude to a person in students of a higher medical school. The model supposes a gradual process including curricular and extracurricular work of students taking into account their level of humane attitude to a person. Every stage of the educational process has special purposes, syllabus, methods and forms. Realization of every stage leads to a higher level of humane attitude to a person in future doctors.
Padela, Aasim I; Rasheed, Shoaib; Warren, Gareth J W; Choi, Hwajung; Mathur, Amit K
The demand for transplantable organ continues to exceed supply, particularly in minority patient populations. We explored the factors influencing organ donation attitude within the Arab American community. Secondary data analysis from a face-to-face survey administered in late 2003 to 1016 adults from a representative population-based sample on Greater Detroit Arab Americans. Christian Arab Americans were more likely than Muslim Arab Americans, and women more than men, to believe organ donation after death was justifiable. Higher educational attainment and income, as well as greater acculturation into American society, were associated with greater odds of believing organ donation to be justified. Self-reported health status and level of psychological distress and health insurance status were not associated with beliefs about organ donation. A multifaceted approach toward increasing organ donation rates in this growing population requires targeted community-health care system collaborations involving religious and civic leaders using Arabic language and culturally sensitive media. Arab Americans represent a growing population about which little is known in regard to organ donation and transplantation. This population is not specifically captured within national and local transplantation databases, and little empiric work has assessed attitudes and barriers toward organ donation and transplantation within this community. Our work represents the first to use a representative population-based sample to explore the modifiable and non-modifiable characteristics of those who believe cadaveric organ donation to be justified. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the training of problem-solving and decision-making skills on the reduction of addicts’ positive attitudes to narcotics. Method: The design of this study was experimental design namely: pre and post test with control group. The population included all addicts referring to Sanandaj self-report centers (500 addicts. By random sampling, 60 addicts were selected and completed the attitude questionnaire to narcotics use. Each of experimental groups was under problem-solving and decision-making skills training for ten 90 minute sessions. No training given to control group. Results: After training, two experimental groups significantly had lower levels of positive attitude to narcotics use. No difference was observed between two experimental groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the training of problem-solving and decision-making skills can reduce the addicts’ positive attitudes to narcotics.
Wyer, Mary Beth
Contemporary research on persistence in undergraduate education in science and engineering has focused primarily on identifying the structural, social, and psychological barriers to participation by students in underrepresented groups. As a result, there is a wealth of data to document why students leave their majors, but there is little direct empirical data to support prevailing presumptions about why students stay. Moreover, researchers have used widely differing definitions and measures of persistence, and they have seldom explored field differences. This study compared three ways of measuring persistence. These constituted three criterion variables: commitment to major, degree aspirations, and commitment to a science/engineering career. The study emphasized social factors that encourage students to persist, including four predictor variables---(1) positive images of scientists/engineers, (2) positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality, (3) positive classroom experiences, and (4) high levels of social integration. In addition, because researchers have repeatedly documented the degree to which women are more likely than men to drop out of science and engineering majors, the study examined the potential impact of gender in relation to these predictor variables. A survey was administered in the classroom to a total of 285 students enrolled in a required course for either a biological sciences and or an engineering major. Predictor variables were developed from standard scales, including the Images of Science/Scientists Scale, the Attitudes toward Women Scale, the Women in Science Scale, and the Perceptions of Prejudice Scale. Based on logistic regression models, results indicate that positive images of scientists and engineers was significantly related to improving the odds of students having a high commitment to major, high degree aspirations, and high commitment to career. There was also evidence that positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality
Awang, Noorehan; Hamid, Nur Nadiah Abd.
This study was designed to assess the attitude of Bumiputera students towards mathematics. The instrument used to measure the attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA). This test measures students' attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics (N), attitudes towards mathematics inquiry (I), adoption of mathematics attitude (A) and enjoyment of mathematics lessons (E). The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled in a Calculus subject at UiTM Negeri Sembilan. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was carried out and the inter-relationship among the four criteria was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The students scored high in E, moderately in A and relatively low in N and I.
Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of
Valck, C. de; Bensing, J.; Bruynooghe, R.
The literature regarding breaking bad news distinguishes three disclosure models: non-disclosure, full-disclosure and individualized disclosure. In this study, we investigated the relations between attitudes regarding disclosure of bad news and global professional attitudes regarding medical care in
Can, Gulfidan; Walker, Andrew
The purpose of this study is to investigate social science doctoral students' perceptions and attitudes toward written feedback about their academic writing and towards those who provide it. The study culminates in an explanatory model to describe the relationships between students' perceptions and attitudes, their revision decisions, and other…
Full Text Available This paper presents a model of a precise dual axis flexure-based positioning system for micro-positioning uses. The positioning system is featured with monolithic architecture, flexure-based joints and ultra fine adjustment screws. Its workspace has been evaluated via analytical approaches. Reduction mechanism is optimally designed. The mathematical model of the positioning system has been derived and verified by resorting to finite element analysis (FEA. The established analytical and (FEA models are helpful for reliable architecture optimization and performance improvement in the positioning system.Article in Lithuanian
Full Text Available The paper presents modelling precise dual axis flexure-based precision positioning systems for micro-positioning applications. The positioning system is featured with monolithic architecture, flexure-based joints and piezo stacks. Its workspace has been evaluated via analytical approaches. Amplification mechanism is optimally designed. The mathematical model of the positioning system has been derived and verified by resorting to finite element analysis (FEA. The established analytical and (FEA models are helpful for optimizing reliable architecture and improving the performance of the positioning system.
Full Text Available The paper presents modelling precise dual axis flexure-based precision positioning systems for micro-positioning applications. The positioning system is featured with monolithic architecture, flexure-based joints and piezo stacks. Its workspace has been evaluated via analytical approaches. Amplification mechanism is optimally designed. The mathematical model of the positioning system has been derived and verified by resorting to finite element analysis (FEA. The established analytical and (FEA models are helpful for optimizing reliable architecture and improving the performance of the positioning system.
Siting of a radioactive waste repository presents a great problem in almost every country that produces such waste. The main problem is not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the acceptability of this kind of repository. Previous research on people's perception of the LILW repository construction, their attitudes towards radioactive waste, their willingness to accept it, indicated significant differences in answers of experts and lay persons, mainly regarding evaluation of the consequences of repository construction. Based on the findings of pilot investigations a mental model approach to the radioactivity, radioactive waste and repository was used as a method for development better risk communication strategies with local communities. The mental models were obtained by adjustment of the method developed by Morgan and co-workers where expert model of radioactivity is compared with mental model of lay people obtained through individual opened interviews. Additional information on trust, risk perception, role of main actors in the site selection process and their credibility was gained with the overall questionnaire on the representative sample of Slovenian population. Results of the survey confirm some already known findings, in addition we gained new cognitions and with analyses obtained the relationships and ratios between different factors, which are characteristics both for the general public and for the public, which is involved in the site selection process for a longer period and has been living beside a nuclear power plant for one generation. People have in general negative associations regarding the repository, the perceived risk for nuclear facilities is high, and trust in representatives of governmental institutions is low. Mental models of radioactivity, radioactive waste and the LILW repository are mostly irregular and differ from the experts' models. This is particularly valid for the models of radioactivity and the influences of
Alexis, Kostas; Nikolakopoulos, George; Tzes, Anthony
In this article a Switching Model Predictive Attitude Controller for an Unmanned quadrotor Helicopter subject to atmospheric disturbances is presented. The proposed control scheme is computed based on a Piecewise Affine (PWA) model of the quadrotor’s attitude dynamics, where the effects of the atmospheric turbulence are taken into consideration as additive disturbances. The switchings among the PWA models are ruled by the rate of the rotation angles and for each PWA system a corresponding mod...
This article explores the concept and processes involved in professional socialisation and how mentors and nurse managers can help to foster positive aspects of this in their practice. Positive professional socialisation needs champions to instil fundamental professional values and behaviours in nursing staff, and managers need to support mentors to influence and lead the way in promoting standards of excellence in the nursing profession to assure public trust and confidence, and ultimately patient safety. The time out activities will ask you to consider and develop possible strategies to help support mentors and staff, and aim to encourage you to explore the potential benefits of positive professional socialisation for your team in delivering high quality patient care.
Manifold, Marjorie; Zimmerman, Enid
Research about K-6 generalists, elementary, preservice majors in teacher education programs often emphasizes students who are resistant to art methods courses, although Galbraith (1991) and Gibson (2003) found some elementary majors held positive views about art methods courses. In addition, instructors who are frustrated by students who respond…
Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Gage, Nicholas A.; Sugai, George
Given the increased interest and implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems in schools in the United States, practitioners and researchers have become interested in how to improve implementation with students and staff from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. Fallon, O'Keeffe, and Sugai (2012) reviewed the literature…
Voinea, Camelia Florela
Full Text Available In almost one century long history, political attitudes modeling research has accumulated a critical mass of theory and method. Its characteristics and particularities have often suggested that political attitude approach to political persuasion modeling reveals a strong theoretical autonomy of concept which entitles it to become a new separate discipline of research. Though this did not actually happen, political attitudes modeling research has remained the most challenging area – the “tiger” – of political culture modeling research. This paper reviews the research literature on the conceptual, computational and simulation modeling of political attitudes developed starting with the beginning of the 20th century until the present times. Several computational and simulation modeling paradigms have provided support to political attitudes modeling research. These paradigms and the shift from one to another are briefly presented for a period of time of almost one century. The dominant paradigmatic views are those inspired by the Newtonian mechanics, and those based on the principle of methodological individualism and the emergence of macro phenomena from the individual interactions at the micro level of a society. This period of time is divided in eight ages covering the history of ideas in a wide range of political domains, going from political attitudes to polity modeling. Internal and external pressures for paradigmatic change are briefly explained.
Radanielina Hita, Marie Louise; Kareklas, Ioannis; Pinkleton, Bruce
We demonstrate in our research that discussion-based parental mediation may successfully decrease the negative effects that youth's engagement with alcohol brands on social media may have on attitudes toward alcohol through its effects on critical thinking. A clear pattern was found with positive mediation leading to unhealthy outcomes and negative mediation predicting healthier behaviors. Youth whose parents critiqued media messages reported more critical thinking skills, which predicted less interaction with alcohol brands on social media and fewer expectancies toward alcohol. On the other hand, youth whose parents endorsed media portrayals of drinking reported fewer critical thinking skills and were thus more likely to interact with alcohol brands on social media. Including a media literacy component in alcohol education that target parental strategies and that are conducive to discussion may lead to beneficial health outcomes in the digital era.
Olakanmi, Eunice Eyitayo
This study establishes the effects of a flipped classroom model of instruction on academic performance and attitudes of 66 first-year secondary school students towards chemistry. A pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed to assign students randomly into either the experimental or control group. In order to assess the suitability of using flipped model of instruction, students were divided in two groups. For the first group called the experimental group, a "flipped classroom" was used in which the students were given video lessons and reading materials, before the class to be revised at home. On the other hand, the second group followed traditional methodology, and it was used as control. The rate of reaction knowledge test and the chemistry attitude scale were administered. In addition, the researcher documented classroom observations, experiences, thoughts and insights regarding the intervention in a journal on a daily basis in order to enrich the data. Students were interviewed at the end of the research in order to enrich the qualitative data also. Findings from this study reveal that the flipped instruction model facilitates a shift in students' conceptual understanding of the rate of chemical reaction significantly more than the control condition. Positive significant differences were found on all assessments with the flipped class students performing higher on average. Students in the flipped classroom model condition benefited by preparing for the lesson before the classes and had the opportunity to interact with peers and the teacher during the learning processes in the classroom. The findings support the notion that teachers should be trained or retrained on how to incorporate the flipped classroom model into their teaching and learning processes because it encourages students to be directly involved and active in the learning.
This study aimed to better understand the relationship between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes in Italy by examining the mediation effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping. A sample of 5,522 Italian residents (age range = 18-74) was drawn from a cross-sectional national representative survey carried out in 2011. Measures included general religiosity, male role endorsement, homosexual stereotyping, social acceptance of homosexuality, and homosexual rights endorsement. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping on the relationship between general religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Results showed that both male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping partially mediated the relationship. In a model where religiosity and both mediators positively explained anti-homosexual attitudes, male role endorsement was the strongest mediator. Endorsement of gender role beliefs and homosexual stereotyping may thus exacerbate the connection between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes among Italians.
Miloseva, Lence; Milosev, Vladimir
The main aim of this paper is to present a new model and approach in Health and Clinical practice – Applied Positive Psychology. Through discussion about the roots of Positive Psychology and interest in what is good about humans and their lives and in optimal human functioning we will try to introduce a new model of Positive Health and Clinical Psychology. From Aristotle’s treatises on eudemonia, through Aquinas’ writings about virtue during the Renaissance, to the inquires of modern psycholo...
Beach, Mary Catherine; Roter, Debra L.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Duggan, Patrick S.; Cooper, Lisa A.
associated with the physician’s gender, race, or number of years in practice; and was not associated with race concordance between patient and physician. While 45% of patients overestimated physician respect, 38% reported respect precisely as rated by the physician, and 16% underestimated physician respect (r = 0.18, p = 0.007). Those who were the least respected by their physician were the least likely to perceive themselves as being highly respected; only 36% of the least respected patients compared to 59% and 61% of the highly and moderately respected patients perceived themselves to be highly respected (p = 0.012). Compared with the least-respected patients, physicians were more affectively positive with highly respected patients (p = 0.034) and provided more information to highly and moderately respected patients (p = 0.018). Conclusion Physicians’ ratings of respect vary across patients and are primarily associated with familiarity rather than sociodemographic characteristics. Patients are able to perceive when they are respected by their physicians, although when they are not accurate, they tend to overestimate physician respect. Physicians who are more respectful towards particular patients provide more information and express more positive affect in visits with those patients. Practice implications Physician respectful attitudes may be important to target in improving communication with patients. PMID:16859867
Pirutinsky, Steven; Carp, Sean; Rosmarin, David H
Psychological research on the relationship between spirituality/religion and mental health has grown considerably over the past several decades and now constitutes a sizable body of scholarship. Among dimensions of S/R, positive beliefs about God have been significantly related to better mental health outcomes, and conversely negative beliefs about God are generally associated with more distress. However, prior research on this topic has relied heavily upon self-report Likert-type scales, which are vulnerable to self-report biases and measure only explicit cognitive processes. In this study, we developed and validated an implicit social cognition task, the Positive/Negative God Go/No-go Association Task (PNG-GNAT), for use in psychological research on spirituality and religion (S/R). Preliminary evidence in a large sample (N = 381) suggests that the PNG-GNAT demonstrates internal consistency, test-retest and split-half reliability, and concurrent evidence of validity. Further, our results suggest that PNG-GNAT scores represent different underlying dimensions of S/R than explicit self-report measures, and incrementally predict mental health above and beyond self-report assessment. The PNG-GNAT appears to be an effective tool for measuring implicit positive/negative beliefs about God.
Bolfarine, Heleno; Bazan, Jorge Luis
A Bayesian inference approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is developed for the logistic positive exponent (LPE) model proposed by Samejima and for a new skewed Logistic Item Response Theory (IRT) model, named Reflection LPE model. Both models lead to asymmetric item characteristic curves (ICC) and can be appropriate because a symmetric…
Moore, Ann M; Bankole, Akinrinola; Awolude, Olutoin; Audam, Suzette; Oladokun, Adesina; Adewole, Isaac
Fertility decisions among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are complicated by disease progression, the health of their existing children and possible antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, among other factors. Using a sample of HIV-positive women (n = 353) and men (n = 299) from Nigeria and Zambia and their healthcare providers (n = 179), we examined attitudes towards childbearing and abortion by HIV-positive women. To measure childbearing and abortion attitudes, we used individual indicators and a composite measure (an index). Support for an HIV-positive woman to have a child was greatest if she was nulliparous or if her desire to have a child was not conditioned on parity and lowest if she already had an HIV-positive child. Such support was found to be lower among HIV-positive women than among HIV-positive men, both of which were lower than reported support from their healthcare providers. There was wider variation in support for abortion depending on the measure than there was for support for childbearing. Half of all respondents indicated no or low support for abortion on the index measure while between 2 and 4 in 10 respondents were supportive of HIV-positive women being able to terminate a pregnancy. The overall low levels of support for abortion indicate that most respondents did not see HIV as a medical condition which justifies abortion. Respondents in Nigeria and those who live in urban areas were more likely to support HIV-positive women's childbearing. About a fifth of HIV-positive respondents reported being counselled to end childbearing after their diagnosis. In summary, respondents from both Nigeria and Zambia demonstrate tempered support of (continued) childbearing among HIV-positive women while anti-abortion attitudes remain strong. Access to ART did not impart a strong effect on these attitudes. Therefore, pronatalist attitudes remain in place in the face of HIV infection.
Edi Suresman, dkk
Full Text Available Abstrack, A successful education is influenced by various factors, one of which is method or approach to education to build a religious attitude for students. One of Islamic values-based learning methods that have been implemented at UPI in an effort to build religious attitude of PPG Post SM-3T participants is targhib and tarhib learning model and the results are very effective. The focus of problem in this study is on whether targhib - tarhib model was used in other LPTKs in building religious attitude for PPG Post SM-3T participants? The purpose of this study is to understand what learning model is applied in LPTK organizing PPG Post SM-3T in building religious attitude for PPG participants? This study was conducted by using a descriptive approach, qualitative-interpretative. The techniques of data collection used are questionnaire in the form of religious attitude distributed to PPG Post SM-3T participants, religious builder in a dormitory, and manager, and participation observation in the field. The data analysis was performed in five steps: verification of the data, presentation of the serial number for answer sheets, scoring of answer sheet, calculation of religious attitude trends by estimating the population and its percentage, and analysis of trends to differences in the effectiveness of each method used to mold religious attitude in each of LPTK organizing PPG. The results of the study suggest any variation of models used in each of LPTK, i.e., lectures, tutorials, thariqah shufis and targhibs - tarhibs. The targhib - tarhib have the most successful position than other models. Targhib – tarhib are 84%, lectures, 50%, shufis, 80%, tutorials, 70%. Keywords: Construction Model, Religious Attitude, PPG Post SM-3T. Abstrak, Keberhasilan pendidikan dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor, salah satu faktor tersebut adalah metode atau pendekatan pendidikan yang dapat membangun sikap religius bagi peserta didik. Salah satu metode
Ahmet Saygamp305n Ogulmuamp351
Full Text Available In this work a scara robot type 3D printer system is dynamically modeled and position control of the system is realized. For this aim computer aided design model of three degrees of freedom robotic system is created using SolidWorks program then obtained model is exported to MATLABSimMechanics software for position control. Also mathematical model of servo motors used in robotic 3D printer system is included in control methodology to design proportional controllers. Uncontrolled and controlled position results are simulated and given in the form of the graphics.
Full Text Available There are many themes in marketing to analyze the psychological and marketing aspect of research. The survey of consumer attitudes is one of them. The consumer attitudes have long been discussed and written about. For this purpose, numerous theories, models and researches have emerged. The research of powerful feelings of consumers towards products is something that marketers are constantly trying to achieve. Therefore it is very important for them to understand the factors affecting the attitudes of consumers. Issues related to consumers' attitudes have always been subject matter of the marketers who are trying to keep and maintain the positive and minimize negative attitudes towards the products and services of company. Bearing in the mind that attitudes play a central role in purchase decision, marketers are trying to explore the relation between attitudes and behavior of consumers.
Cheng, Xin; Ka Ho Lee, Kenneth; Chang, Eric Y.; Yang, Xuesong
Traditional medical education methodologies have been dramatically impacted by the introduction of new teaching approaches over the past few decades. In particular, the "flipped classroom" format has drawn a great deal of attention. However, evidence regarding the effectiveness of the flipped model remains limited due to a lack of…
Bertrand G. Giraud
Full Text Available Fourier-positivity (F-positivity, i.e. the mathematical property that a function has a positive Fourier transform, can be used as a constraint on the parametrization of QCD dipole-target cross-sections or Wilson line correlators in transverse position space r. They are Bessel transforms of positive transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions. Using mathematical F-positivity constraints on the limit r→0 behavior of the dipole amplitudes, we identify the common origin of the violation of F-positivity for various, however phenomenologically convenient, dipole models. It is due to the behavior r2+ϵ, ϵ>0 softer, even slightly, than color transparency. F-positivity seems thus to conflict with the present dipole formalism when it includes a QCD running coupling constant α(r.
Drake, Richard J; Nordentoft, Merete; Haddock, Gillian
medication attitudes, self-esteem, and insight in an early psychosis cohort better to understand their relationships. Existing longitudinal data from 309 patients with early Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nonaffective psychosis (83% first episode) were analyzed to test...... the hypothesis that medication attitudes, while meaningfully different from "insight," correlated with insight and self-esteem, and change in each influenced the others. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Birchwood Insight Scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale insight were assessed at presentation, after 6...... five latent constructs best fitted the data: medication attitudes, self-esteem, accepting need for treatment, self-rated insight, and objective insight. All were related and each affected the others as it changed, except self-esteem and medication attitudes. Low self-reported insight at presentation...
Chu, Angela Hsin Chun; Choi, Jin Nam
Researchers and practitioners have long regarded procrastination as a self-handicapping and dysfunctional behavior. In the present study, the authors proposed that not all procrastination behaviors either are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Specifically, the authors differentiated two types of procrastinators: passive procrastinators versus active procrastinators. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the traditional sense. They are paralyzed by their indecision to act and fail to complete tasks on time. In contrast, active procrastinators are a "positive" type of procrastinator. They prefer to work under pressure, and they make deliberate decisions to procrastinate. The present results showed that although active procrastinators procrastinate to the same degree as passive procrastinators, they are more similar to nonprocrastinators than to passive procrastinators in terms of purposive use of time, control of time, self-efficacy belief, coping styles, and outcomes including academic performance. The present findings offer a more sophisticated understanding of procrastination behavior and indicate a need to reevaluate its implications for outcomes of individuals.
Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe
use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...
Cheng, Xin; Ka Ho Lee, Kenneth; Chang, Eric Y; Yang, Xuesong
Traditional medical education methodologies have been dramatically impacted by the introduction of new teaching approaches over the past few decades. In particular, the "flipped classroom" format has drawn a great deal of attention. However, evidence regarding the effectiveness of the flipped model remains limited due to a lack of outcome-based studies. In the present study, a pilot histology curriculum of the organ systems was implemented among 24 Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) students in a flipped classroom format at Jinan University. As a control, another 87 TCM students followed a conventional histology curriculum. The academic performance of the two groups was compared. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to the flipped classroom group. The test scores for the flipped classroom participants were found to be significantly higher compared to non-participants in the control group. These results suggest that students may benefit from using the flipped classroom format. Follow-up questionnaires also revealed that most of the flipped classroom participants undertook relatively more earnest preparations before class and were actively involved in classroom learning activities. The teachers were also found to have more class time for leading discussions and delivering quizzes rather than repeating rote didactics. Consequently, the increased teaching and learning activities contributed to a better performance among the flipped classroom group. This pilot study suggests that a flipped classroom approach can be used to improve histology education among medical students. However, future studies employing randomization, larger numbers of students, and more precise tracking methods are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn. Anat Sci Educ 10: 317-327. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Despite advances in genetic and biochemical analyses, the incidence of breast cancer and its associated mortality remain very high. About 60 - 70% of breast cancers are Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α positive and are dependent on estrogen for growth. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs have therefore provided an effective targeted therapy to treat ER-α positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, development of resistance to endocrine therapy is frequent and leads to cancer recurrence. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the development of ER-α positive tumors and their resistance to ER antagonists is currently limited due to lack of experimental models of ER-α positive breast cancer. In most mouse models of breast cancer, the tumors that form are typically ER-negative and independent of estrogen for their growth. However, in recent years more attention has been given to develop mouse models that develop different subtypes of breast cancers, including ER-positive tumors. In this review, we discuss the currently available mouse models that develop ER-α positive mammary tumors and their potential use to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ER-α positive breast cancer development and endocrine resistance.
Luo, Zhijie; Zhang, WeiNan; Zhou, GuoFu
Gaining accuracy with indoor positioning of individuals is important as many location-based services rely on the user's current position to provide them with useful services. Many researchers have studied indoor positioning techniques based on WiFi and Bluetooth. However, they have disadvantages such as low accuracy or high cost. In this paper, we propose an indoor positioning system in which visible light radiated from light-emitting diodes is used to locate the position of receivers. Compared with existing methods using light-emitting diode light, we present a high-precision and simple implementation collaborative indoor visible light positioning system based on an improved spring model. We first estimate coordinate position information using the visible light positioning system, and then use the spring model to correct positioning errors. The system can be employed easily because it does not require additional sensors and the occlusion problem of visible light would be alleviated. We also describe simulation experiments, which confirm the feasibility of our proposed method.
Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M
To examine the impact of presenting images of foods paired with images of positive and negative health consequences of their consumption on food choice and attitudes. Participants (N = 711) were randomly allocated in a 2 × 3 factorial design (Food Type × Affective Valence) to 1 of 6 conditioning procedures that paired images of either energy-dense snack foods or fruit, with (a) images of negative health outcomes, (b) images of positive health outcomes, or (c) a no image control. The primary outcome was food choice assessed postintervention with a behavioral choice task. Secondary outcomes were implicit attitudes (assessed pre- and postintervention) and explicit attitudes (assessed postintervention). Presenting images of negative health outcomes led to more healthy food choices relative to control and positive image conditions, irrespective of whether they were paired with images of energy-dense snack foods or fruit. This relationship was partially mediated by changes in implicit and explicit attitudes. Images of positive health outcomes did not alter food choices. This study replicates and extends previous research showing that presenting images of negative health consequences increases healthy food choices. Because effects were elicited by manipulating affective valence irrespective of paired food type, these results appear more consistent with an explanation based on priming than on evaluative conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Lampton-Holmes, Geneva Cosweler
The purpose of this study was to determine if seventh through twelfth grade educators' attitudes towards School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) are affected based on their gender, years of experience, school discipline policy, leadership style, and knowledge of SWPBS. Through an online survey, an analysis of the leadership style and…
Cai, Yangyang; Yang, Jing; Li, Jiakun; Feng, Qibo
Rotary axis is the reference component of rotation motion. Angular position error is the most critical factor which impair the machining precision among the six degree-of-freedom (DOF) geometric errors of rotary axis. In this paper, the measuring method of angular position error of rotary axis based on laser collimation is thoroughly researched, the error model is established and 360 ° full range measurement is realized by using the high precision servo turntable. The change of space attitude of each moving part is described accurately by the 3×3 transformation matrices and the influences of various factors on the measurement results is analyzed in detail. Experiments results show that the measurement method can achieve high measurement accuracy and large measurement range.
Ángel Vázquez Alonso
Full Text Available This article is a study of the application of the Questionnaire of Opinions on Science, Technology and Society (COCTS with a new methodology based on a multiple-response model, to achieve a more valid and meaningful assessment of attitudes regarding issues of science, technology & society (STS, in a sample of high school students. It presents the application of this methodology and its ability to evaluate more precisely, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the STS attitudes of students whose overall level is mediocre, since they are outstanding for their lesser adaptation, and their beliefs about science epistemology. It also shows the lack of equivalence between isolated statements used to assess attitudes and their methodological implications for research on attitudes. Finally, it suggests some implications of the results for teaching STS themes in the school.
Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Campbell, B; Suchindran, C; Mason, G A
A biosocial model of the effects of early adolescent testosterone levels and religiosity on adolescent males' sexual attitudes and activity over a 3-year period was examined. Using panel data for approximately 100 boys who were 12.5/13.0 years old at study entry, significant additive effects of free testosterone and frequency of attendance at religious services were demonstrated on the transition to first intercourse and other aspects of sexual behaviour and attitudes. No interactive effects of the two predictors were found. Boys with higher free testosterone levels at study entry who never or infrequently attended religious services were the most sexually active and had the most permissive attitudes. Boys with lower free testosterone who attended services once a week or more were the least active and reported the least permissive attitudes. For some behaviours, differences between free testosterone/attendance groups increased over time, resulting in substantial behavioural differences by the final round of measurement 3 years later.
The application of quality control in Japanese industry and in particular in the Mitsubishi Group is described. Examples are given of the beneficial results of introducing quality assurance at all levels of the company. (U.K.)
Levy, Sheri R
The population of older adults is growing worldwide. Negative ageism (negative attitudes and behavior toward older adults) is a serious international concern that negatively influences not only older adults but also individuals across the age continuum. This article proposes and examines the application of an integrative theoretical model across empirical evidence in the literature on ageism in psychology, medicine, social work, and sociology. The proposed Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences (PEACE) model focuses on 2 key contributing factors expected to reduce negative ageism: (a) education about aging including facts on aging along with positive older role models that dispel negative and inaccurate images of older adulthood; and (b) positive contact experiences with older adults that are individualized, provide or promote equal status, are cooperative, involve sharing of personal information, and are sanctioned within the setting. These 2 key contributing factors have the potential to be interconnected and work together to reduce negative stereotypes, aging anxiety, prejudice, and discrimination associated with older adults and aging. This model has implications for policies and programs that can improve the health and well-being of individuals, as well as expand the residential, educational, and career options of individuals across the age continuum.
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador
Sara De Meyer
Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador.
De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien
It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents' sexual health. The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14-18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents' sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual
Liu, Che; Guo, Yanling
The fact that piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) precision drive systems in 3D printing are faced with nonlinear problems with respect to positioning, such as hysteresis and creep, has had an extremely negative impact on the precision of laser focusing systems. To eliminate the impact of PZT nonlinearity during precision drive movement, mathematical modeling and theoretical analyses of each module comprising the system were carried out in this study, a micro-displacement measurement circuit based on Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) is constructed, followed by the establishment of system closed-loop control and creep control models. An XL-80 laser interferometer (Renishaw, Wotton-under-Edge, UK) was used to measure the performance of the precision drive system, showing that system modeling and control algorithms were correct, with the requirements for precision positioning of the drive system satisfied.
Full Text Available The fact that piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT precision drive systems in 3D printing are faced with nonlinear problems with respect to positioning, such as hysteresis and creep, has had an extremely negative impact on the precision of laser focusing systems. To eliminate the impact of PZT nonlinearity during precision drive movement, mathematical modeling and theoretical analyses of each module comprising the system were carried out in this study, a micro-displacement measurement circuit based on Position Sensitive Detector (PSD is constructed, followed by the establishment of system closed-loop control and creep control models. An XL-80 laser interferometer (Renishaw, Wotton-under-Edge, UK was used to measure the performance of the precision drive system, showing that system modeling and control algorithms were correct, with the requirements for precision positioning of the drive system satisfied.
