WorldWideScience

Sample records for model performance electronic

  1. Improving CASINO performance for models with large number of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, L.; Alfe, D.; Hood, R.Q.; Tanqueray, D.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations have at their core algorithms based on statistical ensembles of multidimensional random walkers which are straightforward to use on parallel computers. Nevertheless some computations have reached the limit of the memory resources for models with more than 1000 electrons because of the need to store a large amount of electronic orbitals related data. Besides that, for systems with large number of electrons, it is interesting to study if the evolution of one configuration of random walkers can be done faster in parallel. We present a comparative study of two ways to solve these problems: (1) distributed orbital data done with MPI or Unix inter-process communication tools, (2) second level parallelism for configuration computation

  2. An empirical model to describe performance degradation for warranty abuse detection in portable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hyunseok; Choi, Seunghyuk; Kim, Keunsu; Youn, Byeng D.; Pecht, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Portable electronics makers have introduced liquid damage indicators (LDIs) into their products to detect warranty abuse caused by water damage. However, under certain conditions, these indicators can exhibit inconsistencies in detecting liquid damage. This study is motivated by the fact that the reliability of LDIs in portable electronics is suspected. In this paper, first, the scheme of life tests is devised for LDIs in conjunction with a robust color classification rule. Second, a degradation model is proposed by considering the two physical mechanisms—(1) phase change from vapor to water and (2) water transport in the porous paper—for LDIs. Finally, the degradation model is validated with additional tests using actual smartphone sets subjected to the thermal cycling of −15 °C to 25 °C and the relative humidity of 95%. By employing the innovative life testing scheme and the novel performance degradation model, it is expected that the performance of LDIs for a particular application can be assessed quickly and accurately. - Highlights: • Devise an efficient scheme of life testing for a warranty abuse detector in portable electronics. • Develop a performance degradation model for the warranty abuse detector used in portable electronics. • Validate the performance degradation model with life tests of actual smartphone sets. • Help make a decision on warranty service in portable electronics manufacturers

  3. Modeling and analysis of energy quantization effects on single electron inverter performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Surya Shankar; Mahapatra, Santanu

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, for the first time, the effects of energy quantization on single electron transistor (SET) inverter performance are analyzed through analytical modeling and Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that energy quantization mainly changes the Coulomb blockade region and drain current of SET devices and thus affects the noise margin, power dissipation, and the propagation delay of SET inverter. A new analytical model for the noise margin of SET inverter is proposed which includes the energy quantization effects. Using the noise margin as a metric, the robustness of SET inverter is studied against the effects of energy quantization. A compact expression is developed for a novel parameter quantization threshold which is introduced for the first time in this paper. Quantization threshold explicitly defines the maximum energy quantization that an SET inverter logic circuit can withstand before its noise margin falls below a specified tolerance level. It is found that SET inverter designed with CT:CG=1/3 (where CT and CG are tunnel junction and gate capacitances, respectively) offers maximum robustness against energy quantization.

  4. Drop-on-Demand Inkjet Printhead Performance Enhancement by Dynamic Lumped Element Modeling for Printable Electronics Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maowei He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge in printable electronics fabrication is the print resolution and accuracy. In this paper, the dynamic lumped element model (DLEM is proposed to directly simulate an inkjet-printed nanosilver droplet formation process and used for predictively controlling jetting characteristics. The static lumped element model (LEM previously developed by the authors is extended to dynamic model with time-varying equivalent circuits to characterize nonlinear behaviors of piezoelectric printhead. The model is then used to investigate how performance of the piezoelectric ceramic actuator influences jetting characteristics of nanosilver ink. Finally, the proposed DLEM is applied to predict the printing quality using nanosilver ink. Experimental results show that, compared to other analytic models, the proposed DLEM has a simpler structure with the sufficient simulation and prediction accuracy.

  5. Use of electronic music as an occupational therapy modality in spinal cord injury rehabilitation: an occupational performance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B; Nantais, T

    1996-05-01

    This article describes an electronic music program that allows clients with spinal cord injury (SCI) to form musical bands and play songs while performing therapeutic exercise in an occupational therapy program. Clients create the music by activating upper extremity exercise devices that are connected to a synthesizer through a computer. The bands choose the songs they would like to play and meet twice a week for 1 hr to practice. The 8-week program often concludes with a public performance. The music program is intended to motivate client participation in physical rehabilitation while promoting self-esteem, emotional expression, and peer support. It is based on the model of occupational performance and the theory of purposeful activity. To date, 33 persons have taken part. Client, therapist, and public response has been positive because this program highlights the abilities of persons with SCI, thereby encouraging their reintegration into the community.

  6. Dynamism in Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffey, James

    1995-01-01

    Describes a model for dynamic electronic performance support systems based on NNAble, a system developed by the training group at Apple Computer. Principles for designing dynamic performance support are discussed, including a systems approach, performer-centered design, awareness of situated cognition, organizational memory, and technology use.…

  7. Ion thruster performance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brophy, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A model of ion thruster performance is developed for high flux density cusped magnetic field thruster designs. This model is formulated in terms of the average energy required to produce an ion in the discharge chamber plasma and the fraction of these ions that are extracted to form the beam. The direct loss of high energy (primary) electrons from the plasma to the anode is shown to have a major effect on thruster performance. The model provides simple algebraic equations enabling one to calculate the beam ion energy cost, the average discharge chamber plasma ion energy cost, the primary electron density, the primary-to-Maxwellian electron density ratio and the Maxwellian electron temperature. Experiments indicate that the model correctly predicts the variation in plasma ion energy cost for changes in propellant gas (Ar, Kr, and Xe), grid transparency to neutral atoms, beam extraction area, discharge voltage, and discharge chamber wall temperature

  8. Evaluating the performance of the Electron Density Assimilative Model (EDAM) in the Western European sector using modified Taylor diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Booth, N.; Parker, J.; Pryse, S. E.; Buckland, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Electron Density Assimilative Model (EDAM) is an ionospheric model that assimilates data sources into a background model, currently provided by IRI2007, to generate a global, or regional, 3D representation of the ionospheric electron density. In this study, slant total electron content (sTEC) between GPS satellites and 43 ground receivers in Europe were assimilated into EDAM to model the ionospheric electron density over western Europe. For the evaluation of the model an additional ground receiver (the truth station) was considered, which was not used in the assimilation process. Slant total electron contents for this station were calculated through the EDAM model along satellite-to-receiver paths corresponding to those of the observations made by the receiver. The modelled and observed sTEC were compared for each satellite and every day, between September 2002 and August 2003. For the comparison standard deviations of the modelled and observed sTEC were determined. These were used in modified Taylor Diagrams to display the mean-removed rms difference between the model and observations, the correlation between the two data sets and the bias of the modelled data. Taylor diagrams were obtained for the entire year, and each season and month. Results of the comparisons are presented and discussed, with a specific interest in times that show increased rms differences and decreased correlations between the data sets. The effect of the satellite calibration biases on the results are also considered.

  9. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Sevilla, Galo Torres; Cordero, Marlon Diaz; Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-01-01

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications

  10. Performance of a Bounce-Averaged Global Model of Super-Thermal Electron Transport in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Tim

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of our recent research on the application of a multiprocessor Cray T916 supercomputer in modeling super-thermal electron transport in the earth's magnetic field. In general, this mathematical model requires numerical solution of a system of partial differential equations. The code we use for this model is moderately vectorized. By using Amdahl's Law for vector processors, it can be verified that the code is about 60% vectorized on a Cray computer. Speedup factors on the order of 2.5 were obtained compared to the unvectorized code. In the following sections, we discuss the methodology of improving the code. In addition to our goal of optimizing the code for solution on the Cray computer, we had the goal of scalability in mind. Scalability combines the concepts of portabilty with near-linear speedup. Specifically, a scalable program is one whose performance is portable across many different architectures with differing numbers of processors for many different problem sizes. Though we have access to a Cray at this time, the goal was to also have code which would run well on a variety of architectures.

  11. Disposable Electronic Cigarettes and Electronic Hookahs: Evaluation of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monique; Ghai, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to characterize the performance of disposable button-activated and disposable airflow-activated electronic cigarettes (EC) and electronic hookahs (EH). Methods: The airflow rate required to produce aerosol, pressure drop, and the aerosol absorbance at 420nm were measured during smoke-outs of 9 disposable products. Three units of each product were tested in these experiments. Results: The airflow rates required to produce aerosol and the aerosol absorbances were lower for button-activated models (3mL/s; 0.41–0.55 absorbance) than for airflow-activated models (7–17mL/s; 0.48–0.84 absorbance). Pressure drop was also lower across button-activated products (range = 6–12mm H2O) than airflow-activated products (range = 15–67mm H20). For 25 of 27 units tested, airflow did not have to be increased during smoke-out to maintain aerosol production, unlike earlier generation models. Two brands had uniform performance characteristics for all parameters, while 3 had at least 1 product that did not function normally. While button-activated models lasted 200 puffs or less and EH airflow-activated models often lasted 400 puffs, none of the models produced as many puffs as advertised. Puff number was limited by battery life, which was shorter in button-activated models. Conclusion: The performance of disposable products was differentiated mainly by the way the aerosol was produced (button vs airflow-activated) rather than by product type (EC vs EH). Users needed to take harder drags on airflow-activated models. Performance varied within models, and battery life limited the number of puffs. Data suggest quality control in manufacturing varies among brands. PMID:25104117

  12. Validation of a zero-dimensional model for prediction of NOx and engine performance for electronically controlled marine two-stroke diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scappin, Fabio; Stefansson, Sigurður H.; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to derive a methodology suitable for energy system analysis for predicting the performance and NOx emissions of marine low speed diesel engines. The paper describes a zero-dimensional model, evaluating the engine performance by means of an energy balance and a two zone...... experimental data from two MAN B&W engines; one case being data subject to engine parameter changes corresponding to simulating an electronically controlled engine; the second case providing data covering almost all model input and output parameters. The first case of validation suggests that the model can...

  13. Modeling of electronic power steering system for IKCO SAMAND vehicle and investigating on its performance via CARSIM software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Esmail; Zamani, Mohammad; Sharbati, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The point of this article is introducing the usage of electronic power steering (ESP) system in IKCO SAMAND vehicle and investigating on it's benefit's. Also the operation of electronic steering system and it's performance in IKCO SAMAND vehicle have been described. The optimization of IC engine efficiency and it's fuel consumption have been simulated via ADVISOR software used in MATLAB software. Usually, mechanical steering systems and hydraulic steering systems are producing inside IRAN that the mechanical types have not accepted because of it's too many disadvantages. The hydraulic steering systems, that have been replaced with mechanical types, indeed have the same features with mechanical types but with a difference which they have a hydraulic booster to facilitate the rotation of steering wheel. Beside advantages in hydraulic systems, they are some disadvantages in this system that one of the most important of them is reducing the output power of engine. To restore this power dissipated, we use ESP systems. In this article output diagrams given by software, are showing that IKCO SAMAND vehicle which equipped with ESP system, exerts less torque and power on steering wheel. This improves the safety of driver and also performance of the vehicle at high speeds and reduces fuel consumption beside increasing the efficiency of IC engine.

