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Sample records for model positing indirect

  1. Reproducibility of bracket positioning in the indirect bonding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Dale A; Gardner, Gary; Carballeyra, Alain D

    2013-11-01

    Current studies have compared indirect bonding with direct placement of orthodontic brackets; many of these have shown that indirect bonding is generally a more accurate technique. However, the reproducibility of an indirect bonding setup by an orthodontist has yet to be described in the literature. Using cone-beam computed tomography and computer-assisted modeling software, we evaluated the consistency of orthodontists in placing orthodontic brackets at different times. Five orthodontists with experience in indirect bonding were selected to place brackets on 10 different casts at 3 time periods (n = 30 per orthodontist). Each participant completed an initial indirect bonding setup on each cast; subsequent bracket placements were completed twice at monthly intervals for comparison with the initial setup. The casts were scanned using an iCAT cone-beam computed tomography scanner (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, Pa) and imported into Geomagic Studio software (Geomagic, Research Triangle Park, NC) for superimposition and analysis. The scans for each time period were superimposed on the initial setup in the imaging software, and differences between bracket positions were calculated. For each superimposition, the measurements recorded were the greatest discrepancies between individual brackets as well as the mean discrepancies and standard deviations between all brackets on each cast. Single-factor and repeated-measure analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between time points of each orthodontist, or among the orthodontists for the parameters measured. The mean discrepancy was 0.1 mm for each 10-bracket indirect bonding setup. Orthodontists are consistent in selecting bracket positions for an indirect bonding setup at various time periods. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Indirect Positive Evidence in the Acquisition of a Subset Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…

  3. THE POSITION OF INDIRECT EVIDENCE AS VERIFICATION TOOLS IN THE CARTEL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veri Antoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indirect (circumstantial evidence, either economic evidence or communication evidence, has been used in cartel cases in many countries such as United States of America, Japan, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, and others. According to Indonesia criminal procedure law, the position of indirect (circumstantial evidence is categorized as an indication (clue evidence whereas according to Indonesia civil procedure law, indirect (circumstantial evidence is categorized as presumption. Considering the characteristics the antimonopoly law which aims to find material truth, the position of indirect evidence is more properly said to be an indication. Owing to its status as an indication, indirect evidence should be exhibited together with the other direct evidence.   Indirect evidenceatau bukti tidak langsung, baik bukti ekonomi atau bukti komunikasi, telah digunakan dalam kasus-kasus kartel di banyak negara, seperti Amerika Serikat, Jepang, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, dan lain-lain. Menurut hukum acara pidana Indonesia, posisi bukti tidak langsung dikategorikan sebagai indikasi (bukti petunjuk, padahal menurut hukum acara perdata Indonesia, bukti tidak langsung dikategorikan sebagai praduga. Mengingat karakteristik hukum anti-monopoli yang bertujuan untuk mencari kebenaran materiil, posisi bukti tidak langsung lebih tepat dikatakan indikasi. Karena statusnya sebagai indikasi, bukti tidak langsung harus dipamerkan bersama dengan bukti langsung lainnya.

  4. Indirect Calorimetry Measurement of Energy Expenditure Related to Body Position Changes in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Kengo; Yumoto, Tetsuya; Fuke, Soichiro; Tsukahara, Kohei; Naito, Hiromichi; Iida, Atsuyoshi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ujike, Yoshihito; Nakao, Atsunori

    2017-12-01

    Early mobilization is advocated to prevent intensive care unit-acquired physical weakness, but the patient's workload and its changes in response to body position changes have not been established. We used indirect calorimetry to determine the energy expenditure (EE) in response to body position changes, and we assessed EE's correlation with respiratory parameters in healthy volunteers: 8 males and 8 females, mean age 23.4±1.3 years. The subjects started in the resting supine position followed by a 30° head-up position, a 60° head-up position, an upright sitting position, a standing position, and the resting supine position. EE was determined in real time by indirect calorimetry monitoring the subject's respiratory rate, tidal volume (VT), and minute volume (MV). The highest values were observed immediately after the subjects transitioned from standing to supine, and this was significantly higher compared to the original supine position (1,450±285 vs. 2,004±519 kcal/day, p<0.01). Moderate correlations were observed between VT and EE (r=0.609, p<0.001) and between MV and EE (r=0.576, p<0.001). Increasing VT or MV indicates an increasing patient workload during mobilization. Monitoring these parameters may contribute to safe rehabilitation. Further studies should assess EE in critically ill patients.

  5. Indirect calorimetry in nutritional therapy. A position paper by the ICALIC study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Taku; Berger, Mette M; De Waele, Elisabeth; Guttormsen, Anne Berit; Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Hiesmayr, Michael; Singer, Pierre; Wernerman, Jan; Pichard, Claude

    2017-06-01

    This review aims to clarify the use of indirect calorimetry (IC) in nutritional therapy for critically ill and other patient populations. It features a comprehensive overview of the technical concepts, the practical application and current developments of IC. Pubmed-referenced publications were analyzed to generate an overview about the basic knowledge of IC, to describe advantages and disadvantages of the current technology, to clarify technical issues and provide pragmatic solutions for clinical practice and metabolic research. The International Multicentric Study Group for Indirect Calorimetry (ICALIC) has generated this position paper. IC can be performed in in- and out-patients, including those in the intensive care unit, to measure energy expenditure (EE). Optimal nutritional therapy, defined as energy prescription based on measured EE by IC has been associated with better clinical outcome. Equations based on simple anthropometric measurements to predict EE are inaccurate when applied to individual patients. An ongoing international academic initiative to develop a new indirect calorimeter aims at providing innovative and affordable technical solutions for many of the current limitations of IC. Indirect calorimetry is a tool of paramount importance, necessary to optimize the nutrition therapy of patients with various pathologies and conditions. Recent technical developments allow broader use of IC for in- and out-patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain activation during direct and indirect processing of positive and negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Thomas; Sauer, Andreas; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2011-09-12

    The effects of task conditions on brain activation to emotional stimuli are poorly understood. In this event-related fMRI study, brain activation to negative and positive words (matched for arousal) and neutral words was investigated under two task conditions. Subjects either had to attend to the emotional meaning (direct task) or to non-emotional features of the words (indirect task). Regardless of task, positive vs. negative words led to increased activation in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, while negative vs. positive words induced increased activation of the insula. Compared to neutral words, all emotional words were associated with increased activation of the amygdala. Finally, the direct condition, as compared to the indirect condition, led to enhanced activation to emotional vs. neutral words in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest valence and arousal dependent brain activation patterns that are partially modulated by participants' processing mode of the emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MAPPING GNSS RESTRICTED ENVIRONMENTS WITH A DRONE TANDEM AND INDIRECT POSITION CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cledat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of autonomously mapping highly cluttered environments, such as urban and natural canyons, is intractable with the current UAV technology. The reason lies in the absence or unreliability of GNSS signals due to partial sky occlusion or multi-path effects. High quality carrier-phase observations are also required in efficient mapping paradigms, such as Assisted Aerial Triangulation, to achieve high ground accuracy without the need of dense networks of ground control points. In this work we consider a drone tandem in which the first drone flies outside the canyon, where GNSS constellation is ideal, visually tracks the second drone and provides an indirect position control for it. This enables both autonomous guidance and accurate mapping of GNSS restricted environments without the need of ground control points. We address the technical feasibility of this concept considering preliminary real-world experiments in comparable conditions and we perform a mapping accuracy prediction based on a simulation scenario.

  8. Mapping Gnss Restricted Environments with a Drone Tandem and Indirect Position Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cledat, E.; Cucci, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The problem of autonomously mapping highly cluttered environments, such as urban and natural canyons, is intractable with the current UAV technology. The reason lies in the absence or unreliability of GNSS signals due to partial sky occlusion or multi-path effects. High quality carrier-phase observations are also required in efficient mapping paradigms, such as Assisted Aerial Triangulation, to achieve high ground accuracy without the need of dense networks of ground control points. In this work we consider a drone tandem in which the first drone flies outside the canyon, where GNSS constellation is ideal, visually tracks the second drone and provides an indirect position control for it. This enables both autonomous guidance and accurate mapping of GNSS restricted environments without the need of ground control points. We address the technical feasibility of this concept considering preliminary real-world experiments in comparable conditions and we perform a mapping accuracy prediction based on a simulation scenario.

  9. Effect of Body Position on Energy Expenditure of Preterm Infants as Determined by Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward F; Johnson, Karen J; Dove, Edwin L

    2017-04-01

    Background  Indirect calorimetry is the standard method for estimating energy expenditure in clinical research. Few studies have evaluated indirect calorimetry in infants by comparing it with simultaneous direct calorimetry. Our purpose was (1) to compare the energy expenditure of preterm infants determined by these two methods, direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry; and (2) to examine the effect of body position, supine or prone, on energy expenditure. Study Design  We measured energy expenditure by simultaneous direct (heat loss by gradient-layer calorimeter corrected for heat storage) and indirect calorimetry (whole-body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) in 15 growing preterm infants during two consecutive interfeeding intervals, once in the supine position and once in the prone position. Results  The mean energy expenditure for all measurements in both positions did not differ significantly by the method used: 2.82 (standard deviation [SD] 0.42) kcal/kg/h by direct calorimetry and 2.78 (SD 0.48) kcal/kg/h by indirect calorimetry. The energy expenditure was significantly lower, by 10%, in the prone than in the supine position, whether examined by direct calorimetry (2.67 vs. 2.97 kcal/kg/h, p  position than in the supine position. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. The Growth Trade-off between Direct and Indirect Taxes in South Africa: Evidence from a STR Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The tax system forms the backbone to the functioning of the South African fiscal authorities and it is has been recently questioned whether alterations in the existing tax mix could promote economic growth. Using quarterly data from 1990:Q1 and 2015:Q2, this study investigated the effects of direct and indirect taxes on economic growth for South Africa using the recently developed smooth transition regression (STR model. Our findings suggest an optimal tax of 10.27 percent on the indirect tax-growth ratio, of which below this rate indirect taxes are positively related with economic growth whereas direct taxes are negatively related with growth. Above the optimal tax rate, taxation bears no significant relationship with economic growth. We therefore suggest that policymakers place a greater burden on indirect taxes and yet ensure that the contribution of indirect taxes to economic growth does not exceed the threshold of 10.27 percent.

  11. Positive indirect effects of reef fishes on kelp performance: the importance of mesograzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Andrew C; Anderson, Todd W

    2007-06-01

    It has been suggested that microcarnivorous reef fishes may play an important role in giant kelp forest communities by preventing infestations of mesograzers that could severely impact or potentially destroy recovering kelp forests after extreme disturbance events. However, these trophic linkages, specifically the direct and indirect effects of fishes on the biomass of mesograzers, grazing intensity, and the performance of giant kelp, have not been sufficiently quantified and evaluated as to their importance and in the absence of such disturbance events. We examined experimentally the effects of mesograzers on the growth and performance of giant kelp in the presence and absence of their fish predators near Santa Catalina Island, California (U.S.A.). Mesograzer biomass and grazing intensity were significantly higher when fishes were excluded from giant kelp, which in turn, lowered kelp performance. This pattern was consistent both on experimental plots of kelp as habitat isolates, and on a continuous reef. Moreover, the abundance of mesograzers was inversely related to the abundance of kelp perch among several kelp-forested reefs, suggesting that these effects can occur at larger spatial scales. Because of differences in the diet and behavior of two microcarnivorous fishes, the kelp perch and señorita, we conducted an experiment manipulating each species and its density independently to determine their separate effects on mesograzers and kelp performance. Concurrently we examined the growth and mortality of juvenile kelp. Grazing intensity decreased, estimates of kelp performance increased, and the growth of juvenile kelp increased with increasing densities of fish but with no detectable effects between fishes. Our results demonstrate that these microcarnivorous fishes have positive indirect effects on kelp performance by reducing mesograzer biomass and grazing intensity, and the early life stages of other fishes also may be important. More specifically, these

  12. Conceptualizing and Testing Random Indirect Effects and Moderated Mediation in Multilevel Models: New Procedures and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Gil, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors propose new procedures for evaluating direct, indirect, and total effects in multilevel models when all relevant variables are measured at Level 1 and all effects are random. Formulas are provided for the mean and variance of the indirect and total effects and for the sampling variances of the average indirect and total effects.…

  13. Indirect Effects of Attributional Style for Positive Events on Depressive Symptoms Through Self-Esteem During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; George, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative events and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive events and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.2, SD = .70). The sample was ethnically/racially diverse, with 55 % White, 22 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian American, 3 % African American, and 10 % Biracial/Other. Correlational analyses indicated significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between an enhancing attributional style (internal, stable, global attributions for positive events), self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Further, prospective analyses using bootstrapping methodology demonstrated significant indirect effects of an enhancing attributional style on decreases in depressive symptoms through its effects on self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering attributional style for positive events as a protective factor in the developmental course of depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  14. Expanding the developmental models of writing: A direct and indirect effects model of developmental writing (DIEW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We investigated direct and indirect effects of component skills on writing (DIEW) using data from 193 children in Grade 1. In this model, working memory was hypothesized to be a foundational cognitive ability for language and cognitive skills as well as transcription skills, which, in turn, contribute to writing. Foundational oral language skills (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) and higher-order cognitive skills (inference and theory of mind) were hypothesized to be component skills of text generation (i.e., discourse-level oral language). Results from structural equation modeling largely supported a complete mediation model among four variations of the DIEW model. Discourse-level oral language, spelling, and handwriting fluency completely mediated the relations of higher-order cognitive skills, foundational oral language, and working memory to writing. Moreover, language and cognitive skills had both direct and indirect relations to discourse-level oral language. Total effects, including direct and indirect effects, were substantial for discourse-level oral language (.46), working memory (.43), and spelling (.37), followed by vocabulary (.19), handwriting (.17), theory of mind (.12), inference (.10), and grammatical knowledge (.10). The model explained approximately 67% of variance in writing quality. These results indicate that multiple language and cognitive skills make direct and indirect contributions, and it is important to consider both direct and indirect pathways of influences when considering skills that are important to writing. PMID:28260812

  15. Hidden Markov Models for indirect classification of occupant behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liisberg, Jon Anders Reichert; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Bloem, H.

    2016-01-01

    , computer, etc.) consumption. It is very seldom to find direct observations of occupant presence and behaviour in residential buildings. However, given the increasing use of smart metering, the opportunity and potential for indirect observation and classification of occupants’ behaviour is possible...

  16. Expanding the Developmental Models of Writing: A Direct and Indirect Effects Model of Developmental Writing (DIEW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We investigated direct and indirect effects of component skills on writing (DIEW) using data from 193 children in Grade 1. In this model, working memory was hypothesized to be a foundational cognitive ability for language and cognitive skills as well as transcription skills, which, in turn, contribute to writing. Foundational oral language skills…

  17. Aerosol indirect effects in a multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2011-06-01

    concentrations from PI to PD in the MMF (about 26 % smaller than that in CAM5. The smaller relative increase in CCN concentrations in the MMF is caused in part by a smaller increase in aerosol lifetime from PI to PD in the MMF, a positive feedback in aerosol indirect effects induced by cloud lifetime effects from aerosols. The smaller response in LWP to anthropogenic aerosols in the MMF model is consistent with observations and with high resolution model studies, which may indicate that aerosol indirect effects simulated in conventional global climate models are overestimated and point to the need to use global high resolution models, such as MMF models or global CRMs, to study aerosol indirect effects. The simulated total anthropogenic aerosol effect in the MMF is −1.05 W m−2, which is close to the Murphy et al. (2009 inverse estimate of −1.1±0.4 W m−2 (1σ based on the examination of the Earth's energy balance. Further improvements in the representation of ice nucleation and low clouds in MMF are needed to refine the aerosol indirect effect estimate.

  18. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd

  19. Calculation and decomposition of indirect carbon emissions from residential consumption in China based on the input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qin; Peng Xizhe; Wu Kaiya

    2012-01-01

    Based on the input–output model and the comparable price input–output tables, the current paper investigates the indirect carbon emissions from residential consumption in China in 1992–2005, and examines the impacts on the emissions using the structural decomposition method. The results demonstrate that the rise of the residential consumption level played a dominant role in the growth of residential indirect emissions. The persistent decline of the carbon emission intensity of industrial sectors presented a significant negative effect on the emissions. The change in the intermediate demand of industrial sectors resulted in an overall positive effect, except in the initial years. The increase in population prompted the indirect emissions to a certain extent; however, population size is no longer the main reason for the growth of the emissions. The change in the consumption structure showed a weak positive effect, demonstrating the importance for China to control and slow down the increase in the emissions while in the process of optimizing the residential consumption structure. The results imply that the means for restructuring the economy and improving efficiency, rather than for lowering the consumption scale, should be adopted by China to achieve the targets of energy conservation and emission reduction. - Highlights: ► We build the input–output model of indirect carbon emissions from residential consumption. ► We calculate the indirect emissions using the comparable price input–output tables. ► We examine the impacts on the indirect emissions using the structural decomposition method. ► The change in the consumption structure showed a weak positive effect on the emissions. ► China's population size is no longer the main reason for the growth of the emissions.

  20. The indirect link between perceived parenting and adolescent future orientation : A multiple-step model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seginer, R.; Vermulst, A.A.; Shoyer, S.

    2004-01-01

    The indirect links between perceived mothers' and fathers' autonomous-accepting parenting and future orientation were examined in a mediational model consisting of five steps: perceived mothers' and fathers' autonomous-accepting parenting, self-evaluation, and the motivational, cognitive

  1. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is

  2. The indirect consequences of a mutualism: comparing positive and negative components of the net interaction between honeydew-tending ants and host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinath, Joshua B; Inouye, Brian D; Underwood, Nora; Billick, Ian

    2012-03-01

    1. In ecological webs, net indirect interactions between species are composed of interactions that vary in sign and magnitude. Most studies have focused on negative component interactions (e.g. predation, herbivory) without considering the relative importance of positive interactions (e.g. mutualism, facilitation) for determining net indirect effects. 2. In plant/arthropod communities, ants have multiple top-down effects via mutualisms with honeydew-producing herbivores and harassment of and predation on other herbivores; these ant effects provide opportunities for testing the relative importance of positive and negative interspecific interactions. We manipulated the presence of ants, honeydew-producing membracids and leaf-chewing beetles on perennial host plants in field experiments in Colorado to quantify the relative strength of these different types of interactions and their impact on the ant's net indirect effect on plants. 3. In 2007, we demonstrated that ants simultaneously had a positive effect on membracids and a negative effect on beetles, resulting in less beetle damage on plants hosting the mutualism. 4. In 2008, we used structural equation modelling to describe interaction strengths through the entire insect herbivore community on plants with and without ants. The ant's mutualism with membracids was the sole strong interaction contributing to the net indirect effect of ants on plants. Predation, herbivory and facilitation were weak, and the net effect of ants reduced plant reproduction. This net indirect effect was also partially because of behavioural changes of herbivores in the presence of ants. An additional membracid manipulation showed that the membracid's effect on ant activity was largely responsible for the ant's net effect on plants; ant workers were nearly ten times as abundant on plants with mutualists, and effects on other herbivores were similar to those in the ant manipulation experiment. 5. These results demonstrate that mutualisms can

  3. ′An avant-garde indirect bonding technique for lingual orthodontics using the first complete digital "tad" (torque angulation device, & "BPD" (bracket positioning device′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Hegde

    2010-01-01

    This article covers an Indirect Bonding Technique using the Torque Angulation Device (TAD and the Bracket Positioning Device (BPD which ensure great accuracy while minimizing the poten- tial for error as compared to most methods available to the orthodontist today. This technique has been developed by taking into account the advantages and pitfalls of indirect bonding.

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Influence upon Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mi; Neff, James Alan

    2010-01-01

    A model incorporating the direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring on adolescent alcohol use was evaluated by applying structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to data on 4,765 tenth-graders in the 2001 Monitoring the Future Study. Analyses indicated good fit of hypothesized measurement and structural models. Analyses supported both…

  5. New fuzzy approximate model for indirect adaptive control of distributed solar collectors

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2014-06-01

    This paper studies the problem of controlling a parabolic solar collectors, which consists of forcing the outlet oil temperature to track a set reference despite possible environmental disturbances. An approximate model is proposed to simplify the controller design. The presented controller is an indirect adaptive law designed on the fuzzy model with soft-sensing of the solar irradiance intensity. The proposed approximate model allows the achievement of a simple low dimensional set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that reproduces the dynamical behavior of the system taking into account its infinite dimension. Stability of the closed loop system is ensured by resorting to Lyapunov Control functions for an indirect adaptive controller.

  6. Modelling of the indirect radiation effect due to background aerosols in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aerosols and greenhouse gases are the two most important contributors to the anthropogenic climate change. The indirect aerosol effect is simulated in this study. The effects of black carbon are investigated. Usually, models use measured aerosol data as input, and their predictions are compared to cloud parameters measured independently from the aerosol measurements. The model developed in this study uses simultaneously measured values for the aerosol and the subsequent cloud. This way, more realistic predictions for the indirect aerosol effect can be expected. The model uses data from an earlier intensive measurement campaign at an Austrian background site. The aerosol and cloud data are taken from the FWF project P 131 43 - CHE and had been collected in 2000 at a measurement site on a mountain in the proximity of Vienna (Rax, 1680 m a.s.l.). The simulation model consists of two parts, a cloud droplet growth model and a radiative model. The growth model for cloud droplets computes the cloud droplet distribution originating from a measured aerosol distribution. The calculated cloud droplet size distributions that are used for further calculations are selected according to the measured liquid water content of the real-world cloud. The radiative model then computes the radiative forcing using the calculated cloud droplet size distribution. The cloud model is a cloud parcel model which describes an ascending air parcel containing the droplets. Turbulent diffusion (important for stratiform clouds) is realized through a simple approach. The model includes nucleation, condensation, coagulation and radiative effects. Because of radiative heating/cooling of the cloud droplets the temperature and the critical super-saturation of the droplets can change. For radiative transfer calculations, the radiative transfer code of the public domain program 'Streamer' was adapted for this study. 'Streamer' accounts for scattering and absorption of radiation in the whole spectral region

  7. Aerosol indirect effects – general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, T.; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, A.; Lohmann, U.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, A.; Feingold, G.; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, J. E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Y.; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, P.; Stier, P.; Grandey, B.; Feichter, J.; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, D.; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, A.; Iversen, T.; Seland, O.; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, H.; Lamarque, J. F.; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, M.

    2009-11-16

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated in the present study using three satellite datasets. The satellite datasets are taken as reference bearing in mind that cloud and aerosol retrievals include uncertainties. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (τa) and various cloud and radiation quantities consistently in models and satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over oceans. The relationship between τa and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to rep¬resentation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive re¬lationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and τa as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly in most of them. In a discussion of the hypo¬theses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld – τa relation¬ship, we find that none is unequivocally confirmed by our results. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between τa and cloud top tem¬perature and outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - τa relationship show a strong positive cor¬relation between τa and cloud fraction. The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of τa, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the short

  8. Climate impact of biofuels in shipping: global model studies of the aerosol indirect effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Mattia; Klinger, Carolin; Eyring, Veronika; Hendricks, Johannes; Lauer, Axel; Petzold, Andreas

    2011-04-15

    Aerosol emissions from international shipping are recognized to have a large impact on the Earth's radiation budget, directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and indirectly by altering cloud properties. New regulations have recently been approved by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) aiming at progressive reductions of the maximum sulfur content allowed in marine fuels from current 4.5% by mass down to 0.5% in 2020, with more restrictive limits already applied in some coastal regions. In this context, we use a global bottom-up algorithm to calculate geographically resolved emission inventories of gaseous (NO(x), CO, SO(2)) and aerosol (black carbon, organic matter, sulfate) species for different kinds of low-sulfur fuels in shipping. We apply these inventories to study the resulting changes in radiative forcing, attributed to particles from shipping, with the global aerosol-climate model EMAC-MADE. The emission factors for the different fuels are based on measurements at a test bed of a large diesel engine. We consider both fossil fuel (marine gas oil) and biofuels (palm and soy bean oil) as a substitute for heavy fuel oil in the current (2006) fleet and compare their climate impact to that resulting from heavy fuel oil use. Our simulations suggest that ship-induced surface level concentrations of sulfate aerosol are strongly reduced, up to about 40-60% in the high-traffic regions. This clearly has positive consequences for pollution reduction in the vicinity of major harbors. Additionally, such reductions in the aerosol loading lead to a decrease of a factor of 3-4 in the indirect global aerosol effect induced by emissions from international shipping.

  9. Modeling the Relationships Between Aerosol Properties and the Direct and Indirect Effects of Aerosols on Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Owen B.

    1994-01-01

    Aerosols may affect climate directly by scattering and absorbing visible and infrared energy, They may also affect climate indirectly by modifying the properties of clouds through microphysical processes, and by altering abundances of radiatively important gases through heterogeneous chemistry. Researchers understand which aerosol properties control the direct effect of aerosols on the radiation budget. Unfortunately, despite an abundance of data on certain types of aerosols, much work remains to be done to determine the values of these properties. For instance we have little idea about the global distribution, seasonal variation, or interannual variability of the aerosol optical depth. Also we do not know the visible light absorption properties of tropical aerosols which may contain much debris from slash and burn agriculture. A positive correlation between aerosol concentrations and albedos of marine stratus clouds is observed, and the causative microphysics is understood. However, models suggest that it is difficult to produce new particles in the marine boundary layer. Some modelers have suggested that the particles in the marine boundary layer may originate in the free troposphere and be transported into the boundary layer. Others argue that the aerosols are created in the marine boundary layer. There are no data linking aerosol concentration and cirrus cloud albedo, and models suggest cirrus properties may not be very sensitive to aerosol abundance. There is clear evidence of a radiatively significant change in the global lower stratospheric ozone abundance during the past few decades. These changes are caused by heterogeneous chemical reactions occurring on the surfaces of particles. The rates of these reactions depend upon the chemical composition of the particles. Although rapid advances in understanding heterogeneous chemistry have been made, much remains to be done.

  10. On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions continue to constitute a major source of uncertainty for the estimate of climate radiative forcing. The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE in climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes, determined by monthly mean 500 hPa vertical pressure velocity (ω500, lower-tropospheric stability (LTS and large-scale surface precipitation rate derived from several global climate models (GCMs, with a focus on liquid water path (LWP response to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations. The LWP sensitivity to aerosol perturbation within dynamic regimes is found to exhibit a large spread among these GCMs. It is in regimes of strong large-scale ascent (ω500  <  −25 hPa day−1 and low clouds (stratocumulus and trade wind cumulus where the models differ most. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing is also found to differ significantly among different regimes. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing in ascending regimes is close to that in subsidence regimes, which indicates that regimes with strong large-scale ascent are as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. It is further shown that shortwave aerosol indirect forcing over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate (> 0.1 mm day−1 contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing (from 64 to nearly 100 %. Results show that the uncertainty in AIE is even larger within specific dynamical regimes compared to the uncertainty in its global mean values, pointing to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.

  11. Assessing the validity of two indirect questioning techniques: A Stochastic Lie Detector versus the Crosswise Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Adrian; Musch, Jochen

    2016-09-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of sensitive attributes obtained through direct questions are prone to being distorted by untruthful responding. Indirect questioning procedures such as the Randomized Response Technique (RRT) aim to control for the influence of social desirability bias. However, even on RRT surveys, some participants may disobey the instructions in an attempt to conceal their true status. In the present study, we experimentally compared the validity of two competing indirect questioning techniques that presumably offer a solution to the problem of nonadherent respondents: the Stochastic Lie Detector and the Crosswise Model. For two sensitive attributes, both techniques met the "more is better" criterion. Their application resulted in higher, and thus presumably more valid, prevalence estimates than a direct question. Only the Crosswise Model, however, adequately estimated the known prevalence of a nonsensitive control attribute.

  12. Energy and exergy analysis of an indirect solar cabinet dryer based on mathematical modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, Samaneh; Etesami, Nasrin; Rahimi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, using a previously developed dynamic mathematical model for performance analysis of an indirect cabinet solar dryer , a microscopic energy and exergy analysis for an indirect solar cabinet dryer is carried out. To this end, appropriate energy and exergy models are developed and using the predicted values for temperature and enthalpy of gas stream and the temperature, enthalpy and moisture content of the drying solid, the energy and exergy efficiencies are estimated. The validity of the model for predicting variations in gas and solid characteristics along the time and the length of the solar collector and/or dryer length was examined against some existing experimental data. The results show that in spite of high energy efficiency, the indirect solar cabinet dryer has relatively low exergy efficiency. Results show that the maximum exergy losses are in midday. Also the minimums of total exergy efficiency are 32.3% and 47.2% on the first and second days, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of some operating parameters, including length of the collector, its surface, and air flow rate was investigated on the exergy destruction and efficiency. -- Highlights: → In the literature, there are few studies on the energy and exergy analysis of solar cabinet dryers. → In the present study a microscopic energy and exergy analysis for an indirect solar cabinet dryer is carried out. → Effect of operating parameters, including collector length, and air flow rate was investigated on the exergy destruction and efficiency. → For collector section, the maximum values for outlet air temperature, outlet exergy and energy are 69 o C, 2.5 kW and 1.12 kW, respectively. → Increasing the air flow rate decreases the exergy efficiency of solar collector.

  13. New Modeling Approaches to Study DNA Damage by the Direct and Indirect Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    DNA is damaged both by the direct and indirect effects of radiation. In the direct effect, the DNA itself is ionized, whereas the indirect effect involves the radiolysis of the water molecules surrounding the DNA and the subsequent reaction of the DNA with radical products. While this problem has been studied for many years, many unknowns still exist. To study this problem, we have developed the computer code RITRACKS [1], which simulates the radiation track structure for heavy ions and electrons, calculating all energy deposition events and the coordinates of all species produced by the water radiolysis. In this work, we plan to simulate DNA damage by using the crystal structure of a nucleosome and calculations performed by RITRACKS. The energy deposition events are used to calculate the dose deposited in nanovolumes [2] and therefore can be used to simulate the direct effect of the radiation. Using the positions of the radiolytic species with a radiation chemistry code [3] it will be possible to simulate DNA damage by indirect effect. The simulation results can be compared with results from previous calculations such as the frequencies of simple and complex strand breaks [4] and with newer experimental data using surrogate markers of DNA double ]strand breaks such as . ]H2AX foci [5].

  14. MODELS TO ESTIMATE BRAZILIAN INDIRECT TENSILE STRENGTH OF LIMESTONE IN SATURATED STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Briševac

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of methods of estimating physical and mechanical characteristics. Principally, the most widely used is the regression, but recently the more sophisticated methods such as neural networks has frequently been applied, as well. This paper presents the models of a simple and a multiple regression and the neural networks – types Radial Basis Function and Multiple Layer Perceptron, which can be used for the estimate of the Brazilian indirect tensile strength in saturated conditions. The paper includes the issues of collecting the data for the analysis and modelling and the overview of the performed analysis of the efficacy assessment of the estimate of each model. After the assessment, the model which provides the best estimate was selected, including the model which could have the most wide-spread application in the engineering practice.

  15. Model-independent indirect detection constraints on hidden sector dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elor, Gilly; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei

    2016-06-01

    If dark matter inhabits an expanded ``hidden sector'', annihilations may proceed through sequential decays or multi-body final states. We map out the potential signals and current constraints on such a framework in indirect searches, using a model-independent setup based on multi-step hierarchical cascade decays. While remaining agnostic to the details of the hidden sector model, our framework captures the generic broadening of the spectrum of secondary particles (photons, neutrinos, e+e- and bar p p) relative to the case of direct annihilation to Standard Model particles. We explore how indirect constraints on dark matter annihilation limit the parameter space for such cascade/multi-particle decays. We investigate limits from the cosmic microwave background by Planck, the Fermi measurement of photons from the dwarf galaxies, and positron data from AMS-02. The presence of a hidden sector can change the constraints on the dark matter by up to an order of magnitude in either direction (although the effect can be much smaller). We find that generally the bound from the Fermi dwarfs is most constraining for annihilations to photon-rich final states, while AMS-02 is most constraining for electron and muon final states; however in certain instances the CMB bounds overtake both, due to their approximate independence on the details of the hidden sector cascade. We provide the full set of cascade spectra considered here as publicly available code with examples at http://web.mit.edu/lns/research/CascadeSpectra.html.

  16. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

  17. Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects by supply-driven input-output model: A case study of Taiwan's industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kuei-Yen; Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yun-Hsun; Fu, Szu-Chi; Chen, Chia-Yon

    2016-01-01

    Most existing literature focuses on the direct rebound effect on the demand side for consumers. This study analyses direct and indirect rebound effects in Taiwan's industry from the perspective of producers. However, most studies on the producers' viewpoint may overlook inter-industry linkages. This study applies a supply-driven input-output model to quantify the magnitude of rebound effects by explicitly considering inter-industry linkages. Empirical results showed that total rebound effects for most Taiwan's sectors were less than 10% in 2011. A comparison among the sectors yields that sectors with lower energy efficiency had higher direct rebound effects, while sectors with higher forward linkages generated higher indirect rebound effects. Taking the Mining sector (S3) as an example, which is an upstream supplier and has high forward linkages; it showed high indirect rebound effects that are derived from the accumulation of additional energy consumption by its downstream producers. The findings also showed that in almost all sectors, indirect rebound effects were higher than direct rebound effects. In other words, if indirect rebound effects are neglected, the total rebound effects will be underestimated. Hence, the energy-saving potential may be overestimated. - Highlights: • This study quantifies rebound effects by a supply-driven input-output model. • For most Taiwan's sectors, total rebound magnitudes were less than 10% in 2011. • Direct rebound effects and energy efficiency were inverse correlation. • Indirect rebound effects and industrial forward linkages were positive correlation. • Indirect rebound effects were generally higher than direct rebound effects.

  18. Evolutionary stability and resistance to cheating in an indirect reciprocity model based on reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A.; Cuesta, José A.

    2013-05-01

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the main mechanisms to explain the emergence and sustainment of altruism in societies. The standard approach to indirect reciprocity is reputation models. These are games in which players base their decisions on their opponent's reputation gained in past interactions with other players (moral assessment). The combination of actions and moral assessment leads to a large diversity of strategies; thus determining the stability of any of them against invasions by all the others is a difficult task. We use a variant of a previously introduced reputation-based model that let us systematically analyze all these invasions and determine which ones are successful. Accordingly, we are able to identify the third-order strategies (those which, apart from the action, judge considering both the reputation of the donor and that of the recipient) that are evolutionarily stable. Our results reveal that if a strategy resists the invasion of any other one sharing its same moral assessment, it can resist the invasion of any other strategy. However, if actions are not always witnessed, cheaters (i.e., individuals with a probability of defecting regardless of the opponent's reputation) have a chance to defeat the stable strategies for some choices of the probabilities of cheating and of being witnessed. Remarkably, by analyzing this issue with adaptive dynamics we find that whether an honest population resists the invasion of cheaters is determined by a Hamilton-like rule, with the probability that the cheat is discovered playing the role of the relatedness parameter.

  19. Accuracy of digital models obtained by direct and indirect data capturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Keul, Christine; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Beuer, Florian; Edelhoff, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    With direct and indirect digitalisation, two access points to CAD/CAM-generated restorations are available. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the single steps of both approaches by comparing construction datasets using a new methodology. Twelve test datasets were generated in vitro (1) with the Lava Chairside Oral Scanner (COS) (2) by digitizing polyether impressions (IMP) and (3) by scanning the referring gypsum cast by the Lava Scan ST laboratory scanner (ST) at a time. Using an inspection software, these datasets were superimposed by a best fit algorithm with the reference dataset (REF), gained from industrial computed tomography, and divergences were analysed. On the basis of average positive and negative deviations between test- and REF datasets, it could be shown that direct digitalisation accomplished the most accurate results (COS, 17 μm/-13 μm; SD ± 19 μm), followed by digitized polyether impression (IMP, 23 μm/-22 μm; SD ± 31 μm) and indirect digitalisation (ST, 36 μm/-35 μm; SD ± 52 μm). The mean absolute values of Euclidean distances showed the least values for COS (15 μm; SD ± 6 μm), followed by IMP (23 μm; SD ± 9 μm) and ST (36 μm; SD ± 7 μm). The mean negative and mean absolute values of all groups were significantly different. Comparing the mean positive values of the groups, IMP and COS (p = 0.082) showed no significant difference, whereas ST and COS, and ST and IMP exhibited statistically significant differences. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the direct digitalisation with Lava C.O.S. showed statistically significantly higher accuracy compared to the conventional procedure of impression taking and indirect digitalisation. Within the limitations of this study, the method of direct digitalisation seems to have the potential to improve the accuracy of impressions for four-unit FDPs.

  20. Degenerate RFID Channel Modeling for Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Povalac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.

  1. Model-independent indirect detection constraints on hidden sector dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elor, Gilly; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    If dark matter inhabits an expanded “hidden sector”, annihilations may proceed through sequential decays or multi-body final states. We map out the potential signals and current constraints on such a framework in indirect searches, using a model-independent setup based on multi-step hierarchical cascade decays. While remaining agnostic to the details of the hidden sector model, our framework captures the generic broadening of the spectrum of secondary particles (photons, neutrinos, e{sup +}e{sup −} and p-barp) relative to the case of direct annihilation to Standard Model particles. We explore how indirect constraints on dark matter annihilation limit the parameter space for such cascade/multi-particle decays. We investigate limits from the cosmic microwave background by Planck, the Fermi measurement of photons from the dwarf galaxies, and positron data from AMS-02. The presence of a hidden sector can change the constraints on the dark matter by up to an order of magnitude in either direction (although the effect can be much smaller). We find that generally the bound from the Fermi dwarfs is most constraining for annihilations to photon-rich final states, while AMS-02 is most constraining for electron and muon final states; however in certain instances the CMB bounds overtake both, due to their approximate independence on the details of the hidden sector cascade. We provide the full set of cascade spectra considered here as publicly available code with examples at http://web.mit.edu/lns/research/CascadeSpectra.html.

  2. Modeling of High Precision Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Augustinavičius

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling of a flexure-based precisionpositioning system for micro-positioning uses. The positioningsystem is featured with monolithic architecture, flexure-basedjoints and ultra fine adjustment screws. Its workspace has beenevaluated via analytical approaches. Reduction mechanism isoptimally designed. The mathematical model of the positioningsystem has been derived, which is verified by resorting to finiteelement analysis (FEA. The established analytical and (FEAmodels are helpful for a reliable architecture optimization andperformance improvement of the positioning system.

  3. Searching for beyond the Standard Model physics using direct and indirect methods at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Samuel C P; Golutvin, Andrey

    It is known that the Standard Model of particle physics is incomplete in its description of nature at a fundamental level. For example, the Standard Model can neither incorporate dark matter nor explain the matter dominated nature of the Universe. This thesis presents three analyses undertaken using data collected by the LHCb detector. Each analysis searches for indications of physics beyond the Standard Model in dierent decays of B mesons, using dierent techniques. Notably, two analyses look for indications of new physics using indirect methods, and one uses a direct approach. The rst analysis shows evidence for the rare decay $B^{+} \\rightarrow D^{+}_{s}\\phi$ with greater than 3 $\\sigma$ signicance; this also constitutes the rst evidence for a fullyhadronic annihilation-type decay of a $B^{+}$ meson. A measurement of the branching fraction of the decay $B^{+} \\rightarrow D^{+}_{s}\\phi$ is seen to be higher than, but still compatible with, Standard Model predictions. The CP-asymmetry of the decay is also ...

  4. Model Based Vision for Aircraft Position Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chatterji, Gano B.; Soni, Tarun; Showman, Robert D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of imaging sensors to estimate the position of an aircraft with respect to the runway during landing. Passive vision techniques to estimate aircraft position during landing rely on the known runway model, images acquired by onboard imaging sensor, orientation information provided by the inertial navigation system and the position estimate provided by devices such as the global positioning system. Point features in the runway model are compared with the onboard sensor images of the features and the difference between the two is used to correct the aircraft position and orientation. In this paper the sensitivity of point features is examined as a means of determining the accuracy of such position estimation techniques. Expressions are derived for the sensitivity of image point to errors in the position and orientation of the sensor. Using these, the sensitivity of the image to aircraft position and orientation errors along a typical landing glide path is studied. A least squares technique based on this sensitivity analysis is described for the correction of position and orientation estimates. The final version of the paper will include results from the application of this analysis to real image sequences collected in flight.

  5. Pneumococcal Transmission and Disease In Silico: A Microsimulation Model of the Indirect Effects of Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhonen, Markku; Cheng, Allen C.; Auranen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Background The degree and time frame of indirect effects of vaccination (serotype replacement and herd immunity) are key determinants in assessing the net effectiveness of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in control of pneumococcal disease. Using modelling, we aimed to quantify these effects and their dependence on coverage of vaccination and the vaccine's efficacy against susceptibility to pneumococcal carriage. Methods and Findings We constructed an individual-based simulation model that explores the effects of large-scale PCV programmes and applied it in a developed country setting (Finland). A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups (families, day care groups, schools and neighbourhoods) was considered in order to properly assess the dependency of herd immunity on coverage of vaccination and vaccine efficacy against carriage. Issues regarding potential serotype replacement were addressed by employing a novel competition structure between multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Model parameters were calibrated from pre-vaccination data about the age-specific carriage prevalence and serotype distribution. The model predicts that elimination of vaccine-type carriage and disease among those vaccinated and, due to a substantial herd effect, also among the general population takes place within 5–10 years since the onset of a PCV programme with high (90%) coverage of vaccination and moderate (50%) vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage. A near-complete replacement of vaccine-type carriage by non-vaccine-type carriage occurs within the same time frame. Conclusions The changed patterns in pneumococcal carriage after PCV vaccination predicted by the model are unequivocal. The overall effect on disease incidence depends crucially on the magnitude of age- and serotype-specific case-to-carrier ratios of the remaining serotypes relative to those of the vaccine types. Thus the availability of

  6. Pneumococcal transmission and disease in silico: a microsimulation model of the indirect effects of vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Nurhonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The degree and time frame of indirect effects of vaccination (serotype replacement and herd immunity are key determinants in assessing the net effectiveness of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV in control of pneumococcal disease. Using modelling, we aimed to quantify these effects and their dependence on coverage of vaccination and the vaccine's efficacy against susceptibility to pneumococcal carriage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed an individual-based simulation model that explores the effects of large-scale PCV programmes and applied it in a developed country setting (Finland. A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups (families, day care groups, schools and neighbourhoods was considered in order to properly assess the dependency of herd immunity on coverage of vaccination and vaccine efficacy against carriage. Issues regarding potential serotype replacement were addressed by employing a novel competition structure between multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Model parameters were calibrated from pre-vaccination data about the age-specific carriage prevalence and serotype distribution. The model predicts that elimination of vaccine-type carriage and disease among those vaccinated and, due to a substantial herd effect, also among the general population takes place within 5-10 years since the onset of a PCV programme with high (90% coverage of vaccination and moderate (50% vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage. A near-complete replacement of vaccine-type carriage by non-vaccine-type carriage occurs within the same time frame. CONCLUSIONS: The changed patterns in pneumococcal carriage after PCV vaccination predicted by the model are unequivocal. The overall effect on disease incidence depends crucially on the magnitude of age- and serotype-specific case-to-carrier ratios of the remaining serotypes relative to those of the vaccine types. Thus the

  7. Discursive positionings and emotions in modelling activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their participation in the modelling activity changed as the activity proceeded. Overall, it can be said that three of the four group members acted as insiders, while the fourth acted as an outsider, and only, towards the end of the group's work on the activity, he acted as an insider. Moreover, the research findings point at four factors that affected the group members' positionings and emotions during the modelling activity: the member's characteristics, the member's history of learning experiences, the activity characteristics and the modelling phases. Furthermore, the different positionings of the group members in the different modelling phases were accompanied by different emotions experienced by them, where being an insider and a collaborator resulted in positive emotions, while being an outsider resulted in negative emotions.

  8. Modeling and isomorphisms of positional board games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoy, S

    1987-05-01

    A model is proposed for a class of two-person games based on the occupation of positions on a board. Well-known games that can be rephrased within or with the help of the model are, for example, tic-tac-toe, qubic, go-moku, hex, and connect-four. The model is formulated in terms of a composite algebraic structure called board. A notion of board isomorphism is defined, a few concepts fundamental for positional board game playing are identified, and necessary and sufficient conditions for establishing the isomorphism of two boards are proved. The formalism of the model provides criteria for the description and analysis of a board that are more abstract than its physical characteristics such as size and dimensionality. The application of the isomorphism results to the implementation of more general and efficient software modules for game playing is discussed. Related work is briefly outlined and compared.

  9. A model for the direct-to-indirect band-gap transition in monolayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-28

    , within ab-initio electronic structure calculations, that a modest biaxial tensile strain of 3% can drive it into an indirect band-gap semiconductor with the valence band maximum (VBM) shifting from point to point. An analysis ...

  10. Testing Expected Shortfall Models for Derivative Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Melenberg, B.; Schumacher, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we test several risk management models for computing expected shortfall for one-period hedge errors of hedged derivatives positions.Contrary to value-at-risk, expected shortfall cannot be tested using the standard binomial test, since we need information of the distribution in the

  11. Spatially explicit integrated modeling and economic valuation of climate driven land use change and its indirect effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, Ian; Agarwala, Matthew; Binner, Amy; Coombes, Emma; Day, Brett; Ferrini, Silvia; Fezzi, Carlo; Hutchins, Michael; Lovett, Andrew; Posen, Paulette

    2016-01-01

    We present an integrated model of the direct consequences of climate change on land use, and the indirect effects of induced land use change upon the natural environment. The model predicts climate-driven shifts in the profitability of alternative uses of agricultural land. Both the direct impact of climate change and the induced shift in land use patterns will cause secondary effects on the water environment, for which agriculture is the major source of diffuse pollution. We model the impact...

  12. The effects of psychotherapy treatment on outcome in bulimia nervosa: Examining indirect effects through emotion regulation, self-directed behavior, and self-discrepancy within the mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol B; Berg, Kelly C; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Accurso, Erin C; Ciao, Anna C; Smith, Tracey L; Klein, Marjorie; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the indirect effects of Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy (ICAT-BN) and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy-Enhanced (CBT-E) on bulimia nervosa (BN) treatment outcome through three hypothesized maintenance variables: emotion regulation, self-directed behavior, and self-discrepancy. Eighty adults with BN were randomized to 21 sessions of ICAT-BN or CBT-E. A regression-based bootstrapping approach was used to test the indirect effects of treatment on outcome at end of treatment through emotion regulation and self-directed behavior measured at mid-treatment, as well as the indirect effects of treatment at follow-up through emotion regulation, self-directed behavior, and self-discrepancy measured at end of treatment. No significant differences in outcome between treatment conditions were observed, and no significant direct or indirect effects were found. Examination of the individual paths within the indirect effects models revealed comparable treatment effects. Across treatments, improvements in emotion regulation and self-directed behavior between baseline and mid-treatment predicted improvements in global eating disorder scores but not binge eating and purging frequency at end of treatment. Baseline to end of treatment improvements in emotion regulation and self-directed behavior also predicted improvements in global eating disorder scores at follow-up. Baseline to end of treatment improvements in emotion regulation predicted improvements in binge eating and baseline to end of treatment increases in positive self-directed behavior predicted improvements in purging at follow-up. These findings suggest that emotion regulation and self-directed behavior are important treatment targets and that ICAT-BN and CBT-E are comparable in modifying these psychological processes among individuals with BN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Current models of positive mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of positive mental health represents not merely the absence of mental disease but presence of high level of happiness and well-being. In this paper we mentioned shortly the earliest concept of mental health, presented by Marie Jahoda in the mid-twentieth century. After that, we described two traditions in understanding and researching of subjective well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic approach. First approach focuses on investigation of positive affects and happiness as emotional and life satisfaction as cognitive component of subjective well-being. Second tradition emphasizes potentials and competences that person develops to the highest level, in personal and social area. Both psychological and social well-being are core concept of positive mental health psychology, designated together as positive functioning. The psychological well-being comprises six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose of life and personal growth. Social well-being consists of five dimensions: social integration, social acceptance, social contribution, social actualization and social coherence. By integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as well as absence of mental disease, Corey Keyes introduced concept of complete mental health. People with complete mental health have reported absence of disease during past year and presence of high level of emotional, psychological and social well-being (flourishing. People with incomplete mental health have also reported absence of mental disease but low level of positive functioning (languishing. Keyes thought there are people with complete and incomplete mental illness; both groups report presence of mental disease, but second group has high level of positive functioning. Models of positive mental health are widely used in research studies as well as in programs for prevention and promotion of mental health. .

  14. A Comprehensive Energy Analysis and Related Carbon Footprint of Dairy Farms, Part 2: Investigation and Modeling of Indirect Energy Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Todde

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle farms are continuously developing more intensive systems of management, which require higher utilization of durable and non-durable inputs. These inputs are responsible for significant direct and indirect fossil energy requirements, which are related to remarkable emissions of CO2. This study focused on investigating the indirect energy requirements of 285 conventional dairy farms and the related carbon footprint. A detailed analysis of the indirect energy inputs related to farm buildings, machinery and agricultural inputs was carried out. A partial life cycle assessment approach was carried out to evaluate indirect energy inputs and the carbon footprint of farms over a period of one harvest year. The investigation highlights the importance and the weight related to the use of agricultural inputs, which represent more than 80% of the total indirect energy requirements. Moreover, the analyses carried out underline that the assumption of similarity in terms of requirements of indirect energy and related carbon emissions among dairy farms is incorrect especially when observing different farm sizes and milk production levels. Moreover, a mathematical model to estimate the indirect energy requirements of dairy farms has been developed in order to provide an instrument allowing researchers to assess the energy incorporated into farm machinery, agricultural inputs and buildings. Combining the results of this two-part series, the total energy demand (expressed in GJ per farm results in being mostly due to agricultural inputs and fuel consumption, which have the largest share of the annual requirements for each milk yield class. Direct and indirect energy requirements increased, going from small sized farms to larger ones, from 1302–5109 GJ·y−1, respectively. However, the related carbon dioxide emissions expressed per 100 kg of milk showed a negative trend going from class <5000 to >9000 kg of milk yield, where larger farms were able to

  15. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preacher, Kristopher J; Hayes, Andrew F

    2004-11-01

    Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant indirect effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance tests of indirect effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly testing the significance of indirect effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the indirect effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation tests in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  16. An empirical model for the induction of double strand breaks in DNA by the indirect' action of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, D.E.; Hill, S.J.A.