Pan, Hsueh-Hsing; Shih, Hsiu-Ling; Wu, Li-Fen; Hung, Yu-Chun; Chu, Chi-Ming; Wang, Kwua-Yun
The Taiwanese government has promoted palliative care consultation services (PCCS) to support terminally ill patients in acute ward settings to receive palliative care since 2005. Such an intervention can enhance the quality of life and dignity of terminally ill patients. However, research focusing on the relationship between the knowledge, attitude and practice of a PCCS using path modelling in nursing staff is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of path modeling on the knowledge, attitude and practice toward PCCS in Taiwanese nursing staff. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study design using convenience sampling. Data collected included demographics, knowledge, attitude and practice as measured by the PCCS inventory (KAP-PCCSI). Two hundred and eighty-four nursing staff from a medical center in northern Taiwan participated in the study in 2013. We performed descriptive statistics, regression analysis, and path modeling using SPSS 19.0 and set p knowledge, attitude, and practice toward PCCS among nurses was the frequency of contact with PCCS. In addition, higher level of knowledge toward PCCS was associated with working in haematology and oncology wards, and participation in education related to palliative care. A more positive attitude toward PCCS was associated with working in a haematology and oncology ward, and experience of friends or relatives dying. Higher level of practice toward PCCS was associated with nurses who participated in education related to palliative care. In the path modeling, we found that holders of a master's degree indirectly positive affected practice toward PCCS. Possession of a bachelor degree or above, being single, working within a haematology and oncology ward, and frequency of contact with PCCS positively affected practice toward PCCS. Based on this study, it is proposed that consultation with PCCS has a positive impact on the care of terminally ill patients. Encouragement of staff to
Full Text Available The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance–congruity and imbalance–dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification depends in part on the (incompatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (incompatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.
Roth, Jenny; Steffens, Melanie C; Vignoles, Vivian L
The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility) as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance-congruity and imbalance-dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification) depends in part on the (in)compatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (in)compatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.
Full Text Available High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents’ attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16-18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research.
Full Text Available A commonly used strategy to improve search accuracy is through feedback techniques. Most existing work on feedback relies on positive information, and has been extensively studied in information retrieval. However, when a query topic is difficult and the results from the first-pass retrieval are very poor, it is impossible to extract enough useful terms from a few positive documents. Therefore, the positive feedback strategy is incapable to improve retrieval in this situation. Contrarily, there is a relatively large number of negative documents in the top of the result list, and it has been confirmed that negative feedback strategy is an important and useful way for adapting this scenario by several recent studies. In this paper, we consider a scenario when the search results are so poor that there are at most three relevant documents in the top twenty documents. Then, we conduct a novel study of multiple strategies for relevance feedback using both positive and negative examples from the first-pass retrieval to improve retrieval accuracy for such difficult queries. Experimental results on these TREC collections show that the proposed language model based multiple model feedback method which is generally more effective than both the baseline method and the methods using only positive or negative model.
Ma, Yunlong; Lin, Hongfei
A commonly used strategy to improve search accuracy is through feedback techniques. Most existing work on feedback relies on positive information, and has been extensively studied in information retrieval. However, when a query topic is difficult and the results from the first-pass retrieval are very poor, it is impossible to extract enough useful terms from a few positive documents. Therefore, the positive feedback strategy is incapable to improve retrieval in this situation. Contrarily, there is a relatively large number of negative documents in the top of the result list, and it has been confirmed that negative feedback strategy is an important and useful way for adapting this scenario by several recent studies. In this paper, we consider a scenario when the search results are so poor that there are at most three relevant documents in the top twenty documents. Then, we conduct a novel study of multiple strategies for relevance feedback using both positive and negative examples from the first-pass retrieval to improve retrieval accuracy for such difficult queries. Experimental results on these TREC collections show that the proposed language model based multiple model feedback method which is generally more effective than both the baseline method and the methods using only positive or negative model.
Gosselink, Manon J
The development of empathy and of medical professionalism is important in medical education. Research has shown a decline in empathy during medical study. An important factor that may contribute to this decline is the lack of positive role models. Students identify positive and negative role models in the clinical ward and in classrooms. Positive clinical role models, showing good professionalism, will foster the student's professional growth. Students base both knowledge and opinions on information they find on the internet, such as 'medical weblogs'. These weblogs may be regarded as a new aspect of the 'informal curriculum', even though they might be written by 'negative role models'. In our experience, students frequently require debriefing of the undifferentiated, frequently disrespectful, grotesque or unprofessional approaches they encounter in general, and in this aspect online in particular. When written by appropriate professionals, medical weblogs can provide a unique opportunity for the medical student to follow the writings of positive role models. Would it be a worthwhile investment if globally distributed medical professionals from different specialties put time and effort into writing weblogs on their daily practice and reflections? These weblogs could be assembled on one international educational website, labelled as 'professionally approved' and made easily accessible. Medical students internationally would have access to the daily practice of medical professionals who are excellent positive role models. They could also be encouraged to discuss issues with them. We hypothesise that witnessing the encounters of these globally distributed doctors, and following their reflections, may add to the growth of empathy and professionalism in students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
Laschinger, H K; Goldenberg, D
The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine practicing nurses' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions to care for HIV positive patients, using the Theory of Reasoned Action. One hundred and forty-one subjects completed a questionnaire developed according to guidelines described by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980). Consistent with the theory, nurses' attitudes and subjective norms were found to be significant predictors of intentions to care for persons who are HIV positive (R2 = 0.27). Personal beliefs found to discriminate between intenders and nonintenders were those related to possible consequences for self, family, and friends, but not job-related consequences. Normative beliefs which discriminated between groups were also related to nonprofessional referents' expectations. In addition, qualitative data showed persistent concerns about occupational risk for contracting AIDS. Based on the results of this research, it is recommended that nurse educators in both clinical and academic settings, target specific educational/training interventions to include transmission, prevention, as well as exploration of feelings, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions about HIV-related topics. Further theory-based research and testing of interventions to change practicing nurses' attitudes and beliefs about HIV disease are advocated.
Hendriks, Jacqueline; Fyfe, Sue; Styles, Irene; Skinner, S Rachel; Merriman, Gareth
Measurement scales seeking to quantify latent traits like attitudes, are often developed using traditional psychometric approaches. Application of the Rasch unidimensional measurement model may complement or replace these techniques, as the model can be used to construct scales and check their psychometric properties. If data fit the model, then a scale with invariant measurement properties, including interval-level scores, will have been developed. This paper highlights the unique properties of the Rasch model. Items developed to measure adolescent attitudes towards abortion are used to exemplify the process. Ten attitude and intention items relating to abortion were answered by 406 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years, as part of the "Teen Relationships Study". The sampling framework captured a range of sexual and pregnancy experiences. Items were assessed for fit to the Rasch model including checks for Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by gender, sexual experience or pregnancy experience. Rasch analysis of the original dataset initially demonstrated that some items did not fit the model. Rescoring of one item (B5) and removal of another (L31) resulted in fit, as shown by a non-significant item-trait interaction total chi-square and a mean log residual fit statistic for items of -0.05 (SD=1.43). No DIF existed for the revised scale. However, items did not distinguish as well amongst persons with the most intense attitudes as they did for other persons. A person separation index of 0.82 indicated good reliability. Application of the Rasch model produced a valid and reliable scale measuring adolescent attitudes towards abortion, with stable measurement properties. The Rasch process provided an extensive range of diagnostic information concerning item and person fit, enabling changes to be made to scale items. This example shows the value of the Rasch model in developing scales for both social science and health disciplines.
Yang, Chih-Chiang; Hung, Jeng-Fung
The roles of conceptual change and model building in science education are very important and have a profound and wide effect on teaching science. This study examines the change in children's position concepts after instruction, based on different conceptual change theories. Three classes were chosen and divided into three groups, including a…
H.J. Teunissen (Jannis)
htmlabstractIn this report we present a particle based 3D model for the study of streamer inception near positive electrodes in air. The particle code is of the PIC-MCC type and an electrode is included using the charge simulation method. An algorithm for the adaptive creation of super-particles is
Hwang, Jinsang; Yun, Hongsik; Suh, Yongcheol; Cho, Jeongho; Lee, Dongha
This study developed a smartphone application that provides wireless communication, NRTIP client, and RTK processing features, and which can simplify the Network RTK-GPS system while reducing the required cost. A determination method for an error model in Network RTK measurements was proposed, considering both random and autocorrelation errors, to accurately calculate the coordinates measured by the application using state estimation filters. The performance evaluation of the developed application showed that it could perform high-precision real-time positioning, within several centimeters of error range at a frequency of 20 Hz. A Kalman Filter was applied to the coordinates measured from the application, to evaluate the appropriateness of the determination method for an error model, as proposed in this study. The results were more accurate, compared with those of the existing error model, which only considered the random error.
Del Castillo Rodríguez, José A. García; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Soler, M. Carmen Quiles; Del Castillo-López, Álvaro García; Pertusa, Mónica Gázquez; Campos, Juan Carlos Marzo; Inglés, Cándido J.
Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people' attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The…
Kichler, Jessica C.; Crowther, Janis H.
The relationships among communication, modeling, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescent girls were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 69 girls in fourth through sixth grade and their mothers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing familial and peer influences, body image…
Olakanmi, Eunice Eyitayo
This study establishes the effects of a flipped classroom model of instruction on academic performance and attitudes of 66 first-year secondary school students towards chemistry. A pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed to assign students randomly into either the experimental or control group. In order to assess the suitability of…
A simple probabilistic model for unfolding data collected by a direct response design in which responses were scored dichotomously was applied to the measurement of attitudes toward capital punishment. Responses conformed to the unfolding mechanism. Scale values of the statements were statistically equivalent to those of Thurstone's methods. (SLD)
Bowman, Nicholas A.; Brandenberger, Jay W.
Although numerous studies have examined the relationship between college diversity experiences and student outcomes, very little attention has been paid to the mechanism(s) underlying this development. This paper proposes a model of the psychological process through which college diversity experiences affect student attitudes and examines that…
Voinea, Camelia Florela
Cognitive Dissonance Theory is considered part of the cognitive consistency theories in Social Psychology. They uncover a class of conceptual models which describe the attitude change as a cognitive consistency-seeking issue. As these conceptual models requested more complex operational expression, algebraic, mathematical and, lately, computational modeling approaches of cognitive consistency have been developed. Part 1 of this work provides an overview of the connectionist modeling of cognit...
McCaffrey, Ruth; Hayes, Rose Marie; Cassell, Asenath; Miller-Reyes, Sharmin; Donaldson, Audeane; Ferrell, Cheryl
This article is a report of a study to determine the effect of an educational programme and to follow up weekly meetings on nurses and medical resident's attitudes towards positive communication and collaboration. Clear and appropriate communication and interdisciplinary collaboration is critical to the delivery of quality care. Collaborative practice among all healthcare professionals creates a positive work environment, decreases costs, improves job satisfaction among nurses and improves patient care, as well as decreasing patient morbidity and mortality. Poor communication and lack of teamwork or collaboration have been cited as persistent problems in healthcare. The study was conducted in 2008 - 2009 at a hospital where a new medical residency programme was beginning and nurses had no prior experience working with medical residents. A quasi-experimental pre test, post-test design was used. The Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration and the Communication, Collaboration and Critical Thinking for Quality Patient Outcomes Survey tool measured the attitudes of 68 nurses and 47 medical residents in the areas of positive communication and collaboration. The study demonstrates that a formal educational programme and follow-up discussions improved the attitudes of both nurses and medical residents on the Jefferson scale (medical residents t = 4·68, P = 0·001, nurses t = 4·37, P = 0·001) and on the communication scale (medical residents t = 4·23, P = 0·001, nurses t = 4·13, P = 0·001). Continuing education for nurses, medical residents and other healthcare providers may assist in developing positive communication styles and promote collegiality and team work. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Patston, Tim; Waters, Lea
This practice paper explores the intersection of school studio-music pedagogy and positive psychology in order to enhance students' learning and engagement. The paper has a practitioner focus and puts forward a new model of studio teaching, the Positive Instruction in Music Studios (PIMS) model that guides teachers through four key positive psychology processes that can be used in a music lesson: positive priming, strengths spotting, positive pause, and process praise. The model provides a new, positively oriented approach to studio-music pedagogy that can be integrated into specific methods-based programs to enhance student learning and engagement.
Achmad, Maulana; Suhandi, Andi
The aim of this research was to obtain an overview of the increase scientific literacy attitudes domain in high school students as the effects of the Levels of Inquiry (LOI) model of science teaching. This research using a quasi-experimental methods and randomizedpretest-posttest control group design. The subject of this research was students of grade X in a senior high school in Purwakarta and it consists of two classes who were divided into experimental class (30 students) and control class (30 students). While experimental class was taught LOIand control class was taught Interactive Lecture Demonstration (ILD). Data were collected using an attitude scale scientific literacy test which is based on the Likert scale. Data were analyzed using normality test, homogeneity test, and t-test to the value of N-gain attitude of scientific literacy scale test. The result of percentage average N-gain experimental class and control are 49 and 31 that classified into medium improvement category. Based on the results of hypothesis testing on the N-gain value obtained by the Sig.(One-tailed) 0.000 literacy domain attitude of students who got learning by LOI is higher than students who got learning by ILD. It can be concluded that the effect of LOI is better to improve scientific literacy domain attitudes significantly.
Rakkapao, S.; Prasitpong, S.
This study applies the model analysis technique to explore the distribution of Thai students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving and how those attitudes and approaches change as a result of different experiences in physics learning. We administered the Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to over 700 Thai university students from five different levels, namely students entering science, first-year science students, and second-, third- and fourth-year physics students. We found that their inferred mental states were generally mixed. The largest gap between physics experts and all levels of the students was about the role of equations and formulas in physics problem solving, and in views towards difficult problems. Most participants of all levels believed that being able to handle the mathematics is the most important part of physics problem solving. Most students’ views did not change even though they gained experiences in physics learning.
Narang, Vipin; Sung, Wing-Kin; Mittal, Ankush
The gene promoter region controls transcriptional initiation of a gene, which is the most important step in gene regulation. In-silico detection of promoter region in genomic sequences has a number of applications in gene discovery and understanding gene expression regulation. However, computational prediction of eukaryotic poly-II promoters has remained a difficult task. This paper introduces a novel statistical technique for detecting promoter regions in long genomic sequences. A number of existing techniques analyze the occurrence frequencies of oligonucleotides in promoter sequences as compared to other genomic regions. In contrast, the present work studies the positional densities of oligonucleotides in promoter sequences. The analysis does not require any non-promoter sequence dataset or any model of the background oligonucleotide content of the genome. The statistical model learnt from a dataset of promoter sequences automatically recognizes a number of transcription factor binding sites simultaneously with their occurrence positions relative to the transcription start site. Based on this model, a continuous naïve Bayes classifier is developed for the detection of human promoters and transcription start sites in genomic sequences. The present study extends the scope of statistical models in general promoter modeling and prediction. Promoter sequence features learnt by the model correlate well with known biological facts. Results of human transcription start site prediction compare favorably with existing 2nd generation promoter prediction tools.
Miciuk Łukasz Roland
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between positive orientation (PO defined as a basic predisposition to perceive and evaluate positive aspects of life, the future and oneself and the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM. Hypotheses postulated positive correlations between PO and extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness; a negative correlation was predicted between PO and neuroticism. Two hundred Polish students completed the following measures: SES (Self-Esteem Scale, Rosenberg, SWLS (The Satisfaction with Life Scale; Diener, Emmons, Larson & Griffin, LOT-R (The Life Orientation Test - Revised; Scheier, Carver & Bridges and NEOFFI (NEO Five Factor Inventory, Costa & McCrae. The results confirmed correlations between PO and extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism; correlations with openness and agreeableness were not supported. According to canonical correlations, PO shows a clear affinity to the FFM.
Franchi, Loris; Feruglio, Lorenzo; Mozzillo, Raffaele; Corpino, Sabrina
In recent years, thanks to the increase of the know-how on machine-learning techniques and the advance of the computational capabilities of on-board processing, expensive computing algorithms, such as Model Predictive Control, have begun to spread in space applications even on small on-board processor. The paper presents an algorithm for an optimal fault recovery of a 3U CubeSat, developed in MathWorks Matlab & Simulink environment. This algorithm involves optimization techniques aiming at obtaining the optimal recovery solution, and involves a Model Predictive Control approach for the attitude control. The simulated system is a CubeSat in Low Earth Orbit: the attitude control is performed with three magnetic torquers and a single reaction wheel. The simulation neglects the errors in the attitude determination of the satellite, and focuses on the recovery approach and control method. The optimal recovery approach takes advantage of the properties of magnetic actuation, which gives the possibility of the redistribution of the control action when a fault occurs on a single magnetic torquer, even in absence of redundant actuators. In addition, the paper presents the results of the implementation of Model Predictive approach to control the attitude of the satellite.
Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.
Analysis of the impact of Modeling Instruction (MI) on the sources of self-efficacy for students in Introductory Physics 1 will be presented. We measured self-efficacy through a quantitative diagnostic (SOSESC) developed by Fencl and Scheel  to investigate the impact of instruction on the sources of self-efficacy in all introductory physics classes. We collected both pre- semester data and post-semester data, and evaluated the effect of the classroom by analyzing the shift (Post-Pre). At Florida International University, a Hispanic-serving institution, we find that traditional lecture classrooms negatively impact the self-efficacy of all students, while the MI courses had no impact for all students. Further, when disaggregating the data by gender and sources of self-efficacy, we find that Modeling Instruction positively impacted the Verbal Persuasion source of self-efficacy for women. This positive impact helps to explain high rates of retention for women in the MI classes.
Liu, Che; Guo, Yanling
The fact that piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) precision drive systems in 3D printing are faced with nonlinear problems with respect to positioning, such as hysteresis and creep, has had an extremely negative impact on the precision of laser focusing systems. To eliminate the impact of PZT nonlinearity during precision drive movement, mathematical modeling and theoretical analyses of each module comprising the system were carried out in this study, a micro-displacement measurement circu...
Liver, Y. de; Pligt, J. van der; Wigboldus, D.H.J.
The present study investigates the structure of attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A total of 431 respondents completed a questionnaire measuring their overall attitude, cognition and affect towards GM food. A model with distinct positive and negative, affective and cognitive
Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary
Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. χ(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (Pfood production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (Pfood production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald
The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students' beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered…
Nita H. SHAH
Full Text Available This paper deals with the rigorous photogrammetric solution to model the uncertainty in the orientation parameters of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS-P5 (Cartosat-1. Cartosat-1 is a three axis stabilized spacecraft launched into polar sun-synchronous circular orbit at an altitude of 618 km. The satellite has two panchromatic (PAN cameras with nominal resolution of ~2.5 m. The camera looking ahead is called FORE mounted with +26 deg angle and the other looking near nadir is called AFT mounted with -5 deg, in along track direction. Data Product Generation Software (DPGS system uses the rigorous photogrammetric Collinearity model in order to utilize the full system information, together with payload geometry & control points, for estimating the uncertainty in attitude parameters. The initial orbit, attitude knowledge is obtained from GPS bound orbit measurement, star tracker and gyros. The variations in satellite attitude with time are modelled using simple linear polynomial model. Also, based on this model, Kalman filter approach is studied and applied to improve the uncertainty in the orientation of spacecraft with high quality ground control points (GCPs. The sequential estimator (Kalman filter is used in an iterative process which corrects the parameters at each time of observation rather than at epoch time. Results are presented for three stereo data sets. The accuracy of model depends on the accuracy of the control points.
Basen-Engquist, K; Parcel, G S
Using data from a cross-sectional, statewide survey of 1,720 Texas ninth graders in 13 school districts, a model of psychosocial predictors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related sexual risk behavior was tested. Predictor variables in the model, based on variables from the Theory of Reasoned Action and Social Learning Theory, were attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions. Attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy predicted 36.4% of the variance in the intention to limit the number of sexual partners and the same variables plus intention predicted 24.6% of the variance in number of sexual partners in the past year. Attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy regarding condom use predicted 17.0% of the variance in condom use intentions; these variables plus intentions predicted 19.0% of the variance in condom use frequency. Attitudes, norms, and intentions were directly related to the number of sexual partners, while self-efficacy ad condom use intentions were directly related to frequency of condom use.
Campos-Barreiro, Santiago; López-Fidalgo, Jesús
The pathology of the Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is detected by a clinician through maneuvers consisting of a series of consecutive head turns that trigger the symptoms of vertigo in patient. A statistical model based on a new maneuver has been developed in order to calculate the volume of endolymph displaced after the maneuver. A simplification of the Navier-Stokes problem from the fluids theory has been used to construct the model. In addition, the same cubic splines that are commonly used in kinematic control of robots were used to obtain an appropriate description of the different maneuvers. Then experimental designs were computed to obtain an optimal estimate of the model. D-optimal and c-optimal designs of experiments have been calculated. These experiments consist of a series of specific head turns of duration Δt and angle α that should be performed by the clinician on the patient. The experimental designs obtained indicate the duration and angle of the maneuver to be performed as well as the corresponding proportion of replicates. Thus, in the D-optimal design for 100 experiments, the maneuver consisting of a positive 30° pitch from the upright position, followed by a positive 30° roll, both with a duration of one and a half seconds is repeated 47 times. Then the maneuver with 60° /6° pitch/roll during half a second is repeated 16 times and the maneuver 90° /90° pitch/roll during half a second is repeated 37 times. Other designs with significant differences are computed and compared. A biomechanical model was derived to provide a quantitative basis for the detection of BPPV. The robustness study for the D-optimal design, with respect to the choice of the nominal values of the parameters, shows high efficiencies for small variations and provides a guide to the researcher. Furthermore, c-optimal designs give valuable assistance to check how efficient the D-optimal design is for the estimation of each of the parameters. The experimental
Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.
Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 ) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF 6 dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes (1). Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley (2). The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation (3). The resulting system of differential equations was solved
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) positioning and orientation measurements for the University of Alaska...
Hammock, Christina E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Apodaca, Emmanuel; Bandler, Simon; Boyce, Kevin; Chervenak, Jay; Finkbeiner, Fred; Kelley, Richard; Lindeman, Mark; Porter, Scott; Saab, Tarek; Stahle, Caroline
We report the latest design and experimental results for a Position-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST). The PoST is motivated by the desire to achieve a larger field-of-view without increasing the number of readout channels. A PoST consists of a one-dimensional array of X-ray absorbers connected on each end to a Transition Edge Sensor (TES). Position differentiation is achieved through a comparison of pulses between the two TESs and X-ray energy is inferred from a sum of the two signals. Optimizing such a device involves studying the available parameter space which includes device properties such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity as well as TES read-out circuitry parameters. We present results for different regimes of operation and the effects on energy resolution, throughput, and position differentiation. Results and implications from a non-linear model developed to study the saturation effects unique to PoSTs are also presented.
Schuette, Robert A.; Fazio, Russell H.
Examined hypothesis that attitude accessibility and motivational level moderate the relation between attitudes and information processing. Found that the attitude/judgment relation depended on both attitude accessibility and motivation. Only subjects who reiterated their attitude and who lacked motivation to consider the information thoroughly…
Young, Sung Choi; Sun, Ho Lee; Nam, Zin Cho; Byong, Whi Lee
This paper deals with the structure of public attitude towards nuclear power plants in Korea. Special emphasis is given to the issues of public acceptance in relation to perceived benefits, perceived risk, judged safety, and safety satisfaction. The national survey data of 1995 by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is analyzed with a latent class model and logistic regression. The latent class model is used to construct benefit and risk factors. With these factors and safety-related variables, a public attitude model is developed by logistic regression which enables the relationships between national or local acceptance of nuclear power and explanatory variables to be quantified. The results show that the attitude structure is somewhat different by gender. Subjectively perceived risk is found to be the most influential factor for local acceptance. The odds of local acceptance with the best risk perception is about 16 times the odds with the worst perception for males and about 7.7 times for females. From the results of this analysis, it is clear that subjective satisfaction with nuclear safety is a more important factor for explaining public acceptance rather than judgment of it. These important findings should be reflected in the public acceptance improvement strategy for the nuclear power program
Full Text Available This paper proposes two kinds of approaches of angular rate sensing for micro-spacecraft with a gyrowheel (GW, which can combine attitude sensing with attitude control into one single device to achieve a compact micro-spacecraft design. In this implementation, during the three-dimensional attitude control torques being produced, two-dimensional spacecraft angular rates can be sensed from the signals of the GW sensors, such as the currents of the torque coils, the tilt angles of the rotor, the motor rotation, etc. This paper focuses on the problems of the angular rate sensing with the GW at large tilt angles of the rotor. For this purpose, a novel real-time linearization approach based on Lyapunov’s linearization theory is proposed, and a GW linearized measurement model at arbitrary tilt angles of the rotor is derived. Furthermore, by representing the two-dimensional rotor tilt angles and tilt control torques as complex quantities and separating the twice periodic terms about the motor spin speed, the linearized measurement model at smaller tilt angles of the rotor is given and simplified. According to the respective characteristics, the application schemes of the two measurement models are analyzed from the engineering perspective. Finally, the simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.
Laura De Guissmé
Full Text Available It is a known fact that some Belgians collaborated with the Nazi occupier during WWII. However, according to a popular myth, collaboration was widespread in Flanders, whereas Walloons bravely resisted. Of course, historical reality is much more nuanced, but this oversimplification has largely resurfaced in political debates surrounding the Belgian linguistic conflict. Demands for amnesty for former collaborators addressed by Flemish nationalist parties are a case in point. We conducted two studies in order to investigate Belgians’ attitudes towards this political issue in the two linguistic communities. In 2012, a first survey (N = 521; 315 French-speakers (FS and 206 Dutch-speakers (DS showed that WWII collaboration was morally condemned, and attitudes towards amnesty were predominantly negative, in both groups. However, DS tended to support amnesty more than FS. This effect of Linguistic Group on Support for Amnesty was mediated by Judgments of Morality of collaboration, and this mediation was moderated by Linguistic identification. In 2015, a second survey (N = 774; 476 FS and 298 DS confirmed these results. Moreover, judgments about the Unfairness of the repression of collaboration also mediated the effect of Linguistic Group on Support for Amnesty. These results suggest that differences in political position-taking regarding the granting of amnesty between DS and FS are, at least partly, due to different attitudes towards collaboration and to the membership to a linguistic community.
Automatic affective-motivational regulation processes underlying supportive dyadic coping: the role of increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals in response to a stressed relationship partner.
Koranyi, Nicolas; Hilpert, Peter; Job, Veronika; Bodenmann, Guy
We examined the implicit affective mechanisms underlying provision of support in intimate dyads. Specifically, we hypothesized that in individuals with high relationship satisfaction, the perception that one's partner is stressed leads to increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals. In turn, this change in implicit attitudes facilitates supportive behavior. In two studies, we induced partner stress by instructing participants to either recall a situation where their partner was highly stressed (Study 1; N = 47 university students) or imagine a specific stressful event (excessive workload; Study 2; N = 85 university students). Subsequently, implicit attitudes toward communal goals were assessed with an Implicit Association Test. In both studies, we found that among participants with high relationship satisfaction partner stress increases preferences for communal goals. In addition, implicit preferences for communal goals predicted stronger inclinations to engage in supportive dyadic coping (Study 2). The current findings provide important insights into the implicit cognitive-affective mechanics of dyadic coping. Moreover, they can explain how people manage to avoid experiencing motivational conflicts between partner-oriented and self-oriented goals in situations characterized by high partner stress.
Sheikholeslami, R.; Razavi, S.
Dynamics of most earth and environmental systems are generally governed by interactions between several hydrological (e.g., soil moisture and precipitation), geological (e.g., and erosion), geochemical (e.g., nutrient loading), and atmospheric (e.g., temperature) processes which operate on a range of spatio-temporal scales. These interactions create numerous feedback mechanisms with complex behaviours, and their understanding and representation can vary depending on the scale in space and/or time at which the system is analyzed. One of the most crucial characteristics of such complex systems is the existence of positive feedback loops. The presence of positive feedbacks may increase complexity, accelerate change, or trigger multiple stable states in the underlying dynamical system. Furthermore, because of the inherent non-linearity, it is often very difficult to obtain a general idea of their complex dynamics. Feedback loops in environmental systems have been well recognized and qualitatively discussed. With a quantitative/mathematical view, in this presentation, we address the question of how the positive feedback loops can be identified/implemented in environmental models. We investigate the nature of different feedback mechanisms and dynamics of simple example case studies that underlie fundamental processes such as vegetation, precipitation and soil moisture. To do this, we apply the concept of "interaction graph" from mathematics which is built from the Jacobian matrix of the dynamical system. The Jacobian matrix contains information on how variations of one state variable depends on variations of other variables, and thus can be used to understand the dynamical possibilities of feedback mechanisms in the underlying system. Moreover, this study highlights that there are some situations where the existence of positive feedback loops can cause multiple stable states, and thereby regime shifts in environmental systems. Systems with multiple stable states are
Dede Parsaoran Damanik
Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the differences: (1 the difference of critical thinking skills of students' that using Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction. (2 The difference of critical thinking skills among students who at high scientific attitude and students who at low scientific attitude. (3 To see if there is interaction between inquiry learning model of the scientific attitude students' to increase the ability to critical thinking. This is a quasi experimental research. Which students of private junior high school Two Raya Kahean District Simalungun. Population choose random sample of each class. Instrument used consisted of: (1 test the scientific attitude of students through a questionnaire with 25 statements questionnaire number (2 test the critical thinking skills in the form of descriptions by 9 questions. The data were analyzed according to ANAVA. It showed that: (1 There are differences in students' critical thinking of skills achievement Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction model, (2 there was a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at high is better than who thought there is a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at low. (3 There was no interaction between Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction with the scientific attitude students' to increase student’s critical thinking of skills.
Full Text Available BackgroundMeasurement scales seeking to quantify latent traits likeattitudes, are often developed using traditionalpsychometric approaches. Application of the Raschunidimensional measurement model may complement orreplace these techniques, as the model can be used toconstruct scales and check their psychometric properties. Ifdata fit the model, then a scale with invariant measurementproperties, including interval-level scores, will have beendeveloped.AimsThis paper highlights the unique properties of the Raschmodel. Items developed to measure adolescent attitudestowards abortion are used to exemplify the process.MethodTen attitude and intention items relating to abortion wereanswered by 406 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years, as part ofthe “Teen Relationships Study”. The sampling frameworkcaptured a range of sexual and pregnancy experiences.Items were assessed for fit to the Rasch model includingchecks for Differential Item Functioning (DIF by gender,sexual experience or pregnancy experience.ResultsRasch analysis of the original dataset initially demonstratedthat some items did not fit the model. Rescoring of one item(B5 and removal of another (L31 resulted in fit, as shownby a non-significant item-trait interaction total chi-squareand a mean log residual fit statistic for items of -0.05(SD=1.43. No DIF existed for the revised scale. However,items did not distinguish as well amongst persons with themost intense attitudes as they did for other persons. Aperson separation index of 0.82 indicated good reliability.ConclusionApplication of the Rasch model produced a valid andreliable scale measuring adolescent attitudes towardsabortion, with stable measurement properties. The Raschprocess provided an extensive range of diagnosticinformation concerning item and person fit, enablingchanges to be made to scale items. This example shows thevalue of the Rasch model in developing scales for bothsocial science and health disciplines.