  14. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-11-23

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications. While there exist bulk material reduction methods to flex them, such thinned CMOS electronics are fragile and vulnerable to handling for high throughput manufacturing. Here, we show a fusion of a CMOS technology compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics, with inkjet and conductive cellulose based interconnects, followed by additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing based packaging) and finally roll-to-roll printing of packaged decal electronics (thin film transistors based circuit components and sensors) focusing on printed high performance flexible electronic systems. This work provides the most pragmatic route for packaged flexible electronic systems for wide ranging applications.

  15. Performance evaluation of linear time-series ionospheric Total Electron Content model over low latitude Indian GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbakuti, J. R. K. Kumar; Venkata Ratnam, D.

    2017-10-01

    Precise modeling of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is a critical aspect of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services intended for the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications as well as Earth Observation System (EOS), satellite communication, and space weather forecasting applications. In this paper, linear time series modeling has been carried out on ionospheric TEC at two different locations at Koneru Lakshmaiah University (KLU), Guntur (geographic 16.44° N, 80.62° E; geomagnetic 7.55° N) and Bangalore (geographic 12.97° N, 77.59° E; geomagnetic 4.53° N) at the northern low-latitude region, for the year 2013 in the 24th solar cycle. The impact of the solar and geomagnetic activity on periodic oscillations of TEC has been investigated. Results confirm that the correlation coefficient of the estimated TEC from the linear model TEC and the observed GPS-TEC is around 93%. Solar activity is the key component that influences ionospheric daily averaged TEC while periodic component reveals the seasonal dependency of TEC. Furthermore, it is observed that the influence of geomagnetic activity component on TEC is different at both the latitudes. The accuracy of the model has been assessed by comparing the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model TEC and TEC measurements. Moreover, the absence of winter anomaly is remarkable, as determined by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the linear model TEC and GPS-TEC. On the contrary, the IRI2012 model TEC evidently failed to predict the absence of winter anomaly in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest region. The outcome of this work will be useful for improving the ionospheric now-casting models under various geophysical conditions.

  16. Geometrical model for the electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbini, T.M.

    1985-07-01

    A model for an electron of finite dimensions is proposed. This model disregards the concept of electronic charge and leads to Bohr's frequency formula for the hydrogen atom and to Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic fields. The stability of a free electron under the action of centrifugal and transverse forces is discussed. (author)

  17. Validation of a zero-dimensional model for prediction of NOx and engine performance for electronically controlled marine two-stroke diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scappin, Fabio; Stefansson, Sigurður H.; Haglind, Fredrik; Andreasen, Anders; Larsen, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to derive a methodology suitable for energy system analysis for predicting the performance and NO x emissions of marine low speed diesel engines. The paper describes a zero-dimensional model, evaluating the engine performance by means of an energy balance and a two zone combustion model using ideal gas law equations over a complete crank cycle. The combustion process is divided into intervals, and the product composition and flame temperature are calculated in each interval. The NO x emissions are predicted using the extended Zeldovich mechanism. The model is validated using experimental data from two MAN B and W engines; one case being data subject to engine parameter changes corresponding to simulating an electronically controlled engine; the second case providing data covering almost all model input and output parameters. The first case of validation suggests that the model can predict specific fuel oil consumption and NO x emissions within the 95% confidence intervals given by the experimental measurements. The second validation confirms the capability of the model to match measured engine output parameters based on measured engine input parameters with a maximum 5% deviation. - Highlights: ► A fast realistic model of a marine two-stroke low speed diesel engine was derived. ► The model is fast and accurate enough for future complex energy systems analysis. ► The effects of engine tuning were validated with experimental tests. ► The model was validated while constrained by experimental input and output data.

  18. Performance of the Antares large area cold cathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Mansfield, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of the electron gun which supplies ionization for the Antares high-power electron-beam-sustained CO 2 -laser power amplifier is described. This electron gun is a coaxial cylindrical cold cathode vacuum triode having a total electron aperture area of approximately 9 m 2 . Electrons are extracted from the gun in pulses of 3 to 6 μs duration, average current densities of 40 to 60 mA/cm 2 , and electron energies of 450 to 500 keV. The main areas of discussion in this paper are the performance in terms of grid control, current-density balance, and current runaway due to breakdown limitations. Comparison of the experimental results with the predictions of a theoretical model for the electron gun are also presented

  19. Performance of the Antares large area cold cathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Mansfield, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of the electron gun which supplies ionization for the Antares high power electron beam sustained CO 2 laser power amplifier is described. This electron gun is a coaxial cylindrical cold cathode vacuum triode having a total electron aperture area of approximately 9 m 2 . Electrons are extracted from the gun in pulses of 3-6 μs duration, average current densities of 40-60 ma/cm2, and electron energies of 450-500 keV. The main areas of discussion in this paper are the performance in terms of grid control, current density balance, and current runaway due to breakdown limitations. Comparison of the experimental results with the predictions of a theoretical model for the electron gun will also be presented

  20. High performance flexible electronics for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Giovanni A; Munzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Petti, Luisa; Troster, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic electronics is soft, deformable and lightweight and it is suitable for the realization of devices which can form an intimate interface with the body, be implanted or integrated into textile for wearable and biomedical applications. Here, we present flexible electronics based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (a-IGZO) whose performance can achieve MHz frequency even when bent around hair. We developed an assembly technique to integrate complex electronic functionalities into textile while preserving the softness of the garment. All this and further developments can open up new opportunities in health monitoring, biotechnology and telemedicine.

  1. Optical Thermal Characterization Enables High-Performance Electronics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL developed a modeling and experimental strategy to characterize thermal performance of materials. The technique provides critical data on thermal properties with relevance for electronics packaging applications. Thermal contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity were characterized for new high-performance materials such as thermoplastics, boron-nitride nanosheets, copper nanowires, and atomically bonded layers. The technique is an important tool for developing designs and materials that enable power electronics packaging with small footprint, high power density, and low cost for numerous applications.

  2. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  3. Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Benedetto, E.; Fischer, W.; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, K.; Schulte, D.; Sonnad, K.; Tomas, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; Rumolo, G.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.

    2007-01-01

    Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e+e- scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed

  4. Well performance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.K.; Evans, C.E.; Pierson, R.G.; Scott, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a comprehensive oil or gas well performance model. The model contains six distinct sections: stimulation design, tubing and/or casing flow, reservoir and near-wellbore calculations, production forecasting, wellbore heat transmission, and economics. These calculations may be performed separately or in an integrated fashion with data and results shared among the different sections. The model analysis allows evaluation of all aspects of well completion design, including the effects on future production and overall well economics

  5. Performance of photocathode rf gun electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1993-01-01

    In Photo-Injectors (PI) electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense rf fields in a resonant cavity. The best known advantage of this technique is the high peak current with a good emittance (high brightness). This is important for short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and linear colliders. PIs are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. Some applications have emerged, providing, for example, very high pulse charges. PIs have been operated over a wide range of frequencies, from 144 to 3000 MHz (a 17 GHz gun is being developed). An exciting new possibility is the development of superconducting PIs. A significant body of experimental and theoretical work exists by now, indicating the criticality of the accelerator elements that follow the gun for the preservation of the PI's performance as well as possible avenues of improvements in brightness. Considerable research is being done on the laser and photocathode material of the PI, and improvement is expected in this area

  6. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  7. Characteristics and performances of electronic personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    2002-01-01

    The regulations have made obligation for 2 years to measure and analyse the amounts of radiations actually received during an operation. The whole of these measurements taken uninterrupted for an immediate reading is indicated like the operational dosimetry, which is carried out with the means of personal electronic dosemeters. This study analyses the legislation relating to this type of dosimetry as well as the requirements in medical environment, and presents an assessment of the characteristics and performances of the devices available on the French market at the beginning of 2002 starting from the information provided by the various manufacturers. (author)

  8. Performance of the EUSO-Balloon electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillon, P.; Dagoret, S.; Miyamoto, H.; Moretto, C.; Bacholle, S.; Blaksley, C; Gorodetzky, P.; Jung, A.; Prévôt, G.; Prat, P.; Bayer, J.; Blin, S.; Taille, C. De La; Cafagna, F.; Fornaro, C.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Tanco, G. Medina; Osteria, G.; Perfetto, F.; Park, I.

    2016-01-01

    The 24th of August 2014, the EUSO-Balloon instrument went for a night flight for several hours, 40 km above Timmins (Canada) balloon launching site, concretizing the hard work of an important part of the JEM-EUSO collaboration started 3 years before. This instrument consists of a telescope made of two lenses and a complex electronic chain divided in two main sub-systems: the PDM (Photo Detector Module) and the DP (Data Processor). Each of them is made of several innovative elements developed and tested in a short time. This paper presents their performances before and during the flight

  9. Base Station Performance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  10. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-10-14

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  11. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hanna, Amir; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  12. Performance modeling of Beamlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, J.M.; Lawson, J.K.; Rotter, M.D.; Sacks, R.A.; Van Wonterghem, B.W.; Williams, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Detailed modeling of beam propagation in Beamlet has been made to predict system performance. New software allows extensive use of optical component characteristics. This inclusion of real optical component characteristics has resulted in close agreement between calculated and measured beam distributions

  13. Electron-plasmon model in the electron liquid theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.Vavrukh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we propose an accurate approach to the description of the electron liquid model in the electron and plasmon terms. Our ideas in the present paper are close to the conception of the collective variables which was developed in the papers of Bohm and Pines. However we use another body of mathematics in the transition to the expanded space of variable particles and plasmons realized by the transition operator. It is evident that in the Random Phase Approximation (RPA, the model which consists of two interactive subsystems of electrons and plasmons is equivalent to the electron liquid model with Coulomb interaction.

  14. ATR performance modeling concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Baker, Hyatt B.; Nolan, Adam R.; McGinnis, Ryan E.; Paulson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models are needed for automatic target recognition (ATR) development and use. ATRs consume sensor data and produce decisions about the scene observed. ATR performance models (APMs) on the other hand consume operating conditions (OCs) and produce probabilities about what the ATR will produce. APMs are needed for many modeling roles of many kinds of ATRs (each with different sensing modality and exploitation functionality combinations); moreover, there are different approaches to constructing the APMs. Therefore, although many APMs have been developed, there is rarely one that fits a particular need. Clarified APM concepts may allow us to recognize new uses of existing APMs and identify new APM technologies and components that better support coverage of the needed APMs. The concepts begin with thinking of ATRs as mapping OCs of the real scene (including the sensor data) to reports. An APM is then a mapping from explicit quantized OCs (represented with less resolution than the real OCs) and latent OC distributions to report distributions. The roles of APMs can be distinguished by the explicit OCs they consume. APMs used in simulations consume the true state that the ATR is attempting to report. APMs used online with the exploitation consume the sensor signal and derivatives, such as match scores. APMs used in sensor management consume neither of those, but estimate performance from other OCs. This paper will summarize the major building blocks for APMs, including knowledge sources, OC models, look-up tables, analytical and learned mappings, and tools for signal synthesis and exploitation.