    1994-01-01

    For calculation of radiation effects at low doses near environmental levels it is necessary to model both ''direct'' and ''indirect'' effects along single charged particle tracks in the equilibrium spectrum generated by the radiation field. The modelling approach used here to determine the ''indirect'' contribution to the damage to the DNA in mammalian cells is first to study the transition of damage from the solid to liquid phases at different concentrations of enzyme targets (known to be inactivated by single target, single hit kinetics). The respective contributions from direct and indirect action can then be separated. Results obtained in this laboratory for the inactivation of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase have been supplemented by data taken from the literature. A simple model of the radiation action has been derived. It succeeds in correlating all the data within the range of concentrations, radical scavenger, and LET used. From the results, information is obtained on the role of the dose rate; on diffusion lengths, on the type of radical predominantly responsible (OH·) for the inactivation and on scavenging of radicals. Since water radicals are thought to be the main cause of indirect damage in mammalian cells it is a simple step to deduce from the enzyme results the probability of induction of single and double strand breaks in the DNA by making the assumption that basically the same radical kinetics are involved and then applying Poisson probabilities. (author)

  17. Maladaptive Five Factor Model personality traits associated with Borderline Personality Disorder indirectly affect susceptibility to suicide ideation through increased anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Greg J; Smith, Caitlin E; Capron, Dan W; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N; Wingate, LaRicka R

    2016-12-30

    The current study investigated the relationship between maladaptive Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, and suicide ideation in a sample of 131 undergraduate students who were selected based on their scores on a screening questionnaire regarding Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms. Those who endorsed elevated BPD symptoms in a pre-screen analyses completed at the beginning of each semester were oversampled in comparison to those with low or moderate symptoms. Indirect effect (mediation) results indicated that the maladaptive personality traits of anxious/uncertainty, dysregulated anger, self-disturbance, behavioral dysregulation, dissociative tendencies, distrust, manipulativeness, oppositional, and rashness had indirect effects on suicide ideation through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. All of these personality traits correlated to suicide ideation as well. The maladaptive personality traits of despondence, affective dysregulation, and fragility were positive correlates of suicide ideation and predicted suicide ideation when all traits were entered in one linear regression model, but were not indirectly related through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The implication for targeting anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns in evidence-based practices for reducing suicide risk in those with BPD is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rabbit model of ocular indirect photodynamic therapy using a retinoblastoma xenograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonathan W; Jacobsen, Bradley; Zolfaghari, Emily; Ferrario, Angela; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia; Berry, Jesse L; Lee, Diana K; Rico, Grecia; Madi, Ingy; Rao, Narsing; Stachelek, Kevin; Wang, Lei-Chi; Gomer, Charles

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the indirect ophthalmoscope laser delivery system with the 690 nm wavelength diode laser used to perform photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of retinoblastoma. For phase 1, a total of six pigmented rabbits were treated with the indirect laser delivery system. The laser source was provided by the Lumenis Opal 690 nm laser unit, delivered through a 810 nm Indirect ophthalmoscope headpiece and a hand-held 28-diopter indirect lens (1.0 mm spot size). Four rabbits received intravenous verteporfin at doses of 0.43 or 0.86 mg/kg, and two rabbits did not receive verteporfin (controls). A second phase of the study involved eight rabbits using a retinoblastoma xenograft to determine the effect of indirect PDT on subretinal tumors. For phase 1, a total of 20 laser treatments were performed in the right eyes of six rabbits. Laser power levels ranged between 40 and 150 mW/cm 2 and treatment duration ranged between 1 and 3 min. In the four rabbits that received verteporfin, focal retinal scars were noted at 40 mW/cm 2 and higher power levels. In the two control rabbits that did not receive verteporfin, thermal burns were confirmed at 75 mW/cm 2 and higher power levels. Histopathology showed focal retino-choroidal scars at the site of PDT treatment, without evidence of generalized ocular damage. Using the retinoblastoma xenograft, the indirect PDT system was shown to cause areas of tumor necrosis on histopathology. The results of this pre-clinical study suggest verteporfin may be activated in the rabbit retina with the indirect delivery system and the 690 nm laser unit (i.e., Indirect PDT). Using verteporfin, treatment effects were observed at 40-50 mW/cm 2 in the rabbit retina, while photocoagulation was achieved at 75 mW/cm 2 and higher power levels. Fundoscopic and histopathologic examination of treated areas showed circumscribed areas of retinal damage and a lack of generalized ocular

  19. Basic model of fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in {gamma} astronomy with the CELESTE telescope; Modele effectif de matiere noire fermionique. Detection indirecte de matiere noire supersymetrique en astronomie {gamma} avec le telescope CELESTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavalle, J

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  20. Impact of Father Involvement: A Closer Look at Indirect Effects Models Involving Marriage and Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a framework for understanding the indirect effects of fathering on child development in the context of the marriage. We discuss three central pathways of influence: through relations between marital quality and fathering, through children's exposure to father expressions of marital discord, and through relations between…

  1. Digital terrain model evaluation and computation of the terrain correction and indirect effect in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denizar Blitzkow

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to compare digital terrain models, to show the generated models for South America and to present two applications. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM produced the most important and updated height information in the world. This paper addresses the attention to comparisons of the following models: SRTM3, DTM2002, GLOBE, GTOPO30, ETOPO2 and ETOPO5, at the common points of the grid. The comparisons are limited by latitudes 60º S and 25 º N and longitudes 100 º W and 25 º W. All these data, after some analysis, have been used to create three models for South America: SAM_1mv1, SAM_1mv2 (both of 1' grid spacing and SAM_30s (30" grid spacing. Besides this effort, the three models as well as STRM were evaluated using Bench Marks (BM in Brazil and Argentina. This paper also shows two important geodesy and geophysics applications using the SAM_1mv1: terrain correction (one of the reductions applied to the gravity acceleration and indirect effect (a consequence of the reduction of the external mass to the geoid. These are important at Andes for a precise geoid computation.Los objetivos principales de este documento son comparar modelos digitales del continente; enseñar los modelos generados para Sudamérica y presentar dos aplicaciones. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM produjo la información más importante y más actualizada de las altitudes del mundo. Este trabajo centra su atención en las comparaciones de los modelos siguientes: SRTM3, DTM2002, GLOBO, GTOPO30, ETOPO2 y ETOPO5, en los puntos comunes de la rejilla. Las comparaciones son limitadas por las latitudes 60º S y 25 º N y longitudes 100 º W y 25 º W. Todos estos datos, después de los análisis, se han utilizado para crear tres modelos para Sudamérica: SAM_1mv1, SAM_1mv2 (1' de espaciamiento de la rejilla y SAM_30s (30" de espaciamiento de la rejilla. Los tres modelos bien como el STRM fueron evaluados usando puntos de referencia de

  2. Basic model of fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in γ astronomy with the CELESTE telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle, J.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  3. Integrated Modeling & Development of Emission Scenarios for Methane and Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Atul K.

    2005-09-30

    This report outlines main accomplishments on the development of Emission inventories and Scenarios for Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases (CO, VOCs, NOx) and methane supported by Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy. This research produced 3 journal articles, 1 book chapter, and 4 research articles/abstracts in conference proceedings. In addition, this grant supported two PhD students and one undergraduate student at UIUC.

  4. Indirect calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Labussière, E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of indirect calorimetry to measure the heat production of men and animals has increased rapidly since the pioneering work of Lavoisier. Measurement of the consumption of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide are the basis for the measurement of heat production. Today, applications of

  5. A multilayer physically based snowpack model simulating direct and indirect radiative impacts of light-absorbing impurities in snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzet, Francois; Dumont, Marie; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Picard, Ghislain; Arnaud, Laurent; Voisin, Didier; Lejeune, Yves; Charrois, Luc; Nabat, Pierre; Morin, Samuel

    2017-11-01

    Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) decrease snow albedo, increasing the amount of solar energy absorbed by the snowpack. Its most intuitive and direct impact is to accelerate snowmelt. Enhanced energy absorption in snow also modifies snow metamorphism, which can indirectly drive further variations of snow albedo in the near-infrared part of the solar spectrum because of the evolution of the near-surface snow microstructure. New capabilities have been implemented in the detailed snowpack model SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus (referred to as Crocus) to account for impurities' deposition and evolution within the snowpack and their direct and indirect impacts. Once deposited, the model computes impurities' mass evolution until snow melts out, accounting for scavenging by meltwater. Taking advantage of the recent inclusion of the spectral radiative transfer model TARTES (Two-stream Analytical Radiative TransfEr in Snow model) in Crocus, the model explicitly represents the radiative impacts of light-absorbing impurities in snow. The model was evaluated at the Col de Porte experimental site (French Alps) during the 2013-2014 snow season against in situ standard snow measurements and spectral albedo measurements. In situ meteorological measurements were used to drive the snowpack model, except for aerosol deposition fluxes. Black carbon (BC) and dust deposition fluxes used to drive the model were extracted from simulations of the atmospheric model ALADIN-Climate. The model simulates snowpack evolution reasonably, providing similar performances to our reference Crocus version in terms of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), near-surface specific surface area (SSA) and shortwave albedo. Since the reference empirical albedo scheme was calibrated at the Col de Porte, improvements were not expected to be significant in this study. We show that the deposition fluxes from the ALADIN-Climate model provide a reasonable estimate of the amount of light-absorbing impurities deposited on the

  6. Test of a model linking employee positive moods and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Chi; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Liu, Hui-Lu

    2007-11-01

    Past empirical evidence has demonstrated that employees' positive mood states predict task performance. This study extends previous research by proposing and testing a model that examines mediating processes underlying the relationship between employee positive moods and task performance. Two longitudinal studies used data collected from 306 (Study 1) and 263 (Study 2) insurance sales agents in Taiwan. The results showed that employee positive moods predicted task performance indirectly through both interpersonal (helping other coworkers and coworker helping and support) and motivational (self-efficacy and task persistence) processes. (c) 2007 APA

  7. Indirect recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian; Rachman, Noer Fauzi

    2018-01-01

    Government institutions and local people in Indonesia have entrenched, resurrected, and reinvented space through their different territorial and property claims. From colonial times, onward, government institutions have dissolved local political orders and territorialized and reordered spatial...... categories are struggled over, and groups of actors seek to legitimate their presence, their activities, and their resource use by occupation, mapping, and construction of "public" infrastructure. In the case of conservation in the Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, we find that rather than one overarching...... important legal and political work. After the authoritarian New Order regime, in particular, claims to citizenship worked as indirect property claims, and indirect recognition of such claims are important because they serve as pragmatic proxies for formal property rights. Two case studies examine how people...

  8. Lung mechanical changes following bronchoaspiration in a porcine model: differentiation of direct and indirect mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Gergely H; Peták, Ferenc; Erces, Dániel; Balogh, Adám L; Babik, Barna

    2014-08-01

    Bronchoaspiration results in local deterioration of lung function through direct damage and/or indirect systemic effects related to neurohumoral pathways. We distinguished these effects by selectively intubating the two main bronchi in pigs while a PEEP of 4 or 10cm H2O was maintained. Gastric juice was instilled only into the right lung. Lung mechanical and ventilation defects were assessed by measuring unilateral pulmonary input impedance (ZL,s) and the third phase slope of the capnogram (SIII) for each lung side separately before the aspiration and for 120min thereafter. Marked transient elevations in ZL,s parameters and SIII were observed in the affected lung after aspiration. Elevating PEEP did not affect these responses in the ZL,s parameters, whereas it prevented the SIII increases. None of these indices changed in the intact left lung. These findings furnish evidence of the predominance of the local direct damage over the indirect systemic effects in the development of the deterioration of lung function, and demonstrate the benefit of an initially elevated PEEP following aspiration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of two mix model postprocessors for the investigation of shell mix in indirect drive implosion cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welser-Sherrill, L.; Mancini, R. C.; Haynes, D. A.; Haan, S. W.; Koch, J. A.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Golovkin, I. E.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Radha, P. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Regan, S. P.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of shell mix in inertial confinement fusion implosion cores is an important characteristic. Mixing in this experimental regime is primarily due to hydrodynamic instabilities, such as Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov, which can affect implosion dynamics. Two independent theoretical mix models, Youngs' model and the Haan saturation model, were used to estimate the level of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in a series of indirect drive experiments. The models were used to predict the radial width of the region containing mixed fuel and shell materials. The results for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing provided by Youngs' model are considered to be a lower bound for the mix width, while those generated by Haan's model incorporate more experimental characteristics and consequently have larger mix widths. These results are compared with an independent experimental analysis, which infers a larger mix width based on all instabilities and effects captured in the experimental data

  10. Aerosol indirect effects on summer precipitation in a regional climate model for the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Nicolas; Mailler, Sylvain; Drobinski, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Aerosols affect atmospheric dynamics through their direct and semi-direct effects as well as through their effects on cloud microphysics (indirect effects). The present study investigates the indirect effects of aerosols on summer precipitation in the Euro-Mediterranean region, which is located at the crossroads of air masses carrying both natural and anthropogenic aerosols. While it is difficult to disentangle the indirect effects of aerosols from the direct and semi-direct effects in reality, a numerical sensitivity experiment is carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which allows us to isolate indirect effects, all other effects being equal. The Mediterranean hydrological cycle has often been studied using regional climate model (RCM) simulations with parameterized convection, which is the approach we adopt in the present study. For this purpose, the Thompson aerosol-aware microphysics scheme is used in a pair of simulations run at 50 km resolution with extremely high and low aerosol concentrations. An additional pair of simulations has been performed at a convection-permitting resolution (3.3 km) to examine these effects without the use of parameterized convection. While the reduced radiative flux due to the direct effects of the aerosols is already known to reduce precipitation amounts, there is still no general agreement on the sign and magnitude of the aerosol indirect forcing effect on precipitation, with various processes competing with each other. Although some processes tend to enhance precipitation amounts, some others tend to reduce them. In these simulations, increased aerosol loads lead to weaker precipitation in the parameterized (low-resolution) configuration. The fact that a similar result is obtained for a selected area in the convection-permitting (high-resolution) configuration allows for physical interpretations. By examining the key variables in the model outputs, we propose a causal chain that links the aerosol

  11. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Weight-Related Behaviors in Inner-City Adolescents: A Model of Direct and Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Wills, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined the association of two distinct self-regulation constructs, effortful control and dysregulation, with weight-related behaviors in adolescents and tested whether these effects were mediated by self-efficacy variables. METHODS: A school-based survey was conducted with 1771 adolescents from 11 public schools in the Bronx, New York. Self-regulation was assessed by multiple indicators and defined as two latent constructs. Dependent variables included fruit/vegetable intake, intake of snack/junk food, frequency of physical activity, and time spent in sedentary behaviors. Structural equation modeling examined the relation of effortful control and dysregulation to lifestyle behaviors, with self-efficacy variables as possible mediators. RESULTS: Study results showed that effortful control had a positive indirect effect on fruit and vegetable intake, mediated by self-efficacy, as well as a direct effect. Effortful control also had a positive indirect effect on physical activity, mediated by self-efficacy. Dysregulation had direct effects on intake of junk food/snacks and time spent in sedentary behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that self-regulation characteristics are related to diet and physical activity and that some of these effects are mediated by self-efficacy. Different effects were noted for the two domains of self-regulation. Prevention researchers should consider including self-regulation processes in programs to improve health behaviors in adolescents.

  12. Indirect CO2 Emission Implications of Energy System Pathways: Linking IO and TIMES Models for the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Hannah E; Scott, Kate; Strachan, Neil; Barrett, John

    2015-09-01

    Radical changes to current national energy systems-including energy efficiency and the decarbonization of electricity-will be required in order to meet challenging carbon emission reduction commitments. Technology explicit energy system optimization models (ESOMs) are widely used to define and assess such low-carbon pathways, but these models only account for the emissions associated with energy combustion and either do not account for or do not correctly allocate emissions arising from infrastructure, manufacturing, construction and transport associated with energy technologies and fuels. This paper addresses this shortcoming, through a hybrid approach that estimates the upstream CO2 emissions across current and future energy technologies for the UK using a multiregional environmentally extended input-output model, and explicitly models the direct and indirect CO2 emissions of energy supply and infrastructure technologies within a national ESOM (the UK TIMES model). Results indicate the large significance of nondomestic indirect emissions, particularly coming from fossil fuel imports, and finds that the marginal abatement cost of mitigating all emissions associated with UK energy supply is roughly double that of mitigating only direct emissions in 2050.

  13. Positive Psychology versus the Medical Model?: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephen; Linley, P. Alex

    2006-01-01

    Comments on "Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions" by Seligman, Steen, Park, and Peterson (see record 2005-08033-003). Seligman and colleagues provided a progress report on positive psychology, reviewing the impressive developments over the past five years. We wholeheartedly support the positive psychology movement…

  14. POSITIVE LEADERSHIP MODELS: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blanch, Francisco Gil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is twofold; firstly, we establish the theoretical boundaries of positive leadership and the reasons for its emergence. It is related to the new paradigm of positive psychology that has recently been shaping the scope of organizational knowledge. This conceptual framework has triggered the development of the various forms of positive leadership (i.e. transformational, servant, spiritual, authentic, and positive. Although the construct does not seem univocally defined, these different types of leadership overlap and share a significant affinity. Secondly, we review the empirical evidence that shows the impact of positive leadership in organizations and we highlight the positive relationship between these forms of leadership and key positive organizational variables. Lastly, we analyse future research areas in order to further develop this concept.

  15. Improvement in latent variable indirect response joint modeling of a continuous and a categorical clinical endpoint in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanpu; Zhou, Honghui

    2016-02-01

    Improving the quality of exposure-response modeling is important in clinical drug development. The general joint modeling of multiple endpoints is made possible in part by recent progress on the latent variable indirect response (IDR) modeling for ordered categorical endpoints. This manuscript aims to investigate, when modeling a continuous and a categorical clinical endpoint, the level of improvement achievable by joint modeling in the latent variable IDR modeling framework through the sharing of model parameters for the individual endpoints, guided by the appropriate representation of drug and placebo mechanism. This was illustrated with data from two phase III clinical trials of intravenously administered mAb X for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, with the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) and 20, 50, and 70% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70) disease severity criteria were used as efficacy endpoints. The joint modeling framework led to a parsimonious final model with reasonable performance, evaluated by visual predictive check. The results showed that, compared with the more common approach of separately modeling the endpoints, it is possible for the joint model to be more parsimonious and yet better describe the individual endpoints. In particular, the joint model may better describe one endpoint through subject-specific random effects that would not have been estimable from data of this endpoint alone.

  16. The conditional indirect effect model of women's union participation: the moderating effect of perceived union tolerance for sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Steven; Golay, Leslie M

    2014-01-01

    We tested a theoretically trimmed model of union participation presented by Tetrick, Shore, McClurg, and Vandenberg (2007), in which perceived union instrumentality is expected to influence participation through perceived union support. This testing was accomplished as a precursor to testing a conditional indirect effect model of women's participation--in which perceived union tolerance for sexual harassment was expected to moderate the influence of perceived support on willingness to participate in union activities. In a sample of 326 women from multiple unions, we found support for the conditional model; the influence of perceived instrumentality on willingness to participate through perceived support was moderated by perceived tolerance for harassment; specifically, the influence through perceived support was weak when perceived tolerance was high. The implications of our results are discussed in reference to need support and women's participation.

  17. Indirect estimation of the Convective Lognormal Transfer function model parameters for describing solute transport in unsaturated and undisturbed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2012-05-01

    Solute transport in partially saturated soils is largely affected by fluid velocity distribution and pore size distribution within the solute transport domain. Hence, it is possible to describe the solute transport process in terms of the pore size distribution of the soil, and indirectly in terms of the soil hydraulic properties. In this paper, we present a conceptual approach that allows predicting the parameters of the Convective Lognormal Transfer model from knowledge of soil moisture and the Soil Moisture Characteristic (SMC), parameterized by means of the closed-form model of Kosugi (1996). It is assumed that in partially saturated conditions, the air filled pore volume act as an inert solid phase, allowing the use of the Arya et al. (1999) pragmatic approach to estimate solute travel time statistics from the saturation degree and SMC parameters. The approach is evaluated using a set of partially saturated transport experiments as presented by Mohammadi and Vanclooster (2011). Experimental results showed that the mean solute travel time, μ(t), increases proportionally with the depth (travel distance) and decreases with flow rate. The variance of solute travel time σ²(t) first decreases with flow rate up to 0.4-0.6 Ks and subsequently increases. For all tested BTCs predicted solute transport with μ(t) estimated from the conceptual model performed much better as compared to predictions with μ(t) and σ²(t) estimated from calibration of solute transport at shallow soil depths. The use of μ(t) estimated from the conceptual model therefore increases the robustness of the CLT model in predicting solute transport in heterogeneous soils at larger depths. In view of the fact that reasonable indirect estimates of the SMC can be made from basic soil properties using pedotransfer functions, the presented approach may be useful for predicting solute transport at field or watershed scales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling of a regenerative indirect evaporative cooler for a desiccant cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Reinholdt, Lars O.

    is found to be mostly affected by the inlet humidity ratio. Manufacturer data are used to tune the model. The tuned DPC model is characterized by an area effectiveness coefficient which is kept constant at 0.55. The cooling capacity and water consumption estimated by the tuned model deviate within 3% and 8......%, respectively from manufacturer data. The computed pressure drops deviates within 6% from manufacturer data....

  19. Sensitivity of aerosol indirect forcing and autoconversion to cloud droplet parameterization: an assessment with the NASA Global Modeling Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, R. P.; Meshkhidze, N.; Nenes, A.

    2006-12-01

    The aerosol indirect forcing is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in assessments of anthropogenic climate change [IPCC, 2001]. Much of this uncertainty arises from the approach used for linking cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) to precursor aerosol. Global Climate Models (GCM) use a wide range of cloud droplet activation mechanisms ranging from empirical [Boucher and Lohmann, 1995] to detailed physically- based formulations [e.g., Abdul-Razzak and Ghan, 2000; Fountoukis and Nenes, 2005]. The objective of this study is to assess the uncertainties in indirect forcing and autoconversion of cloud water to rain caused by the application of different cloud droplet parameterization mechanisms; this is an important step towards constraining the aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Here we estimate the uncertainty in indirect forcing and autoconversion rate using the NASA Global Model Initiative (GMI). The GMI allows easy interchange of meteorological fields, chemical mechanisms and the aerosol microphysical packages. Therefore, it is an ideal tool for assessing the effect of different parameters on aerosol indirect forcing. The aerosol module includes primary emissions, chemical production of sulfate in clear air and in-cloud aqueous phase, gravitational sedimentation, dry deposition, wet scavenging in and below clouds, and hygroscopic growth. Model inputs include SO2 (fossil fuel and natural), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), mineral dust and sea salt. The meteorological data used in this work were taken from the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) and two different GCMs: the NASA GEOS4 finite volume GCM (FVGCM) and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies version II' (GISS II') GCM. Simulations were carried out for "present day" and "preindustrial" emissions using different meteorological fields (i.e. DAO, FVGCM, GISS II'); cloud droplet number concentration is computed from the correlations of Boucher and Lohmann [1995], Abdul-Razzak and Ghan [2000

  20. Jump-diffusion model of exchange rate dynamics : estimation via indirect inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, George J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates asymmetric effects of monetary policy over the business cycle. A two-state Markov Switching Model is employed to model both recessions and expansions. For the United States and Germany, strong evidence is found that monetary policy is more effective in a recession than during

  1. Neural network modeling of air pollution in tunnels according to indirect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaverzneva, T; Lazovskaya, T; Tarkhov, D; Vasilyev, A

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of providing the necessary parameters of air of the working area in dead-end tunnels in the case of ventilation systems powered off. An ill-posed initialboundary problem for the diffusion equation is used as a mathematical model for a description and analysis of mass transfer processes in the tunnel. The neural network approach is applied to construct an approximate solution (regularization) of the identification problem in the case of the approximate measurement data and the set of interval parameters of the modeled system. Two types of model measurements included binary data are considered. The direct problem solution and the inverse problem regularization for the offered neural network approach are constructed uniformly. (paper)

  2. Comparison of Two Methods of Obtaining Digital Orthodontic Models: Direct vs. Indirect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    evaluated by comparing digital measurements of both tooth size, overbite , and overjet to those made on the original plaster models. Statistically...significant differences were found for tooth size and overbite but were considered clinically irrelevant. With the recent increase in the interest

  3. A Framework for Modelling Indirect Land Use Changes in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jannick Højrup; Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Brandão, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    deforestation, intensification and reduced consumption. Existing models for iLUC tend to ignore intensification and reduced consumption, they most often operate with arbitrary amortisation periods to allocate deforestation emissions over time, and the causal link between land occupation and deforestation...

  4. Patient-specific indirectly 3D printed mitral valves for pre-operative surgical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginty, Olivia; Moore, John; Xia, Wenyao; Bainbridge, Dan; Peters, Terry

    2017-03-01

    Significant mitral valve regurgitation affects over 2% of the population. Over the past few decades, mitral valve (MV) repair has become the preferred treatment option, producing better patient outcomes than MV replacement, but requiring more expertise. Recently, 3D printing has been used to assist surgeons in planning optimal treatments for complex surgery, thus increasing the experience of surgeons and the success of MV repairs. However, while commercially available 3D printers are capable of printing soft, tissue-like material, they cannot replicate the demanding combination of echogenicity, physical flexibility and strength of the mitral valve. In this work, we propose the use of trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) 3D image data and inexpensive 3D printing technology to create patient specific mitral valve models. Patient specific 3D TEE images were segmented and used to generate a profile of the mitral valve leaflets. This profile was 3D printed and integrated into a mold to generate a silicone valve model that was placed in a dynamic heart phantom. Our primary goal is to use silicone models to assess different repair options prior to surgery, in the hope of optimizing patient outcomes. As a corollary, a database of patient specific models can then be used as a trainer for new surgeons, using a beating heart simulator to assess success. The current work reports preliminary results, quantifying basic morphological properties. The models were assessed using 3D TEE images, as well as 2D and 3D Doppler images for comparison to the original patient TEE data.

  5. Simulation models applied to practical learning and skill enhancement in direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Holderegger Ricci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to analyze and describe simulation methods for practical learning and training of the ophthalmoscopy exam and to organize them into specific topics relative to each principle of operation, while evaluating their preliminary results. A critical review of articles that described and evaluated simulated models for ophthalmoscopy published in the last ten years (2004-2014 was performed. One hundred articles about ophthalmology and simulation were found in national and international periodicals, but only a few discussed the examination of the posterior pole of the eye. For this study, 25 articles were considered; those articles described simulation methods, general concepts, and its actual use in ophthalmoscopy. There were many different simulation methods described, but only few articles proved their efficacy or performed a comparison between models. Review of this topic may give information for the critical analysis of the simulation devices and ideas for the development of new ones.

  6. From superWIMPs to decaying dark matter. Models, bounds and indirect searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weniger, Christoph

    2010-06-15

    Despite lots of observational and theoretical efforts, the particle nature of dark matter remains unknown. Beyond the paradigmatic WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), many theoretically well motivated models exist where dark matter interacts much more weakly than electroweak with Standard Model particles. In this case new phenomena occur, like the decay of dark matter or the interference with the standard cosmology of the early Universe. In this thesis we study some of these aspects of superweakly coupled dark matter in general, and in the special case of hidden U(1){sub X} gauginos that kinetically mix with hypercharge. There, we will assume that the gauge group remains unbroken, similar to the Standard Model U(1){sub em}. We study different kinds of cosmological bounds, including bounds from thermal overproduction, from primordial nucleosynthesis and from structure formation. Furthermore, we study the possible cosmic-ray signatures predicted by this scenario, with emphasis on the electron and positron channel in light of the recent observations by PAMELA and Fermi LAT. Moreover we study the cosmic-ray signatures of decaying dark matter independently of concrete particle-physics models. In particular we analyze in how far the rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV, as observed by PAMELA, can be explained by dark matter decay. Lastly, we concentrate on related predictions for gamma-ray observations with the Fermi LAT, and propose to use the dipole-like anisotropy of the prompt gamma-ray dark matter signal to distinguish exotic dark matter contributions from the extragalactic gamma-ray background. (orig.)

  7. From superWIMPs to decaying dark matter. Models, bounds and indirect searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weniger, Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Despite lots of observational and theoretical efforts, the particle nature of dark matter remains unknown. Beyond the paradigmatic WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), many theoretically well motivated models exist where dark matter interacts much more weakly than electroweak with Standard Model particles. In this case new phenomena occur, like the decay of dark matter or the interference with the standard cosmology of the early Universe. In this thesis we study some of these aspects of superweakly coupled dark matter in general, and in the special case of hidden U(1) X gauginos that kinetically mix with hypercharge. There, we will assume that the gauge group remains unbroken, similar to the Standard Model U(1) em . We study different kinds of cosmological bounds, including bounds from thermal overproduction, from primordial nucleosynthesis and from structure formation. Furthermore, we study the possible cosmic-ray signatures predicted by this scenario, with emphasis on the electron and positron channel in light of the recent observations by PAMELA and Fermi LAT. Moreover we study the cosmic-ray signatures of decaying dark matter independently of concrete particle-physics models. In particular we analyze in how far the rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV, as observed by PAMELA, can be explained by dark matter decay. Lastly, we concentrate on related predictions for gamma-ray observations with the Fermi LAT, and propose to use the dipole-like anisotropy of the prompt gamma-ray dark matter signal to distinguish exotic dark matter contributions from the extragalactic gamma-ray background. (orig.)

  8. Numerical fatigue 3D-FE modeling of indirect composite-restored posterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausiello, Pietro; Franciosa, Pasquale; Martorelli, Massimo; Watts, David C

    2011-05-01

    In restored teeth, stresses at the tooth-restoration interface during masticatory processes may fracture the teeth or the restoration and cracks may grow and propagate. The aim was to apply numerical methodologies to simulate the behavior of a restored tooth and to evaluate fatigue lifetimes before crack failure. Using a CAD-FEM procedure and fatigue mechanic laws, the fatigue damage of a restored molar was numerically estimated. Tessellated surfaces of enamel and dentin were extracted by applying segmentation and classification algorithms, to sets of 2D image data. A user-friendly GUI, which enables selection and visualization of 3D tessellated surfaces, was developed in a MatLab(®) environment. The tooth-boundary surfaces of enamel and dentin were then created by sweeping operations through cross-sections. A class II MOD cavity preparation was then added into the 3D model and tetrahedral mesh elements were generated. Fatigue simulation was performed by combining a preliminary static FEA simulation with classical fatigue mechanical laws. Regions with the shortest fatigue-life were located around the fillets of the class II MOD cavity, where the static stress was highest. The described method can be successfully adopted to generate detailed 3D-FE models of molar teeth, with different cavities and restorative materials. This method could be quickly implemented for other dental or biomechanical applications. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical Modeling of a Precise Dual Axis Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Augustinavičius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of a precise dual axis flexure-based positioning system for micro-positioning uses. The positioning system is featured with monolithic architecture, flexure-based joints and ultra fine adjustment screws. Its workspace has been evaluated via analytical approaches. Reduction mechanism is optimally designed. The mathematical model of the positioning system has been derived and verified by resorting to finite element analysis (FEA. The established analytical and (FEA models are helpful for reliable architecture optimization and performance improvement in the positioning system.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Modelling a Compliant-Based Precise Positioning Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Augustinavičius

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents modelling precise dual axis flexure-based precision positioning systems for micro-positioning applications. The positioning system is featured with monolithic architecture, flexure-based joints and piezo stacks. Its workspace has been evaluated via analytical approaches. Amplification mechanism is optimally designed. The mathematical model of the positioning system has been derived and verified by resorting to finite element analysis (FEA. The established analytical and (FEA models are helpful for optimizing reliable architecture and improving the performance of the positioning system.

  11. Modelling a Compliant-Based Precise Positioning Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Augustinavičius

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents modelling precise dual axis flexure-based precision positioning systems for micro-positioning applications. The positioning system is featured with monolithic architecture, flexure-based joints and piezo stacks. Its workspace has been evaluated via analytical approaches. Amplification mechanism is optimally designed. The mathematical model of the positioning system has been derived and verified by resorting to finite element analysis (FEA. The established analytical and (FEA models are helpful for optimizing reliable architecture and improving the performance of the positioning system.

  12. Exploring the cooperative regimes in an agent-based model: indirect reciprocity vs. selfish incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, H.

    2003-08-01

    The self-organization in cooperative regimes in a simple mean-field version of a model based on “selfish” agents which play the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game is studied. The agents have no memory and use strategies not based on direct reciprocity nor “tags”. Two variables are assigned to each agent k at time t, measuring its capital C( k; t) and its probability of cooperation p( k; t). At each time step t a pair of agents interact by playing the PD game. These two agents update their probability of cooperation p( k; t) as follows: they compare the profits they made in this interaction δC( k; t) with an estimator ε( k; t) and, if δC( k; t)⩾ ε( k; t), agent i increases its p( k; t) while if δC( k; t)punishment)-are analyzed. It turns out that for all these 24 possibilities, after a transient, the system self-organizes into a stationary state with average equilibrium probability of cooperation p¯∞= constant>0 . Depending on the payoff matrix, there are different equilibrium states characterized by their average probability of cooperation and average equilibrium per capita income ( p¯∞, δC¯∞) .

  13. Modelling and experimental validation of thin layer indirect solar drying of mango slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissa, A.O.; Bathiebo, J.; Kam, S.; Koulidiati, J. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l' Environnement (LPCE), Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences Exactes et Appliquee (UFR/SEA), Universite de Ouagadougou, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, BP 7021 Kadiogo (Burkina Faso); Savadogo, P.W. [Laboratoire Sol Eau Plante, Institut de l' Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 01 BP 476, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso); Desmorieux, H. [Laboratoire d' Automatisme et de Genie des Procedes (LAGEP), UCBL1-CNRS UMR 5007-CPE Lyon, Bat.308G, 43 bd du 11 Nov. 1918 Villeurbanne, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France)

    2009-04-15

    The thin layer solar drying of mango slices of 8 mm thick was simulated and experimented using a solar dryer designed and constructed in laboratory. Under meteorological conditions of harvest period of mangoes, the results showed that 3 'typical days' of drying were necessary to reach the range of preservation water contents. During these 3 days of solar drying, 50%, 40% and 5% of unbound water were eliminated, respectively, at the first, second and the third day. The final water content obtained was about 16 {+-} 1.33% d.b. (13.79% w.b.). This final water content and the corresponding water activity (0.6 {+-} 0.02) were in accordance with previous work. The drying rates with correction for shrinkage and the critical water content were experimentally determined. The critical water content was close to 70% of the initial water content and the drying rates were reduced almost at 6% of their maximum value at night. The thin layer drying model made it possible to simulate suitably the solar drying kinetics of mango slices with a correlation coefficient of r{sup 2} = 0.990. This study thus contributed to the setting of solar drying time of mango and to the establishment of solar drying rates' curves of this fruit. (author)

  14. The dynamic and indirect spatial effects of neighborhood conditions on land value, spatial panel dynamic econometrics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Rahma; Sumarminingsih, Eni; Astutik, Suci

    2017-05-01

    Land value is the product of past decision of its use leading to its value, as well as the value of the surrounded land. It is also affected by the local characteristic and the spillover development demand of the previous time period. The effect of each factor on land value will have dynamic and spatial virtues. Thus, a spatial panel dynamic model is used to estimate the particular effects. The model will be useful for predicting the future land value or the effect of implemented policy on land value. The objective of this paper is to derive the dynamic and indirect spatial marginal effects of the land characteristic and the spillover development demand on land value. Each effect is the partial derivative of the expected land value based on the spatial dynamic model with respect to each variable, by considering different time period and different location. The results indicate that the instant change of local or neighborhood characteristics on land value affect the local and the immediate neighborhood land value. However, the longer the change take place, the effect will spread further, not only on the immediate neighborhood.

  15. Spatially explicit integrated modeling and economic valuation of climate driven land use change and its indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Ian; Agarwala, Matthew; Binner, Amy; Coombes, Emma; Day, Brett; Ferrini, Silvia; Fezzi, Carlo; Hutchins, Michael; Lovett, Andrew; Posen, Paulette

    2016-10-01

    We present an integrated model of the direct consequences of climate change on land use, and the indirect effects of induced land use change upon the natural environment. The model predicts climate-driven shifts in the profitability of alternative uses of agricultural land. Both the direct impact of climate change and the induced shift in land use patterns will cause secondary effects on the water environment, for which agriculture is the major source of diffuse pollution. We model the impact of changes in such pollution on riverine ecosystems showing that these will be spatially heterogeneous. Moreover, we consider further knock-on effects upon the recreational benefits derived from water environments, which we assess using revealed preference methods. This analysis permits a multi-layered examination of the economic consequences of climate change, assessing the sequence of impacts from climate change through farm gross margins, land use, water quality and recreation, both at the individual and catchment scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British household panel: Tests of the social causation, health selection and the indirect selection hypothesis using dynamic fixed effects panel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-02-01

    Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel regression models following the method suggested by Anderson and Hsiao. We propose using this method to estimate the associations over time since it allows one to control for all unobserved time-invariant factors and hence lower the chances of biased estimates due to unobserved heterogeneity. The results showed no proof of the social causation hypothesis over a one to five year period and limited support for the health selection hypothesis was seen only for men in relation to HH income. These findings were robust in multiple sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the indirect selection hypothesis may be the most important in explaining social inequality in health in adulthood, indicating that the well-known cross-sectional correlations between health and SEP in adulthood seem not to be driven by a causal relationship, but instead by dynamics and influences in place before the respondents turn 30 years old that affect both their health and SEP onwards. The conclusion is limited in that we do not consider the effect of specific diseases and causal relationships in adulthood may be

  17. A putative model of overeating and obesity based on brain-derived neurotrophic factor: direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cara L; Kennedy, James L; Levitan, Robert D

    2012-08-01

    Increased food intake is a major contributor to the obesity epidemic in all age groups. Elucidating brain systems that drive overeating and that might serve as targets for novel prevention and treatment interventions is thus a high priority for obesity research. The authors consider 2 major pathways by which decreased activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may confer vulnerability to overeating and weight gain in an obesogenic environment. The first "direct" pathway focuses on the specific role of BDNF as a mediator of food intake control at brain areas rich in BDNF receptors, including the hypothalamus and hindbrain. It is proposed that low BDNF activity limited to this direct pathway may best explain overeating and obesity outside the context of major neuropsychiatric disturbance. A second "indirect" pathway considers the broad neurotrophic effects of BDNF on key monoamine systems that mediate mood dysregulation, impulsivity, and executive dysfunction as well as feeding behavior per se. Disruption in this pathway may best explain overeating and obesity in the context of various neuropsychiatric disturbances including mood disorders, attention-deficit disorder, and/or binge eating disorders. An integrative model that considers these potential roles of BDNF in promoting obesity is presented. The implications of this model for the early prevention and treatment of obesity are also considered.

  18. Direct and indirect effects of irrigated crop on local and regional climate over Northeast Asia with regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S. G.; Suh, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated crop is a typical land use and land cover change (LULCC) induced by human activities. In this study, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of irrigated crop on local and regional climate over Northeast Asia according to the intensity of East Asia monsoon. To achieve this goals, two experiments were conducted using regional climate model version 4.0 (RegCM4.0) with Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme. All model configurations, such as lateral boundary conditions, cumulus parameterization and radiation scheme, etc., were the same except for land cover. The control experiment (CTRL) was performed with mixed wood where irrigated crop region in global land cover characteristics (GLCC). The sensitivity experiment (IRCP) was performed with irrigated crop induced by human activities. The simulation period was two years, 1997 and 1998, when East Asia monsoon system was relatively weaker and stronger, respectively. Three ensemble simulations for each experiment during two years were performed according to spin-up periods (4, 8 and 12 months). Generally, the IRCP experiment shows cooling effect (-0.5 -1.0°C) in the daily maximum temperature during spring, summer, and autumn around irrigated crop regions (North China Plain and the western part of the Korean peninsula) compared to the CTRL experiment, but warming effect (+1.0 +2.0°C) in the daily minimum temperature during winter. These temperature changes are significantly caused by the direct effect of changed surface energy budget due to the changed surface properties (e.g., albedo, roughness length, soil moisture, etc.) induced by LULCC. The local climate elements (e.g., temp., pressure, winds, moist static energy, etc.) in lower atmosphere are significantly affected by these changes. In addition, the precipitation over the surrounding area was affected by the changes of atmospheric environments (e.g., wind field) through the indirect effects of LULCC. These effects of irrigated crop are more dominant

  19. A new challenge: Model of positive health and clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence; Milosev, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present a new model and approach in Health and Clinical practice – Applied Positive Psychology. Through discussion about the roots of Positive Psychology and interest in what is good about humans and their lives and in optimal human functioning we will try to introduce a new model of Positive Health and Clinical Psychology. From Aristotle’s treatises on eudemonia, through Aquinas’ writings about virtue during the Renaissance, to the inquires of modern psycholo...

  20. Bayesian Estimation of the Logistic Positive Exponent IRT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfarine, Heleno; Bazan, Jorge Luis

    2010-01-01

    A Bayesian inference approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is developed for the logistic positive exponent (LPE) model proposed by Samejima and for a new skewed Logistic Item Response Theory (IRT) model, named Reflection LPE model. Both models lead to asymmetric item characteristic curves (ICC) and can be appropriate because a symmetric…

  1. Modeling And Position Control Of Scara Type 3D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Saygamp305n Ogulmuamp351

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a scara robot type 3D printer system is dynamically modeled and position control of the system is realized. For this aim computer aided design model of three degrees of freedom robotic system is created using SolidWorks program then obtained model is exported to MATLABSimMechanics software for position control. Also mathematical model of servo motors used in robotic 3D printer system is included in control methodology to design proportional controllers. Uncontrolled and controlled position results are simulated and given in the form of the graphics.

  2. Plant trait-based models identify direct and indirect effects of climate change on bundles of grassland ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarque, Pénélope; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouchet, Maud; Quétier, Fabien

    2014-09-23

    Land use and climate change are primary causes of changes in the supply of ecosystem services (ESs). Although the consequences of climate change on ecosystem properties and associated services are well documented, the cascading impacts of climate change on ESs through changes in land use are largely overlooked. We present a trait-based framework based on an empirical model to elucidate how climate change affects tradeoffs among ESs. Using alternative scenarios for mountain grasslands, we predicted how direct effects of climate change on ecosystems and indirect effects through farmers' adaptations are likely to affect ES bundles through changes in plant functional properties. ES supply was overall more sensitive to climate than to induced management change, and ES bundles remained stable across scenarios. These responses largely reflected the restricted extent of management change in this constrained system, which was incorporated when scaling up plot level climate and management effects on ecosystem properties to the entire landscape. The trait-based approach revealed how the combination of common driving traits and common responses to changed fertility determined interactions and tradeoffs among ESs.

  3. Investigating the Linear Dependence of Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing on Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Global Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanju [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana IL USA; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Singh, Balwinder [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ma, Po-Lun [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bond, Tami C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana IL USA

    2018-02-02

    The linearity of dependence of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF) on emissions is essential to answer the policy-relevant question on how the change in forcing would result from a change in emission. In this study, the forcing-to-emission relationship is investigated for black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) emitted from North America and Asia. Direct and indirect radiative forcing of BC and OC are simulated with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5.1). Two diagnostics are introduced to aid in policy-relevant discussion: emission-normalized forcing (ENF) and linearity (R). DRF is linearly related to emission for both BC and OC from the two regions and emission-normalized DRF is similar, within 15%. IRF is linear to emissions for weaker sources and regions far from source (North American BC and OC), while for large emission sources and near source regions (Asian OC) the response of forcing to emission is sub-linear. In North America emission-normalized IRF (ENIRF) is 2-4 times higher than that in Asia. The difference among regions and species is primarily caused by failure of accumulation mode particles to become CCN, and then to activate into CDNC. Optimal aggregation area (30ºx 30º) has been used to communicate the regional variation of forcing-to-emission relationship. For IRF, only 15-40% of the Earth’s surface is significantly affected by the two emission regions, but the forcing in these regions comprises most of the global impact. Linearity of IRF occurs in about two-thirds of the significant regions except for Asian OC. ENF is an effective tool to estimate forcing changes due to reduction of surface emissions, as long as there is sufficient attention to the causes of nonlinearity in the simulations used to derive ENIRF (emission into polluted regions and emission elevation). The differences in ENIRF have important implications for policy decisions. Lower ENIRF in more polluted region like Asia means that reductions of

  4. Positive Adjustment Among American Repatriated Prisoners of the Vietnam War: Modeling the Long-Term Effects of Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A; Park, Crystal L; Lee, Lewina O; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; Moore, Jeffrey L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2015-11-01

    A longitudinal lifespan model of factors contributing to later-life positive adjustment was tested on 567 American repatriated prisoners from the Vietnam War. This model encompassed demographics at time of capture and attributes assessed after return to the U.S. (reports of torture and mental distress) and approximately 3 decades later (later-life stressors, perceived social support, positive appraisal of military experiences, and positive adjustment). Age and education at time of capture and physical torture were associated with repatriation mental distress, which directly predicted poorer adjustment 30 years later. Physical torture also had a salutary effect, enhancing later-life positive appraisals of military experiences. Later-life events were directly and indirectly (through concerns about retirement) associated with positive adjustment. Results suggest that the personal resources of older age and more education and early-life adverse experiences can have cascading effects over the lifespan to impact well-being in both positive and negative ways.

  5. Fourier-positivity constraints on QCD dipole models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand G. Giraud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-positivity (F-positivity, i.e. the mathematical property that a function has a positive Fourier transform, can be used as a constraint on the parametrization of QCD dipole-target cross-sections or Wilson line correlators in transverse position space r. They are Bessel transforms of positive transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions. Using mathematical F-positivity constraints on the limit r→0 behavior of the dipole amplitudes, we identify the common origin of the violation of F-positivity for various, however phenomenologically convenient, dipole models. It is due to the behavior r2+ϵ, ϵ>0 softer, even slightly, than color transparency. F-positivity seems thus to conflict with the present dipole formalism when it includes a QCD running coupling constant α(r.

  6. Aerosol indirect effect on the grid-scale clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ: model description, development, evaluation and regional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study implemented first, second and glaciations aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQ predicted aerosol distribu...

  7. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-02-15

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Construction of mathematical models the parachute jumper with change position acrobatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmianto, Asmianto; Hariyanto, Hariyanto; Herisman, Iis

    2018-03-01

    Construction of mathematical models the movement of a parachutist during the air using newton’s II law is ΣF = ma. Position parachutist after exiting the plane immediately unfurled his body so as to create a large air resistance. The presence of air drag resulting movement indirectly parachutist moves down vertically downwards but also shifting toward horizontal and form a parabolic trajectory. Parachutist speed getting down increased until eventually the parachutist reaches terminal velocity it’s the position where the air drag is equal to the gravitational force (gravity) jumpers. In this paper is assumed to be parachutist with 91.6 kg mass (including equipment) jumping from a plane at an altitude of 3.000 meters and reach a height of parachutist ± 1000 meters with velocity ± 57 m/s. So the parachutist have to be clever in taking account of everything, because if just a little too late can dangerous the safety of the parachutist.

  9. An effective model for fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in astronomy with the CELESTE Telescope; Modele effectif de matiere noire fermionique. Detection indirecte de matiere noir supersymetrique en astronomie avec le Telescope CELESTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavalle, Julien [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  10. Comparing Indirect Effects in Different Groups in Single-Group and Multi-Group Structural Equation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehri Ryu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we evaluated the performance of statistical methods in single-group and multi-group analysis approaches for testing group difference in indirect effects and for testing simple indirect effects in each group. We also investigated whether the performance of the methods in the single-group approach was affected when the assumption of equal variance was not satisfied. The assumption was critical for the performance of the two methods in the single-group analysis: the method using a product term for testing the group difference in a single path coefficient, and the Wald test for testing the group difference in the indirect effect. Bootstrap confidence intervals in the single-group approach and all methods in the multi-group approach were not affected by the violation of the assumption. We compared the performance of the methods and provided recommendations.

  11. Indirect Comorbidity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eCopeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between psychiatric disorders is common, but pairwise associations between two disorders may be explained by the presence of other diagnoses that are associated with both disorders or indirect comorbidity. Method: Comorbidities of common childhood psychiatric disorders were tested in three community samples of children ages 6 to 17 (8931 observations of 2965 subjects. Psychiatric disorder status in all three samples was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Indirect comorbidity was defined as A-B associations that decreased from significance to nonsignificance after adjusting for other disorders. Results: All tested childhood psychiatric disorders were positively associated in bivariate analyses. After adjusting for comorbidities, many ssociations involving a behavioral disorder and an emotional disorder were attenuated suggesting indirect comorbidity. Generalized anxiety and depressive disorders displayed a very high level of overlap (adjusted OR=37.9. All analyses were rerun with depressive disorders grouped with generalized anxiety disorder in a single distress disorders category. In these revised models, all associations between and emotional disorder and a behavior disorder met our criteria for indirect comorbidity except for the association of oppositional defiant disorder with distress disorders (OR=11.3. Follow-up analyses suggested that the indirect associations were primarily accounted for by oppositional defiant disorder and the distress disorder category. There was little evidence of either sex differences or differences by developmental period Conclusions: After accounting for the overlap between depressive disorders with generalized anxiety disorder, direct comorbidity between emotional and behavioral disorders was uncommon. When there was evidence of indirect comorbidity, ODD and distress disorders were the key intermediary diagnoses accounting for the apparent associations.