Crawford, Jarret T; Mallinas, Stephanie R; Furman, Bryan J
We introduce the balanced ideological antipathy (BIA) model, which challenges assumptions that right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) predict inter-group antipathy per se. Rather, the effects of RWA and SDO on antipathy should depend on the target's political orientation and political objectives, the specific components of RWA, and the type of antipathy expressed. Consistent with the model, two studies (N = 585) showed that the Traditionalism component of RWA positively and negatively predicted both political intolerance and prejudice toward tradition-threatening and -reaffirming groups, respectively, whereas SDO positively and negatively predicted prejudice (and to some extent political intolerance) toward hierarchy-attenuating and -enhancing groups, respectively. Critically, the Conservatism component of RWA positively predicted political intolerance (but not prejudice) toward each type of target group, suggesting it captures the anti-democratic impulse at the heart of authoritarianism. Recommendations for future research on the relationship between ideological attitudes and inter-group antipathy are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
This study aims to develop and test the validity of a model limited to attitude towards the future and subjective well-being for reducing and preventing the school burnout that high school students can experience. The study is designed as a relational screening model conducted over 389 high school students. The data in this study are analyzed…
O'Leary, Sean T; Barnard, Juliana; Lockhart, Steven; Kolasa, Maureen; Shmueli, Doron; Dickinson, L Miriam; Kile, Deidre; Dibert, Eva; Kempe, Allison
To assess and compare among parents of healthy children in urban and rural areas: (1) reported influenza vaccination status; (2) attitudes regarding influenza vaccination; and (3) attitudes about collaborative models for influenza vaccination delivery involving practices and public health departments. A mail survey to random samples of parents from 2 urban and 2 rural private practices in Colorado from April 2012 to June 2012. The response rate was 58% (288/500). In the prior season, 63% of urban and 41% of rural parents reported their child received influenza vaccination (P urban and rural parents were found, with 75% of urban and 73% of rural parents agreeing their child should receive an influenza vaccine every year (P = .71). High proportions reported willingness to participate in a collaborative clinic in a community setting (59% urban, 70% rural, P = .05) or at their child's provider (73% urban, 73% rural, P = .99) with public health department assisting. Fewer (36% urban, 53% rural, P health department if referred by their provider. Rural parents were more willing for their child to receive vaccination outside of their provider's office (70% vs. 55%, P = .01). While attitudes regarding influenza vaccination were similar, rural children were much less likely to have received vaccination. Most parents were amenable to collaborative models of influenza vaccination delivery, but rural parents were more comfortable with influenza vaccination outside their provider's office, suggesting that other venues for influenza vaccination in rural settings should be promoted. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Wijirahayu, S.; Dorand, P.
Learning English as a Foreign language (EFL) as one of the challenges especially for students majoring in Telecommunication Engineering to develop their communication skill as a professional could be one of the chances for them to face a more global era. Yet, there are important factors that may influence the progress of the speaking performance and attitude is one of them. Therefore, a survey involving two main psychological variables in language learning namely attitude and affective strategies and the third variable is speaking performance was conducted and a model of affective strategies in language learning developing through the application of Content Language Integrated Learning and multimedia instruction was introduced. This study involved 71 sophomore students and two classes of university students majoring in Telecommunication Engineering and Electrical Engineering. The researchers used both survey and action research method with quantitative as well as qualitative in approach.
Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Karanci, A Nuray
It is important to investigate the role of cognitive, developmental and environmental factors in the development and maintenance of Obsessive Compulsive Symptomatology (OCS). The main objective of this study was to examine the vulnerability factors of OCS in a non-clinical sample. On the basis of Salkovskis' cognitive model of OCD, the study aimed to investigate the role of perceived parental rearing behaviours, responsibility attitudes, and life events in predicting OCS. Furthermore, the mediator role of responsibility attitudes in the relationship between perceived parental rearing behaviours and OCS was examined. Finally, the specificity of these variables to OCS was evaluated by examining the relationship of the same variables with depression and trait anxiety. A total of 300 university students (M = 19.55±1.79) were administered the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision, Responsibility Attitudes Scale, s-EMBU (My memories of upbringing), Life Events Inventory for University Students, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form. Regression analysis revealed that perceived mother overprotection, responsibility attitudes and life events significantly predicted OCS. Furthermore, responsibility attitudes mediated the relationship between perceived mother overprotection and OCS. The predictive role of perceived mother overprotection and the mediator role responsibility attitudes were OCS specific. The findings of the present study supported that perceived mother over-protection as a developmental vulnerability factor significantly contributed to the explanation of a cognitive vulnerability factor (namely responsibility attitudes), and perceived maternal overprotection had its predictive role for OCS through responsibility attitudes.
Katz, Yuri A.
Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the T-S fuzzy modelling and H∞ attitude control in three channels for hypersonic gliding vehicles (HGVs. First, the control-oriented affine nonlinear model has been established which is transformed from the reentry dynamics. Then, based on Taylor’s expansion approach and the fuzzy linearization approach, the homogeneous T-S local modelling technique for HGVs is proposed. Given the approximation accuracy and controller design complexity, appropriate fuzzy premise variables and operating points of interest are selected to construct the T-S homogeneous submodels. With so-called fuzzy blending, the original plant is transformed into the overall T-S fuzzy model with disturbance. By utilizing Lyapunov functional approach, a state feedback fuzzy controller has been designed based on relaxed linear matrix inequality (LMI conditions to stable the original plants with a prescribed H∞ performance of disturbance. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed H∞ T-S fuzzy controller for the original attitude dynamics; the superiority of the designed T-S fuzzy controller compared with other local controllers based on the constructed fuzzy model is shown as well.
O'Callaghan, F V; Chang, D C; Callan, V J; Baglioni, A
The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of various attitude-behavior theories in explaining alcohol use among young adults. The theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior and an extension of the TRA that incorporates past behavior were compared by the method of maximum-likelihood estimation, as implemented in LISREL for Windows 8.12. Respondents consisted of 122 university students (82 female) who were questioned about their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, past behavior and intentions relating to drinking behavior. Students received course credit for their participation in the research. Overall, the results suggest that the extension of the theory of reasoned action which incorporates past behavior provides the best fit to the data. For these young adults, their intentions to drink alcohol were predicted by their past behavior as well as their perceptions of what important others think they should do (subjective norm). The main conclusions drawn from the research concern the importance of focusing on normative influences and past behavior in explaining young adult alcohol use. Issues regarding the relative merit of various alternative models and the need for greater clarity in the measure of attitudes are also discussed.
This book provides a systematic, rigorous and self-contained treatment of positive dynamical systems. A dynamical system is positive when all relevant variables of a systemare nonnegative in a natural way. This is in biology, demography or economics, where the levels of populations or prices of goods are positive. The principle also finds application in electrical engineering, physics and computer sciences.
Chen, Wen; Yu, Chao; Dong, Danan; Cai, Miaomiao; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Zhiren; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Zhengqi
With multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers, the single difference (SD) between two antennas is able to eliminate both satellite and receiver clock error, thus it becomes necessary to reconsider the equivalency problem between the SD and double difference (DD) models. In this paper, we quantitatively compared the formal uncertainties and dispersions between multiple SD models and the DD model, and also carried out static and kinematic short baseline experiments. The theoretical and experimental results show that under a non-common clock scheme the SD and DD model are equivalent. Under a common clock scheme, if we estimate stochastic uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) parameters every epoch, this SD model is still equivalent to the DD model, but if we estimate only one UPD parameter for all epochs or take it as a known constant, the SD (here called SD2) and DD models are no longer equivalent. For the vertical component of baseline solutions, the formal uncertainties of the SD2 model are two times smaller than those of the DD model, and the dispersions of the SD2 model are even more than twice smaller than those of the DD model. In addition, to obtain baseline solutions, the SD2 model requires a minimum of three satellites, while the DD model requires a minimum of four satellites, which makes the SD2 more advantageous in attitude determination under sheltered environments.
Raz, Aviad E; Amano, Yael; Timmermans, Stefan
This study examines the interface between newborn screening and prenatal diagnosis from the point-of-view of parents of screen-positive children. Many conditions covered by newborn screening represent classic (autosomal recessive) Mendelian disorders. Parents of screen-positive infants therefore often come to learn that they are carriers of the disease, and face a decision whether to test for it in future pregnancies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2015-2017 with 34 Israeli parents whose child was screen positive. Three major themes emanated from the parents' attitudes toward prenatal testing for the disease in prospective hypothetical pregnancies: rejection of prenatal testing for the disease associated with the screen positive, and relying instead on newborn screening to reveal if a future baby is also sick (18/34, 53%); support of prenatal testing to get more information (7/34, 21%) and support of prenatal testing in order to abort in case of a test positive (9/34, 26%). We discuss the importance of newborn screening for reproductive decision-making, highlighting the arguments associated with positive and negative parental views of the possibility of having another child with the same condition associated with the screen-positive of the child that had already been born. The conclusions challenge the common assertion that parents pursue the dream of the "perfect child" through prenatal diagnosis that "naturally" leads to selective abortion. The diversity of views expressed by Israeli parents of screen-positive children highlights the diversity of normative scripts of "genetic responsibility" in the context of parenthood.
Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James
Theories that posit multiplicative relationships between variables are common in psychology. A. G. Greenwald et al. recently presented a theory that explicated relationships between group identification, group attitudes, and self-esteem. Their theory posits a multiplicative relationship between concepts when predicting a criterion variable. Greenwald et al. suggested analytic strategies to test their multiplicative model that researchers might assume are appropriate for testing multiplicative models more generally. The theory and analytic strategies of Greenwald et al. are used as a case study to show the strong measurement assumptions that underlie certain tests of multiplicative models. It is shown that the approach used by Greenwald et al. can lead to declarations of theoretical support when the theory is wrong as well as rejection of the theory when the theory is correct. A simple strategy for testing multiplicative models that makes weaker measurement assumptions than the strategy proposed by Greenwald et al. is suggested and discussed.
Diego Carrera Martínez
Full Text Available El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus vivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia.Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over her illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.
Kulkov, V. M.; Medvedskii, A. L.; Terentyev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.; Shemyakov, A. O.
The problem of spacecraft attitude control using electromagnetic systems interacting with the Earth's magnetic field is considered. A set of dimensionless parameters has been formed to investigate the spacecraft orientation regimes based on dynamically similar models. The results of experimental studies of small spacecraft with a magnetic attitude control system can be extrapolated to the in-orbit spacecraft motion control regimes by using the methods of the dimensional and similarity theory.
Lemmens, S.; Krag, H.
Inverse synthetic aperture radars (ISAR) are valuable instrumentations for assessing the state of a large object in low Earth orbit. The images generated by these radars can reach a sufficient quality to be used during launch support or contingency operations, e.g. for confirming the deployment of structures, determining the structural integrity, or analysing the dynamic behaviour of an object. However, the direct interpretation of ISAR images can be a demanding task due to the nature of the range-Doppler space in which these images are produced. Recently, a tool has been developed by the European Space Agency's Space Debris Office to generate radar mappings of a target in orbit. Such mappings are a 3D-model based simulation of how an ideal ISAR image would be generated by a ground based radar under given processing conditions. These radar mappings can be used to support a data interpretation process. E.g. by processing predefined attitude scenarios during an observation sequence and comparing them with actual observations, one can detect non-nominal behaviour. Vice versa, one can also estimate the attitude states of the target by fitting the radar mappings to the observations. It has been demonstrated for the latter use case that a coarse approximation of the target through an 3D-model is already sufficient to derive the attitude information from the generated mappings. The level of detail required for the 3D-model is determined by the process of generating ISAR images, which is based on the theory of scattering bodies. Therefore, a complex surface can return an intrinsically noisy ISAR image. E.g. when many instruments on a satellite are visible to the observer, the ISAR image can suffer from multipath reflections. In this paper, we will further analyse the sensitivity of the attitude fitting algorithms to variations in the dimensions and the level of detail of the underlying 3D model. Moreover, we investigate the ability to estimate the orientations of different
Abstract Background: Cooking with Kids (CWK), an experiential school-based food education program, has demonstrated modest influence on fruit and vegetable preference, food and cooking attitudes (AT), and self-efficacy (SE) among fourth-grade, mostly low-income Hispanic students in a quasiexperimental study with an inconsistent baseline. Effect was notably strong for boys and those without previous cooking experience. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of CWK with a mostly non-Hispanic white sample that assured no previous CWK exposure. Methods: The randomized, controlled assessment of CWK effect on fourth graders was conducted with 257 students in 12 classes in four public schools. CWK included a 1-hour introductory lesson, three 2-hour cooking classes, and three 1-hour fruit and vegetable tasting sessions led by trained food educators during the school day for one semester. Fruit preference, vegetable preference, and cooking AT and SE were assessed with a tested 35-item measure, shown to have test-retest reliability. Univariate analyses considered gender and previous cooking experience. Results: Intervention efficacy was confirmed in this mostly white sample (75%; 79% with previous cooking experience; 54% girls). Increases in vegetable preference, AT, and SE were all significantly greater in CWK students with ηp 2 of 0.03, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. CWK most strongly improved AT and SE for boys without previous cooking experience. Conclusions: CWK significantly improved fourth-grade students' vegetable preferences, AT, and SE toward food and cooking, which are factors important to healthful eating and obesity prevention. Noncookers, especially boys, benefitted from this intervention. PMID:24320723
Rice, David; and others
An outline of 44 evaluator tasks is discussed in terms of its usefulness in defining, evaluating, and improving the position of "educational evaluator ; in adapting the position to the needs of particular institutions; and in designing appropriate evaluator training programs. (JES)
Clarke, Christopher E; Weberling McKeever, Brooke; Holton, Avery; Dixon, Graham N
Media coverage of contentious risk issues often features competing claims about whether a risk exists and what scientific evidence shows, and journalists often cover these issues by presenting both sides. However, for topics defined by scientific agreement, balanced coverage erroneously heightens uncertainty about scientific information and the issue itself. In this article, we extend research on combating so-called information and issue uncertainty using weight of evidence, drawing on the discredited autism-vaccine link as a case study. We examine whether people's perceptions of issue uncertainty (about whether a link exists) change before and after they encounter a news message with weight-of-evidence information. We also explore whether message exposure is associated with broader issue judgments, specifically vaccine attitudes. Participants (n = 181) read news articles that included or omitted weight-of-evidence content stating that scientific studies have found no link and that scientists agree that none exists. Postexposure issue uncertainty decreased-in other words, issue certainty increased-from preexposure levels across all conditions. Moreover, weight-of-evidence messages were associated with positive vaccine attitudes indirectly via reduced information uncertainty (i.e., one's belief that scientific opinion and evidence concerning a potential link is unclear) as well as issue uncertainty. We discuss implications for risk communication.
Ward, Jonathan A.; Grindrod, Peter
Adaptive network models, in which node states and network topology coevolve, arise naturally in models of social dynamics that incorporate homophily and social influence. Homophily relates the similarity between pairs of nodes' states to their network coupling strength, whilst social influence causes coupled nodes' states to convergence. In this paper we propose a deterministic adaptive network model of attitude formation in social groups that includes these effects, and in which the attitudinal dynamics are represented by an activato-inhibitor process. We illustrate that consensus, corresponding to all nodes adopting the same attitudinal state and being fully connected, may destabilise via Turing instability, giving rise to aperiodic dynamics with sensitive dependence on initial conditions. These aperiodic dynamics correspond to the formation and dissolution of sub-groups that adopt contrasting attitudes. We discuss our findings in the context of cultural polarisation phenomena. Social influence. This reflects the fact that people tend to modify their behaviour and attitudes in response to the opinions of others [22-26]. We model social influence via diffusion: agents adjust their state according to a weighted sum (dictated by the evolving network) of the differences between their state and the states of their neighbours. Homophily. This relates the similarity of individuals' states to their frequency and strength of interaction . Thus in our model, homophily drives the evolution of the weighted ‘social' network. A precise formulation of our model is given in Section 2. Social influence and homophily underpin models of social dynamics , which cover a wide range of sociological phenomena, including the diffusion of innovations [28-32], complex contagions [33-36], collective action [37-39], opinion dynamics [19,20,40,10,11,13,15,41,16], the emergence of social norms [42-44], group stability , social differentiation  and, of particular relevance
Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.; Frewer, Lynn
to the technology call for the development of a theoretical basis for research into these issues. 2. The aim of the paper is to present three models which we have developed to explain consumer attitudes, buying behaviour and attitude change with regard to genetically engineered food products. All three models build......Executive summary 1. Few studies have to date explained consumer attitudes and purchase decisions with regard to genetically engineered food products. However, the increased marketing of genetically engineered food products and the considerable concern that consumers seem to express with regard...... on established consumer behaviour theory and on existing and comparable research in the field. 3. Consumer attitudes toward genetic engineering in food products are explained in an attitude model that builds on Fishbein's multiattribute attitude model. The model deviates from Fishbein's model in a number of ways...
Hoque, Mohammed Mainul; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens
Users of the Global Positioning System (GPS) utilize the Ionospheric Correction Algorithm (ICA) also known as Klobuchar model for correcting ionospheric signal delay or range error. Recently, we developed an ionosphere correction algorithm called NTCM-Klobpar model for single frequency GNSS applications. The model is driven by a parameter computed from GPS Klobuchar model and consecutively can be used instead of the GPS Klobuchar model for ionospheric corrections. In the presented work we compare the positioning solutions obtained using NTCM-Klobpar with those using the Klobuchar model. Our investigation using worldwide ground GPS data from a quiet and a perturbed ionospheric and geomagnetic activity period of 17 days each shows that the 24-hour prediction performance of the NTCM-Klobpar is better than the GPS Klobuchar model in global average. The root mean squared deviation of the 3D position errors are found to be about 0.24 and 0.45 m less for the NTCM-Klobpar compared to the GPS Klobuchar model during quiet and perturbed condition, respectively. The presented algorithm has the potential to continuously improve the accuracy of GPS single frequency mass market devices with only little software modification.
Hansen, Ulla Møller; Jones, Allan; Zander, Mette
AIMS: The aim of this study was to benchmark the Danish sample of the second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study with the global average in order to determine Denmark's comparative position for health status, healthcare provision, self-management and social support from...... to be an untapped potential when it comes to converting education participation of FM into social support for PWD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PWD in Denmark rank above the global average on measures of psychological wellbeing, despite psychological wellbeing being under-prioritised by HCP. However...... the perspective of people with diabetes, family members of people with diabetes and healthcare professionals. METHODS: A total of 502 Danish people with diabetes (PWD), 122 adult family members of people with diabetes (FM) and 283 healthcare professionals (HCPs) participated in the study. Data on healthcare...
van den Heuvel, Sjoerd; Schalk, René; Assen, Marcel A.L.M.
This study examined the mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment, trust, and perceived need for change in the relationship between change information and employee attitude toward organizational change. As one of the first studies inorganizational change research, attitude toward change
Sanlier, Nevin; Baser, Furkan; Mortas, Hande; Navruz Varli, Semra; Macit, M Sedanur; Tatar, Tugba
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among food addiction, eating attitudes, emotional appetite, and self-esteem of young adults aged 18-30 years by using a structural model. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,058 volunteers (male = 307, female = 751). The hypothesis that self-esteem of young adults influences their eating attitudes was supported in the study (β = -0.081, p food addiction (β = 0.280, p food addiction and between emotional appetite and food addiction. Individuals' eating attitude, food addiction, emotional appetite, and self-esteem scores were found to be related to each other. This article provides valuable data for studies of disordered eating attitudes, emotional state, and food addiction that are thought to be important for young adults in the future.
The TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire and Safety Attitudes Questionnaire were distributed to the nurses in a county hospital in Taiwan. Nurses (n = 407) had lower scores in Team Structure, Communication, and Situation Monitoring than physicians (n = 76). A structural equation model demonstrated a positive association between teamwork climate and safety attitudes (β = 0.78, P Teamwork climate is the most important determinant for patient safety attitudes among nurses.
Karademir, Ersin; Ulucinar, Ufuk
The purpose of this study is to verify the causal relationship between middle school students' critical reading skills, science literacy skills and attitudes towards science literacy with research data according to the default model. Through the structural equation modeling, path analysis has been applied in the study which was designed in…
Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.; Neumann, David L.
We tested a model of the relationship between attitudes toward statistics and achievement based on Eccles' Expectancy Value Model (1983). Participants (n = 149; 83% female) were second-year Australian university students in a psychology statistics course (mean age = 23.36 years, SD = 7.94 years). We obtained demographic details, past performance,…
Full Text Available Background: Improvement of attitudes toward breast cancer positively affects the screening behaviors of women. Imagery has been shown to have a positive impact on the screening behaviors of women. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of breast cancer screening training based on the systematic comprehensive health education and promotion (SHEP model on the attitudes and breast self-examination skills of women. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at two urban healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran in 2015. Participants were 120 women covered by these health centers, who received training on breast cancer screening based on the SHEP model. Intervention consisted of evaluation (literature review, topic selection, implementation (developing instruments, educator training, training of participants, and assessment (pretest-posttest. Data were collected using researcher-made questionnaires of attitude and breast self-examination (BSE checklists. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 20 using independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In the intervention and control groups, 55 (91.7% and 56 (93.3% participants were married, respectively. Results of Mann-Whitney U test before intervention showed no significant differences between the groups regarding the mean scores of attitude and breast self-examination skills (P>0.05. After a four-week follow-up, independent t-test revealed a significant difference between the groups in terms of the mean score of attitude (P
knowledge, belief, and positive attitude toward ITN should be maintained for effective malaria prevention. Keywords: ITN, Belief, Attitude, ... Ethiopia, malaria is a leading public health problem (MOH, 1999). Three quarters of the land mass ..... According to the Health Belief Model. (Glanz, et al 2002), this indicates those.
Abednego Feehi Okoe
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the drivers of consumers’ attitudes towards mobile advertisement. It also sought the relationship between consumers’ attitudes towards mobile advertisement and their willingness to accept mobile advertising. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the measurement model while structural equation was conducted to assess the goodness-fit of the overall model. The findings indicate that entertainment, credibility and personalization had positive effects on consumers’ attitudes toward mobile advertising. Furthermore, the results show that, consumers’ attitude determines their willingness to accept mobile advertising.
Murni, V.; Sariyasa, S.; Ardana, I. M.
This study aims to describe the effet of GeoGebra utilization in the discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving ability and students’ attitude toward mathematics. This research was quasi experimental and post-test only control group design was used in this study. The population in this study was 181 of students. The sampling technique used was cluster random sampling, so the sample in this study was 120 students divided into 4 classes, 2 classes for the experimental class and 2 classes for the control class. Data were analyzed by using one way MANOVA. The results of data analysis showed that the utilization of GeoGebra in discovery learning can lead to solving problems and attitudes towards mathematics are better. This is because the presentation of problems using geogebra can assist students in identifying and solving problems and attracting students’ interest because geogebra provides an immediate response process to students. The results of the research are the utilization of geogebra in the discovery learning can be applied in learning and teaching wider subject matter, beside subject matter in this study.
attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...... perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what...
Ponce de Leon, J.
Some exact spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations with Λ>0 and positive three-curvature are given. They have reasonable physical properties and represent universes which do not undergo inflation but have a non-de Sitter behaviour for large times. This paper extends some previous results in the literature. Permanent address: Apartado 2816, Caracas 1010-A, Venezuela.
Hasofer, Abraham Michael; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob
Positive random fields with known marginal properties and known correlation function are not numerous in the literature. The most prominent example is the log\\-normal field for which the complete distribution is known and for which the reciprocal field is also lognormal. It is of interest to supp...
Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo
In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges.
Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani
Full Text Available In this paper, the modeling, simulation and control of 3 degrees of freedom articulated robotic manipulator have been studied. First, we extracted kinematics and dynamics equations of the mentioned manipulator by using the Lagrange method. In order to validate the analytical model of the manipulator we compared the model simulated in the simulation environment of Matlab with the model was simulated with the SimMechanics toolbox. A sample path has been designed for analyzing the tracking subject. The system has been linearized with feedback linearization and then a PID controller was applied to track a reference trajectory. Finally, the control results have been compared with a nonlinear PID controller.
Platt, John; Weber, Heidi
Discusses the distinctions between the acquisition of a second language and of a foreign language. Proposes a tridimensional model for all varietal manifestations of foreign, second, and native language acquisition. Describes Singapore English and the English used by a group of Chinese-medium educated Singaporeans in terms of the model. (EKN)
Booth, Rachelle; Hernandez, Magaly; Baker, Erica L; Grajales, Tevni; Pribis, Peter
College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18-25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods.
Full Text Available College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18–25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods.
Booth, Rachelle; Hernandez, Magaly; Baker, Erica L.; Grajales, Tevni; Pribis, Peter
College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18–25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods. PMID:23364131
The purpose of this study is to develop a model of production management unit to enhance entrepreneurship attitude of vocational school students from fashion department. This study concerns in developing students' entrepreneurship attitude in management which includes planning, organizing, applying and evaluation. The study uses Research and Development (R & D) approach with three main steps; preliminary study, development step, and product validation. Research subject was vocational school teachers from fashion department in Semarang, Salatiga and Demak. This study yields a development model of production management unit that could enhance vocational school students' entrepreneurship attitude in fashion department. The result shows that research subjects have understood about of production management unit in Vocational School (SMK).
Full Text Available This research purposed to determine the improvement of student’s scientific attitudes and critical thinking skills on the colloidal concept with implementation the learning model science environment technology and society (SETS. The method for this study is quasi-experimental with research design "Pretest-Posttest Nonequivalent Control Group Design". Class XI student at one of SMAN in Majalengka District is the sample in this research with 62 students. The written test and the observation sheets used for collecting the data. The results showed that SETS learning for colloidal concept can enhance the student’s scientific attitude was 72,7 % (good category and student’s critical thinking skills with N-Gain of 42% (moderate category. Increasing student’s critical thinking skills class experiment is also significantly differ from the control class. So, the students’ scientific attitudes and critical thinking skills can improved by implementation the learning chemistry with SETS learning model
Chapter 1 investigates optimal monetary policy response towards oil shocks in a New Keynesian model. We find that optimal policy, in general, becomes contractionary in response to an adverse oil shock. However, the optimal policy rule and the inflation-output trade-off depend on the specific structure of the model. The benchmark economy consists of a flexible-price energy sector and a sticky-price manufacturing sector where energy is used as an intermediate input. We show that optimal policy is to stabilize the sticky (core) price level. We then show that after incorporating a less oil-dependent sticky-price service sector, the model exhibits a trade-off in stabilizing prices and output gaps in the different sticky-price sectors. It predicts that central bank should not try to stabilize the core price level, and the economy will experience higher inflation and rising output gaps, even if central banks respond optimally. Chapter 2 addresses the observed volatility and persistence of real exchange rates and the terms of trade. It contributes to the literature with a quantitative study on the U.S. and Canada. A two-country New Keynesian model consisting of traded, non-traded, and oil production sectors is proposed to examine the time series properties of the real exchange rate, the terms of trade and the real oil price. We find that after incorporating several realistic features (namely oil price shocks, sector specific labor, non-traded goods, asymmetric pricing decisions of exporters and asymmetric consumer preferences over tradables), the benchmark model broadly matches the volatilities of the relative prices and some business cycle correlations. The model matches the data more closely after adding real demand shocks, suggesting their importance in explaining the relative price movements between the US and Canada. Chapter 3 explores several sources and transmission channels of international relative price movements. In particular, we elaborate on the role of
Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre
Most previous studies have failed to replicate the original factor structure of the 26-item version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) among community samples of adolescents. The main objective of the present series of four studies (n = 2178) was to revisit the factor structure of this instrument among mixed gender community samples of adolescents using both exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). First, results from the ESEM analyses provided satisfactory goodness-of-fit statistics and reliability coefficients for a six-factor model of the EAT with 18 items (EAT-18) closely corresponding to the original seven-factor structure proposed for the 40-item version of the EAT. Second, these analyses were satisfactorily replicated among a new sample of community adolescents using CFA. The results confirmed the factor loading and intercept invariance of this model across gender and age groups (i.e., early and late adolescence), as well as the complete invariance of the EAT-18 measurement model between ethnicities (i.e., European versus African origins) and across weight categories (i.e., underweight, normal weight and overweight). Finally, the last study provided support for convergent validity of the EAT-18 with the Eating Disorder Inventory and with instruments measuring global self-esteem, physical appearance, social physique anxiety and fear of negative appearance evaluation.
Naimi, N.; Hamm, N.A.S.; Groen, T.A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.
Species data held in museum and herbaria, survey data and opportunistically observed data are a substantial information resource. A key challenge in using these data is the uncertainty about where an observation is located. This is important when the data are used for species distribution modelling
This study sought to empirically test a theoretical model outlining the relationships between intrinsic rewards, intrinsic motivation, work engagement and intention to quit, in an attempt to empirically assess whether intrinsic rewards result in improved levels of motivation, engagement and retention. Using a sample of 587 ...
Korkmaz, Ozgen; Karakus, Ufuk
The present study aims to determine the impact of blended learning model on student attitudes towards Geography course and their critical thinking dispositions and skills. An experimental pattern with pretest-posttest control group was used in the study. The study group consists of a total of 57 students--28 in the experiment group and 29 in the…
Wolusky, G. Anthony
This quantitative study used a web-based questionnaire to assess the attitudes and perceptions of online and hybrid faculty towards student-centered asynchronous virtual teamwork (AVT) using the technology acceptance model (TAM) of Davis (1989). AVT is online student participation in a team approach to problem-solving culminating in a written…
Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Sherman, Aurora M.