  15. Molecular modeling and multiscaling issues for electronic material applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamoto, Nancy; Yuen, Matthew; Fan, Haibo

    Volume 1 : Molecular Modeling and Multiscaling Issues for Electronic Material Applications provides a snapshot on the progression of molecular modeling in the electronics industry and how molecular modeling is currently being used to understand material performance to solve relevant issues in this field. This book is intended to introduce the reader to the evolving role of molecular modeling, especially seen through the eyes of the IEEE community involved in material modeling for electronic applications.  Part I presents  the role that quantum mechanics can play in performance prediction, such as properties dependent upon electronic structure, but also shows examples how molecular models may be used in performance diagnostics, especially when chemistry is part of the performance issue.  Part II gives examples of large-scale atomistic methods in material failure and shows several examples of transitioning between grain boundary simulations (on the atomistic level)and large-scale models including an example ...

  16. Modeling the Nab Experiment Electronics in SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blose, Alexander; Crawford, Christopher; Sprow, Aaron; Nab Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The goal of the Nab experiment is to measure the neutron decay coefficients a, the electron-neutrino correlation, as well as b, the Fierz interference term to precisely test the Standard Model, as well as probe for Beyond the Standard Model physics. In this experiment, protons from the beta decay of the neutron are guided through a magnetic field into a Silicon detector. Event reconstruction will be achieved via time-of-flight measurement for the proton and direct measurement of the coincident electron energy in highly segmented silicon detectors, so the amplification circuitry needs to preserve fast timing, provide good amplitude resolution, and be packaged in a high-density format. We have designed a SPICE simulation to model the full electronics chain for the Nab experiment in order to understand the contributions of each stage and optimize them for performance. Additionally, analytic solutions to each of the components have been determined where available. We will present a comparison of the output from the SPICE model, analytic solution, and empirically determined data.

  17. Vlasov fluid model with electron pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.

    1975-11-01

    The Vlasov-ion, fluid-electron model of Freidberg for studying the linear stability of hot-ion pinch configurations is here extended to include electron pressure. Within the framework of an adiabatic electron-gas picture, it is shown that this model is still amenable to the numerical methods described by Lewis and Freidberg

  18. Model based design of electronic throttle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Fenin; Ranjan, Ashish; Bhowmick, Pathikrit; Rammohan, A.

    2017-11-01

    With the advent of torque based Engine Management Systems, the precise control and robust performance of the throttle body becomes a key factor in the overall performance of the vehicle. Electronic Throttle Control provides benefits such as improved air-fuel ratio for improving the vehicle performance and lower exhausts emissions to meet the stringent emission norms. Modern vehicles facilitate various features such as Cruise Control, Traction Control, Electronic Stability Program and Pre-crash systems. These systems require control over engine power without driver intervention, which is not possible with conventional mechanical throttle system. Thus these systems are integrated to function with the electronic throttle control. However, due to inherent non-linearities in the throttle body, the control becomes a difficult task. In order to eliminate the influence of this hysteresis at the initial operation of the butterfly valve, a control to compensate the shortage must be added to the duty required for starting throttle operation when the initial operation is detected. Therefore, a lot of work is being done in this field to incorporate the various nonlinearities to achieve robust control. In our present work, the ETB was tested to verify the working of the system. Calibration of the TPS sensors was carried out in order to acquire accurate throttle opening angle. The response of the calibrated system was then plotted against a step input signal. A linear model of the ETB was prepared using Simulink and its response was compared with the experimental data to find out the initial deviation of the model from the actual system. To reduce this deviation, non-linearities from existing literature were introduced to the system and a response analysis was performed to check the deviation from the actual system. Based on this investigation, an introduction of a new nonlinearity parameter can be used in future to reduce the deviation further making the control of the ETB more

  19. RPC performance vs. front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli, R.; Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Stante, L.; Liberti, B.; Pastori, E.; Santonico, R.; Zerbini, A.

    2012-01-01

    Moving the amplification from the gas to the front-end electronics was a milestone in the development of Resistive Plate Chambers. Here we discuss the historical evolution of RPCs and we show the results obtained with newly developed front-end electronics with threshold in the fC range.

  20. Analytical local electron-electron interaction model potentials for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, Johannes; Reiher, Markus; Hinze, Juergen

    2002-01-01

    Analytical local potentials for modeling the electron-electron interaction in an atom reduce significantly the computational effort in electronic structure calculations. The development of such potentials has a long history, but some promising ideas have not yet been taken into account for further improvements. We determine a local electron-electron interaction potential akin to those suggested by Green et al. [Phys. Rev. 184, 1 (1969)], which are widely used in atom-ion scattering calculations, electron-capture processes, and electronic structure calculations. Generalized Yukawa-type model potentials are introduced. This leads, however, to shell-dependent local potentials, because the origin behavior of such potentials is different for different shells as has been explicated analytically [J. Neugebauer, M. Reiher, and J. Hinze, Phys. Rev. A 65, 032518 (2002)]. It is found that the parameters that characterize these local potentials can be interpolated and extrapolated reliably for different nuclear charges and different numbers of electrons. The analytical behavior of the corresponding localized Hartree-Fock potentials at the origin and at long distances is utilized in order to reduce the number of fit parameters. It turns out that the shell-dependent form of Green's potential, which we also derive, yields results of comparable accuracy using only one shell-dependent parameter

  1. A novel high performance, ultra thin heat sink for electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, W.; Michel, B.; Poulikakos, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present an ultra thin heat sink for electronics, combining optimized impinging slot-jets, micro-channels and manifolds for efficient cooling. We first introduce a three-dimensional numerical model of the heat transfer structure, to investigate its hydrodynamic and thermal performance and its sensitivity to geometric parameters. In a second step we propose a three-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model representing the complete system. Based on this model we design a novel manifold providing uniform fluid distribution. In order to save computational time a simpler semi-empirical model is proposed and validated. The semi-empirical model allows a robust optimization of the heat sink geometric parameters. The design is optimized for a 2 x 2 cm 2 chip and provides a total thermal resistance of 0.087 cm 2 K/W for flow rates 2 for a temperature difference between fluid inlet and chip of 65 K.

  2. A classical model for the electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, M.

    1989-01-01

    The construction of classical and semi-classical models for the electron has had a long and distinguished history. Such models are useful more for what they teach us about field theory than what they teach us about the electron. In this Letter I exhibit a classical model of the electron consisting of ordinary electromagnetism coupled with a self-interacting version of Newtonian gravity. The gravitational binding energy of the system balances the electrostatic energy in such a manner that the total rest mass of the electron is finite. (orig.)

  3. Examining Big Brother's Purpose for Using Electronic Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Lynn K.; Nordstrom, Cynthia R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether the reason offered for electronic performance monitoring (EPM) influenced participants' performance, stress, motivation, and satisfaction. Participants performed a data-entry task in one of five experimental conditions. In one condition, participants were not electronically monitored. In the remaining conditions, participants…

  4. Performance of gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. H.; Moon, B. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Chung, C. E.; Kang, H. D.; Cho, H. S.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated in detail the operating properties of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors with a double conical and a cylindrical structure in a wide range of external fields and GEM voltages. With the double conical GEM, the gain gradually increased with time by 10%; whereas this surface charging was eliminated with the cylindrical GEM. Effective gains above 1000 were easily observed over a wide range of collection field strengths in a gas mixture of Ar/CO 2 (70/30). The transparency and electron collection efficiency were found to depend on the ratio of external field and the applied GEM voltage; the mutual influence of both drift and collection fields was found to be trivial

  5. Effective electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the Hubbard-Holstein model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprea, G.; Di Castro, C.; Grilli, M. . E-mail marco.grilli@roma1.infn.it; Lorenzana, J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between the electron-electron and the electron-phonon interaction in the Hubbard-Holstein model. We implement the flow-equation method to investigate within this model the effect of correlation on the electron-phonon effective coupling and, conversely, the effect of phonons in the effective electron-electron interaction. Using this technique we obtain analytical momentum-dependent expressions for the effective couplings and we study their behavior for different physical regimes. In agreement with other works on this subject, we find that the electron-electron attraction mediated by phonons in the presence of Hubbard repulsion is peaked at low transferred momenta. The role of the characteristic energies involved is also analyzed

  6. Predictive performance models and multiple task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Larish, Inge; Contorer, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    Five models that predict how performance of multiple tasks will interact in complex task scenarios are discussed. The models are shown in terms of the assumptions they make about human operator divided attention. The different assumptions about attention are then empirically validated in a multitask helicopter flight simulation. It is concluded from this simulation that the most important assumption relates to the coding of demand level of different component tasks.

  7. Effects of tritium on electron multiplier performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerst, R.A.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    In developing diagnostic instruments for fusion reactors, it is necessary to measure the effects of tritium contamination on channel electron multipliers (CEM). A CEM was exposed to T 2 pressures of up to 1.5 x 10 -1 Pa, with exposure quantities ranging up to 8800 Pa-s. The counting rate of the CEM is shown to consist of a prompt (Type I) signal caused by gas-phase tritium and a residual (Type II) signal, probably caused by near-surface tritium. The potential for using CEMs for observing the dynamics of tritium adsorption and absorption is discussed

  8. Performance of the ELBE BPM Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Evtushenko, P

    2003-01-01

    The ELBE radiation source is based on a superconducting linac. Initially it was designed to be used in CW mode with repetition rates either 13 MHz either 260 MHz. Later it was decided to operate the accelerator with reduced repetition rates for diagnostic reasons and for certain users. Now it is possible to operate at repetition rate 13/n MHz, where n can be 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128. It is required that the BPM system supports any of these operation modes. A core element of the BPM electronics is a logarithmic amplifier AD8313 made by Analog Devices Inc. The logarithmic amplifier is a direct RF to DC converter rated up to 2.5 GHz. Initial design of the BPM electronic was sophisticated only for CW operation with repetition rate more than 10 MHz, since bandwidth of the AD8313 is about of 10 MHz. Additionally a sample and hold amplifier is built in to provide enough time for an ADC to make measurements. The sample and hold amplifier is synchronized with a micropulse frequency. In the paper we present results...

  9. Status of Galileo interim radiation electron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EDP) were used to develop a new model of Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii.