  12. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Mouse models of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakur Mohibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Despite advances in genetic and biochemical analyses, the incidence of breast cancer and its associated mortality remain very high. About 60 - 70% of breast cancers are Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α positive and are dependent on estrogen for growth. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs have therefore provided an effective targeted therapy to treat ER-α positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, development of resistance to endocrine therapy is frequent and leads to cancer recurrence. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the development of ER-α positive tumors and their resistance to ER antagonists is currently limited due to lack of experimental models of ER-α positive breast cancer. In most mouse models of breast cancer, the tumors that form are typically ER-negative and independent of estrogen for their growth. However, in recent years more attention has been given to develop mouse models that develop different subtypes of breast cancers, including ER-positive tumors. In this review, we discuss the currently available mouse models that develop ER-α positive mammary tumors and their potential use to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ER-α positive breast cancer development and endocrine resistance.

  14. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  15. Improved spring model-based collaborative indoor visible light positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhijie; Zhang, WeiNan; Zhou, GuoFu

    2016-06-01

    Gaining accuracy with indoor positioning of individuals is important as many location-based services rely on the user's current position to provide them with useful services. Many researchers have studied indoor positioning techniques based on WiFi and Bluetooth. However, they have disadvantages such as low accuracy or high cost. In this paper, we propose an indoor positioning system in which visible light radiated from light-emitting diodes is used to locate the position of receivers. Compared with existing methods using light-emitting diode light, we present a high-precision and simple implementation collaborative indoor visible light positioning system based on an improved spring model. We first estimate coordinate position information using the visible light positioning system, and then use the spring model to correct positioning errors. The system can be employed easily because it does not require additional sensors and the occlusion problem of visible light would be alleviated. We also describe simulation experiments, which confirm the feasibility of our proposed method.

  16. An effective model for fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in astronomy with the CELESTE Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle, Julien

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  17. Considering direct and indirect habitat influences on stream biota in eco-geomorphology research to better understand, model, and manage riverine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, P.; Nelson, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    The field of fluvial eco-geomorphology strives to improve the understanding of interactions between physical and biological processes in running waters. This body of research has greatly contributed to the advancement of integrated river science and management. Arguably, the most popular research themes in eco-geomorphology include hydrogemorphic controls of habitat quality and effects of disturbances such as floods, sediment transport events or sediment accumulation. However, in contrast to the related field of ecology, the distinction between direct and indirect mechanisms which may affect habitat quality and biotic response to disturbance has been poorly explored in eco-geomorphic research. This knowledge gap poses an important challenge for interpretations of field observations and model development. In this research, using the examples of benthic invertebrates and fish, we examine the importance of direct and indirect influences that geomorphic and hydraulic processes may exert on stream biota. We also investigate their implications for modeling of organism-habitat relationships. To achieve our goal, we integrate field and remote sensing data from montane streams in the Pacific Northwest region with habitat models. Preliminary results indicate that indirect hydrogeomorphic influences of stream organisms, such as those mediated by altered availability of food resources, can be as important as direct influences (e.g. physical disturbance). We suggest that these findings may also have important implications for modeling of riverine habitat.

  18. Modeling and Positioning of a PZT Precision Drive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Che; Guo, Yanling

    2017-11-08

    The fact that piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) precision drive systems in 3D printing are faced with nonlinear problems with respect to positioning, such as hysteresis and creep, has had an extremely negative impact on the precision of laser focusing systems. To eliminate the impact of PZT nonlinearity during precision drive movement, mathematical modeling and theoretical analyses of each module comprising the system were carried out in this study, a micro-displacement measurement circuit based on Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) is constructed, followed by the establishment of system closed-loop control and creep control models. An XL-80 laser interferometer (Renishaw, Wotton-under-Edge, UK) was used to measure the performance of the precision drive system, showing that system modeling and control algorithms were correct, with the requirements for precision positioning of the drive system satisfied.

  19. Modeling and Positioning of a PZT Precision Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The fact that piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT precision drive systems in 3D printing are faced with nonlinear problems with respect to positioning, such as hysteresis and creep, has had an extremely negative impact on the precision of laser focusing systems. To eliminate the impact of PZT nonlinearity during precision drive movement, mathematical modeling and theoretical analyses of each module comprising the system were carried out in this study, a micro-displacement measurement circuit based on Position Sensitive Detector (PSD is constructed, followed by the establishment of system closed-loop control and creep control models. An XL-80 laser interferometer (Renishaw, Wotton-under-Edge, UK was used to measure the performance of the precision drive system, showing that system modeling and control algorithms were correct, with the requirements for precision positioning of the drive system satisfied.

  20. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in premonopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer: indirect comparison of dose and schedule in DBCG trials 77, 82, and 89

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, B.; Mouridsen, H.T.; Jensen, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    A significant reduction in the risk of recurrence and death was achieved three decades ago with adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with operable breast. The major pivotal trials used oral cyclophosphamide (C) days 1-14 with intravenous methotrexate (M) and fluorouracil (F) on days 1 and 8, repeated...... every 28 days. The classical CMF has later been modified as concerns dose and schedule, without formal comparisons in randomised trials between the classical CMF and the modifications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Classical CMF was used in the first adjuvant chemotherapy trial performed by the Danish Breast...... Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), and two succeeding randomised trials in premenopausal patients with node positive breast cancer used three-weekly or four-weekly intravenous CMF in one of the treatment arms. RESULTS: Between November 1977 and January 2001 these trials included 2 213 patients who...

  1. Indirect application of near infrared light induces neuro-protection in a mouse model of parkinsonism - an abscopal neuro-protective effective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, D.M.; Spana, S.; Purushothuman, S.; Stone, J.; Mitrofanis, J.; Johnstone, D.M.; Spana, S.; Purushothuman, S.; Stone, J.; El Massri, N.; Mitrofanis, J.; Moro, C.; Torres, N.; Chabrol, C.; De Jaeger, X.; Reinhart, F.; Benabid, A.L.; Wang, X.S.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown near infrared light (NIr), directed transcranially, mitigates the loss of dopaminergic cells in MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-treated mice, a model of parkinsonism. These findings complement others suggesting NIr treatment protects against damage from various insults. However one puzzling feature of NIr treatment is that unilateral exposure can lead to a bilateral healing response, suggesting NIr may have 'indirect' protective effects. We investigated whether remote NIr treatment is neuro-protective by administering different MPTP doses (50-, 75-, 100-mg/kg) to mice and treating with 670-nm light directed specifically at either the head or body. Our results show that, despite no direct irradiation of the damaged tissue, remote NIr treatment produces a significant rescue of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta at the milder MPTP dose of 50-mg/kg (30% increase vs sham-treated MPTP mice, p≤ 0.05). However this protection did not appear as robust as that achieved by direct irradiation of the head (50% increase vs sham-treated MPTP mice, p ≤0.001). There was no quantifiable protective effect of NIr at higher MPTP doses, irrespective of the delivery mode. Astrocyte and microglia cell numbers in substantia nigra pars compacta were not influenced by either mode of NIr treatment. In summary, the findings suggest that treatment of a remote tissue with NIr is sufficient to induce protection of the brain, reminiscent of the 'abscopal effect' sometimes observed in radiation treatment of metastatic cancer. This discovery has implications for the clinical translation of light-based therapies, providing an improved mode of delivery over trans-cranial irradiation. (authors)

  2. A multiple relevance feedback strategy with positive and negative models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Ma

    Full Text Available A commonly used strategy to improve search accuracy is through feedback techniques. Most existing work on feedback relies on positive information, and has been extensively studied in information retrieval. However, when a query topic is difficult and the results from the first-pass retrieval are very poor, it is impossible to extract enough useful terms from a few positive documents. Therefore, the positive feedback strategy is incapable to improve retrieval in this situation. Contrarily, there is a relatively large number of negative documents in the top of the result list, and it has been confirmed that negative feedback strategy is an important and useful way for adapting this scenario by several recent studies. In this paper, we consider a scenario when the search results are so poor that there are at most three relevant documents in the top twenty documents. Then, we conduct a novel study of multiple strategies for relevance feedback using both positive and negative examples from the first-pass retrieval to improve retrieval accuracy for such difficult queries. Experimental results on these TREC collections show that the proposed language model based multiple model feedback method which is generally more effective than both the baseline method and the methods using only positive or negative model.

  3. A multiple relevance feedback strategy with positive and negative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunlong; Lin, Hongfei

    2014-01-01

    A commonly used strategy to improve search accuracy is through feedback techniques. Most existing work on feedback relies on positive information, and has been extensively studied in information retrieval. However, when a query topic is difficult and the results from the first-pass retrieval are very poor, it is impossible to extract enough useful terms from a few positive documents. Therefore, the positive feedback strategy is incapable to improve retrieval in this situation. Contrarily, there is a relatively large number of negative documents in the top of the result list, and it has been confirmed that negative feedback strategy is an important and useful way for adapting this scenario by several recent studies. In this paper, we consider a scenario when the search results are so poor that there are at most three relevant documents in the top twenty documents. Then, we conduct a novel study of multiple strategies for relevance feedback using both positive and negative examples from the first-pass retrieval to improve retrieval accuracy for such difficult queries. Experimental results on these TREC collections show that the proposed language model based multiple model feedback method which is generally more effective than both the baseline method and the methods using only positive or negative model.

  4. Medical weblogs: advocacy for positive cyber role models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselink, Manon J

    2011-12-01

    The development of empathy and of medical professionalism is important in medical education. Research has shown a decline in empathy during medical study. An important factor that may contribute to this decline is the lack of positive role models. Students identify positive and negative role models in the clinical ward and in classrooms. Positive clinical role models, showing good professionalism, will foster the student's professional growth. Students base both knowledge and opinions on information they find on the internet, such as 'medical weblogs'. These weblogs may be regarded as a new aspect of the 'informal curriculum', even though they might be written by 'negative role models'. In our experience, students frequently require debriefing of the undifferentiated, frequently disrespectful, grotesque or unprofessional approaches they encounter in general, and in this aspect online in particular. When written by appropriate professionals, medical weblogs can provide a unique opportunity for the medical student to follow the writings of positive role models. Would it be a worthwhile investment if globally distributed medical professionals from different specialties put time and effort into writing weblogs on their daily practice and reflections? These weblogs could be assembled on one international educational website, labelled as 'professionally approved' and made easily accessible. Medical students internationally would have access to the daily practice of medical professionals who are excellent positive role models. They could also be encouraged to discuss issues with them. We hypothesise that witnessing the encounters of these globally distributed doctors, and following their reflections, may add to the growth of empathy and professionalism in students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  5. The indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying: a mediation analysis using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Janssens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this longitudinal study the complex interplay between both job strain and bullying in relation to sickness absence was investigated. Following the “work environment hypothesis”, which establishes several work characteristics as antecedents of bullying, we assumed that job strain, conceptualized by the Job-Demand-Control model, has an indirect relation with long-term sickness absence through bullying. Methods The sample consisted of 2983 Belgian workers, aged 30 to 55 years, who participated in the Belstress III study. They completed a survey, including the Job Content Questionnaire and a bullying inventory, at baseline. Their sickness absence figures were registered during 1 year follow-up. Long-term sickness absence was defined as at least 15 consecutive days. A mediation analysis, using structural equation modeling, was performed to examine the indirect association of job strain through bullying with long-term sickness absence. The full structural model was adjusted for several possible confounders: age, gender, occupational group, educational level, company, smoking habits, alcohol use, body mass index, self-rated health, baseline long-term sickness absence and neuroticism. Results The results support the hypothesis: a significant indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying was observed, suggesting that bullying is an intermediate variable between job strain and long-term sickness absence. No evidence for the reversed pathway of an indirect association of bullying through job strain was found. Conclusions Bullying was observed as a mediating variable in the relation between job strain and sickness absence. The results suggest that exposure to job strain may create circumstances in which a worker risks to become a target of bullying. Our findings are generally in line with the work environment hypothesis, which emphasizes the importance of organizational work factors in the

  6. Using Conceptual Change Theories to Model Position Concepts in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Chiang; Hung, Jeng-Fung

    2012-01-01

    The roles of conceptual change and model building in science education are very important and have a profound and wide effect on teaching science. This study examines the change in children's position concepts after instruction, based on different conceptual change theories. Three classes were chosen and divided into three groups, including a…

  7. Particle based 3D modeling of positive streamer inception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Teunissen (Jannis)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this report we present a particle based 3D model for the study of streamer inception near positive electrodes in air. The particle code is of the PIC-MCC type and an electrode is included using the charge simulation method. An algorithm for the adaptive creation of super-particles is

  8. Development of an RTK-GPS positioning application with an improved position error model for smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinsang; Yun, Hongsik; Suh, Yongcheol; Cho, Jeongho; Lee, Dongha

    2012-09-25

    This study developed a smartphone application that provides wireless communication, NRTIP client, and RTK processing features, and which can simplify the Network RTK-GPS system while reducing the required cost. A determination method for an error model in Network RTK measurements was proposed, considering both random and autocorrelation errors, to accurately calculate the coordinates measured by the application using state estimation filters. The performance evaluation of the developed application showed that it could perform high-precision real-time positioning, within several centimeters of error range at a frequency of 20 Hz. A Kalman Filter was applied to the coordinates measured from the application, to evaluate the appropriateness of the determination method for an error model, as proposed in this study. The results were more accurate, compared with those of the existing error model, which only considered the random error.

  9. The logic of indirect speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  10. Positive Instruction in Music Studios: Introducing a New Model for Teaching Studio Music in Schools Based upon Positive Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patston, Tim; Waters, Lea

    This practice paper explores the intersection of school studio-music pedagogy and positive psychology in order to enhance students' learning and engagement. The paper has a practitioner focus and puts forward a new model of studio teaching, the Positive Instruction in Music Studios (PIMS) model that guides teachers through four key positive psychology processes that can be used in a music lesson: positive priming, strengths spotting, positive pause, and process praise. The model provides a new, positively oriented approach to studio-music pedagogy that can be integrated into specific methods-based programs to enhance student learning and engagement.

  11. Computational modeling of oligonucleotide positional densities for human promoter prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Vipin; Sung, Wing-Kin; Mittal, Ankush

    2005-01-01

    The gene promoter region controls transcriptional initiation of a gene, which is the most important step in gene regulation. In-silico detection of promoter region in genomic sequences has a number of applications in gene discovery and understanding gene expression regulation. However, computational prediction of eukaryotic poly-II promoters has remained a difficult task. This paper introduces a novel statistical technique for detecting promoter regions in long genomic sequences. A number of existing techniques analyze the occurrence frequencies of oligonucleotides in promoter sequences as compared to other genomic regions. In contrast, the present work studies the positional densities of oligonucleotides in promoter sequences. The analysis does not require any non-promoter sequence dataset or any model of the background oligonucleotide content of the genome. The statistical model learnt from a dataset of promoter sequences automatically recognizes a number of transcription factor binding sites simultaneously with their occurrence positions relative to the transcription start site. Based on this model, a continuous naïve Bayes classifier is developed for the detection of human promoters and transcription start sites in genomic sequences. The present study extends the scope of statistical models in general promoter modeling and prediction. Promoter sequence features learnt by the model correlate well with known biological facts. Results of human transcription start site prediction compare favorably with existing 2nd generation promoter prediction tools.

  12. Positive Orientation and the Five-Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miciuk Łukasz Roland

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between positive orientation (PO defined as a basic predisposition to perceive and evaluate positive aspects of life, the future and oneself and the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM. Hypotheses postulated positive correlations between PO and extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness; a negative correlation was predicted between PO and neuroticism. Two hundred Polish students completed the following measures: SES (Self-Esteem Scale, Rosenberg, SWLS (The Satisfaction with Life Scale; Diener, Emmons, Larson & Griffin, LOT-R (The Life Orientation Test - Revised; Scheier, Carver & Bridges and NEOFFI (NEO Five Factor Inventory, Costa & McCrae. The results confirmed correlations between PO and extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism; correlations with openness and agreeableness were not supported. According to canonical correlations, PO shows a clear affinity to the FFM.

  13. Positive Impacts of Modeling Instruction on Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2010-10-01

    Analysis of the impact of Modeling Instruction (MI) on the sources of self-efficacy for students in Introductory Physics 1 will be presented. We measured self-efficacy through a quantitative diagnostic (SOSESC) developed by Fencl and Scheel [1] to investigate the impact of instruction on the sources of self-efficacy in all introductory physics classes. We collected both pre- semester data and post-semester data, and evaluated the effect of the classroom by analyzing the shift (Post-Pre). At Florida International University, a Hispanic-serving institution, we find that traditional lecture classrooms negatively impact the self-efficacy of all students, while the MI courses had no impact for all students. Further, when disaggregating the data by gender and sources of self-efficacy, we find that Modeling Instruction positively impacted the Verbal Persuasion source of self-efficacy for women. This positive impact helps to explain high rates of retention for women in the MI classes.

  14. Indirection and computer security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  15. Modeling and Positioning of a PZT Precision Drive System

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Che; Guo, Yanling

    2017-01-01

    The fact that piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) precision drive systems in 3D printing are faced with nonlinear problems with respect to positioning, such as hysteresis and creep, has had an extremely negative impact on the precision of laser focusing systems. To eliminate the impact of PZT nonlinearity during precision drive movement, mathematical modeling and theoretical analyses of each module comprising the system were carried out in this study, a micro-displacement measurement circu...

  16. Experimental designs for a benign paroxysmal positional vertigo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Barreiro, Santiago; López-Fidalgo, Jesús

    2013-03-19

    The pathology of the Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is detected by a clinician through maneuvers consisting of a series of consecutive head turns that trigger the symptoms of vertigo in patient. A statistical model based on a new maneuver has been developed in order to calculate the volume of endolymph displaced after the maneuver. A simplification of the Navier-Stokes problem from the fluids theory has been used to construct the model. In addition, the same cubic splines that are commonly used in kinematic control of robots were used to obtain an appropriate description of the different maneuvers. Then experimental designs were computed to obtain an optimal estimate of the model. D-optimal and c-optimal designs of experiments have been calculated. These experiments consist of a series of specific head turns of duration Δt and angle α that should be performed by the clinician on the patient. The experimental designs obtained indicate the duration and angle of the maneuver to be performed as well as the corresponding proportion of replicates. Thus, in the D-optimal design for 100 experiments, the maneuver consisting of a positive 30° pitch from the upright position, followed by a positive 30° roll, both with a duration of one and a half seconds is repeated 47 times. Then the maneuver with 60° /6° pitch/roll during half a second is repeated 16 times and the maneuver 90° /90° pitch/roll during half a second is repeated 37 times. Other designs with significant differences are computed and compared. A biomechanical model was derived to provide a quantitative basis for the detection of BPPV. The robustness study for the D-optimal design, with respect to the choice of the nominal values of the parameters, shows high efficiencies for small variations and provides a guide to the researcher. Furthermore, c-optimal designs give valuable assistance to check how efficient the D-optimal design is for the estimation of each of the parameters. The experimental

  17. AC impedance electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.

    2004-01-01

    Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 ) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF 6 dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes (1). Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley (2). The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation (3). The resulting system of differential equations was solved

  18. Mechanical behavior of bulk direct composite versus block composite and lithium disilicate indirect Class II restorations by CAD-FEM modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausiello, Pietro; Ciaramella, Stefano; Fabianelli, Andrea; Gloria, Antonio; Martorelli, Massimo; Lanzotti, Antonio; Watts, David C

    2017-06-01

    To study the influence of resin based and lithium disilicate materials on the stress and strain distributions in adhesive class II mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) restorations using numerical finite element analysis (FEA). To investigate the materials combinations in the restored teeth during mastication and their ability to relieve stresses. One 3D model of a sound lower molar and three 3D class II MOD cavity models with 95° cavity-margin-angle shapes were modelled. Different material combinations were simulated: model A, with a 10μm thick resin bonding layer and a resin composite bulk filling material; model B, with a 70μm resin cement with an indirect CAD-CAM resin composite inlay; model C, with a 70μm thick resin cement with an indirect lithium disilicate machinable inlay. To simulate polymerization shrinkage effects in the adhesive layers and bulk fill composite, the thermal expansion approach was used. Shell elements were employed for representing the adhesive layers. 3D solid CTETRA elements with four grid points were employed for modelling the food bolus and tooth. Slide-type contact elements were used between the tooth surface and food. A vertical occlusal load of 600 N was applied, and nodal displacements on the bottom cutting surfaces were constrained in all directions. All the materials were assumed to be isotropic and elastic and a static linear analysis was performed. Displacements were different in models A, B and C. Polymerization shrinkage hardly affected model A and mastication only partially affected mechanical behavior. Shrinkage stress peaks were mainly located marginally along the enamel-restoration interface at occlusal and mesio-distal sites. However, at the internal dentinal walls, stress distributions were critical with the highest maximum stresses concentrated in the proximal boxes. In models B and C, shrinkage stress was only produced by the 70μm thick resin layer, but the magnitudes depended on the Young's modulus (E) of the inlay

  19. Position-sensitive transition edge sensor modeling and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammock, Christina E-mail: chammock@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Apodaca, Emmanuel; Bandler, Simon; Boyce, Kevin; Chervenak, Jay; Finkbeiner, Fred; Kelley, Richard; Lindeman, Mark; Porter, Scott; Saab, Tarek; Stahle, Caroline

    2004-03-11

    We report the latest design and experimental results for a Position-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST). The PoST is motivated by the desire to achieve a larger field-of-view without increasing the number of readout channels. A PoST consists of a one-dimensional array of X-ray absorbers connected on each end to a Transition Edge Sensor (TES). Position differentiation is achieved through a comparison of pulses between the two TESs and X-ray energy is inferred from a sum of the two signals. Optimizing such a device involves studying the available parameter space which includes device properties such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity as well as TES read-out circuitry parameters. We present results for different regimes of operation and the effects on energy resolution, throughput, and position differentiation. Results and implications from a non-linear model developed to study the saturation effects unique to PoSTs are also presented.

  20. Indirect lymphography with iotrolan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmeinwieser, K.J.; Allgayer, B.; Golder, W.; Wenzel-Hora, B.; Theiss, H.; Dorrler, W.

    1988-01-01

    Indirect lymphography with the new nonionic dimeric isoosmolal contrast medium iotrolan is a simple method for visualizing the initial lymphatics and the lymph collectors up to the first lymph node station. Without risks, primary and secondary lymphedema and lipedema can be differentiated by typical patterns of lymph vessels. Four types of primary lymphedema can be discerned. This was demonstrated in 29 patients. The clinical diagnosis had to be altered in six cases because of the results of indirect lymphography. There were no side effects. Compared with clinical examination, dye test, fluorescence microlymphangiography, and lymph scintigraphy, indirect lymphography seems to be superior in the differential diagnosis of lymphedema

  1. Finding Positive Feedback Loops in Environmental Models: A Mathematical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslami, R.; Razavi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamics of most earth and environmental systems are generally governed by interactions between several hydrological (e.g., soil moisture and precipitation), geological (e.g., and erosion), geochemical (e.g., nutrient loading), and atmospheric (e.g., temperature) processes which operate on a range of spatio-temporal scales. These interactions create numerous feedback mechanisms with complex behaviours, and their understanding and representation can vary depending on the scale in space and/or time at which the system is analyzed. One of the most crucial characteristics of such complex systems is the existence of positive feedback loops. The presence of positive feedbacks may increase complexity, accelerate change, or trigger multiple stable states in the underlying dynamical system. Furthermore, because of the inherent non-linearity, it is often very difficult to obtain a general idea of their complex dynamics. Feedback loops in environmental systems have been well recognized and qualitatively discussed. With a quantitative/mathematical view, in this presentation, we address the question of how the positive feedback loops can be identified/implemented in environmental models. We investigate the nature of different feedback mechanisms and dynamics of simple example case studies that underlie fundamental processes such as vegetation, precipitation and soil moisture. To do this, we apply the concept of "interaction graph" from mathematics which is built from the Jacobian matrix of the dynamical system. The Jacobian matrix contains information on how variations of one state variable depends on variations of other variables, and thus can be used to understand the dynamical possibilities of feedback mechanisms in the underlying system. Moreover, this study highlights that there are some situations where the existence of positive feedback loops can cause multiple stable states, and thereby regime shifts in environmental systems. Systems with multiple stable states are

  2. CAirTOX, An inter-media transfer model for assessing indirect exposures to hazardous air contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment is a quantitative evaluation of information on potential health hazards of environmental contaminants and the extent of human exposure to these contaminants. As applied to toxic chemical emissions to air, risk assessment involves four interrelated steps. These are (1) determination of source concentrations or emission characteristics, (2) exposure assessment, (3) toxicity assessment, and (4) risk characterization. These steps can be carried out with assistance from analytical models in order to estimate the potential risk associated with existing and future releases. CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making these types of calculations. CAirTOX follows an approach that has been incorporated into the CalTOX model, which was developed for the California Department of Toxic Substances Control, With CAirTOX, we can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The capacity to explicitly address uncertainty has been incorporated into the model in two ways. First, the spreadsheet form of the model makes it compatible with Monte-Carlo add-on programs that are available for uncertainty analysis. Second, all model inputs are specified in terms of an arithmetic mean and coefficient of variation so that uncertainty analyses can be carried out

  3. Study of aerosol direct and indirect effects and auto-conversion processes over the West African monsoon region using a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Zeinab; Shalaby, Ahmed; Steiner, Allison L.; Zakey, Ashraf S.; Gautam, Ritesh; Abdel Wahab, Mohamed M.

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the direct and indirect effects of natural and anthropogenic aerosols (e.g., black carbon and sulfate) over West and Central Africa during the West African monsoon (WAM) period (June-July-August). We investigate the impacts of aerosols on the amount of cloudiness, the influences on the precipitation efficiency of clouds, and the associated radiative forcing (direct and indirect). Our study includes the implementation of three new formulations of auto-conversion parameterization [namely, the Beheng (BH), Tripoli and Cotton (TC) and Liu and Daum (R6) schemes] in RegCM4.4.1, besides the default model's auto-conversion scheme (Kessler). Among the new schemes, BH reduces the precipitation wet bias by more than 50% over West Africa and achieves a bias reduction of around 25% over Central Africa. Results from detailed sensitivity experiments suggest a significant path forward in terms of addressing the long-standing issue of the characteristic wet bias in RegCM. In terms of aerosol-induced radiative forcing, the impact of the various schemes is found to vary considerably (ranging from -5 to -25 W m-2).

  4. Predicting bottlenose dolphin distribution along Liguria coast (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) through different modeling techniques and indirect predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, C; Fossa, F; Paoli, C; Bellingeri, M; Gnone, G; Vassallo, P

    2015-03-01

    Habitat modeling is an important tool to investigate the quality of the habitat for a species within a certain area, to predict species distribution and to understand the ecological processes behind it. Many species have been investigated by means of habitat modeling techniques mainly to address effective management and protection policies and cetaceans play an important role in this context. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) has been investigated with habitat modeling techniques since 1997. The objectives of this work were to predict the distribution of bottlenose dolphin in a coastal area through the use of static morphological features and to compare the prediction performances of three different modeling techniques: Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Generalized Additive Model (GAM) and Random Forest (RF). Four static variables were tested: depth, bottom slope, distance from 100 m bathymetric contour and distance from coast. RF revealed itself both the most accurate and the most precise modeling technique with very high distribution probabilities predicted in presence cells (90.4% of mean predicted probabilities) and with 66.7% of presence cells with a predicted probability comprised between 90% and 100%. The bottlenose distribution obtained with RF allowed the identification of specific areas with particularly high presence probability along the coastal zone; the recognition of these core areas may be the starting point to develop effective management practices to improve T. truncatus protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Default risk modeling with position-dependent killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2013-04-01

    Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.

  6. Indirect determination of material model parameters for single trabecula based on nanoindentation and three point bending test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zlámal, P.; Jiroušek, Ondřej; Kytýř, Daniel; Doktor, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2013), s. 157-171 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : elasto-visco-plastic-damage model * FEM * nanoindentation * trabecular bone Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics http://journal.it.cas.cz/index.php?stranka= contents

  7. Direct and indirect singlet scalar dark matter detection in the lepton-specific two-Higgs-doublet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucenna, M. S.; Profumo, S.

    2011-01-01

    A recent study of gamma-ray data from the Galactic center motivates the investigation of light (∼7-10 GeV) particle dark matter models featuring tau-lepton pairs as dominant annihilation final state. The lepton-specific two-Higgs-doublet model provides a natural framework where light, singlet scalar dark matter can pair-annihilate dominantly into tau leptons. We calculate the nucleon-dark matter cross section for singlet scalar dark matter within the lepton-specific two-Higgs-doublet model framework, and compare with recent results from direct detection experiments. We study how direct dark matter searches can be used to constrain the dark matter interpretation of gamma-ray observations, for different dominant annihilation final states. We show that models exist with the correct thermal relic abundance that could fit the claimed gamma-ray excess from the Galactic center region and have direct detection cross sections of the order of what is needed to interpret recent anomalous events reported by direct detection experiments.

  8. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect

  9. Study and modeling of energy performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar collector: Configuration suitable for an indirect solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, Mohamed El Amine; Amirat, Madjid; Bahria, Sofiane; Kurucz, Ildikó; Aouli, M’heni; Sellami, Rabah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The simulation results are in compliance with the experimental measurements indicated in the previous literature. • The accuracy of the numerical model is due to the presented energy analysis and also to the well-adopted correlations. • A comparative study between two solar photovoltaic/thermal air collectors was carried out. • The thermal efficiency of the analyzed hybrid collector increased by 30.85% compared to the basic configuration. • The air temperature supplied by a double-pass photovoltaic/thermal collector is very suitable for solar drying. - Abstract: In this paper, a configuration of photovoltaic-thermal hybrid solar collector embeddable in an indirect solar dryer system is studied. In the present structure of the solar photovoltaic/thermal air collector, the air goes through a double pass below and above the photovoltaic module. A system of electrical and thermal balance equations is developed and analyzed governing various electric and heat transfer parameters in the solar hybrid air collector. The numerical model planned for this study gives a good precision of results, which are close to the experimental ones (of previous literature), and makes it possible to have a good assessment of energy performance regarding the studied configuration (temperature, electric and thermal powers, electrical and thermal efficiencies, etc.). The numerical results show the energy effectiveness of this hybrid collector configuration and particularly its interesting use in an indirect solar dryer system that provides a more suitable air temperature for drying agricultural products. The values of the electrical, thermal and overall energy efficiencies reaches 10.5%, 70% and 90% respectively, with a mass flow rate of 0.0155 kg/s and weather data sample for the month of June in the Algiers site. The results presented in this study also reveal how important the effect of certain parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the hybrid

  10. Experimental Parametric Model for Indirect Adhesion Wear Measurement in the Dry Turning of UNS A97075 (Al-Zn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Trujillo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the study of the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut on the tool wear used in in the dry turning of cylindrical bars of the UNS A97075 (Al-Zn alloy, has been analyzed. In addition, a study of the physicochemical mechanisms of the secondary adhesion wear has been carried out. The behavior of this alloy, from the point of view of tool wear, has been compared to similar aeronautical aluminum alloys, such as the UNS A92024 (Al-Cu alloy and UNS A97050 (Al-Zn alloy. Furthermore, a first approach to the measurement of the 2D surface of the adhered material on the rake face of the tool has been conducted. Finally, a parametric model has been developed from the experimental results. This model allows predicting the intensity of the secondary adhesion wear as a function of the cutting parameters applied.

  11. Time-resolved flow reconstruction with indirect measurements using regression models and Kalman-filtered POD ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Romain; Chatellier, Ludovic; David, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    This article is devoted to the estimation of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) flow fields using a time-resolved point measurements of a voltage signal obtained by hot-film anemometry. A multiple linear regression model is first defined to map the TR-PIV flow fields onto the voltage signal. Due to the high temporal resolution of the signal acquired by the hot-film sensor, the estimates of the TR-PIV flow fields are obtained with a multiple linear regression method called orthonormalized partial least squares regression (OPLSR). Subsequently, this model is incorporated as the observation equation in an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) applied on a proper orthogonal decomposition reduced-order model to stabilize it while reducing the effects of the hot-film sensor noise. This method is assessed for the reconstruction of the flow around a NACA0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 1000 and an angle of attack of {20}°. Comparisons with multi-time delay-modified linear stochastic estimation show that both the OPLSR and EnKF combined with OPLSR are more accurate as they produce a much lower relative estimation error, and provide a faithful reconstruction of the time evolution of the velocity flow fields.

  12. An application of indirect model reference adaptive control to a low-power proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yee-Pien; Liu, Zhao-Wei; Wang, Fu-Cheng

    2008-05-01

    Nonlinearity and the time-varying dynamics of fuel cell systems make it complex to design a controller for improving output performance. This paper introduces an application of a model reference adaptive control to a low-power proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system, which consists of three main components: a fuel cell stack, an air pump to supply air, and a solenoid valve to adjust hydrogen flow. From the system perspective, the dynamic model of the PEM fuel cell stack can be expressed as a multivariable configuration of two inputs, hydrogen and air-flow rates, and two outputs, cell voltage and current. The corresponding transfer functions can be identified off-line to describe the linearized dynamics with a finite order at a certain operating point, and are written in a discrete-time auto-regressive moving-average model for on-line estimation of parameters. This provides a strategy of regulating the voltage and current of the fuel cell by adaptively adjusting the flow rates of air and hydrogen. Experiments show that the proposed adaptive controller is robust to the variation of fuel cell system dynamics and power request. Additionally, it helps decrease fuel consumption and relieves the DC/DC converter in regulating the fluctuating cell voltage.

  13. Positive dynamical systems in discrete time theory, models, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a systematic, rigorous and self-contained treatment of positive dynamical systems. A dynamical system is positive when all relevant variables of a systemare nonnegative in a natural way. This is in biology, demography or economics, where the levels of populations or prices of goods are positive. The principle also finds application in electrical engineering, physics and computer sciences.

  14. Modelling of Indirect Laser-induced Thin-film Ablation of Epoxy for Local Exposing of Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonts, Michael; Fischer, Kai; Schmitt, Stefan; Schares, Richard Ludwig

    Laser radiation is used as enabling technology for intrinsic joining of high-strength CFRP laminates and fiber-reinforced thermoplastic injection moulding compounds by exposure of surface-near carbon fibers. Short-pulsed NIR laser sources represent an acceptable compromise with respect to ablation performance, remote process capability by use of compact 3D scanner and the capability for closed-loop process control. However, using such a laser source means also minimizing heat-affected zones (HAZ). Based on literature research about laser ablation of thin metal films, heat flow at CFRP and thermo-mechanical behavior in FRP by pyrolysis, an analytical model was generated for thin-film ablation of cured epoxy resins at the surface of CFRP laminates by lift-off of resin chips. A comparison between simulation and experimental results confirms the capability of the model to predict the exposure area and the HAZ with deviations below 15%. Threshold fluences for the HAZ (>1 J/cm2) and the resin ablation (>3 J/cm2) have been confirmed.

  15. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parenting and Children's Goals on Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidgerken, Amanda D.; Hughes, Jan N.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Willson, Victor L.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a dual-mediation model of the relations among harsh parenting, hostile social information processing, and level of child aggression in a sample of 239 (150 male, 89 female) 2nd- to 4th-grade children. The theoretical model posited that harsh parenting has both direct and indirect effects on child level of aggression, with the…

  16. The efficient model to define a single light source position by use of high dynamic range image of 3D scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-yang; Zhdanov, Dmitry D.; Potemin, Igor S.; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Han

    2016-10-01

    One of the challenges of augmented reality is a seamless combination of objects of the real and virtual worlds, for example light sources. We suggest a measurement and computation models for reconstruction of light source position. The model is based on the dependence of luminance of the small size diffuse surface directly illuminated by point like source placed at a short distance from the observer or camera. The advantage of the computational model is the ability to eliminate the effects of indirect illumination. The paper presents a number of examples to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  17. Persuasion strategies and sexual solicitations and interactions in online sexual grooming of adolescents: Modeling direct and indirect pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Almendros, Carmen; Calvete, Esther; De Santisteban, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    Online sexual grooming and exploitation of adolescents is receiving increasing social attention. Drawing on a social influence framework, the aim of this study was to test a model of the direct and mediated relationships between an adult's use of persuasion strategies and online sexual grooming of early adolescents. The initial sample of the study consisted of 2731 early Spanish adolescents between 12 and 15 years old (50.6% female). Of these, 196 adolescents (7.17% of the total; 53% girls) were involved in online grooming (mean age = 14.93, SD = 0.90). Persuasion strategies by the adult through internet increased the probability of using deceit, bribery, and the minor's nonsexual involvement. In addition, deceit and bribery were associated with higher rates of sexual solicitation, which in turn increased abusive sexual interactions. Understanding strategies used by adults to groom minors contributes to the prevention of and intervention in this crucial societal problem. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct versus Indirect Explicit Methods of Enhancing EFL Students' English Grammatical Competence: A Concept Checking-Based Consciousness-Raising Tasks Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Trang Thi Doan; Nguyen, Huong Thu

    2013-01-01

    Two approaches to grammar instruction are often discussed in the ESL literature: direct explicit grammar instruction (DEGI) (deduction) and indirect explicit grammar instruction (IEGI) (induction). This study aims to explore the effects of indirect explicit grammar instruction on EFL learners' mastery of English tenses. Ninety-four…

  19. Educational Evaluators--A Model for Task Oriented Position Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, David; and others

    1970-01-01

    An outline of 44 evaluator tasks is discussed in terms of its usefulness in defining, evaluating, and improving the position of "educational evaluator ; in adapting the position to the needs of particular institutions; and in designing appropriate evaluator training programs. (JES)

  20. Positioning performance of the NTCM model driven by GPS Klobuchar model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammed Mainul; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens

    2018-03-01

    Users of the Global Positioning System (GPS) utilize the Ionospheric Correction Algorithm (ICA) also known as Klobuchar model for correcting ionospheric signal delay or range error. Recently, we developed an ionosphere correction algorithm called NTCM-Klobpar model for single frequency GNSS applications. The model is driven by a parameter computed from GPS Klobuchar model and consecutively can be used instead of the GPS Klobuchar model for ionospheric corrections. In the presented work we compare the positioning solutions obtained using NTCM-Klobpar with those using the Klobuchar model. Our investigation using worldwide ground GPS data from a quiet and a perturbed ionospheric and geomagnetic activity period of 17 days each shows that the 24-hour prediction performance of the NTCM-Klobpar is better than the GPS Klobuchar model in global average. The root mean squared deviation of the 3D position errors are found to be about 0.24 and 0.45 m less for the NTCM-Klobpar compared to the GPS Klobuchar model during quiet and perturbed condition, respectively. The presented algorithm has the potential to continuously improve the accuracy of GPS single frequency mass market devices with only little software modification.

  1. Simple model of the indirect compression of targets under conditions close to the national ignition facility at an energy of 1.5 MJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, V. B.; Vergunova, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of the analysis and interpretation of the reported experiments with the megajoule National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser on the compression of capsules in indirect-irradiation targets by means of the one-dimensional RADIAN program in the spherical geometry has been studied. The problem of the energy balance in a target and the determination of the laser energy that should be used in the spherical model of the target has been considered. The results of action of pulses differing in energy and time profile ("low-foot" and "high-foot" regimes) have been analyzed. The parameters of the compression of targets with a high-density carbon ablator have been obtained. The results of the simulations are in satisfactory agreement with the measurements and correspond to the range of the observed parameters. The set of compared results can be expanded, in particular, for a more detailed determination of the parameters of a target near the maximum compression of the capsule. The physical foundation of the possibility of using the one-dimensional description is the necessity of the closeness of the last stage of the compression of the capsule to a one-dimensional process. The one-dimensional simulation of the compression of the capsule can be useful in establishing the boundary behind which two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulation should be used.

  2. Cosmological models with positive scalar spatial curvature and Λ>0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de Leon, J.

    1987-12-01

    Some exact spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations with Λ>0 and positive three-curvature are given. They have reasonable physical properties and represent universes which do not undergo inflation but have a non-de Sitter behaviour for large times. This paper extends some previous results in the literature. Permanent address: Apartado 2816, Caracas 1010-A, Venezuela.

  3. Positive random fields for modeling material stiffness and compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasofer, Abraham Michael; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob

    1998-01-01

    Positive random fields with known marginal properties and known correlation function are not numerous in the literature. The most prominent example is the log\\-normal field for which the complete distribution is known and for which the reciprocal field is also lognormal. It is of interest to supp...

  4. Modeling, Simulation and Position Control of 3DOF Articulated Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the modeling, simulation and control of 3 degrees of freedom articulated robotic manipulator have been studied. First, we extracted kinematics and dynamics equations of the mentioned manipulator by using the Lagrange method. In order to validate the analytical model of the manipulator we compared the model simulated in the simulation environment of Matlab with the model was simulated with the SimMechanics toolbox. A sample path has been designed for analyzing the tracking subject. The system has been linearized with feedback linearization and then a PID controller was applied to track a reference trajectory. Finally, the control results have been compared with a nonlinear PID controller.

  5. The Position of Two ESL Varieties in Tridimensional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, John; Weber, Heidi

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the distinctions between the acquisition of a second language and of a foreign language. Proposes a tridimensional model for all varietal manifestations of foreign, second, and native language acquisition. Describes Singapore English and the English used by a group of Chinese-medium educated Singaporeans in terms of the model. (EKN)

  6. Dependence of stratocumulus-topped boundary-layer entrainment on cloud-water sedimentation: Impact on global aerosol indirect effect in GISS ModelE3 single column model and global simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Kelley, M.; Cheng, Y.; Fridlind, A. M.; Del Genio, A. D.; Bauer, S.

    2017-12-01

    Reduction in cloud-water sedimentation induced by increasing droplet concentrations has been shown in large-eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) to enhance boundary-layer entrainment, thereby reducing cloud liquid water path and offsetting the Twomey effect when the overlying air is sufficiently dry, which is typical. Among recent upgrades to ModelE3, the latest version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM), are a two-moment stratiform cloud microphysics treatment with prognostic precipitation and a moist turbulence scheme that includes an option in its entrainment closure of a simple parameterization for the effect of cloud-water sedimentation. Single column model (SCM) simulations are compared to LES results for a stratocumulus case study and show that invoking the sedimentation-entrainment parameterization option indeed reduces the dependence of cloud liquid water path on increasing aerosol concentrations. Impacts of variations of the SCM configuration and the sedimentation-entrainment parameterization will be explored. Its impact on global aerosol indirect forcing in the framework of idealized atmospheric GCM simulations will also be assessed.

  7. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  8. Direct and indirect effects of paliperidone extended-release tablets on negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Turkoz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Turkoz, Cynthia A Bossie, Bryan Dirks, Carla M CanusoOrtho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USAAbstract: Direct and indirect effects of the new psychotropic paliperidone extended-release (paliperidone ER tablets on negative symptom improvement in schizophrenia were investigated using path analysis. A post hoc analysis of pooled data from three 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone ER in patients experiencing acute exacerbation was conducted. Regression analysis explored relationships between baseline/study characteristics and negative symptoms. Change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS negative factor score at endpoint was the dependent variable; explanatory variables included demographic and clinical characteristics. Path analysis determined direct and indirect effects of treatment on negative symptom change. Indirect mediators of negative symptom change in the model included changes in positive symptoms, anxiety/depression symptoms and movement disorders. Path analysis indicated that up to 33% of negative symptom improvement was a direct treatment effect. Indirect effects on negative symptoms were mediated through changes in positive symptoms (51% and anxiety/depression symptoms (18%, whereas changes in movement disorders had a 2.1% inverse effect. Path analysis indicated that paliperidone ER has a direct effect on negative symptoms. Negative symptom improvement also was indirectly mediated via changes in positive and depressive symptoms.Keywords: antipsychotic, paliperidone ER, path analysis, psychotropic, schizophrenia

  9. Direct and indirect effects of giant kelp determine benthic community structure and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkema, Katie K; Reed, Daniel C; Schroeter, Stephen C

    2009-11-01

    Indirect facilitation can occur when a species positively affects another via the suppression of a shared competitor. In giant kelp forests, shade from the canopy of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, negatively affects understory algae, which compete with sessile invertebrates for space. This raises the possibility that giant kelp indirectly facilitates sessile invertebrates, via suppression of understory algae. We evaluated the effect of giant kelp on the relative abundance of algae and invertebrates by experimentally manipulating kelp abundance on large artificial reefs located off San Clemente, California, USA. The experiments revealed a negative effect of giant kelp on both light availability and understory algal abundance and a positive effect on the abundance of sessile invertebrates, which was consistent with an indirect effect mediated by shade from the kelp canopy. The importance of these processes to temporal variability in benthic community structure was evaluated at 16 locations on natural reefs off Santa Barbara, California, over an eight-year period. Interannual variability in the abundance of understory algae and in the abundance of sessile invertebrates was significantly and positively related to interannual variability in the abundance of giant kelp. Analysis of these observational data using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that the magnitude of the indirect effect of giant kelp on invertebrates was six times larger than the direct effect on invertebrates. Results suggest that the dynamics of this system are driven by variability in the abundance of a single structure-forming species that has indirect positive, as well as direct negative, effects on associated species.

  10. Oil shocks in New Keynesian models: Positive and normative implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jian

    Chapter 1 investigates optimal monetary policy response towards oil shocks in a New Keynesian model. We find that optimal policy, in general, becomes contractionary in response to an adverse oil shock. However, the optimal policy rule and the inflation-output trade-off depend on the specific structure of the model. The benchmark economy consists of a flexible-price energy sector and a sticky-price manufacturing sector where energy is used as an intermediate input. We show that optimal policy is to stabilize the sticky (core) price level. We then show that after incorporating a less oil-dependent sticky-price service sector, the model exhibits a trade-off in stabilizing prices and output gaps in the different sticky-price sectors. It predicts that central bank should not try to stabilize the core price level, and the economy will experience higher inflation and rising output gaps, even if central banks respond optimally. Chapter 2 addresses the observed volatility and persistence of real exchange rates and the terms of trade. It contributes to the literature with a quantitative study on the U.S. and Canada. A two-country New Keynesian model consisting of traded, non-traded, and oil production sectors is proposed to examine the time series properties of the real exchange rate, the terms of trade and the real oil price. We find that after incorporating several realistic features (namely oil price shocks, sector specific labor, non-traded goods, asymmetric pricing decisions of exporters and asymmetric consumer preferences over tradables), the benchmark model broadly matches the volatilities of the relative prices and some business cycle correlations. The model matches the data more closely after adding real demand shocks, suggesting their importance in explaining the relative price movements between the US and Canada. Chapter 3 explores several sources and transmission channels of international relative price movements. In particular, we elaborate on the role of

  11. Where is positional uncertainty a problem for species distribution modelling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimi, N.; Hamm, N.A.S.; Groen, T.A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Species data held in museum and herbaria, survey data and opportunistically observed data are a substantial information resource. A key challenge in using these data is the uncertainty about where an observation is located. This is important when the data are used for species distribution modelling

  12. Positive consequences of intrinsically rewarding work: A model to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to empirically test a theoretical model outlining the relationships between intrinsic rewards, intrinsic motivation, work engagement and intention to quit, in an attempt to empirically assess whether intrinsic rewards result in improved levels of motivation, engagement and retention. Using a sample of 587 ...

  13. Identifying, affirming, and building upon male strengths: the positive psychology/positive masculinity model of psychotherapy with boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselica, Mark S; Englar-Carlson, Matt

    2010-09-01

    The bulk of the extant literature on the psychology of boys, men and masculinity has been focused on the important challenges of: a) creating an awareness about the detrimental effects of constricted forms of masculinity on boys and men and their relationships with others; and b) developing remedial approaches to psychotherapy that are designed to help boys and men recover from dysfunctional masculinity. The purpose of this article is to expand this literature by introducing the positive psychology/positive masculinity (PPPM) framework, which emphasizes male strengths as the starting point for psychotherapy with boys and men. The central principles of the PPPM framework are described, and the application of the PPPM model with an adult man in psychotherapy is presented. The implications of the PPPM model for future practice and research pertaining to boys, men, and masculinity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Nonlinear Mathematical Modeling in Pneumatic Servo Position Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Valdiero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a new methodology for servo pneumatic actuators mathematical modeling and selection from the dynamic behavior study in engineering applications. The pneumatic actuator is very common in industrial application because it has the following advantages: its maintenance is easy and simple, with relatively low cost, self-cooling properties, good power density (power/dimension rate, fast acting with high accelerations, and installation flexibility. The proposed fifth-order nonlinear mathematical model represents the main characteristics of this nonlinear dynamic system, as servo valve dead zone, air flow-pressure relationship through valve orifice, air compressibility, and friction effects between contact surfaces in actuator seals. Simulation results show the dynamic performance for different pneumatic cylinders in order to see which features contribute to a better behavior of the system. The knowledge of this behavior allows an appropriate choice of pneumatic actuator, mainly contributing to the success of their precise control in several applications.