Using an experimental methodology, the present study investigated adolescents' attitudes toward media images of women in non-appearance-focused (CEO and military pilot) and appearance-focused occupations (model and actor). One hundred adolescent girls and 76 adolescent boys provided ratings of likability, competence, and similarity to self after…
Kiselica, Mark S; Englar-Carlson, Matt
The bulk of the extant literature on the psychology of boys, men and masculinity has been focused on the important challenges of: a) creating an awareness about the detrimental effects of constricted forms of masculinity on boys and men and their relationships with others; and b) developing remedial approaches to psychotherapy that are designed to help boys and men recover from dysfunctional masculinity. The purpose of this article is to expand this literature by introducing the positive psychology/positive masculinity (PPPM) framework, which emphasizes male strengths as the starting point for psychotherapy with boys and men. The central principles of the PPPM framework are described, and the application of the PPPM model with an adult man in psychotherapy is presented. The implications of the PPPM model for future practice and research pertaining to boys, men, and masculinity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Antonio Carlos Valdiero
Full Text Available This paper addresses a new methodology for servo pneumatic actuators mathematical modeling and selection from the dynamic behavior study in engineering applications. The pneumatic actuator is very common in industrial application because it has the following advantages: its maintenance is easy and simple, with relatively low cost, self-cooling properties, good power density (power/dimension rate, fast acting with high accelerations, and installation flexibility. The proposed fifth-order nonlinear mathematical model represents the main characteristics of this nonlinear dynamic system, as servo valve dead zone, air flow-pressure relationship through valve orifice, air compressibility, and friction effects between contact surfaces in actuator seals. Simulation results show the dynamic performance for different pneumatic cylinders in order to see which features contribute to a better behavior of the system. The knowledge of this behavior allows an appropriate choice of pneumatic actuator, mainly contributing to the success of their precise control in several applications.
Wade Cherrington, J [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Christensen, J Daniel [Department of Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)
The Barrett-Crane models of Lorentzian quantum gravity are a family of spin foam models based on the Lorentz group. We show that for various choices of edge and face amplitudes, including the Perez-Rovelli normalization, the amplitude for every triangulated closed 4-manifold is a non-negative real number. Roughly speaking, this means that if one sums over triangulations, there is no interference between the different triangulations. We prove non-negativity by transforming the model into a 'dual variables' formulation in which the amplitude for a given triangulation is expressed as an integral over three copies of hyperbolic space for each tetrahedron. Then we prove that, expressed in this way, the integrand is non-negative. In addition to implying that the amplitude is non-negative, the non-negativity of the integrand is highly significant from the point of view of numerical computations, as it allows statistical methods such as the Metropolis algorithm to be used for efficient computation of expectation values of observables.
Wrottesley, Stephanie V.; Cohen, Emmanuel; Reddy, Ankita; Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Twine, Rhian; Tollman, Stephen M.; Kahn, Kathleen; Dunger, David B.; Norris, Shane A.
The persistence of food insecurity, malnutrition, increasing adiposity, and decreasing physical activity, heightens the need to understand relationships between body image satisfaction, eating attitudes, BMI and physical activity levels in South Africa. Females aged 18–23 years were recruited from rural (n = 509) and urban (n = 510) settings. Body image satisfaction was measured using Stunkard’s silhouettes, and the 26-item Eating Attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26) was used to evaluate participants’ risk of disordered eating. Minutes per week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Significant linear correlates were included in a series of regressions run separately for urban and rural participants. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships between variables. Urban females were more likely to be overweight and obese than rural females (p = 0.02), and had a greater desire to be thinner (p = 0.02). In both groups, being overweight or obese was positively associated with a desire to be thinner (pdisordered eating attitude was associated with body image dissatisfaction in the urban group (β = 1.27, pbody image dissatisfaction was associated with disordered eating (β = 0.63), as well as higher MVPA participation (pdisordered eating attitude, and with a decreased desire to be thinner. Findings indicate a shift in both settings towards more Westernised ideals. Physical activity may provide a means to promote a healthy body image, while reducing the risk of disordered eating. Given the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in both rural and urban women, this study provides insights for future interventions aimed at decreasing adiposity in a healthy way. PMID:29145423
Guzmán, Azucena; Wenborn, Jennifer; Ledgerd, Ritchard; Orrell, Martin
There is a recognised need to improve staff training in care homes. The aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative evaluation of the Ladder to the Moon Culture Change Studio Engagement Programme (CCSEP), a staff training programme aimed at enhancing staff-resident communication. Focus groups were conducted with residents able to provide consent; staff and relatives and managers were interviewed in two care homes. A theoretical framework was developed to interpret the impact of CCSEP using Framework Analysis. Residents noted that the programme appeared to result in staff interacting more with them, as well as enjoying working together as a team. Staff reported an improved sense of teamwork, developing more positive attitudes towards residents, as well as their concerns about using theatrical techniques in the care setting. Relatives identified care home organisational aspects as being barriers to implementation, and some regarded CCSEP simply as 'entertainment' rather than 'creative care'. This study provides an insight into the potential of this staff training programme to improve staff-resident interactions. However, participants' varying views of CCSEP highlight the need to brief staff, residents and relatives before implementation so as to enable full understanding of the aim. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Berger, Rony; Benatov, Joy; Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Tadmor, Carmit T
The current investigation tested the efficacy of the Extended Class Exchange Program (ECEP) in reducing prejudicial attitudes. Three hundred and twenty-two 3rd and 4th grade students from both Israeli-Jewish and Israeli-Palestinian schools in the ethnically mixed city of Jaffa were randomly assigned to either intervention or control classes. Members of the intervention classes engaged in ECEP's activities, whereas members of the control classes engaged in a social-emotional learning program. The program's outcomes were measured a week before, immediately after, and 15months following termination. Results showed that the ECEP decreased stereotyping and discriminatory tendencies toward the other group and increased positive feelings and readiness for social contact with the other group upon program termination. Additionally, the effects of the ECEP were generalized to an ethnic group (i.e., Ethiopians) with whom the ECEP's participants did not have any contact. Finally, the ECEP retained its significant effect 15months after the program's termination, despite the serious clashes between Israel and the Palestinians that occurred during that time. This empirical support for the ECEP'S utility in reducing prejudice makes it potentially applicable to other areas in the world, especially those that are characterized by ethnic tension and violent conflicts. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shpancer, Noam; Schweitzer, Stefanie N.
Data were collected over a 15-year span from three comparable cohorts of students at a Midwestern university about their childcare histories and current attitudes towards non-parental childcare and maternal employment. Across cohorts, a history of non-parental childcare predicted adult attitudes towards non-parental childcare and maternal…
van den Heuvel, Sjoerd; Schalk, René; van Assen, Marcel A L M
This study examined the mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment, trust, and perceived need for change in the relationship between change information and employee attitude toward organizational change. As one of the first studies in organizational change research, attitude toward change
van den Heuvel, S.R.H.; Schalk, R.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.
This study examined the mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment, trust, and perceived need for change in the relationship between change information and employee attitude toward organizational change. As one of the first studies in organizational change research, attitude toward change
Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Vennix, J.A.M.; Jacobs, H.A.G.M.
Client involvement in modeling is expected to change mental models and thereby foster implementation of conclusions. Leading authors have pointed out that a lack of knowledge on the crucial elements of modeling interventions hinders accumulation of research results. There is no clear evidence for
Janssen, D.M.; Paas, L.J.
The authors hypothesize and find that an advertising model's body size has an inverted U-shaped relationship with ad attitude in the apparel product category, in which moderately thin advertising models are optimal. They assess the moderating effect of consumers' fashion leadership on this quadratic
Pontiga, Francisco; Yanallah, Khelifa; Chen, Junhong
Semianalytical approximate solutions of the spatial distribution of electric field and electron and ion densities have been obtained by solving Poisson's equations and the continuity equations for the charged species along the Laplacian field lines. The need to iterate for the correct value of space charge on the corona electrode has been eliminated by using the corona current distribution over the grounded plane derived by Deutsch, which predicts a cos m θ law similar to Warburg's law. Based on the results of the approximated model, a parametric study of the influence of gas pressure, the corona wire radius, and the inter-electrode wire-plate separation has been carried out. Also, the approximate solutions of the electron number density has been combined with a simplified plasma chemistry model in order to compute the ozone density generated by the corona discharge in the presence of a gas flow. This work was supported by the Consejeria de Innovacion, Ciencia y Empresa (Junta de Andalucia) and by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, Spain, within the European Regional Development Fund contracts FQM-4983 and FIS2011-25161.
Salame, Hania Moussa
The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of adapting the instructional congruence model on the English Language Learners' (ELL) attitudes and achievement in science. Changes in teacher's views and practices were documented. The mixed-method approach was adapted. Data sources were the "Attitude Towards Science" survey, VNOS-C questionnaire, Luykx and Lee (2007) observational instrument, Gee (1997) discussion categories, video recordings, and pre- and post-tests. A science teacher and a class of 24 ELL female students in a charter school participated in this research. The results of this study indicated that student achievement increased significantly and students' attitudes improved in all contexts. At the conclusion of the study, all teacher's views on NOS were reported to be informed, teacher's practices were rated higher, and different classroom interactions increased significantly. The instructional congruence model in science education has been successful in reaching different learners, improving students' attitudes and achievement in science and enhancing teacher's views and practices. This model has significant potential for meeting the challenging goals of reformed science education.
Isoh Sukaesah, Rusdi
Full Text Available Model and learning media is an important component that may affect the achievement of learning objectives. Model selection and appropriate learning media can improve student learning outcomes both in the cognitive and affective domains. This study was aimed to examine the effect of the learning model Think Pair Share (TPS, Student Team Achievement Division (STAD and Conventional learning model and the interaction model and learning media attitude towards reproductive health and student learning outcomes in the material reproductive system. The study was conducted at XI MIA grade students in four Senior High Schools in North Jakarta the academic year 2014/2015. Data were collected through the test instrument scale reproductive health attitudes and learning outcomes instruments reproductive system. Data were analyzed by Two-Way ANOVA and Tukey Test. The results showed that the use of models and instructional media and the interaction between the model and learning media significantly influence the attitude of reproductive health and learning outcomes of the reproductive system of high school students with a significance value (p< = 0.01.
Borhan, Noziati; Zakaria, Effandi
This quantitative study was conducted to investigate the perception level of novice teachers about mathematics belief, teachers' attitude towards mathematics and teaching practices of mathematics in the classroom. In addition, it also aims to identify whether there is a correspondence model with the data obtained and to identify the relationship between the variables of beliefs, attitudes and practices among novice teachers in Malaysia. A total of 263 primary novice teachers throughout the country were involved in this study were selected randomly. Respondents are required to provide a response to the questionnaire of 66 items related to mathematics beliefs, attitudes and practices of the teaching mathematics. There are ten sub-factors which have been established in this instrument for three major constructs using a Likert scale rating of five points. The items of the constructs undergo the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) procedure involve of unidimensionality test, convergent validity, construct validity and discriminant validity. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the frequency, percentage, the mean and standard deviation for completing some research questions that have been expressed. As for inferential statistical analysis, the researchers used structural equation modeling (SEM) to answer the question of correspondents model and the relationship between these three variables. The results of the study were found that there exist a correspondence measurement and structural model with the data obtained. While the relationship between variable found that mathematics beliefs have a significant influence on teachers' attitudes towards mathematics as well as the relationship between the attitudes with teaching practices. Meanwhile, mathematics belief had no significant relationship with mathematics teaching practices among novice teachers in Malaysia.
Full Text Available Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls. Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.
Díaz, Margarita; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Cabral, Francisco; Castro e Silva, Ricardo de; Campos, Márcia; Faúndes, Anibal
Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls). Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.
Bidwell, David Charles
A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude
Full Text Available The integrated 6-DOF orbit-attitude dynamical modeling and control have shown great importance in various missions, for example, formation flying and proximity operations. The integrated approach yields better performances than the separate one in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and agility. One challenge in the integrated approach is to find a unified representation for the 6-DOF motion with configuration space SE(3. Recently, exponential coordinates of SE(3 have been used in dynamics and control of the 6-DOF motion, however, only on the kinematical level. In this paper, we will improve the current method by adopting exponential coordinates on the dynamical level, by giving the relation between the second-order derivative of exponential coordinates and spacecraft’s accelerations. In this way, the 6-DOF motion in terms of exponential coordinates can be written as a second-order system with a quite compact form, to which a broader range of control theories, such as higher-order sliding modes, can be applied. For a demonstration purpose, a simple asymptotic tracking control law with almost global convergence is designed. Finally, the integrated modeling and control are applied to the body-fixed hovering over an asteroid and verified by a simulation, in which absolute motions of the spacecraft and asteroid are simulated separately.
The CLEM model: Path analysis of the mediating effects of attitudes and motivational beliefs on the relationship between perceived learning environment and course performance in an undergraduate nonmajor biology course
Partin, Matthew L.
The problem addressed in this study stems from three crises currently faced by post-secondary science educators in the United States: relatively low scientific literacy among students entering college, the need for more students to pursue science related careers, and poor attitudes among students toward studying science. In this dissertation the following questions are addressed: Is there a relationship between students' perceptions of their learning environment and course performance, and what roles do motivation and attitudes play in mediating that relationship? This study also examines the effects of gender and ethnicity on motivation, attitudes, and course performance. The purpose of this study is to test a path model describing the mediating effects of motivation and attitudes on constructivist learning environments and course performance. The following study considers contemporary understanding of teaching and learning as well as motivation and attitudes to suggest a direction for future reform efforts and to guide post-secondary science education instructors and leaders in the design of constructivist learning environments for undergraduate nonmajor biology courses. This study concludes that, although the classroom learning environment has a small direct effect on course performance, there is a moderate total effect on self-efficacy and intrinsic goal orientation. The classroom learning environment also had a moderate indirect effect on attitudes toward biology. Furthermore, attitudes have a moderate direct effect on course performance and self-efficacy has a strong direct effect on both course performance and attitudes toward biology. Self-efficacy seems to be particularly important; however, each of these constructs is important in its own right and instructors in higher education should strive to enhance each of them among their students. If students are to learn using constructivist methods they need the proper motivation and positive attitudes to
Dilssner, Florian; Springer, Tim; Schönemann, Erik; Zandbergen, Rene; Enderle, Werner
Solar radiation pressure (SRP) is the largest non-gravitational perturbation for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) satellites, and can therefore have substantial impact on their orbital dynamics. Various SRP force models have been developed over the past 30 years for the purpose of precise orbit determination. They all rely upon the assumption that the satellites continuously maintain a Sun-Nadir pointing attitude with the navigation antenna boresight (body-fixed z-axis) pointing towards Earth center, and the solar panel rotation axis (body-fixed y-axis) being normal to the Sun direction. However, in reality, this is not perfectly the case. Reasons for a non-nominal spacecraft attitude may be eclipse maneuvers, commanded attitude biases and Sun/horizon sensor measurement errors, for example due to mounting misalignment or incorrectly calibrated sensor electronics. In this work the effect of GNSS spacecraft orientation errors on SRP modelling is investigated. Simplified mathematical functions describing the SRP force acting on the solar arrays in the presence of yaw-, pitch- and roll-biases are derived. Special attention is paid to the yaw-bias and its relationship to the SRP dynamics, particular in direction of the spacecraft y-axis ("y-bias force"). Analytical and experimental results gathered from orbit and attitude analyses of GPS Block II/IIA/IIF satellites demonstrate how sensitive the SRP coefficients are to changes in yaw.
Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo
description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces...
Full Text Available The effectiveness of the work performed during disaster relief efforts is highly dependent on the coordination of activities conducted by the first responders deployed in the affected area. Such coordination, in turn, depends on an appropriate management of geo-referenced information. Therefore, enabling first responders to count on positioning capabilities during these activities is vital to increase the effectiveness of the response process. The positioning methods used in this scenario must assume a lack of infrastructure-based communication and electrical energy, which usually characterizes affected areas. Although positioning systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS have been shown to be useful, we cannot assume that all devices deployed in the area (or most of them will have positioning capabilities by themselves. Typically, many first responders carry devices that are not capable of performing positioning on their own, but that require such a service. In order to help increase the positioning capability of first responders in disaster-affected areas, this paper presents a context-aware positioning model that allows mobile devices to estimate their position based on information gathered from their surroundings. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using simulations, and the obtained results show that mobile devices without positioning capabilities were able to use the model to estimate their position. Moreover, the accuracy of the positioning model has been shown to be suitable for conducting most first response activities.
Shaw, John; Harrison, Jeff; Harrison, Jenny
To examine attitudes towards a new collaborative pharmacy-based model of care for management of warfarin treatment in the community. As background to the study, the New Zealand health authorities are encouraging greater clinical involvement of community pharmacists. Fifteen community pharmacies in New Zealand took part in a community pharmacist-led anticoagulation management service (CPAMS). Participants (patients, general practitioners, practice nurses, pharmacists) were surveyed on their views on accessibility, convenience, confidence in the service, impact on warfarin control, impact on workloads, effect on relationships and whether the service should be further implemented. A small number from each group was interviewed on the same topics. Patients reported improved access, convenience, a preference for capillary testing, and the immediacy of the test result and dose changes. They indicated that they had a better understanding of their health problems. While sample sizes were small, the majority of general practitioners and practice nurses felt there were positive benefits for patients (convenience) and themselves (time saved) and expressed confidence in pharmacists' ability to provide the service. There were some concerns about potential loss of involvement in patient management. Pharmacists reported high levels of satisfaction with better use of their clinical knowledge in direct patient care and that their relationships with both patients and health professionals had improved. The new model of care was highly valued by patients and supported by primary care practitioners. Wider implementation of CPAMS was strongly supported. Pharmacists and general practitioners involved in CPAMS reported a pre-existing collaborative relationship, and this appears to be important in effective implementation. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
This experiment identifies and models phases during the positioning of graphical objects (called cursors in this article) on computer displays. The human computer-interaction community has traditionally used Fitts' law to model selection in graphical user interfaces, whereas human factors experiments have found the single-component Fitts' law inadequate to model positioning of real objects. Participants (N=145) repeatedly positioned variably sized square cursors within variably sized rectangular targets using computer mice. The times for the cursor to just touch the target, for the cursor to enter the target, and for participants to indicate positioning completion were observed. The positioning tolerances were varied from very precise and difficult to imprecise and easy. The time for the cursor to touch the target was proportional to the initial cursor-target distance. The time for the cursor to completely enter the target after touching was proportional to the logarithms of cursor size divided by target tolerances. The time for participants to indicate positioning after entering was inversely proportional to the tolerance. A three-phase model defined by regions--distant, proximate, and inside the target--was proposed and could model the positioning tasks. The three-phase model provides a framework for ergonomists to evaluate new positioning techniques and can explain their deficiencies. The model provides a means to analyze tasks and enhance interaction during positioning.
López Puga, Jorge; García García, Juan
Entrepreneurship research is receiving increasing attention in our context, as entrepreneurs are key social agents involved in economic development. We compare the success of the dichotomic logistic regression model and the Bayes simple classifier to predict entrepreneurship, after manipulating the percentage of missing data and the level of categorization in predictors. A sample of undergraduate university students (N = 1230) completed five scales (motivation, attitude towards business creation, obstacles, deficiencies, and training needs) and we found that each of them predicted different aspects of the tendency to business creation. Additionally, our results show that the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is affected by the rate of missing data in both techniques, but logistic regression seems to be more vulnerable when faced with missing data, whereas Bayes nets underperform slightly when categorization has been manipulated. Our study sheds light on the potential entrepreneur profile and we propose to use Bayesian networks as an additional alternative to overcome the weaknesses of logistic regression when missing data are present in applied research.
Cooke, Rachel; Papadaki, Angeliki
The aim of this study was to investigate whether nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating are predictors of nutrition label use (NLU) and dietary quality in a diverse sample of university students in the UK. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among 500 students (mean age 24.9 years; 75% females) in 37 UK universities. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, NLU and dietary quality were assessed using previously validated questionnaires. The majority of participants met dietary recommendations for fat, added sugar and fast food intake, and failed to meet recommendations for calcium, fibre, fruit and vegetable and dairy product intake, resulting in a median dietary quality score of 2.0 (score range = 0-8). Nutrition knowledge differed according to gender, age, body mass index (BMI), nationality and NLU. Attitudes towards healthy eating differed according to BMI and NLU and dietary quality differed according to gender. Nutrition knowledge and attitudes were significant predictors of NLU and dietary quality, with NLU mediating the latter relationship, whereas NLU, when controlled for knowledge and attitudes, negatively predicted dietary quality but did not have a significant independent relationship with diet. Future nutrition interventions to improve dietary quality in this sample of UK university students should focus on improving nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Jason E
.... While there are a multitude of ways to determine a satellite's orientation, very little research has been done on determining if the attitude of a satellite can be determined directly from telemetry...
Raskaliyev, Almat; Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek
A computational algorithm is developed for estimating accurately the attitude of a robotic arm which moves along a predetermined path. This algorithm requires preliminary input data obtained in the static mode to yield phase observables for the precise, 3-axis attitude determination of a swinging manipulator in the dynamic mode. Measurements are recorded simultaneously by three GPS L1 receivers and then processed in several steps to accomplish this task. First, artkconv batch executable conve...
Full Text Available In order to overcome the drawbacks in artificial horizon indicator (HI of inside-in type (a view from an aircraft (A/C, where pilots produce mistakes in maintenance of attitude orientation most of all, the authors offer a novel training method. The method is based on the hypothesis that the manipulative ability of a human visual system can be trained. A mathematical model for the data accumulation during the corresponding training procedure has been proposed. Construction, design and results of the model evaluation are presented in the article. The experimental results revealed the increase of the probability of faultless operation by the test group of up to 0,892, whereas the faultless operation probability of a control group was 0,726. Thus, the trainee-students have statistically increased the reliability for the maintenance of attitude orientation thanks to the proposed method, and the hypothesis was confirmed.
Mohr-Schroeder, Margaret J.; Jackson, Christa; Cavalcanti, Maureen; Jong, Cindy; Schroeder, D. Craig; Speler, Lydia G.
The purpose of this study was to investigate parents' attitudes toward mathematics, their students' attitude toward mathematics, and the influence of the parents' attitude on the students' attitude toward mathematics. Data analyses revealed statistically significant positive correlations between parents' and students' attitudes toward mathematics.…
Sigurbjornsdottir, Olof Drofn; Torfadottir, Johanna Eyrun; Olafsdottir, Anna Sigridur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey
Few studies exist on eating attitudes and well-being of adults in Iceland. In most Western societies great emphasis is placed on a lean and fit body, nevertheless the number of people gaining weigt keeps increasing. Such circumstances may cause discomfort related to food and food choice. The aim of this study was to examine attitudes towards food and eating among Icelandic adults. We used data from the Icelandic national health survey of 5,861 adults, age 18-79, conducted in 2007. A numerical assessment tool for measuring eating attitude was established, based on answers to questions on eating attitude. We used binary regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for unhealthy eating attitude according to different demographic factors. The prevalence of unhealthy eating attitude according to the measurement tool used in the study was 17% among participants, 22% for women and 11% for men. Unhealthy eating attitude was most prevalent in the age-group 18-29 years (36% of women, 15% of men), among those dissatisfied with their body weight (35% of women, 22% of men) and among those defined as obese (38% of women, 23% of men). Our data show that women are more prone to express unhealthy eating attitude compared to men. Those of younger age, with weight dissatisfaction and with high body mass index are positively associated with unhealthy eating attitude, irrespective of gender. Diet, Dietary restraint, Public Health, Eating attitude, Body weight satisfaction. Correspondence: Laufey Steingrimsdottir, email@example.com.
is preferred to land based development, which indicates that the wind power development should be taken off-shore. But, the results also point out that the land-based opportunities for wind power development are not exhausted. On a more detailed level, the results denote that the attitude towards both land...... based and off-shore wind power vary with age of the respondents and experience with wind turbines. Younger respondents are more positive towards wind power than older respondents, pointing towards an increase in acceptance in the future. The attitude was also found to covariate negatively......The present paper analyses the attitudes towards existing and future land-based turbines and off-shore wind farms. The analysis is carried out using a probit model to elicit systematic characteristics determining the attitude of the population. The analyses show that off-shore development...
Loveridge, Scott; Miller, Steven R.; Komarek, Timothy M.; Satimanon, Thasanee
Much of the current discussion on factors that influence entrepreneurial activity focuses on availability of human, social, and financial capitals, regional economic conditions, and dynamics of population. We discuss social attitudes toward entrepreneurship and how attitudes may influence entrepreneurial activity. We analyze telephone survey questions designed to gauge attitudes towards community entrepreneurship. High school entrepreneurship career exploration and positive spin-offs from loc...
The study assessed young adults' attitudes toward childlessness and identified certain factors which predict positive or negative attitudes toward childlessness. The author anticipated finding changes in attitudes because of recent social developments such as awareness of world overpopulation, availability of birth control methods, pressure for…
Slater, Michael D.
The Reinforcing Spirals Model (RSM, Citation Withheld) has two primary purposes. First, the RSM provides a general framework for conceptualizing media use as part of a dynamic, endogenous process combining selective exposure and media effects that may be drawn on by theorists concerned with a variety of social processes and effects. Second, the RSM utilizes a systems-theory perspective to describe how patterns of mediated and interpersonal communication contribute to the development and maintenance of social identities and ideology as well as more transient attitudes and related behaviors, and how those outcomes may influence subsequent media use. The RSM suggests contingencies that may lead to homeostasis or encourage certain individuals or groups to extreme polarization of such attitudes. In addition, the RSM proposes social cognitive mechanisms that may be responsible for attitude maintenance and reinforcement. This article discusses empirical progress in testing the model, addresses misconceptions that have arisen, and provides elaborated illustrations of the model. The article also identifies potentially fruitful directions for further conceptual development and empirical testing of the RSM. PMID:26366124
Slater, Michael D
The Reinforcing Spirals Model (RSM, Citation Withheld) has two primary purposes. First, the RSM provides a general framework for conceptualizing media use as part of a dynamic, endogenous process combining selective exposure and media effects that may be drawn on by theorists concerned with a variety of social processes and effects. Second, the RSM utilizes a systems-theory perspective to describe how patterns of mediated and interpersonal communication contribute to the development and maintenance of social identities and ideology as well as more transient attitudes and related behaviors, and how those outcomes may influence subsequent media use. The RSM suggests contingencies that may lead to homeostasis or encourage certain individuals or groups to extreme polarization of such attitudes. In addition, the RSM proposes social cognitive mechanisms that may be responsible for attitude maintenance and reinforcement. This article discusses empirical progress in testing the model, addresses misconceptions that have arisen, and provides elaborated illustrations of the model. The article also identifies potentially fruitful directions for further conceptual development and empirical testing of the RSM.
Hoyos, David; Mariel, Petr; Hess, Stephane
Environmental economists are increasingly interested in better understanding how people cognitively organise their beliefs and attitudes towards environmental change in order to identify key motives and barriers that stimulate or prevent action. In this paper, we explore the utility of a commonly used psychometric scale, the awareness of consequences (AC) scale, in order to better understand stated choices. The main contribution of the paper is that it provides a novel approach to incorporate attitudinal information into discrete choice models for environmental valuation: firstly, environmental attitudes are incorporated using a reinterpretation of the classical AC scale recently proposed by Ryan and Spash (2012); and, secondly, attitudinal data is incorporated as latent variables under a hybrid choice modelling framework. This novel approach is applied to data from a survey conducted in the Basque Country (Spain) in 2008 aimed at valuing land-use policies in a Natura 2000 Network site. The results are relevant to policy-making because choice models that are able to accommodate underlying environmental attitudes may help in designing more effective environmental policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Development of an instrument to assess the impact of an enhanced experiential model on pharmacy students' learning opportunities, skills and attitudes: A retrospective comparative-experimentalist study
Collins John B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacy schools across North America have been charged to ensure their students are adequately skilled in the principles and practices of pharmaceutical care. Despite this mandate, a large percentage of students experience insufficient opportunities to practice the activities, tasks and processes essential to pharmaceutical care. The objective of this retrospective study of pharmacy students was to: (1 as "proof of concept", test the overall educational impact of an enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiential (APPE model on student competencies; (2 develop an instrument to measure students' and preceptors' experiences; and (3 assess the psychometric properties of the instrument. Methods A comparative-experimental design, using student and preceptor surveys, was used to evaluate the impact of the enhanced community-based APPE over the traditional APPE model. The study was grounded in a 5-stage learning model: (1 an enhanced learning climate leads to (2 better utilization of learning opportunities, including (3 more frequent student/patient consultation, then to (4 improved skills acquisition, thence to (5 more favorable attitudes toward pharmaceutical care practice. The intervention included a one-day preceptor workshop, a comprehensive on-site student orientation and extending the experience from two four-week experiences in different pharmacies to one eight-week in one pharmacy. Results The 35 student and 38 preceptor survey results favored the enhanced model; with students conducting many more patient consultations and reporting greater skills improvement. In addition, the student self-assessment suggested changes in attitudes favoring pharmaceutical care principles. Psychometric testing showed the instrument to be sensitive, valid and reliable in ascertaining differences between the enhanced and traditional arms. Conclusion The enhanced experiential model positively affects learning opportunities and competency
Baktoft, Henrik; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Økland, Finn
Aquatic positional telemetry offers vast opportunities to study in vivo behaviour of wild animals, but there is room for improvement in the data quality provided by current procedures for estimating positions. Here we present a novel positioning method called YAPS (Yet Another Positioning Solver...
Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James
Theories that posit multiplicative relationships between variables are common in psychology. A. G. Greenwald et al. recently presented a theory that explicated relationships between group identification, group attitudes, and self-esteem. Their theory posits a multiplicative relationship between concepts when predicting a criterion variable.…
Raskaliyev, Almat; Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek
A computational algorithm is developed for estimating accurately the attitude of a robotic arm which moves along a predetermined path. This algorithm requires preliminary input data obtained in the static mode to yield phase observables for the precise, 3-axis attitude determination of a swinging manipulator in the dynamic mode. Measurements are recorded simultaneously by three GPS L1 receivers and then processed in several steps to accomplish this task. First, artkconv batch executable converts GPS receiver readings into RINEX format to generate GPS observables and ephemeris for multiple satellites. Then baseline vectors determination is carried out by baseline constrained Least-Squares Ambiguity Decorrelation (LAMBDA) method that uses double difference carrier phase estimates as input to calculate integer solution for each baseline. Finally, attitude determination is made by employing alternatively Least-squares attitude determination (LSAD) in the static mode and extended Kalman filter in the dynamic mode. The algorithm presented in this paper is applied to recorded data on Mitsubishi RV-M1 robotic arm in order to produce attitude estimates. These results are confirmed by another set of Euler angles independently evaluated from robotic arm postures obtained along the predefined trajectory.