  10. An Electronic Publishing Model for Academic Publishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an electronic publishing model based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) and considers its use by an academic publisher. Highlights include how SGML is used to produce an electronic book, hypertext, methods of delivery, intellectual property rights, and future possibilities. Sample documents are included. (two references) (LRW)

  11. Modeling microwave/electron-cloud interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattes, M; Sorolla, E; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the separate codes BI-RME and ECLOUD or PyECLOUD, we are developing a novel joint simulation tool, which models the combined effect of a charged particle beam and of microwaves on an electron cloud. Possible applications include the degradation of microwave transmission in telecommunication satellites by electron clouds; the microwave-transmission techniques being used in particle accelerators for the purpose of electroncloud diagnostics; the microwave emission by the electron cloud itself in the presence of a magnetic field; and the possible suppression of electron-cloud formation in an accelerator by injecting microwaves of suitable amplitude and frequency. A few early simulation results are presented. (author)

  12. Electron scattering in the interacting boson model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, AEL; Iachello, F; Rinat, A; Creswell, C

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the interacting boson model be used in the analysis of electron scattering data. Qualitative features of the expected behavior of the inelastic excitation of some 2 ÷ states inthe transitional Sm-Nd region are discussed

  13. Principles of Sonar Performance Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Sonar performance modelling (SPM) is concerned with the prediction of quantitative measures of sonar performance, such as probability of detection. It is a multidisciplinary subject, requiring knowledge and expertise in the disparate fields of underwater acoustics, acoustical oceanography, sonar

  14. On the applicability of one- and many-electron quantum chemistry models for hydrated electron clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, László

    2016-04-01

    We evaluate the applicability of a hierarchy of quantum models in characterizing the binding energy of excess electrons to water clusters. In particular, we calculate the vertical detachment energy of an excess electron from water cluster anions with methods that include one-electron pseudopotential calculations, density functional theory (DFT) based calculations, and ab initio quantum chemistry using MP2 and eom-EA-CCSD levels of theory. The examined clusters range from the smallest cluster size (n = 2) up to nearly nanosize clusters with n = 1000 molecules. The examined cluster configurations are extracted from mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics trajectories of cluster anions with n = 1000 water molecules using two different one-electron pseudopotenial models. We find that while MP2 calculations with large diffuse basis set provide a reasonable description for the hydrated electron system, DFT methods should be used with precaution and only after careful benchmarking. Strictly tested one-electron psudopotentials can still be considered as reasonable alternatives to DFT methods, especially in large systems. The results of quantum chemistry calculations performed on configurations, that represent possible excess electron binding motifs in the clusters, appear to be consistent with the results using a cavity structure preferring one-electron pseudopotential for the hydrated electron, while they are in sharp disagreement with the structural predictions of a non-cavity model.

  15. On the applicability of one- and many-electron quantum chemistry models for hydrated electron clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turi, László, E-mail: turi@chem.elte.hu [Department of Physical Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest 112 (Hungary)

    2016-04-21

    We evaluate the applicability of a hierarchy of quantum models in characterizing the binding energy of excess electrons to water clusters. In particular, we calculate the vertical detachment energy of an excess electron from water cluster anions with methods that include one-electron pseudopotential calculations, density functional theory (DFT) based calculations, and ab initio quantum chemistry using MP2 and eom-EA-CCSD levels of theory. The examined clusters range from the smallest cluster size (n = 2) up to nearly nanosize clusters with n = 1000 molecules. The examined cluster configurations are extracted from mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics trajectories of cluster anions with n = 1000 water molecules using two different one-electron pseudopotenial models. We find that while MP2 calculations with large diffuse basis set provide a reasonable description for the hydrated electron system, DFT methods should be used with precaution and only after careful benchmarking. Strictly tested one-electron psudopotentials can still be considered as reasonable alternatives to DFT methods, especially in large systems. The results of quantum chemistry calculations performed on configurations, that represent possible excess electron binding motifs in the clusters, appear to be consistent with the results using a cavity structure preferring one-electron pseudopotential for the hydrated electron, while they are in sharp disagreement with the structural predictions of a non-cavity model.

  16. Kinetic electron model for plasma thruster plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Mario; Mauriño, Javier; Ahedo, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    A paraxial model of an unmagnetized, collisionless plasma plume expanding into vacuum is presented. Electrons are treated kinetically, relying on the adiabatic invariance of their radial action integral for the integration of Vlasov's equation, whereas ions are treated as a cold species. The quasi-2D plasma density, self-consistent electric potential, and electron pressure, temperature, and heat fluxes are analyzed. In particular, the model yields the collisionless cooling of electrons, which differs from the Boltzmann relation and the simple polytropic laws usually employed in fluid and hybrid PIC/fluid plume codes.

  17. Thermal modeling and design of electronic systems and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, R.A.; Lehmann, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal control electronic devices, particularly those in complex systems with high heat flux density, continues to be of interest to engineers involved in system cooling design and analysis. This volume contains papers presented at the 1990 ASME Winter Annual Meeting in two K-16 sponsored sessions: Empirical Modeling of Heat Transfer in Complex Electronic Systems and Design and Modeling of Heat Transfer Devices in High-Density Electronics. The first group deals with understanding the heat transfer processes in these complex systems. The second group focuses on the use of analysis techniques and empirically determined data in predicting device and system operating performance

  18. Characterising performance of environmental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, N.D.; Croke, B.F.W.; Guariso, G.; Guillaume, J.H.A.; Hamilton, S.H.; Jakeman, A.J.; Marsili-Libelli, S.; Newham, L.T.H.; Norton, J.; Perrin, C.; Pierce, S.; Robson, B.; Seppelt, R.; Voinov, A.; Fath, B.D.; Andreassian, V.

    2013-01-01

    In order to use environmental models effectively for management and decision-making, it is vital to establish an appropriate level of confidence in their performance. This paper reviews techniques available across various fields for characterising the performance of environmental models with focus

  19. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria | Abaenewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the profitability performance of Nigerian banks following the full adoption of electronic banking system. The study became necessary as a result of increased penetration of electronic banking which has redefined the banking operations in Nigeria and around the world. Judgmental sampling method ...

  20. Electronic Payments Profitability Extent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Vohnout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashless payments are recent phenomena, which even increased with the introduction of contactless means like NFC, PayPass or payWave. Such new methods speed-up the entire payment process and in comparison to cash transactions are much simpler and faster. But on the other hand the key question for merchant is if it is worth to have such device, which accept these new payment means or not to have the terminal at all. What is the amount of cash flow, which delimits the cash holdings to be still profitable? This paper tries to give answers to such question by presenting general profitability model, which will address defining the cash threshold amount. The aim is to show that cash holdings could be profitable up to certain amount, but after the threshold is met, cashless payment methods are fairly superior despite their additional costs.

  1. A Comparative Study of Electronic Performance Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Frank; Klein, James D.; Sullivan, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) deliver relevant support information to users while they are performing tasks. The present study examined the effect of different types of EPSS on user performance, attitudes, system use and time on task. Employees at a manufacturing company were asked to complete a procedural software task and…

  2. Electron conductivity model for dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; More, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    An electron conductivity model for dense plasmas is described which gives a consistent and complete set of transport coefficients including not only electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, but also thermoelectric power, and Hall, Nernst, Ettinghausen, and Leduc--Righi coefficients. The model is useful for simulating plasma experiments with strong magnetic fields. The coefficients apply over a wide range of plasma temperature and density and are expressed in a computationally simple form. Different formulas are used for the electron relaxation time in plasma, liquid, and solid phases. Comparisons with recent calculations and available experimental measurement show the model gives results which are sufficiently accurate for many practical applications

  3. Model Comparison for Electron Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Gregory; Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Delettrez, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    Four electron thermal transport models are compared for their ability to accurately and efficiently model non-local behavior in ICF simulations. Goncharov's transport model has accurately predicted shock timing in implosion simulations but is computationally slow and limited to 1D. The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. uses multigroup diffusion to speed up the calculation. Chenhall has expanded upon the iSNB diffusion model to a higher order simplified P3 approximation and a Monte Carlo transport model, to bridge the gap between the iSNB and Goncharov models while maintaining computational efficiency. Comparisons of the above models for several test problems will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  4. Brain inspired high performance electronics on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2014-06-01

    Brain\\'s stunning speed, energy efficiency and massive parallelism makes it the role model for upcoming high performance computation systems. Although human brain components are a million times slower than state of the art silicon industry components [1], they can perform 1016 operations per second while consuming less power than an electrical light bulb. In order to perform the same amount of computation with today\\'s most advanced computers, the output of an entire power station would be needed. In that sense, to obtain brain like computation, ultra-fast devices with ultra-low power consumption will have to be integrated in extremely reduced areas, achievable only if brain folded structure is mimicked. Therefore, to allow brain-inspired computation, flexible and transparent platform will be needed to achieve foldable structures and their integration on asymmetric surfaces. In this work, we show a new method to fabricate 3D and planar FET architectures in flexible and semitransparent silicon fabric without comprising performance and maintaining cost/yield advantage offered by silicon-based electronics.

  5. Multiprocessor performance modeling with ADAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Paul J.; Andrews, Asa M.

    1989-01-01

    A graph managing strategy referred to as the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) appears useful for the time-optimized execution of application algorithm graphs in embedded multiprocessors and for the performance prediction of graph designs. This paper reports the modeling of ATAMM in the Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS) to make an independent verification of ATAMM's performance prediction capability and to provide a user framework for the evaluation of arbitrary algorithm graphs. Following an overview of ATAMM and its major functional rules are descriptions of the ADAS model of ATAMM, methods to enter an arbitrary graph into the model, and techniques to analyze the simulation results. The performance of a 7-node graph example is evaluated using the ADAS model and verifies the ATAMM concept by substantiating previously published performance results.

  6. Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J.

    1997-07-01

    Linus Pauling once said that a topic must satisfy two criteria before it can be taught to students. First, students must be able to assimilate the topic within a reasonable amount of time. Second, the topic must be relevant to the educational needs and interests of the students. Unfortunately, the standard general chemistry textbook presentation of "electronic structure theory", set as it is in the language of molecular orbitals, has a difficult time satisfying either criterion. Many of the quantum mechanical aspects of molecular orbitals are too difficult for most beginning students to appreciate, much less master, and the few applications that are presented in the typical textbook are too limited in scope to excite much student interest. This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, which we have developed and used for several years in general chemistry (G.P.S.) and organic chemistry (A.J.S.) courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions, and largely satisfies Pauling's two criteria. Students find electron density models easy to understand and use, and because these models are easily applied to a broad range of topics, they successfully convey to students the importance of electronic structure. In addition, when students finally learn about orbital concepts they are better prepared because they already have a well-developed three-dimensional picture of electronic structure to fall back on. We note in this regard that the types of models we use have found widespread, rigorous application in chemical research (1, 2), so students who understand and use electron density models do not need to "unlearn" anything before progressing to more advanced theories.

  7. Exact diagonalization library for quantum electron models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakov, Sergei; Danilov, Michael

    2018-04-01

    We present an exact diagonalization C++ template library (EDLib) for solving quantum electron models, including the single-band finite Hubbard cluster and the multi-orbital impurity Anderson model. The observables that can be computed using EDLib are single particle Green's functions and spin-spin correlation functions. This code provides three different types of Hamiltonian matrix storage that can be chosen based on the model.

  8. The Anderson model for electron localisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruisken, A.M.M.; Schaefer, L.

    1982-01-01

    The Anderson model for localisation problems is treated with field theory employing the replica trick. We show that no valid perturbation theory results out of the usual (S2)2 formalism due to mishandling of symmetries. The problem is reformulated in terms of matrix fields. It is shown that the Anderson model asymptotically exhibits an exact local gauge symmetry. Elimination of massive longitudinal components leads to a non-compact sigma model, obtained earlier for the description of electronic disorder. We thus establish that the Anderson model is in the same universality class as Wegner's gauge invariant real matrix model. (orig.)