  15. Processes limiting the emergence of detectable aerosol indirect effects on tropical warm clouds in global aerosol-climate model and satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Peters

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We use data from simulations performed with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM to test the proposition that shipping emissions do not have a statistically significant effect on water clouds over tropical oceans on climate scales put forward in earlier satellite based work. We analyse a total of four sensitivity experiments, three of which employ global shipping emissions and one simulation which only employs shipping emissions in the mid-Atlantic Ocean. To ensure comparability to earlier results from observations, we sample the model data using a method previously applied to satellite data aimed at separating ‘clean’ from ‘polluted’ oceanic regions based on i the location of main shipping routes and ii wind direction at 10 m above sea level. The model simulations run with realistic present-day shipping emissions show changes in the lower tropospheric aerosol population attributable to shipping emissions across major shipping corridors over tropical oceans. However, we find the resulting effect on cloud properties to be non-distinguishable from natural gradients and variability, that is, gradients of cloud properties sampled across major shipping corridors over tropical oceans are very similar among those simulations. Our results therefore compare well to the earlier findings from satellite observations. Substantial changes of the aerosol population and cloud properties only occur when shipping emissions are increased 10-fold. We find that aerosol advection and rapid aerosol removal from the atmosphere play an important role in determining the non-significant response in i column integrated aerosol properties and ii cloud microphysical properties in the realistic simulations. Additionally, high variability and infrequent occurrence of simulated low-level clouds over tropical oceans in ECHAM5-HAM limit the development of aerosol indirect effects because i in-cloud production of sulphate from ship-emitted sulphuric species via

  16. An approximation of herd effect due to vaccinating children against seasonal influenza – a potential solution to the incorporation of indirect effects into static models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Indirect herd effect from vaccination of children offers potential for improving the effectiveness of influenza prevention in the remaining unvaccinated population. Static models used in cost-effectiveness analyses cannot dynamically capture herd effects. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to allow herd effect associated with vaccinating children against seasonal influenza to be incorporated into static models evaluating the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination. Methods Two previously published linear equations for approximation of herd effects in general were compared with the results of a structured literature review undertaken using PubMed searches to identify data on herd effects specific to influenza vaccination. A linear function was fitted to point estimates from the literature using the sum of squared residuals. Results The literature review identified 21 publications on 20 studies for inclusion. Six studies provided data on a mathematical relationship between effective vaccine coverage in subgroups and reduction of influenza infection in a larger unvaccinated population. These supported a linear relationship when effective vaccine coverage in a subgroup population was between 20% and 80%. Three studies evaluating herd effect at a community level, specifically induced by vaccinating children, provided point estimates for fitting linear equations. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the target population for vaccination (children) was slightly less conservative than a previously published equation for herd effects in general. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the non-target population was considerably less conservative than the previously published equation. Conclusions This method of approximating herd effect requires simple adjustments to the annual baseline risk of influenza in static models: (1) for the age group targeted by the childhood vaccination strategy (i.e. children); and (2

  17. Positivity in Lorentzian Barrett-Crane models of quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Cherrington, J [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Christensen, J Daniel [Department of Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-02-07

    The Barrett-Crane models of Lorentzian quantum gravity are a family of spin foam models based on the Lorentz group. We show that for various choices of edge and face amplitudes, including the Perez-Rovelli normalization, the amplitude for every triangulated closed 4-manifold is a non-negative real number. Roughly speaking, this means that if one sums over triangulations, there is no interference between the different triangulations. We prove non-negativity by transforming the model into a 'dual variables' formulation in which the amplitude for a given triangulation is expressed as an integral over three copies of hyperbolic space for each tetrahedron. Then we prove that, expressed in this way, the integrand is non-negative. In addition to implying that the amplitude is non-negative, the non-negativity of the integrand is highly significant from the point of view of numerical computations, as it allows statistical methods such as the Metropolis algorithm to be used for efficient computation of expectation values of observables.

  18. A Connection Model between the Positioning Mechanism and Ultrasonic Measurement System via a Web Browser to Assess Acoustic Target Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ken; Imaizumi, Tomohito; Abe, Koki; Takao, Yoshimi; Tamura, Shuko

    This paper details a network-controlled measurement system for use in fisheries engineering. The target strength (TS) of fish is important in order to convert acoustic integration values obtained during acoustic surveys into estimates of fish abundance. The target strength pattern is measured with the combination of the rotation system for the aspect of the sample and the echo data acquisition system using the underwater supersonic wave. The user interface of the network architecture is designed for collaborative use with researchers in other organizations. The flexible network architecture is based on the web direct-access model for the rotation mechanism. The user interface is available for monitoring and controlling via a web browser that is installed in any terminal PC (personal computer). Previously the combination of two applications was performed not by a web browser but by the exclusive interface program. So a connection model is proposed between two applications by indirect communication via the DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model) server and added in the web direct-access model. A prompt report system in the TS measurement system and a positioning and measurement system using an electric flatcar via a web browser are developed. By a secure network architecture, DCOM communications via both Intranet and LAN are successfully certificated.

  19. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  20. Indirect bipolar electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, Gabriel; Roche, Jérome; Gianessi, Eugenio; Bouffier, Laurent; Kuhn, Alexander

    2012-12-12

    Based on the principles of bipolar electrochemistry, localized pH gradients are generated at the surface of conducting particles in solution. This allows the toposelective deposition of inorganic and organic polymer layers via a pH-triggered precipitation mechanism. Due to the intrinsic symmetry breaking of the process, the concept can be used to generate in a straightforward way Janus particles, with one section consisting of deposits obtained from non-electroactive precursors. These indirect electrodeposits, such as SiO(2), TiO(2), or electrophoretic paints, can be further used as an immobilization matrix for other species like dyes or nanoparticles, thus opening promising perspectives for the synthesis of a variety of bifunctional objects with a controlled shape.

  1. Indirect bankruptcy costs and bankruptcy law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sautner, Z.; Vladimirov, V.

    2013-01-01

    We use a simple model to predict how creditor rights in bankruptcy a¤ect the accumulation and magnitude of indirect bankruptcy costs. We empirically identify these e¤ects by using two matched samples of bankrupt firms that provide us with variation in creditor rights. Consistent with our model, we

  2. Semi-analytical modelling of positive corona discharge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontiga, Francisco; Yanallah, Khelifa; Chen, Junhong

    2013-09-01

    Semianalytical approximate solutions of the spatial distribution of electric field and electron and ion densities have been obtained by solving Poisson's equations and the continuity equations for the charged species along the Laplacian field lines. The need to iterate for the correct value of space charge on the corona electrode has been eliminated by using the corona current distribution over the grounded plane derived by Deutsch, which predicts a cos m θ law similar to Warburg's law. Based on the results of the approximated model, a parametric study of the influence of gas pressure, the corona wire radius, and the inter-electrode wire-plate separation has been carried out. Also, the approximate solutions of the electron number density has been combined with a simplified plasma chemistry model in order to compute the ozone density generated by the corona discharge in the presence of a gas flow. This work was supported by the Consejeria de Innovacion, Ciencia y Empresa (Junta de Andalucia) and by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, Spain, within the European Regional Development Fund contracts FQM-4983 and FIS2011-25161.

  3. General equilibrium modelling of the direct and indirect economic impacts of water quality improvements in the Netherlands at national and river basin scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.; Hofkes, M.W.; Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this paper is to estimate the direct and indirect economic impacts of water quality policy scenarios in the Netherlands focusing on the reduction of emission levels of nutrients and a number of eco-toxicological substances. For this purpose, an Applied

  4. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces...

  5. A Context-Aware Model to Provide Positioning in Disaster Relief Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moreno

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the work performed during disaster relief efforts is highly dependent on the coordination of activities conducted by the first responders deployed in the affected area. Such coordination, in turn, depends on an appropriate management of geo-referenced information. Therefore, enabling first responders to count on positioning capabilities during these activities is vital to increase the effectiveness of the response process. The positioning methods used in this scenario must assume a lack of infrastructure-based communication and electrical energy, which usually characterizes affected areas. Although positioning systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS have been shown to be useful, we cannot assume that all devices deployed in the area (or most of them will have positioning capabilities by themselves. Typically, many first responders carry devices that are not capable of performing positioning on their own, but that require such a service. In order to help increase the positioning capability of first responders in disaster-affected areas, this paper presents a context-aware positioning model that allows mobile devices to estimate their position based on information gathered from their surroundings. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using simulations, and the obtained results show that mobile devices without positioning capabilities were able to use the model to estimate their position. Moreover, the accuracy of the positioning model has been shown to be suitable for conducting most first response activities.

  6. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

  7. Positioning graphical objects on computer screens: a three-phase model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Robert

    2011-02-01

    This experiment identifies and models phases during the positioning of graphical objects (called cursors in this article) on computer displays. The human computer-interaction community has traditionally used Fitts' law to model selection in graphical user interfaces, whereas human factors experiments have found the single-component Fitts' law inadequate to model positioning of real objects. Participants (N=145) repeatedly positioned variably sized square cursors within variably sized rectangular targets using computer mice. The times for the cursor to just touch the target, for the cursor to enter the target, and for participants to indicate positioning completion were observed. The positioning tolerances were varied from very precise and difficult to imprecise and easy. The time for the cursor to touch the target was proportional to the initial cursor-target distance. The time for the cursor to completely enter the target after touching was proportional to the logarithms of cursor size divided by target tolerances. The time for participants to indicate positioning after entering was inversely proportional to the tolerance. A three-phase model defined by regions--distant, proximate, and inside the target--was proposed and could model the positioning tasks. The three-phase model provides a framework for ergonomists to evaluate new positioning techniques and can explain their deficiencies. The model provides a means to analyze tasks and enhance interaction during positioning.

  8. A comparison between two indirect exponentiation methods and O.D.E. integration method for RAMS calculations based on homogeneous Markovian models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelet, E.; Djebabra, M.; Dutuit, Y.; Santos, J. dos

    1996-01-01

    Even if solving Markovian systems is usual for dependability engineers, the choice of an adequate method to compute these systems is an actual problem for them. The object of this technical note is to contribute to the practician's information by presenting a comparison between the performances of the two most frequently used computation methods: indirect exponentiation and O.D.E. integration approaches. The retained comparison criteria and desired accuracy, computer time and computer storage required are calculated separately, although the two former are often interconnected. The O.D.E. integration method appears to be a good choice in the context of this limited study, but the optimized indirect exponentiation methods are interesting for systems with one hundred or more states--because of their good control of accuracy

  9. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  10. Indirect genetic effects and kin recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. The tradi...

  11. Global indirect aerosol effects: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lohmann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.

  12. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  13. An indirect reduction technique for percutaneous fixation of calcaneus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Matthew; Vlasak, Richard; Sadasivan, Kalia

    2014-07-01

    We describe a positioning and indirect reduction method that allows for earlier fixation of some displaced calcaneus fractures. Minimally invasive surgery with this technique can provide good results in high-risk patients while minimizing soft-tissue complications.

  14. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  15. Positioning of aquatic animals based on time-of-arrival and random walk models using YAPS (Yet Another Positioning Solver)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Økland, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic positional telemetry offers vast opportunities to study in vivo behaviour of wild animals, but there is room for improvement in the data quality provided by current procedures for estimating positions. Here we present a novel positioning method called YAPS (Yet Another Positioning Solver...

  16. The effect of position sources on estimated eigenvalues in intensity modeled data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, A.J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Goseling, Jasper; Weber, Jos H.

    2010-01-01

    In biometrics, often models are used in which the data distributions are approximated with normal distributions. In particular, the eigenface method models facial data as a mixture of fixed-position intensity signals with a normal distribution. The model parameters, a mean value and a covariance

  17. Mitigating Errors in External Respiratory Surrogate-Based Models of Tumor Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Kathleen T.; McAvoy, Thomas J.; George, Rohini; Dieterich, Sonja; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of tumor site, measurement precision, tumor–surrogate correlation, training data selection, model design, and interpatient and interfraction variations on the accuracy of external marker-based models of tumor position. Methods and Materials: Cyberknife Synchrony system log files comprising synchronously acquired positions of external markers and the tumor from 167 treatment fractions were analyzed. The accuracy of Synchrony, ordinary-least-squares regression, and partial-least-squares regression models for predicting the tumor position from the external markers was evaluated. The quantity and timing of the data used to build the predictive model were varied. The effects of tumor–surrogate correlation and the precision in both the tumor and the external surrogate position measurements were explored by adding noise to the data. Results: The tumor position prediction errors increased during the duration of a fraction. Increasing the training data quantities did not always lead to more accurate models. Adding uncorrelated noise to the external marker-based inputs degraded the tumor–surrogate correlation models by 16% for partial-least-squares and 57% for ordinary-least-squares. External marker and tumor position measurement errors led to tumor position prediction changes 0.3–3.6 times the magnitude of the measurement errors, varying widely with model algorithm. The tumor position prediction errors were significantly associated with the patient index but not with the fraction index or tumor site. Partial-least-squares was as accurate as Synchrony and more accurate than ordinary-least-squares. Conclusions: The accuracy of surrogate-based inferential models of tumor position was affected by all the investigated factors, except for the tumor site and fraction index.

  18. Selective loss of bi-directional synaptic plasticity in the direct and indirect striatal output pathways accompanies generation of parkinsonism and l-DOPA induced dyskinesia in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Sherri L; Chen, Betty; Lo, Charlotte; Gertler, Tracey S; Warre, Ruth; Surmeier, James D; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Nash, Joanne E

    2014-11-01

    Parkinsonian symptoms arise due to over-activity of the indirect striatal output pathway, and under-activity of the direct striatal output pathway. l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) is caused when the opposite circuitry problems are established, with the indirect pathway becoming underactive, and the direct pathway becoming over-active. Here, we define synaptic plasticity abnormalities in these pathways associated with parkinsonism, symptomatic benefits of l-DOPA, and LID. We applied spike-timing dependent plasticity protocols to cortico-striatal synapses in slices from 6-OHDA-lesioned mouse models of parkinsonism and LID, generated in BAC transgenic mice with eGFP targeting the direct or indirect output pathways, with and without l-DOPA present. In naïve mice, bidirectional synaptic plasticity, i.e. LTP and LTD, was induced, resulting in an EPSP amplitude change of approximately 50% in each direction in both striatal output pathways, as shown previously. In parkinsonism and dyskinesia, both pathways exhibited unidirectional plasticity, irrespective of stimulation paradigm. In parkinsonian animals, the indirect pathway only exhibited LTP (LTP protocol: 143.5±14.6%; LTD protocol 177.7±22.3% of baseline), whereas the direct pathway only showed LTD (LTP protocol: 74.3±4.0% and LTD protocol: 63.3±8.7%). A symptomatic dose of l-DOPA restored bidirectional plasticity on both pathways to levels comparable to naïve animals (Indirect pathway: LTP protocol: 124.4±22.0% and LTD protocol: 52.1±18.5% of baseline. Direct pathway: LTP protocol: 140.7±7.3% and LTD protocol: 58.4±6.0% of baseline). In dyskinesia, in the presence of l-DOPA, the indirect pathway exhibited only LTD (LTP protocol: 68.9±21.3% and LTD protocol 52.0±14.2% of baseline), whereas in the direct pathway, only LTP could be induced (LTP protocol: 156.6±13.2% and LTD protocol 166.7±15.8% of baseline). We conclude that normal motor control requires bidirectional plasticity of both striatal outputs

  19. Supersymmetric dark matter: Indirect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter detection experiments are improving to the point where they can detect or restrict the primary particle physics candidates for non baryonic dark matter. The methods for detection are usually categorized as direct, i.e., searching for signals caused by passage of dark matter particles in terrestrial detectors, or indirect. Indirect detection methods include searching for antimatter and gamma rays, in particular gamma ray lines, in cosmic rays and high-energy neutrinos from the centre of the Earth or Sun caused by accretion and annihilation of dark matter particles. A review is given of recent progress in indirect detection, both on the theoretical and experimental side

  20. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  1. Look Again: An Investigation of False Positive Detections in Combat Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wainwright, Ryan K

    2008-01-01

    .... Existing combat models tend to overlook or downplay false positive detections. Signal Detection Theory provides the framework for analysis of an observer's hits, misses, correct rejections, and false alarms...

  2. Positive Almost Periodic Solutions for a Time-Varying Fishing Model with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a time-varying fishing model with delay. By means of the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we prove that it has at least one positive almost periodic solution.

  3. Estimating the relative position of risperidone primary binding site in Sera Albumins. Modeling from spectrofluorimetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Celia Martins; Fragoso, Viviane Muniz S.; Silva, Dilson

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we used a mathematical model to study the interaction of risperidone with human and bovine serum albumins estimating the relative position of the primary binding site, based on the fluorescence quenching theory. Results have shown that the model was able to demonstrate that primary binding site for risperidone in HSA and BSA is very close to the position where is tryptophan 134 of BSA, possibly in domain 1B.

  4. The propagation of inventory-based positional errors into statistical landslide susceptibility models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Glade, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    There is unanimous agreement that a precise spatial representation of past landslide occurrences is a prerequisite to produce high quality statistical landslide susceptibility models. Even though perfectly accurate landslide inventories rarely exist, investigations of how landslide inventory-based errors propagate into subsequent statistical landslide susceptibility models are scarce. The main objective of this research was to systematically examine whether and how inventory-based positional inaccuracies of different magnitudes influence modelled relationships, validation results, variable importance and the visual appearance of landslide susceptibility maps. The study was conducted for a landslide-prone site located in the districts of Amstetten and Waidhofen an der Ybbs, eastern Austria, where an earth-slide point inventory was available. The methodological approach comprised an artificial introduction of inventory-based positional errors into the present landslide data set and an in-depth evaluation of subsequent modelling results. Positional errors were introduced by artificially changing the original landslide position by a mean distance of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 120 m. The resulting differently precise response variables were separately used to train logistic regression models. Odds ratios of predictor variables provided insights into modelled relationships. Cross-validation and spatial cross-validation enabled an assessment of predictive performances and permutation-based variable importance. All analyses were additionally carried out with synthetically generated data sets to further verify the findings under rather controlled conditions. The results revealed that an increasing positional inventory-based error was generally related to increasing distortions of modelling and validation results. However, the findings also highlighted that interdependencies between inventory-based spatial inaccuracies and statistical landslide susceptibility models are complex. The

  5. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  6. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces the multi-element isotope data observed in previous experimental studies. Furthermore, it precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways as well as their range of variation consistent with observed bulk isotope fractionation. It was also possible to directly validate the model capability to predict the evolution of position-specific isotope ratios with available experimental data. Therefore, the approach is useful both for a mechanism-based evaluation of experimental results and as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. - Highlights: • Mechanism-based, position-specific isotope modeling of micropollutants degradation. • Simultaneous description of concentration and primary and secondary isotope effects. • Key features of the model are demonstrated with three illustrative examples. • Model as a tool to explore reaction mechanisms and to design experiments. - We propose a modeling approach incorporating mechanistic information and

  7. Environmental implications of the use of agro-industrial residues for biorefineries: application of a deterministic model for indirect land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    .1 t CO2-eq.ha-1demanded y-1 corresponding to 1.2-1.5 t CO2 t-1 dry biomass used for energy. Only bioenergy from straw and wild grass was shown to perform better than the alternative use, as no competition with the feed sector was involved. Biogas for heat-and-power production was the best performing......Biorefining agro-industrial biomass residues for bioenergy production represents an opportunity for both sustainable energy supply and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation. Yet, is bioenergy the most sustainable use for these residues? To assess the importance of the alternative use...... of these residues, a consequential life-cycle assessment (LCA) of 32 energy-focused biorefinery scenarios was performed based on eight selected agro-industrial residues and four conversion pathways (two involving bioethanol and two biogas). To specifically address indirect land-use changes (iLUC) induced...

  8. Environmental implications of the use of agro-industrial residues for biorefineries: application of a deterministic model for indirect land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    of these residues, a consequential life-cycle assessment (LCA) of 32 energy-focused biorefinery scenarios was performed based on eight selected agro-industrial residues and four conversion pathways (two involving bioethanol and two biogas). To specifically address indirect land-use changes (iLUC) induced.......1 t CO2-eq.ha-1demanded y-1 corresponding to 1.2-1.5 t CO2 t-1 dry biomass used for energy. Only bioenergy from straw and wild grass was shown to perform better than the alternative use, as no competition with the feed sector was involved. Biogas for heat-and-power production was the best performing...... pathway, in a short-term context. Focusing on transport fuels, bioethanol was generally preferable to biomethane considering conventional biogas upgrading technologies. Based on the results, agro-industrial residues cannot be considered burden-free simply because they are a residual biomass and careful...

  9. Modeling and Control for Dynamic Positioned Marine Vessels in Drifting Managed Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kåre Kjerstad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a development framework for dynamic positioning control systems for marine vessels in managed ice. Due to the complexity of the vessel-ice and ice-ice interactions a configurable high fidelity numerical model simulating the vessel, the ice floes, the water, and the boundaries is applied. The numerical model is validated using experimental data and coupled with a control application incorporating sensor models, control systems, actuator models, and other external dynamics to form a closed loop development platform. The ice drift reversal is simulated by moving the positioning reference frame in an elliptic trajectory, rather than moving each individual ice floe. A control plant model is argued, and a control system for managed ice is proposed based on conventional open water design methods. A case study shows that dynamic positioning in managed ice is feasible for some moderate ice conditions.

  10. A 3D benign paroxysmal positional vertigo model for study of otolith disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Teixido

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a three-dimensional study tool of the membranous labyrinth in order to study the pathophysiology, diagnostic workup and treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. BPPV is the most common cause of peripheral vertigo. Its diagnosis and treatment depend on an understanding of the anatomy of the vestibular labyrinth and its position relative to the head. To date, many illustrations have been made to explain principals of diagnosis and treatment of BPPV, but few have been based on anatomical studies of the membranous labyrinth. Methods: A cadaveric human membranous labyrinth was axially sectioned at 20 μm resolution, stained and segmented to create a high-resolution digital model. The model was cloned to create an enantiomeric pair of labyrinths. These were associated a 3D model of a human skull, segmented from MRI data, and were oriented according to established anatomic norms. Canal markers representing otoliths were created to mark canalith position during movement of the model within the 3D environment. Results: The model allows visualization of true membranous labyrinth anatomy in both ears simultaneously. The dependent portion of each semicircular duct and of the utricle can easily be visualized in any head position. Moveable markers can mark the expected progress of otolith debris with changes in head position and images can be captured to document simulations. The model can be used to simulate pathology as well as diagnostic maneuvers and treatment procedures used for BPPV. The model has great potential as a teaching tool. Conclusion: A simple model based on human anatomy has been created to allow careful study of BPPV pathophysiology and treatment. Going forward, this tool could offer insights that may lead to more accurate diagnosis and treatment of BPPV. Keywords: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Modeling, Anatomy, Histology, Model, 3D

  11. Research on the Collinear Equation Model of Visual Positioning Based on Visible Light Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A positioning method based on visible light communication is proposed, which receiving visible light information by low-resolution photodiode array and receiving visual information by the front camera of mobile phone. The terminal position is determined by matching spot information provided by photodiode array with visual information and position information provided by visible light communication. A collinear equation model is derived which based on mobile phone front camera. A hardware-in-loop simulation has been conducted to verify the collinear equation. The three-dimensional positioning error is on the level of decimeter. Moreover, the main factors which affect the positioning accuracy are analyzed in order to further improve the positioning accuracy.

  12. Optimal cycling time trial position models: aerodynamics versus power output and metabolic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelman, D M; Sterling, M; Hemida, H; Li, F-X

    2014-06-03

    The aerodynamic drag of a cyclist in time trial (TT) position is strongly influenced by the torso angle. While decreasing the torso angle reduces the drag, it limits the physiological functioning of the cyclist. Therefore the aims of this study were to predict the optimal TT cycling position as function of the cycling speed and to determine at which speed the aerodynamic power losses start to dominate. Two models were developed to determine the optimal torso angle: a 'Metabolic Energy Model' and a 'Power Output Model'. The Metabolic Energy Model minimised the required cycling energy expenditure, while the Power Output Model maximised the cyclists׳ power output. The input parameters were experimentally collected from 19 TT cyclists at different torso angle positions (0-24°). The results showed that for both models, the optimal torso angle depends strongly on the cycling speed, with decreasing torso angles at increasing speeds. The aerodynamic losses outweigh the power losses at cycling speeds above 46km/h. However, a fully horizontal torso is not optimal. For speeds below 30km/h, it is beneficial to ride in a more upright TT position. The two model outputs were not completely similar, due to the different model approaches. The Metabolic Energy Model could be applied for endurance events, while the Power Output Model is more suitable in sprinting or in variable conditions (wind, undulating course, etc.). It is suggested that despite some limitations, the models give valuable information about improving the cycling performance by optimising the TT cycling position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation in the positive stable shared frailty Cox proportional hazards model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2005-01-01

    model in situations where the correlated survival data show a decreasing association with time. In this paper, we devise a likelihood based estimation procedure for the positive stable shared frailty Cox model, which is expected to obtain high efficiency. The proposed estimator is provided with large...

  14. Framing Negotiation: Dynamics of Epistemological and Positional Framing in Small Groups during Scientific Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Soo-Yean; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we examined students' epistemological and positional framing during small group scientific modeling to explore their context-dependent perceptions about knowledge, themselves, and others. We focused on two small groups of Korean eighth-grade students who participated in six modeling activities about excretion. The two groups were…

  15. Characterization of positive solution to stochastic competitor-competitor-cooperative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi Mandal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study a randomized three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra model with competitor-competitor-mutualist interaction. We show the existence, uniqueness, moment boundedness, stochastic boundedness and global asymptotic stability of positive global solutions for this stochastic model. Analytical results are validated by numerical examples.

  16. Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: The School-Based Model of Individualized Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Iovannone, Rose; Kincaid, Donald; Wilson, Kelly; Christiansen, Kathy; Strain, Phillip; English, Carie

    2010-01-01

    Solve serious behavior challenges in K-8 classrooms with this easy-to-use book, the first practical guide to the research-proven Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model. Developed by some of the most respected authorities on positive behavior support, this innovative model gives school-based teams a five-step plan for reducing problems unresolved by…

  17. Corrigendum to "Aerosol indirect effects from shipping emissions: sensitivity studies with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM" published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5985–6007, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peters

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An error in the calculation of the emitted number of primary sulfate particles for a given mass of emitted elementary sulfur has recently been identified in HAM, i.e. the aerosol module utilised in the ECHAM-HAM aerosol climate model. Correcting for this error substantially alters the estimates of top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing due to aerosol indirect effects from global shipping emissions (year 2000 as presented in Peters et al. (2012. Here, we shortly present these new results.

  18. Rapid evaluation of machine tools with position-dependent milling stability based on response surface model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The milling stability is one of the important evaluation criterions of dynamic characteristics of machine tools, and it is of great importance for machine tools’ design and manufacturing. The milling stability of machine tools generally varies with the position combinations of moving parts. The traditional milling stability analysis of machine tools is based on some specific positions in the whole workspace of machine tools, and the results are not comprehensive. Furthermore, it is very time-consuming for operation and calculation to complete analysis of multiple positions. A new method to rapidly evaluate the stability of machine tools with position dependence is developed in this article. In this method, the key position combinations of moving parts are set as the samples of calculation to calculate the dynamic characteristics of machine tools with SAMCEF finite element simulation analysis software. Then the minimum critical axial cutting depth of each sample is obtained. The relationship between the position and the value of minimum critical axial cutting depth at any position in the whole workspace can be obtained through established response surface model. The precision of the response surface model is evaluated and the model could be used to rapidly evaluate the milling stability of machine tools with position dependence. With a precision horizontal machining center with box-in-box structure as an example, the value of minimum critical axial cutting depth at any position is shown. This method of rapid evaluation of machine tools with position-dependent stability avoids complicated theoretical calculation, so it can be easily adopted by engineers and technicians in the phase of design process of machine tools.

  19. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulkhemair, Dalila

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: The comparison of the effectiveness of health technologies is not only laid down in German law (Social Code Book V, § 139 and § 35b but also constitutes a central element of clinical guidelines and decision making in health care. Tools supporting decision making (e. g. Health Technology Assessments (HTA are therefore in need of a valid methodological repertoire for these comparisons. Scientific background: Randomised controlled head-to-head trials which directly compare the effects of different therapies are considered the gold standard methodological approach for the comparison of the efficacy of interventions. Because this type of trial is rarely found, comparisons of efficacy often need to rely on indirect comparisons whose validity is being controversially debated. Research questions: Research questions for the current assessment are: Which (statistical methods for indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions do exist, how often are they applied and how valid are their results in comparison to the results of head-to-head trials? Methods: In a systematic literature research all medical databases of the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI are searched for methodological papers as well as applications of indirect comparisons in systematic reviews. Results of the literature analysis are summarized qualitatively for the characterisation of methods and quantitatively for the frequency of their application. The validity of the results from indirect comparisons is checked by comparing them to the results from the gold standard – a direct comparison. Data sets from systematic reviews which use both direct and indirect comparisons are tested for consistency by of the z-statistic. Results: 29 methodological papers and 106 applications of indirect methods in systematic reviews are being analysed. Four methods for indirect comparisons can be identified: 1. Unadjusted indirect comparisons

  20. Experimental calibration of the mathematical model of Air Torque Position dampers with non-cascading blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikić Siniša M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the mathematical model of the Air Torque Position dampers. The mathematical model establishes a link between the velocity of air in front of the damper, position of the damper blade and the moment acting on the blade caused by the air flow. This research aims to experimentally verify the mathematical model for the damper type with non-cascading blades. Four different types of dampers with non-cascading blades were considered: single blade dampers, dampers with two cross-blades, dampers with two parallel blades and dampers with two blades of which one is a fixed blade in the horizontal position. The case of a damper with a straight pipeline positioned in front of and behind the damper was taken in consideration. Calibration and verification of the mathematical model was conducted experimentally. The experiment was conducted on the laboratory facility for testing dampers used for regulation of the air flow rate in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The design and setup of the laboratory facility, as well as construction, adjustment and calibration of the laboratory damper are presented in this paper. The mathematical model was calibrated by using one set of data, while the verification of the mathematical model was conducted by using the second set of data. The mathematical model was successfully validated and it can be used for accurate measurement of the air velocity on dampers with non-cascading blades under different operating conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31058

  1. Generation model of positional values as cell operation during the development of multicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2011-03-01

    Many conventional models have used the positional information hypothesis to explain each elementary process of morphogenesis during the development of multicellular organisms. Their models assume that the steady concentration patterns of morphogens formed in an extracellular environment have an important property of positional information, so-called "robustness". However, recent experiments reported that a steady morphogen pattern, the concentration gradient of the Bicoid protein, during early Drosophila embryonic development is not robust for embryo-to-embryo variability. These reports encourage a reconsideration of a long-standing problem in systematic cell differentiation: what is the entity of positional information for cells? And, what is the origin of the robust boundary of gene expression? To address these problems at a cellular level, in this article we pay attention to the re-generative phenomena that show another important property of positional information, "size invariance". In view of regenerative phenomena, we propose a new mathematical model to describe the generation mechanism of a spatial pattern of positional values. In this model, the positional values are defined as the values into which differentiable cells transform a spatial pattern providing positional information. The model is mathematically described as an associative algebra composed of various terms, each of which is the multiplication of some fundamental operators under the assumption that the operators are derived from the remarkable properties of cell differentiation on an amputation surface in regenerative phenomena. We apply this model to the concentration pattern of the Bicoid protein during the anterior-posterior axis formation in Drosophila, and consider the conditions needed to establish the robust boundary of the expression of the hunchback gene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces the multi-element isotope data observed in previous experimental studies. Furthermore, it precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways as well as their range of variation consistent with observed bulk isotope fractionation. It was also possible to directly validate the model capability to predict the evolution of position-specific isotope ratios with available experimental data. Therefore, the approach is useful both for a mechanism-based evaluation of experimental results and as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptive Indoor Positioning Model Based on WLAN-Fingerprinting for Dynamic and Multi-Floor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Husni Alshami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System demonstrates the significance of Location Based Services but it cannot be used indoors due to the lack of line of sight between satellites and receivers. Indoor Positioning Systems are needed to provide indoor Location Based Services. Wireless LAN fingerprints are one of the best choices for Indoor Positioning Systems because of their low cost, and high accuracy, however they have many drawbacks: creating radio maps is time consuming, the radio maps will become outdated with any environmental change, different mobile devices read the received signal strength (RSS differently, and peoples’ presence in LOS between access points and mobile device affects the RSS. This research proposes a new Adaptive Indoor Positioning System model (called DIPS based on: a dynamic radio map generator, RSS certainty technique and peoples’ presence effect integration for dynamic and multi-floor environments. Dynamic in our context refers to the effects of people and device heterogeneity. DIPS can achieve 98% and 92% positioning accuracy for floor and room positioning, and it achieves 1.2 m for point positioning error. RSS certainty enhanced the positioning accuracy for floor and room for different mobile devices by 11% and 9%. Then by considering the peoples’ presence effect, the error is reduced by 0.2 m. In comparison with other works, DIPS achieves better positioning without extra devices.

  4. Examining Teacher Outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Anne Sørlie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on teacher outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS model has been scarce. The present study adds to the knowledge base by examining the effects of the Norwegian version of SWPBS (N-PALS on school staffs’ behavior management practices and on their individual and collective efficacy. Questionnaire data were collected from staff and students (Grades 4-7 at four measurement points across four successive school years in 28 intervention schools and 20 comparison schools. Using longitudinal multilevel analyses, indications of positive 3-year main effects of the N-PALS model were observed for staff-reported collective efficacy, self-efficacy, and positive behavior support practices. The intervention effects as measured by Cohen’s d ranged from .14 to .91. The effects on student perceptions of teachers’ behavior management strategies were, however, not consistent with the positive staff ratings. Results are discussed in relation to prior research, future research, and study limitations.

  5. Dimensional changes in plaster cast models due to the position of the impression tray during setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Grehs Porto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess whether the positioning of the impression tray could cause distortion to plaster casts during gypsum setting time.Materials and Methods: Fifteen pairs of master models were cast with alginate impression material and immediately filled with gypsum. Impressions were allowed to set with the tray in the noninverted position (Group A or in the inverted position (Group B. The plaster models were digitized using a laser scanner (3Shape R-700, 3Shape A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark. Measurements of tooth size and distance were obtained using O3d software (Widialabs, Brazil measurement tools. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and linear regression with 5% significance.Results and Conclusion: Most of the measurements from both groups were similar, except forthe lower intermolar distance. It was not possible to corroborate the presence of distortions due to the position of the impression tray during gypsum setting time.

  6. Modeling the Structure of the Relationship Between Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Positive and Negative affect Sleep Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Amiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Poor quality sleep is very common in modern societies and has a significant negative impact on psychological and physiological Dimensions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate correlational relationships and draw up a positive and negative affect mediation model between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and quality of sleep.   Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the participants of the study were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Then, the difficulty questionnaire was distributed in emotion regulation, affective and negative and sleep quality among the participants . Collected data was analyzed for descriptive, correlation, structural equation modeling to investigate the research objectives.   Results: The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the difficulty components of emotion regulation and negative emotion with poor sleep quality and positive correlation between positive affection and high sleep quality (p <0.01. Also, the pattern of structural equation modeling indicates the role of mediating positive and negative affects in the relationship between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and sleep quality . Conclusions: The results supported the hypothesis that the difficulty in regulation of emotion interferes with the quality of sleep, and positive affection can have a moderating role in this regard.    

  7. Incremental validity of positive orientation: predictive efficiency beyond the five-factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Roland Miciuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The relation of positive orientation (a basic predisposition to think positively of oneself, one’s life and one’s future and personality traits is still disputable. The purpose of the described research was to verify the hypothesis that positive orientation has predictive efficiency beyond the five-factor model. Participants and procedure One hundred and thirty participants (at the mean age M = 24.84 completed the following questionnaires: the Self-Esteem Scale (SES, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R, the Positivity Scale (P-SCALE, the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCC, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES and the Life Engagement Test (LET. Results The introduction of positive orientation as an additional predictor in the second step of regression analyses led to better prediction of the following variables: purpose in life, self-concept clarity and generalized self-efficacy. This effect was the strongest for predicting purpose in life (i.e. 14% increment of the explained variance. Conclusions The results confirmed our hypothesis that positive orientation can be characterized by incremental validity – its inclusion in the regression model (in addition to the five main factors of personality increases the amount of explained variance. These findings may provide further evidence for the legitimacy of measuring positive orientation and personality traits separately.

  8. Design and experiments with scale model of a ship with dynamic positioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Carlos Eduardo S.; Morishita, Helio M.; Moratelli Junior, Lazaro; Lago, Glenan A.; Tannuri, Eduardo A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic Positioning Systems (DPS) are used to keep a floating vessel on a specific position or follow pre-defined path through the action of controlled propellers. This paper describes a facility used to experimentally analyze DPS and to validate a numerical simulator. It is composed by a scale model of a DP tanker with 3 thrusters, a measurement system based on computational vision and a control software with the same DP algorithms used in industrial systems. Simple wind and current generators were also implemented. This work shows preliminary results of experiments, which has been useful to calibrate the simulator and to validate the mathematical model. (author)

  9. Positive and Negative Relationship between Anxiety and Depression of Patients in Pain: A Bifactor Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    li, Wen; Shang, Wen; Yan, Ming; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Huiming

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between anxiety and depression in pain patients has not been clarified comprehensively. Previous research has identified a common factor in anxiety and depression, which may explain why depression and anxiety are strongly correlated. However, the specific clinical features of anxiety and depression seem to pull in opposite directions. Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of depression and anxiety, based on data from pain patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). This model should account for the positive correlation between depression and anxiety in terms of a general factor and also demonstrate a latent negative correlation between the specific factors underlying depression and anxiety. Methods The anxiety and depression symptoms of pain patients were evaluated using the HADS and the severity of their pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS). We developed a hierarchical model of the data using an IRT method called bifactor analysis. In addition, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with unidimensional, bidimensional, and tridimensional models. The correlations among anxiety, depression, and pain severity were compared, based on both the bidimensional model and our hierarchical model. Results The bidimensional model analysis found that there was a large positive correlation between anxiety and depression (r = 0.638), and both scores were significantly positively correlated with pain severity. After extracting general factor of distress using bifactor analysis, the specific factors underlying anxiety and depression were weakly but significantly negatively correlated (r = −0.245) and only the general factor was significantly correlated with pain severity. Compared with the three first-order models, the bifactor hierarchical model had the best model fit. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that apart from distress, anxiety and

  10. Direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Martin; Schwehm, Markus; Eichner, Linda; Gerlier, Laetitia

    2017-04-26

    After vaccination, vaccinees acquire some protection against infection and/or disease. Vaccination, therefore, reduces the number of infections in the population. Due to this herd protection, not everybody needs to be vaccinated to prevent infections from spreading. We quantify direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccination examining the standard Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model as well as simulation results of a sophisticated simulation tool which allows for seasonal transmission of four influenza strains in a population with realistic demography and age-dependent contact patterns. As shown analytically for the simple SIR and SIRS transmission models, indirect vaccination effects are bigger than direct ones if the effective reproduction number of disease transmission is close to the critical value of 1. Simulation results for 20-60% vaccination with live influenza vaccine of 2-17 year old children in Germany, averaged over 10 years (2017-26), confirm this result: four to seven times as many influenza cases are prevented among non-vaccinated individuals as among vaccinees. For complications like death due to influenza which occur much more frequently in the unvaccinated elderly than in the vaccination target group of children, indirect benefits can surpass direct ones by a factor of 20 or even more than 30. The true effect of vaccination can be much bigger than what would be expected by only looking at vaccination coverage and vaccine efficacy.

  11. Effects of screening and partner notification on Chlamydia positivity in the United States: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Satterwhite, Catherine; Leichliter, Jami; Berman, Stuart

    2012-05-01

    Model impact of increasing screening and partner notification (PN) on chlamydia positivity. We used a stochastic simulation model describing pair formation and dissolution in an age-structured heterosexual population. The model accounts for steady, casual, and concurrent partnerships and a highly sexually active core group. The model used existing sexual behavior data from the United States and was validated using chlamydia positivity data from Region X (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington). A screening program with a coverage rate of 20% was implemented among women aged 15 to 24 years. After 10 years, we increased screening coverage to 35%, 50%, and 65% and partner treatment rates from 20% to 40% and 55%. Finally, we included male screening (aged 15-24, screening coverage: 20% and 35%, partner treatment: 25% and 40%). We analyzed the effects on chlamydia positivity in women and the frequency of reinfection 6 months after treatment. The model described the decline in positivity observed from 1988 to 1997 in Region X, given screening coverage of 20% and a 25% partner treatment rate. Increasing screening coverage from 35% to 65% resulted in incremental decreases in positivity as did increasing the PN rate; a 23% reduction in positivity was achieved by either increasing screening by 3-fold or PN by 2-fold. Adding male screening to the program had less impact than increasing screening coverage or PN among women. Increased PN and treatment reduced reinfection rates considerably. Increasing efforts in PN may contribute at least as much to control of chlamydia infection as increasing screening coverage rates.

  12. Existence, uniqueness and positivity of solutions for BGK models for mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, C.; Pirner, M.

    2018-01-01

    We consider kinetic models for a multi component gas mixture without chemical reactions. In the literature, one can find two types of BGK models in order to describe gas mixtures. One type has a sum of BGK type interaction terms in the relaxation operator, for example the model described by Klingenberg, Pirner and Puppo [20] which contains well-known models of physicists and engineers for example Hamel [16] and Gross and Krook [15] as special cases. The other type contains only one collision term on the right-hand side, for example the well-known model of Andries, Aoki and Perthame [1]. For each of these two models [20] and [1], we prove existence, uniqueness and positivity of solutions in the first part of the paper. In the second part, we use the first model [20] in order to determine an unknown function in the energy exchange of the macroscopic equations for gas mixtures described by Dellacherie [11].

  13. The 'Puzzles' methodology: en route to Indirect Inference?

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Vo Phuong Mai; Minford, Patrick; Wickens, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We review the methods used in many papers to evaluate DSGE models by comparing their simulated moments with data moments. We compare these with the method of Indirect Inference to which they are closely related. We illustrate the comparison with contrasting assessments of a two-country model in two recent papers. We conclude that Indirect Inference is the proper end point of the puzzles methodology.

  14. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.P.; De Moor, A.P.G.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism. From the results it appears that the hazardous effects of subsidies are big. Examples are milk, the regulating energy levy, and kerosene [nl

  15. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have ...

  16. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excite- ments and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter ...

  17. Indirect speech acts in English

    OpenAIRE

    Василина, В. Н.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with indirect speech acts in Englishspeaking discourse. Different approaches to their analysis and the reasons for their use are discussed. It is argued that the choice of the form of speech actsdepends on the parameters of communicative partners.

  18. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions. (paper)

  19. On the Relationship between Bonding Theory and Youth Gang Resistance in U.S. 8th Graders: Competing Structural Equation Models with Latent Structure Indirect Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Horst, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    In a study of 5285 8th graders from the Gang Resistance and Education Training (G.R.E.A.T.) research, this study applied Travis Hirschi's social bonding theory to examine the curriculum's efficacy in increasing conventional bonding (friends with positive peers, succeeding at education etc.) and decreasing non-conventional bonding (drug…

  20. Efficacy of telavancin, a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic, in experimental models of Gram-positive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sharath S; Janc, James W

    2014-12-01

    Telavancin is a parenteral lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with a dual mechanism of action contributing to bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. It has been approved for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections due to susceptible Gram-positive bacteria and hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus when other alternatives are unsuitable. Telavancin has been demonstrated to be efficacious in multiple animal models of soft tissue, cardiac, systemic, lung, bone, brain and device-associated infections involving clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus, heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus and daptomycin non-susceptible methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The AUC0-24h/MIC ratio is the primary pharmacodynamically-linked pharmacokinetic parameter. The preclinical data for telavancin supports further investigative clinical evaluation of its efficacy in additional serious infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive pathogens.

  1. A Mathematical Model to Estimate the Position of Mobile Robot by Sensing Caster Wheel Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Jnana H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the position estimation of mobile robot by sensing caster wheel motion. A mathematical model is developed to determine the position of mobile robot by sensing the angular velocity and heading angle of the caster wheel. Using the established equations, simulations were carried out using MATLAB version 8.6 to observe and verify the position coordinates of mobile robot and in turn obtain its trajectory. The simulation results show that the angular velocity of caster wheel and heading angle calculated from the sensor output readings with the help of inverse kinematics equations matches well with that of actual values given as input for simulation. Simulation result of tracking rectangular trajectory implies that the path traced by the mobile robot can also be determined from the sensor output readings. This concept can be implemented on a real mobile robot for estimation of its position.

  2. Virtue ethics, positive psychology, and a new model of science and engineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-04-01

    This essay develops a new conceptual framework of science and engineering ethics education based on virtue ethics and positive psychology. Virtue ethicists and positive psychologists have argued that current rule-based moral philosophy, psychology, and education cannot effectively promote students' moral motivation for actual moral behavior and may even lead to negative outcomes, such as moral schizophrenia. They have suggested that their own theoretical framework of virtue ethics and positive psychology can contribute to the effective promotion of motivation for self-improvement by connecting the notion of morality and eudaimonic happiness. Thus this essay attempts to apply virtue ethics and positive psychology to science and engineering ethics education and to develop a new conceptual framework for more effective education. In addition to the conceptual-level work, this essay suggests two possible educational methods: moral modeling and involvement in actual moral activity in science and engineering ethics classes, based on the conceptual framework.

  3. Asymmetric and Non–Positive Definite Distance Functions Part II: Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sánchez–Larios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally the distance functions involved in problems of Operations Research have been modeled using positive linear combinations of metrics Lp. Thus, the resulting distance functions are symmetric, uniforms and positive definite. Starting from a new definition of arc length, we propose a method formo deling generalized distance functions, that we call premetrics, which can be asymmetric, non uniform, and non positive definite. We show that every distance function satisfying the triangle inequality and having a continuous one–sided directional derivative can be modeled as a problem of calculus of variations. The "length" of a d–geodesic arc C(a,b from a to b with respect to the premetric d (the d–length can be negative, and therefore the d–distance from a to b may represent the minimum energy needed to move a mobile object from a to b. We illustrate our method with two examples.

  4. A Novel Flux Linkage Indirect Measurement for Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Yue

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a indirect detection system of flux linkage characteristic of switched reluctance motor based on dsPACE, fixed rotor position by mechanical indexing for Static flux linkage detection, the phase windings is excited by the step voltage signal, the voltage and phase current are collected real -time, and calculate flux linkage. The advantages of the method is that the parameters are optimized by ControlDesk, the flux linkage detection model is built by Simulink, no writing program, simple, easy implementation. An 1.5kw three-phase 12/8 SRM experimental prototype was constructed, the detection results of the Static flux linkage and dynamic flux linkage verified its validity and feasibility.

  5. Computational Model of a Positive BDNF Feedback Loop in Hippocampal Neurons Following Inhibitory Avoidance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yili; Smolen, Paul; Alberini, Cristina M.; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory avoidance (IA) training in rodents initiates a molecular cascade within hippocampal neurons. This cascade contributes to the transition of short- to long-term memory (i.e., consolidation). Here, a differential equation-based model was developed to describe a positive feedback loop within this molecular cascade. The feedback loop begins…

  6. An Evaluation of the Measurement Properties of the Five Cs Model of Positive Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Ronan J; Heary, Caroline; Hogan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to develop acceptable measures of adolescent's positive attributes in diverse contexts. The current study evaluated the measurement properties of the Five Cs model of Positive Youth Development (PYD) scale (Lerner et al., 2005) using a sample of 672 Irish adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a five-factor model provided a good fit to the data. The internal reliability and construct validity of the Five Cs model were supported, with character the strongest predictor of contribution, while connection was the strongest predictor of risky-behaviors. Notably, confidence was significantly negatively related to contribution, and positively related to risky-behaviors. Multi-group hierarchical nested models supported measurement invariance across early- (11-14 years) and late- (15-19 years) adolescent age groups, with partial invariance found across gender. Younger adolescents evinced higher PYD, while PYD was associated with higher contribution and lower depression and risk-behaviors across all groups. The application of the PYD framework as a measure of positive functioning across adolescence is discussed.

  7. Positive global solutions for a general model of size-dependent population dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Nobuyuki

    2000-01-01

    We study size-structured population models of general type which have the growth rate depending on the size and time. The local existence and uniqueness of the solution have been shown by Kato and Torikata (1997). Here, we discuss the positivity of the solution and global existence as well as $L^\\infty$ solutions.

  8. Factors Predicting Sustainability of the Schoolwide Positive Behavior Intervention Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitiyo, Jonathan; May, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    The Schoolwide Positive Behavior Intervention Support model (SWPBIS) continues to gain widespread use across schools in the United States and abroad. Despite its widespread implementation, little research has examined factors that influence its sustainability. Informed by Rogers's diffusion theory, this study examined school personnel's…

  9. The Role of Wellbeing and Wellness: A Positive Psychological Model in Supporting Young People With ASCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years sport psychology expanded its applicability in a variety of fields which have helped to address some of the challenges related to high level performance and sport competition. When we talk about performance in its wider sense, sport psychology is able to help develop a better understanding on how strategies can be adopted in improving general human performance levels. This includes increasing the knowledge of key concepts such as motivation, self-confidence and resilience. Furthermore performance in its wider sense helps in the understanding of the impact of stress and arousal and how these can affect both positively and negatively performance levels including appreciating individual differences as well as dynamics between groups of individuals. In this paper performance rather than solely be related to the field of competitive or professional sport has been discussed in people with ASCs and aims to explore how by adopting a positive psychological model in the formulation of individual assessments and subsequent interventions have led to improvement in individual skills, participation, engagement and ultimately quality of life. Positive psychological principles, such as the role of wellbeing and wellness, the PERMA Model has increased our understanding of human potentials, performance and wellbeing. The aim of this paper is to present and reflect on the applicability and benefits of adopting sport psychology models, the PERMA model and positive psychological principles in special education and care settings with the presentation and discussion of their theoretical and some practical implementation in two case studies.

  10. Near-real-time regional troposphere models for the GNSS precise point positioning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadas, T; Kaplon, J; Bosy, J; Sierny, J; Wilgan, K

    2013-01-01

    The GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) technique requires high quality product (orbits and clocks) application, since their error directly affects the quality of positioning. For real-time purposes it is possible to utilize ultra-rapid precise orbits and clocks which are disseminated through the Internet. In order to eliminate as many unknown parameters as possible, one may introduce external information on zenith troposphere delay (ZTD). It is desirable that the a priori model is accurate and reliable, especially for real-time application. One of the open problems in GNSS positioning is troposphere delay modelling on the basis of ground meteorological observations. Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (IGG WUELS) has developed two independent regional troposphere models for the territory of Poland. The first one is estimated in near-real-time regime using GNSS data from a Polish ground-based augmentation system named ASG-EUPOS established by Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography (GUGiK) in 2008. The second one is based on meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure and humidity) gathered from various meteorological networks operating over the area of Poland and surrounding countries. This paper describes the methodology of both model calculation and verification. It also presents results of applying various ZTD models into kinematic PPP in the post-processing mode using Bernese GPS Software. Positioning results were used to assess the quality of the developed models during changing weather conditions. Finally, the impact of model application to simulated real-time PPP on precision, accuracy and convergence time is discussed. (paper)

  11. Well-being of haemophilia patients: a model for direct and indirect effects of medical parameters on the physical and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triemstra, A. H.; van der Ploeg, H. M.; Smit, C.; Briët, E.; Adèr, H. J.; Rosendaal, F. R.