Full Text Available A computational algorithm is developed for estimating accurately the attitude of a robotic arm which moves along a predetermined path. This algorithm requires preliminary input data obtained in the static mode to yield phase observables for the precise, 3-axis attitude determination of a swinging manipulator in the dynamic mode. Measurements are recorded simultaneously by three GPS L1 receivers and then processed in several steps to accomplish this task. First, artkconv batch executable converts GPS receiver readings into RINEX format to generate GPS observables and ephemeris for multiple satellites. Then baseline vectors determination is carried out by baseline constrained Least-Squares Ambiguity Decorrelation (LAMBDA method that uses double difference carrier phase estimates as input to calculate integer solution for each baseline. Finally, attitude determination is made by employing alternatively Least-squares attitude determination (LSAD in the static mode and extended Kalman filter in the dynamic mode. The algorithm presented in this paper is applied to recorded data on Mitsubishi RV-M1 robotic arm in order to produce attitude estimates. These results are confirmed by another set of Euler angles independently evaluated from robotic arm postures obtained along the predefined trajectory.
Hendrikse, A.J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Goseling, Jasper; Weber, Jos H.
In biometrics, often models are used in which the data distributions are approximated with normal distributions. In particular, the eigenface method models facial data as a mixture of fixed-position intensity signals with a normal distribution. The model parameters, a mean value and a covariance
Malinowski, Kathleen T.; McAvoy, Thomas J.; George, Rohini; Dieterich, Sonja; D'Souza, Warren D.
Purpose: To investigate the effect of tumor site, measurement precision, tumor–surrogate correlation, training data selection, model design, and interpatient and interfraction variations on the accuracy of external marker-based models of tumor position. Methods and Materials: Cyberknife Synchrony system log files comprising synchronously acquired positions of external markers and the tumor from 167 treatment fractions were analyzed. The accuracy of Synchrony, ordinary-least-squares regression, and partial-least-squares regression models for predicting the tumor position from the external markers was evaluated. The quantity and timing of the data used to build the predictive model were varied. The effects of tumor–surrogate correlation and the precision in both the tumor and the external surrogate position measurements were explored by adding noise to the data. Results: The tumor position prediction errors increased during the duration of a fraction. Increasing the training data quantities did not always lead to more accurate models. Adding uncorrelated noise to the external marker-based inputs degraded the tumor–surrogate correlation models by 16% for partial-least-squares and 57% for ordinary-least-squares. External marker and tumor position measurement errors led to tumor position prediction changes 0.3–3.6 times the magnitude of the measurement errors, varying widely with model algorithm. The tumor position prediction errors were significantly associated with the patient index but not with the fraction index or tumor site. Partial-least-squares was as accurate as Synchrony and more accurate than ordinary-least-squares. Conclusions: The accuracy of surrogate-based inferential models of tumor position was affected by all the investigated factors, except for the tumor site and fraction index.
Erbil, Nülüfer; Bölükbaş, Nurgül
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Although a great deal of progress has been made in the health sciences, early diagnosis, and increasing community awareness, breast cancer remains a life-threatening illness. In order to reduce this threat, breast cancer screening needs to be implemented in all communities where possible. The purpose of this study was to examine health beliefs, attitudes and behaviors about breast cancer and breast self-examination of Turkish women. Data were collected from a sample of 656 women, using an adapted Turkish version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS), between January and May 2011, in Ordu province of Turkey. The results showed that 67.7% of women had knowledge about and 55.8% performed BSE, however 60.6% of those who indicated they practiced BSE reported they did so at irregular intervals. CHBMS subscales scores of women according to women's age, education level, occupation, family income and education level of the women's mothers, family history of breast cancer, friend and an acquaintance with breast cancer, knowledge about breast cancer, BSE and mammography were significantly different. Knowledge of women about the risks and benefits of early detection of breast cancer positively affect their health beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Health care professionals can develop effective breast health programs and can help women to gain good health behavior and to maintain health.
Full Text Available The persistence of food insecurity, malnutrition, increasing adiposity, and decreasing physical activity, heightens the need to understand relationships between body image satisfaction, eating attitudes, BMI and physical activity levels in South Africa. Females aged 18-23 years were recruited from rural (n = 509 and urban (n = 510 settings. Body image satisfaction was measured using Stunkard's silhouettes, and the 26-item Eating Attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26 was used to evaluate participants' risk of disordered eating. Minutes per week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Significant linear correlates were included in a series of regressions run separately for urban and rural participants. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to test the relationships between variables. Urban females were more likely to be overweight and obese than rural females (p = 0.02, and had a greater desire to be thinner (p = 0.02. In both groups, being overweight or obese was positively associated with a desire to be thinner (p<0.01, and negatively associated with a desire to be fatter (p<0.01. Having a disordered eating attitude was associated with body image dissatisfaction in the urban group (β = 1.27, p<0.01, CI: 0.38; 2.16, but only with a desire to be fatter in the rural group (β = 0.63, p = 0.04, CI: 0.03; 1.23. In the SEM model, body image dissatisfaction was associated with disordered eating (β = 0.63, as well as higher MVPA participation (p<0.01. These factors were directly associated with a decreased risk of disordered eating attitude, and with a decreased desire to be thinner. Findings indicate a shift in both settings towards more Westernised ideals. Physical activity may provide a means to promote a healthy body image, while reducing the risk of disordered eating. Given the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in both rural and urban women, this study provides
Wainwright, Ryan K
.... Existing combat models tend to overlook or downplay false positive detections. Signal Detection Theory provides the framework for analysis of an observer's hits, misses, correct rejections, and false alarms...
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a time-varying fishing model with delay. By means of the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we prove that it has at least one positive almost periodic solution.
Cortez, Celia Martins; Fragoso, Viviane Muniz S.; Silva, Dilson
In this work, we used a mathematical model to study the interaction of risperidone with human and bovine serum albumins estimating the relative position of the primary binding site, based on the fluorescence quenching theory. Results have shown that the model was able to demonstrate that primary binding site for risperidone in HSA and BSA is very close to the position where is tryptophan 134 of BSA, possibly in domain 1B.
Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Glade, Thomas
There is unanimous agreement that a precise spatial representation of past landslide occurrences is a prerequisite to produce high quality statistical landslide susceptibility models. Even though perfectly accurate landslide inventories rarely exist, investigations of how landslide inventory-based errors propagate into subsequent statistical landslide susceptibility models are scarce. The main objective of this research was to systematically examine whether and how inventory-based positional inaccuracies of different magnitudes influence modelled relationships, validation results, variable importance and the visual appearance of landslide susceptibility maps. The study was conducted for a landslide-prone site located in the districts of Amstetten and Waidhofen an der Ybbs, eastern Austria, where an earth-slide point inventory was available. The methodological approach comprised an artificial introduction of inventory-based positional errors into the present landslide data set and an in-depth evaluation of subsequent modelling results. Positional errors were introduced by artificially changing the original landslide position by a mean distance of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 120 m. The resulting differently precise response variables were separately used to train logistic regression models. Odds ratios of predictor variables provided insights into modelled relationships. Cross-validation and spatial cross-validation enabled an assessment of predictive performances and permutation-based variable importance. All analyses were additionally carried out with synthetically generated data sets to further verify the findings under rather controlled conditions. The results revealed that an increasing positional inventory-based error was generally related to increasing distortions of modelling and validation results. However, the findings also highlighted that interdependencies between inventory-based spatial inaccuracies and statistical landslide susceptibility models are complex. The
Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina
Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.
Lau, Chiu Ming; Chen, Qijie
The study examined how attitudes and subjective norms could be used to predict participation intention of adults in continuing education. In this research, attitudes comprised the two variables of positive attitude and negative attitude and subjective norms included normative belief and motivation to comply. Structural equation modeling using a…
Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo
The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces the multi-element isotope data observed in previous experimental studies. Furthermore, it precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways as well as their range of variation consistent with observed bulk isotope fractionation. It was also possible to directly validate the model capability to predict the evolution of position-specific isotope ratios with available experimental data. Therefore, the approach is useful both for a mechanism-based evaluation of experimental results and as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. - Highlights: • Mechanism-based, position-specific isotope modeling of micropollutants degradation. • Simultaneous description of concentration and primary and secondary isotope effects. • Key features of the model are demonstrated with three illustrative examples. • Model as a tool to explore reaction mechanisms and to design experiments. - We propose a modeling approach incorporating mechanistic information and
Øyvind Kåre Kjerstad
Full Text Available This paper presents a development framework for dynamic positioning control systems for marine vessels in managed ice. Due to the complexity of the vessel-ice and ice-ice interactions a configurable high fidelity numerical model simulating the vessel, the ice floes, the water, and the boundaries is applied. The numerical model is validated using experimental data and coupled with a control application incorporating sensor models, control systems, actuator models, and other external dynamics to form a closed loop development platform. The ice drift reversal is simulated by moving the positioning reference frame in an elliptic trajectory, rather than moving each individual ice floe. A control plant model is argued, and a control system for managed ice is proposed based on conventional open water design methods. A case study shows that dynamic positioning in managed ice is feasible for some moderate ice conditions.
Cherry, Gamaliel R.
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine attitude and achievement among fifth grade students participating in inquiry and lecture-based forms of instruction through interactive television. Participants (N = 260) were drawn from registered users of NASA's Digital Learning Network(TM). The first three levels of Bloom's Revised Taxonomy were used to measure levels of achievement while the Science Attitude Inventory II was used to measure science attitudes. Results indicated a significant interaction between inquiry and topic area, as well as achievement for remember, understand, and apply levels of Bloom's Revised Taxonomy. Differences between mean scores were in favor of the treatment group on both topic and achievement levels. Findings echo research that encourages the use of inquiry-based instruction to improve achievement. This study also serves as a reference for supplemental content providers searching for an effective instructional strategy when delivering instruction through interactive television. Recommendations for future research include the examination of: development time between inquiry-based and lecture-based strategies, a longitudinal study of attitude and achievement from elementary through middle school, differences between interactive television sessions and asynchronous sessions, and types of inquiry-based instruction related to student achievement and retention through interactive television.
Appiah, Anna B; Tenkorang, Eric Y; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor
As in other parts of sub-Saharan Africa, youth in Kenya report low rates of condom use. Although several studies have explored reasons for the low condom use among Kenyan youth, not many have established linkages between lack of use and normative beliefs and attitudes around condoms. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this article examined whether beliefs and attitudes around condoms influenced intentions and actual condom use. Data for the study were restricted to 1453 sexually active youth during the last school break. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship between the TPB constructs and condom use among Kenyan youth. Results indicated a direct relationship between attitudes and condom use for male respondents and an indirect relationship between these two variables for females. Both males and females who expressed greater intentions to use condoms were significantly more likely to report they used condoms consistently. Also, male and female youth with higher perceived behavioral control were significantly more likely to have used condoms consistently. Males with friends who used condoms were significantly more likely to use condoms consistently. The findings suggest the importance of examining young people's attitudes toward condoms-in particular, those deeply rooted in misconceptions that serve to discourage safer sexual behaviors.
Yilmaz, Ramazan; Kilic-Cakmak, Ebru
This study examined the impacts of educational interface agents with different attributes on achievement, attitude and retention of elementary school students in their science and technology courses. The study was implemented in four different eighth- grade classes (aged 13-14) of an elementary school. Four different types of educational software,…
Full Text Available Objective: To develop a three-dimensional study tool of the membranous labyrinth in order to study the pathophysiology, diagnostic workup and treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. BPPV is the most common cause of peripheral vertigo. Its diagnosis and treatment depend on an understanding of the anatomy of the vestibular labyrinth and its position relative to the head. To date, many illustrations have been made to explain principals of diagnosis and treatment of BPPV, but few have been based on anatomical studies of the membranous labyrinth. Methods: A cadaveric human membranous labyrinth was axially sectioned at 20Â Î¼m resolution, stained and segmented to create a high-resolution digital model. The model was cloned to create an enantiomeric pair of labyrinths. These were associated a 3D model of a human skull, segmented from MRI data, and were oriented according to established anatomic norms. Canal markers representing otoliths were created to mark canalith position during movement of the model within the 3D environment. Results: The model allows visualization of true membranous labyrinth anatomy in both ears simultaneously. The dependent portion of each semicircular duct and of the utricle can easily be visualized in any head position. Moveable markers can mark the expected progress of otolith debris with changes in head position and images can be captured to document simulations. The model can be used to simulate pathology as well as diagnostic maneuvers and treatment procedures used for BPPV. The model has great potential as a teaching tool. Conclusion: A simple model based on human anatomy has been created to allow careful study of BPPV pathophysiology and treatment. Going forward, this tool could offer insights that may lead to more accurate diagnosis and treatment of BPPV. Keywords: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Modeling, Anatomy, Histology, Model, 3D
Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado
The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…
Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel
Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....
Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Masud, Jariah; Haron, Sharifah Azizah; Ibrahim, Rahimah
There is a growing body of literature indicating that attitudes toward aging significantly affect older adults' psychological well-being. However, there is a paucity of scientific investigations examining the role of older adults' attitudes toward aging on their spouses' psychological well-being. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the dyadic effects of attitude toward aging on the psychological well-being of older couples. Data for the present study, consisting of 300 couples aged 50 years and older, were drawn from a community-based survey entitled "Poverty among Elderly Women: Case Study of Amanah Ikhtiar" conducted in Peninsular Malaysia. An actor-partner interdependence model using AMOS version 20 (Europress Software, Cheshire, UK) was used to analyze the dyadic data. The mean ages of the husbands and wives in this sample were 60.37 years (±6.55) and 56.33 years (±5.32), respectively. Interdependence analyses revealed significant association between older adults' attitudes toward aging and the attitudes of their spouses (intraclass correlation =0.59; Paging, both among older men (critical ratio =2.92; Paging were significantly correlated with their own and their spouses' psychological well-being. The findings from this study supported the proposed Spousal Attitude-Well-Being Model, where older adults' attitudes toward aging significantly affected their own and their spouses' psychological well-being. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Full Text Available A positioning method based on visible light communication is proposed, which receiving visible light information by low-resolution photodiode array and receiving visual information by the front camera of mobile phone. The terminal position is determined by matching spot information provided by photodiode array with visual information and position information provided by visible light communication. A collinear equation model is derived which based on mobile phone front camera. A hardware-in-loop simulation has been conducted to verify the collinear equation. The three-dimensional positioning error is on the level of decimeter. Moreover, the main factors which affect the positioning accuracy are analyzed in order to further improve the positioning accuracy.
Tóth, Ildikó; Bán, Ildikó; Füzesi, Zsuzsanna; Kesztyüs, Márk; Nagy, Lajos
In their institute authors teach medical communication skills in three languages (Hungarian, English and German) for medical students in the first year of their studies. In order to improve teaching methods, authors wanted to explore the attitudes of students towards the communication skills learning. For this purpose authors applied the Communication Skills Attitudes Scale created by Rees et al., which is an internationally accepted and well adaptable instrument. In this survey authors wanted to validate the Hungarian and German version of the Communication Skills Attitudes Scale. In addition, their aim was to analyze possible differences between the attitudes of each of the three medical teaching programs. Questionnaires were filled anonymously at the beginning of the practices. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to evaluate the attitudes using the SPSS 10.5 version for analysis. Authors created a model consisting of 7 factors. Factors were the following: 1: respect and interpersonal skills; 2: learning; 3: importance of communication within medical profession; 4: excuse; 5: counter; 6: exam; 7: overconfidence. It was found that students had mainly positive attitudes. Except the learning factor, all other factors showed significant differences between the three medical teaching programs. although students had mainly positive attitudes toward learning communication skills, there were negative attitudes which can be partly modified by improving the teaching methods. However, results may create a proper base for further research to help improving communication skills teaching methods of the authors.
Full Text Available In order to determine an appropriate attitude of three-axis stabilized communication satellites, this paper describes a novel attitude determination method using direction of arrival (DOA estimation of a ground signal source. It differs from optical measurement, magnetic field measurement, inertial measurement, and global positioning system (GPS attitude determination. The proposed method is characterized by taking the ground signal source as the attitude reference and acquiring attitude information from DOA estimation. Firstly, an attitude measurement equation with DOA estimation is derived in detail. Then, the error of the measurement equation is analyzed. Finally, an attitude determination algorithm is presented using a dynamic model, the attitude measurement equation, and measurement errors. A developing low Earth orbit (LEO satellite which tests mobile communication technology with smart antennas can be stabilized in three axes by corporately using a magnetometer, reaction wheels, and three-axis magnetorquer rods. Based on the communication satellite, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The method could be a backup of attitude determination to prevent a system failure on the satellite. Its precision depends on the number of snapshots and the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR with DOA estimation.
Fintelman, D M; Sterling, M; Hemida, H; Li, F-X
The aerodynamic drag of a cyclist in time trial (TT) position is strongly influenced by the torso angle. While decreasing the torso angle reduces the drag, it limits the physiological functioning of the cyclist. Therefore the aims of this study were to predict the optimal TT cycling position as function of the cycling speed and to determine at which speed the aerodynamic power losses start to dominate. Two models were developed to determine the optimal torso angle: a 'Metabolic Energy Model' and a 'Power Output Model'. The Metabolic Energy Model minimised the required cycling energy expenditure, while the Power Output Model maximised the cyclists׳ power output. The input parameters were experimentally collected from 19 TT cyclists at different torso angle positions (0-24°). The results showed that for both models, the optimal torso angle depends strongly on the cycling speed, with decreasing torso angles at increasing speeds. The aerodynamic losses outweigh the power losses at cycling speeds above 46km/h. However, a fully horizontal torso is not optimal. For speeds below 30km/h, it is beneficial to ride in a more upright TT position. The two model outputs were not completely similar, due to the different model approaches. The Metabolic Energy Model could be applied for endurance events, while the Power Output Model is more suitable in sprinting or in variable conditions (wind, undulating course, etc.). It is suggested that despite some limitations, the models give valuable information about improving the cycling performance by optimising the TT cycling position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martinussen, Torben; Pipper, Christian Bressen
model in situations where the correlated survival data show a decreasing association with time. In this paper, we devise a likelihood based estimation procedure for the positive stable shared frailty Cox model, which is expected to obtain high efficiency. The proposed estimator is provided with large...
Shim, Soo-Yean; Kim, Heui-Baik
In this study, we examined students' epistemological and positional framing during small group scientific modeling to explore their context-dependent perceptions about knowledge, themselves, and others. We focused on two small groups of Korean eighth-grade students who participated in six modeling activities about excretion. The two groups were…
Partha Sarathi Mandal
Full Text Available In this article we study a randomized three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra model with competitor-competitor-mutualist interaction. We show the existence, uniqueness, moment boundedness, stochastic boundedness and global asymptotic stability of positive global solutions for this stochastic model. Analytical results are validated by numerical examples.
Dunlap, Glen; Iovannone, Rose; Kincaid, Donald; Wilson, Kelly; Christiansen, Kathy; Strain, Phillip; English, Carie
Solve serious behavior challenges in K-8 classrooms with this easy-to-use book, the first practical guide to the research-proven Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model. Developed by some of the most respected authorities on positive behavior support, this innovative model gives school-based teams a five-step plan for reducing problems unresolved by…
Gutiérrez, Melchor; Ruiz, Luis Miguel
The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among students' perceptions of motivational climate, sportsmanship attitudes, and attitudes toward content and teachers in physical education. 910 secondary school students ages 13 to 16 years (M=14.3, SD=1.1) completed Spanish translations of L'Echelle de Perception du Climat Motivational by Biddle, et al., the Multidimensional Sportspersonship Orientations Scale by Vallerand, et al., and the Student Attitudes toward Teacher and Program in Physical Education by Luke and Cope. Structural equation modeling showed that perceived mastery climate is a predictor of students' attitudes toward teacher and content and positive sportsmanship attitudes. In contrast, perceived performance climate was not a predictor or mainly predicted negatively the students' attitudes toward the physical education teacher, content, and sportsmanship attitudes. These findings are discussed with regard to the implications for physical educators.
Full Text Available Orientation of quadcopter axes relative to reference line direction of motion will result in attitude and every movement is controlled regulated by each rotor’s thrust. Mathematical equation based on Euler formula and 3D simulation using Matlab/Simulink software platform are used to model quadcopter movement. Change of attitude, position and thrust of each rotor can be seen through this simulation movement.
Lwin, May O; Shin, Wonsun; Yee, Andrew Z H; Wardoyo, Reidinar Juliane
This study proposes that parental mediation of television advertising and parental guidance of food consumption differentially influence children's attitude, intention, and behavior toward the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Structural equation modeling based on a survey of 1,119 children aged 9-12 supported our model, revealing that parental education strategies influence children's food consumption in a complex manner that is highly context-dependent. Parental guidance of food consumption enhanced children's healthy food attitude and intention to consume, while reducing the intention to consume unhealthy food. However, parental mediation of television advertising influenced unhealthy food attitude to a greater extent than healthy food attitude. Implications for health promotion and education, as well as parents and policy makers are discussed.
Zhao, Lin; Li, Na; Li, Liang; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Chun
A multi-antenna-based GNSS receiver is capable of providing high-precision and drift-free attitude solution. Carrier phase measurements need be utilized to achieve high-precision attitude. The traditional attitude determination methods in the measurement domain and the position domain resolve the attitude and the ambiguity sequentially. The redundant measurements from multiple baselines have not been fully utilized to enhance the reliability of attitude determination. A multi-baseline-based attitude determination method in the measurement domain is proposed to estimate the attitude parameters and the ambiguity simultaneously. Meanwhile, the redundancy of attitude resolution has also been increased so that the reliability of ambiguity resolution and attitude determination can be enhanced. Moreover, in order to further improve the reliability of attitude determination, we propose a partial ambiguity resolution method based on the proposed attitude determination model. The static and kinematic experiments were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed method. When compared with the traditional attitude determination methods, the static experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the accuracy by at least 0.03° and enhance the continuity by 18%, at most. The kinematic result has shown that the proposed method can obtain an optimal balance between accuracy and reliability performance.
Full Text Available The milling stability is one of the important evaluation criterions of dynamic characteristics of machine tools, and it is of great importance for machine tools’ design and manufacturing. The milling stability of machine tools generally varies with the position combinations of moving parts. The traditional milling stability analysis of machine tools is based on some specific positions in the whole workspace of machine tools, and the results are not comprehensive. Furthermore, it is very time-consuming for operation and calculation to complete analysis of multiple positions. A new method to rapidly evaluate the stability of machine tools with position dependence is developed in this article. In this method, the key position combinations of moving parts are set as the samples of calculation to calculate the dynamic characteristics of machine tools with SAMCEF finite element simulation analysis software. Then the minimum critical axial cutting depth of each sample is obtained. The relationship between the position and the value of minimum critical axial cutting depth at any position in the whole workspace can be obtained through established response surface model. The precision of the response surface model is evaluated and the model could be used to rapidly evaluate the milling stability of machine tools with position dependence. With a precision horizontal machining center with box-in-box structure as an example, the value of minimum critical axial cutting depth at any position is shown. This method of rapid evaluation of machine tools with position-dependent stability avoids complicated theoretical calculation, so it can be easily adopted by engineers and technicians in the phase of design process of machine tools.
Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy
This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…
Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.
Bikić Siniša M.
Full Text Available This paper is focused on the mathematical model of the Air Torque Position dampers. The mathematical model establishes a link between the velocity of air in front of the damper, position of the damper blade and the moment acting on the blade caused by the air flow. This research aims to experimentally verify the mathematical model for the damper type with non-cascading blades. Four different types of dampers with non-cascading blades were considered: single blade dampers, dampers with two cross-blades, dampers with two parallel blades and dampers with two blades of which one is a fixed blade in the horizontal position. The case of a damper with a straight pipeline positioned in front of and behind the damper was taken in consideration. Calibration and verification of the mathematical model was conducted experimentally. The experiment was conducted on the laboratory facility for testing dampers used for regulation of the air flow rate in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The design and setup of the laboratory facility, as well as construction, adjustment and calibration of the laboratory damper are presented in this paper. The mathematical model was calibrated by using one set of data, while the verification of the mathematical model was conducted by using the second set of data. The mathematical model was successfully validated and it can be used for accurate measurement of the air velocity on dampers with non-cascading blades under different operating conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31058
Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro
Many conventional models have used the positional information hypothesis to explain each elementary process of morphogenesis during the development of multicellular organisms. Their models assume that the steady concentration patterns of morphogens formed in an extracellular environment have an important property of positional information, so-called "robustness". However, recent experiments reported that a steady morphogen pattern, the concentration gradient of the Bicoid protein, during early Drosophila embryonic development is not robust for embryo-to-embryo variability. These reports encourage a reconsideration of a long-standing problem in systematic cell differentiation: what is the entity of positional information for cells? And, what is the origin of the robust boundary of gene expression? To address these problems at a cellular level, in this article we pay attention to the re-generative phenomena that show another important property of positional information, "size invariance". In view of regenerative phenomena, we propose a new mathematical model to describe the generation mechanism of a spatial pattern of positional values. In this model, the positional values are defined as the values into which differentiable cells transform a spatial pattern providing positional information. The model is mathematically described as an associative algebra composed of various terms, each of which is the multiplication of some fundamental operators under the assumption that the operators are derived from the remarkable properties of cell differentiation on an amputation surface in regenerative phenomena. We apply this model to the concentration pattern of the Bicoid protein during the anterior-posterior axis formation in Drosophila, and consider the conditions needed to establish the robust boundary of the expression of the hunchback gene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xin; Xing, Cai; Guan, Yanjun; Song, Xuan; Melloy, Robert; Wang, Fei; Jin, Xiaoyu
The current research aimed to address the inconsistent findings regarding cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults by differentiating the effects of personal and cultural values. In Study 1, we used data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey to examine attitudes toward older adults across cultures, and how different personal values (i.e., communal vs. agentic) and cultural values (i.e., individualism) predicted these attitudes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that after controlling for potential covariates, personal communal values positively correlated with positive attitudes toward older adults; however, cultural individualistic values did not. To further examine the causal effects of personal values (vs. cultural values), we conducted an experimental study and confirmed that priming personal values rather than cultural values had significant effects on ageism attitudes. The present studies help to reconcile conflicting results on cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.; Frewer, Lynn
Executive summary 1. Few studies have to date explained consumer attitudes and purchase decisions with regard to genetically engineered food products. However, the increased marketing of genetically engineered food products and the considerable concern that consumers seem to express with regard to the technology call for the development of a theoretical basis for research into these issues. 2. The aim of the paper is to present three models which we have developed to explain consumer attitude...
Full Text Available This article is designed to examine the role of the entrepreneurial spirit, education and in building an attitude about working as an entrepreneur, and his influence on the intention to start a business, to the students. Data were collected using a questionnaire has been prepared and maintained the validity and reliability. Questionnaires given to the respondent students were selected as samples at several universities in Malang, East Java, Indonesia. The collected data were analyzed by using Partial Least Square. The analysis showed entrepreneurial spirit and education contribute to the formation of entrepreneurial attitudes. Attitudes are formed encourage entrepreneurship intentions to start a business significantly.
Zhang, Rui-Ping; Tsingan, Li; Zhang, Long-Ping
Workers with high levels of role stressors have been known to report low job satisfaction and high turnover intention. However, how the role stressors-job attitudes relationship is influenced by leader-member exchange has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of leader-member exchange (leader support) on the relationship between chronic role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Employees (N = 162) who enrolled in weekend psychology courses were investigated. The results showed that leader-member exchange mediated the effects of role stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.
Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo
The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces the multi-element isotope data observed in previous experimental studies. Furthermore, it precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways as well as their range of variation consistent with observed bulk isotope fractionation. It was also possible to directly validate the model capability to predict the evolution of position-specific isotope ratios with available experimental data. Therefore, the approach is useful both for a mechanism-based evaluation of experimental results and as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iyad Husni Alshami
Full Text Available The Global Positioning System demonstrates the significance of Location Based Services but it cannot be used indoors due to the lack of line of sight between satellites and receivers. Indoor Positioning Systems are needed to provide indoor Location Based Services. Wireless LAN fingerprints are one of the best choices for Indoor Positioning Systems because of their low cost, and high accuracy, however they have many drawbacks: creating radio maps is time consuming, the radio maps will become outdated with any environmental change, different mobile devices read the received signal strength (RSS differently, and peoples’ presence in LOS between access points and mobile device affects the RSS. This research proposes a new Adaptive Indoor Positioning System model (called DIPS based on: a dynamic radio map generator, RSS certainty technique and peoples’ presence effect integration for dynamic and multi-floor environments. Dynamic in our context refers to the effects of people and device heterogeneity. DIPS can achieve 98% and 92% positioning accuracy for floor and room positioning, and it achieves 1.2 m for point positioning error. RSS certainty enhanced the positioning accuracy for floor and room for different mobile devices by 11% and 9%. Then by considering the peoples’ presence effect, the error is reduced by 0.2 m. In comparison with other works, DIPS achieves better positioning without extra devices.
Full Text Available Research on teacher outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS model has been scarce. The present study adds to the knowledge base by examining the effects of the Norwegian version of SWPBS (N-PALS on school staffs’ behavior management practices and on their individual and collective efficacy. Questionnaire data were collected from staff and students (Grades 4-7 at four measurement points across four successive school years in 28 intervention schools and 20 comparison schools. Using longitudinal multilevel analyses, indications of positive 3-year main effects of the N-PALS model were observed for staff-reported collective efficacy, self-efficacy, and positive behavior support practices. The intervention effects as measured by Cohen’s d ranged from .14 to .91. The effects on student perceptions of teachers’ behavior management strategies were, however, not consistent with the positive staff ratings. Results are discussed in relation to prior research, future research, and study limitations.
Betina Grehs Porto
Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess whether the positioning of the impression tray could cause distortion to plaster casts during gypsum setting time.Materials and Methods: Fifteen pairs of master models were cast with alginate impression material and immediately filled with gypsum. Impressions were allowed to set with the tray in the noninverted position (Group A or in the inverted position (Group B. The plaster models were digitized using a laser scanner (3Shape R-700, 3Shape A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark. Measurements of tooth size and distance were obtained using O3d software (Widialabs, Brazil measurement tools. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and linear regression with 5% significance.Results and Conclusion: Most of the measurements from both groups were similar, except forthe lower intermolar distance. It was not possible to corroborate the presence of distortions due to the position of the impression tray during gypsum setting time.
Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Poor quality sleep is very common in modern societies and has a significant negative impact on psychological and physiological Dimensions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate correlational relationships and draw up a positive and negative affect mediation model between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and quality of sleep. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the participants of the study were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Then, the difficulty questionnaire was distributed in emotion regulation, affective and negative and sleep quality among the participants . Collected data was analyzed for descriptive, correlation, structural equation modeling to investigate the research objectives. Results: The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the difficulty components of emotion regulation and negative emotion with poor sleep quality and positive correlation between positive affection and high sleep quality (p <0.01. Also, the pattern of structural equation modeling indicates the role of mediating positive and negative affects in the relationship between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and sleep quality . Conclusions: The results supported the hypothesis that the difficulty in regulation of emotion interferes with the quality of sleep, and positive affection can have a moderating role in this regard.