  9. Electron Identification Performance and First Measurement of $W \\to e + \

    CERN Document Server

    Ueno, Rynichi

    2010-01-01

    The identification of electrons is important for the ATLAS experiment because electrons are present in many interactions of interest produced at the Large Hadron Collider. A deep knowledge of the detector, the electron identification algorithms, and the calibration techniques are crucial in order to accomplish this task. This thesis work presents a Monte Carlo study using electrons from the W —> e + v process to evaluate the performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. A significant number of electrons was produced in the early ATLAS collision runs at centre-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 7 TeV between November 2009 and April 2010, and their properties are presented. Finally, a first measurement of W —> e + v process with the ATLAS experiment was successfully accomplished with the first C = 1.0 nb_ 1 of data at the 7 TeV collision energy, and the properties of the W candidates are also detailed.

  10. Optical Performance of Carbon-Nanotube Electron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, Niels de; Allioux, Myriam; Oostveen, Jim T.; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Milne, William I.

    2005-01-01

    The figure of merit for the electron optical performance of carbon-nanotube (CNT) electron sources is presented. This figure is given by the relation between the reduced brightness and the energy spread in the region of stable emission. It is shown experimentally that a CNT electron source exhibits a highly stable emission process that follows the Fowler-Nordheim theory for field emission, fixing the relationship among the energy spread, the current, and the radius. The performance of the CNT emitter under realistic operating conditions is compared with state-of-the-art electron point sources. It is demonstrated that the reduced brightness is a function of the tunneling parameter, a measure of the energy spread at low temperatures, only, independent of the geometry of the emitter

  11. Electron scattering in the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, A.E.L.; Iachello, F.; Creswell, C.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the interacting boson model be used in the analysis of electron scattering data. Qualitative features of the expected behavior of the inelastic excitation of some 2 + states in the transitional Sm-Nd region are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Electron Correlation Models for Optical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, E. G.; O. E. Weigang, Jr.

    1968-01-01

    A two-system no-overlap model for rotatory strength is developed for electric-dipole forbidden as well as allowed transitions. General equations which allow for full utilization of symmetry in the chromophore and in the environment are obtained. The electron correlation terms are developed in full...

  13. Performance of the electron energy-loss spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Huebner, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the electron energy-loss spectrometer incorporating a new high-resolution hemispherical monochromator are reported. The apparatus achieved an energy-resolution of 25 meV in the elastic scattering mode, and angular distributions of elastically scattered electrons were in excellent agreement with previous workers. Preliminary energy-loss spectra for several atmospheric gases demonstrate the excellent versatility and stable operation of the improved system. 12 references

  14. Convective Performance of Nanofluids in Commercial Electronics Cooling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, N.A.; Walker, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Nanofluids are stable engineered colloidal suspensions of a small fraction of nanoparticles in a base fluid. Nanofluids have shown great promise as heat transfer fluids over typically used base fluids and fluids with micron sized particles. Suspensions with micron sized particles are known to settle rapidly and cause clogging and damage to the surfaces of pumping and flow equipment. These problems are dramatically reduced in nanofluids. In the current work we investigate the performance of different volume loadings of water-based alumina nanofluids in a commercially available electronics cooling system. The commercially available system is a water block used for liquid cooling of a computational processing unit. The size of the nanoparticles in the study is 20-30 nm. Results show an enhancement in convective heat transfer due to the addition of nanoparticles in the commercial cooling system with volume loadings of nanoparticles up to 1.5% by volume. The enhancement in the convective performance observed is similar to what has been reported in well controlled and understood systems and is commensurate with bulk models. The current nanoparticle suspensions showed visible signs of settling which varied from hours to weeks depending on the size of the particles used.

  15. Model Order Reduction for Electronic Circuits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Shontz, Suzanne

    Electronic circuits are ubiquitous; they are used in numerous industries including: the semiconductor, communication, robotics, auto, and music industries (among many others). As products become more and more complicated, their electronic circuits also grow in size and complexity. This increased...... in the semiconductor industry. Circuit simulation proceeds by using Maxwell’s equations to create a mathematical model of the circuit. The boundary element method is then used to discretize the equations, and the variational form of the equations are then solved on the graph network....

  16. A model for disruption generated runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.J.; Campbell, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the possible consequences of disruptions in tokamaks is the generation of runaway electrons which can impact plasma facing components and cause damage, owing to high local energy deposition. This problem becomes more serious as the machine size and plasma current increase. Since large size and high currents are characteristics of proposed future machines, control of runaway generation is an important design consideration. A lumped circuit model for disruption runaway electron generation indicates that impurity concentration and type, as well as plasma motion, can strongly influence runaway behaviour. A comparison of disruption data from several runs on JET and DIII-D with model results demonstrate the effects of impurities, and plasma motion, on runaway number density and energy. The model is also applied to the calculation of runaway currents for ITER. (author). 16 refs, 13 figs

  17. Performance of a carbon nanotube field emission electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; King, Todd T.; Bis, Rachael A.; Jones, Hollis H.; Herrero, Federico; Lynch, Bernard A.; Roman, Patrick; Mahaffy, Paul

    2007-04-01

    A cold cathode field emission electron gun (e-gun) based on a patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) film has been fabricated for use in a miniaturized reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOF MS), with future applications in other charged particle spectrometers, and performance of the CNT e-gun has been evaluated. A thermionic electron gun has also been fabricated and evaluated in parallel and its performance is used as a benchmark in the evaluation of our CNT e-gun. Implications for future improvements and integration into the RTOF MS are discussed.

  18. Enhanced ECR ion source performance with an electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.; Lyneis, C.M.; Lam, R.S.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    An electron gun for the advanced electron cyclotron resonance (AECR) source has been developed to increase the production of high charge state ions. The AECR source, which operates at 14 GHz, is being developed for the 88-in. cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The electron gun injects 10 to 150 eV electrons into the plasma chamber of the AECR. With the electron gun the AECR has produced at 10 kV extraction voltage 131 e μA of O 7+ , 13 e μA of O 8+ , 17 e μA of Ar 14+ , 2.2 e μA of Kr 25+ , 1 e μA of Xe 31+ , and 0.2 e μA of Bi 38+ . The AECR was also tested as a single stage source with a coating of SiO 2 on the plasma chamber walls. This significantly improved its performance compared to no coating, but direct injection of electrons with the electron gun produced the best results

  19. Stochastic model of the spinning electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simaciu, I.; Borsos, Z.

    2002-01-01

    In Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED) it is demonstrated that electrostatic interaction is the result of the scattering of the Classical Zero-Point Field (CZPF) background by the charged particles. In such models, the electron is modelled as a two-dimensional oscillator, which interacts with the electric component of the CZPF background. The electron with spin is not only an electric monopole but also a magnetic dipole. The interaction of the spin electron with the CZPF background is not only electric but also magnetic. We calculate the scattering cross-section of magnetic dipole in the situation when a magnetic field, variable in time B arrow = B 0 arrow sin ωt, acts over the rigid magnetic dipole given by the symmetry of the model. The cross-section of a magnetic dipole σ m must be equal to the cross-section of an electric monopole σ e . This equality between σ m and σ e cross-sections is motivated, too, by the fact that, in the model of the two-dimensional oscillator, the electric charge q e has the motion speed c. (authors)

  20. Analytical Performance Verification of FCS-MPC Applied to Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Mateja; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) in power electronics the algorithm has been missing an important aspect that would speed up its implementation in industry: a simple method to verify the algorithm performance. This paper proposes to use a statistical...... model checking (SMC) method for performance evaluation of the algorithm applied to power electronics converters. SMC is simple to implement, intuitive and it requires only an operational model of the system that can be simulated and checked against properties. Device under test for control algorithm...

  1. ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS NON-UNIFORM COOLING SYSTEM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Yevdulov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The paper considers a mathematical model of non-uniform cooling of electronic circuit boards. The block diagram of the system implementing this approach, the method of calculation of the electronic board temperature field, as well as the principle of its thermal performance optimizing are presented. In the considered scheme the main heat elimination from electronic board is produced by the radiator system, and additional cooling of the most temperature-sensitive components is produced by thermoelectric batteries. Are given the two-dimensional temperature fields of the electronic board during its uniform and non-uniform cooling, is carried out their comparison. As follows from the calculations results, when using a uniform overall cooling of electronic unit there is a waste of energy for the cooling 0f electronic board parts which temperature is within acceptable temperature range without the cooling system. This approach leads to the increase in the cooling capacity of used thermoelectric batteries in comparison with the desired values. This largely reduces the efficiency of heat elimination system. The use for electronic boards cooling of non-uniform local heat elimination removes this disadvantage. The obtained dependences show that in this case, the energy required to create a given temperature is smaller than when using a common uniform cooling. In this approach the temperature field of the electronic board is more uniform and the cooling is more efficient. 

  2. Improvement of tokamak performance by injection of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masayuki.

    1992-12-01

    Concepts for improving tokamak performance by utilizing injection of hot electrons are discussed. Motivation of this paper is to introduce the research work being performed in this area and to refer the interested readers to the literature for more detail. The electron injection based concepts presented here have been developed in the CDX, CCT, and CDX-U tokamak facilities. The following three promising application areas of electron injection are described here: 1. Non-inductive current drive, 2. Plasma preionization for tokamak start-up assist, and 3. Charging-up of tokamak flux surfaces for improved plasma confinement. The main motivation for the dc-helicity injection current drive is in its efficiency that, in theory, is independent of plasma density. This property makes it attractive for driving currents in high density reactor plasmas

  3. Performability Modelling Tools, Evaluation Techniques and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with three aspects of quantitative evaluation of fault-tolerant and distributed computer and communication systems: performability evaluation techniques, performability modelling tools, and performability modelling applications. Performability modelling is a relatively new

  4. Electronic Performance Monitoring: An Organizational Justice and Concertive Control Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, G. Stoney; Tompkins, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Applies theories of organizational justice/concertive control to account for contradictions inherent in electronic monitoring of workers by organizations. Argues that results are usually positive when workers are involved in the design and implementation of monitoring systems, and monitoring is restricted to performance-related activities with…

  5. Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Broekkamp, Hein; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Broekkamp, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(6), 557-574. doi: 0.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00418.x

  6. Classical Electron Model with QED Corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Lenk, Ron

    2010-01-01

    In this article we build a metric for a classical general relativistic electron model with QED corrections. We calculate the stress-energy tensor for the radiative corrections to the Coulomb potential in both the near-field and far-field approximations. We solve the three field equations in both cases by using a perturbative expansion to first order in alpha (the fine-structure constant) while insisting that the usual (+, +, -, -) structure of the stress-energy tensor is maintained. The resul...