    1998-01-01

    This study outlines the development and evaluation of a structural equation model for establishing the consequences of haemophilia. The hereditary disorder is characterized by a high tendency to haemorrhages, with recurrent bleeding into the joints causing irreversible joint damage. The model is, in

  12. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  13. A model using concomitant markers for predicting outcome in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Cinzia; Mints, Michael; Tertipis, Nikolaos; Haeggblom, Linnea; Sivars, Lars; Ährlund-Richter, Andreas; Vlastos, Andrea; Smedberg, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Näsman, Anders; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina

    2017-05-01

    Head-neck cancer therapy has become intensified. With radiotherapy alone, 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) is 80% for HPV-positive TSCC/BOTSCC and better for patients with favorable characteristics, suggesting therapy could be tapered for some, decreasing side-effects. Therefore, we built a model to predict progression-free survival for patients with HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC. TSCC/BOTSCC patients treated curatively between 2000 and 2011, with HPV16 DNA/E7 mRNA positive tumors examined for CD8 + TILs, HPV16 mRNA and HLA class I expression were included. Patients were split randomly 65/35 into training and validation sets, and LASSO regression was used to select a model in the training set, the performance of which was evaluated in the validation set. 258 patients with HPV DNA/E7 mRNA positive tumors could be included, 168 and 90 patients in the respective sets. No treatment improved prognosis compared to radiotherapy alone. CD8 + TIL counts and young age were the strongest predictors of survival, followed by T-stage <3 and presence of HPV16 E2 mRNA. The model had an area under curve (AUC) of 76%. A model where the presence of three of four of these markers defined good prognosis captured 56% of non-relapsing patients with a positive predictive value of 98% in the validation set. Furthermore, the model identified 35% of our cohort that was overtreated and could safely have received de-escalated therapy. CD8 + TIL counts, age, T-stage and E2 expression could predict progression-free survival, identifying patients eligible for randomized trials with milder treatment, potentially reducing side effects without worsening prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance Analysis of Several GPS/Galileo Precise Point Positioning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-06-19

    This paper examines the performance of several precise point positioning (PPP) models, which combine dual-frequency GPS/Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. We take advantage of the IGS-MGEX network products to correct for the satellite differential code biases and the orbital and satellite clock errors. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to handle the various GPS/Galileo PPP models. A total of six data sets of GPS and Galileo observations at six IGS stations are processed to examine the performance of the various PPP models. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and the semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the precision of the estimated parameters by about 50% and 25% when the loose and the tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. Comparable results are obtained through the tight combination when either a GPS or a Galileo satellite is selected as a reference.

  15. Interactive indirect illumination using adaptive multiresolution splatting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Greg; Wyman, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Global illumination provides a visual richness not achievable with the direct illumination models used by most interactive applications. To generate global effects, numerous approximations attempt to reduce global illumination costs to levels feasible in interactive contexts. One such approximation, reflective shadow maps, samples a shadow map to identify secondary light sources whose contributions are splatted into eye space. This splatting introduces significant overdraw that is usually reduced by artificially shrinking each splat's radius of influence. This paper introduces a new multiresolution approach for interactively splatting indirect illumination. Instead of reducing GPU fill rate by reducing splat size, we reduce fill rate by rendering splats into a multiresolution buffer. This takes advantage of the low-frequency nature of diffuse and glossy indirect lighting, allowing rendering of indirect contributions at low resolution where lighting changes slowly and at high-resolution near discontinuities. Because this multiresolution rendering occurs on a per-splat basis, we can significantly reduce fill rate without arbitrarily clipping splat contributions below a given threshold-those regions simply are rendered at a coarse resolution.

  16. Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of positive corona discharge: ozone generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A; Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of positive corona discharge: ozone generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanallah, K; Pontiga, F; Fernández-Rueda, A; Castellanos, A

    2009-03-01

    The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.

  18. Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of positive corona discharge: ozone generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A [Departamento de FIsica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-03-21

    The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.

  19. Heard it through the grapevine: indirect networks and employee creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Giles; Van Knippenberg, Daan; Zhou, Jing; Quintane, Eric; Zhu, Cherrie

    2015-03-01

    Social networks can be important sources of information and insights that may spark employee creativity. The cross-fertilization of ideas depends not just on access to information and insights through one's direct network-the people one actually interacts with--but at least as much on access to the indirect network one's direct ties connect one to (i.e., people one does not interact with directly, but with whom one's direct ties interact). We propose that the reach efficiency of this indirect network--its nonredundancy in terms of interconnections--is positively related to individual creativity. To help specify the boundaries of this positive influence of the indirect network, we also explore how many steps removed the indirect network still adds to creativity. In addition, we propose that the efficiency (nonredundancy) of one's direct network is important here, because more efficient direct networks give one access to indirect networks with greater reach efficiency. Our hypotheses were supported in a multilevel analysis of multisource survey data from 223 sales representatives nested within 11 divisions of a Chinese pharmaceutical company. This analysis also showed that the creative benefits of reach efficiency were evident for 3 and 4 degrees of separation but were greatest for indirect ties that depend only on one's direct ties. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Biocompatibility effects of indirect exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to a human-derived three-dimensional oral mucosal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Emma Louise; Moran, Gary P; Fleming, Garry J P

    2013-11-01

    The study employed a three-dimensional (3D) human-derived oral mucosal model to assess the biocompatibility of base-metal dental casting alloys ubiquitous in fixed prosthodontic and orthodontic dentistry. Oral mucosal models were generated using primary human oral keratinocyte and gingival fibroblast cells seeded onto human de-epidermidised dermal scaffolds. Nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) base-metal alloy immersion solutions were exposed to oral mucosal models for increasing time periods (2-72h). Analysis methodologies (histology, viable cell counts, oxidative stress, cytokine expression and toxicity) were performed following exposure. Ni-based alloy immersion solutions elicited significantly decreased cell viability (Palloy immersion solutions did not elicit adverse oxidative stress (P>0.4755) or cellular toxicity (Pmetal alloy immersion solutions elicited significantly detrimental effects to the oral mucosal models, it was possible to distinguish between Ni-Cr alloys using the approach employed. The study employed a 3D human-derived full-thickness differentiated oral mucosal model suitable for biocompatibility assessment of base-metal dental casting alloys through discriminatory experimental parameters. Increasing incidences of Ni hypersensitivity in the general population warrants serious consideration from dental practitioners and patients alike where fixed prosthodontic/orthodontic dental treatments are the treatment modality involved. The novel and analytical oral mucosal model has the potential to significantly contribute to the advancement of reproducible dental medical device and dental material appraisals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Indoor Localisation Using a Context-Aware Dynamic Position Tracking Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Ros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor wireless localisation is a widely sought feature for use in logistics, health, and social networking applications. Low-powered localisation will become important for the next generation of pervasive media applications that operate on mobile platforms. We present an inexpensive and robust context-aware tracking system that can track the position of users in an indoor environment, using a wireless smart meter network. Our context-aware tracking system combines wireless trilateration with a dynamic position tracking model and a probability density map to estimate indoor positions. The localisation network consisted of power meter nodes placed at known positions in a building. The power meter nodes are tracked by mobile nodes which are carried by users to localise their position. We conducted an extensive trial of the context-aware tracking system and performed a comparison analysis with existing localisation techniques. The context-aware tracking system was able to localise a person's indoor position with an average error of 1.21 m.

  2. Persuasion Model and Its Evaluation Based on Positive Change Degree of Agent Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    For it can meet needs of negotiation among organizations take place in different time and place, and for it can make its course more rationality and result more ideal, persuasion based on agent can improve cooperation among organizations well. Integrated emotion change in agent persuasion can further bring agent advantage of artificial intelligence into play. Emotion of agent persuasion is classified, and the concept of positive change degree is given. Based on this, persuasion model based on positive change degree of agent emotion is constructed, which is explained clearly through an example. Finally, the method of relative evaluation is given, which is also verified through a calculation example.

  3. Able but unintelligent: including positively stereotyped black subgroups in the stereotype content model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.

  4. Indirect Over-Time Relations Between Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Behaviors and Emotions Through Global Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Deković, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of their relationship with parents, their global self-esteem, and their experience with various sexual behaviors. Sexually experienced adolescents (n = 168) evaluated their sexual experiences using six emotions. Path model results showed that a higher-quality relationship with parents at T1 predicted higher levels of self-esteem at T2, which in turn predicted less experience with sexual behaviors and more positive sexual emotions at T3. The indirect over-time path from relationship quality through self-esteem to adolescents' sexual emotions was significant; the indirect path to adolescents' experience with sexual behaviors was not significant at the .05 level. No significant age or gender differences were found in the path models. The findings indicate that self-esteem plays an important role in adolescent sexuality and that parents can contribute to positive sexual experiences of adolescents indirectly--through the enhancement of self-esteem--by fostering a high-quality relationship with their children. Implications for theory, future research, and strategies to promote healthy and positive youth sexuality are discussed.

  5. Wireless Positioning Based on a Segment-Wise Linear Approach for Modeling the Target Trajectory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiras, Joao; Pedersen, Troels; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Positioning solutions in infrastructure-based wireless networks generally operate by exploiting the channel information of the links between the Wireless Devices and fixed networking Access Points. The major challenge of such solutions is the modeling of both the noise properties of the channel...... measurements and the user mobility patterns. One class of typical human being movement patterns is the segment-wise linear approach, which is studied in this paper. Current tracking solutions, such as the Constant Velocity model, hardly handle such segment-wise linear patterns. In this paper we propose...... a segment-wise linear model, called the Drifting Points model. The model results in an increased performance when compared with traditional solutions....

  6. Positive Mathematical Programming Approaches – Recent Developments in Literature and Applied Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heckelei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and discusses the more recent literature and application of Positive Mathematical Programming in the context of agricultural supply models. Specifically, advances in the empirical foundation of parameter specifications as well as the economic rationalisation of PMP models – both criticized in earlier reviews – are investigated. Moreover, the paper provides an overview on a larger set of models with regular/repeated policy application that apply variants of PMP. Results show that most applications today avoid arbitrary parameter specifications and rely on exogenous information on supply responses to calibrate model parameters. However, only few approaches use multiple observations to estimate parameters, which is likely due to the still considerable technical challenges associated with it. Equally, we found only limited reflection on the behavioral or technological assumptions that could rationalise the PMP model structure while still keeping the model’s advantages.

  7. Ionospheric modelling to boost the PPP-RTK positioning and navigation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsov, Kirco; Terkildsen, Michael; Olivares, German

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with implementation of 3-D ionospheric model to support the GNSS positioning and navigation activities in Australia. We will introduce two strategies for Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) estimation from GNSS CORS sites in Australia. In the first scenario, the STEC is estimated in the PPP-RTK network processing. The ionosphere is estimated together with other GNSS network parameters, such as Satellite Clocks, Satellite Phase Biases, etc. Another approach is where STEC is estimated on a station by station basis by taking advantage of already known station position and different satellite ambiguities relations. Accuracy studies and considerations will be presented and discussed. Furthermore, based on this STEC, 3-D ionosphere modeling will be performed. We will present the simple interpolation, 3-D Tomography and bi-cubic splines as modeling techniques. In order to assess these models, a (user) PPP-RTK test bed is established and a sensitivity matrix will be introduced and analyzed based on time to first fix (TTFF) of ambiguities, positioning accuracy, PPP-RTK solution convergence time etc. Different spatial configurations and constellations will be presented and assessed.

  8. Toward Reducing Ageism: PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sheri R

    2018-03-19

    The population of older adults is growing worldwide. Negative ageism (negative attitudes and behavior toward older adults) is a serious international concern that negatively influences not only older adults but also individuals across the age continuum. This article proposes and examines the application of an integrative theoretical model across empirical evidence in the literature on ageism in psychology, medicine, social work, and sociology. The proposed Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences (PEACE) model focuses on 2 key contributing factors expected to reduce negative ageism: (a) education about aging including facts on aging along with positive older role models that dispel negative and inaccurate images of older adulthood; and (b) positive contact experiences with older adults that are individualized, provide or promote equal status, are cooperative, involve sharing of personal information, and are sanctioned within the setting. These 2 key contributing factors have the potential to be interconnected and work together to reduce negative stereotypes, aging anxiety, prejudice, and discrimination associated with older adults and aging. This model has implications for policies and programs that can improve the health and well-being of individuals, as well as expand the residential, educational, and career options of individuals across the age continuum.

  9. Approaching work and learning indirectly

    OpenAIRE

    Macintyre, Ronald; Thomson, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This paper approaches work and learning indirectly. It is part of a mixed method longitudinal study that looks at the articulation from Higher National (HN) to part time Higher Education (HE). Since 2003 the Open University in Scotland (OU) has been collecting quantitative and qualitative data on students who have HN qualifications. This paper looks at the experiences of those students and the central place of work in those journeys. \\ud \\ud The paper beings with a statistical overview. HN St...

  10. Indirect inference with time series observed with error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    estimation. We propose to solve this inconsistency by jointly estimating the nuisance and the structural parameters. Under standard assumptions, this estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal. A condition for the identification of ARMA plus noise is obtained. The proposed methodology is used......We analyze the properties of the indirect inference estimator when the observed series are contaminated by measurement error. We show that the indirect inference estimates are asymptotically biased when the nuisance parameters of the measurement error distribution are neglected in the indirect...... to estimate the parameters of continuous-time stochastic volatility models with auxiliary specifications based on realized volatility measures. Monte Carlo simulations shows the bias reduction of the indirect estimates obtained when the microstructure noise is explicitly modeled. Finally, an empirical...

  11. Multi-Sensor Fusion with Interacting Multiple Model Filter for Improved Aircraft Position Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changho Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has decided to adopt Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM as the 21st century standard for navigation. Accordingly, ICAO members have provided an impetus to develop related technology and build sufficient infrastructure. For aviation surveillance with CNS/ATM, Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B, multilateration (MLAT and wide-area multilateration (WAM systems are being established. These sensors can track aircraft positions more accurately than existing radar and can compensate for the blind spots in aircraft surveillance. In this paper, we applied a novel sensor fusion method with Interacting Multiple Model (IMM filter to GBAS, ADS-B, MLAT, and WAM data in order to improve the reliability of the aircraft position. Results of performance analysis show that the position accuracy is improved by the proposed sensor fusion method with the IMM filter.

  12. Position of aggressiveness in common latent space of PEN model and model Big Five Plus Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the relations between different aspects of aggressiveness and personality traits. Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, which represent psychobiological model, and inventory Big Five Plus Two Inventory (BF+2, which represent psycholexical model of personality in Serbian language, were administered to 478 participants. The results revealed that affective impulsive aggressiveness and predatory or instrumental aggressiveness could be identified in the aggressiveness - personality traits relationships. Those aspects of aggressiveness could take manifest or latent character. As expected, Psychoticism from EPQ, Aggressiveness, and Negative Valence from BF+2 showed a significant contribution to all identified forms, except for Aggressiveness in relations with “acting out” physical aggression. Although these personality traits carry out significant loadings, these loadings were not always the highest. Affective-impulsive aggressiveness, which was mainly determined by the components of latent domain AQ, was related to Neuroticism from both models. The remaining forms of manifest aggressiveness were related to low Consciousness, whereas Physical aggression is connected to Extraversion and Oppennes. This connection represents possible “acting out” reaction or more frequent tendency of impulsive physical aggression. The results showed that aggressiveness represents a multidimensional construct which could be explained by specific constellation of personality traits, depending which aspects of aggressivenes are of interest. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006: Nasledni, sredinski i psihološki činioci mentalnog zdravlja

  13. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Thresholds for Nasolacrimal Air Regurgitation in a Cadaveric Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandford, Alexander D; Cherfan, Daniel G; Drake, Richard L; McBride, Jennifer M; Hwang, Catherine J; Perry, Julian D; Cheng, Olivia T

    2018-01-10

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying nasolacrimal air regurgitation (AR) in the setting of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Twelve nasolacrimal systems of 6 fresh female human cadavers were evaluated individually for AR using continuous positive airway pressure therapy before any nasolacrimal procedure. Cadavers were then randomly assigned to undergo nasolacrimal duct probing or endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy and then each hemisystem was again evaluated for AR. The pressure where AR was first observed (discovery pressure) or maximum possible pressure in systems without AR was recorded. In systems that demonstrated AR, the pressure was then gradually decreased to the lowest pressure where regurgitation persisted. This pressure was recorded as the secondary threshold pressure. None of the 12 unoperated nasolacrimal systems or the 6 systems that underwent nasolacrimal duct probing demonstrated AR through the maximum continuous positive airway pressure therapy (30 cm H2O). After endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, all 6 nasolacrimal systems demonstrated AR. The mean discovery pressure was 16.0 cm H2O (range, 14.0-18.0 cm H2O) and mean secondary threshold pressure was 7.25 cm H2O (range, 6.5-8.0 cm H2O). Air regurgitation during continuous positive airway pressure therapy in the setting of prior endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy can be replicated in a cadaver model. The secondary threshold pressures required for AR in this model were similar to AR pressures reported clinically. Prior to dacryocystorhinostomy, patients using continuous positive airway pressure therapy should be counseled on AR, and physicians should consider this phenomenon when evaluating ophthalmic complaints in postoperative patients on positive airway pressure therapy.

  14. Yoga and positive body image: A test of the Embodiment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlo, Leeann; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to test the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image (Menzel & Levine, 2011) within the context of yoga. Participants were 193 yoga practitioners (124 Iyengar, 69 Bikram) and 127 university students (non-yoga participants) from Adelaide, South Australia. Participants completed questionnaire measures of positive body image, embodiment, self-objectification, and desire for thinness. Results showed yoga practitioners scored higher on positive body image and embodiment, and lower on self-objectification than non-yoga participants. In support of the embodiment model, the relationship between yoga participation and positive body image was serially mediated by embodiment and reduced self-objectification. Although Bikram practitioners endorsed appearance-related reasons for participating in yoga more than Iyengar practitioners, there were no significant differences between Iyengar and Bikram yoga practitioners on body image variables. It was concluded that yoga is an embodying activity that can provide women with the opportunity to cultivate a favourable relationship with their body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A PID Positioning Controller with a Curve Fitting Model Based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Long Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS is an important research topic to solve outdoor positioning problems, but GPS is unable to locate objects accurately and precisely indoors. Some available systems apply ultrasound or optical tracking. This paper presents an efficient proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller with curve fitting model for mobile robot localization and position estimation which adopts passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags in a space. This scheme is based on a mobile robot carries an RFID reader module which reads the installed low-cost passive tags under the floor in a grid-like pattern. The PID controllers increase the efficiency of captured RFID tags and the curve fitting model is used to systematically identify the revolutions per minute (RPM of the motor. We control and monitor the position of the robot from a remote location through a mobile phone via Wi-Fi and Bluetooth network. Experiment results present that the number of captured RFID tags of our proposed scheme outperforms that of the previous scheme.

  16. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrenko, A.V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Valishev, A.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  17. The motivating role of positive feedback in sport and physical education: evidence for a motivational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Sideridis, Georgios

    2008-04-01

    Based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), an experimental study with middle school students participating in a physical education task and a correlational study with highly talented sport students investigated the motivating role of positive competence feedback on participants' well-being, performance, and intention to participate. In Study 1, structural equation modeling favored the hypothesized motivational model, in which, after controlling for pretask perceived competence and competence valuation, feedback positively predicted competence satisfaction, which in turn predicted higher levels of vitality and greater intentions to participate, through the mediation of autonomous motivation. No effects on performance were found. Study 2 further showed that autonomous motivation mediated the relation between competence satisfaction and well-being, whereas a motivation mediated the negative relation between competence satisfaction and ill-being and rated performance. The discussion focuses on the motivational role of competence feedback in sports and physical education settings.

  18. Modeling of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Effects on an Ironless Inductive Position Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Danisi, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro; Perriard, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The ironless inductive position sensor (I2PS) is a five-coil air-cored structure that senses the variation of flux linkage between supply and sense coils and relates it to the linear position of a moving coil. In air-cored structures, the skin and proximity effect can bring substantial variations of the electrical resistance, leading to important deviations from the low-frequency functioning. In this paper, an analysis of the effect of high-frequency phenomena on the I2PS functioning is described. The key-element is the modeling of the resistance as a function of the frequency, which starts from the analytical resolution of Maxwell's equations in the coil's geometry. The analysis is validated by means of experimental measurements on custom sensor coils. The resulting model is integrated with the existing low-frequency analysis and represents a complete tool for the design of an I2PS sensor, framing its electromagnetic behavior.

  19. Indirect quantum tomography of quadratic Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgarth, Daniel [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Maruyama, Koji; Nori, Franco, E-mail: daniel@burgarth.de, E-mail: kmaruyama@riken.jp [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    A number of many-body problems can be formulated using Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. Here, we show how such quadratic Hamiltonians can be efficiently estimated indirectly, employing very few resources. We found that almost all the properties of the Hamiltonian are determined by its surface and that these properties can be measured even if the system can only be initialized to a mixed state. Therefore, our method can be applied to various physical models, with important examples including coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, hopping fermions in optical lattices and transverse Ising chains.

  20. Impact of different individual GNSS receiver antenna calibration models on geodetic positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baire, Q.; Pottiaux, E.; Bruyninx, C.; Defraigne, P.; Aerts, W.; Legrand, J.; Bergeot, N.; Chevalier, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Since April 2011, the igs08.atx antenna calibration model is used in the routine IGS (International GNSS Service) data analysis. The model includes mean robot calibrations to correct for the offset and phase center variations of the GNSS receiver antennas. These so-called "type" calibrations are means of the individual calibrations available for a specific antenna/radome combination. The GNSS data analysis performed within the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) aims at being as consistent as possible with the IGS analysis. This also applies to the receiver antenna calibrations. However, when available, individual antenna calibrations are used within the EPN analysis instead of the "type" calibration. When these individual calibrations are unavailable, then the EPN analysis falls back to (type) calibrations identical as the ones used within the IGS (igs08.atx). The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of the offset caused by using different receiver antenna calibration models on the station position. Using the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) technique, we first investigate the differences in positioning obtained when switching between individual antenna calibrations and type calibrations. We analyze the observations of the 43 EPN stations equipped with receiver antenna individually calibrated over the period covering from 2003 to 2010 and we show that these differences can reach up to 4 mm in horizontal and 10 mm in vertical. Secondly, we study the accuracy of the individual calibrations models and we evaluate the effect of different sets of individual calibrations on the positioning. For that purpose, we use the data from 6 GNSS stations equipped with an antenna which has been individually calibrated at two calibration facilities recognized by the IGS: GEO++ and Bonn institute.

  1. A model to estimate the relative position of sites for ligands in serum albumins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Art Adriel Emidio de Araújo; Grassini, Maria Carolina Vilela; Cortez, Célia Martins; Silva, Dilson

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present a mathematical-computational model developed to estimate the relative position of ligand binding sites in HSA and BSA, based on the theory of fluorescence quenching, considering the molecular and spectrofluorimetric differences and similarities between these two albumins. Albumin is the largest and the most abundant serum protein in vertebrates. The ability to bind xenobiotics makes albumin important to the bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs.

  2. Examining Teacher Outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Mari-Anne Sørlie; Terje Ogden; Asgeir Røyrhus Olseth

    2016-01-01

    Research on teacher outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) model has been scarce. The present study adds to the knowledge base by examining the effects of the Norwegian version of SWPBS (N-PALS) on school staffs’ behavior management practices and on their individual and collective efficacy. Questionnaire data were collected from staff and students (Grades 4-7) at four measurement points across fo...

  3. Entanglement and position-space information entropy: Hubbard model as an approximation to nanostructure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, J P; D' Amico, I [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Franca, V V, E-mail: jpc503@york.ac.uk, E-mail: vivian.franca@physik.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: ida500@york.ac.uk [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-06

    We consider the position-space information and linear entropies as proxy measures to the average single-site entanglement-quantified using the von Neumann entropy-of the one-dimensional Hubbard model and of a one-dimensional nanostructure system comprised of an array of quantum-dots. Spatial entanglement in the quantum-dot system is also investigated via the three entropies. We appraise the use of the possible proxy measures in the Hubbard model as an approximation to their use for the nanostructure system.

  4. Models for positional signalling, the threefold subdivision of segments and the pigmentation pattern of molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, H

    1984-11-01

    Models of biological pattern formation are discussed. The regulatory features expected from the models are compared to those observed experimentally. It will be shown that: (i) Stable gradients appropriate to supply positional information can be produced by local autocatalysis and long-range inhibition. (ii) Spatially ordered sequences of differentiated cell states can emerge if these cell states mutually activate each other on long range but exclude each other locally. Segmentation results from the repetition of three such cell states, S, A and P (and not of only two, as is usually assumed). With a repetition of three states, each segment has a defined polarity. The confrontation of P cells and S cells lead to the formation of a segment border (...P/SAP/SAP/S...) while the A-P confrontation is a prerequisite for appendage formation. Mutations of Drosophila affecting larval segmentation are discussed in terms of this model. (iii) The two models for the generation of sequences of structures in space (positional information including interpretation versus mutual activation) lead to different predictions with respect to intercalary regeneration. This allows a distinction between the two models on the basis of experiments. (iv) The pigmentation patterns of certain molluscs emerge from a coupled oscillation of cells (that is, a lateral inhibition in time, instead of space). The oblique lines result from a chain of triggering events.

  5. Reductions in Children's Vicariously Learnt Avoidance and Heart Rate Responses Using Positive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2016-03-23

    Recent research has indicated that vicarious learning can lead to increases in children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for stimuli and that these fear responses can subsequently be reversed using positive modeling (counterconditioning). The current study investigated children's vicariously acquired avoidance behavior, physiological responses (heart rate), and attentional bias for stimuli and whether these could also be reduced via counterconditioning. Ninety-six (49 boys, 47 girls) 7- to 11-year-olds received vicarious fear learning for novel stimuli and were then randomly assigned to a counterconditioning, extinction, or control group. Fear beliefs and avoidance preferences were measured pre- and post-learning, whereas avoidance behavior, heart rate, and attentional bias were all measured post-learning. Control group children showed increases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals seen in vicarious fear learning trials. In addition, significantly greater avoidance behavior, heart rate responding, and attentional bias were observed for these animals compared to a control animal. In contrast, vicariously acquired avoidance preferences of children in the counterconditioning group were significantly reduced post-positive modeling, and these children also did not show the heightened heart rate responding to fear-paired animals. Children in the extinction group demonstrated comparable responses to the control group; thus the extinction procedure showed no effect on any fear measures. The findings suggest that counterconditioning with positive modelling can be used as an effective early intervention to reduce the behavioral and physiological effects of vicarious fear learning in childhood.

  6. Reproducibility of the coil positioning in Nb$_3$Sn magnet models through magnetic measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Borgnolutti, F; Ferracin, P; Kashikhin, V V; Sabbi, G; Velev, G; Todesco, E; Zlobin, A V

    2009-01-01

    The random part of the integral field harmonics in a series of superconducting magnets has been used in the past to identify the reproducibility of the coil positioning. Using a magnetic model and a MonteCarlo approach, coil blocks are randomly moved and the amplitude that best fits the magnetic measurements is interpreted as the reproducibility of the coil position. Previous values for r.m.s. coil displacements for Nb-Ti magnets range from 0.05 to 0.01 mm. In this paper, we use this approach to estimate the reproducibility in the coil position for Nb3Sn short models that have been built in the framework of the FNAL core program (HFDA dipoles) and of the LARP program (TQ quadrupoles). Our analysis shows that the Nb3Sn models manufactured in the past years correspond to r.m.s. coil displacements of at least 5 times what is found for the series production of a mature Nb-Ti technology. On the other hand, the variability of the field harmonics along the magnet axis shows that Nb3Sn magnets have already reached va...

  7. Indirect field technology for detecting areas object of illegal spills harmful to human health: application of drones, photogrammetry and hydrological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, Alessandra; Pindozzi, Stefania; Okello, Collins; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils is a serious environmental problem. The Campania region in southern Italy has higher levels of cancer risk, presumably due to the accumulation of geogenic and anthropogenic soil pollutants, some of which have been incorporated into organic matter. The aim of this study was to introduce and test an innovative, field-applicable methodology to detect heavy metal accumulation using drone-based photogrammetry and microrill network modelling, specifically to generate wetlands wetlands prediction indices normally applied at large catchment scales, such as a large geographic basin. The processing of aerial photos taken using a hexacopter equipped with fifth-generation software for photogrammetry allowed the generation of a digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution as high as 30 mm. Not only this provided a high potential for the study of micro-rill processes, but it was also useful for testing and comparing the capability of the topographic index (TI) and the clima-topographic index (CTI) to predict heavy metal sedimentation points at scales from 0.1 to 10 ha. Our results indicate that the TI and CTI indices can be used to predict points of heavy metal accumulation for small field catchments.

  8. Data-model synthesis of grassland carbon metabolism. Quantifying direct, indirect & interactive effects of warming & elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendall, Elise [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Ogle, Kiona [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Parton, William [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This research project improved understanding of how climate change (elevated atmospheric CO2, warming and altered precipitation) can affect grassland ecosystem productivity and nutrient availability. Our advanced experimental and modeling methods allowed us to test 21 specific hypotheses. We found that ecosystem changes over years of exposure to climate change can shift the plant communities and potentially make them more resilient to future climate changes. These changes in plant communities may be related to increased growth of belowground roots and enhanced nutrient uptake by some species. We also found that climate change can increase the spread of invasive and noxious weeds. These findings are important for land managers to make adaptive planning decisions for domestic livestock production in response to climate variability in semi-arid grasslands.

  9. Well-being of haemophilia patients: a model for direct and indirect effects of medical parameters on the physical and psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triemstra, A H; Van der Ploeg, H M; Smit, C; Briët, E; Adèr, H J; Rosendaal, F R

    1998-09-01

    This study outlines the development and evaluation of a structural equation model for establishing the consequences of haemophilia. The hereditary disorder is characterized by a high tendency to haemorrhages, with recurrent bleeding into the joints causing irreversible joint damage. The model is, in general, an attempt to answer the following questions: what is the effect of haemophilia on the well-being (i.e. satisfaction, health, somatic complaints and self-esteem) of patients and what is the additional or mediating role of other individual characteristics in this pathway? Disease severity, joint impairment and disability are defined as antecedents of well-being and the mediating roles of appraisal (i.e. the personal evaluation of the disease), health beliefs (i.e. locus of control), psychological characteristics (i.e. anxiety, anger, depression and optimism) and social support are investigated. Psychological variables turned out to be the strongest determinants of well-being and partly mediated the detrimental effect of disability on well-being. The role of appraisal remained somewhat unclear, as no significant relationship was established between this personal evaluation of haemophilia and well-being. Nevertheless, appraisal very well reflected the level of disability. An internal locus of control and favourable psychological characteristics appeared to reduce the perceived seriousness of haemophilia. No evidence was found for social support to act as a mediator between disability and well-being. The perception of support did show moderately strong associations with psychological characteristics (i.e. anxiety and depression) and satisfaction ratings. The study merits further research on quantifying the relationships between clinical parameters and psychosocial outcomes in patients with a chronic disease.

  10. Toward an Optimal Position for IVC Filters: Computational Modeling of the Impact of Renal Vein Inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S L; Singer, M A

    2009-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of renal vein inflow and filter position on unoccluded and partially occluded IVC filters using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. Three-dimensional models of the TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters, spherical thrombi, and an IVC with renal veins were constructed. Hemodynamics of steady-state flow was examined for unoccluded and partially occluded TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters in varying proximity to the renal veins. Flow past the unoccluded filters demonstrated minimal disruption. Natural regions of stagnant/recirculating flow in the IVC are observed superior to the bilateral renal vein inflows, and high flow velocities and elevated shear stresses are observed in the vicinity of renal inflow. Spherical thrombi induce stagnant and/or recirculating flow downstream of the thrombus. Placement of the TrapEase filter in the suprarenal vein position resulted in a large area of low shear stress/stagnant flow within the filter just downstream of thrombus trapped in the upstream trapping position. Filter position with respect to renal vein inflow influences the hemodynamics of filter trapping. Placement of the TrapEase filter in a suprarenal location may be thrombogenic with redundant areas of stagnant/recirculating flow and low shear stress along the caval wall due to the upstream trapping position and the naturally occurring region of stagnant flow from the renal veins. Infrarenal vein placement of IVC filters in a near juxtarenal position with the downstream cone near the renal vein inflow likely confers increased levels of mechanical lysis of trapped thrombi due to increased shear stress from renal vein inflow.

  11. Modeling the probability distribution of positional errors incurred by residential address geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumdar Soumya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assignment of a point-level geocode to subjects' residences is an important data assimilation component of many geographic public health studies. Often, these assignments are made by a method known as automated geocoding, which attempts to match each subject's address to an address-ranged street segment georeferenced within a streetline database and then interpolate the position of the address along that segment. Unfortunately, this process results in positional errors. Our study sought to model the probability distribution of positional errors associated with automated geocoding and E911 geocoding. Results Positional errors were determined for 1423 rural addresses in Carroll County, Iowa as the vector difference between each 100%-matched automated geocode and its true location as determined by orthophoto and parcel information. Errors were also determined for 1449 60%-matched geocodes and 2354 E911 geocodes. Huge (> 15 km outliers occurred among the 60%-matched geocoding errors; outliers occurred for the other two types of geocoding errors also but were much smaller. E911 geocoding was more accurate (median error length = 44 m than 100%-matched automated geocoding (median error length = 168 m. The empirical distributions of positional errors associated with 100%-matched automated geocoding and E911 geocoding exhibited a distinctive Greek-cross shape and had many other interesting features that were not capable of being fitted adequately by a single bivariate normal or t distribution. However, mixtures of t distributions with two or three components fit the errors very well. Conclusion Mixtures of bivariate t distributions with few components appear to be flexible enough to fit many positional error datasets associated with geocoding, yet parsimonious enough to be feasible for nascent applications of measurement-error methodology to spatial epidemiology.

  12. A new stochastic model considering satellite clock interpolation errors in precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengli; Yang, Fanlin; Gao, Wang; Yan, Lizi; Ge, Yulong

    2018-03-01

    Precise clock products are typically interpolated based on the sampling interval of the observational data when they are used for in precise point positioning. However, due to the occurrence of white noise in atomic clocks, a residual component of such noise will inevitable reside within the observations when clock errors are interpolated, and such noise will affect the resolution of the positioning results. In this paper, which is based on a twenty-one-week analysis of the atomic clock noise characteristics of numerous satellites, a new stochastic observation model that considers satellite clock interpolation errors is proposed. First, the systematic error of each satellite in the IGR clock product was extracted using a wavelet de-noising method to obtain the empirical characteristics of atomic clock noise within each clock product. Then, based on those empirical characteristics, a stochastic observation model was structured that considered the satellite clock interpolation errors. Subsequently, the IGR and IGS clock products at different time intervals were used for experimental validation. A verification using 179 stations worldwide from the IGS showed that, compared with the conventional model, the convergence times using the stochastic model proposed in this study were respectively shortened by 4.8% and 4.0% when the IGR and IGS 300-s-interval clock products were used and by 19.1% and 19.4% when the 900-s-interval clock products were used. Furthermore, the disturbances during the initial phase of the calculation were also effectively improved.

  13. An updated prediction model of the global risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Nina; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Smith, Colette

    2016-01-01

    ,663 HIV-positive persons from 20 countries in Europe and Australia, who were free of CVD at entry into the Data-collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study. Cox regression models (full and reduced) were developed that predict the risk of a global CVD endpoint. The predictive performance...... of the D:A:D models were compared with a recent CVD prediction model from the Framingham study, which was assessed recalibrated to the D:A:D dataset. A total of 1010 CVD events occurred during 186,364.5 person-years. The full D:A:D CVD prediction model included age, gender, systolic blood pressure, smoking...... significantly predicted risk more accurately than the recalibrated Framingham model (Harrell's c-statistic of 0.791, 0.783 and 0.766 for the D:A:D full, D:A:D reduced, and Framingham models respectively; p models also more accurately predicted five-year CVD-risk for key prognostic subgroups...

  14. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How position, velocity, and temporal information combine in the prospective control of catching: data and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessing, Joost C; Peper, C Lieke E; Bullock, Daniel; Beek, Peter J

    2005-04-01

    The cerebral cortex contains circuitry for continuously computing properties of the environment and one's body, as well as relations among those properties. The success of complex perceptuomotor performances requires integrated, simultaneous use of such relational information. Ball catching is a good example as it involves reaching and grasping of visually pursued objects that move relative to the catcher. Although integrated neural control of catching has received sparse attention in the neuroscience literature, behavioral observations have led to the identification of control principles that may be embodied in the involved neural circuits. Here, we report a catching experiment that refines those principles via a novel manipulation. Visual field motion was used to perturb velocity information about balls traveling on various trajectories relative to a seated catcher, with various initial hand positions. The experiment produced evidence for a continuous, prospective catching strategy, in which hand movements are planned based on gaze-centered ball velocity and ball position information. Such a strategy was implemented in a new neural model, which suggests how position, velocity, and temporal information streams combine to shape catching movements. The model accurately reproduces the main and interaction effects found in the behavioral experiment and provides an interpretation of recently observed target motion-related activity in the motor cortex during interceptive reaching by monkeys. It functionally interprets a broad range of neurobiological and behavioral data, and thus contributes to a unified theory of the neural control of reaching to stationary and moving targets.

  16. Probability modeling of the number of positive cores in a prostate cancer biopsy session, with applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfling, Robert; Ogola, Gerald

    2016-02-10

    Among men, prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common newly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer. A major issue of very large scale is avoiding both over-treatment and under-treatment of CaP cases. The central challenge is deciding clinical significance or insignificance when the CaP biopsy results are positive but only marginally so. A related concern is deciding how to increase the number of biopsy cores for larger prostates. As a foundation for improved choice of number of cores and improved interpretation of biopsy results, we develop a probability model for the number of positive cores found in a biopsy, given the total number of cores, the volumes of the tumor nodules, and - very importantly - the prostate volume. Also, three applications are carried out: guidelines for the number of cores as a function of prostate volume, decision rules for insignificant versus significant CaP using number of positive cores, and, using prior distributions on total tumor size, Bayesian posterior probabilities for insignificant CaP and posterior median CaP. The model-based results have generality of application, take prostate volume into account, and provide attractive tradeoffs of specificity versus sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A hidden Markov model for investigating recent positive selection through haplotype structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Hey, Jody; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2015-02-01

    Recent positive selection can increase the frequency of an advantageous mutant rapidly enough that a relatively long ancestral haplotype will be remained intact around it. We present a hidden Markov model (HMM) to identify such haplotype structures. With HMM identified haplotype structures, a population genetic model for the extent of ancestral haplotypes is then adopted for parameter inference of the selection intensity and the allele age. Simulations show that this method can detect selection under a wide range of conditions and has higher power than the existing frequency spectrum-based method. In addition, it provides good estimate of the selection coefficients and allele ages for strong selection. The method analyzes large data sets in a reasonable amount of running time. This method is applied to HapMap III data for a genome scan, and identifies a list of candidate regions putatively under recent positive selection. It is also applied to several genes known to be under recent positive selection, including the LCT, KITLG and TYRP1 genes in Northern Europeans, and OCA2 in East Asians, to estimate their allele ages and selection coefficients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling and controller design of a 6-DOF precision positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kunhai; Tian, Yanling; Liu, Xianping; Fatikow, Sergej; Wang, Fujun; Cui, Liangyu; Zhang, Dawei; Shirinzadeh, Bijan

    2018-05-01

    A key hurdle to meet the needs of micro/nano manipulation in some complex cases is the inadequate workspace and flexibility of the operation ends. This paper presents a 6-degree of freedom (DOF) serial-parallel precision positioning system, which consists of two compact type 3-DOF parallel mechanisms. Each parallel mechanism is driven by three piezoelectric actuators (PEAs), guided by three symmetric T-shape hinges and three elliptical flexible hinges, respectively. It can extend workspace and improve flexibility of the operation ends. The proposed system can be assembled easily, which will greatly reduce the assembly errors and improve the positioning accuracy. In addition, the kinematic and dynamic model of the 6-DOF system are established, respectively. Furthermore, in order to reduce the tracking error and improve the positioning accuracy, the Discrete-time Model Predictive Controller (DMPC) is applied as an effective control method. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of the DMCP control method is verified. Finally, the tracking experiment is performed to verify the tracking performances of the 6-DOF stage.

  19. Positive affect predicts avoidance goals in social interaction anxiety: testing a hierarchical model of social goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trew, Jennifer L; Alden, Lynn E

    2012-01-01

    Models of self-regulation suggest that social goals may contribute to interpersonal and affective difficulties, yet little research has addressed this issue in the context of social anxiety. The present studies evaluated a hierarchical model of approach and avoidance in the context of social interaction anxiety, with affect as a mediating factor in the relationship between motivational tendencies and social goals. This model was refined in one undergraduate sample (N = 186) and cross-validated in a second sample (N = 195). The findings support hierarchical relationships between motivational tendencies, social interaction anxiety, affect, and social goals, with higher positive affect predicting fewer avoidance goals in both samples. Implications for the treatment of social interaction anxiety are discussed.

  20. An authentic animal model of the very preterm infant on nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargaville, Peter A; Lavizzari, Anna; Padoin, Priscila; Black, Don; Zonneveld, Elroy; Perkins, Elizabeth; Sourial, Magdy; Rajapaksa, Anushi E; Davis, Peter G; Hooper, Stuart B; Moss, Timothy Jm; Polglase, Graeme R; Tingay, David G

    2015-12-01

    The surge in uptake of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for respiratory support in preterm infants has occurred in the absence of an authentic animal model. Such a model would allow investigation of research questions of physiological and therapeutic importance. We therefore aimed to develop a preterm lamb model of the non-intubated very preterm infant on CPAP. After staged exteriorisation and instrumentation, preterm lambs were delivered from anaesthetised ewes at 131 to 133 days gestation. Via a single nasal prong (4-mm internal diameter, 6- to 7-cm depth), positive pressure was delivered from the outset, with nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) used until transition to nasal CPAP was attempted, and periodically thereafter for hypoventilation. Caffeine and doxapram were used as respiratory stimulants. Gastric distension was prevented with an oesophageal balloon. Cardiorespiratory parameters and results of arterial blood gas analyses were monitored throughout the study period, which continued for 150 min after first transition to CPAP. Ten preterm lambs were studied, at gestation 132 ± 1 days (mean ± SD) and birth weight 3.6 ± 0.45 kg. After stabilisation on NIPPV, transition to nasal CPAP was first attempted at 28 ± 11 min. There was transient respiratory acidosis, with gradual resolution as spontaneous respiratory activity increased. In the final hour, 79% ± 33% of time was spent on CPAP alone, with typical respiratory rates around 60 breaths per minute. PaCO2 at end-experiment was 58 ± 36 mmHg. Non-intubated preterm lambs can be effectively transitioned to nasal CPAP soon after birth. This animal model will be valuable for further research.

  1. Effect of positional dependence and alignment strategy on modeling transcription factor binding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quader Saad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many consensus-based and Position Weight Matrix-based methods for recognizing transcription factor binding sites (TFBS are not well suited to the variability in the lengths of binding sites. Besides, many methods discard known binding sites while building the model. Moreover, the impact of Information Content (IC and the positional dependence of nucleotides within an aligned set of TFBS has not been well researched for modeling variable-length binding sites. In this paper, we propose ML-Consensus (Mixed-Length Consensus: a consensus model for variable-length TFBS which does not exclude any reported binding sites. Methods We consider Pairwise Score (PS as a measure of positional dependence of nucleotides within an alignment of TFBS. We investigate how the prediction accuracy of ML-Consensus is affected by the incorporation of IC and PS with a particular binding site alignment strategy. We perform cross-validations for datasets of six species from the TRANSFAC public database, and analyze the results using ROC curves and the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-ranks test. Results We observe that the incorporation of IC and PS in ML-Consensus results in statistically significant improvement in the prediction accuracy of the model. Moreover, the existence of a core region among the known binding sites (of any length is witnessed by the pairwise coexistence of nucleotides within the core length. Conclusions These observations suggest the possibility of an efficient multiple sequence alignment algorithm for aligning TFBS, accommodating known binding sites of any length, for optimal (or near-optimal TFBS prediction. However, designing such an algorithm is a matter of further investigation.

  2. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  3. Positive and normative modeling for Palmer amaranth control and herbicide resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, George B; Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Norsworthy, Jason K

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic optimization models are normative; they solve for what growers 'ought to do' to maximize some objective, such as long-run profits. While valuable for research, such models are difficult to solve computationally, limiting their applicability to grower resistance management education. While discussing properties of normative models in general, this study presents results of a specific positive model of herbicide resistance management, applied to Palmer amaranth control on a representative cotton farm. This positive model compares a proactive resistance management strategy to a reactive strategy with lower short-run costs, but greater risk of herbicide resistance developing. The proactive strategy can pay for itself within 1-4 years, with a yield advantage of 4% or less if the yield advantage begins within 1-2 years of adoption. Whether the proactive strategy is preferable is sensitive to resistance onset and yield losses, but less sensitive to cotton prices or baseline yields. Industry rebates to encourage residual herbicide use (to delay resistance to post-emergence treatments) may be too small to alter grower behavior or they may be paid to growers who would have used residuals anyway. Rebates change grower behavior over a relatively narrow range of model parameters. The size of rebates needed to induce a grower to adopt the proactive strategy declines significantly if growers extend their planning horizon from 1 year to 3-4 years. Whether proactive resistance management is more profitable than a reactive strategy is more sensitive to biological parameters than economic ones. Simulation results suggest growers with longer time horizons (perhaps younger ones) would be more responsive to rebate programs. More empirical work is needed to determine how much rebates increase residual use above what would occur without them. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help to create the positive ionospheric

  5. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformations through different reaction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Organic compounds are produced in vast quantities for industrial and agricultural use, as well as for human and animal healthcare [1]. These chemicals and their metabolites are frequently detected at trace levels in fresh water environments where they undergo degradation via different reaction pathways. Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. Recent advances in analytical techniques have promoted the fast development and implementation of multi-element CSIA. However, quantitative frameworks to evaluate multi-element stable isotope data and incorporating mechanistic information on the degradation processes [2,3] are still lacking. In this study we propose a mechanism-based modeling approach to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. We validate the proposed approach with the concentration and multi-element isotope data of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways and their range of variation consistent with observed multi-element (C, N) bulk isotope fractionation. The proposed approach can also be used as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. [1] Schwarzenbach, R.P., Egli, T., Hofstetter, T.B., von Gunten, U., Wehrli, B., 2010. Global Water Pollution and Human Health. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-100809-125342. [2] Jin, B., Haderlein, S.B., Rolle, M

  6. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help

  7. Position Dependence of Fractional Derivative Models for Loudspeaker Voice Coils with Lossy Inductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Alexander Weider; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2017-01-01

    Commonly used models of moving-coil loudspeaker voice coils, which include effects from eddy current losses, are either inaccurate or contain an abundance of parameters, and are difficult to extend to the nonlinear domain. On the contrary, fractional derivative models accurately describe the freq......Commonly used models of moving-coil loudspeaker voice coils, which include effects from eddy current losses, are either inaccurate or contain an abundance of parameters, and are difficult to extend to the nonlinear domain. On the contrary, fractional derivative models accurately describe...... the frequency and position dependence of the lossy inductance, with meaningful connections to the underlying physics, while keeping the number of parameters low. These fractional derivatives are also compatible with state-space polynomial methods of modeling nonlinear behavior. It is shown that the fractional...... order derivative approaches a value of 1, corresponding to an ideal inductance, when the voice coil is completely outside the magnetic system. Finally, the developed model reveals details about the effect of conductive voice coil formers...

  8. The error model and experiment of measuring angular position error based on laser collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yangyang; Yang, Jing; Li, Jiakun; Feng, Qibo

    2018-01-01

    Rotary axis is the reference component of rotation motion. Angular position error is the most critical factor which impair the machining precision among the six degree-of-freedom (DOF) geometric errors of rotary axis. In this paper, the measuring method of angular position error of rotary axis based on laser collimation is thoroughly researched, the error model is established and 360 ° full range measurement is realized by using the high precision servo turntable. The change of space attitude of each moving part is described accurately by the 3×3 transformation matrices and the influences of various factors on the measurement results is analyzed in detail. Experiments results show that the measurement method can achieve high measurement accuracy and large measurement range.

  9. Mindfulness Broadens Awareness and Builds Eudaimonic Meaning: A Process Model of Mindful Positive Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L.; Farb, Norman A.; Goldin, Philippe; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on mindfulness casts it as a form of purely non-evaluative engagement with experience. Yet, traditionally mindfulness was not intended to operate in a vacuum of dispassionate observation, but was seen as facilitative of eudaimonic mental states. In spite of this historical context, modern psychological research has neglected to ask the question of how the practice of mindfulness affects downstream emotion regulatory processes to impact the sense of meaning in life. To fill this lacuna, here we describe the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, from which we derive a novel process model of mindful positive emotion regulation informed by affective science, in which mindfulness is proposed to introduce flexibility in the generation of cognitive appraisals by enhancing interoceptive attention, thereby expanding the scope of cognition to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience. This process is proposed to culminate in a deepened capacity for meaning-making and greater engagement with life. PMID:27087765

  10. The Effect of IMF Fluctuations on the SubsolarMagnetopause Position Using a Global MHD Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, R. E. F.; Lopez, R. E.; Wang, J.; Carranza, H.