Tsai, Wei-Chi; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Liu, Hui-Lu
Past empirical evidence has demonstrated that employees' positive mood states predict task performance. This study extends previous research by proposing and testing a model that examines mediating processes underlying the relationship between employee positive moods and task performance. Two longitudinal studies used data collected from 306 (Study 1) and 263 (Study 2) insurance sales agents in Taiwan. The results showed that employee positive moods predicted task performance indirectly through both interpersonal (helping other coworkers and coworker helping and support) and motivational (self-efficacy and task persistence) processes. (c) 2007 APA
Łukasz Roland Miciuk
Full Text Available Background The relation of positive orientation (a basic predisposition to think positively of oneself, one’s life and one’s future and personality traits is still disputable. The purpose of the described research was to verify the hypothesis that positive orientation has predictive efficiency beyond the five-factor model. Participants and procedure One hundred and thirty participants (at the mean age M = 24.84 completed the following questionnaires: the Self-Esteem Scale (SES, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R, the Positivity Scale (P-SCALE, the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCC, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES and the Life Engagement Test (LET. Results The introduction of positive orientation as an additional predictor in the second step of regression analyses led to better prediction of the following variables: purpose in life, self-concept clarity and generalized self-efficacy. This effect was the strongest for predicting purpose in life (i.e. 14% increment of the explained variance. Conclusions The results confirmed our hypothesis that positive orientation can be characterized by incremental validity – its inclusion in the regression model (in addition to the five main factors of personality increases the amount of explained variance. These findings may provide further evidence for the legitimacy of measuring positive orientation and personality traits separately.
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...
Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular.
Souza, Carlos Eduardo S.; Morishita, Helio M.; Moratelli Junior, Lazaro; Lago, Glenan A.; Tannuri, Eduardo A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)
Dynamic Positioning Systems (DPS) are used to keep a floating vessel on a specific position or follow pre-defined path through the action of controlled propellers. This paper describes a facility used to experimentally analyze DPS and to validate a numerical simulator. It is composed by a scale model of a DP tanker with 3 thrusters, a measurement system based on computational vision and a control software with the same DP algorithms used in industrial systems. Simple wind and current generators were also implemented. This work shows preliminary results of experiments, which has been useful to calibrate the simulator and to validate the mathematical model. (author)
li, Wen; Shang, Wen; Yan, Ming; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Huiming
Background The relationship between anxiety and depression in pain patients has not been clarified comprehensively. Previous research has identified a common factor in anxiety and depression, which may explain why depression and anxiety are strongly correlated. However, the specific clinical features of anxiety and depression seem to pull in opposite directions. Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of depression and anxiety, based on data from pain patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). This model should account for the positive correlation between depression and anxiety in terms of a general factor and also demonstrate a latent negative correlation between the specific factors underlying depression and anxiety. Methods The anxiety and depression symptoms of pain patients were evaluated using the HADS and the severity of their pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS). We developed a hierarchical model of the data using an IRT method called bifactor analysis. In addition, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with unidimensional, bidimensional, and tridimensional models. The correlations among anxiety, depression, and pain severity were compared, based on both the bidimensional model and our hierarchical model. Results The bidimensional model analysis found that there was a large positive correlation between anxiety and depression (r = 0.638), and both scores were significantly positively correlated with pain severity. After extracting general factor of distress using bifactor analysis, the specific factors underlying anxiety and depression were weakly but significantly negatively correlated (r = −0.245) and only the general factor was significantly correlated with pain severity. Compared with the three first-order models, the bifactor hierarchical model had the best model fit. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that apart from distress, anxiety and
Jian, Mah Zhi; Lin, Lee Poh
This research investigates the attitude of 60 primary and secondary school teachers towards English in Batu Anam. A questionnaire was administered to find out whether they have a positive or a negative attitude towards the English language. Results indicate that teachers in Batu Anam generally have a positive attitude towards English. Comparison…
Charles, Karen Jungblut
the 3 highest of 5 levels of use: mechanical (11%), routine (16%), refinement (27%), integration (24%), and renewal (22%). Participants reported valuing (a) active engagement necessary for the developmental progression of learning to occur, (b) their own disequilibrium, (c) opportunity to reflect, and they acknowledged a clearer understanding and appreciation of the big ideas in workshop design such as networking, collaboration, content and staff development standards, equity, and community building. Results support the conclusion that learning about constructivist instructional strategies in a long-term program that models them positively affects participants' attitudes and enhances their use of similar strategies in the design of professional development experiences for others. Knowledge developed in a constructivist setting transferred into effective facilitator practices.
Mauldin, Rebecca H.
In order to study and control the attitude of a spacecraft, it is necessary to understand the natural motion of a body in orbit. Assuming a spacecraft to be a rigid body, dynamics describes the complete motion of the vehicle by the translational and rotational motion of the body. The Simulink Attitude Analysis Model applies the equations of rigid body motion to the study of a spacecraft?s attitude in orbit. Using a TCP/IP connection, Matlab reads the values of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) hand controllers and passes them to Simulink as specified torque and impulse profiles. Simulink then uses the governing kinematic and dynamic equations of a rigid body in low earth orbit (LE0) to plot the attitude response of a spacecraft for five seconds given known applied torques and impulses, and constant principal moments of inertia.
Kløjgaard, Mirja Elisabeth; Hess, S.
A growing number of studies across different fields are making use of a new class of choice models, labelled variably as hybrid model structures or integrated choice and latent variable models, and incorporating the role of attitudes in decision making. To date, this technique has not been used...... in health economics. The present paper looks at the formation of such attitudes and their role in patients treatment choices in the context of low back pain. We use stated choice data collected from a sample of 561 patients with 348 respondents referred to a regional spine centre in Middelfart, Denmark...... in spring/summer 2012. We show how the hybrid model structure is able to make a link between attitudinal questions and treatment choices, and also explains variation of these attitudes across key socio-demographic groups. However, we also show how, in this case, only a small share of the overall...
Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Masud, Jariah; Haron, Sharifah Azizah; Ibrahim, Rahimah
Background There is a growing body of literature indicating that attitudes toward aging significantly affect older adults’ psychological well-being. However, there is a paucity of scientific investigations examining the role of older adults’ attitudes toward aging on their spouses’ psychological well-being. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the dyadic effects of attitude toward aging on the psychological well-being of older couples. Methods Data for the present study, consisting of 300 couples aged 50 years and older, were drawn from a community-based survey entitled “Poverty among Elderly Women: Case Study of Amanah Ikhtiar” conducted in Peninsular Malaysia. An actor–partner interdependence model using AMOS version 20 (Europress Software, Cheshire, UK) was used to analyze the dyadic data. Results The mean ages of the husbands and wives in this sample were 60.37 years (±6.55) and 56.33 years (±5.32), respectively. Interdependence analyses revealed significant association between older adults’ attitudes toward aging and the attitudes of their spouses (intraclass correlation =0.59; Paging, both among older men (critical ratio =2.92; Paging were significantly correlated with their own and their spouses’ psychological well-being. Conclusion The findings from this study supported the proposed Spousal Attitude–Well-Being Model, where older adults’ attitudes toward aging significantly affected their own and their spouses’ psychological well-being. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24174873
Helms, Heather M; Supple, Andrew J; Hengstebeck, Natalie D; Wood, Claire A; Rodriguez, Yuliana
Informed by dyadic approaches and culturally informed, ecological perspectives of marriage, we applied an actor-partner interdependence mediation model (APIMeM) in a sample of 120 Mexican-origin couples to examine (a) the associations linking Mexican immigrant husbands' and wives' gender role attitudes to marital satisfaction directly and indirectly through marital processes (i.e., warmth and negativity) and (b) whether the associations between spouses' gender role attitudes and marital processes were moderated by wives' employment. Although previous research has identified spouses' gender role attitudes as potential predictors of spouses' marital satisfaction, no study has examined these links in a dyadic model that elucidates how gender role attitudes may operate through processes to shape marital satisfaction and conditions under which associations may differ. We found that when spouses reported less sex-typed attitudes, their partners reported feeling more connected to them and more satisfied with the marriage, regardless of whether wives were employed. Our results suggest that marital satisfaction was highest for those Mexican-origin couples in which marital partners were less sex-typed in their attitudes about marital roles to the extent that partners' attitudinal role flexibility promoted spouses' feelings of warmth and connection to their partner. © 2018 Family Process Institute.
Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Satterwhite, Catherine; Leichliter, Jami; Berman, Stuart
Model impact of increasing screening and partner notification (PN) on chlamydia positivity. We used a stochastic simulation model describing pair formation and dissolution in an age-structured heterosexual population. The model accounts for steady, casual, and concurrent partnerships and a highly sexually active core group. The model used existing sexual behavior data from the United States and was validated using chlamydia positivity data from Region X (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington). A screening program with a coverage rate of 20% was implemented among women aged 15 to 24 years. After 10 years, we increased screening coverage to 35%, 50%, and 65% and partner treatment rates from 20% to 40% and 55%. Finally, we included male screening (aged 15-24, screening coverage: 20% and 35%, partner treatment: 25% and 40%). We analyzed the effects on chlamydia positivity in women and the frequency of reinfection 6 months after treatment. The model described the decline in positivity observed from 1988 to 1997 in Region X, given screening coverage of 20% and a 25% partner treatment rate. Increasing screening coverage from 35% to 65% resulted in incremental decreases in positivity as did increasing the PN rate; a 23% reduction in positivity was achieved by either increasing screening by 3-fold or PN by 2-fold. Adding male screening to the program had less impact than increasing screening coverage or PN among women. Increased PN and treatment reduced reinfection rates considerably. Increasing efforts in PN may contribute at least as much to control of chlamydia infection as increasing screening coverage rates.
Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Young Im
This study analyzed predictors of regular mammography performance in Korea. In addition, we determined factors affecting regular mammography performance in life-transition aged women by applying an attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy (ASE) model. Data were collected from women aged over 40 years residing in province J in Korea. The 178 enrolled subjects provided informed voluntary consent prior to completing a structural questionnaire. The overall regular mammography performance rate of the subjects was 41.6%. Older age, city residency, high income and part-time job were associated with a high regular mammography performance. Among women who had undergone more breast self-examinations (BSE) or more doctors' physical examinations (PE), there were higher regular mammography performance rates. All three ASE model factors were significantly associated with regular mammography performance. Women with a high level of positive ASE values had a significantly high regular mammography performance rate. Within the ASE model, self-efficacy and social influence were particularly important. Logistic regression analysis explained 34.7% of regular mammography performance and PE experience (β=4.645, p=.003), part- time job (β=4.010, p=.050), self-efficacy (β=1.820, p=.026) and social influence (β=1.509, p=.038) were significant factors. Promotional strategies that could improve self-efficacy, reinforce social influence and reduce geographical, time and financial barriers are needed to increase the regular mammography performance rate in life-transition aged.
Klingenberg, C.; Pirner, M.
We consider kinetic models for a multi component gas mixture without chemical reactions. In the literature, one can find two types of BGK models in order to describe gas mixtures. One type has a sum of BGK type interaction terms in the relaxation operator, for example the model described by Klingenberg, Pirner and Puppo  which contains well-known models of physicists and engineers for example Hamel  and Gross and Krook  as special cases. The other type contains only one collision term on the right-hand side, for example the well-known model of Andries, Aoki and Perthame . For each of these two models  and , we prove existence, uniqueness and positivity of solutions in the first part of the paper. In the second part, we use the first model  in order to determine an unknown function in the energy exchange of the macroscopic equations for gas mixtures described by Dellacherie .
Lenton, Simon; Frank, Vibeke A; Barratt, Monica J; Dahl, Helle Vibeke; Potter, Gary R
How cannabis cultivation is dealt with under various examples of cannabis legalization or regulation is an important consideration in design of such schemes. This study aimed to (i) investigate support among current or recent cannabis growers, for various potential policy options for cannabis cultivation if prohibition were repealed, and (ii) explore the support for these options across countries, scale of growing operations, demographics, drug use and cannabis supply involvement variables. This study utilized data from the online web survey of largely 'small-scale' cannabis cultivators, aged 18yrs and over, in eleven countries conducted by the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC). Data from 1722 current and recent cannabis growers in Australia, Denmark and the UK, who were all asked about policy, were included in the analysis. It investigated support for various frameworks for cultivation: (no regulation (free market); adult only; growing licenses; restrictions on plant numbers; licensed business-only sale; approved commercial growing; etc.). Among current growers, support for these options were compared across countries, across scale of growing operations, and by demographics, drug use and crime variables. Although there were some between country differences in support for the various policy options, what was striking was the similarity of the proportions for each of the eight most popular policy options. Among current growers, many of these positions were predicted by demographic, drug use and cannabis growing variables which were conceptually congruent with these positions. The results have relevance for the provisions regarding cannabis cultivation in the design of new non-prohibitionist models of cannabis which are increasingly under consideration. It should be of interest to policy makers, drug policy researchers, law enforcement and cannabis cultivators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Karimi, Y.; Saffarinia, M.
One of the most issues in social Psychology is study of attitude. Attitudes are causes of human behavior. If we regard energy consumption as a behavior for changing behavior in field of energy we must to study attitude and attitude change.In social psychology attitude define as positive and negative affective state to a matter of object. In this paper try it describe approaches and theories about attitudes and attitude change such as classical conditioning operant conditioning, social learning and cognitive. We hope this paper will be useful for planners and expert that work in this field
Hegde, Sharath S; Janc, James W
Telavancin is a parenteral lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with a dual mechanism of action contributing to bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. It has been approved for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections due to susceptible Gram-positive bacteria and hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus when other alternatives are unsuitable. Telavancin has been demonstrated to be efficacious in multiple animal models of soft tissue, cardiac, systemic, lung, bone, brain and device-associated infections involving clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus, heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus and daptomycin non-susceptible methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The AUC0-24h/MIC ratio is the primary pharmacodynamically-linked pharmacokinetic parameter. The preclinical data for telavancin supports further investigative clinical evaluation of its efficacy in additional serious infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive pathogens.
Amarendra Jnana H.
Full Text Available This paper describes the position estimation of mobile robot by sensing caster wheel motion. A mathematical model is developed to determine the position of mobile robot by sensing the angular velocity and heading angle of the caster wheel. Using the established equations, simulations were carried out using MATLAB version 8.6 to observe and verify the position coordinates of mobile robot and in turn obtain its trajectory. The simulation results show that the angular velocity of caster wheel and heading angle calculated from the sensor output readings with the help of inverse kinematics equations matches well with that of actual values given as input for simulation. Simulation result of tracking rectangular trajectory implies that the path traced by the mobile robot can also be determined from the sensor output readings. This concept can be implemented on a real mobile robot for estimation of its position.
This essay develops a new conceptual framework of science and engineering ethics education based on virtue ethics and positive psychology. Virtue ethicists and positive psychologists have argued that current rule-based moral philosophy, psychology, and education cannot effectively promote students' moral motivation for actual moral behavior and may even lead to negative outcomes, such as moral schizophrenia. They have suggested that their own theoretical framework of virtue ethics and positive psychology can contribute to the effective promotion of motivation for self-improvement by connecting the notion of morality and eudaimonic happiness. Thus this essay attempts to apply virtue ethics and positive psychology to science and engineering ethics education and to develop a new conceptual framework for more effective education. In addition to the conceptual-level work, this essay suggests two possible educational methods: moral modeling and involvement in actual moral activity in science and engineering ethics classes, based on the conceptual framework.
Full Text Available Traditionally the distance functions involved in problems of Operations Research have been modeled using positive linear combinations of metrics Lp. Thus, the resulting distance functions are symmetric, uniforms and positive definite. Starting from a new definition of arc length, we propose a method formo deling generalized distance functions, that we call premetrics, which can be asymmetric, non uniform, and non positive definite. We show that every distance function satisfying the triangle inequality and having a continuous one–sided directional derivative can be modeled as a problem of calculus of variations. The "length" of a d–geodesic arc C(a,b from a to b with respect to the premetric d (the d–length can be negative, and therefore the d–distance from a to b may represent the minimum energy needed to move a mobile object from a to b. We illustrate our method with two examples.
Zhang, Yili; Smolen, Paul; Alberini, Cristina M.; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.
Inhibitory avoidance (IA) training in rodents initiates a molecular cascade within hippocampal neurons. This cascade contributes to the transition of short- to long-term memory (i.e., consolidation). Here, a differential equation-based model was developed to describe a positive feedback loop within this molecular cascade. The feedback loop begins…
Conway, Ronan J; Heary, Caroline; Hogan, Michael J
There is growing recognition of the need to develop acceptable measures of adolescent's positive attributes in diverse contexts. The current study evaluated the measurement properties of the Five Cs model of Positive Youth Development (PYD) scale (Lerner et al., 2005) using a sample of 672 Irish adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a five-factor model provided a good fit to the data. The internal reliability and construct validity of the Five Cs model were supported, with character the strongest predictor of contribution, while connection was the strongest predictor of risky-behaviors. Notably, confidence was significantly negatively related to contribution, and positively related to risky-behaviors. Multi-group hierarchical nested models supported measurement invariance across early- (11-14 years) and late- (15-19 years) adolescent age groups, with partial invariance found across gender. Younger adolescents evinced higher PYD, while PYD was associated with higher contribution and lower depression and risk-behaviors across all groups. The application of the PYD framework as a measure of positive functioning across adolescence is discussed.
We study size-structured population models of general type which have the growth rate depending on the size and time. The local existence and uniqueness of the solution have been shown by Kato and Torikata (1997). Here, we discuss the positivity of the solution and global existence as well as $L^\\infty$ solutions.
Chitiyo, Jonathan; May, Michael E.
The Schoolwide Positive Behavior Intervention Support model (SWPBIS) continues to gain widespread use across schools in the United States and abroad. Despite its widespread implementation, little research has examined factors that influence its sustainability. Informed by Rogers's diffusion theory, this study examined school personnel's…
Full Text Available In the last 10 years sport psychology expanded its applicability in a variety of fields which have helped to address some of the challenges related to high level performance and sport competition. When we talk about performance in its wider sense, sport psychology is able to help develop a better understanding on how strategies can be adopted in improving general human performance levels. This includes increasing the knowledge of key concepts such as motivation, self-confidence and resilience. Furthermore performance in its wider sense helps in the understanding of the impact of stress and arousal and how these can affect both positively and negatively performance levels including appreciating individual differences as well as dynamics between groups of individuals. In this paper performance rather than solely be related to the field of competitive or professional sport has been discussed in people with ASCs and aims to explore how by adopting a positive psychological model in the formulation of individual assessments and subsequent interventions have led to improvement in individual skills, participation, engagement and ultimately quality of life. Positive psychological principles, such as the role of wellbeing and wellness, the PERMA Model has increased our understanding of human potentials, performance and wellbeing. The aim of this paper is to present and reflect on the applicability and benefits of adopting sport psychology models, the PERMA model and positive psychological principles in special education and care settings with the presentation and discussion of their theoretical and some practical implementation in two case studies.
Alsup, Ruth; Gillespie, David F.
Data from the General Social Survey for 1977 (n=1,303) and 1991 (n=430) are used to examine the stability of attitudes toward abortion and women's roles. Findings support the hypothesis that public attitudes toward discretionary abortion and nontraditional sex roles are discrete but correlated sets of attitudes that remained stable from 1977 to…
Hadas, T; Kaplon, J; Bosy, J; Sierny, J; Wilgan, K
The GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) technique requires high quality product (orbits and clocks) application, since their error directly affects the quality of positioning. For real-time purposes it is possible to utilize ultra-rapid precise orbits and clocks which are disseminated through the Internet. In order to eliminate as many unknown parameters as possible, one may introduce external information on zenith troposphere delay (ZTD). It is desirable that the a priori model is accurate and reliable, especially for real-time application. One of the open problems in GNSS positioning is troposphere delay modelling on the basis of ground meteorological observations. Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (IGG WUELS) has developed two independent regional troposphere models for the territory of Poland. The first one is estimated in near-real-time regime using GNSS data from a Polish ground-based augmentation system named ASG-EUPOS established by Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography (GUGiK) in 2008. The second one is based on meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure and humidity) gathered from various meteorological networks operating over the area of Poland and surrounding countries. This paper describes the methodology of both model calculation and verification. It also presents results of applying various ZTD models into kinematic PPP in the post-processing mode using Bernese GPS Software. Positioning results were used to assess the quality of the developed models during changing weather conditions. Finally, the impact of model application to simulated real-time PPP on precision, accuracy and convergence time is discussed. (paper)
Yoo, Moon Sook; Kim, Kyoung Ja
The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nurse work environments and patient safety culture on attitudes toward incident reporting. Patient safety culture had been known as a factor of incident reporting by nurses. Positive work environment could be an important influencing factor for the safety behavior of nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The structured questionnaire was administered to 191 nurses working at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. Nurses' perception of work environment and patient safety culture were positively correlated with attitudes toward incident reporting. A regression model with clinical career, work area and nurse work environment, and patient safety culture against attitudes toward incident reporting was statistically significant. The model explained approximately 50.7% of attitudes toward incident reporting. Improving nurses' attitudes toward incident reporting can be achieved with a broad approach that includes improvements in work environment and patient safety culture.
Bersani, Cinzia; Mints, Michael; Tertipis, Nikolaos; Haeggblom, Linnea; Sivars, Lars; Ährlund-Richter, Andreas; Vlastos, Andrea; Smedberg, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Näsman, Anders; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina
Head-neck cancer therapy has become intensified. With radiotherapy alone, 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) is 80% for HPV-positive TSCC/BOTSCC and better for patients with favorable characteristics, suggesting therapy could be tapered for some, decreasing side-effects. Therefore, we built a model to predict progression-free survival for patients with HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC. TSCC/BOTSCC patients treated curatively between 2000 and 2011, with HPV16 DNA/E7 mRNA positive tumors examined for CD8 + TILs, HPV16 mRNA and HLA class I expression were included. Patients were split randomly 65/35 into training and validation sets, and LASSO regression was used to select a model in the training set, the performance of which was evaluated in the validation set. 258 patients with HPV DNA/E7 mRNA positive tumors could be included, 168 and 90 patients in the respective sets. No treatment improved prognosis compared to radiotherapy alone. CD8 + TIL counts and young age were the strongest predictors of survival, followed by T-stage <3 and presence of HPV16 E2 mRNA. The model had an area under curve (AUC) of 76%. A model where the presence of three of four of these markers defined good prognosis captured 56% of non-relapsing patients with a positive predictive value of 98% in the validation set. Furthermore, the model identified 35% of our cohort that was overtreated and could safely have received de-escalated therapy. CD8 + TIL counts, age, T-stage and E2 expression could predict progression-free survival, identifying patients eligible for randomized trials with milder treatment, potentially reducing side effects without worsening prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.
Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed
This paper examines the performance of several precise point positioning (PPP) models, which combine dual-frequency GPS/Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. We take advantage of the IGS-MGEX network products to correct for the satellite differential code biases and the orbital and satellite clock errors. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to handle the various GPS/Galileo PPP models. A total of six data sets of GPS and Galileo observations at six IGS stations are processed to examine the performance of the various PPP models. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and the semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the precision of the estimated parameters by about 50% and 25% when the loose and the tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. Comparable results are obtained through the tight combination when either a GPS or a Galileo satellite is selected as a reference.
Didimus Tanah Boleng
Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Script dan Think-Pair-Share terhadap Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis, Sikap Sosial, dan Hasil Belajar Kognitif Biologi Siswa SMA Multietnis Abstract: Biological learning process with multiethnic students requires a learning models which allow students to work independently, to work together in small groups, and to share with other groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of learning models, ethnicity, and the interaction of learning model and ethnic on critical thinking skills, social attitudes, and cognitive achievement. This quasi experimental study was conducted in 11th grade of Natural Science Class Highschool students with six ethnicaly and Junior Highschool National score groups consisted of 132 samples. The results of Covarian Analysis showed that the learning models significantly affected the social attitudes and increased the critical thinking skills and cognitive achievement. Ethnicity significantly affected the social attitudes and cognitive achievement. Interaction of learning models and ethnicity significantly affected students social attitudes. Key Words: cooperative script, think-pair-share, critical thinking skills, social attitudes, biology cognitive achievement, multiethnic students Abstrak: Pengelolaan proses pembelajaran biologi pada siswa multietnis memerlukan model pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa bekerja mandiri, bekerja sama dalam kelompok kecil, dan berbagi dengan kelompok lain. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pembelajaran, etnis, serta interaksi model pembelajaran dan etnis terhadap keterampilan berpikir kritis, sikap sosial, dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi siswa. Penelitian eksperimen semu ini dilakukan di kelas XI IPA SMA dengan sampel sebanyak 132 orang siswa terbagi dalam enam kelas yang homogen berdasarkan etnis dan nilai ujian nasional SMP siswa. Hasil analisis data dengan menggunakan Analisis Kovarian menunjukkan bahwa model
Liordos, Vasilios; Kontsiotis, Vasileios J; Kokoris, Spyridon; Pimenidou, Michaela
Snakes are controversial animals, therefore a better understanding of public attitudes is critical for their effective protection and future survival. The attitudes towards snakes of 951 adults in Greece were investigated in personal interviews. Factor analysis revealed a dual mode of attitudes: respondents were highly intolerant of snakes, while they supported their conservation at the same time. Respondents had high knowledge about the behavior of snakes, medium knowledge of their biology and were strongly affected by folklore. Structural models revealed that tolerance was a positive mediator of conservation. Knowledge about snake behavior and biology was positively correlated with attitudes towards snakes. Moralistic and naturalistic attitudes were positively, and dominionistic attitudes negatively, correlated with snake tolerance and conservation attitudes. Younger, more educated people were more snake-tolerant than older, less educated people. Females were less snake-tolerant and more conservation-oriented than males. These findings increased the understanding of human attitudes towards snakes and helped identify factors critical for their conservation. As such they could be used to design environmental education programs incorporating both information-based and experiential activities that will improve attitudes, behaviors and, eventually, the chances for the survival of these uncharismatic animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypochondriacal attitudes were associated with cognitions not related to illness: Social fears, low self-esteem, and reduced warm glow effect, i.e. less positive appraisal of familiar stimuli. Only a single study had investigated the correlation of hypochondriacal attitudes with the warm glow effect so far and the present study aimed to corroborate this association. Particularly, the present investigation tested for the first time whether social fears, low self-esteem, and reduced warm glow effect represent distinct or related biases in hypochondriacal attitudes. Methods Fifty-five volunteers filled in the Hypochondriacal Beliefs and Disease Phobia scales of the Illness Attitude Scales, two scales enquiring social fears of criticism and intimacy, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The interaction of valence and spontaneous familiarity ratings of Chinese characters indicated the warm glow effect. Results A stepwise regression model revealed specific covariance of social fears and warm glow with hypochondriacal attitudes independent from the respective other variable. The correlation between low self-esteem and hypochondriacal attitudes missed significance. Conclusions Hypochondriacal attitudes are embedded in a heterogeneous cluster of non-illness-related cognitions. Each social fears and a reduced cognitive capacity to associate two features – positive appraisal and familiarity - could diminish the susceptibility to safety signals such as medical reassurance. To compensate for reduced susceptibility to safety signals, multifocal treatment and repeated consultations appear advisable.
Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A; Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A
The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.
Yanallah, K; Pontiga, F; Fernández-Rueda, A; Castellanos, A
The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.
Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A [Departamento de FIsica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)
The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.
Macneil, Laura; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Mehlenbeck, Robyn; Weismoore, Julie
The present study employed a series of stress-diathesis models to examine whether avoidance coping and poor coping self-efficacy contribute to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a sample of college students. The sample included one hundred fifteen undergraduate students (28.7% male; 71.3% female). Participants completed self-report measures to assess daily stressors, coping style, coping self-efficacy, and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. As predicted, among students with an avoidance coping style, those who reported more daily stressors exhibited higher eating disorder attitudes and behaviors than those with less daily hassles. Contrary to study hypothesis, number of daily hassles did not moderate the association between coping self-efficacy and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. However, there was a significant main effect for coping self-efficacy, suggesting that students who lack confidence in their coping abilities are more likely to have problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, regardless of their level of daily stress. Clinically, results suggest that students who enter college with an avoidance coping style and poor coping self-efficacy may be at risk for disordered eating, particularly with the onset of associated stress. Teaching students active problem-focused coping skills to deal with daily hassles associated with college life, and providing opportunities for repeated practice to bolster self-efficacy, may help prevent and/or reduce disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: International policy recommends Interprofesional Education (IPE to improve the practice of interprofessional In an effort to improve the practice of professional nurses, the IPE is the strategy of forming professional conduct of nurses in team work and collaboration between other health professionals, especially doctors in critical care. Objective: to identify the effect of IPE model of team work and collaboration of the attitudes of nursing students in an intensive care unit of Hospital. Methods: This study was conducted with The quasi-experimental design. The number of 30 subjects (15 intervention and 15 control group by random sampling. The intervention consisted of 1 pretest 2 the provision of material interprofessional education modules on subjects of critical nursing for 2 weeks, 2 posttest. Paired t tests were used to determine the effects of interprofessional Education. Independence t-test were used to determine the difference effect of interprofessional Education. The instrument used was The Attitudes towards interprofessional Health Care Teams Scales to measure the attitude of teamwork and Interprofesional Collaboration Scales to measure the attitude of collaboration. Results: There were differences rates of team work and collaboration attitudes of nurses before and after on intervention group. There werenot differences rates of team work and collaboration attitudes of nurses before and after on control group. There were differences scores of the attitude of team work and collaboration between the intervention and control groups. Conclusions and Recommendations: Giving IPE modules for nurses are commonly regarded to be an essential strategy for improving team work and collaboration attitudes on nurses student at intensive care unit of hospital. Keyword: Interprofessional Education, team work, collaboration, nurses student.
Full Text Available Indoor wireless localisation is a widely sought feature for use in logistics, health, and social networking applications. Low-powered localisation will become important for the next generation of pervasive media applications that operate on mobile platforms. We present an inexpensive and robust context-aware tracking system that can track the position of users in an indoor environment, using a wireless smart meter network. Our context-aware tracking system combines wireless trilateration with a dynamic position tracking model and a probability density map to estimate indoor positions. The localisation network consisted of power meter nodes placed at known positions in a building. The power meter nodes are tracked by mobile nodes which are carried by users to localise their position. We conducted an extensive trial of the context-aware tracking system and performed a comparison analysis with existing localisation techniques. The context-aware tracking system was able to localise a person's indoor position with an average error of 1.21 m.
Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng
For it can meet needs of negotiation among organizations take place in different time and place, and for it can make its course more rationality and result more ideal, persuasion based on agent can improve cooperation among organizations well. Integrated emotion change in agent persuasion can further bring agent advantage of artificial intelligence into play. Emotion of agent persuasion is classified, and the concept of positive change degree is given. Based on this, persuasion model based on positive change degree of agent emotion is constructed, which is explained clearly through an example. Finally, the method of relative evaluation is given, which is also verified through a calculation example.
Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M
The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.
Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard
a negative attitude to recreational hunting. Older respondents and rural residents had more positive attitudes towards hunting than younger and urban residents. Some of the conditions under which hunting occurs affected attitudes negatively, especially the hunting of farm-reared and released game birds...... to the commercial aspect of hunting and this could result in tighter regulation with further effects on management practices. Management Implications The public opinions and public preferences concerning recreational hunting are complex. However, this study revealed some factors relevant for regulatory...... and managerial development in relation to outdoor recreation: age (younger respondents were least supportive of hunting), urbanisation (living in an urban environment enhanced negative attitudes), compatibility of recreational hunting with other outdoor leisure activities....
Full Text Available Background: Gender attitudes toward women's employment are of particular importance because they positively inﬂuence gender-equal outcomes in the labor market. Our understanding of the mechanisms that promote egalitarian gender attitudes among immigrants, however, remains limited. Objective: By studying ﬁrst- and second-generation immigrants from multiple origins and living in different countries, this article seeks to explain under what conditions the prevalent cultural attitudes toward gender roles at the origin and destination inﬂuence immigrants' gender attitudes. We address three main research questions. First, does the country-of-origin gender ideology inﬂuence immigrants' views toward working women? Second, does the country-of-destination gender ideology inﬂuence immigrants' views toward working women? And third, are these relationships moderated by (1 the immigrant generation; (2 the age at arrival in the country of destination; (3 the length of residence at the destination? Methods: Using data from the European Social Survey, we model immigrants' gender attitudes toward working women by using linear cross-classiﬁed models to account for clustering into the country of origin and destination. Results: The results highlight the importance of the context of early socialization in shaping immigrants' gender attitudes. First-generation immigrants, and more speciﬁcally adult migrants, hold gender attitudes that reﬂect more strongly the country of origin's gender culture. In contrast, the positive association between gender ideology at destination and immigrants' gender attitudes is stronger among second-generation immigrants and child migrants. Contribution: We add to the literature on gender ideology formation by analyzing the inﬂuence of gender ideology at the origin and destination levels on the gender attitudes of immigrants from 96 countries of origin and residing across 32 countries of destination.
Figueiras, Joao; Pedersen, Troels; Schwefel, Hans-Peter
Positioning solutions in infrastructure-based wireless networks generally operate by exploiting the channel information of the links between the Wireless Devices and fixed networking Access Points. The major challenge of such solutions is the modeling of both the noise properties of the channel...... measurements and the user mobility patterns. One class of typical human being movement patterns is the segment-wise linear approach, which is studied in this paper. Current tracking solutions, such as the Constant Velocity model, hardly handle such segment-wise linear patterns. In this paper we propose...... a segment-wise linear model, called the Drifting Points model. The model results in an increased performance when compared with traditional solutions....
Full Text Available This paper reviews and discusses the more recent literature and application of Positive Mathematical Programming in the context of agricultural supply models. Specifically, advances in the empirical foundation of parameter specifications as well as the economic rationalisation of PMP models – both criticized in earlier reviews – are investigated. Moreover, the paper provides an overview on a larger set of models with regular/repeated policy application that apply variants of PMP. Results show that most applications today avoid arbitrary parameter specifications and rely on exogenous information on supply responses to calibrate model parameters. However, only few approaches use multiple observations to estimate parameters, which is likely due to the still considerable technical challenges associated with it. Equally, we found only limited reflection on the behavioral or technological assumptions that could rationalise the PMP model structure while still keeping the model’s advantages.
Arsov, Kirco; Terkildsen, Michael; Olivares, German
This paper deals with implementation of 3-D ionospheric model to support the GNSS positioning and navigation activities in Australia. We will introduce two strategies for Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) estimation from GNSS CORS sites in Australia. In the first scenario, the STEC is estimated in the PPP-RTK network processing. The ionosphere is estimated together with other GNSS network parameters, such as Satellite Clocks, Satellite Phase Biases, etc. Another approach is where STEC is estimated on a station by station basis by taking advantage of already known station position and different satellite ambiguities relations. Accuracy studies and considerations will be presented and discussed. Furthermore, based on this STEC, 3-D ionosphere modeling will be performed. We will present the simple interpolation, 3-D Tomography and bi-cubic splines as modeling techniques. In order to assess these models, a (user) PPP-RTK test bed is established and a sensitivity matrix will be introduced and analyzed based on time to first fix (TTFF) of ambiguities, positioning accuracy, PPP-RTK solution convergence time etc. Different spatial configurations and constellations will be presented and assessed.
Yoshihama, Mieko; Blazevski, Juliane; Bybee, Deborah
This study examined the relationships among enculturation, attitudes supporting intimate partner violence (IPV-supporting attitudes), and gender role attitudes among one of the largest Asian Indian population groups in the US. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit. Using structural equation modeling, we modeled the effects of three components of enculturation (behavior, values, and community participation) on gender role attitudes and IPV-supporting attitudes among married respondents (N = 373). Analyses also accounted for the effects of respondent age, education, religious service attendance, perceived financial difficulty, and lengths of residence in the US. The second-order, overall construct of enculturation was the strongest predictor of IPV-supporting attitudes (standardized B = 0.61), but not gender role attitudes. Patriarchal gender role attitudes were positively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes (B = 0.49). In addition to the overall effect of the enculturation construct, two of the components of enculturation had specific effects. "Enculturation-values" had a specific positive indirect association with IPV-supporting attitudes, through its relationship with patriarchal gender role attitudes. However, "enculturation-community participation" was negatively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes, suggesting the importance of community-based prevention of IPV among this immigrant population group.
Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane
Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…
Full Text Available Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Jariah Masud, Sharifah Azizah Haron, Rahimah IbrahimInstitute of Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: There is a growing body of literature indicating that attitudes toward aging significantly affect older adults’ psychological well-being. However, there is a paucity of scientific investigations examining the role of older adults’ attitudes toward aging on their spouses' psychological well-being. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the dyadic effects of attitude toward aging on the psychological well-being of older couples.Methods: Data for the present study, consisting of 300 couples aged 50 years and older, were drawn from a community-based survey entitled “Poverty among Elderly Women: Case Study of Amanah Ikhtiar” conducted in Peninsular Malaysia. An actor–partner interdependence model using AMOS version 20 (Europress Software, Cheshire, UK was used to analyze the dyadic data.Results: The mean ages of the husbands and wives in this sample were 60.37 years (±6.55 and 56.33 years (±5.32, respectively. Interdependence analyses revealed significant association between older adults’ attitudes toward aging and the attitudes of their spouses (intraclass correlation =0.59; P<0.001, and similar interdependence was found for psychological well-being (intraclass correlation =0.57; P<0.001. The findings from AMOS revealed that the proposed model fits the data (CMIN/degrees of freedom =3.23; goodness-of-fit index =0.90; confirmatory fit index =0.91; root mean square error of approximation =0.08. Results of the actor–partner independence model indicated that older adults’ psychological well-being is significantly predicted by their spouses' attitudes toward aging, both among older men (critical ratio =2.92; P<0.01 and women (critical ratio =2.70; P<0.01. Husbands’ and wives’ own reports of their attitudes toward aging were significantly
Full Text Available The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has decided to adopt Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM as the 21st century standard for navigation. Accordingly, ICAO members have provided an impetus to develop related technology and build sufficient infrastructure. For aviation surveillance with CNS/ATM, Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B, multilateration (MLAT and wide-area multilateration (WAM systems are being established. These sensors can track aircraft positions more accurately than existing radar and can compensate for the blind spots in aircraft surveillance. In this paper, we applied a novel sensor fusion method with Interacting Multiple Model (IMM filter to GBAS, ADS-B, MLAT, and WAM data in order to improve the reliability of the aircraft position. Results of performance analysis show that the position accuracy is improved by the proposed sensor fusion method with the IMM filter.
Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Martin, James I; Lawler, Michael J
American Indian (AI) older adults are vulnerable to mental health disparities, yet very little is known about the factors associated with help-seeking for mental health services among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of Andersen's Behavioral Model in explaining AI older adults' help-seeking attitudes toward professional mental health services. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need variables as predictors of help-seeking attitudes toward mental health services in a sample of 233 AI older adults from the Midwest. The model was found to have limited utility in the context of older AI help-seeking attitudes, as the proportion of explained variance was low. Gender, perceived stigma, social support, and physical health were significant predictors, whereas age, perceived mental health, and health insurance were not. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the relations between different aspects of aggressiveness and personality traits. Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, which represent psychobiological model, and inventory Big Five Plus Two Inventory (BF+2, which represent psycholexical model of personality in Serbian language, were administered to 478 participants. The results revealed that affective impulsive aggressiveness and predatory or instrumental aggressiveness could be identified in the aggressiveness - personality traits relationships. Those aspects of aggressiveness could take manifest or latent character. As expected, Psychoticism from EPQ, Aggressiveness, and Negative Valence from BF+2 showed a significant contribution to all identified forms, except for Aggressiveness in relations with “acting out” physical aggression. Although these personality traits carry out significant loadings, these loadings were not always the highest. Affective-impulsive aggressiveness, which was mainly determined by the components of latent domain AQ, was related to Neuroticism from both models. The remaining forms of manifest aggressiveness were related to low Consciousness, whereas Physical aggression is connected to Extraversion and Oppennes. This connection represents possible “acting out” reaction or more frequent tendency of impulsive physical aggression. The results showed that aggressiveness represents a multidimensional construct which could be explained by specific constellation of personality traits, depending which aspects of aggressivenes are of interest. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006: Nasledni, sredinski i psihološki činioci mentalnog zdravlja
Blandford, Alexander D; Cherfan, Daniel G; Drake, Richard L; McBride, Jennifer M; Hwang, Catherine J; Perry, Julian D; Cheng, Olivia T
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying nasolacrimal air regurgitation (AR) in the setting of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Twelve nasolacrimal systems of 6 fresh female human cadavers were evaluated individually for AR using continuous positive airway pressure therapy before any nasolacrimal procedure. Cadavers were then randomly assigned to undergo nasolacrimal duct probing or endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy and then each hemisystem was again evaluated for AR. The pressure where AR was first observed (discovery pressure) or maximum possible pressure in systems without AR was recorded. In systems that demonstrated AR, the pressure was then gradually decreased to the lowest pressure where regurgitation persisted. This pressure was recorded as the secondary threshold pressure. None of the 12 unoperated nasolacrimal systems or the 6 systems that underwent nasolacrimal duct probing demonstrated AR through the maximum continuous positive airway pressure therapy (30 cm H2O). After endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, all 6 nasolacrimal systems demonstrated AR. The mean discovery pressure was 16.0 cm H2O (range, 14.0-18.0 cm H2O) and mean secondary threshold pressure was 7.25 cm H2O (range, 6.5-8.0 cm H2O). Air regurgitation during continuous positive airway pressure therapy in the setting of prior endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy can be replicated in a cadaver model. The secondary threshold pressures required for AR in this model were similar to AR pressures reported clinically. Prior to dacryocystorhinostomy, patients using continuous positive airway pressure therapy should be counseled on AR, and physicians should consider this phenomenon when evaluating ophthalmic complaints in postoperative patients on positive airway pressure therapy.
Ustüner, Mehmet; Aksoy, Kasim; Ozer, Niyazi
The aim of this research is twofold: 1) to determine attitudes of high school students toward addictive substances; and 2) to determine students' attitudes toward addictive substances in terms of some variables including gender, grade, and perceived parental attitudes. To this end, Addictive Substances Attitudes Scale and Parental Attitudes Scale were given to a sample of 745 high school students (F = 330, M = 415) chosen by purposive sampling method. Results showed that compared to the males, females had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. And compared to students from the upper grades, students from lower grades had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. It is also found that students' attitudes toward addictive substances correlate with perceived parental attitudes. The correlation is low and positive for perceived democratic parental attitudes (r = .29), negative and low for perceived authoritarian parental attitudes (r = -.27).
Mahlo, Leeann; Tiggemann, Marika
The study aimed to test the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image (Menzel & Levine, 2011) within the context of yoga. Participants were 193 yoga practitioners (124 Iyengar, 69 Bikram) and 127 university students (non-yoga participants) from Adelaide, South Australia. Participants completed questionnaire measures of positive body image, embodiment, self-objectification, and desire for thinness. Results showed yoga practitioners scored higher on positive body image and embodiment, and lower on self-objectification than non-yoga participants. In support of the embodiment model, the relationship between yoga participation and positive body image was serially mediated by embodiment and reduced self-objectification. Although Bikram practitioners endorsed appearance-related reasons for participating in yoga more than Iyengar practitioners, there were no significant differences between Iyengar and Bikram yoga practitioners on body image variables. It was concluded that yoga is an embodying activity that can provide women with the opportunity to cultivate a favourable relationship with their body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS is an important research topic to solve outdoor positioning problems, but GPS is unable to locate objects accurately and precisely indoors. Some available systems apply ultrasound or optical tracking. This paper presents an efficient proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller with curve fitting model for mobile robot localization and position estimation which adopts passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags in a space. This scheme is based on a mobile robot carries an RFID reader module which reads the installed low-cost passive tags under the floor in a grid-like pattern. The PID controllers increase the efficiency of captured RFID tags and the curve fitting model is used to systematically identify the revolutions per minute (RPM of the motor. We control and monitor the position of the robot from a remote location through a mobile phone via Wi-Fi and Bluetooth network. Experiment results present that the number of captured RFID tags of our proposed scheme outperforms that of the previous scheme.
Petrenko, A.V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Valishev, A.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; /Fermilab
Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.
Mouratidis, Athanasios; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Sideridis, Georgios
Based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), an experimental study with middle school students participating in a physical education task and a correlational study with highly talented sport students investigated the motivating role of positive competence feedback on participants' well-being, performance, and intention to participate. In Study 1, structural equation modeling favored the hypothesized motivational model, in which, after controlling for pretask perceived competence and competence valuation, feedback positively predicted competence satisfaction, which in turn predicted higher levels of vitality and greater intentions to participate, through the mediation of autonomous motivation. No effects on performance were found. Study 2 further showed that autonomous motivation mediated the relation between competence satisfaction and well-being, whereas a motivation mediated the negative relation between competence satisfaction and ill-being and rated performance. The discussion focuses on the motivational role of competence feedback in sports and physical education settings.
Danisi, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro; Perriard, Yves
The ironless inductive position sensor (I2PS) is a five-coil air-cored structure that senses the variation of flux linkage between supply and sense coils and relates it to the linear position of a moving coil. In air-cored structures, the skin and proximity effect can bring substantial variations of the electrical resistance, leading to important deviations from the low-frequency functioning. In this paper, an analysis of the effect of high-frequency phenomena on the I2PS functioning is described. The key-element is the modeling of the resistance as a function of the frequency, which starts from the analytical resolution of Maxwell's equations in the coil's geometry. The analysis is validated by means of experimental measurements on custom sensor coils. The resulting model is integrated with the existing low-frequency analysis and represents a complete tool for the design of an I2PS sensor, framing its electromagnetic behavior.
Baire, Q.; Pottiaux, E.; Bruyninx, C.; Defraigne, P.; Aerts, W.; Legrand, J.; Bergeot, N.; Chevalier, J. M.
Since April 2011, the igs08.atx antenna calibration model is used in the routine IGS (International GNSS Service) data analysis. The model includes mean robot calibrations to correct for the offset and phase center variations of the GNSS receiver antennas. These so-called "type" calibrations are means of the individual calibrations available for a specific antenna/radome combination. The GNSS data analysis performed within the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) aims at being as consistent as possible with the IGS analysis. This also applies to the receiver antenna calibrations. However, when available, individual antenna calibrations are used within the EPN analysis instead of the "type" calibration. When these individual calibrations are unavailable, then the EPN analysis falls back to (type) calibrations identical as the ones used within the IGS (igs08.atx). The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of the offset caused by using different receiver antenna calibration models on the station position. Using the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) technique, we first investigate the differences in positioning obtained when switching between individual antenna calibrations and type calibrations. We analyze the observations of the 43 EPN stations equipped with receiver antenna individually calibrated over the period covering from 2003 to 2010 and we show that these differences can reach up to 4 mm in horizontal and 10 mm in vertical. Secondly, we study the accuracy of the individual calibrations models and we evaluate the effect of different sets of individual calibrations on the positioning. For that purpose, we use the data from 6 GNSS stations equipped with an antenna which has been individually calibrated at two calibration facilities recognized by the IGS: GEO++ and Bonn institute.
Motta, Art Adriel Emidio de Araújo; Grassini, Maria Carolina Vilela; Cortez, Célia Martins; Silva, Dilson
In this work, we present a mathematical-computational model developed to estimate the relative position of ligand binding sites in HSA and BSA, based on the theory of fluorescence quenching, considering the molecular and spectrofluorimetric differences and similarities between these two albumins. Albumin is the largest and the most abundant serum protein in vertebrates. The ability to bind xenobiotics makes albumin important to the bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs.
Mari-Anne Sørlie; Terje Ogden; Asgeir Røyrhus Olseth
Research on teacher outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) model has been scarce. The present study adds to the knowledge base by examining the effects of the Norwegian version of SWPBS (N-PALS) on school staffs’ behavior management practices and on their individual and collective efficacy. Questionnaire data were collected from staff and students (Grades 4-7) at four measurement points across fo...
Coe, J P; D' Amico, I [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Franca, V V, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)
We consider the position-space information and linear entropies as proxy measures to the average single-site entanglement-quantified using the von Neumann entropy-of the one-dimensional Hubbard model and of a one-dimensional nanostructure system comprised of an array of quantum-dots. Spatial entanglement in the quantum-dot system is also investigated via the three entropies. We appraise the use of the possible proxy measures in the Hubbard model as an approximation to their use for the nanostructure system.
Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID con-stitute a unique but heterogeneous population, which includes a great variety of mental and developmental disorders, as well as congenital syndromes. Nowadays, many persons with mild or moderate ID, with specific training, can make considerable efforts to improve their lives, by having a job in either open or supported employment. On the other hand, since dental caries and periodontal diseases are among the most common secondary conditions affecting people with ID, oral diseases may detract the quality of life from disabled persons.The hypothesis: Employment (sheltered workshop, open or supported employment of persons with ID, may enable these individuals to improve their oral health status, attitudes and behavior, compared to the ID individuals who are not working, due to the development of specific socio-emotional characteristics and dexterities.Evaluation of the hypothesis: According to previous reports, employed people with ID demonstrated better self-esteem and greater autonomy, more satisfaction with their vocational/non-vocational ac-tivities and higher quality of life.
Models of biological pattern formation are discussed. The regulatory features expected from the models are compared to those observed experimentally. It will be shown that: (i) Stable gradients appropriate to supply positional information can be produced by local autocatalysis and long-range inhibition. (ii) Spatially ordered sequences of differentiated cell states can emerge if these cell states mutually activate each other on long range but exclude each other locally. Segmentation results from the repetition of three such cell states, S, A and P (and not of only two, as is usually assumed). With a repetition of three states, each segment has a defined polarity. The confrontation of P cells and S cells lead to the formation of a segment border (...P/SAP/SAP/S...) while the A-P confrontation is a prerequisite for appendage formation. Mutations of Drosophila affecting larval segmentation are discussed in terms of this model. (iii) The two models for the generation of sequences of structures in space (positional information including interpretation versus mutual activation) lead to different predictions with respect to intercalary regeneration. This allows a distinction between the two models on the basis of experiments. (iv) The pigmentation patterns of certain molluscs emerge from a coupled oscillation of cells (that is, a lateral inhibition in time, instead of space). The oblique lines result from a chain of triggering events.
Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris
Recent research has indicated that vicarious learning can lead to increases in children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for stimuli and that these fear responses can subsequently be reversed using positive modeling (counterconditioning). The current study investigated children's vicariously acquired avoidance behavior, physiological responses (heart rate), and attentional bias for stimuli and whether these could also be reduced via counterconditioning. Ninety-six (49 boys, 47 girls) 7- to 11-year-olds received vicarious fear learning for novel stimuli and were then randomly assigned to a counterconditioning, extinction, or control group. Fear beliefs and avoidance preferences were measured pre- and post-learning, whereas avoidance behavior, heart rate, and attentional bias were all measured post-learning. Control group children showed increases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals seen in vicarious fear learning trials. In addition, significantly greater avoidance behavior, heart rate responding, and attentional bias were observed for these animals compared to a control animal. In contrast, vicariously acquired avoidance preferences of children in the counterconditioning group were significantly reduced post-positive modeling, and these children also did not show the heightened heart rate responding to fear-paired animals. Children in the extinction group demonstrated comparable responses to the control group; thus the extinction procedure showed no effect on any fear measures. The findings suggest that counterconditioning with positive modelling can be used as an effective early intervention to reduce the behavioral and physiological effects of vicarious fear learning in childhood.
Borgnolutti, F; Ferracin, P; Kashikhin, V V; Sabbi, G; Velev, G; Todesco, E; Zlobin, A V
The random part of the integral field harmonics in a series of superconducting magnets has been used in the past to identify the reproducibility of the coil positioning. Using a magnetic model and a MonteCarlo approach, coil blocks are randomly moved and the amplitude that best fits the magnetic measurements is interpreted as the reproducibility of the coil position. Previous values for r.m.s. coil displacements for Nb-Ti magnets range from 0.05 to 0.01 mm. In this paper, we use this approach to estimate the reproducibility in the coil position for Nb3Sn short models that have been built in the framework of the FNAL core program (HFDA dipoles) and of the LARP program (TQ quadrupoles). Our analysis shows that the Nb3Sn models manufactured in the past years correspond to r.m.s. coil displacements of at least 5 times what is found for the series production of a mature Nb-Ti technology. On the other hand, the variability of the field harmonics along the magnet axis shows that Nb3Sn magnets have already reached va...
Implicit alcohol attitudes predict drinking behaviour over and above intentions and willingness in young adults but willingness is more important in adolescents: Implications for the Prototype Willingness Model.
Davies, Emma L; Paltoglou, Aspasia E; Foxcroft, David R
Dual process models, such as the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM), propose to account for both intentional and reactive drinking behaviour. Current methods of measuring constructs in the PWM rely on self-report, thus require a level of conscious deliberation. Implicit measures of attitudes may overcome this limitation and contribute to our understanding of how prototypes and willingness influence alcohol consumption in young people. This study aimed to explore whether implicit alcohol attitudes were related to PWM constructs and whether they would add to the prediction of risky drinking. The study involved a cross-sectional design. The sample included 501 participants from the United Kingdom (M age 18.92; range 11-51; 63% female); 230 school pupils and 271 university students. Participants completed explicit measures of alcohol prototype perceptions, willingness, drunkenness, harms, and intentions. They also completed an implicit measure of alcohol attitudes, using the Implicit Association Test. Implicit alcohol attitudes were only weakly related to the explicit measures. When looking at the whole sample, implicit alcohol attitudes did not add to the prediction of willingness over and above prototype perceptions. However, for university students implicit attitudes added to the prediction of behaviour, over and above intentions and willingness. For school pupils, willingness was a stronger predictor of behaviour than intentions or implicit attitudes. Adding implicit measures to the PWM may contribute to our understanding of the development of alcohol behaviours in young people. Further research could explore how implicit attitudes develop alongside the shift from reactive to planned behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Young people's drinking tends to occur in social situations and is driven in part by social reactions within these contexts. The Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) attempts to explain such reactive behaviour as
Dressel, S; Sandström, C; Ericsson, G
The ranges of wolves (Canis lupus) and bears (Ursus arctos) across Europe have expanded recently, and it is important to assess public attitudes toward this expansion because responses toward these species vary widely. General attitudes toward an object are good predictors of broad behavioral patterns; thus, attitudes toward wolves and bears can be used as indicators to assess the social foundation for future conservation efforts. However, most attitude surveys toward bears and wolves are limited in scope, both temporally and spatially, and provide only a snapshot of attitudes. To extend the results of individual surveys over a much larger temporal and geographical range so as to identify transnational patterns and changes in attitudes toward bears and wolves over time, we conducted a meta-analysis. Our analysis included 105 quantitative surveys conducted in 24 countries from 1976 to 2012. Across Europe, people's attitudes were more positive toward bears than wolves. Attitudes toward bears became more positive over time, but attitudes toward wolves seemed to become less favorable the longer people coexisted with them. Younger and more educated people had more positive attitudes toward wolves and bears than people who had experienced damage from these species, and farmers and hunters had less positive attitudes toward wolves than the general public. For bears attitudes among social groups did not differ. To inform conservation of large carnivores, we recommend that standardized longitudinal surveys be established to monitor changes in attitudes over time relative to carnivore population development. Our results emphasize the need for interdisciplinary research in this field and more advanced explanatory models capable of capturing individual and societal responses to changes in large carnivore policy and management. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
An educational model for improving diet counselling in primary care. A case study of the creative use of doctors' own diet, their attitudes to it and to nutritional counselling of their patients with diabetes
Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Palmvig, Birthe; Andreasen, Anne Helms
Nutritional counseling; Nutritional education; Nutritional assessment; Primary care; Continuing medical education; Doctors' diet; Doctors attitudes; Doctors' knowledge; Body mass index; Educational model; Food frequency questionaire......Nutritional counseling; Nutritional education; Nutritional assessment; Primary care; Continuing medical education; Doctors' diet; Doctors attitudes; Doctors' knowledge; Body mass index; Educational model; Food frequency questionaire...
Sjoeberg, Lennart [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research
some extent unexplained as well. The reasons for the development towards more positive attitudes cannot be determined with any certainty at this point. However, it should be mentioned that attitude to nuclear power per se became more positive during the studied period, both in the two municipalities and in the nation as a whole. Nuclear power attitude was strongly correlated with policy intention in the present data (0.67). Yet, adding nuclear power attitude to the analysis of covariance model mentioned above did not result in a substantially weaker effect of the time factor (or of gender). This result suggests that whatever factor accounts for the changes observed, beyond the ones measured and investigated here, probably are area specific and possibly connected with the SKB program of information - a question for future research to answer.
some extent unexplained as well. The reasons for the development towards more positive attitudes cannot be determined with any certainty at this point. However, it should be mentioned that attitude to nuclear power per se became more positive during the studied period, both in the two municipalities and in the nation as a whole. Nuclear power attitude was strongly correlated with policy intention in the present data (0.67). Yet, adding nuclear power attitude to the analysis of covariance model mentioned above did not result in a substantially weaker effect of the time factor (or of gender). This result suggests that whatever factor accounts for the changes observed, beyond the ones measured and investigated here, probably are area specific and possibly connected with the SKB program of information - a question for future research to answer
McIntosh, Daniel H.; Jennings, Derrick H.
The need to grow and diversify the STEM workforce remains a critical national challenge. Research shows that STEM identity (how one views herself/himself with respect to STEM) is an important factor for success or failure. A Bridge to the Stars (ABttS) offers URM and low-income high-school students a high impact exposure to science through innovative experiential learning with a professional scientist in freshmen astronomy at UMKC, an urban research university. Showing students who traditionally do not self-identify with high-tech careers that they can succeed in a university science course is a promising way to help build positive STEM identities and aspirations during the critical bridge between high school and college. In five years, we have awarded 45 ABttS scholarships; 93% of these 15-17 year-old students have passed the course satisfactorily with an average grade of 80%. Remarkably, the ABttS scholar performance is on par with that of 600 UMKC students enrolled in the same courses over 8 semesters. Long-term tracking of former scholars shows positive attitudes regarding ABttS and persistence in STEM aspirations at promising rates based on small-number statistics. I will describe the implementation of this unique STEM immersion program offering extended and inclusive engagement in astronomy, arguably the most accessible window to science. I will share classroom and near-peer mentoring innovations, and a new third ABttS tier in which previous scholars can enroll in a freshmen science laboratory experience for UMKC credit. This novel course introduces novices to scientific research and Big Data science through authentic hands-on experiences centered on their own exploration of data from McIntosh's actual research. The long-term mission of ABttS is to see urban educational institutions across the U.S. adopt similar pipelines in all STEM disciplines built on the ABttS model. Adopting programs like ABttS for freshmen STEM majors, especially in urban colleges and
Dondolo, Hilda Bongazana
Previous research has provided insights into factors influencing attitudes toward advertising in general, and those factors influencing attitudes toward advertising in a particular medium. However, attitudes towards Facebook advertising, especially those of Generation Y, have received relatively little research attention, especially in the South African context. The Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) are heavy users of Facebook, and access the site on a daily basis. ...
Wang, S L; Singer, M A
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of renal vein inflow and filter position on unoccluded and partially occluded IVC filters using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. Three-dimensional models of the TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters, spherical thrombi, and an IVC with renal veins were constructed. Hemodynamics of steady-state flow was examined for unoccluded and partially occluded TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters in varying proximity to the renal veins. Flow past the unoccluded filters demonstrated minimal disruption. Natural regions of stagnant/recirculating flow in the IVC are observed superior to the bilateral renal vein inflows, and high flow velocities and elevated shear stresses are observed in the vicinity of renal inflow. Spherical thrombi induce stagnant and/or recirculating flow downstream of the thrombus. Placement of the TrapEase filter in the suprarenal vein position resulted in a large area of low shear stress/stagnant flow within the filter just downstream of thrombus trapped in the upstream trapping position. Filter position with respect to renal vein inflow influences the hemodynamics of filter trapping. Placement of the TrapEase filter in a suprarenal location may be thrombogenic with redundant areas of stagnant/recirculating flow and low shear stress along the caval wall due to the upstream trapping position and the naturally occurring region of stagnant flow from the renal veins. Infrarenal vein placement of IVC filters in a near juxtarenal position with the downstream cone near the renal vein inflow likely confers increased levels of mechanical lysis of trapped thrombi due to increased shear stress from renal vein inflow.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The assignment of a point-level geocode to subjects' residences is an important data assimilation component of many geographic public health studies. Often, these assignments are made by a method known as automated geocoding, which attempts to match each subject's address to an address-ranged street segment georeferenced within a streetline database and then interpolate the position of the address along that segment. Unfortunately, this process results in positional errors. Our study sought to model the probability distribution of positional errors associated with automated geocoding and E911 geocoding. Results Positional errors were determined for 1423 rural addresses in Carroll County, Iowa as the vector difference between each 100%-matched automated geocode and its true location as determined by orthophoto and parcel information. Errors were also determined for 1449 60%-matched geocodes and 2354 E911 geocodes. Huge (> 15 km outliers occurred among the 60%-matched geocoding errors; outliers occurred for the other two types of geocoding errors also but were much smaller. E911 geocoding was more accurate (median error length = 44 m than 100%-matched automated geocoding (median error length = 168 m. The empirical distributions of positional errors associated with 100%-matched automated geocoding and E911 geocoding exhibited a distinctive Greek-cross shape and had many other interesting features that were not capable of being fitted adequately by a single bivariate normal or t distribution. However, mixtures of t distributions with two or three components fit the errors very well. Conclusion Mixtures of bivariate t distributions with few components appear to be flexible enough to fit many positional error datasets associated with geocoding, yet parsimonious enough to be feasible for nascent applications of measurement-error methodology to spatial epidemiology.