  7. Models of fast-electron penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.J.; Raisis, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce multiple scattering models of charged-particle penetration which are based on the previous analyses of Yang and Perry. Our development removes the main limitations of the Fermi-Eyges approach while retaining its considerable potential as a theory which is useful for applied work. We illustrate key predictions with sample calculations that are of particular interest in therapeutic applications, 5-20 MeV electrons incident on water. 8 refs., 5 figs

  8. A statistical model for predicting muscle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Diane Leslie De Caix

    The objective of these studies was to develop a capability for predicting muscle performance and fatigue to be utilized for both space- and ground-based applications. To develop this predictive model, healthy test subjects performed a defined, repetitive dynamic exercise to failure using a Lordex spinal machine. Throughout the exercise, surface electromyography (SEMG) data were collected from the erector spinae using a Mega Electronics ME3000 muscle tester and surface electrodes placed on both sides of the back muscle. These data were analyzed using a 5th order Autoregressive (AR) model and statistical regression analysis. It was determined that an AR derived parameter, the mean average magnitude of AR poles, significantly correlated with the maximum number of repetitions (designated Rmax) that a test subject was able to perform. Using the mean average magnitude of AR poles, a test subject's performance to failure could be predicted as early as the sixth repetition of the exercise. This predictive model has the potential to provide a basis for improving post-space flight recovery, monitoring muscle atrophy in astronauts and assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures, monitoring astronaut performance and fatigue during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations, providing pre-flight assessment of the ability of an EVA crewmember to perform a given task, improving the design of training protocols and simulations for strenuous International Space Station assembly EVA, and enabling EVA work task sequences to be planned enhancing astronaut performance and safety. Potential ground-based, medical applications of the predictive model include monitoring muscle deterioration and performance resulting from illness, establishing safety guidelines in the industry for repetitive tasks, monitoring the stages of rehabilitation for muscle-related injuries sustained in sports and accidents, and enhancing athletic performance through improved training protocols while reducing

  9. Model potential for electron scattering from rubidium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gien, T.E. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-28

    An analytic model potential for the e[sup -]-Rb[sup +] system is generated from experimental data, using an iteration method. The potential obtained can reproduce rather accurately the energy levels of rubidium. We employed it in the calculation of elastic differential cross sections for electron (and positron) scatterings from rubidium in the conventional Glauber approximation. The differential cross sections calculated in the model potential approach are compared to those in the frozen-core approach, employing either the Clementi-Roetti or the Szasz-McGinn wavefunctions. The core correlation and polarization effects are found to significantly affect the cross section results. (author).

  10. Model potential for electron scattering from rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gien, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    An analytic model potential for the e - -Rb + system is generated from experimental data, using an iteration method. The potential obtained can reproduce rather accurately the energy levels of rubidium. We employed it in the calculation of elastic differential cross sections for electron (and positron) scatterings from rubidium in the conventional Glauber approximation. The differential cross sections calculated in the model potential approach are compared to those in the frozen-core approach, employing either the Clementi-Roetti or the Szasz-McGinn wavefunctions. The core correlation and polarization effects are found to significantly affect the cross section results. (author)

  11. ''In situ'' electronic testing method of a neutron detector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Levai, F.

    1987-01-01

    The method allows detection of any important change in the electrical characteristics of a neutron sensor channel. It checks the response signal produced by an electronic detector circuit when a pulse generator is connected as input signal in the high voltage supply. The electronic circuit compares the detector capacitance value, previously measured, against a reference value, which is adjusted in a window type comparator electronic circuit to detect any important degrading condition of the capacitance value in a detector-cable system. The ''in-situ'' electronic testing method of neutron detector performance has been verified in a laboratory atmosphere to be a potential method to detect any significant change in the capacitance value of a nuclear sensor and its connecting cable, also checking: detector disconnections, cable disconnections, length changes of the connecting cable, electric short-opened circuits in the sensor channel, and any electrical trouble in the detector-connector-cable system. The experimental practices were carried out by simulation of several electric changes in a nuclear sensor-cable system from a linear D.C. channel which measures reactor power during nuclear reactor operation. It was made at the Training Reactor Electronic Laboratory. The results and conclusions obtained at the Laboratory were proved, satisfactorily, in the Electronic Instrumentation of Budapest Technical University Training Reactor, Hungary

  12. Modeling and Control of a teletruck using electronic load sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Iversen, Asger Malte; Jensen, Mads Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    system is most commonly controlled using a hydro-mechanical control scheme called Hydraulic Load Sensing (HLS). However, with the demands for increased efficiency and controllability the HLS solutions are reaching their limits. Motivated by availability of electronic controllable fluid power...... components and the potential of increased dynamic performance and efficiency, this paper investigates how HLS can be replaced with electronic control, i.e. Electronic Load Sensing (ELS). The investigation is performed by taking a specific application, a teletruck, and replace the HLS control with ELS. To aid...... the controller design for the ELS system, a complete model of the teletruck’s articulated arm and fluid power system is developed. To show the feasibility, a preliminary control structure for the ELS system is developed. The controller is tested on the machine, validating that features such as pump pressure...

  13. Performance of a GaAs electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, R.; Ciullo, G.; Della Mea, G.; Egeni, G.P.; Guidi, V.; Lamanna, G.; Lenisa, P.; Maciga, B.; Rigato, V.; Rudello, V.; Tecchio, L.; Yang, B.; Zandolin, S.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the performance improvement of a GaAs electron source. High quantum yield (14%) and constant current extraction (1 mA for more than four weeks) are achieved after a little initial decay. These parameters meet the requirements for application of the GaAs photocathode as a source for electron cooling devices. We also present the preliminary results of a surface analysis experiment, carried out by means of the RBS technique to check the hypothesis of cesium evaporation from the surface when the photocathode is in operation. (orig.)

  14. Data management system performance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Larry M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical techniques that have been used to gain a better understanding of the Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is a complex, distributed, real-time computer system that has been redesigned numerous times. The implications of these redesigns have not been fully analyzed. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages for static analytical techniques such as Rate Monotonic Analysis (RMA) and also provides a rationale for dynamic modeling. Factors such as system architecture, processor utilization, bus architecture, queuing, etc. are well suited for analysis with a dynamic model. The significance of performance measures for a real-time system are discussed.

  15. Analysis of operating model of electronic invoice colombian Colombian electronic billing analysis of the operational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has been one of the first countries to introduce electronic billing process on a voluntary basis, from a traditional to a digital version. In this context, the article analyzes the electronic billing process implemented in Colombia and the advantages. Methodological research is applied, qualitative, descriptive and documentary; where the regulatory framework and the conceptualization of the model is identified; the process of adoption of electronic billing is analyzed, and finally the advantages and disadvantages of its implementation is analyzed. The findings indicate that the model applied in Colombia to issue an electronic billing in sending and receiving process, is not complex, but it requires a small adequate infrastructure and trained personnel to reach all sectors, especially the micro and business which is the largest business network in the country.

  16. Real-Time Robust Adaptive Modeling and Scheduling for an Electronic Commerce Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bing; Ruan, Chun

    With the increasing importance and pervasiveness of Internet services, it is becoming a challenge for the proliferation of electronic commerce services to provide performance guarantees under extreme overload. This paper describes a real-time optimization modeling and scheduling approach for performance guarantee of electronic commerce servers. We show that an electronic commerce server may be simulated as a multi-tank system. A robust adaptive server model is subject to unknown additive load disturbances and uncertain model matching. Overload control techniques are based on adaptive admission control to achieve timing guarantees. We evaluate the performance of the model using a complex simulation that is subjected to varying model parameters and massive overload.

  17. Modelling transport in single electron transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh Sy Hien; Huynh Lam Thu Thao; Le Hoang Minh

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model of single electron transistor (SET). Simulation programme of SET is used as the exploratory tool in order to gain better understanding of process and device physics. This simulator includes a graphic user interface (GUI) in Matlab. The SET was simulated using GUI in Matlab to get current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. In addition, effects of device capacitance, bias, temperature on the I-V characteristics were obtained. In this work, we review the capabilities of the simulator of the SET. Typical simulations of the obtained I-V characteristics of the SET are presented.

  18. Research on high performance mirrors for free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitatani, Fumito

    1996-01-01

    For the stable functioning of free electron laser, high performance optical elements are required because of its characteristics. In particular in short wavelength free electron laser, since its gain is low, the optical elements having very high reflectivity are required. Also in free electron laser, since high energy noise light exists, the optical elements must have high optical breaking strength. At present in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, the research for heightening the performance of dielectric multi-layer film elements for short wavelength is carried out. For manufacturing such high performance elements, it is necessary to develop the new materials for vapor deposition, new vapor deposition process, and the techniques of accurate substrate polishing and inspection. As the material that satisfies the requirements, there is diamond-like carbon (DLC) film, of which the properties are explained. As for the manufacture of the DLC films for short wavelength optics, the test equipment for forming the DLC films, the test of forming the DLC films, the change of the film quality due to gas conditions, discharge conditions and substrate materials, and the measurement of the optical breaking strength are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Modeling ion sensing in molecular electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Caroline J.; Smeu, Manuel; Ratner, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the ability of molecules to sense ions by measuring the change in molecular conductance in the presence of such charged species. The detection of protons (H + ), alkali metal cations (M + ), calcium ions (Ca 2+ ), and hydronium ions (H 3 O + ) is considered. Density functional theory (DFT) is used within the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function framework (NEGF) to model electron transport properties of quinolinedithiol (QDT, C 9 H 7 NS 2 ), bridging Al electrodes. The geometry of the transport region is relaxed with DFT. The transport properties of the device are modeled with NEGF-DFT to determine if this device can distinguish among the M + + QDT species containing monovalent cations, where M + = H + , Li + , Na + , or K + . Because of the asymmetry of QDT in between the two electrodes, both positive and negative biases are considered. The electron transmission function and conductance properties are simulated for electrode biases in the range from −0.5 V to 0.5 V at increments of 0.1 V. Scattering state analysis is used to determine the molecular orbitals that are the main contributors to the peaks in the transmission function near the Fermi level of the electrodes, and current-voltage relationships are obtained. The results show that QDT can be used as a proton detector by measuring transport through it and can conceivably act as a pH sensor in solutions. In addition, QDT may be able to distinguish among different monovalent species. This work suggests an approach to design modern molecular electronic conductance sensors with high sensitivity and specificity using well-established quantum chemistry

  20. Brain inspired high performance electronics on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Brain's stunning speed, energy efficiency and massive parallelism makes it the role model for upcoming high performance computation systems. Although human brain components are a million times slower than state of the art silicon industry components

  1. Off gas condenser performance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cains, P.W.; Hills, K.M.; Waring, S.; Pratchett, A.G.

    1989-12-01

    A suite of three programmes has been developed to model the ruthenium decontamination performance of a vitrification plant off-gas condenser. The stages of the model are: condensation of water vapour, NO x absorption in the condensate, RuO 4 absorption in the condensate. Juxtaposition of these stages gives a package that may be run on an IBM-compatible desktop PC. Experimental work indicates that the criterion [HNO 2 ] > 10 [RuO 4 ] used to determine RuO 4 destruction in solution is probably realistic under condenser conditions. Vapour pressures of RuO 4 over aqueous solutions at 70 o -90 o C are slightly lower than the values given by extrapolating the ln K p vs. T -1 relation derived from lower temperature data. (author)

  2. Data harmonization and model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Committee on Urban Storm Drainage of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) and International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC) was formed in 1982. The current committee members are (no more than two from a country): B. C. Yen, Chairman (USA); P. Harremoes, Vice Chairman (Denmark); R. K. Price, Secretary (UK); P. J. Colyer (UK), M. Desbordes (France), W. C. Huber (USA), K. Krauth (FRG), A. Sjoberg (Sweden), and T. Sueishi (Japan).The IAHR/IAWPRC Joint Committee is forming a Task Group on Data Harmonization and Model Performance. One objective is to promote international urban drainage data harmonization for easy data and information exchange. Another objective is to publicize available models and data internationally. Comments and suggestions concerning the formation and charge of the Task Group are welcome and should be sent to: B. C. Yen, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Illinois, 208 N. Romine St., Urbana, IL 61801.