    2017-12-01

    During southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, the subsolar magnetopause moves inward. This is generally referred to as "erosion." Studies have been conducted on such magnetopause erosion; however, they generally use steady state IMF conditions. Solar wind conditions are not usually constant for very long, especially during such conditions as are present in high-speeds streams, which typically have large fluctuations in the IMF. These IMF fluctuations can occur on a range of times scales and amplitudes, resulting in a series of northward and southward IMF intervals imposed on the magnetosphere. We simulate the effect of such IMF variations on the magnetopause position using a global MHD model. We will present the dependence of the subsolar magnetopause position on the frequency and amplitude of IMF oscillations.

  11. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression. ...

  12. Properties of type IV plaster considering variation in the mold/model position during setting stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio José de Arruda Paes Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of the position of the mold during the setting stage of type IV stone plaster Durone (Dentsply Ind. Com., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on the following properties: surface hardness and roughness. Methods: For the roughness test, two groups (n=6 in the form of pellets were prepared. In the first group, the surface of the base of the device was turned down during the plaster setting stage (N, in the second group this position was inverted, which has been described as an act of capsize it (E. For analysis, a roughness meter with reading precision of 0.01 μm was used. With regard to the hardness analysis, two groups with conical-shaped samples were obtained. The plasters were left to set under the same conditions of the mold/model position described for the previous experiment. Hardness measurement was performed in a durometer with a spherical penetrating tip for Rockwell readout. Three measurements were performed for each test specimen in both tests. Results: The hardness (N - 39.8, standard deviation = 3.3, E - 30.8, standard deviation = 5.6 and roughness data (N - 0.67, standard deviation = 0.17, E - 0.74, standard deviation = 0.13 submitted to the Student’s-t test (5% showed no statistically significant differences for the roughness test (0.489, but showed statistically significant differences for the hardness test (0.014. Conclusion: The variation in the mold/model position influenced the final characteristics of the specimens in terms of hardness, since those obtained with the capsize technique showed lower surface hardness, whereas for roughness these differences were not statistically significant.

  13. Design of a dynamic positioning system using model-based control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgeir J. Sørensen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic positioning (DP system includes different control functions for automatic positioning and guidance of marine vessels by means of thruster and propeller actions. This paper describes the control functions which provide station-keeping and tracking. The DP controller is designed using model-based control, where a new modified LQG feedback controller and a model reference feedforward controller are applied. A reference model calculates appropriate reference trajectories. Since it is not desirable nor even possible to counteract the wave-frequency movement caused by first-order wave loads, the control action of the propulsion system should be produced by the low frequency part of the vessel movement caused by current, wind and second-order mean and slowly varying wave loads. A Kalman filter based state estimator and a Luenberger observer are used to compute the low-frequency feedback and feedforward control signals. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel demonstrate the performance of the proposed controller.

  14. Direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter; Detection directe et indirecte de matiere sombre supersymetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, F

    2001-09-01

    A substantial body of astrophysical evidence supports the existence of non-baryonic dark matter in the universe. One of the leading dark matter candidates is the neutralino predicted by the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. Different detectors have been designed for the detection, either indirect or direct, of the neutralino. Related to indirect detection, the present work has been performed in the context of the AMS experiment. A precursor version of the spectrometer was flown on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998. The detector included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to identify antiprotons, whose spectrum may be used to infer a neutralino signal. The analysis of the ATC data is presented including an evaluation of the flight performance and a description of the optimization of the antiproton selection. An antiproton analysis is also reported. A phenomenological study allows us to investigate the discovery potential of this indirect method. This thesis also includes the development of a new detector (MACHe3) designed for direct neutralino search using a superfluid {sup 3}He bolometer operated at ultra low temperatures. The data analysis of the prototype cell is presented. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed, in order to optimize the detector design for direct neutralino search. These results are compared with theoretical predictions of supersymmetric models, thus highlighting the discovery potential of this detector and its complementarity with existing devices. (author)

  15. The role of internal forward models and proprioception in hand position estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Fatemeh; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Ahmadi-Pajouh, Mohammad-Ali; Darainy, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Our ability to properly move and react in different situations is largely dependent on our perception of our limbs' position. At least three sources - vision, proprioception, and internal forward models (FMs) - seem to contribute to this perception. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of each source has not been studied individually. Specifically, role of FM has been ignored in some previous studies. We hypothesized that FM has a critical role in subjects' perception which needs to be considered in the relevant studies to obtain more reliable results. Therefore, we designed an experiment with the goal of investigating FM and proprioception role in subjects' perception of their hand's position. Three groups of subjects were recruited in the study. Based on the experiment design, it was supposed that subjects in different groups relied on proprioception, FM, and both of them for estimating their unseen hand's position. Comparing the results of three groups revealed significant difference between their estimation' errors. FM provided minimum estimation error, while proprioception had a bias error in the tested region. Integrating proprioception with FM decreased this error. Integration of two Gaussian functions, fitted to the error distribution of FM and proprioception groups, was simulated and created a mean error value almost similar to the experimental observation. These results suggest that FM role needs to be considered when studying the perceived position of the limbs. This can lead to gain better insights into the mechanisms underlying the perception of our limbs' position which might have potential clinical and rehabilitation applications, e.g., in the postural control of elderly which are at high risk of falls and injury because of deterioration of their perception with age.

  16. Practical support aids addiction recovery: the positive identity model of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Ayna B; Brendryen, Håvar; Darnell, Farnad J; Wennesland, Dag K

    2013-07-31

    There is a need for studies that can highlight principles of addiction recovery. Because social relationships are involved in all change processes, understanding how social motivations affect the recovery process is vital to guide support programs. The objective was to develop a model of recovery by examining addicted individuals' social motivations through longitudinal assessment of non-professional support dyads. A qualitative, longitudinal study design was used, combining focus groups and in-depth interviews with addicted individuals and their sponsors. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory: open coding and memos for conceptual labelling, axial coding for category building, and selective coding for theory building. The setting was an addiction recovery social support program in Oslo, Norway. The informants included nine adults affected by addiction, six sponsors, and the program coordinator. The participants were addicted to either alcohol (2), benzodiazepines (1), pain killers (1) or polydrug-use (5). The sponsors were unpaid, and had no history of addiction problems. Support perceived to be ineffective emerged in dyads with no operationalized goal, and high emotional availability with low degree of practical support. Support perceived to be effective was signified by the sponsor attending to power imbalance and the addict coming into position to help others and feel useful. The findings appear best understood as a positive identity-model of recovery, indicated by the pursuit of skill building relevant to a non-drug using identity, and enabled by the on-going availability of instrumental support. This produced situations where role reversals were made possible, leading to increased self-esteem. Social support programs should be based on a positive identity-model of recovery that enable the building of a life-sustainable identity.

  17. Direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers data collected in hair samples - multivariate data analysis and likelihood ratio interpretation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Alladio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration values of direct and indirect biomarkers of ethanol consumption were detected in blood (indirect or hair (direct samples from a pool of 125 individuals classified as either chronic (i.e. positive and non-chronic (i.e. negative alcohol drinkers. These experimental values formed the dataset under examination (Table 1. Indirect biomarkers included: aspartate transferase (AST, alanine transferase (ALT, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes (MCV, carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT. The following direct biomarkers were also detected in hair: ethyl myristate (E14:0, ethyl palmitate (E16:0, ethyl stearate (E18:1, ethyl oleate (E18:0, the sum of their four concentrations (FAEEs, i.e. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters and ethyl glucuronide (EtG; pg/mg. Body mass index (BMI was also collected as a potential influencing factor. Likelihood ratio (LR approaches have been used to provide predictive models for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, based on different combinations of direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers, as described in “Evaluation of direct and indirect ethanol biomarkers using a likelihood ratio approach to identify chronic alcohol abusers for forensic purposes” (E. Alladio, A. Martyna, A. Salomone, V. Pirro, M. Vincenti, G. Zadora, 2017 [1].

  18. Risk model in stage IB1-IIB cervical cancer with positive node after radical hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Z

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhilan Chen,1,2,* Kecheng Huang,1,* Zhiyong Lu,1,3 Song Deng,1,4 Jiaqiang Xiong,1 Jia Huang,1 Xiong Li,5 Fangxu Tang,1 Zhihao Wang,6 Haiying Sun,1 Lin Wang,1 Shasha Zhou,1 Xiaoli Wang,1 Yao Jia,1 Ting Hu,1 Juan Gui,7 Dongyi Wan,1 Ding Ma,1 Shuang Li,1 Shixuan Wang11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Techonology, Wuhan, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan, 3Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Tai-He Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi, Hubei, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuhan Central Hospital, Wuhan, 6Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education of China for Neurological Disorders, Huazhong University of Science and Techonology, Wuhan, 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors in patients with surgically treated node-positive IB1-IIB cervical cancer and to establish a risk model for disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. A total of 170 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy as primary treatment for node-positive International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage IB1-IIB cervical cancer from January 2002 to December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Five published risk models were evaluated in this population. The variables, including common iliac lymph node metastasis and parametrial invasion, were independent predictors of outcome in a multivariate analysis using a Cox regression model. Three distinct prognostic groups (low, intermediate, and high risk

  19. [Construction and improvement of animal models with different positional osseous metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Y X; Xiao, M H; Zhang, N N; Li, X Y; Mao, X P; Zhang, K; Zhang, Z R; Zhao, L Y

    2017-08-18

    To provide an important tool for the study of diagnose and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) osseous metastasis and change of bone stress force on prostate cancer (PCa) osseous metastasis and a platform, which is more congruous to clinical process, for prevention and cure of neoplastic bone metastases, and to carry out the construction and improvement of animal models of PCa with different positional osseous metastasis in vivo. Different gradient concentrations of RM-1 cells were inoculated into the cavity of left femoral bone or lumbar vertebra of mice (C57BL/6) respectively. The change of mouse activity, tumor formation, tumor size and survival time were observed respectively. And the femur tissue and spinal tissue were obtained from the mice after death. The gray value of iconography were measured by imageological examination of femur tissue, and the final histopathological examination were taken to determine the tumor type in both femur and spinal tissue. The tumor growth could be touched at the puncture site in all the mice after inoculated for 7 days. There were no obvious differences in the time of tumorigenesis, the rate of tumor growth and tumor size among the mice in the same group (P>0.05). As the result, the construction femoral bone and lumbar vertebra metastatic models of PCa had been confirmed by iconography and pathology detection. At the same time, the survival time of the mice inoculated with low concentrations of PCa cells was obviously longer than that of high concentrations of PCa cells ( at least 2 weeks longer). The animal models with different positional osseous metastasis (limbs and axial skeleton) of PCa using the same PCa cells (RM-1) had been first constructed successfully in our study. At the same time, a high success rate of construction of PCa animal model with bone metastasis was obtained by femoral bone marrow cavity injection of PCa cells. The rate of tumor growth was rapid, animal survival time was appropriate, and the PCa animal

  20. Effect of raingage density, position and interpolation on rainfall-discharge modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, S.; Sohier, C.; Charles, C.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation traditionally observed using raingages or weather stations, is one of the main parameters that have direct impact on runoff production. Precipitation data require a preliminary spatial interpolation prior to hydrological modeling. The accuracy of modelling result depends on the accuracy of the interpolated spatial rainfall which differs according to different interpolation methods. The accuracy of the interpolated spatial rainfall is usually determined by cross-validation method. The objective of this study is to assess the different interpolation methods of daily rainfall at the watershed scale through hydrological modelling and to explore the best methods that provide a good long term simulation. Four versions of geostatistics: Ordinary Kriging (ORK), Universal Kriging (UNK), Kriging with External Dridft (KED) and Ordinary Cokriging (OCK) and two types of deterministic methods: Thiessen polygon (THI) and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) are used to produce 30-year daily rainfall inputs for a distributed physically-based hydrological model (EPIC-GRID). This work is conducted in the Ourthe and Ambleve nested catchments, located in the Ardennes hilly landscape in the Walloon region, Belgium. The total catchment area is 2908 km2, lies between 67 and 693 m in elevation. The multivariate geostatistics (KED and OCK) are also used by incorporating elevation as external data to improve the rainfall prediction. This work also aims at analysing the effect of different raingage densities and position used for interpolation, on the stream flow modelled to get insight in terms of the capability and limitation of the geostatistical methods. The number of raingage varies from 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 8 to 4 stations located in and surrounding the catchment area. In the latter case, we try to use different positions: around the catchment and only a part of the catchment. The result shows that the simple method like THI fails to capture the rainfall and to produce

  1. Mathematical Model and Calibration Procedure of a PSD Sensor Used in Local Positioning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Navarro, David; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Bravo-Muñoz, Ignacio; Gardel-Vicente, Alfredo; Domingo-Perez, Francisco; Tsirigotis, Georgios

    2016-09-15

    Here, we propose a mathematical model and a calibration procedure for a PSD (position sensitive device) sensor equipped with an optical system, to enable accurate measurement of the angle of arrival of one or more beams of light emitted by infrared (IR) transmitters located at distances of between 4 and 6 m. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to characterize the intrinsic parameters that model the system and obtain their values. This first approach was based on a pin-hole model, to which system nonlinearities were added, and this was used to model the points obtained with the nA currents provided by the PSD. In addition, we analyzed the main sources of error, including PSD sensor signal noise, gain factor imbalances and PSD sensor distortion. The results indicated that the proposed model and method provided satisfactory calibration and yielded precise parameter values, enabling accurate measurement of the angle of arrival with a low degree of error, as evidenced by the experimental results.

  2. Semi-empirical chemical model for indirect advanced oxidation of Acid Orange 7 using an unmodified carbon fabric cathode for H2O2 production in an electrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, B; Rondán, V; Ortiz-Hernández, L; Silva-Martínez, S; Alvarez-Gallegos, A

    2016-04-15

    A commercial Unidirectional Carbon Fabric piece was used to design an electrode for the cathodic O2 reduction reaction in a divided (by a Nafion(®) 117 membrane) parallel plate reactor. The anode was a commercial stainless steel mesh. Under this approach it is feasible to produce H2O2 at low energy (2.08 kWh kg(-1) H2O2) in low ionic acidic medium. In the catholyte side the H2O2 can be activated with Fe(2+) to develop the Fenton reagent. It was found that Acid Orange 7 (AO7) indirect oxidation (in the concentration range of 0.12-0.24 mM) by Fenton chemistry follows a first order kinetic equation. The energy required for 0.24 mM AO7 degradation is 1.04 kWhm(-3). From each experimental AO7 oxidation the main parameters (a, mM and k, min(-1)) of the first order kinetic equation are obtained. These parameters can be correlated with AO7 concentration in the concentration range studied. Based on this method a semi-empirical chemical model was developed to predict the AO7 abatement, by means of Fenton chemistry. Good AO7 oxidation predictions can be made in the concentration range studied. A detailed discussion of the energy required for oxidizing AO7 and the accuracy of the chemical model to predict its oxidation is included in this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On stochastic modeling of the modernized global positioning system (GPS) L2C signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsobeiey, Mohamed; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    In order to take full advantage of the modernized GPS L2C signal, it is essential that its stochastic characteristics and code bias be rigorously determined. In this paper, long sessions of GPS measurements are used to study the stochastic characteristics of the modernized GPS L2C signal. As a byproduct, the stochastic characteristics of the legacy GPS signals, namely C/A and P2 codes, are also determined, which are used to verify the developed stochastic model of the modernized signal. The differential code biases between P2 and C2, DCB P2-C2 , are also estimated using the Bernese GPS software. It is shown that the developed models improved the precise point positioning (PPP) solution and convergence time

  4. Importance of Lorentz structure in the parton model: Target mass corrections, transverse momentum dependence, positivity bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alesio, U.; Leader, E.; Murgia, F.

    2010-01-01

    We show that respecting the underlying Lorentz structure in the parton model has very strong consequences. Failure to insist on the correct Lorentz covariance is responsible for the existence of contradictory results in the literature for the polarized structure function g 2 (x), whereas with the correct imposition we are able to derive the Wandzura-Wilczek relation for g 2 (x) and the target-mass corrections for polarized deep inelastic scattering without recourse to the operator product expansion. We comment briefly on the problem of threshold behavior in the presence of target-mass corrections. Careful attention to the Lorentz structure has also profound implications for the structure of the transverse momentum dependent parton densities often used in parton model treatments of hadron production, allowing the k T dependence to be derived explicitly. It also leads to stronger positivity and Soffer-type bounds than usually utilized for the collinear densities.

  5. Stress and transtheoretical model indicators of stress management behaviors in HIV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracy A; Fava, Joseph L

    2003-03-01

    Women are particularly prone to stress with respect to living with HIV. Stress management behaviors can mediate the stress response and improve health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals. The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to examine stress and Transtheoretical Model (TTM) indicators of stress management behaviors in HIV-positive women. 126 HIV-positive women recruited from diverse HIV-care clinics in northeast Ohio completed standardized self-report research instruments to measure stress, stress management behaviors, stage of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance (pros and cons). Women reported higher levels of stress in the later phase of HIV infection (Pstressed women in this study reported infrequently using stress management behaviors and a low level of perceived efficacy to manage stress although they perceived the pros of managing stress to be high (PStress management behaviors were significantly related to stage of change (Pmanaging stress (Pstress management behavior were atypical in this sample. Clinicians and researchers can use the TTM to describe behavioral indicators of stress management in HIV+ women. However, further research is needed to more fully understand behavioral processes HIV+ women can use to adopt and maintain stress management behaviors.

  6. Indirect haemagglutination test in intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Ajita

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect haemagglutination test has been evaluated in cases of amoebiasis. It gave positive percentages of 90, 91.8 and 68.1 in amoebic liver abscess, chronic amoebic dysentery and amoebic hepatitis respectively. The test was negative in acute amoebic dysentery group. Positivity of 4.3% was obtained in ap-perently healthy subjects. Details regarding above findings, are presented.

  7. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  8. Relaxation of femtosecond photoexcited electrons in a polar indirect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A model calculation is given for the energy relaxation of a non-equilibrium distribution of hot electrons (holes) prepared in the conduction (valence) band of a polar indirect band-gap semiconductor, which has been subjected to homogeneous photoexcitation by a femtosecond laser pulse. The model assumes that the ...

  9. School climate and teachers' beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: a diffusion of innovations model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol

    2008-12-01

    Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school's administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school's climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support.

  10. Damping at positive frequencies in the limit J⊥-->0 in the strongly correlated Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Minette M.

    1992-08-01

    I show damping in the two-dimensional strongly correlated Hubbard model within the retraceable-path approximation, using an expansion around dominant poles for the self-energy. The damping half-width ~J2/3z occurs only at positive frequencies ω>5/2Jz, the excitation energy of a pure ``string'' state of length one, where Jz is the Ising part of the superexchange interaction, and occurs even in the absence of spin-flip terms ~J⊥ in contrast to other theoretical treatments. The dispersion relation for both damped and undamped peaks near the upper band edge is found and is shown to have lost the simple J2/3z dependence characteristic of the peaks near the lower band edge. The position of the first three peaks near the upper band edge agrees well with numerical simulations on the t-J model. The weight of the undamped peaks near the upper band edge is ~J4/3z, contrasting with Jz for the weight near the lower band edge.

  11. Construction of microRNA functional families by a mixture model of position weight matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Keun Rhee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small regulatory molecules that repress the translational processes of their target genes by binding to their 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs. Because the target genes are predominantly determined by their sequence complementarity to the miRNA seed regions (nucleotides 2–7 which are evolutionarily conserved, it is inferred that the target relationships and functions of the miRNA family members are conserved across many species. Therefore, detecting the relevant miRNA families with confidence would help to clarify the conserved miRNA functions, and elucidate miRNA-mediated biological processes. We present a mixture model of position weight matrices for constructing miRNA functional families. This model systematically finds not only evolutionarily conserved miRNA family members but also functionally related miRNAs, as it simultaneously generates position weight matrices representing the conserved sequences. Using mammalian miRNA sequences, in our experiments, we identified potential miRNA groups characterized by similar sequence patterns that have common functions. We validated our results using score measures and by the analysis of the conserved targets. Our method would provide a way to comprehensively identify conserved miRNA functions.

  12. Position Estimation of an Epicardial Crawling Robot on the Beating Heart by Modeling of Physiological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan A.; del Agua, Diego Moral; Zenati, Marco A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    HeartLander, a small mobile robot designed to provide treatments to the surface of the beating heart, overcomes a major difficulty of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, providing a stable operating platform. This is achieved inherently in the way the robot adheres to and crawls over the surface of the heart. This mode of operation does not require physiological motion compensation to provide this stable environment; however, modeling of physiological motion is advantageous in providing more accurate position estimation as well as synchronization of motion to the physiological cycles. The work presented uses an Extended Kalman Filter framework to estimate parameters of non-stationary Fourier series models of the motion of the heart due to the respiratory and cardiac cycles as well as the position of the robot as it moves over the surface of the heart. The proposed method is demonstrated in the laboratory with HeartLander operating on a physiological motion simulator. Improved performance is demonstrated in comparison to the filtering methods previously used with HeartLander. The use of detected physiological cycle phases to synchronize locomotion of HeartLander is also described. PMID:23066511

  13. The Incidence of Positive Modifications to Nerve Conduits in Rodent Nerve Repair Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tejas T.; Isaacs, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nerve conduit is a generally accepted tool to facilitate the repair of short nerve gaps. Limitations in effectiveness have been recognized, and a steady stream of possible conduit improvements has been published in the scientific literature. Analysis of this information, particularly when small animal models have been utilized, seems to indicate that nearly any modification of a nerve conduit improves outcomes in repairs of short gaps over standard nerve conduits. This seems statistically and biologically improbable and suggests a bias in the literature. Methods: A standardized systemic review of the scientific literature on rodent model studies assessing conduit modifications was undertaken to determine the incidence of positive or supportive outcomes. Results: Modifications were deemed superior in 97.3% of studies when compared with unmodified conduits and deemed equivalent or superior in 52.1% of studies when compared with autograft. Conclusions: A seemingly disproportionate number of positive results suggest that the literature on nerve conduit modifications may be skewed. We believe that there is a publication bias in the literature, and this warrants further investigation. PMID:27418898

  14. Modelling Movement Energetics Using Global Positioning System Devices in Contact Team Sports: Limitations and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Adrian J; Shorter, Kathleen; Cummins, Cloe; Murphy, Aron; Waldron, Mark

    2018-03-27

    Quantifying the training and competition loads of players in contact team sports can be performed in a variety of ways, including kinematic, perceptual, heart rate or biochemical monitoring methods. Whilst these approaches provide data relevant for team sports practitioners and athletes, their application to a contact team sport setting can sometimes be challenging or illogical. Furthermore, these methods can generate large fragmented datasets, do not provide a single global measure of training load and cannot adequately quantify all key elements of performance in contact team sports. A previous attempt to address these limitations via the estimation of metabolic energy demand (global energy measurement) has been criticised for its inability to fully quantify the energetic costs of team sports, particularly during collisions. This is despite the seemingly unintentional misapplication of the model's principles to settings outside of its intended use. There are other hindrances to the application of such models, which are discussed herein, such as the data-handling procedures of Global Position System manufacturers and the unrealistic expectations of end users. Nevertheless, we propose an alternative energetic approach, based on Global Positioning System-derived data, to improve the assessment of mechanical load in contact team sports. We present a framework for the estimation of mechanical work performed during locomotor and contact events with the capacity to globally quantify the work done during training and matches.

  15. Estimation of orientation and position of cervical vertebrae for segmentation with active shape models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Gilberto; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Mitra, Sunanda; Long, L. Rodney

    2001-07-01

    Radiologists are always looking for more reliable and robust methods to help them assess, describe and classify bone structures in x-ray images. Although, in the recent years, computer-assisted techniques have proven to be useful in this regard, they still face difficult challenges such as inter-subject variability in shape and a lack of contrast in the digitized images of radiographs. These challenges have focused the attention of the computer vision research community on techniques that employ deformable models. One such technique, i.e., Active Shape Models (ASM), has received significant attention due to its ability to capture the shape variability and to deal with the poor quality of the images in a straightforward manner. However, as is often the case with iterative optimization techniques, success of the ASM search step is highly dependent on the initial positioning of the mean shape on the target image. Within the specific framework of automatic, cervical vertebra segmentation, we have developed and tested an up-front preprocessing algorithm that estimates the orientation and position of the cervical vertebrae in x-ray images and leads to a more accurate, initial placement of the mean shape. The algorithm estimates the orientation of the spine by calculating parallel-beam line integrals of the x-ray images. The position of the spine is estimated by considering the density of edges perpendicular to the line integral that gives the estimate of the orientation. The output of the algorithm is a bounding box surrounding the cervical spine area. Morphometric points placed by expert radiologists on a set of 40, digitized radiographs were used to quantify the efficacy of the estimation. This test yielded acceptable results in estimating the orientation and the locating of the cervical spine.

  16. Modeling economic costs of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction: analysis using a dynamic CGE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

    2013-11-01

    Disaster damages have negative effects on economy, whereas reconstruction investments have positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and further avoid double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks in CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on supply side of economy; A portion of investments restore the capital stock in existing period; An investment-driven dynamic model is formulated due to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. S2 overestimates economic loss by roughly two times that under S1. The gap in economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% in 2011, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

  17. Change for the better: an innovative model of care delivering positive patient and workforce outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Tina; Gardner, Anne

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate patient and workforce outcomes following the implementation of the Practice Partnership Model of Care. Pre-test-post-test design. A 29-bed surgical ward at a tertiary-level regional hospital. Summary de-identified data from all patients and ward nursing staff in the study period. The Practice Partnership Model of Care has four main components: working in partnership; clinical handover at the bedside; comfort rounds; and environmental modifications. These reflect patient-centered and quality focused initiatives and use a total quality improvement framework that aims to transform care at the bedside. Patient outcomes: changes in patient safety (measured by numbers of medication errors and patient falls); satisfaction with care (use of the call bell system, number of complaints and compliments). Workforce outcomes: changes in staff satisfaction (measured through staff sick leave). A statistically significant reduction in use of nurse call bells (p=<0.001) post-implementation. Medication errors and patient falls reduced, with an overall reduction of 4% in staff sick leave. The Practice Partnership Model of Care positively affected patient and workforce outcomes, suggesting further exploration of this model in other hospital contexts is warranted.

  18. STUDY ON MODELING AND VISUALIZING THE POSITIONAL UNCERTAINTY OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is inevitable to bring about uncertainty during the process of data acquisition. The traditional method to evaluate the geometric positioning accuracy is usually by the statistical method and represented by the root mean square errors (RMSEs of control points. It is individual and discontinuous, so it is difficult to describe the error spatial distribution. In this paper the error uncertainty of each control point is deduced, and the uncertainty spatial distribution model of each arbitrary point is established. The error model is proposed to evaluate the geometric accuracy of remote sensing image. Then several visualization methods are studied to represent the discrete and continuous data of geometric uncertainties. The experiments show that the proposed evaluation method of error distribution model compared with the traditional method of RMSEs can get the similar results but without requiring the user to collect control points as checkpoints, and error distribution information calculated by the model can be provided to users along with the geometric image data. Additionally, the visualization methods described in this paper can effectively and objectively represents the image geometric quality, and also can help users probe the reasons of bringing the image uncertainties in some extent.

  19. Risk analysis of Leksell Gamma Knife Model C with automatic positioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the decrease in risk from misadministration of the new Leksell Gamma Knife Model C with Automatic Positioning System compared with previous models. Methods and Materials: Elekta Instruments, A.B. of Stockholm has introduced a new computer-controlled Leksell Gamma Knife Model C which uses motor-driven trunnions to reposition the patient between isocenters (shots) without human intervention. Previous models required the operators to manually set coordinates from a printed list, permitting opportunities for coordinate transposition, incorrect helmet size, incorrect treatment times, missing shots, or repeated shots. Results: A risk analysis was conducted between craniotomy involving hospital admission and outpatient Gamma Knife radiosurgery. A report of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies dated November 29, 1999 estimated that medical errors kill between 44,000 and 98,000 people each year in the United States. Another report from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System estimates that 2.1 million nosocomial infections occur annually in the United States in acute care hospitals alone, with 31 million total admissions. Conclusions: All medical procedures have attendant risks of morbidity and possibly mortality. Each patient should be counseled as to the risk of adverse effects as well as the likelihood of good results for alternative treatment strategies. This paper seeks to fill a gap in the existing medical literature, which has a paucity of data involving risk estimates for stereotactic radiosurgery

  20. Inhibition of vicariously learned fear in children using positive modeling and prior exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Chris; Reynolds, Gemma; Fielding-Smith, Sarah; Field, Andy P

    2016-02-01

    One of the challenges to conditioning models of fear acquisition is to explain how different individuals can experience similar learning events and only some of them subsequently develop fear. Understanding factors moderating the impact of learning events on fear acquisition is key to understanding the etiology and prevention of fear in childhood. This study investigates these moderators in the context of vicarious (observational) learning. Two experiments tested predictions that the acquisition or inhibition of fear via vicarious learning is driven by associative learning mechanisms similar to direct conditioning. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of children aged 7 to 9 years received 1 of 3 inhibitive information interventions-psychoeducation, factual information, or no information (control)-prior to taking part in a vicarious fear learning procedure. In Experiment 2, 3 groups of children aged 7 to 10 years received 1 of 3 observational learning interventions-positive modeling (immunization), observational familiarity (latent inhibition), or no prevention (control)-before vicarious fear learning. Results indicated that observationally delivered manipulations inhibited vicarious fear learning, while preventions presented via written information did not. These findings confirm that vicarious learning shares some of the characteristics of direct conditioning and can explain why not all individuals will develop fear following a vicarious learning event. They also suggest that the modality of inhibitive learning is important and should match the fear learning pathway for increased chances of inhibition. Finally, the results demonstrate that positive modeling is likely to be a particularly effective method for preventing fear-related observational learning in children. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Pathways to Adolescents' Flourishing: Linking Self-Control Skills and Positivity Ratio through Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod; Hamama, Liat; Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Ronen, Tammie

    2018-01-01

    This study focused on the ability to experience a high ratio of positive to negative emotions in 807 Israeli adolescents aged 12 to 15 years (50% girls). While considering possible gender differences, we tested a model positing that adolescents' self-control skills would link to their positivity ratio and indirectly through perceived social…

  2. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  3. RECURSIVE LEAST SQUARES WITH REAL TIME STOCHASTIC MODELING: APPLICATION TO GPS RELATIVE POSITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zangeneh-Nejad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Geodetic data processing is usually performed by the least squares (LS adjustment method. There are two different forms for the LS adjustment, namely the batch form and recursive form. The former is not an appropriate method for real time applications in which new observations are added to the system over time. For such cases, the recursive solution is more suitable than the batch form. The LS method is also implemented in GPS data processing via two different forms. The mathematical model including both functional and stochastic models should be properly defined for both forms of the LS method. Proper choice of the stochastic model plays an important role to achieve high-precision GPS positioning. The noise characteristics of the GPS observables have been already investigated using the least squares variance component estimation (LS-VCE in a batch form by the authors. In this contribution, we introduce a recursive procedure that provides a proper stochastic modeling for the GPS observables using the LS-VCE. It is referred to as the recursive LS-VCE (RLS-VCE method, which is applied to the geometry-based observation model (GBOM. In this method, the (covariances parameters can be estimated recursively when the new group of observations is added. Therefore, it can easily be implemented in real time GPS data processing. The efficacy of the method is evaluated using a real GPS data set collected by the Trimble R7 receiver over a zero baseline. The results show that the proposed method has an appropriate performance so that the estimated (covariance parameters of the GPS observables are consistent with the batch estimates. However, using the RLS-VCE method, one can estimate the (covariance parameters of the GPS observables when a new observation group is added. This method can thus be introduced as a reliable method for application to the real time GPS data processing.

  4. Model-based analysis of anion-exchanger positioning in direct methanol fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Maik; Schröder, Daniel; Krewer, Ulrike

    2014-09-01

    In this work we present a model based study to investigate the presence of anion exchangers in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) systems. It is well known that environmental or fuel impurities lead to accumulation of harmful anions, such as chloride, in the system. However, due to DMFC anodic reaction, a carbonate system is present. These corbanate anions have to be taken into account for the anion exchanger design and placement as well as for the system operation strategy with and without anion exchanger, which is the objective of this study. For this purpose, the expected amount of harmful chloride ions in a DMFC system is estimated, and that of carbonate ions is calculated with a model of the carbonate system in a DMFC system. The predicition of durability and dimensions of an anion exchanger is based on a monovalent anion exchange model. The design of gas liquid separators in the DMFC system has a major influence on the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide, which is crucial for durability and dimension of a system integrated anion exchanger. Finally, feasible positions of anion exchanger in a DMFC system are elaborated to fulfill the needs for long term and stable DMFC operation.

  5. Comparison of "Direct" and "Indirect" Nuclear Cystography in the Diagnosis of Vesicoureteric Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khriesat Imad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to compare "direct" and "indirect" nuclear cystography for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Forty-five children (15 males and 30 females, ranging in age from 5 months to 10 years, were studied at the King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan between January 1998 and December 1999, using both direct (catheter and indirect techniques of nuclear cystography (NC. Of the 82 ureters that could be compared, 32 ureters were positive for VUR on the direct technique while only 20 ureters showed VUR on the indirect technique (sensitivity 62%. Nine ureters, which did not show VUR on the direct cystogram, were read as positive on the indirect cystogram (specificity 82%. The false positive results of indirect nuclear cystogram make it invalid for VUR screening program, while the ease of assessment and low radiation dose from the direct NC has made this the recommended test for screening and follow-up of VUR.

  6. On the comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection of indirect questioning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Adrian; Waubert de Puiseau, Berenike; Schmidt, Alexander F; Musch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    On surveys that assess sensitive personal attributes, indirect questioning aims at increasing respondents' willingness to answer truthfully by protecting confidentiality. However, the assumption that subjects understand questioning procedures fully and trust them to protect their privacy is rarely tested. In a scenario-based design, we compared four indirect questioning procedures in terms of their comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection. All indirect questioning techniques were found to be less comprehensible by respondents than a conventional direct question used for comparison. Less-educated respondents experienced more difficulties when confronted with any indirect questioning technique. Regardless of education, the crosswise model was found to be the most comprehensible among the four indirect methods. Indirect questioning in general was perceived to increase privacy protection in comparison to a direct question. Unexpectedly, comprehension and perceived privacy protection did not correlate. We recommend assessing these factors separately in future evaluations of indirect questioning.

  7. An education model of a nano-positioning system for mechanical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Yeon; Gweon, Dae Gab

    2006-01-01

    The increasing use of nano-positioners in a wide variety of laboratory and industrial applications has created a need for nano-mechatronics education in all engineering disciplines. The subject of nano-mechatronics is broad and interdisciplinary. This article focuses on the way nano-mechatronics is taught in department of mechanical engineering at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). As one model of nano-positioning systems, design and experimental methodology is presented in this article. For design phase, the stiffness and resonant frequencies are found analytically and verified by using a commercial finite element analysis program. Next, for experimental phase, various tests are performed to access the performances of the designed nano-positioner, for example, sine-tracking, multi-step response and travel-range check etc. Finally, the definition of 'separation frequency' is described and some comments are discussed

  8. Indirect Calorimetry in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Perner, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The 2 currently available indirect calorimeters, CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter (MedGraphics, St Paul, MN) and Quark RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter (COSMED, Rome, Italy), have not been validated against a gold standard in mechanically ventilated patients. Our aim was to do so...... presented.) O2) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in a randomized, sequential, crossover design with double determination of each device. Results: Compared with the modified Tissot bell-spirometer, the CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter demonstrated a mean Δ-REE of +361 kcal/d, corresponding to a 31...... of 77 (167) with limits of agreement −249 to 404 kcal/d. Conclusions: The QUARK RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter compared better with the gold standard for values of (Formula presented.) O2 and REE than did the CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter in mechanically ventilated patients who were circulatory...

  9. Stochastic models in the DORIS position time series: estimates for IDS contribution to ITRF2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Anna; Bogusz, Janusz; Moreaux, Guilhem

    2017-11-01

    This paper focuses on the investigation of the deterministic and stochastic parts of the Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) weekly time series aligned to the newest release of ITRF2014. A set of 90 stations was divided into three groups depending on when the data were collected at an individual station. To reliably describe the DORIS time series, we employed a mathematical model that included the long-term nonlinear signal, linear trend, seasonal oscillations and a stochastic part, all being estimated with maximum likelihood estimation. We proved that the values of the parameters delivered for DORIS data are strictly correlated with the time span of the observations. The quality of the most recent data has significantly improved. Not only did the seasonal amplitudes decrease over the years, but also, and most importantly, the noise level and its type changed significantly. Among several tested models, the power-law process may be chosen as the preferred one for most of the DORIS data. Moreover, the preferred noise model has changed through the years from an autoregressive process to pure power-law noise with few stations characterised by a positive spectral index. For the latest observations, the medians of the velocity errors were equal to 0.3, 0.3 and 0.4 mm/year, respectively, for the North, East and Up components. In the best cases, a velocity uncertainty of DORIS sites of 0.1 mm/year is achievable when the appropriate coloured noise model is taken into consideration.

  10. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  11. The Application of Barnes Filter to Positioning the Center of Landed Tropical Cyclone in Numerical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After a tropical cyclone (TC making landfall, the numerical model output sea level pressure (SLP presents many small-scale perturbations which significantly influence the positioning of the TC center. To fix the problem, Barnes filter with weighting parameters C=2500 and G=0.35 is used to remove these perturbations. A case study of TC Fung-Wong which landed China in 2008 shows that Barnes filter not only cleanly removes these perturbations, but also well preserves the TC signals. Meanwhile, the centers (track obtained from SLP processed with Barnes filter are much closer to the observations than that from SLP without Barnes filter. Based on the distance difference (DD between the TC center determined by SLP with/without Barnes filter and observation, statistics analysis of 12 TCs which landed China during 2005–2015 shows that in most cases (about 85% the DDs are small (between −30 km and 30 km, while in a few cases (about 15% the DDs are large (greater than 30 km even 70 km. This further verifies that the TC centers identified from SLP with Barnes filter are more accurate compared to that directly obtained from model output SLP. Moreover, the TC track identified with Barnes filter is much smoother than that without Barnes filter.

  12. Electromagnetic Field Analysis and Modeling of a Relative Position Detection Sensor for High Speed Maglev Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xue

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The long stator track for high speed maglev trains has a tooth-slot structure. The sensor obtains precise relative position information for the traction system by detecting the long stator tooth-slot structure based on nondestructive detection technology. The magnetic field modeling of the sensor is a typical three-dimensional (3-D electromagnetic problem with complex boundary conditions, and is studied semi-analytically in this paper. A second-order vector potential (SOVP is introduced to simplify the vector field problem to a scalar field one, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of series expansions according to Multipole Theory (MT and the New Equivalent Source (NES method. The coefficients of the expansions are determined by the least squares method based on the boundary conditions. Then, the solution is compared to the simulation result through Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The comparison results show that the semi-analytical solution agrees approximately with the numerical solution. Finally, based on electromagnetic modeling, a difference coil structure is designed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor.

  13. Electromagnetic Field Analysis and Modeling of a Relative Position Detection Sensor for High Speed Maglev Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Song; He, Ning; Long, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    The long stator track for high speed maglev trains has a tooth-slot structure. The sensor obtains precise relative position information for the traction system by detecting the long stator tooth-slot structure based on nondestructive detection technology. The magnetic field modeling of the sensor is a typical three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic problem with complex boundary conditions, and is studied semi-analytically in this paper. A second-order vector potential (SOVP) is introduced to simplify the vector field problem to a scalar field one, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of series expansions according to Multipole Theory (MT) and the New Equivalent Source (NES) method. The coefficients of the expansions are determined by the least squares method based on the boundary conditions. Then, the solution is compared to the simulation result through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The comparison results show that the semi-analytical solution agrees approximately with the numerical solution. Finally, based on electromagnetic modeling, a difference coil structure is designed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor. PMID:22778652

  14. A Green's Function Approach to Simulate DNA Damage by the Indirect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cicinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage is of fundamental importance in the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation. DNA is damaged by the direct effect of radiation (e.g. direct ionization) and by indirect effect (e.g. damage by.OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). Despite years of research, many questions on the DNA damage by ionizing radiation remains. In the recent years, the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE) have been used extensively in biochemistry [1], notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space [2]. In our future work on DNA damage, we wish to use an approach based on the GFDE to refine existing models on the indirect effect of ionizing radiation on DNA. To do so, we will use the code RITRACKS [3] developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center to simulate the radiation track structure and calculate the position of radiolytic species after irradiation. We have also recently developed an efficient Monte-Carlo sampling algorithm for the GFDE of reversible reactions with an intermediate state [4], which can be modified and adapted to simulate DNA damage by free radicals. To do so, we will use the known reaction rate constants between radicals (OH, eaq, H,...) and the DNA bases, sugars and phosphates and use the sampling algorithms to simulate the diffusion of free radicals and chemical reactions with DNA. These techniques should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the formation of DNA damage and double-strand breaks.

  15. PTSD symptoms and suicide risk in veterans: Serial indirect effects via depression and anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Jessica M; Hirsch, Jameson K; Britton, Peter C

    2017-05-01

    Suicide rates are higher in veterans compared to the general population, perhaps due to trauma exposure. Previous literature highlights depressive symptoms and anger as contributors to suicide risk. PTSD symptoms may indirectly affect suicide risk by increasing the severity of such cognitive-emotional factors. A sample of community dwelling veterans (N=545) completed online surveys, including the PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Multidimensional Health Profile-Psychosocial Functioning, and Differential Emotions Scale -IV. Bivariate and serial mediation analyses were conducted to test for direct and indirect effects of PTSD symptoms on suicide risk. In bivariate analyses, PTSD symptoms, depression, anger, and internal hostility were positively related to suicide risk. In serial mediation analyses, there was a significant total effect of PTSD symptoms on suicide risk in both models. PTSD symptoms were also indirectly related to suicidal behavior via depression and internal hostility, and via internal hostility alone. Anger was not a significant mediator. Our cross-sectional sample was predominantly White and male; prospective studies with diverse veterans are needed. Our findings may have implications for veteran suicide prevention. The effects of PTSD and depression on anger, particularly internal hostility, are related to suicide risk, suggesting a potential mechanism of action for the PTSD-suicide linkage. A multi-faceted therapeutic approach, targeting depression and internal hostility, via cognitive-behavioral techniques such as behavioral activation and cognitive restructuring, may reduce suicide risk in veterans who have experienced trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Early effects of continuous positive airway pressure in a rodent model of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaseca, I; Lehrer-Coriat, E; Torres, M; Aguilar, F; Almendros, I; Martínez-Vidal, B M; Farré, R; Montserrat, J M

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most commonly used treatment in obstructive sleep apnea. In a previous rat model study, we demonstrated that nasal CPAP induces early rhinitis expressed by nasal neutrophil extravasation. Here we hypothesized that nasal CPAP would worsen nasal inflammation on a previously inflamed mucosa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the early nasal CPAP effects of allergic rhinitis (AR) in a rodent model. Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were sensitized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA). Nasal inflammation was induced by the administration of intranasal OVA during consecutive days. The same procedure was performed in 20 control rats treated with saline solution. The allergic (AR) and non-allergic (NAR) rats were then randomized to nasal CPAP at 10 cm H 2 O for five hours or to sham CPAP. The degree of nasal inflammation was assessed by evaluating the percentage of neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and lymphocytes in the nasal mucosa. An unpaired Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze differences between groups. The greatest inflammation was observed in the group of AR without CPAP (1.24% ± 0.94%), followed by NAR with CPAP (0.64% ± 0.30%), AR with CPAP (0.64% ± 0.40%), and NAR without CPAP (0.21% ± 0.29%). Administration of nasal CPAP or allergy sensitization can produce, individually, neutrophil extravasation on the nasal mucosa of a rat model. The application of both stimuli is not responsible for increased inflammation. Therefore, this study suggests that rhinitis is not a major limitation for CPAP administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiological characterisation by means of 3D-laser modelling and positioning of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, Robert; Johansson, Patrik; Erixon, Peter; Ekenborg, Fredrik; Quanhong, Feng

    2012-01-01

    AB SVAFO is a nuclear waste technology and decommissioning company based in Sweden in the scenic surroundings of Studsvik on the Baltic coast. SVAFO is owned by the Swedish nuclear power industry. MultiInfo 3D Laser Scan Solution AB is a technical consult company focusing on the development and solution of 3D laser scanning techniques and its applications in different fields. For better viewing we are using a 3D-laser modelling of a building, national coordinates and using radiological measurements from a database. It is then possible to visualize the contamination situation in the whole building using a CAD-program. The results will be used for the upcoming R2-reactor decommissioning and for visualisation of dose rates and contamination levels in other nuclear buildings. For better documentation of radioactivity distribution of a decommissioned facility any object in a building can be accurately measured in 3D and visualized in 3D-laser image in a CAD program (e.g. AutoCAD), and then link to a database (e.g. SVALA), which have stored the measurements of radioactivity by other tools (e.g. RFID-tags). The position of any measured object can also be identified in 3D model and laser image, so the situation of contamination levels and distribution can be monitored and visualized in 3D. The results will be used for visualisation of dose rates and contamination levels in other nuclear buildings. AB SVAFO's main business is to take care of formerly state-owned spent nuclear waste at the site, including small amounts of nuclear fuel. Buildings are also included, mainly nuclear waste storage buildings and a research reactor. Some buildings have already been decommissioned with results of contamination shown in long and not very clear tables. With 3D-modelling the results are shown more clear. (authors)

  18. Positive-parity bands in add-A Xe nuclei in terms of the core-quasiparticle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doenau, F.; Hattula, J.; Helppi, H.; Luukko, A.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The level structures of 123 ' 125 ' 127 ' 129 Xe have been investigated by ( 3 He,xnγ) spectroscopy. The positive-parity band structures are interpreted in terms of the core-quasiparticle coupling model. (author)

  19. Spatial autocorrelation in predictors reduces the impact of positional uncertainty in occurrence data on species distribution modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimi, B.; Skidmore, A.K.; Groen, T.A.; Hamm, N.A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the impact of positional uncertainty in species occurrences on the predictions of seven commonly used species distribution models (SDMs), and explore its interaction with spatial autocorrelation in predictors. Methods A series of artificial datasets covering 155 scenarios

  20. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  1. Probenecid as a noninjurious positive inotrope in an ischemic heart disease murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sheryl E; Tranter, Michael; Robbins, Nathan; Luther, Kristin; Singh, Umesh; Jiang, Min; Ren, Xiaoping; Tee, Trisha; Smith, Leah; Varma, Priyanka; Jones, W Keith; Rubinstein, Jack

    2013-05-01

    The current therapeutic options for acute decompensated heart failure are limited to afterload reducers and positive inotropes. The latter increases myocardial contractility through changes in myocyte calcium (Ca²⁺) handling (mostly through stimulation of the β-adrenergic pathways [β-ADR]) and is associated with paradoxical effects of arrhythmias, cell death, and subsequently increased mortality. We have previously demonstrated that probenecid can increase cytosolic Ca²⁺ levels in the cardiomyocyte resulting in an improved inotropic response in vitro and in vivo without activating the β-ADR system. We hypothesize that, in contrast to other commonly used inotropes, probenecid functions through a system separate from that of β-ADR and hence will increase contractility and improve function without damaging the heart. Furthermore, our goal was to evaluate the effect of probenecid on cell death in vitro and its use in vivo as a positive inotrope in a mouse model of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Herein, we demonstrate that probenecid induced an influx of Ca²⁺ similar to isoproterenol, but does not induce cell death in vitro. Through a series of in vivo experiments we also demonstrate that probenecid can be used at various time points and with various methods of administration in vivo in mice with myocardial ischemia, resulting in improved contractility and no significant difference in infarct size. In conclusion, we provide novel data that probenecid, through its activity on cellular Ca²⁺ levels, induces an inotropic effect without causing or exacerbating injury. This discovery may be translatable if this mechanism is preserved in man.

  2. Urbanization has a positive net effect on soil carbon stocks: modelling outcomes for the Moscow region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Leemans, Rik; Valentini, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is responsible for large environmental changes worldwide. Urbanization was traditionally related to negative environmental impacts, but recent research highlights the potential to store soil carbon (C) in urban areas. The net effect of urbanization on soil C is, however, poorly understood. Negative influences of construction and soil sealing can be compensated by establishing of green areas. We explored possible net effects of future urbanization on soil C-stocks in the Moscow Region. Urbanization was modelled as a function of environmental, socio-economic and neighbourhood factors. This yielded three alternative scenarios: i) including neighbourhood factors; ii) excluding neighbourhood factors and focusing on environmental drivers; and iii) considering the New Moscow Project, establishing 1500km2 of new urbanized area following governmental regulation. All three scenarios showed substantial urbanization on 500 to 2000km2 former forests and arable lands. Our analysis shows a positive net effect on SOC stocks of 5 to 11 TgC. The highest increase occurred on the less fertile Orthic Podzols and Eutric Podzoluvisols, whereas C-storage in Orthic Luvisols, Luvic Chernozems, Dystric Histosols and Eutric Fluvisols increased less. Subsoil C-stocks were much more affected with an extra 4 to 10 TgC than those in the topsoils. The highest increase of both topsoil and subsoil C stocks occurred in the New Moscow scenario with the highest urbanization. Even when the relatively high uncertainties of the absolute C-values are considered, a clear positive net effect of urbanization on C-stocks is apparent. This highlights the potential of cities to enhance C-storage. This will progressively become more important in the future following the increasing world-wide urbanization.