Lin, Jang-Long; Cheng, Meng-Fei; Chang, Ying-Chi; Li, Hsiao-Wen; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Lin, Deng-Min
The purpose of this study was to investigate how learning materials based on Science Magic activities affect student attitudes to science. A quasi-experimental design was conducted to explore the combination of Science Magic with the 5E Instructional Model to develop learning materials for teaching a science unit about friction. The participants…
This study aimed to investigate the effect of the van Hiele model in Geometric Concepts Acquisition, and the attitudes towards Geometry and learning transfer of the first three grades students in Jordan. Participants of the study consisted of 60 students from the third grade primary school students from the First Directorate, Amman, in the…
Wang, Shengli; Yang, Fanlin; Gao, Wang; Yan, Lizi; Ge, Yulong
Precise clock products are typically interpolated based on the sampling interval of the observational data when they are used for in precise point positioning. However, due to the occurrence of white noise in atomic clocks, a residual component of such noise will inevitable reside within the observations when clock errors are interpolated, and such noise will affect the resolution of the positioning results. In this paper, which is based on a twenty-one-week analysis of the atomic clock noise characteristics of numerous satellites, a new stochastic observation model that considers satellite clock interpolation errors is proposed. First, the systematic error of each satellite in the IGR clock product was extracted using a wavelet de-noising method to obtain the empirical characteristics of atomic clock noise within each clock product. Then, based on those empirical characteristics, a stochastic observation model was structured that considered the satellite clock interpolation errors. Subsequently, the IGR and IGS clock products at different time intervals were used for experimental validation. A verification using 179 stations worldwide from the IGS showed that, compared with the conventional model, the convergence times using the stochastic model proposed in this study were respectively shortened by 4.8% and 4.0% when the IGR and IGS 300-s-interval clock products were used and by 19.1% and 19.4% when the 900-s-interval clock products were used. Furthermore, the disturbances during the initial phase of the calculation were also effectively improved.
Friis-Møller, Nina; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Smith, Colette
,663 HIV-positive persons from 20 countries in Europe and Australia, who were free of CVD at entry into the Data-collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study. Cox regression models (full and reduced) were developed that predict the risk of a global CVD endpoint. The predictive performance...... of the D:A:D models were compared with a recent CVD prediction model from the Framingham study, which was assessed recalibrated to the D:A:D dataset. A total of 1010 CVD events occurred during 186,364.5 person-years. The full D:A:D CVD prediction model included age, gender, systolic blood pressure, smoking...... significantly predicted risk more accurately than the recalibrated Framingham model (Harrell's c-statistic of 0.791, 0.783 and 0.766 for the D:A:D full, D:A:D reduced, and Framingham models respectively; p models also more accurately predicted five-year CVD-risk for key prognostic subgroups...
Aug 10, 2015 ... the teachers, had a positive attitude towards the school health programme. This is a desirable finding. The traditional model of a school health program, con- sist of the following three basic components; health edu- cation, health services and healthful environment. In. Nigeria like in most countries in Sub ...
Taylor, Cheryl A; Lord, Charles G; Bond, Charles F
Attitude embodiment effects occur when the position or movement of a person's physical body changes the way the person evaluates an object. The present research investigated whether attitude embodiment effects depend more on biomechanical factors or on inferential cues to causal agency. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not necessary to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply agency for another person's physical movements. Experiment 3 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not sufficient to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply nonagency for those movements. In all 3 experiments, inferential cues to agency played a more important role in attitude embodiment effects than did actual agency, suggesting that theories of embodiment and attitude embodiment need to consider inferential cues to agency alongside biomechanical mechanisms.
Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina
This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dessing, Joost C; Peper, C Lieke E; Bullock, Daniel; Beek, Peter J
The cerebral cortex contains circuitry for continuously computing properties of the environment and one's body, as well as relations among those properties. The success of complex perceptuomotor performances requires integrated, simultaneous use of such relational information. Ball catching is a good example as it involves reaching and grasping of visually pursued objects that move relative to the catcher. Although integrated neural control of catching has received sparse attention in the neuroscience literature, behavioral observations have led to the identification of control principles that may be embodied in the involved neural circuits. Here, we report a catching experiment that refines those principles via a novel manipulation. Visual field motion was used to perturb velocity information about balls traveling on various trajectories relative to a seated catcher, with various initial hand positions. The experiment produced evidence for a continuous, prospective catching strategy, in which hand movements are planned based on gaze-centered ball velocity and ball position information. Such a strategy was implemented in a new neural model, which suggests how position, velocity, and temporal information streams combine to shape catching movements. The model accurately reproduces the main and interaction effects found in the behavioral experiment and provides an interpretation of recently observed target motion-related activity in the motor cortex during interceptive reaching by monkeys. It functionally interprets a broad range of neurobiological and behavioral data, and thus contributes to a unified theory of the neural control of reaching to stationary and moving targets.
Serfling, Robert; Ogola, Gerald
Among men, prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common newly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer. A major issue of very large scale is avoiding both over-treatment and under-treatment of CaP cases. The central challenge is deciding clinical significance or insignificance when the CaP biopsy results are positive but only marginally so. A related concern is deciding how to increase the number of biopsy cores for larger prostates. As a foundation for improved choice of number of cores and improved interpretation of biopsy results, we develop a probability model for the number of positive cores found in a biopsy, given the total number of cores, the volumes of the tumor nodules, and - very importantly - the prostate volume. Also, three applications are carried out: guidelines for the number of cores as a function of prostate volume, decision rules for insignificant versus significant CaP using number of positive cores, and, using prior distributions on total tumor size, Bayesian posterior probabilities for insignificant CaP and posterior median CaP. The model-based results have generality of application, take prostate volume into account, and provide attractive tradeoffs of specificity versus sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chen, Hua; Hey, Jody; Slatkin, Montgomery
Recent positive selection can increase the frequency of an advantageous mutant rapidly enough that a relatively long ancestral haplotype will be remained intact around it. We present a hidden Markov model (HMM) to identify such haplotype structures. With HMM identified haplotype structures, a population genetic model for the extent of ancestral haplotypes is then adopted for parameter inference of the selection intensity and the allele age. Simulations show that this method can detect selection under a wide range of conditions and has higher power than the existing frequency spectrum-based method. In addition, it provides good estimate of the selection coefficients and allele ages for strong selection. The method analyzes large data sets in a reasonable amount of running time. This method is applied to HapMap III data for a genome scan, and identifies a list of candidate regions putatively under recent positive selection. It is also applied to several genes known to be under recent positive selection, including the LCT, KITLG and TYRP1 genes in Northern Europeans, and OCA2 in East Asians, to estimate their allele ages and selection coefficients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cai, Kunhai; Tian, Yanling; Liu, Xianping; Fatikow, Sergej; Wang, Fujun; Cui, Liangyu; Zhang, Dawei; Shirinzadeh, Bijan
A key hurdle to meet the needs of micro/nano manipulation in some complex cases is the inadequate workspace and flexibility of the operation ends. This paper presents a 6-degree of freedom (DOF) serial-parallel precision positioning system, which consists of two compact type 3-DOF parallel mechanisms. Each parallel mechanism is driven by three piezoelectric actuators (PEAs), guided by three symmetric T-shape hinges and three elliptical flexible hinges, respectively. It can extend workspace and improve flexibility of the operation ends. The proposed system can be assembled easily, which will greatly reduce the assembly errors and improve the positioning accuracy. In addition, the kinematic and dynamic model of the 6-DOF system are established, respectively. Furthermore, in order to reduce the tracking error and improve the positioning accuracy, the Discrete-time Model Predictive Controller (DMPC) is applied as an effective control method. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of the DMCP control method is verified. Finally, the tracking experiment is performed to verify the tracking performances of the 6-DOF stage.
Trew, Jennifer L; Alden, Lynn E
Models of self-regulation suggest that social goals may contribute to interpersonal and affective difficulties, yet little research has addressed this issue in the context of social anxiety. The present studies evaluated a hierarchical model of approach and avoidance in the context of social interaction anxiety, with affect as a mediating factor in the relationship between motivational tendencies and social goals. This model was refined in one undergraduate sample (N = 186) and cross-validated in a second sample (N = 195). The findings support hierarchical relationships between motivational tendencies, social interaction anxiety, affect, and social goals, with higher positive affect predicting fewer avoidance goals in both samples. Implications for the treatment of social interaction anxiety are discussed.
Dargaville, Peter A; Lavizzari, Anna; Padoin, Priscila; Black, Don; Zonneveld, Elroy; Perkins, Elizabeth; Sourial, Magdy; Rajapaksa, Anushi E; Davis, Peter G; Hooper, Stuart B; Moss, Timothy Jm; Polglase, Graeme R; Tingay, David G
The surge in uptake of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for respiratory support in preterm infants has occurred in the absence of an authentic animal model. Such a model would allow investigation of research questions of physiological and therapeutic importance. We therefore aimed to develop a preterm lamb model of the non-intubated very preterm infant on CPAP. After staged exteriorisation and instrumentation, preterm lambs were delivered from anaesthetised ewes at 131 to 133 days gestation. Via a single nasal prong (4-mm internal diameter, 6- to 7-cm depth), positive pressure was delivered from the outset, with nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) used until transition to nasal CPAP was attempted, and periodically thereafter for hypoventilation. Caffeine and doxapram were used as respiratory stimulants. Gastric distension was prevented with an oesophageal balloon. Cardiorespiratory parameters and results of arterial blood gas analyses were monitored throughout the study period, which continued for 150 min after first transition to CPAP. Ten preterm lambs were studied, at gestation 132 ± 1 days (mean ± SD) and birth weight 3.6 ± 0.45 kg. After stabilisation on NIPPV, transition to nasal CPAP was first attempted at 28 ± 11 min. There was transient respiratory acidosis, with gradual resolution as spontaneous respiratory activity increased. In the final hour, 79% ± 33% of time was spent on CPAP alone, with typical respiratory rates around 60 breaths per minute. PaCO2 at end-experiment was 58 ± 36 mmHg. Non-intubated preterm lambs can be effectively transitioned to nasal CPAP soon after birth. This animal model will be valuable for further research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many consensus-based and Position Weight Matrix-based methods for recognizing transcription factor binding sites (TFBS are not well suited to the variability in the lengths of binding sites. Besides, many methods discard known binding sites while building the model. Moreover, the impact of Information Content (IC and the positional dependence of nucleotides within an aligned set of TFBS has not been well researched for modeling variable-length binding sites. In this paper, we propose ML-Consensus (Mixed-Length Consensus: a consensus model for variable-length TFBS which does not exclude any reported binding sites. Methods We consider Pairwise Score (PS as a measure of positional dependence of nucleotides within an alignment of TFBS. We investigate how the prediction accuracy of ML-Consensus is affected by the incorporation of IC and PS with a particular binding site alignment strategy. We perform cross-validations for datasets of six species from the TRANSFAC public database, and analyze the results using ROC curves and the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-ranks test. Results We observe that the incorporation of IC and PS in ML-Consensus results in statistically significant improvement in the prediction accuracy of the model. Moreover, the existence of a core region among the known binding sites (of any length is witnessed by the pairwise coexistence of nucleotides within the core length. Conclusions These observations suggest the possibility of an efficient multiple sequence alignment algorithm for aligning TFBS, accommodating known binding sites of any length, for optimal (or near-optimal TFBS prediction. However, designing such an algorithm is a matter of further investigation.
Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine
Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…
Bhargava, Anupama; Pathy, M. K.
Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers' proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect on…
Frisvold, George B; Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Norsworthy, Jason K
Dynamic optimization models are normative; they solve for what growers 'ought to do' to maximize some objective, such as long-run profits. While valuable for research, such models are difficult to solve computationally, limiting their applicability to grower resistance management education. While discussing properties of normative models in general, this study presents results of a specific positive model of herbicide resistance management, applied to Palmer amaranth control on a representative cotton farm. This positive model compares a proactive resistance management strategy to a reactive strategy with lower short-run costs, but greater risk of herbicide resistance developing. The proactive strategy can pay for itself within 1-4 years, with a yield advantage of 4% or less if the yield advantage begins within 1-2 years of adoption. Whether the proactive strategy is preferable is sensitive to resistance onset and yield losses, but less sensitive to cotton prices or baseline yields. Industry rebates to encourage residual herbicide use (to delay resistance to post-emergence treatments) may be too small to alter grower behavior or they may be paid to growers who would have used residuals anyway. Rebates change grower behavior over a relatively narrow range of model parameters. The size of rebates needed to induce a grower to adopt the proactive strategy declines significantly if growers extend their planning horizon from 1 year to 3-4 years. Whether proactive resistance management is more profitable than a reactive strategy is more sensitive to biological parameters than economic ones. Simulation results suggest growers with longer time horizons (perhaps younger ones) would be more responsive to rebate programs. More empirical work is needed to determine how much rebates increase residual use above what would occur without them. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...
Attitudes towards language learning is paramount important. Learners with positive attitudes, who experience success, will have these attitudes reinforced. In contrast, learners??? negative attitudes may be strengthened by lack of success. Attitudes are learnt, not inherited or generally endowed (Baker, 1988, in Ellis, 2003: 198 - 199). Two research questions are raised in this study. 1. How are the attitudes of freshmen of English department towards learning English, and 2. How are thei...
A. A. Namgaladze
Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help to create the positive ionospheric
Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo
Organic compounds are produced in vast quantities for industrial and agricultural use, as well as for human and animal healthcare . These chemicals and their metabolites are frequently detected at trace levels in fresh water environments where they undergo degradation via different reaction pathways. Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. Recent advances in analytical techniques have promoted the fast development and implementation of multi-element CSIA. However, quantitative frameworks to evaluate multi-element stable isotope data and incorporating mechanistic information on the degradation processes [2,3] are still lacking. In this study we propose a mechanism-based modeling approach to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. We validate the proposed approach with the concentration and multi-element isotope data of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways and their range of variation consistent with observed multi-element (C, N) bulk isotope fractionation. The proposed approach can also be used as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available.  Schwarzenbach, R.P., Egli, T., Hofstetter, T.B., von Gunten, U., Wehrli, B., 2010. Global Water Pollution and Human Health. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-100809-125342.  Jin, B., Haderlein, S.B., Rolle, M
A. A. Namgaladze
Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help
King, Alexander Weider; Agerkvist, Finn T.
Commonly used models of moving-coil loudspeaker voice coils, which include effects from eddy current losses, are either inaccurate or contain an abundance of parameters, and are difficult to extend to the nonlinear domain. On the contrary, fractional derivative models accurately describe the freq......Commonly used models of moving-coil loudspeaker voice coils, which include effects from eddy current losses, are either inaccurate or contain an abundance of parameters, and are difficult to extend to the nonlinear domain. On the contrary, fractional derivative models accurately describe...... the frequency and position dependence of the lossy inductance, with meaningful connections to the underlying physics, while keeping the number of parameters low. These fractional derivatives are also compatible with state-space polynomial methods of modeling nonlinear behavior. It is shown that the fractional...... order derivative approaches a value of 1, corresponding to an ideal inductance, when the voice coil is completely outside the magnetic system. Finally, the developed model reveals details about the effect of conductive voice coil formers...
Garland, Eric L.; Farb, Norman A.; Goldin, Philippe; Fredrickson, Barbara L.
Contemporary scholarship on mindfulness casts it as a form of purely non-evaluative engagement with experience. Yet, traditionally mindfulness was not intended to operate in a vacuum of dispassionate observation, but was seen as facilitative of eudaimonic mental states. In spite of this historical context, modern psychological research has neglected to ask the question of how the practice of mindfulness affects downstream emotion regulatory processes to impact the sense of meaning in life. To fill this lacuna, here we describe the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, from which we derive a novel process model of mindful positive emotion regulation informed by affective science, in which mindfulness is proposed to introduce flexibility in the generation of cognitive appraisals by enhancing interoceptive attention, thereby expanding the scope of cognition to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience. This process is proposed to culminate in a deepened capacity for meaning-making and greater engagement with life. PMID:27087765
Bonde, R. E. F.; Lopez, R. E.; Wang, J.; Carranza, H.
During southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, the subsolar magnetopause moves inward. This is generally referred to as "erosion." Studies have been conducted on such magnetopause erosion; however, they generally use steady state IMF conditions. Solar wind conditions are not usually constant for very long, especially during such conditions as are present in high-speeds streams, which typically have large fluctuations in the IMF. These IMF fluctuations can occur on a range of times scales and amplitudes, resulting in a series of northward and southward IMF intervals imposed on the magnetosphere. We simulate the effect of such IMF variations on the magnetopause position using a global MHD model. We will present the dependence of the subsolar magnetopause position on the frequency and amplitude of IMF oscillations.
Asmianto, Asmianto; Hariyanto, Hariyanto; Herisman, Iis
Construction of mathematical models the movement of a parachutist during the air using newton’s II law is ΣF = ma. Position parachutist after exiting the plane immediately unfurled his body so as to create a large air resistance. The presence of air drag resulting movement indirectly parachutist moves down vertically downwards but also shifting toward horizontal and form a parabolic trajectory. Parachutist speed getting down increased until eventually the parachutist reaches terminal velocity it’s the position where the air drag is equal to the gravitational force (gravity) jumpers. In this paper is assumed to be parachutist with 91.6 kg mass (including equipment) jumping from a plane at an altitude of 3.000 meters and reach a height of parachutist ± 1000 meters with velocity ± 57 m/s. So the parachutist have to be clever in taking account of everything, because if just a little too late can dangerous the safety of the parachutist.
Wright, Paul J
National panel data gathered in 2008 (T1) and 2010 (T2) from 420 Black and White US adults aged 18-89 years (M = 45.37, SD = 15.85) were employed to assess prospective associations between pornography consumption and premarital sex attitudes. Premarital sex attitudes were indexed via a composite measure of perceptions of the appropriateness of adults and teenagers having premarital sex. Wright's (2011) sexual script acquisition, activation, application model (3AM) of media sexual socialization was used as the guiding theoretical framework. The 3AM maintains that sexual media may be used by consumers to inform their sexual scripts but that attitude change from exposure to sexual media is less likely when media scripts are incongruent with consumers' preexisting scripts. Consistent with these postulates, the association between pornography consumption at T1 and more positive attitudes toward premarital sex at T2 was strongest for younger adults, who are less oppositional to premarital sex than older adults. Contrary to the position that associations between pornography consumption and premarital sex attitudes are due to individuals who already have positive attitudes toward premarital sex selecting content congruent with their attitudes, premarital sex attitudes at T1 did not predict pornography consumption at T2.
Tarcisio José de Arruda Paes Junior
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of the position of the mold during the setting stage of type IV stone plaster Durone (Dentsply Ind. Com., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on the following properties: surface hardness and roughness. Methods: For the roughness test, two groups (n=6 in the form of pellets were prepared. In the first group, the surface of the base of the device was turned down during the plaster setting stage (N, in the second group this position was inverted, which has been described as an act of capsize it (E. For analysis, a roughness meter with reading precision of 0.01 μm was used. With regard to the hardness analysis, two groups with conical-shaped samples were obtained. The plasters were left to set under the same conditions of the mold/model position described for the previous experiment. Hardness measurement was performed in a durometer with a spherical penetrating tip for Rockwell readout. Three measurements were performed for each test specimen in both tests. Results: The hardness (N - 39.8, standard deviation = 3.3, E - 30.8, standard deviation = 5.6 and roughness data (N - 0.67, standard deviation = 0.17, E - 0.74, standard deviation = 0.13 submitted to the Student’s-t test (5% showed no statistically significant differences for the roughness test (0.489, but showed statistically significant differences for the hardness test (0.014. Conclusion: The variation in the mold/model position influenced the final characteristics of the specimens in terms of hardness, since those obtained with the capsize technique showed lower surface hardness, whereas for roughness these differences were not statistically significant.
Asgeir J. Sørensen
Full Text Available A dynamic positioning (DP system includes different control functions for automatic positioning and guidance of marine vessels by means of thruster and propeller actions. This paper describes the control functions which provide station-keeping and tracking. The DP controller is designed using model-based control, where a new modified LQG feedback controller and a model reference feedforward controller are applied. A reference model calculates appropriate reference trajectories. Since it is not desirable nor even possible to counteract the wave-frequency movement caused by first-order wave loads, the control action of the propulsion system should be produced by the low frequency part of the vessel movement caused by current, wind and second-order mean and slowly varying wave loads. A Kalman filter based state estimator and a Luenberger observer are used to compute the low-frequency feedback and feedforward control signals. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel demonstrate the performance of the proposed controller.
Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating
Magarey Anthea M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1. Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2 following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability and (b Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency. Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134 occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p 0.05 for 10/12 (test-retest reliability and 3/7 (validity scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in
Yavari, Fatemeh; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Ahmadi-Pajouh, Mohammad-Ali; Darainy, Mohammad
Our ability to properly move and react in different situations is largely dependent on our perception of our limbs' position. At least three sources - vision, proprioception, and internal forward models (FMs) - seem to contribute to this perception. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of each source has not been studied individually. Specifically, role of FM has been ignored in some previous studies. We hypothesized that FM has a critical role in subjects' perception which needs to be considered in the relevant studies to obtain more reliable results. Therefore, we designed an experiment with the goal of investigating FM and proprioception role in subjects' perception of their hand's position. Three groups of subjects were recruited in the study. Based on the experiment design, it was supposed that subjects in different groups relied on proprioception, FM, and both of them for estimating their unseen hand's position. Comparing the results of three groups revealed significant difference between their estimation' errors. FM provided minimum estimation error, while proprioception had a bias error in the tested region. Integrating proprioception with FM decreased this error. Integration of two Gaussian functions, fitted to the error distribution of FM and proprioception groups, was simulated and created a mean error value almost similar to the experimental observation. These results suggest that FM role needs to be considered when studying the perceived position of the limbs. This can lead to gain better insights into the mechanisms underlying the perception of our limbs' position which might have potential clinical and rehabilitation applications, e.g., in the postural control of elderly which are at high risk of falls and injury because of deterioration of their perception with age.
Johansen, Ayna B; Brendryen, Håvar; Darnell, Farnad J; Wennesland, Dag K
There is a need for studies that can highlight principles of addiction recovery. Because social relationships are involved in all change processes, understanding how social motivations affect the recovery process is vital to guide support programs. The objective was to develop a model of recovery by examining addicted individuals' social motivations through longitudinal assessment of non-professional support dyads. A qualitative, longitudinal study design was used, combining focus groups and in-depth interviews with addicted individuals and their sponsors. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory: open coding and memos for conceptual labelling, axial coding for category building, and selective coding for theory building. The setting was an addiction recovery social support program in Oslo, Norway. The informants included nine adults affected by addiction, six sponsors, and the program coordinator. The participants were addicted to either alcohol (2), benzodiazepines (1), pain killers (1) or polydrug-use (5). The sponsors were unpaid, and had no history of addiction problems. Support perceived to be ineffective emerged in dyads with no operationalized goal, and high emotional availability with low degree of practical support. Support perceived to be effective was signified by the sponsor attending to power imbalance and the addict coming into position to help others and feel useful. The findings appear best understood as a positive identity-model of recovery, indicated by the pursuit of skill building relevant to a non-drug using identity, and enabled by the on-going availability of instrumental support. This produced situations where role reversals were made possible, leading to increased self-esteem. Social support programs should be based on a positive identity-model of recovery that enable the building of a life-sustainable identity.
Sottile, Eleonora; Meloni, Italo; Cherchi, Elisabetta
are not sufficient to overcome the effect of cognitive dissonance, one of the main factors hindering change. In fact it is not unusual to find discrepancies between attitudes and behaviour in travel behaviour research. The objective of the present work is to understand the relationship between awareness, attitude...
van Leeuwen, Esther; Oosterhuis, Misha; Ruyter, Sofie
Student nurses often have a negative attitude towards older patients due to negative stereotypes, which may explain their reluctance to work in geriatric care. The aim of this study was to investigate a dual effect (direct and indirect via anxiety) of patients' age on student nurses' attitudes towards their patients. Quantitative survey study with 2 between-subjects conditions (patient age: young patients vs. older patients; both n's=52). Two schools for higher vocational education in the Netherlands. 104 student nurses between the ages of 16-30 in the third or fourth year of their nursing education (Mage=21.58, SD=2.22; 93 women). Attitudes towards older patients were more negative than those towards young patients. Older patients also elicited less anxiety compared to young patients, and anxiety had a weaker relationship with attitudes towards older patients than attitudes towards younger patients. Attitudes towards younger patients, but not towards older patients, were depressed by anxiety. Older patients generate more negative attitudes among student nurses, but can also improve attitudes indirectly by lowering intergroup anxiety. Older people may be therefore be especially suitable as a patient group to receive care from young nurses in training, who can mature in their profession without being anxious over making a wrong impression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gender role attitudes and family formation are related in a dynamic process. In this paper both substantive as well as methodological issues are raised. At the substantive level we demonstrate that attitudes influence family formation in terms of commitment to particular states. Emancipatory gender
Full Text Available Zhilan Chen,1,2,* Kecheng Huang,1,* Zhiyong Lu,1,3 Song Deng,1,4 Jiaqiang Xiong,1 Jia Huang,1 Xiong Li,5 Fangxu Tang,1 Zhihao Wang,6 Haiying Sun,1 Lin Wang,1 Shasha Zhou,1 Xiaoli Wang,1 Yao Jia,1 Ting Hu,1 Juan Gui,7 Dongyi Wan,1 Ding Ma,1 Shuang Li,1 Shixuan Wang11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Techonology, Wuhan, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan, 3Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Tai-He Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi, Hubei, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuhan Central Hospital, Wuhan, 6Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education of China for Neurological Disorders, Huazhong University of Science and Techonology, Wuhan, 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors in patients with surgically treated node-positive IB1-IIB cervical cancer and to establish a risk model for disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. A total of 170 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy as primary treatment for node-positive International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage IB1-IIB cervical cancer from January 2002 to December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Five published risk models were evaluated in this population. The variables, including common iliac lymph node metastasis and parametrial invasion, were independent predictors of outcome in a multivariate analysis using a Cox regression model. Three distinct prognostic groups (low, intermediate, and high risk
Bi, Y X; Xiao, M H; Zhang, N N; Li, X Y; Mao, X P; Zhang, K; Zhang, Z R; Zhao, L Y
To provide an important tool for the study of diagnose and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) osseous metastasis and change of bone stress force on prostate cancer (PCa) osseous metastasis and a platform, which is more congruous to clinical process, for prevention and cure of neoplastic bone metastases, and to carry out the construction and improvement of animal models of PCa with different positional osseous metastasis in vivo. Different gradient concentrations of RM-1 cells were inoculated into the cavity of left femoral bone or lumbar vertebra of mice (C57BL/6) respectively. The change of mouse activity, tumor formation, tumor size and survival time were observed respectively. And the femur tissue and spinal tissue were obtained from the mice after death. The gray value of iconography were measured by imageological examination of femur tissue, and the final histopathological examination were taken to determine the tumor type in both femur and spinal tissue. The tumor growth could be touched at the puncture site in all the mice after inoculated for 7 days. There were no obvious differences in the time of tumorigenesis, the rate of tumor growth and tumor size among the mice in the same group (P>0.05). As the result, the construction femoral bone and lumbar vertebra metastatic models of PCa had been confirmed by iconography and pathology detection. At the same time, the survival time of the mice inoculated with low concentrations of PCa cells was obviously longer than that of high concentrations of PCa cells ( at least 2 weeks longer). The animal models with different positional osseous metastasis (limbs and axial skeleton) of PCa using the same PCa cells (RM-1) had been first constructed successfully in our study. At the same time, a high success rate of construction of PCa animal model with bone metastasis was obtained by femoral bone marrow cavity injection of PCa cells. The rate of tumor growth was rapid, animal survival time was appropriate, and the PCa animal
Ly, S.; Sohier, C.; Charles, C.; Degré, A.
Precipitation traditionally observed using raingages or weather stations, is one of the main parameters that have direct impact on runoff production. Precipitation data require a preliminary spatial interpolation prior to hydrological modeling. The accuracy of modelling result depends on the accuracy of the interpolated spatial rainfall which differs according to different interpolation methods. The accuracy of the interpolated spatial rainfall is usually determined by cross-validation method. The objective of this study is to assess the different interpolation methods of daily rainfall at the watershed scale through hydrological modelling and to explore the best methods that provide a good long term simulation. Four versions of geostatistics: Ordinary Kriging (ORK), Universal Kriging (UNK), Kriging with External Dridft (KED) and Ordinary Cokriging (OCK) and two types of deterministic methods: Thiessen polygon (THI) and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) are used to produce 30-year daily rainfall inputs for a distributed physically-based hydrological model (EPIC-GRID). This work is conducted in the Ourthe and Ambleve nested catchments, located in the Ardennes hilly landscape in the Walloon region, Belgium. The total catchment area is 2908 km2, lies between 67 and 693 m in elevation. The multivariate geostatistics (KED and OCK) are also used by incorporating elevation as external data to improve the rainfall prediction. This work also aims at analysing the effect of different raingage densities and position used for interpolation, on the stream flow modelled to get insight in terms of the capability and limitation of the geostatistical methods. The number of raingage varies from 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 8 to 4 stations located in and surrounding the catchment area. In the latter case, we try to use different positions: around the catchment and only a part of the catchment. The result shows that the simple method like THI fails to capture the rainfall and to produce
Studies have shown that mental health professionals in many cases have counterproductive attitudes towards patients with mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders (dual diagnosis). This is problematic because professionals’ attitudes are important for both the therapeutic alliance...... and treatment outcome. This study tested whether providing training in dual diagnosis treatment to mental health professionals will affect their attitudes positively. Twenty-one professionals completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards working with dual diagnosis (Comorbidity Problems Perceptions...
Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M.
Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China. PMID:26418161
Han, Fei; Zhou, Dingyang; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M
Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China.
Full Text Available Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China.