  3. Significance of matrix diagonalization in modelling inelastic electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Z. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Hambach, R. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); University of Jena, Jena 07743 (Germany); Kaiser, U.; Rose, H. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Electron scattering is always applied as one of the routines to investigate nanostructures. Nowadays the development of hardware offers more and more prospect for this technique. For example imaging nanostructures with inelastic scattered electrons may allow to produce component-sensitive images with atomic resolution. Modelling inelastic electron scattering is therefore essential for interpreting these images. The main obstacle to study inelastic scattering problem is its complexity. During inelastic scattering, incident electrons entangle with objects, and the description of this process involves a multidimensional array. Since the simulation usually involves fourdimensional Fourier transforms, the computation is highly inefficient. In this work we have offered one solution to handle the multidimensional problem. By transforming a high dimensional array into twodimensional array, we are able to perform matrix diagonalization and approximate the original multidimensional array with its twodimensional eigenvectors. Our procedure reduces the complicated multidimensional problem to a twodimensional problem. In addition, it minimizes the number of twodimensional problems. This method is very useful for studying multiple inelastic scattering. - Highlights: • 4D problems are involved in modelling inelastic electron scattering. • By means of matrix diagonalization, the 4D problems can be simplified as 2D problems. • The number of 2D problems is minimized by using this approach.

  4. Development of an electron gun for high power CW electron linac (1). Beam experiment for basic performance of electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshio; Nomura, Masahiro; Komata, Tomoki

    1999-05-01

    Presently, the Beam Group of Oarai Engineering Center in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) completed the high power CW electron linac. Then we started full-scale beam experiments after the government permission for a radiation equipment had given last January. Measurements of basic performance for the mesh-grid type electron gun have been done to launch stable beam at 300 mA peak current downstream of the accelerator. These experiments disclosed to increase beam loss in the electron gun in some cases of voltage supplied the mesh-grid in spite of same beam current from gun. Consequently, we could find the best condition for mesh-grid voltage and heater current to supply stable beam at 300 mA peak current for accelerator study. (author)

  5. Electron-Muon Ranger: performance in the MICE Muon Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Debieux, S.; Drielsma, F.; Graulich, J.S.; Husi, C.; Karadzhov, Y.; Masciocchi, F.; Nicola, L.; Messomo, E.Noah; Rothenfusser, K.; Sandstrom, R.; Wisting, H.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100-280 MeV/$c$.

  6. Electron-muon ranger: performance in the MICE muon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; De Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Blackmore, V.J.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Booth, C.N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100–280 MeV/c

  7. Characterization and switching performance of electron-beam controlled discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, J.F.; Kline, L.E.; Heberlein, J.V.R.

    1986-01-01

    The electron-beam sustained discharge switch is an attractive concept for repetitive pulsed power switching because it has a demonstrated capability to interrupt direct current and because it is inherently scalable. The authors report on experiments with this type of switch in a 4-kV dc circuit. A wire-ion-plasma (WIP) electron-beam (e-beam) gun is used to irradiate and sustain a switch discharge with a 100-cm/sup 2/ cross-sectional area in l atm of N/sub 2/ or CH/sub 4/. Interruption of 8-10-μs pulses of up to 1.9 kA, and of 100-μs pulses of 150 A has been demonstrated in methane, and interruption against higher recovery voltages (11 kV) has been performed at 1.2 kA by adding series inductance to the circuit. These values represent power supply limitations rather than limitations of the switch itself. A comparison of the measured discharge characteristics with theoretical predictions shows that the measured switch conductivities are higher than the predicted values for given e-beam current values. A qualitative explanation for this observation is offered by considering the effects of electron reflection from the discharge anode and of nonlinear paths for the beam electrons across the discharge gap. The authors conclude that the switching performance of the e-beam controlled discharge switch corresponds to its design parameters, and that for a given switch size a lower voltage drop during the on time can be expected compared with the voltage drop predicted by previously published theory

  8. Behavior model for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result

  9. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  10. The Effect of Electronic Banking on the Performance of Supply Chain Management of Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhriyeh Hamidianpour; Majid Esmaeilpour; Ali Daryanavard

    2016-01-01

    In current age, e-commerce does not just imply online buying and selling, but implies an efficient business throughout business levels, in which supply chain management can be regarded as the major pillar. The aim of this survey is to study effect of use of electronic banking services and important instruments of e-banking on performance and dimensions of supply chain performance at the first level of the SCOR model in electronics businesses. The present study is an applied research type in t...

  11. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions; Contribution a un modele d'evaluation quantitative des performances fiabilistes de fonctions electroniques et programmables dediees a la securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, K

    2005-10-15

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  12. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions; Contribution a un modele d'evaluation quantitative des performances fiabilistes de fonctions electroniques et programmables dediees a la securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, K

    2005-10-15

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  13. Multidisciplinary Modelling Tools for Power Electronic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad

    in reliability assessment of power modules, a three-dimensional lumped thermal network is proposed to be used for fast, accurate and detailed temperature estimation of power module in dynamic operation and different boundary conditions. Since an important issue in the reliability of power electronics...... environment to be used for optimization of cooling system layout with respect to thermal resistance and pressure drop reductions. Finally extraction of electrical parasitics in the multi-chip power modules will be investigated. As the switching frequency of power devices increases, the size of passive...... components are reduced considerably that leads to increase of power density and cost reduction. However, electrical parasitics become more challenging with increasing the switching frequency and paralleled chips in the integrated and denser packages. Therefore, electrical parasitic models are analyzed based...

  14. Performance of the SLC polarized electron source with high polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Alley, R.K.; Aoyagi, H.

    1993-04-01

    For the 1992 operating cycle of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC), the polarized electron source (PES) during its maiden run successfully met the pulse intensity and overall efficiency requirements of the SLC. However, the polarization of the bulk GaAs cathode was low (∼27%) and the pulse-to-pulse stability was marginal. We have shown that adequate charge for the SLC can be extracted from a strained layer cathode having P e ∼80% even though the quantum efficiency (QE) is - beam stability. The performance of the PES during the 1993 SLC operating cycle with these and other improvements is discussed

  15. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudoran, Cristian D., E-mail: cristian.tudoran@itim-cj.ro; Dădârlat, Dorin N.; Toşa, Nicoleta; Mişan, Ioan [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, PO 5 Box 700, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a “sensor” or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit.

  16. Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA) assesses the performance with which models predict time series data. The tool was developed Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM)

  17. Factors Affecting Slot Machine Performance in an Electronic Gaming Machine Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne Provencal; David L. St-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    A facility exploiting only electronic gambling machines (EGMs) opened in 2007 in Quebec City, Canada under the name of Salons de Jeux du Québec (SdjQ). This facility is one of the first worldwide to rely on that business model. This paper models the performance of such EGMs. The interest from a managerial point of view is to identify the variables that can be controlled or influenced so that a comprehensive model can help improve the overall performance of the business. The EGM individual per...

  18. A Model for Teaching Electronic Commerce Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard C. Woodard

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of information technology in an ever-changing world at universities presents a challenge. Are courses taught as concepts, while ignoring hands-on courses, leaving the hands-on classes to the technical colleges or trade schools? Does this produce the best employees for industry or give students the knowledge and skills necessary to function in a high-tech world? At GeorgiaCollege & StateUniversity (GC&SU a model was developed that combines both concepts and practical hands-on skill to meet this challenge. Using this model, a program was developed that consists of classroom lecture of concepts as well as practical hands-on exercises for mastering the knowledge and developing the skills necessary to succeed in the high-tech world of electronic commerce. The students become productive day one of a new job assignment. This solves the problem of students having the "book knowledge" but not knowing how to apply what has been learned.

  19. Model of electron capture in low-temperature glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartczak, W.M.; Swiatla, D.; Kroh, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new model of electron capture by a statistical variety of traps in glassy matrices is proposed. The electron capture is interpreted as the radiationless transition (assisted by multiphonon emission) of the mobile electron to the localized state in the trap. The conception of 'unfair' and 'fair' traps is introduced. The 'unfair' trap captures the mobile electron by the shallow excited state. In contrast, the 'fair' trap captures the electron by the ground state. The model calculations of the statistical distributions of the occupied electron traps are presented and discussed with respect to experimental results. (author)

  20. Research on lightning stroke model and characteristics of electronic transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the reliability of power supply, a large number of electronic voltage and current transformers are used in digital substations. In this paper, the mathematical model of the electronic transformer is analyzed firstly, and its circuit model is given. According to the difference of working characteristics between voltage transformer and current transformer, the circuit model of voltage type electronic transformer and current type electronic transformer is given respectively. By analyzing their broadband transmission characteristics, the accuracy of the model is verified, and their lightning analysis models are obtained.

  1. Neoclassical electron heat conduction in tokamaks performed by the ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.A.

    1987-07-01

    The increment to neoclassical ion heat conduction caused by electron collisions is shown to act like electron heat conduction since the energy is taken from and given back to the electrons at each diffusion step length. It can exceed electron neoclassical heat conduction by an order of magnitude

  2. Evaluation of Performance and Opportunities for Improvements in Automotive Power Electronics Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto; Bennion, Kevin; King, Charles; Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2016-06-14

    Thermal management strategies for automotive power electronic systems have evolved over time to reduce system cost and to improve reliability and thermal performance. In this study, we characterized the power electronic thermal management systems of two electric-drive vehicles--the 2012 Nissan LEAF and 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid. Tests were conducted to measure the insulated-gate bipolar transistor-to-coolant thermal resistances for both steady-state and transient conditions at various coolant flow rates. Water-ethylene glycol at a temperature of 65 degrees C was used as the coolant for these experiments. Computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis models of the vehicle's power electronics thermal management system were then created and validated using experimentally obtained results. Results indicate that the Accord module provides lower steady-state thermal resistance as compared with the LEAF module. However, the LEAF design may provide improved performance in transient conditions and may have cost benefits.

  3. Electron Model of Linear-Field FFAG

    CERN Document Server

    Koscielniak, Shane R

    2005-01-01

    A fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerator (FFAG) that employs only linear-field elements ushers in a new regime in accelerator design and dynamics. The linear-field machine has the ability to compact an unprecedented range in momenta within a small component aperture. With a tune variation which results from the natural chromaticity, the beam crosses many strong, uncorrec-table, betatron resonances during acceleration. Further, relativistic particles in this machine exhibit a quasi-parabolic time-of-flight that cannot be addressed with a fixed-frequency rf system. This leads to a new concept of bucketless acceleration within a rotation manifold. With a large energy jump per cell, there is possibly strong synchro-betatron coupling. A few-MeV electron model has been proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of these untested acceleration features and to investigate them at length under a wide range of operating conditions. This paper presents a lattice optimized for a 1.3 GHz rf, initial technology choices f...