  3. Sentinel node positive melanoma patients: prediction and prognostic significance of nonsentinel node metastases and development of a survival tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Martin; Acland, Katharine M; Shaw, Helen M; Soong, Seng-Jaw; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Scolyer, Richard A; Winstanley, Julie B; Thompson, John F

    2010-08-01

    Completion lymph node dissection (CLND) following positive sentinel node biopsy (SNB) for melanoma detects additional nonsentinel node (NSN) metastases in approximately 20% of cases. This study aimed to establish whether NSN status can be predicted, to determine its effect on survival, and to develop survival tree models for the sentinel node (SN) positive population. Sydney Melanoma Unit (SMU) patients with at least 1 positive SN, meeting inclusion criteria and treated between October 1992 and June 2005, were identified from the Unit database. Survival characteristics, potential predictors of survival, and NSN status were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox regression model, and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Classification tree analysis was performed to identify groups with distinctly different survival characteristics. A total of 323 SN-positive melanoma patients met the inclusion criteria. On multivariate analysis, age, gender, primary tumor thickness, mitotic rate, number of positive NSNs, or total number of positive nodes were statistically significant predictors of survival. NSN metastasis, found at CLND in 19% of patients, was only predicted to a statistically significant degree by ulceration. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that survival was more closely related to number of positive NSNs than total number of positive nodes. Classification tree analysis revealed 4 prognostically distinct survival groups. Patients with NSN metastases could not be reliably identified prior to CLND. Prognosis following CLND was more closely related to number of positive NSNs than total number of positive nodes. Classification tree analysis defined distinctly different survival groups more accurately than use of single-factor analysis.

  4. Adaptive-Positive vs. Maladaptive-Negative Structures and Processes in Learning: Towards the Comprehensive Model of Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rogaten, Jekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this Ph.D. research was to develop an empirical foundation suitable for designing educational interventions and programmes aiming to improve students’ learning. In order to achieve this, a series of studies was conducted that supported the development and test of a comprehensive, chained mediation model of academic performance. The proposed chained mediation model comprised of adaptive-positive and maladaptive-negative submodels. The adaptive-positive submodel hypothesised firstly...

  5. Examining the relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and cigarette smoking in people with substance use disorders: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Bryce; Bernier, Jennifer; Kenner, Frank; Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Richardson, Christopher J; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in people with substance use disorders (SUDs) and is associated with significant physical health problems. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is also highly associated with both SUDs and cigarette smoking and may serve as a barrier to smoking cessation efforts. In addition, people with PTSD are more likely to hold positive smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs that smoking cigarettes results in positive outcomes); these beliefs may contribute to cigarette smoking in people with SUDs experiencing PTSD symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between PTSD symptoms and typical daily cigarette smoking/cigarette dependence symptoms in a sample of 227 trauma-exposed current smokers with SUDs (59.9% male, 89.4% Caucasian) seeking detoxification treatment services. Additionally, the indirect effects of multiple types of positive smoking outcome expectancies on these relationships were examined. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, cigarette consumption, and cigarette dependence symptoms. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were not directly related to cigarette consumption or cigarette dependence symptoms. However, negative affect reduction outcome expectancies were shown to have a significant indirect effect between PTSD symptoms and cigarette consumption, while negative affect reduction, boredom reduction, and taste-sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies were all found to have significant indirect effects between PTSD symptoms and cigarette dependence symptoms. The indirect effect involving negative affect reduction outcome expectancies was statistically larger than that of taste sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies, while negative affect reduction and boredom reduction outcome expectancies were comparable in magnitude. These results suggest that expectancies that smoking can manage negative affective experiences are related to

  6. A phase plane graph based model of the ovulatory cycle lacking the "positive feedback" phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbel Sven

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract When hormones during the ovulatory cycle are shown in phase plane graphs, reported FSH and estrogen values form a specific pattern that resembles the leaning “&" symbol, while LH and progesterone (Pg values form a "boomerang" shape. Graphs in this paper were made using data reported by Stricker et al. [Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44:883–887]. These patterns were used to construct a simplistic model of the ovulatory cycle without the conventional "positive feedback" phenomenon. The model is based on few well-established relations: hypothalamic GnRH secretion is increased under estrogen exposure during two weeks that start before the ovulatory surge and lasts till lutheolysis. the pituitary GnRH receptors are so prone to downregulation through ligand binding that this must be important for their function. in several estrogen target tissue progesterone receptor (PgR expression depends on previous estrogen binding to functional estrogen receptors (ER, while Pg binding to the expressed PgRs reduces both ER and PgR expression. Some key features of the presented model are here listed: High GnRH secretion induced by the recovered estrogen exposure starts in the late follicular phase and lasts till lutheolysis. The LH and FSH surges start due to combination of accumulated pituitary GnRH receptors and increased GnRH secretion. The surges quickly end due to partial downregulation of the pituitary GnRH receptors (64% reduction of the follicular phase pituitary GnRH receptors is needed to explain the reported LH drop after the surge. A strong increase in the lutheal Pg blood level, despite modest decline in LH levels, is explained as delayed expression of pituitary PgRs. Postponed pituitary PgRs expression enforces a negative feedback loop between Pg levels and LH secretions not before the mid lutheal phase. Lutheolysis is explained as a consequence of Pg binding to hypothalamic and pituitary PgRs that reduces local ER expression. When hypothalamic

  7. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: m.shrimali@gmail.com. Abstract. The dynamics of indirectly coupled Lorenz circuits is investigated experimentally. The in-phase and anti-phase synchronization of indirectly coupled chaotic oscillators reported in Phys. Rev. E 81, 046216 (2010) is verified by physical experiments with electronic circuits. Two chaotic.

  8. Indirect Network Effects in New Product Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan); G.J. Tellis (Gerard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIndirect network effects are of prime interest to marketers because they affect the growth and takeoff of software availability for, and hardware sales of, a new product. While prior work on indirect network effects in the economics and marketing literature is valuable, these literatures

  9. Indirectness in Discourse: Ethnicity as Conversational Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1981-01-01

    Examines social differences in expectations of indirectness in conversations between married couples, both Greek and Greek-American. Concludes that Greeks are more likely to expect indirectness in the context presented and that Greek-Americans have retained the Greek communicative patterns. (FL)

  10. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  11. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  12. Caring behaviours directly and indirectly affect nursing students' critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Yueh; Chang, Hsing-Chi; Pai, Hsiang-Chu

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of caring behaviours on critical thinking and to examine whether self-reflection mediates the effect of caring on critical thinking. We also tested whether caring behaviours moderated the relationship between self-reflection and critical thinking. For this descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional study, we recruited 293 fifth-year nursing students from a junior college in southern Taiwan. Data were collected in 2014 on critical thinking, caring behaviours and self-reflection with insight using the Taiwan Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, a Chinese version of the Caring Assessment Report Evaluation Q-sort, and a Chinese version of the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, respectively. Relationships among variables were analysed by structural equation modelling, with the partial least squares method and Sobel test. The results showed that caring behaviours significantly positively affected critical thinking (β = 0.56, t = 12.37, p critical thinking (β = 0.34, t = 6.48, p critical thinking. Caring behaviours did not, however, moderate the relationship between self-reflection (β = 0.001, t = 0.021, p > 0.05) and critical thinking. Caring behaviours directly affect self-reflection with insight and critical thinking. In addition, caring behaviours also indirectly affect critical thinking through self-reflection and insight. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Prediction of Cracking Induced by Indirect Actions in RC Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anerdi, Costanza; Bertagnoli, Gabriele; Gino, Diego; Malavisi, Marzia; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Cracking of concrete plays a key role in reinforced concrete (RC) structures design, especially in serviceability conditions. A variety of reasons contribute to develop cracking and its presence in concrete structures is to be considered as almost unavoidable. Therefore, a good control of the phenomenon in order to provide durability is required. Cracking development is due to tensile stresses that arise in concrete structures as a result of the action of direct external loads or restrained endogenous deformations. This paper focuses on cracking induced by indirect actions. In fact, there is very limited literature regarding this particular phenomenon if compared to its high incidence in the construction practice. As a consequence, the correct prediction of the crack opening, width and position when structures are subjected to imposed deformations, such as massive castings or other highly restrained structures, becomes a compelling task, not so much for the structural capacity, as for their durability. However, this is only partially addressed by commonly used design methods, which are usually intended for direct actions. A set of non-linear analysis on simple tie models is performed using the Finite Element Method in order to study the cracking process under imposed deformations. Different concrete grades have been considered and analysed. The results of this study have been compared with the provisions of the most common codes.

  14. Position control of a single pneumatic artificial muscle with hysteresis compensation based on modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xizhe; Liu, Yixiang; Heng, Shuai; Lin, Zhenkun; Zhao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    High-performance position control of pneumatic artificial muscles is limited by their inherent nonlinearity and hysteresis. This study aims to model the length/pressure hysteresis of a single pneumatic artificial muscle and to realize its accurate position tracking control with forward hysteresis compensation. The classical Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is widely used in hysteresis modelling and compensation. But it is only effective for symmetric hysteresis. Therefore, a modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is built to characterize the asymmetric length/pressure hysteresis of a single pneumatic artificial muscle, by replacing the classical play operators with two more flexible elementary operators to independently describe the ascending branch and descending branch of hysteresis loops. On the basis, a position tracking controller, which is composed of cascade forward hysteresis compensation and simple proportional pressure controller, is designed for the pneumatic artificial muscle. Experiment results show that the MPI model can reproduce the length/pressure hysteresis of the pneumatic artificial muscle, and the proposed controller for the pneumatic artificial muscle can track the reference position signals with high accuracy. By modelling the length/pressure hysteresis with the modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model and using its inversion for compensation, precise position control of a single pneumatic artificial muscle is achieved.

  15. Liddell Hart's Indirect Approach and Its Application to the Gulf War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNamara, P. J

    1991-01-01

    ... attacks against fortified positions. The invention of the tank and the mobility and protection it afforded assisted him to formulate a new concept for warfare since called the Indirect Approach...

  16. Non invasive wearable sensor for indirect glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Gleb; Zilberstein, Roman; Maor, Uriel; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2018-04-02

    A non-invasive mini-sensor for blood glucose concentration assessment has been developed. The monitoring is performed by gently pressing a wrist or fingertip onto the chemochromic mixture coating a thin glass or polymer film positioned on the back panel of a smart watch with PPG/HRM (photoplethysmographic/heart rate monitoring sensor). The various chemochromic components measure the absolute values of the following metabolites present in the sweat: acetone, acetone beta-hydroxybutirate, aceto acetate, water, carbon dioxide, lactate anion, pyruvic acid, Na and K salts. Taken together, all these parameters give information about blood glucose concentration, calculated via multivariate analysis based on neural network algorithms built into the sensor. The Clarke Error Grid shows an excellent correlation between data measured by the standard invasive glucose analyser and the present non-invasive sensor, with all points aligned along a 45 degree diagonal and contained almost exclusively in sector A. Graphs measuring glucose levels five times a day (prior, during and after breakfast and prior, during and after lunch), for different individuals (male and female) show a good correlation between the two curves of conventional, invasive meters vs. the non-invasive sensor, with an error of ±15%. This novel, non-invasive sensor for indirect glucometry is fully miniaturized, easy to use and operate and could represent a valid alternative in clinical settings and for individual, personal users, to current, invasive tools. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. "But I Like My Body": Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L

    2010-03-01

    Extant body image research has provided a rich understanding of negative body image but a rather underdeveloped depiction of positive body image. Thus, this study used Grounded Theory to analyze interviews from 15 college women classified as having positive body image and five body image experts. Many characteristics of positive body image emerged, including appreciating the unique beauty and functionality of their body, filtering information (e.g., appearance commentary, media ideals) in a body-protective manner, defining beauty broadly, and highlighting their body's assets while minimizing perceived imperfections. A holistic model emerged: when women processed mostly positive and rejected negative source information, their body investment decreased and body evaluation became more positive, illustrating the fluidity of body image. Women reciprocally influenced these sources (e.g., mentoring others to love their bodies, surrounding themselves with others who promote body acceptance, taking care of their health), which, in turn, promoted increased positive source information. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Global Exponential Stability of Positive Almost Periodic Solutions for a Fishing Model with a Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a nonautonomous fishing model with a time-varying delay. Under proper conditions, we employ a novel argument to establish a criterion on the global exponential stability of positive almost periodic solutions of the model with almost periodic coefficients and delays. Moreover, an example and its numerical simulation are given to illustrate the main results.

  19. Expression of future prospective in indirect speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnaruk Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics and use of grammatical semantics and lexical and grammatical means used to create future prospects in double indirect discourse. The material for the study were epic works by contemporary German writers. In the analysis of the empirical material it has been pointed out that indirect discourse has preterial basis and is the kind of most frequent inner speech of characters. The most widely used form with future semantics in preterial indirect speech is conditional I, formally having a conjunctive basis, but is mostly used with the indicative semantics. Competitive to conditional I in indirect speech is preterial indicative. A characteristic feature of the indirect speech is the use of modal verbs, which, thanks to its semantics is usually referred as an action at a later term, creating the prospect of future statements. The most frequent were modal verbs wollen and sollen in the form of the preterite, more rare verbs were m ssen and k nnen. German indirect speech distinguishes the ability to use forms on the basis of conjunctive: preterite and plusquamperfect of conjunctive. Both forms express values similar to those of the indicative. However, conjunctive forms the basis of the data shown in a slightly more pronounced seme of uncertainty that accompanies future uses of these forms in indirect speech. In addition, plusquamperfect conjunctive differs from others by the presence of the seme of completeness.

  20. Sensation Seeking and Online Gaming Addiction in Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Positive Affective Associations and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianping; Zhen, Shuangju; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Based on the Dual Systems Model (Somerville et al., 2010; Steinberg, 2010a) and the biosocial-affect model (Romer and Hennessy, 2007) of adolescent sensation seeking and problem behaviors, the present study examined how (affective associations with online games as a mediator) and when (impulsivity as a moderator) did sensation seeking influence online gaming addiction in adolescence. A total of 375 Chinese male adolescents (mean age = 16.02 years, SD = 0.85) from southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games, impulsivity, and online gaming addiction. Our findings revealed that sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games and impulsivity were each significantly and positively associated with online gaming addiction in adolescents. Positive affective associations mediated the relationship between sensation seeking and online gaming addiction. Further, impulsivity moderated the relationship between positive affective associations and online gaming addiction, such that the association between positive affective association and online gaming addiction was stronger for high than for low impulsivity adolescents. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the biosocial-affect model and the Dual Systems Model to understand how and when sensation seeking impacts adolescent online gaming addiction. PMID:28529494

  1. Sensation Seeking and Online Gaming Addiction in Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Positive Affective Associations and Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Dual Systems Model (Somerville et al., 2010; Steinberg, 2010a and the biosocial-affect model (Romer and Hennessy, 2007 of adolescent sensation seeking and problem behaviors, the present study examined how (affective associations with online games as a mediator and when (impulsivity as a moderator did sensation seeking influence online gaming addiction in adolescence. A total of 375 Chinese male adolescents (mean age = 16.02 years, SD = 0.85 from southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games, impulsivity, and online gaming addiction. Our findings revealed that sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games and impulsivity were each significantly and positively associated with online gaming addiction in adolescents. Positive affective associations mediated the relationship between sensation seeking and online gaming addiction. Further, impulsivity moderated the relationship between positive affective associations and online gaming addiction, such that the association between positive affective association and online gaming addiction was stronger for high than for low impulsivity adolescents. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the biosocial-affect model and the Dual Systems Model to understand how and when sensation seeking impacts adolescent online gaming addiction.

  2. Sensation Seeking and Online Gaming Addiction in Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Positive Affective Associations and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianping; Zhen, Shuangju; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Based on the Dual Systems Model (Somerville et al., 2010; Steinberg, 2010a) and the biosocial-affect model (Romer and Hennessy, 2007) of adolescent sensation seeking and problem behaviors, the present study examined how (affective associations with online games as a mediator) and when (impulsivity as a moderator) did sensation seeking influence online gaming addiction in adolescence. A total of 375 Chinese male adolescents (mean age = 16.02 years, SD = 0.85) from southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games, impulsivity, and online gaming addiction. Our findings revealed that sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games and impulsivity were each significantly and positively associated with online gaming addiction in adolescents. Positive affective associations mediated the relationship between sensation seeking and online gaming addiction. Further, impulsivity moderated the relationship between positive affective associations and online gaming addiction, such that the association between positive affective association and online gaming addiction was stronger for high than for low impulsivity adolescents. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the biosocial-affect model and the Dual Systems Model to understand how and when sensation seeking impacts adolescent online gaming addiction.

  3. Substance abuse and homelessness: direct or indirect effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeest, Jonathan B; Johnson, Timothy P

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether substance abuse is a direct factor in the explanation of homelessness or one that operates indirectly through disaffiliation and human capital processes to place individuals at greater risk of the condition. Analyses were conducted using data on substance abuse and homeless experiences from a random probability sample of 481 homeless persons and those at risk of homelessness in Cook County, Illinois. Covariance structure models were used to assess substance abuse, human capital, and disaffiliation as potential precursors of homelessness, with particular attention paid to the direct and indirect role of substance abuse in the loss of domicile. Analysis of several nested models of homelessness links substance abuse only indirectly to loss of domicile, primarily through its impact on social and institutional affiliations. Contrary to expectations, substance abuse did not impact homelessness indirectly by diminishing the accumulation of human capital. The role of disaffiliation as a proximate cause of homelessness was confirmed. This locates the phenomenon within the context of society itself, as a direct result of a breakdown in the social bonds necessary for human community. Substance abuse plays a critical role in this breakdown, negatively influencing social as well as institutional relationships.

  4. Modeling of the positioning system and visual mark-up of historical cadastral maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jakopec

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present of the possibilities of positioning and visual markup of historical cadastral maps onto Google maps using open source software. The corpus is stored in the Croatian State Archives in Zagreb, in the Maps Archive for Croatia and Slavonia. It is part of cadastral documentation that consists of cadastral material from the period of first cadastral survey conducted in the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia from 1847 to 1877, and which is used extensively according to the data provided by the customer service of the Croatian State Archives. User needs on the one side and the possibilities of innovative implementation of ICT on the other have motivated the development of the system which would use digital copies of original cadastral maps and connect them with systems like Google maps, and thus both protect the original materials and open up new avenues of research related to the use of originals. With this aim in mind, two cadastral map presentation models have been created. Firstly, there is a detailed display of the original, which enables its viewing using dynamic zooming. Secondly, the interactive display is facilitated through blending the cadastral maps with Google maps, which resulted in establishing links between the coordinates of the digital and original plans through transformation. The transparency of the original can be changed, and the user can intensify the visibility of the underlying layer (Google map or the top layer (cadastral map, which enables direct insight into parcel dynamics over a longer time-span. The system also allows for the mark-up of cadastral maps, which can lead to the development of the cumulative index of all terms found on cadastral maps. The paper is an example of the implementation of ICT for providing new services, strengthening cooperation with the interested public and related institutions, familiarizing the public with the archival material, and offering new possibilities for

  5. Percentage of Positive Biopsy Cores: A Better Risk Stratification Model for Prostate Cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jiayi; Vicini, Frank A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Williams, Scott G. [Peter Maccallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ye Hong; McGrath, Samuel; Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Martinez, Alvaro A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kestin, Larry L., E-mail: lkestin@comcast.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) and perineural invasion in predicting the clinical outcomes after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer and to explore the possibilities to improve on existing risk-stratification models. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 1,056 patients with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer, who had four or more biopsy cores sampled and complete biopsy core data available, were treated with external beam RT, with or without a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost at William Beaumont Hospital. The median follow-up was 7.6 years. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with PPC, Gleason score, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, T stage, PNI, radiation dose, androgen deprivation, age, prostate-specific antigen frequency, and follow-up duration. A new risk stratification (PPC classification) was empirically devised to incorporate PPC and replace the T stage. Results: On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the PPC was an independent predictor of distant metastasis, cause-specific survival, and overall survival (all p < .05). A PPC >50% was associated with significantly greater distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-8.61), and its independent predictive value remained significant with or without androgen deprivation therapy (all p < .05). In contrast, PNI and T stage were only predictive for locoregional recurrence. Combining the PPC ({<=}50% vs. >50%) with National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk stratification demonstrated added prognostic value of distant metastasis for the intermediate-risk (hazard ratio, 5.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-16.6) and high-risk (hazard ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-11.3) groups, regardless of the use of androgen deprivation and high-dose RT (all p < .05). The proposed PPC classification appears to provide improved stratification of the clinical outcomes relative to the National

  6. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early and…

  7. Counseling Psychology's Positive Psychological Agenda: A Model for Integration and Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, P. Alex

    2006-01-01

    Each of the Major Contribution's articles has traced counseling psychology's rich positive heritage. This reaction assesses this heritage in relation to positive psychology and considers the fundamental question of "To whose agenda are we working?" as psychological practitioners, locating the answer within the impact it has on our practice. The…

  8. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  9. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Ben CH; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors’ knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as pr...

  10. Direct and indirect effects of biological factors on extinction risk in fossil bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnik, Paul G

    2011-08-16

    Biological factors, such as abundance and body size, may contribute directly to extinction risk and indirectly through their influence on other biological characteristics, such as geographic range size. Paleontological data can be used to explicitly test many of these hypothesized relationships, and general patterns revealed through analysis of the fossil record can help refine predictive models of extinction risk developed for extant species. Here, I use structural equation modeling to tease apart the contributions of three canonical predictors of extinction--abundance, body size, and geographic range size--to the duration of bivalve species in the early Cenozoic marine fossil record of the eastern United States. I find that geographic range size has a strong direct effect on extinction risk and that an apparent direct effect of abundance can be explained entirely by its covariation with geographic range. The influence of geographic range on extinction risk is manifest across three ecologically disparate bivalve clades. Body size also has strong direct effects on extinction risk but operates in opposing directions in different clades, and thus, it seems to be decoupled from extinction risk in bivalves as a whole. Although abundance does not directly predict extinction risk, I reveal weak indirect effects of both abundance and body size through their positive influence on geographic range size. Multivariate models that account for the pervasive covariation between biological factors and extinction are necessary for assessing causality in evolutionary processes and making informed predictions in applied conservation efforts.

  11. Indirect effects of recovery strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Rice, Jake

    For a higher organism to grow another organism has to die. This obvious and fundamentalrelation means that if one species group increases in abundance, the prey species will sufferincreased mortality. One the other hand, the predators of said species will have a moreabundant food supply. Size......-based models of fish communities indicate that theserelationships have lawful dynamics that continue to be expressed, even when individualspecies become rarer - as predators or as prey. An ecosystem based management recoverystrategies of a given species or group of species should therefore not be seen...... in isolation,but the expected consequences for the rest of the ecosystem must be analyzed. We use ageneral size- and trait-based model to calculate the ecosystem effects of fishing andrecovery. We present a general analysis of a recovery strategies targeting either large fishes(consumer fishery), small fishes...

  12. A comparative study of direct and indirect solar drying of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, direct and indirect solar drying parameters of two mango varieties were estimated and compared using direct and indirect solar dryers under the same meteorological conditions. For both drying methods, drying curves were established and fitted using 10 semi-empirical models, drying rate and drying efficiency ...

  13. Indirect punishment and generosity toward strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ule, Aljaz; Schram, Arthur; Riedl, Arno; Cason, Timothy N

    2009-12-18

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can prevail in the long run only if rewarders earn higher payoffs than "defectors" who ignore strangers' kindness. We provide experimental evidence regarding the payoffs received by individuals who employ these and other strategies, such as "indirect punishment," by imposing costs on unkind strangers. We find that if unkind strangers cannot be punished, defection earns most. If they can be punished, however, then indirect rewarding earns most. Indirect punishment plays this important role, even if it gives a low payoff and is rarely implemented.

  14. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, K.D.; Scherrer, C.; Smith, L.E.; Chilton, L.K.; Anderson, K.K.; Ressler, J.J.; Trease, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  15. The Indirect Path From Mindful Parenting to Emotional Problems in Adolescents: The Role of Maternal Warmth and Adolescents’ Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness has been demonstrated to have positive effects on children’s emotional functioning, and adaptive parenting practices are associated with fewer emotional problems. However, the association between mindful parenting and adolescent emotional problems has not been studied much. In the current study, the indirect path from mindful parenting to adolescent emotional problems was examined, with maternal warmth and adolescent dispositional mindfulness as potential mediators. A sample of 168 mother–child dyads participated in this study. A serial indirect effects model showed mother’s mindful parenting could decrease adolescent emotional problems through adolescent’s perceived maternal warmth and their dispositional mindfulness. Findings of this study imply that intervention in mindful parenting may have benefits for adolescents’ emotional problems through enhancing maternal warmth and children’s trait mindfulness.

  16. Sustaining Air Force Space Systems: A Model for the Global Positioning System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Don; Mills, Patrick; Comanor, Katherine; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ... and sustainment affect the performance of space systems. In this monograph, we develop a pilot framework for analyzing these and related questions in the ground segment of the Global Positioning System and recommend steps for implementing this framework...

  17. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribble, R E; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Spitaleri, C

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. (review article)

  18. Indirect evidence for decreased hypothalamic somatostatinergic tone in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoving, R.K.; Andersen, M.; Flyvbjerg, A.

    2002-01-01

    in the central feeding mechanism in anorexia nervosa (AN). Peripheral administration of pyridostigmine (PD) minimizes the release of hypothalamic SRIH. DESIGN: To study the influence of hypothalamic somatostatinergic inhibition on the exaggerated somatotroph responsiveness to GHRH in patients with severe AN, two...... indirectly to greater SRIH withdrawal and greater GHRH release in anorexia nervosa. Moreover, hypothalamic SRIH activity seems to be inversely related to cortisol levels, indirectly supporting the hypothesis that SRIH and CRH neuronal activity are inversely related in anorexia nervosa. Leptin, which...... is believed to act on hypothalamic feeding mechanisms, seems to be positively related to SRIH activity. Finally, the present data demonstrate that the potentiating effect of pyridostigmine in anorexia nervosa is related to body mass index and increases upon weight gain, suggesting that the low...

  19. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical distinction between direct and indirect welfare chauvinism in order to analyze how electorally successful populist right-wing parties transmit social policy preferences with significant redistributive implications for the shape of the welfare state. Direct...... negatively affect immigrants the most. Combining quantitative and qualitative analysis of labour market reforms in Denmark, where one of the most successful populist right-wing parties in Europe – the Danish People's Party – held a pivotal position in the period 2001–11, the article traces the intentions...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  20. Life course socio-economic position and quality of life in adulthood: a systematic review of life course models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A relationship between current socio-economic position and subjective quality of life has been demonstrated, using wellbeing, life and needs satisfaction approaches. Less is known regarding the influence of different life course socio-economic trajectories on later quality of life. Several conceptual models have been proposed to help explain potential life course effects on health, including accumulation, latent, pathway and social mobility models. This systematic review aimed to assess whether evidence supported an overall relationship between life course socio-economic position and quality of life during adulthood and if so, whether there was support for one or more life course models. Methods A review protocol was developed detailing explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, search terms, data extraction items and quality appraisal procedures. Literature searches were performed in 12 electronic databases during January 2012 and the references and citations of included articles were checked for additional relevant articles. Narrative synthesis was used to analyze extracted data and studies were categorized based on the life course model analyzed. Results Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria and used data from 10 datasets and five countries. Study quality varied and heterogeneity between studies was high. Seven studies assessed social mobility models, five assessed the latent model, two assessed the pathway model and three tested the accumulation model. Evidence indicated an overall relationship, but mixed results were found for each life course model. Some evidence was found to support the latent model among women, but not men. Social mobility models were supported in some studies, but overall evidence suggested little to no effect. Few studies addressed accumulation and pathway effects and study heterogeneity limited synthesis. Conclusions To improve potential for synthesis in this area, future research should aim to increase study

  1. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions

  2. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions.

  3. A novel automated indirect immunofluorescence autoantibody evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivity, Shaye; Gilburd, Boris; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Carrasco, Marina Garcia; Tzafrir, Yaron; Sofer, Yael; Mandel, Matilda; Buttner, Thomas; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Danko, Katalin; Hoyos, Marcos López; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2012-03-01

    Autoantibodies (AAb), especially antinuclear (ANAs) and anticytoplasmatic antibodies (ACyA), are essential diagnosing markers for several autoimmune diseases. The current gold standard method for ANA detection is manual indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on human epithelial-2 (HEp-2) cells. However, this technique is cost and time consuming, and characterized by considerable intra- and interlaboratory variability. Thus, an automated IIF-HEp-2 reader has been developed recently. In the current study, we compared the performance of the automated AAb IIF-HEp-2 interpretation to conventional detection methods. Autoantibody detection by IIF on HEp-2 cells was performed in a total of 260 sera of patients, including 34 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 111 with dermatomyositis or polymyositis, 74 with systemic sclerosis, 41 with rare AAb patterns, and 137 healthy individuals. Visual interpretation and routine immunoassays were compared with a novel automated IIF-HEp-2 system using Aklides pattern recognition algorithms. Positive AAbs were detected in 95-100% of rheumatic patients by automated interpretation, in 74-100% with manual reading, and in 64-100% by immunodot assay. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of fluorescent intensity revealed a high sensitivity and specificity for automated reading of AAb with an agreement ranging from 90% to 95% between manual and automated interpretation (kappa 0.554-0.69) for systemic sclerosis and myositis, respectively. This study demonstrates a good correlation between manual and automated interpretation of AAb including ANA and ACyA in patients with autoimmune diseases. Full automation of HEp-2 cell assay reading may minimize errors in ANA pattern interpretation and thus help in the standardization of ANA assessment.

  4. Modeling position-specific isotope fractionation of organic micropollutants degradation via different reaction pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    : dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model successfully reproduces the multi-element isotope data, and precisely captures the dual element isotope trends, characterizing the different degradation pathways. Besides illustrating the model capability of mechanistic evaluation...

  5. Positive feedback : exploring current approaches in iterative travel demand model implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the models that TxDOTs Transportation Planning and Programming Division (TPP) developed are : traditional three-step models (i.e., trip generation, trip distribution, and traffic assignment) that are sequentially : applied. A limitation...

  6. Radiative capture reactions via indirect methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Rogachev, G. V.

    2017-10-01

    Many radiative capture reactions of astrophysical interest occur at such low energies that their direct measurement is hardly possible. Until now the only indirect method, which was used to determine the astrophysical factor of the astrophysical radiative capture process, was the Coulomb dissociation. In this paper we address another indirect method, which can provide information about resonant radiative capture reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. This method can be considered an extension of the Trojan horse method for resonant radiative capture reactions. The idea of the suggested indirect method is to use the indirect reaction A (a ,s γ )F to obtain information about the radiative capture reaction A (x ,γ )F , where a =(s x ) and F =(x A ) . The main advantage of using the indirect reactions is the absence of the penetrability factor in the channel x +A , which suppresses the low-energy cross sections of the A (x ,γ )F reactions and does not allow one to measure these reactions at astrophysical energies. A general formalism to treat indirect resonant radiative capture reactions is developed when only a few intermediate states contribute and a statistical approach cannot be applied. The indirect method requires coincidence measurements of the triple differential cross section, which is a function of the photon scattering angle, energy, and the scattering angle of the outgoing spectator particle s . Angular dependence of the triple differential cross section at fixed scattering angle of the spectator s is the angular γ -s correlation function. Using indirect resonant radiative capture reactions, one can obtain information about important astrophysical resonant radiative capture reactions such as (p ,γ ) , (α ,γ ) , and (n ,γ ) on stable and unstable isotopes. The indirect technique makes accessible low-lying resonances, which are close to the threshold, and even subthreshold bound states located at negative energies. In this paper, after

  7. A Model of Market Positioning of Destinations Based on Online Customer Reviews of Lodgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rodríguez-Díaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a methodology to determine the competitive online positioning of lodging companies in different tourist destinations. The rise of the digital age has allowed many customers to share their opinions through specialized websites, providing a dynamic and constantly updated evaluation of the market. In this context, competitiveness is an essential factor in the economic sustainability of destinations. The competitive positioning of destinations is determined by the scale of variables used by Booking.com. The price and lodging category variables are also used, as well as three new variables derived from the initial scale: the quality average, value and added value. This methodology provides a tool to determine the level of competitiveness of the lodging offered in tourist destinations, based on which, actions can be taken to improve destinations’ positioning.

  8. Using modeling and vicarious reinforcement to produce more positive attitudes toward mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Gary I; Malouff, John M

    2005-05-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a video, developed for this study and using principles of cognitive learning theory, to produce positive attitudinal change toward mental health treatment. The participants were 35 men and 45 women who were randomly assigned to watch either an experimental video, which included 3 positive 1st-person accounts of psychotherapy or a control video that focused on the psychological construct of self. Pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2-week follow-up levels of attitude toward mental health treatment were measured using the Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Help Scale (E. H. Fischer & J. L. Turner, 1970). The experimental video group showed a significantly greater increase in positive attitude than did the control group. These results support the effectiveness of using the vicarious reinforcement elements of cognitive learning theory as a basis for changing attitudes toward mental health treatment.

  9. The lagged connection of the positive NAO with the MJO phase 3 in a simplified atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaolu; Song, Jie; Li, Shuanglin

    2018-03-01

    Based on a simplified nonlinear model and reanalysis data, the lagged connection of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in boreal winters is investigated. The positive NAO is observed to occur more frequently about 8-20 days after the onset of the MJO phase 3. A series of heating forcing experiments and initial-value experiments are conducted by utilizing the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) dynamical core atmospheric model. The extratropical responses to the tropical heating associated with the MJO phase 3 are characterized by a wave train over the Pacific-North American region with an anticyclone anomaly over the northeastern Pacific and then followed by a positive-NAO-like pattern over the North Atlantic sector. These circulation anomalies generally match the observed lagged-connection well. At the earlier stage, the Rossby wave train excited by the MJO convection propagates into the North Atlantic, leading to a planetary wave anomaly with a low-over-high dipole prior to the positive NAO. At the later stage, the anomalous synoptic eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) streamfunction tendency has a negative-over-positive dipole, which plays a key role in the development of the positive NAO. Further analysis of the initial-value experiments indicates that, for the subsequent formation of the positive NAO, the anomalous circulation over the Indian Ocean aroused by the MJO phase 3 is more crucial than that over the northeastern Pacific.

  10. Insights into Mechanistic Models for Evaporation of Organic Liquids in the Environment Obtained by Position-Specific Carbon Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S; Parinet, Julien; Höhener, Patrick

    2015-11-03

    Position-specific isotope effects (PSIEs) have been measured by isotope ratio monitoring (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry during the evaporation of 10 liquids of different polarities under 4 evaporation modes (passive evaporation, air-vented evaporation, low pressure evaporation, distillation). The observed effects are used to assess the validity of the Craig-Gordon isotope model for organic liquids. For seven liquids the overall isotope effect (IE) includes a vapor-liquid contribution that is strongly position-specific in polar compounds but less so in apolar compounds and a diffusive IE that is not position-specific, except in the alcohols, ethanol and propan-1-ol. The diffusive IE is diminished under forced evaporation. The position-specific isotope pattern created by liquid-vapor IEs is manifest in five liquids, which have an air-side limitation for volatilization. For the alcohols, undefined processes in the liquid phase create additional PSIEs. Three other liquids with limitations on the liquid side have a lower, highly position-specific, bulk diffusive IE. It is concluded that evaporation of organic pollutants creates unique position-specific isotope patterns that may be used to assess the progress of remediation or natural attenuation of pollution and that the Craig-Gordon isotope model is valid for the volatilization of nonpolar organic liquids with air-side limitation of the volatilization rate.

  11. Testing indirect effect of consumer attitudes toward a product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrubá, Renata; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    and on the indirect and direct effects of the perception of information through information behavior and the use of the model ordered. It is proposed that consumer levels of product familiarity of attributes affects behavior. Consumer attitudes towards agri-food products and behaviour were analyzed through......The number of farmers´ markets has been increasing all around the world. This growth in the popularity of farmers´ markets has been attributed to factors of changing consumer interest in local traditional or innovative food products. This paper focuses on familiarity bias in the Czech dairy market...... a questionnaire in 2010-2011. The model is estimated using probit analysis to predict relationship between producer and consumer in decision-making when buying a new type of cheese and to examine consumer attitudes toward food origins and nutrient food security. It can be concluded that the indirect effect (e...

  12. Sketch for a model of four epistemological positions toward computer game play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli

    2008-01-01

    The paper attempts to sketch out four distinct epistemological positions toward the player, who is understood as derived from play and game. To map out the problem field, two equally challenged positions toward computer game play are observed, emerging from inadequate treatment of the differences...... of playing a game is seen as independent of what goes on in the player’s mind (actually, the player might not even be the true subject of the game). Similar polarities are postulated regarding a game; from an exclusive viewpoint .game. is a signifying shorthand for objects, which, when observed from...

  13. Examination of the aerosol indirect effect under contrasting environments during the ACE-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Active Tracer High-resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM has been adopted to examine the aerosol indirect effect in contrasting clean and polluted cloudy boundary layers during the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2. Model results are in good agreement with available in-situ observations, which provides confidence in the results of ATHAM. Sensitivity tests have been conducted to examine the response of the cloud fraction (CF, cloud liquid water path (LWP, and cloud optical depth (COD to changes in aerosols in the clean and polluted cases. It is shown for two cases that CF and LWP would decrease or remain nearly constant with an increase in aerosols, a result which shows that the second aerosol indirect effect is positive or negligibly small in these cases. Further investigation indicates that the background meteorological conditions play a critical role in the response of CF and LWP to aerosols. When large-scale subsidence is weak as in the clean case, the dry overlying air above the cloud is more efficiently entrained into the cloud, and in so doing, removes cloud water more efficiently, and results in lower CF and LWP when aerosol burden increases. However, when the large-scale subsidence is strong as in the polluted case, the growth of the cloud top is suppressed and the entrainment drying makes no significant difference when aerosol burden increases. Therefore, the CF and LWP remain nearly constant. In both the clean and polluted cases, the COD tends to increase with aerosols, and the total aerosol indirect effect (AIE is negative even when the CF and LWP decrease with an increase in aerosols. Therefore, the first AIE dominates the response of the cloud to aerosols.

  14. Modeling Individual Differences in Within-Person Variation of Negative and Positive Affect in a Mixed Effects Location Scale Model Using BUGS/JAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Philippe; Hofer, Scott M.; Sparks, Catharine

    2012-01-01

    A mixed effects location scale model was used to model and explain individual differences in within-person variability of negative and positive affect across 7 days (N=178) within a measurement burst design. The data come from undergraduate university students and are pooled from a study that was repeated at two consecutive years. Individual…

  15. Limitations in the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a model host for gram-positive bacterial infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Lind; Pedersen, K.S.; Loeschcke, V

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To examine sensitivities of various Drosophila melanogaster strains towards human pathogenic and nonpathogenic gram-positive bacteria. Methods and Results: The D. melanogaster Oregon R strain was infected by injecting the thorax with a needle containing Escherichia coli (negative control...... resistance respectively, were subjected to infection by L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and E. coli. Mortality rates were comparable with that of the Oregon R strain. Conclusions: Use of the injection method shows the limitation of D. melanogaster as a model host for gram-positive bacteria as opportunistic...... infection by nonpathogenic gram-positive bacteria results in partial or high mortality. In addition, lines of fruit flies resistant to various stress exposures did not show an increased resistance to infection by gram-positive pathogens under the conditions tested. Significance and Impact of the Study...

  16. Brand Experience in Banking Industry: Direct and Indirect Relationship to Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri WULANDARI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In marketing, the meaning of value is rapidly shifting from service and relationships to experiences. It is believed that the traditional value proposition is no longer effective to compete in the market and to gain customer loyalty. By adapting the brand experience model, this study tries to validate the model in the banking industry, which is currently facing intense competition to retain customers. The brand experience construct is tested for its direct and indirect relationship toward loyalty. It is postulated that satisfaction and brand authenticity might be instrumental in mediating brand experience to loyalty. Research was conducted via in-depth interview and quantitative survey, targeting bank customers in Jakarta. The result confirmed that brand experience has direct and indirect contribution to loyalty in significant and positive manner. The research contributes in validating previous studies with a rare emphasis in banking sector. The result implies that brand experience is an important value to lead to customer loyalty in this area and subject to growing research on experience marketing.

  17. Rejection Sensitivity and Depression: Indirect Effects Through Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraines, Morganne A; Wells, Tony T

    2017-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) and deficits in social problem solving are risk factors for depression. Despite their relationship to depression and the potential connection between them, no studies have examined RS and social problem solving together in the context of depression. As such, we examined RS, five facets of social problem solving, and symptoms of depression in a young adult sample. A total of 180 participants completed measures of RS, social problem solving, and depressive symptoms. We used bootstrapping to examine the indirect effect of RS on depressive symptoms through problem solving. RS was positively associated with depressive symptoms. A negative problem orientation, impulsive/careless style, and avoidance style of social problem solving were positively associated with depressive symptoms, and a positive problem orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. RS demonstrated an indirect effect on depressive symptoms through two social problem-solving facets: the tendency to view problems as threats to one's well-being and an avoidance problem-solving style characterized by procrastination, passivity, or overdependence on others. These results are consistent with prior research that found a positive association between RS and depression symptoms, but this is the first study to implicate specific problem-solving deficits in the relationship between RS and depression. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms in high RS individuals may result from viewing problems as threats and taking an avoidant, rather than proactive, approach to dealing with problems. These findings may have implications for problem-solving interventions for rejection sensitive individuals.

  18. Two Positive Periodic Solutions for a Neutral Delay Model of Single-Species Population Growth with Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    By coincidence degree theory for k-set-contractive mapping, this paper establishes a new criterion for the existence of at least two positive periodic solutions for a neutral delay model of single-species population growth with harvesting. An example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the result.

  19. Two Positive Periodic Solutions for a Neutral Delay Model of Single-Species Population Growth with Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By coincidence degree theory for k-set-contractive mapping, this paper establishes a new criterion for the existence of at least two positive periodic solutions for a neutral delay model of single-species population growth with harvesting. An example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the result.

  20. Positive end-expiratory pressure improves survival in a rodent model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using high-dose epinephrine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCaul, Conán

    2009-10-01

    Multiple interventions have been tested in models of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to optimize drug use, chest compressions, and ventilation. None has studied the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on outcome. We hypothesized that because PEEP can reverse pulmonary atelectasis, lower pulmonary vascular resistance, and potentially improve cardiac output, its use during CPR would increase survival.

  1. Parental Self-Efficacy and Positive Contributions Regarding Autism Spectrum Condition: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Couples affect each other cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally. The goal of this study is to test the benefits and potential use of the actor-partner interdependence model in examining how parental self-efficacy and positive contributions of fathers and mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Condition influence each other's psychological…

  2. Testing a Model Linking Environmental Hope and Self-Control with Students' Positive Emotions and Environmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerret, Dorit; Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model with 254 Israeli junior high school students, hypothesizing that students' environmental hope would simultaneously mediate the relationship between their engagement in school-based environmental activities (green engagement) and their environmental behavior as well as their positivity ratio, but that…

  3. Positive global solutions for a general model of size-dependent population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kato

    2000-01-01

    have the growth rate depending on the size and time. The local existence and uniqueness of the solution have been shown by Kato and Torikata (1997. Here, we discuss the positivity of the solution and global existence as well as L ∞ solutions.

  4. Penerapan Model Multidimensional Scaling dalam Pemetaan Brand Positioning Internet Service Provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertus Tang Herman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this high-tech era, there have been tremendous advances in tech-based products and services. Internet is one of them that have widened the world’s eyes to a new borderless marketplace. High competition among internet service providers has pushed companies to create competitive advantage and brilliant marketing strategies. They undertake positioning mapping to describe product or service’s positioning amongst many competitors. The right positioning strategy becomes a powerful weapon to win in the battle. This research is designed to create positioning mapping based on perceptual mapping. The researcher uses Multidimensional Scaling and image mapping to achieve this research goal. Sampling is using non-probability sampling in Jakarta. Based on non-attribute approach, the research findings show that there is similarity between two different brands. Thus, both brands are competing against one another. On the other hand, CBN and Netzap provider reflect some differences to others. And some brands require some improvements in terms of network reliability.

  5. A simple spatial model exploring positive feedbacks at tropical alpine treelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, M.; Rietkerk, M.; Bregt, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change could cause alpine treelines to shift in altitude or to change their spatial pattern, but little is known about the drivers of treeline dynamics and patterning. The position and patterns of tropical alpine treelines are generally attributed to land use, especially burning. Species

  6. Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions for a nonlocal dispersal population model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wen Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the solutions of a nonlocal dispersal equation with a spatial weight representing competitions and aggregation. To overcome the limitations of comparison principles, we introduce new definitions of upper-lower solutions. The proof of existence and uniqueness of positive solutions is based on the method of monotone iteration sequences.

  7. Tumor load in lymph node positive melanoma: Classification systems, prognostication models and management recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.T. van der Ploeg (Augustinus)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The incidence and mortality of melanoma, the most malignant type of skin cancer, is increasing worldwide. The sentinel node procedure is accepted as a diagnostic procedure for patients with primary melanoma > 1mm. The prognosis of the group of sentinel node-positive

  8. Modeling College Women's Perceptions of Elite Leadership Positions with Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeagley, Emily E.; Subich, Linda M.; Tokar, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) for predicting college women's interests and goals for positions of elite leadership was examined with 156 undergraduate women at a public university. They completed measures of elite leadership self-efficacy expectations, outcome expectations, interests, and goals.…

  9. Development of 3-axis precise positioning seismic physical modeling system in the simulation of marine seismic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Shin, S.; Ha, J.; Lee, D.; Lim, Y.; Chung, W.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic physical modeling is a laboratory-scale experiment that deals with the actual and physical phenomena that may occur in the field. In seismic physical modeling, field conditions are downscaled and used. For this reason, even a small error may lead to a big error in an actual field. Accordingly, the positions of the source and the receiver must be precisely controlled in scale modeling. In this study, we have developed a seismic physical modeling system capable of precisely controlling the 3-axis position. For automatic and precise position control of an ultrasonic transducer(source and receiver) in the directions of the three axes(x, y, and z), a motor was mounted on each of the three axes. The motor can automatically and precisely control the positions with positional precision of 2''; for the x and y axes and 0.05 mm for the z axis. As it can automatically and precisely control the positions in the directions of the three axes, it has an advantage in that simulations can be carried out using the latest exploration techniques, such as OBS and Broadband Seismic. For the signal generation section, a waveform generator that can produce a maximum of two sources was used, and for the data acquisition section, which receives and stores reflected signals, an A/D converter that can receive a maximum of four signals was used. As multiple sources and receivers could be used at the same time, the system was set up in such a way that diverse exploration methods, such as single channel, multichannel, and 3-D exploration, could be realized. A computer control program based on LabVIEW was created, so that it could control the position of the transducer, determine the data acquisition parameters, and check the exploration data and progress in real time. A marine environment was simulated using a water tank 1 m wide, 1 m long, and 0.9 m high. To evaluate the performance and applicability of the seismic physical modeling system developed in this study, single channel and

  10. Position Dependence of Fractional Derivative Models for Loudspeaker Voice Coils with Lossy Inductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Alexander Weider; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2017-01-01

    Commonly used models of moving-coil loudspeaker voice coils, which include effects from eddy current losses, are either inaccurate or contain an abundance of parameters, and are difficult to extend to the nonlinear domain. On the contrary, fractional derivative models accurately describe...... order derivative approaches a value of 1, corresponding to an ideal inductance, when the voice coil is completely outside the magnetic system. Finally, the developed model reveals details about the effect of conductive voice coil formers...

  11. Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo [Federal Univ. of Paraba (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.

  12. Indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos-; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Tsirigotis-Maniecka, Marta Afrodyta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals. 156 homosexual individuals (111 males, 45 females) aged 25-35 (mean age of 29.6) and 561 heterosexual individuals (400 males, 161 females) aged 24-36 (mean age of 28.2) were studied with regard to indirect self-destructiveness. The research instrument was the Polish version of the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale (CS-DS) including: Transgression and Risk (A1), Poor Health Maintenance (A2), Personal and Social Neglects (A3), Lack of Planfulness (A4) and Helplessness and Passiveness in the face of problems (A5). Homosexual individuals obtained significantly higher scores than heterosexual ones in numerous scales: Indirect Self-Destructiveness - global (general) index (pdifferences in the Poor Health Maintenance scale (A2). They also achieved significantly higher scores in the subscales assessing using of psychoactive substances. Factor analysis revealed the presence of only one factor both in the group of homosexual and heterosexual individuals. The research results indicate that, as compared with the group of heterosexual individuals, in the group of homosexuals there occurs a worsening in psychological functioning, which may be also manifested by an increased indirect self-destructiveness index. The increased intensity of indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals may be considered a manifestation of worsened psychological functioning. The homosexual individuals look after their health similarly to heterosexuals.

  13. Invited review: A position on the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, M J; Vellinga, T; Opio, C; Falcucci, A; Tempio, G; Henderson, B; Makkar, H; Mottet, A; Robinson, T; Steinfeld, H; Gerber, P J

    2018-02-01

    The livestock sector is one of the fastest growing subsectors of the agricultural economy and, while it makes a major contribution to global food supply and economic development, it also consumes significant amounts of natural resources and alters the environment. In order to improve our understanding of the global environmental impact of livestock supply chains, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has developed the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of GLEAM. Specifically, it explains the model architecture, methods and functionality, that is the types of analysis that the model can perform. The model focuses primarily on the quantification of greenhouse gases emissions arising from the production of the 11 main livestock commodities. The model inputs and outputs are managed and produced as raster data sets, with spatial resolution of 0.05 decimal degrees. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model v1.0 consists of five distinct modules: (a) the Herd Module; (b) the Manure Module; (c) the Feed Module; (d) the System Module; (e) the Allocation Module. In terms of the modelling approach, GLEAM has several advantages. For example spatial information on livestock distributions and crops yields enables rations to be derived that reflect the local availability of feed resources in developing countries. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model also contains a herd model that enables livestock statistics to be disaggregated and variation in livestock performance and management to be captured. Priorities for future development of GLEAM include: improving data quality and the methods used to perform emissions calculations; extending the scope of the model to include selected additional environmental impacts and to enable predictive modelling; and improving the utility of GLEAM output.

  14. Near real-time and real-time GNSS Precise Point Positioning with external a priori troposphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Tomasz; Santos, Marcelo; Garcia, Alex; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Kaplon, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a positioning technique that uses a single GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receiver that requires external information from analysis of global GNSS permanent network, in particular precise orbits and satellite clocks. This technique is commonly used in post-processing mode and gives results comparable to relative positioning. A shortcoming of this technique is the time required for the solution to converge, which is a main limitation for near real-time and real-time applications. The convergence time depends on the quality of GNSS data, on the accuracy of the a priori parameters and on fast ambiguity resolution. Until recently, near real-time and real-time users were limited in the sources of precise products, since only the predicted part of the ultra-rapid products were available. In 2012, the International GNSS Service (IGS) launched the Real-Time Service (RTS), making available a dedicated set of real-time products, known as IGS-RTS. Nevertheless, there is still no standard procedure for handling the troposphere delay. The a priori troposphere delay, as well as mapping functions, has to be derived from an external source and the adjustment model should account for the correction to an apriori value of the delay. Currently, a number of empirical troposphere state models and mapping functions are available for users in real-time. Near-real time model of troposphere delay can also be determined from the analysis of regional GNSS permanent network. In this paper, we make use of the IGS-RTS along with a number of a priori tropospheric models in order the assess how they influence convergence time and estimated position. For this purpose, we use GPS Analysis and Positioning Software (GAPS) for near-real time processing and GNSS-Wroclaw Algorithms for Real-time Positioning (GNSS-WARP) software for real-time processing of GPS only data together with IGS-RTS precise orbits and satellite clocks. As a priori troposphere model

  15. Hospital standardized mortality ratio: consequences of adjusting hospital mortality with indirect standardization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice E Pouw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hospital standardized mortality ratio (HSMR is developed to evaluate and improve hospital quality. Different methods can be used to standardize the hospital mortality ratio. Our aim was to assess the validity and applicability of directly and indirectly standardized hospital mortality ratios. METHODS: Retrospective scenario analysis using routinely collected hospital data to compare deaths predicted by the indirectly standardized case-mix adjustment method with observed deaths. Discharges from Dutch hospitals in the period 2003-2009 were used to estimate the underlying prediction models. We analysed variation in indirectly standardized hospital mortality ratios (HSMRs when changing the case-mix distributions using different scenarios. Sixty-one Dutch hospitals were included in our scenario analysis. RESULTS: A numerical example showed that when interaction between hospital and case-mix is present and case-mix differs between hospitals, indirectly standardized HSMRs vary between hospitals providing the same quality of care. In empirical data analysis, the differences between directly and indirectly standardized HSMRs for individual hospitals were limited. CONCLUSION: Direct standardization is not affected by the presence of interaction between hospital and case-mix and is therefore theoretically preferable over indirect standardization. Since direct standardization is practically impossible when multiple predictors are included in the case-mix adjustment model, indirect standardization is the only available method to compute the HSMR. Before interpreting such indirectly standardized HSMRs the case-mix distributions of individual hospitals and the presence of interactions between hospital and case-mix should be assessed.

  16. A model of Dutch agriculture based on Positive Mathematical Programming with regional and environmental applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the current state-of-the-art of the Dutch Regionalized Agricultural Model (DRAM). DRAM can be defined as a comparative static, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming and regionalized model of the Dutch agricultural sector with environmental aspects.

  17. A Positive Model for Reducing and Preventing School Burnout in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to develop and test the validity of a model limited to attitude towards the future and subjective well-being for reducing and preventing the school burnout that high school students can experience. The study is designed as a relational screening model conducted over 389 high school students. The data in this study are analyzed…

  18. Indirect orthodontic bonding - a modified technique for improved efficiency and precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Issamu Nojima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The indirect bonding technique optimizes fixed appliance installation at the orthodontic office, ensuring precise bracket positioning, among other advantages. In this laboratory clinical phase, material and methods employed in creating the transfer tray are decisive to accuracy. OBJECTIVE: This article describes a simple, efficient and reproducible indirect bonding technique that allows the procedure to be carried out successfully. Variables influencing the orthodontic bonding are analyzed and discussed in order to aid professionals wishing to adopt the indirect bonding technique routinely in their clinical practice.

  19. Mathematical models and heuristic solutions for container positioning problems in port terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Louise Sibbesen

    2008-01-01

    , and conclusive remarks. The introduction provides a basis for appreciating the presented work and sets out the scope, motivation, purpose, and contributions of the thesis. Furthermore, the CPP is defined and described, an overview of port container terminal issues in general is provided, and relevant literature...... mathematical programming formulations. First, a conceptual mixed integer linear programming (MIP) model for the entire port container terminal is presented. Subsequently, two models for the CPP are suggested: A MIP model and a binary integer linear programming (BIP) model. The models provide a basis...... in parameters and input data. Two improvement routines are presented, one imbedded in the basic heuristic and the other constituting a repair algorithm with the purpose of improving an initial heuristic solution. The heuristic algorithm performance and a wide range of different planning strategies...

  20. Sketch for a model of four epistemological positions toward computer game play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli

    2008-01-01

    The paper attempts to sketch out four distinct epistemological positions toward the player, who is understood as derived from play and game. To map out the problem field, two equally challenged positions toward computer game play are observed, emerging from inadequate treatment of the differences...... between play and game. The analysis starts out by postulating two parallel but fundamentally different views regarding play; the subjectivist viewpoint, from which the essence of playing a game depends on the mental state of the playing subject, and, the non-subjectivist viewpoint, from which the essence...... of playing a game is seen as independent of what goes on in the player’s mind (actually, the player might not even be the true subject of the game). Similar polarities are postulated regarding a game; from an exclusive viewpoint .game. is a signifying shorthand for objects, which, when observed from...

  1. Pneumatic Artificial Muscles Force Modelling and the Position and Stiffness Control on the Knee Joint of the Musculoskeletal Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingtao Lei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs have properties similar to biological muscle and are widely used in robotics as actuators. A musculoskeletal leg mechanism driven by PAMs is presented in this paper. The joint stiffness of the musculoskeletal bionic leg for jumping movement needs to be analysed. The synchronous control on the position and stiffness of the joint is important to improve the flexibility of leg. The accurate force model of PAM is the foundation to achieving better control and dynamic jumping performance. The experimental platform of PAM is conducted, and the static equal pressure experiments are performed to obtain the PAM force model. According to the testing data, parameter identification method is adopted to determine the force model of PAM. A simulation on the position and stiffness control of the knee joint is performed, and the simulation results show the effectiveness of the presented method.

  2. DISCRIMINATIVE MODEL OF CERTAIN MOTOR INDICATORS OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS AS SELECTION CRITERIA FOR TEAM POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vučković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed and implemented selection is one of the important prerequisites for achieving the expected results in the modern competitive sport at all levels. The aim of this work was to determine how the selection was made for Serbian League players, on the basis of their certain motor parameters and the positions in the team. A sample of 25 senior players of a football team competing in the Serbian League is divided into four sub-samples, based on team positions. For assessment of motor characteristics following tests were used: long jump (LJ, Abalac test (AT; 10 seconds push-ups (PU, 30 seconds trunk bends (TB, 20 meter flying start running (20FSR, 20 meter high start running (20HSR, 50 meter high start running (50HSR and Cooper test (CT . Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that there are significant differences for variable 20FSR and variable CT (F = 3754, 9835, p = .027, .000, respectively. Three canonical discriminant functions were singled out, where the first explained even 84.6%, the second 14.5% and the third only 1% of the total variance, or in summary first two functions explained 99.0% of the variance. It can be concluded that the selected players, in terms of the position in the team, distinguished first by performing on the Cooper test, followed by the result of 20 meter flying start running, 20 meter high start running, 50 meter high start running, trunk bends, and finally by Abalac test, push-ups and long jump. Observed as a function of certain motor characteristics, it could be concluded that in the selection of players in terms of the playing position confidence level was 72.0% in general level, with the most reliable for goalkeepers (100%, midfielders (71.4% and defensive players (70.0%, while the smallest was at strikers (50%.

  3. The Research of Indoor Positioning Based on Double-peak Gaussian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Location fingerprinting using Wi-Fi signals has been very popular and is a well accepted indoor positioning method. The key issue of the fingerprinting approach is generating the fingerprint radio map. Limited by the practical workload, only a few samples of the received signal strength are collected at each reference point. Unfortunately, fewer samples cannot accurately represent the actual distribution of the signal strength from each access point. This study finds most Wi- Fi signals have two peaks. According to the new finding, a double-peak Gaussian arithmetic is proposed to generate a fingerprint radio map. This approach requires little time to receive WiFi signals and it easy to estimate the parameters of the double-peak Gaussian function. Compared to the Gaussian function and histogram method to generate a fingerprint radio map, this method better approximates the occurrence signal distribution. This paper also compared the positioning accuracy using K-Nearest Neighbour theory for three radio maps, the test results show that the positioning distance error utilizing the double-peak Gaussian function is better than the other two methods.

  4. Modelling and Control of Stepper Motors for High Accuracy Positioning Systems Used in Radioactive Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Picatoste Ruilope, Ricardo; Masi, Alessandro

    Hybrid Stepper Motors are widely used in open-loop position applications. They are the choice of actuation for the collimators in the Large Hadron Collider, the largest particle accelerator at CERN. In this case the positioning requirements and the highly radioactive operating environment are unique. The latter forces both the use of long cables to connect the motors to the drives which act as transmission lines and also prevents the use of standard position sensors. However, reliable and precise operation of the collimators is critical for the machine, requiring the prevention of step loss in the motors and maintenance to be foreseen in case of mechanical degradation. In order to make the above possible, an approach is proposed for the application of an Extended Kalman Filter to a sensorless stepper motor drive, when the motor is separated from its drive by long cables. When the long cables and high frequency pulse width modulated control voltage signals are used together, the electrical signals difer greatl...

  5. 48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement. Except for educational institutions having a cognizant agency (as defined in OMB...

  6. A review of Indirect Matrix Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Rahmani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Matrix Converter (MC is a modern direct AC/AC electrical power converter without dc-link capacitor. MC is operated in four quadrant, assuring a control of the output voltage, amplitude and frequency. The matrix converter has recently attracted significant attention among researchers and it has become increasing attractive for applications of wind energy conversion, military power supplies, induction motor drives, etc. Recently, different MC topologies have been proposed and developed which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Matrix converter can be classified as direct and indirect structures. The direct one has been elaborated in previous work. In this paper the indirect MCs are reviewed. Different characteristics of the indirect MC topologies are mentioned to show the strengths and weaknesses of such converter topologies.

  7. and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna S. Agasthya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT and standard tube agglutination test (STAT. Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence, and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%.

  8. Reduction of false positives in the detection of architectural distortion in mammograms by using a geometrically constrained phase portrait model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Fabio J.; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective One of the commonly missed signs of breast cancer is architectural distortion. We have developed techniques for the detection of architectural distortion in mammograms, based on the analysis of oriented texture through the application of Gabor filters and a linear phase portrait model. In this paper, we propose constraining the shape of the general phase portrait model as a means to reduce the false-positive rate in the detection of architectural distortion. Material and methods The methods were tested with one set of 19 cases of architectural distortion and 41 normal mammograms, and with another set of 37 cases of architectural distortion. Results Sensitivity rates of 84% with 4.5 false positives per image and 81% with 10 false positives per image were obtained for the two sets of images. Conclusion The adoption of a constrained phase portrait model with a symmetric matrix and the incorporation of its condition number in the analysis resulted in a reduction in the false-positive rate in the detection of architectural distortion. The proposed techniques, dedicated for the detection and localization of architectural distortion, should lead to efficient detection of early signs of breast cancer. (orig.)

  9. FEMALE SEX WORKERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD HIV TESTING: A STUDY AMONG INDIRECT SEX WORKERS IN BANTUL, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhesi Ari Astuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Indonesia is among the highest in Asia after Papua New Guinea and Malaysia. Indirect sex workers posed a heightened risk of HIV infection compared to direct sex workers because they usually earn less than their direct counterpart and have lower bargaining power in condom use. Objective: This study aims to examine the factors influencing indirect sex workers’ attitudes toward HIV testing. Methods: This study employed a quantitative method with a cross-sectional approach involved 67 indirect sex workers from massage parlors and beauty salons in Bantul district. Descriptive analysis of respondents’ attitude, perceive threat and expectation was drawn from Health Belief Model Theory. Results: The majority of indirect sex workers had positive attitude towards HIV testing. They are aware to the importance of condom in every commercial sex works, but the majority believe themselves were not susceptible to HIV-AIDS due to their preference to healthy-looking clients to serve sex. Personal expenses to visit the health center for HIV testing are less considered compared to public opinion and discrimination. Peers encouraged the workers to get tested. Disseminating HIV/AIDS information to sex workers through media and mobile phone are not successful. Conclusion: The findings of the study carrying an expectation that when individuals’ attitudes toward HIV testing are positive, the likelihood of getting themselves tested would also be higher. Since the perception is driven by information as stimulus, it is important to provide continuous information to create stimulus which eventually will influence their perception.

  10. Effect of position, nitric oxide, and almitrine on lung perfusion in a porcine model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, J C; Janier, M; Lavenne, F; Berthier, V; Lebars, D; Annat, G; Decailliot, F; Guerin, C

    2002-12-01

    In a porcine model of oleic acid-induced lung injury, the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and intravenous almitrine bismesylate (ivALM), which enhances the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction on the distribution of regional pulmonary blood flow (PBF), were assessed. After injection of 0.12 ml/kg oleic acid, 20 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated piglets [weight of 25 +/- 2.6 (SD) kg] were randomly divided into four groups: supine position, prone position, and 10 ppm iNO for 40 min followed by 4 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) ivALM for 40 min in supine position and in prone position. PBF was measured with positron emission tomography and H(2)15O. The redistribution of PBF was studied on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Positron emission tomography scans were performed before and then 120, 160, and 200 min after injury. With prone position alone, although PBF remained prevalent in the dorsal regions it was significantly redistributed toward the ventral regions (P < 0.001). A ventral redistribution of PBF was also obtained with iNO regardless of the position (P = 0.043). Adjunction of ivALM had no further effect on PBF redistribution. PP and iNO have an additive effect on ventral redistribution of PBF.

  11. Modeling bidding competitiveness and position performance in multi-attribute construction auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    This paper details a practical methodology based on simple statistical calculations for modeling the performance of a single bidder or a group of bidders, constituting a useful resource for analyzing one’s own success while benchmarking potential bidding competitors.

  12. The ecological agriculture as a political position in the current model for Colombian Agrarian Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás León Sicard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some characteristics of the model green revolution are discussed from an environmental point of view, understood as the study of the complex relationships between environment and culture. They include variables of social organization such as the level of soil stress, climate and earth surface, they also include symbolic structures like land accessibility and technological and scientific power of the societies where the model was originated. Some aspects of technology transfer are reviewed as well as the process of the new transgenic model, which is opposed to the alternative agricultural movements. Some qualms on the pertinence of the models for the solution of the central problems of the Colombian agriculture are presented.

  13. High definition geomagnetic models: A new perspective for improved wellbore positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maus, Stefan; Nair, Manoj C.; Poedjono, Benny

    2012-01-01

    for accurate well placement, the US National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), in partnership with industry, has developed high-definition geomagnetic models (HDGM), updated regularly using the latest satellite, airborne and marine measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. Standard geomagnetic reference models....... These are compiled into a global magnetic anomaly grid and expanded into ellipsoidal harmonics. The harmonic expansion coefficients are then included in the high-definition models to accurately represent the direction and strength of the local geomagnetic field. The latest global model to degree and order 720...... facilitates the validation of MWD surveys by keeping the field acceptance criteria centered on the true downhole magnetic field. Together, these factors improve well placement, prevent and mitigate the danger of collision with existing wellbores and enable real-time steering to save rig-time and reduce...

  14. Numerical modeling of positive streamer in air in nonuniform fields: Efficiency of radicals production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikovsky, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of streamer corona depends on a number of factors such as geometry of electrodes, voltage pulse parameters, gas pressure etc. In a past 5 years a two-dimensional models of streamer in nonuniform fields in air have been developed. These models allow to simulate streamer dynamics and generation of species and to investigate the influence of external parameters on species production. In this work the influence of Laplacian field on efficiency of radicals generation is investigated

  15. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  16. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of cultured neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbierato, Massimo; Argentini, Carla; Skaper, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Immunofluorescence is a technique allowing the visualization of a specific protein or antigen in cells or tissue sections by binding a specific antibody chemically conjugated with a fluorescent dye such as fluorescein isothiocyanate. There are two major types of immunofluorescence staining methods: (1) direct immunofluorescence staining in which the primary antibody is labeled with fluorescence dye and (2) indirect immunofluorescence staining in which a secondary antibody labeled with fluorochrome is used to recognize a primary antibody. This chapter describes procedures for the application of indirect immunofluorescence staining to neural cells in culture.

  17. Indirect methods for wake potential integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnov, I.

    2006-05-01

    The development of the modern accelerator and free-electron laser projects requires to consider wake fields of very short bunches in arbitrary three dimensional structures. To obtain the wake numerically by direct integration is difficult, since it takes a long time for the scattered fields to catch up to the bunch. On the other hand no general algorithm for indirect wake field integration is available in the literature so far. In this paper we review the know indirect methods to compute wake potentials in rotationally symmetric and cavity-like three dimensional structures. For arbitrary three dimensional geometries we introduce several new techniques and test them numerically. (Orig.)

  18. Inborn and experience-dependent models of categorical brain organization. A position paper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGainotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review aims to summarize the debate in contemporary neuroscience between inborn and experience-dependent models of conceptual representations that goes back to the description of category-specific semantic disorders for biological and artefact categories. Experience-dependent models suggest that categorical disorders are the by-product of the differential weighting of different sources of knowledge in the representation of biological and artefact categories. These models maintain that semantic disorders are not really category-specific, because they do not respect the boundaries between different categories. They also argue that the brain structures disrupted in a given type of category-specific semantic disorder should correspond to the areas of convergence of the sensory-motor information which play a major role in the construction of that category. Furthermore, they provide a simple interpretation of gender-related categorical effects and are supported by studies that have assessed the importance of prior experience in the cortical representation of objects On the other hand, inborn models maintain that category-specific semantic disorders reflect the disruption of innate brain networks, which are shaped by natural selection to allow rapid identification of objects that are very relevant for survival. From the empirical point of view, these models are mainly supported by observations made in blind subjects, which suggest that visual experience is not necessary for the emergence of category-specificity in the ventral stream of visual processing. The weight of data supporting experience-dependent and inborn models are thoroughly discussed, stressing the fact observations made in blind subjects are still the subject of intense debate, but concluding that at the present state of knowledge it is not possible to choose between experience-dependent and inborn models of conceptual representations.

  19. [Dental education and preclinical procedures to develop indirect vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Torres, M J; Santos Vallejo, C; Yanguas Bayona, M; Santos Carrillo Baracaldo, J; Vega del Barrio, J M

    1991-05-01

    The technological advance and the development of the odontologic profession, requires the gradual incorporation of more accurate psycho-motrice methods. The aim of this report is the presentation of the systems elaborated for the development of the students' and odontologists' psycho-motive skill. This report describes the method known as "reflection box", for the learning of indirect vision. In order to achieve a training, for the correct odontologic practice, in ergonomic positions that prevent skeleton-muscle disorders resulted from inadequate professional practices, exercises in two and three dimensions should be carried out with said box.

  20. Spatial Spread of Tuberculosis through Neighborhoods Segregated by Socioeconomic Position: A Stochastic Automata Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rehkopf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of the agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is dependent on social context. A discrete spatial model representing neighborhoods segregated by levels of crowding and immunocompetence is constructed and used to evaluate prevention strategies, based on a number of assumptions about the spatial dynamics of tuberculosis. A cellular automata model is used to (a construct neighborhoods of different densities, (b model stochastically local interactions among individuals, and (c model the spread of tuberculosis within and across neighborhoods over time. Since infected people may become progressively sick but also heal through treatment, the transition among stages was modeled with transition probabilities. A moderate level of successful treatment (40% dramatically reduced the number of infections across all neighborhoods. Increasing the treatment in neighborhoods of a lower socioeconomic level from 40% to 90% results in an additional decrease of approximately 25% in the number of infected individuals overall. In conclusion, we find that a combination of a moderate level of successful treatment across all areas with more focused treatment efforts in lower socioeconomic areas resulted in the least number of infections over time.

  1. A-P Positioning of Medialization Thyroplasty in an Excised Larynx Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonka, Lukasz; Ford, Charles N.; Machi, Anthony T.; Leverson, Glen E.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis Posterior positioning of medialization thyroplasty provides the best acoustic and aerodynamic outcomes. Study Design Ex vivo excised canine larynx. Methods Unilateral thyroplasty windows were cut in the thyroid cartilages of 10 excised canine larynges. Each larynx was mounted on an artificial lung and the vocal fold opposite the thyroid window was adducted by medializing its arytenoid cartilage. Then, medialization thyroplasty was simulated with a probe placed anterior, central, and posterior in the thyroid window. The glottal area, airway reduction, medialization force, phonation threshold pressure and flow, aerodynamic power, intensity, efficiency, jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured at each medialization position. Results Posterior medialization probe placement minimized the glottal area, provided the best voice as determined by perturbation measures and SNR, reduced the work of phonation, and increased efficiency. Anterior and middle probe placement minimized the work of phonation but provided only modest gains in sound quality and decreased sound intensity. Medializing the vocal fold with posterior probe placement required twice as much force as central and anterior probe placement. Conclusions The results suggest that posterior medialization provides the greatest improvement in acoustic parameters and efficiency in patients who can tolerate the airway reduction. Middle and anterior medialization can decrease work of phonation, but in this experiment objective improvement in sound quality was limited. Subtle changes in displacement shim contour, especially in middle and anterior locations, have a substantial impact on voice outcome, affirming the value of intraoperative voice assessment. PMID:19235760

  2. Intelligent Machine Vision Based Modeling and Positioning System in Sand Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ikramullah Butt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced vision solutions enable manufacturers in the technology sector to reconcile both competitive and regulatory concerns and address the need for immaculate fault detection and quality assurance. The modern manufacturing has completely shifted from the manual inspections to the machine assisted vision inspection methodology. Furthermore, the research outcomes in industrial automation have revolutionized the whole product development strategy. The purpose of this research paper is to introduce a new scheme of automation in the sand casting process by means of machine vision based technology for mold positioning. Automation has been achieved by developing a novel system in which casting molds of different sizes, having different pouring cup location and radius, position themselves in front of the induction furnace such that the center of pouring cup comes directly beneath the pouring point of furnace. The coordinates of the center of pouring cup are found by using computer vision algorithms. The output is then transferred to a microcontroller which controls the alignment mechanism on which the mold is placed at the optimum location.

  3. Indirect effects of domestic and wild herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Marit L; Roche, Leslie M; Young, Truman P

    2013-10-01

    Indirect interactions driven by livestock and wild herbivores are increasingly recognized as important aspects of community dynamics in savannas and rangelands. Large ungulate herbivores can both directly and indirectly impact the reproductive structures of plants, which in turn can affect the pollinators of those plants. We examined how wild herbivores and cattle each indirectly affect the abundance of a common pollinator butterfly taxon, Colotis spp., at a set of long-term, large herbivore exclosure plots in a semiarid savanna in central Kenya. We also examined effects of herbivore exclusion on the main food plant of Colotis spp., which was also the most common flowering species in our plots: the shrub Cadaba farinosa. The study was conducted in four types of experimental plots: cattle-only, wildlife-only, cattle and wildlife (all large herbivores), and no large herbivores. Across all plots, Colotis spp. abundances were positively correlated with both Cadaba flower numbers (adult food resources) and total Cadaba canopy area (larval food resources). Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that floral resources drove the abundance of Colotis butterflies. Excluding browsing wildlife increased the abundances of both Cadaba flowers and Colotis butterflies. However, flower numbers and Colotis spp. abundances were greater in plots with cattle herbivory than in plots that excluded all large herbivores. Our results suggest that wild browsing herbivores can suppress pollinator species whereas well-managed cattle use may benefit important pollinators and the plants that depend on them. This study documents a novel set of ecological interactions that demonstrate how both conservation and livelihood goals can be met in a working landscape with abundant wildlife and livestock.

  4. The health belief model and factors associated with adherence to treatment recommendations for positional plagiocephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sandi; Luerssen, Thomas G; Hadley, Caroline; Daniels, Bradley; Strickland, Ben A; Brookshier, Jim; Pan, I-Wen

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to examine factors associated with adherence to recommended treatment among pediatric patients with positional skull deformity by reviewing a single-institution experience (2007-2014) with the treatment of positional plagiocephaly. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted. Risk factors, treatment for positional head shape deformity, and parent-reported adherence were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the impact of patient clinical and demographic characteristics on adherence. RESULTS A total of 991 patients under age 12 months were evaluated for positional skull deformity at the Texas Children's Hospital Cranial Deformity Clinic between 2007 and 2014. According to an age- and risk factor-based treatment algorithm, patients were recommended for repositioning, physical therapy, or cranial orthosis therapy or crossover from repositioning/physical therapy into cranial orthosis therapy. The patients' average chronological age at presentation was 6.2 months; 69.3% were male. The majority were white (40.7%) or Hispanic (32.6%); 38.7% had commercial insurance and 37.9% had Medicaid. The most common initial recommended treatment was repositioning or physical therapy; 85.7% of patients were adherent to the initial recommended treatment. Univariate analysis showed differences in adherence rates among subgroups. Children's families with Medicaid were less likely to be adherent to treatment recommendations (adherence rate, 80.2%). Families with commercial insurance were more likely to be adherent to the recommended treatment (89.6%). Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that factors associated with parent-reported adherence to recommended treatment included primary insurance payer, diagnosis (plagiocephaly vs brachycephaly), and the nature of the recommended treatment. Families were less likely to be adherent if they had Medicaid, a child with a diagnosis of brachycephaly, or were initially recommended

  5. Numerical modeling of percutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation: a realistic 3D model to evaluate sensitivity of neural activation to electrode position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoudi, Amine M; Kampusch, Stefan; Tanghe, Emmeric; Széles, Jozsef C; Martens, Luc; Kaniusas, Eugenijus; Joseph, Wout

    2017-10-01

    Percutaneous stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (pVNS) by miniaturized needle electrodes in the auricle gained importance as a treatment for acute and chronic pain. The objective is to establish a realistic numerical model of pVNS and investigate the effects of stimulation waveform, electrodes' depth, and electrodes' position on nerve excitation threshold and the percentage of stimulated nerves. Simulations were performed with Sim4Life. An electrostatic solver and neural tissue models were combined for electromagnetic and neural simulation. The numerical model consisted of a realistic high-resolution model of a human ear, blood vessels, nerves, and three needle electrodes. A novel 3D ear model was established, including blood vessels and nerves. The electric field distribution was extracted and evaluated. Maximum sensitivity to needles' depth and displacement was evaluated to be 9.8 and 15.5% per 0.1 mm, respectively. Stimulation was most effective using biphasic compared to mono-phasic pulses. The established model allows easy and quantitative evaluation of various stimulation setups, enabling optimization of pVNS in experimental settings. Results suggest a high sensitivity of pVNS to the electrodes' position and depth, implying the need for precise electrode positioning. Validation of the model needs to be performed.

  6. Diverting indirect subsidies from the nuclear industry to the photovoltaic industry: Energy and financial returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenika-Zovko, I.; Pearce, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power and solar photovoltaic energy conversion often compete for policy support that governs economic viability. This paper compares current subsidization of the nuclear industry with providing equivalent support to manufacturing photovoltaic modules. Current U.S. indirect nuclear insurance subsidies are reviewed and the power, energy and financial outcomes of this indirect subsidy are compared to equivalent amounts for indirect subsidies (loan guarantees) for photovoltaic manufacturing using a model that holds economic values constant for clarity. The preliminary analysis indicates that if only this one relatively ignored indirect subsidy for nuclear power was diverted to photovoltaic manufacturing, it would result in more installed power and more energy produced by mid-century. By 2110 cumulative electricity output of solar would provide an additional 48,600 TWh over nuclear worth $5.3 trillion. The results clearly show that not only does the indirect insurance liability subsidy play a significant factor for nuclear industry, but also how the transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in more energy over the life cycle of the technologies. - Highlights: → The indirect insurance liability subsidy has been quantified over the life cycle of the U.S. nuclear fleet. → It was found to play a significant factor in the economics of the nuclear industry. → A transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in significantly more energy over the life cycle of the technologies.

  7. A model of care for healthy menopause and ageing : EMAS position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stute, Petra; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Senturk, Levent M.; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C.; Rees, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the number of menopausal women is increasing. They present with complex medical issues that lie beyond the traditional scope of gynaecologists and general practitioners (GPs). The European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) therefore provides a holistic model of care for healthy

  8. Accounting for false-positive acoustic detections of bats using occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew J.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    1. Acoustic surveys have become a common survey method for bats and other vocal taxa. Previous work shows that bat echolocation may be misidentified, but common analytic methods, such as occupancy models, assume that misidentifications do not occur. Unless rare, such misidentifications could lead to incorrect inferences with significant management implications.

  9. The modelling of education services and labour markets from marketing position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko Sergii Olegovych

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of decision preparation was created and implemented. It is based on imitational modeling of cooperation between education and labor markets. The constant increasing of information volume, its dependence on external environment state and internal organization was also included into the methodology. The main aim is increasing of effectiveness of the system of higher education institution management.

  10. Analytical Model for the Velocity and Position Measurement of a High-Speed Projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    strengths. The results in figure 15 from the 40 mega-gauss oersted (MGOe) with 979 kA/m Nd B Fe PM and the magnetic flux density are plotted as a...models were also useful for sensing the behavior of high-speed projectiles. REFERENCES 1. P. Emerard and J. Gilbert, "Introduction Theory and

  11. The Scenario of a Learning Society Model toward Promoting a Positive Paradigm Shift for Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charungkaittikul, Suwithida

    2011-01-01

    This study uses a prospective qualitative approach. The Ethnographic Delphi Futures Research (EDFR) technique is used to propose a learning society model. The data include a review of peer-reviewed literature, a field study visit and observation of five best practices communities in Thailand, in-depth interviews to gain experts' perspectives,…

  12. Direct and indirect ecosystem effects of evolutionary adaptation in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassar, Ronald D; Ferriere, Regis; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Marshall, Michael C; Travis, Joseph; Pringle, Catherine M; Reznick, David N

    2012-08-01

    Ecological and evolutionary processes may interact on the same timescale, but we are just beginning to understand how. Several studies have examined the net effects of adaptive evolution on ecosystem properties. However, we do not know whether these effects are confined to direct interactions or whether they propagate further through indirect ecological pathways. Even less well understood is how the combination of direct and indirect ecological effects of the phenotype promotes or inhibits evolutionary change. We coupled mesocosm experiments and ecosystem modeling to evaluate the ecological effects of local adaptation in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The experiments show that guppies adapted to life with and without predators alter the ecosystem directly through differences in diet. The ecosystem model reveals that the small total indirect effect of the phenotype observed in the experiments is likely a combination of several large indirect effects that act in opposing directions. The model further suggests that these indirect effects can reverse the direction of selection that direct effects alone exert back on phenotypic variation. We conclude that phenotypic divergence can have major effects deep in the web of indirect ecological interactions and that even small total indirect effects can radically change the dynamics of adaptation.

  13. Modeling positional effects of regulatory sequences with spline transformations increases prediction accuracy of deep neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsec, Žiga; Barekatain, Mohammadamin; Cheng, Jun; Gagneur, Julien

    2017-11-16

    Regulatory sequences are not solely defined by their nucleic acid sequence but also by their relative distances to genomic landmarks such as transcription start site, exon boundaries, or polyadenylation site. Deep learning has become the approach of choice for modeling regulatory sequences because of its strength to learn complex sequence features. However, modeling relative distances to genomic landmarks in deep neural networks has not been addressed. Here we developed spline transformation, a neural network module based on splines to flexibly and robustly model distances. Modeling distances to various genomic landmarks with spline transformations significantly increased state-of-the-art prediction accuracy of in vivo RNA-binding protein binding sites for 120 out of 123 proteins. We also developed a deep neural network for human splice branchpoint based on spline transformations that outperformed the current best, already distance-based, machine learning model. Compared to piecewise linear transformation, as obtained by composition of rectified linear units, spline transformation yields higher prediction accuracy as well as faster and more robust training. As spline transformation can be applied to further quantities beyond distances, such as methylation or conservation, we foresee it as a versatile component in the genomics deep learning toolbox. Spline transformation is implemented as a Keras layer in the CONCISE python package: https://github.com/gagneurlab/concise. Analysis code is available at goo.gl/3yMY5w. avsec@in.tum.de; gagneur@in.tum.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Ubiquitin-Positive Intranuclear Inclusions in Neuronal and Glial Cells in a Mouse Model of the Fragile-X Premutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, H. Jürgen; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Greco, Claudia M.; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The neuropathological hallmark of the disease is the presence of ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions in neurons and in astrocytes. Ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions have also been found in the neurons of transgenic mice model carrying an expanded CGG(98) trinucleotide repeat of human origin, but have not previously been described in glial cells. Therefore, we used immunocytochemical methods to determine the pathological features of nuclear and/or cytoplasmic inclusions in astrocytes, Bergmann glia and neurons, as well as relationships between inclusion patterns, age, and repeat length in CGG knock-in (KI) mice in comparison with wild type mice. In CGG KI mice, ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions were found in neurons (e.g., pyramidal cells, GABAergic neurons) throughout the brain in cortical and subcortical brain regions; these inclusions increased in number and size with advanced age. Ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions were also present in protoplasmic astrocytes, including Bergmann glia in the cerebellum. The morphology of intranuclear inclusions in CGG KI mice was compared to that of typical inclusions in human neurons and astrocytes in postmortem FXTAS brain tissue. This new finding of previously unreported pathology in astrocytes of CGG KI mice now provides an important mouse model to study astrocyte pathology in human FXTAS. PMID:20051238

  15. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail property includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in retail property...

  16. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail licenses includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in a retail license...

  17. Indirect effects drive coevolution in mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Paulo R; Pires, Mathias M; Jordano, Pedro; Bascompte, Jordi; Thompson, John N

    2017-10-26

    Ecological interactions have been acknowledged to play a key role in shaping biodiversity. Yet a major challenge for evolutionary biology is to understand the role of ecological interactions in shaping trait evolution when progressing from pairs of interacting species to multispecies interaction networks. Here we introduce an approach that integrates coevolutionary dynamics and network structure. Our results show that non-interacting species can be as important as directly interacting species in shaping coevolution within mutualistic assemblages. The contribution of indirect effects differs among types of mutualism. Indirect effects are more likely to predominate in nested, species-rich networks formed by multiple-partner mutualisms, such as pollination or seed dispersal by animals, than in small and modular networks formed by intimate mutualisms, such as those between host plants and their protective ants. Coevolutionary pathways of indirect effects favour ongoing trait evolution by promoting slow but continuous reorganization of the adaptive landscape of mutualistic partners under changing environments. Our results show that coevolution can be a major process shaping species traits throughout ecological networks. These findings expand our understanding of how evolution driven by interactions occurs through the interplay of selection pressures moving along multiple direct and indirect pathways.

  18. Indirect punishment and generosity towards strangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ule, A.; Schram, A.; Riedl, A.; Cason, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can

  19. Teaching Indirect Speech: Deixis Points the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an alternative approach to the teaching of indirect or reported speech. Deixis is proposed as a means of clarifying the anomalies of reported speech. The problem is assessed from a grammatical and semantic point of view in the reporting of statements (as opposed to the reporting of questions or commands). (GLR)

  20. Direct or indirect - that is the question!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    rather destroyed teeth need to be restored. Although much can be solved by direct fillings and thereby make treatments less invasive for the tooth and less expensive for the patient, there still will be teeth, where the prognosis is improved, if an indirect restoration in terms of an inlay, onlay...

  1. Development and evaluation of Indirect Hemagglutination Antibody ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to develop and evaluate an Indirect Hemagglutination Antibody Test (IHAT) for the serological diagnosis of Cysticercus bovis in live animals. IHAT was set-up in-house and used to test serum samples of cattle against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) coated with crude extracts of C. bovis cyst. Serum ...

  2. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  3. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fiscal year used for financial reporting purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting... contract or other work, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to intermediate or two or more... basis of the benefits accruing to intermediate and final cost objectives. When substantially the same...

  4. Indirect effects of recreation on wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Peter B. Landres

    1995-01-01

    Most of this book focuses on direct impacts to wildlife that result from contact with people. The purpose of our chapter is to provide a broad overview of the indirect influences that recreation has on wildlife. Recreational activities can change the habitat of an animal. This, in turn, affects the behavior, survival, reproduction, and distribution of individuals....

  5. Plant regeneration through indirect organogenesis of chestnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish an effective protocol for plant regeneration through indirect organogenesis, effects of explants type, culture media and plant growth regulators on callus induction and shoot regeneration of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) were investigated. Three different explants (root, nodal and internodal segment), two ...

  6. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partial synchronization occurs in a population of chemical oscillators coupled through the concentration of chemical in the surrounding solutions [19]. Two nonlinear chaotic systems coupled indirectly through a common dynamic environment synchronize to in-phase or anti-phase state [20]. The early stages of Alzheimer's ...

  7. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  8. Customized biomimetic scaffolds created by indirect three-dimensional printing for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Bogyu; Wu, Benjamin; Lee, Min

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is a rapid prototyping technique that can create complex 3D structures by inkjet printing of a liquid binder onto powder biomaterials for tissue engineering scaffolds. Direct fabrication of scaffolds from 3DP, however, imposes a limitation on material choices by manufacturing processes. In this study, we report an indirect 3DP approach wherein a positive replica of desired shapes was printed using gelatin particles, and the final scaffold was directly produced from the printed mold. To create patient-specific scaffolds that match precisely to a patient's external contours, we integrated our indirect 3DP technique with imaging technologies and successfully created custom scaffolds mimicking human mandibular condyle using polycaprolactone and chitosan for potential osteochondral tissue engineering. To test the ability of the technique to precisely control the internal morphology of the scaffolds, we created orthogonal interconnected channels within the scaffolds using computer-aided-design models. Because very few biomaterials are truly osteoinductive, we modified inert 3D printed materials with bioactive apatite coating. The feasibility of these scaffolds to support cell growth was investigated using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). The BMSCs showed good viability in the scaffolds, and the apatite coating further enhanced cellular spreading and proliferation. This technique may be valuable for complex scaffold fabrication.

  9. Direct and indirect responses of tallgrass prairie butterflies to prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Debinski, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important tool in the conservation and restoration of tallgrass prairie ecosystems. We investigated how both the vegetation composition and butterfly community of tallgrass prairie remnants changed in relation to the elapsed time (in months) since prescribed fire. Butterfly richness and butterfly abundance were positively correlated with the time since burn. Habitat-specialist butterfly richness recovery time was greater than 70 months post-fire and habitat-specialist butterfly abundance recovery time was approximately 50 months post-fire. Thus, recovery times for butterfly populations after prescribed fires in our study were potentially longer than those previously reported. We used Path Analysis to evaluate the relative contributions of the direct effect of time since fire and the indirect effects of time since fire through changes in vegetation composition on butterfly abundance. Path models highlighted the importance of the indirect effects of fire on habitat features, such as increases in the cover of bare ground. Because fire return intervals on managed prairie remnants are often less than 5 years, information on recovery times for habitat-specialist insect species are of great importance. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Finding candidate genes under positive selection in Non-model species: examples of genes involved in host specialization in pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, G; Lengelle, J; Marthey, S; Chiapello, H; Rodolphe, F; Gendrault, A; Yockteng, R; Vercken, E; Devier, B; Fontaine, M C; Wincker, P; Dossat, C; Cruaud, C; Couloux, A; Giraud, T

    2010-01-01

    Numerous genes in diverse organisms have been shown to be under positive selection, especially genes involved in reproduction, adaptation to contrasting environments, hybrid inviability, and host-pathogen interactions. Looking for genes under positive selection in pathogens has been a priority in efforts to investigate coevolution dynamics and to develop vaccines or drugs. To elucidate the functions involved in host specialization, here we aimed at identifying candidate sequences that could have evolved under positive selection among closely related pathogens specialized on different hosts. For this goal, we sequenced c. 17,000-32,000 ESTs from each of four Microbotryum species, which are fungal pathogens responsible for anther smut disease on host plants in the Caryophyllaceae. Forty-two of the 372 predicted orthologous genes showed significant signal of positive selection, which represents a good number of candidate genes for further investigation. Sequencing 16 of these genes in 9 additional Microbotryum species confirmed that they have indeed been rapidly evolving in the pathogen species specialized on different hosts. The genes showing significant signals of positive selection were putatively involved in nutrient uptake from the host, secondary metabolite synthesis and secretion, respiration under stressful conditions and stress response, hyphal growth and differentiation, and regulation of expression by other genes. Many of these genes had transmembrane domains and may therefore also be involved in pathogen recognition by the host. Our approach thus revealed fruitful and should be feasible for many non-model organisms for which candidate genes for diversifying selection are needed.

  11. Pneumatic Artificial Muscles Force Modelling and the Position and Stiffness Control on the Knee Joint of the Musculoskeletal Leg

    OpenAIRE

    Jingtao Lei; Jianmin Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) have properties similar to biological muscle and are widely used in robotics as actuators. A musculoskeletal leg mechanism driven by PAMs is presented in this paper. The joint stiffness of the musculoskeletal bionic leg for jumping movement needs to be analysed. The synchronous control on the position and stiffness of the joint is important to improve the flexibility of leg. The accurate force model of PAM is the foundation to achieving better control and d...

  12. A model for predicting clinical outcome in patients with human papillomavirus-positive tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertipis, Nikolaos; Hammar, Ulf; Näsman, Anders; Vlastos, Andrea; Nordfors, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Ährlund-Richter, Andreas; Sivars, Lars; Haeggblom, Linnea; Marklund, Linda; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle; Chaturvedi, Anil K; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Bottai, Matteo; Dalianis, Tina

    2015-08-01

    To combine clinical and molecular markers into an algorithm for predicting outcome for individual patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA/p16(INK4a) positive tonsillar and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC and BOTSCC). Head-neck cancer treatment has become more intensified, comprising not only surgery and radiotherapy, but also induction/concomitant chemotherapy and targeted therapy. With less treatment, 3-year disease free survival (DFS) is 80% for HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC. An 85-100% 3-year DFS is observed for HPV(+) TSCC and BOTSCC with absence of HLA class I, or CD44 expression, or high CD8(+) tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) counts suggesting that therapy could be tapered for many if patients could be identified individually. Patients treated curatively, with HPV DNA/p16(INK4a) positive tumours examined for HLA class I and II, CD44 and CD8(+)TILs, were included. An L1-regularised logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of the biomarker data, age, stage, diagnosis, smoking and treatment on 3-year risk of death or relapse on a training cohort of 197 patients diagnosed 2000-2007 and validated on a cohort of 118 patients diagnosed 2008-2011. The variables finally included in the model were HLA class I, CD8(+) TILs, age, stage and diagnosis (TSCC or BOTSCC). The model showed acceptable discrimination and calibration. The discriminative ability of the model did not diminish after validation (AUC=0.77). To our knowledge, this is the first model to utilise information from several markers to predict an individual probability of clinical outcome for patients with HPV DNA/p16(INK4a) positive tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  14. Positive water vapour feedback in climate models confirmed by satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, D.; Lerner, J.; Chiou, E.-W.; Chu, W.; Larsen, J.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L.

    1991-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that GCMs used to evaluate climate change overestimate the greenhouse effect due to increased concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere. Here, new satellite-generated water vapor data are used to compare summer and winter moisture values in regions of the middle and upper troposphere that have previously been difficult to observe with confidence. It is found that, as the hemispheres warm, increased convection leads to increased water vapor above 500 mbar in approximate quantitative agreement with results from current climate models. The same conclusion is reached by comparing the tropical western and eastern Pacific regions. Thus, water vapor feedback is not overestimated in models and should amplify the climate response to increased trace-gas concentrations.

  15. Compensation for geometric modeling errors by positioning of electrodes in electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyvönen, N; Majander, H; Staboulis, S

    2017-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography aims at reconstructing the conductivity inside a physical body from boundary measurements of current and voltage at a finite number of contact electrodes. In many practical applications, the shape of the imaged object is subject to considerable uncertainties that render reconstructing the internal conductivity impossible if they are not taken into account. This work numerically demonstrates that one can compensate for inaccurate modeling of the object boundary in two spatial dimensions by finding compatible locations and sizes for the electrodes as a part of a reconstruction algorithm. The numerical studies, which are based on both simulated and experimental data, are complemented by proving that the employed complete electrode model is approximately conformally invariant, which suggests that the obtained reconstructions in mismodeled domains reflect conformal images of the true targets. The numerical experiments also confirm that a similar approach does not, in general, lead to a functional algorithm in three dimensions. (paper)

  16. Incorporating positive body image into the treatment of eating disorders: A model for attunement and mindful self-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine P

    2015-06-01

    This article provides a model for understanding the role positive body image can play in the treatment of eating disorders and methods for guiding patients away from symptoms and toward flourishing. The Attuned Representational Model of Self (Cook-Cottone, 2006) and a conceptual model detailing flourishing in the context of body image and eating behavior (Cook-Cottone et al., 2013) are discussed. The flourishing inherent in positive body image comes hand-in-hand with two critical ways of being: (a) having healthy, embodied awareness of the internal and external aspects of self (i.e., attunement) and (b) engaging in mindful self-care. Attunement and mindful self-care thus are considered as potential targets of actionable therapeutic work in the cultivation of positive body image among those with disordered eating. For context, best-practices in eating disorder treatment are also reviewed. Limitations in current research are detailed and directions for future research are explicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Serial-position effects in preference construction: a sensitivity analysis of the pairwise-competition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canic, Emina; Pachur, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    People have a stronger preference for options encountered earlier or later in a sequence than for options in the middle of the sequence. To account for these primacy and recency effects, Mantonakis et al. (2009) sketched a sequential updating mechanism, the pairwise-competition model. We propose a formal instantiation of the model and, using computer simulations, examine how the sizes of the predicted primacy and recency effects are affected by (a) variability in the quality of the options; (b) the number of options presented (sequence length); (c) the level of choice inertia (i.e., the tendency to stick with the current favorite); and (d) whether choice inertia dynamically increases over the sequence. We find that recency effects are reduced and primacy effects are increased with variability in quality as compared to without, and that this holds regardless of sequence length. A sizeable primacy effect occurs only with relatively short sequences or rather high levels of choice inertia. Dynamic inertia increases primacy effects and reduces recency effects, and the impact increases with higher inertia levels. We relate these results to empirical findings and derive novel predictions from the model.

  18. Serial-Position Effects in Preference Construction: A Sensitivity Analysis of the Pairwise-Competition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emina eCanic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available People have a stronger preference for options encountered earlier or later in a sequence than for options in the middle of the sequence. To account for these primacy and recency effects, Mantonakis, Rodero, Lesschaeve, and Hastie (2009 sketched a sequential updating mechanism, the pairwise-competition model. We propose a formal instantiation of the model and, using computer simulations, examine how the sizes of the predicted primacy and recency effects are affected by (a variability in the quality of the options; (b the number of options presented (sequence length; (c the level of choice inertia (i.e., the tendency to stick with the current favorite; and (d whether choice inertia dynamically increases over the sequence. We find that recency effects are reduced and primacy effects are increased with variability in quality as compared to without, and that this holds regardless of sequence length. A sizeable primacy effect occurs only with relatively short sequences or rather high levels of choice inertia. Dynamic inertia increases primacy effects and reduces recency effects, and the impact increases with higher inertia levels. We relate these results to empirical findings and derive novel predictions from the model.

  19. Modeling tropospheric wet delays with national GNSS reference network in China for BeiDou precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fu; Lou, Yidong; Gu, Shengfeng; Gong, Xiaopeng; Shi, Chuang

    2017-10-01

    During past decades, precise point positioning (PPP) has been proven to be a well-known positioning technique for centimeter or decimeter level accuracy. However, it needs long convergence time to get high-accuracy positioning, which limits the prospects of PPP, especially in real-time applications. It is expected that the PPP convergence time can be reduced by introducing high-quality external information, such as ionospheric or tropospheric corrections. In this study, several methods for tropospheric wet delays modeling over wide areas are investigated. A new, improved model is developed, applicable in real-time applications in China. Based on the GPT2w model, a modified parameter of zenith wet delay exponential decay wrt. height is introduced in the modeling of the real-time tropospheric delay. The accuracy of this tropospheric model and GPT2w model in different seasons is evaluated with cross-validation, the root mean square of the zenith troposphere delay (ZTD) is 1.2 and 3.6 cm on average, respectively. On the other hand, this new model proves to be better than the tropospheric modeling based on water-vapor scale height; it can accurately express tropospheric delays up to 10 km altitude, which potentially has benefits in many real-time applications. With the high-accuracy ZTD model, the augmented PPP convergence performance for BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) and GPS is evaluated. It shows that the contribution of the high-quality ZTD model on PPP convergence performance has relation with the constellation geometry. As BDS constellation geometry is poorer than GPS, the improvement for BDS PPP is more significant than that for GPS PPP. Compared with standard real-time PPP, the convergence time is reduced by 2-7 and 20-50% for the augmented BDS PPP, while GPS PPP only improves about 6 and 18% (on average), in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. When GPS and BDS are combined, the geometry is greatly improved, which is good enough to get a

  20. Finite element modeling for predicting the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wookjin; Won, Byeong Hee; Cho, Seong Wook

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we generated finite element (FE) models to predict the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position. Twenty-year-old males were used for three-dimensional scanning to produce the FE human models, which was composed of skin and muscle tissue. A linear elastic isotropic material model was used for the skin, and the Mooney-Rivlin model was used for the muscle tissue because it can effectively represent the nonlinear behavior of muscle. The contact pressure between the human model and the mattress was predicted by numerical simulation. The human models were validated by comparing the body pressure distribution obtained from the same human subject when he was lying on two different mattress types. The experimental results showed that the slope of the lower part of the mattress caused a decrease in the contact pressure at the heels, and the effect of bone structure was most pronounced in the scapula. After inserting a simple structure to function as the scapula, the contact pressure predicted by the FE human models was consistent with the experimental body pressure distribution for all body parts. These results suggest that the models proposed in this paper will be useful to researchers and designers of products related to the prevention of pressure ulcers.