  4. Calibration of PMIS pavement performance prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Improve the accuracy of TxDOTs existing pavement performance prediction models through calibrating these models using actual field data obtained from the Pavement Management Information System (PMIS). : Ensure logical performance superiority patte...

  5. Analytic model of electron pulse propagation in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, A.M.; Sipe, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a mean-field analytic model to study the propagation of electron pulses used in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments (UED). We assume a Gaussian form to characterize the electron pulse, and derive a system of ordinary differential equations that are solved quickly and easily to give the pulse dynamics. We compare our model to an N-body numerical simulation and are able to show excellent agreement between the two result sets. This model is a convenient alternative to time consuming and computationally intense N-body simulations in exploring the dynamics of UED electron pulses, and as a tool for refining UED experimental designs

  6. The electronic-commerce-oriented virtual merchandise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaocui; Lu, Dongming

    2004-03-01

    Electronic commerce has been the trend of commerce activities. Providing with Virtual Reality interface, electronic commerce has better expressing capacity and interaction means. But most of the applications of virtual reality technology in EC, 3D model is only the appearance description of merchandises. There is almost no information concerned with commerce information and interaction information. This resulted in disjunction of virtual model and commerce information. So we present Electronic Commerce oriented Virtual Merchandise Model (ECVMM), which combined a model with commerce information, interaction information and figure information of virtual merchandise. ECVMM with abundant information provides better support to information obtainment and communication in electronic commerce.

  7. Lessons on electronic decoherence in molecules from exact modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenxiang; Gu, Bing; Franco, Ignacio

    2018-04-01

    Electronic decoherence processes in molecules and materials are usually thought and modeled via schemes for the system-bath evolution in which the bath is treated either implicitly or approximately. Here we present computations of the electronic decoherence dynamics of a model many-body molecular system described by the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian with Hubbard electron-electron interactions using an exact method in which both electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom are taken into account explicitly and fully quantum mechanically. To represent the electron-nuclear Hamiltonian in matrix form and propagate the dynamics, the computations employ the Jordan-Wigner transformation for the fermionic creation/annihilation operators and the discrete variable representation for the nuclear operators. The simulations offer a standard for electronic decoherence that can be used to test approximations. They also provide a useful platform to answer fundamental questions about electronic decoherence that cannot be addressed through approximate or implicit schemes. Specifically, through simulations, we isolate basic mechanisms for electronic coherence loss and demonstrate that electronic decoherence is possible even for one-dimensional nuclear bath. Furthermore, we show that (i) decreasing the mass of the bath generally leads to faster electronic decoherence; (ii) electron-electron interactions strongly affect the electronic decoherence when the electron-nuclear dynamics is not pure-dephasing; (iii) classical bath models with initial conditions sampled from the Wigner distribution accurately capture the short-time electronic decoherence dynamics; (iv) model separable initial superpositions often used to understand decoherence after photoexcitation are only relevant in experiments that employ delta-like laser pulses to initiate the dynamics. These insights can be employed to interpret and properly model coherence phenomena in molecules.

  8. MODELING SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE STUDY OF GRIDCONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra K; Karthik J; Keerthi Rao C; Kumar Raja Pemmadi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents Modeling Simulation of grid connected Photovoltaic Energy System and performance study using MATLAB/Simulink. The Photovoltaic energy system is considered in three main parts PV Model, Power conditioning System and Grid interface. The Photovoltaic Model is inter-connected with grid through full scale power electronic devices. The simulation is conducted on the PV energy system at normal temperature and at constant load by using MATLAB.

  9. RAMAN LIGHT SCATTERING IN PSEUDOSPIN-ELECTRON MODEL AT STRONG PSEUDOSPIN-ELECTRON INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S.Mysakovych

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anharmonic phonon contributions to Raman scattering in locally anharmonic crystal systems in the framework of the pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels are investigated. The case of strong pseudospin-electron coupling is considered. Pseudospin and electron contributions to scattering are taken into account. Frequency dependences of Raman scattering intensity for different values of model parameters and for different polarization of scattering and incident light are investigated.

  10. Monoenergetic electron parameters in a spheroid bubble model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattarian, H.; Sh., Rahmatallahpur; Tohidi, T.

    2013-02-01

    A reliable analytical expression for the potential of plasma waves with phase velocities near the speed of light is derived. The presented spheroid cavity model is more consistent than the previous spherical and ellipsoidal models and it explains the mono-energetic electron trajectory more accurately, especially at the relativistic region. The maximum energy of electrons is calculated and it is shown that the maximum energy of the spheroid model is less than that of the spherical model. The electron energy spectrum is also calculated and it is found that the energy distribution ratio of electrons ΔE/E for the spheroid model under the conditions reported here is half that of the spherical model and it is in good agreement with the experimental value in the same conditions. As a result, the quasi-mono-energetic electron output beam interacting with the laser plasma can be more appropriately described with this model.

  11. Monoenergetic electron parameters in a spheroid bubble model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarian, H.; Rahmatallahpur, Sh.; Tohidi, T.

    2013-01-01

    A reliable analytical expression for the potential of plasma waves with phase velocities near the speed of light is derived. The presented spheroid cavity model is more consistent than the previous spherical and ellipsoidal models and it explains the mono-energetic electron trajectory more accurately, especially at the relativistic region. The maximum energy of electrons is calculated and it is shown that the maximum energy of the spheroid model is less than that of the spherical model. The electron energy spectrum is also calculated and it is found that the energy distribution ratio of electrons ΔE/E for the spheroid model under the conditions reported here is half that of the spherical model and it is in good agreement with the experimental value in the same conditions. As a result, the quasi-mono-energetic electron output beam interacting with the laser plasma can be more appropriately described with this model. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  12. Performance Modelling of Steam Turbine Performance using Fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance Modelling of Steam Turbine Performance using Fuzzy Logic ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... A Fuzzy Inference System for predicting the performance of steam turbine

  13. Calibration and performance testing of electronic personal dosimeters (EPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaga, H.A.

    2008-04-01

    In modern radiation protection practices, active personal dosimeters are becoming absolutely necessary operational tools for satisfying the ALARA principle. The aim of this work was to carry out calibration and performance testing of ten electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) used for the individual monitoring. The EPDs were calibrated in terms of operation radiation protection quantity, personal dose equivalent, Hp (10). Calibrations were carried out at three of x-ray beam qualities described in ISO 4037 namely 60, 100 and 150 kV in addition to Cs-137 gamma ray quality. The calibrations were performed using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom with dimensions 20*20*15 cm 3 . Conversion coefficient Hp (10)/K air for the phantom was also calculated. The response and linearity of the dosimeter at the specified energies were also tested. The EPDs tested showed that the calibration coefficient ranged from 0.60 to 1.31 and an equivalent response for the specified energies that ranged from 0.76 to 1.67. The study demonstrated the possibility of using non standard phantom for calibrating dosimeters used for individual monitoring. The dosimeters under study showed a good response in all energies except the response in quality 100 kV. The linearity of the dosimeters was within ±15%, with the exception of the quality 100 kV where this limit was exceeded.(Author)

  14. A magnetospheric specification model validation study: Geosynchronous electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Ginet, G. P.

    2000-09-01

    The Rice University Magnetospheric Specification Model (MSM) is an operational space environment model of the inner and middle magnetosphere designed to specify charged particle fluxes up to 100keV. Validation test data taken between January 1996 and June 1998 consist of electron fluxes measured by a charge control system (CCS) on a defense satellite communications system (DSCS) spacecraft. The CCS includes both electrostatic analyzers to measure the particle environment and surface potential monitors to track differential charging between various materials and vehicle ground. While typical RMS error analysis methods provide a sense of the models overall abilities, they do not specifically address physical situations critical to operations, i.e., how well does the model specify when a high differential charging state is probable. In this validation study, differential charging states observed by DSCS are used to determine several threshold fluxes for the associated 20-50keV electrons and joint probability distributions are constructed to determine Hit, Miss, and False Alarm rates for the models. An MSM run covering the two and one-half year interval is performed using the minimum required input parameter set, consisting of only the magnetic activity index Kp, in order to statistically examine the model's seasonal and yearly performance. In addition, the relative merits of the input parameter, i.e., Kp, Dst, the equatorward boundary of diffuse aurora at midnight, cross-polar cap potential, solar wind density and velocity, and interplanetary magnetic field values, are evaluated as drivers of shorter model runs of 100 d each. In an effort to develop operational tools that can address spacecraft charging issues, we also identify temporal features in the model output that can be directly linked to input parameter variations and model boundary conditions. All model output is interpreted using the full three-dimensional, dipole tilt-dependent algorithms currently in

  15. Performances of screen-printing silver thick films: Rheology, morphology, mechanical and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jung-Shiun; Liang, Jau-En; Yi, Han-Liou [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia Yi 621, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Shu-Hua [China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung City 806, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hua, Chi-Chung, E-mail: chmcch@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia Yi 621, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-06-15

    Numerous recent applications with inorganic solar cells and energy storage electrodes make use of silver pastes through processes like screen-printing to fabricate fine conductive lines for electron conducting purpose. To date, however, there have been few studies that systematically revealed the properties of the silver paste in relation to the mechanical and electronic performances of screen-printing thick films. In this work, the rheological properties of a series of model silver pastes made of silver powders of varying size (0.9, 1.3, and 1.5 μm) and shape (irregular and spherical) were explored, and the results were systematically correlated with the morphological feature (scanning electron microscopy, SEM) and mechanical (peeling test) and electronic (transmission line method, TLM) performances of screen-printing dried or sintered thick films. We provided evidence of generally intimate correlations between the powder dispersion state in silver pastes—which is shown to be well captured by the rheological protocols employed herein—and the performances of screen-printing thick films. Overall, this study suggests the powder dispersion state and the associated phase behavior of a paste sample can significantly impact not only the morphological and electronic but also mechanical performances of screen-printing thick films, and, in future perspectives, a proper combination of silver powders of different sizes and even shapes could help reconcile quality and stability of an optimum silver paste. - Highlights: • Powder dispersion correlates well with screen-printing thick film performances. • Rheological fingerprints can be utilized to fathom the powder dispersion state. • Good polymer-powder interactions in the paste ensure good powder dispersion. • Time-dependent gel-like viscoelastic features are found with optimum silver pastes. • The size and shape of functional powder affect the dispersion and film performances.

  16. Electron capture detector based on a non-radioactive electron source: operating parameters vs. analytical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bunert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatographs with electron capture detectors are widely used for the analysis of electron affine substances such as pesticides or chlorofluorocarbons. With detection limits in the low pptv range, electron capture detectors are the most sensitive detectors available for such compounds. Based on their operating principle, they require free electrons at atmospheric pressure, which are usually generated by a β− decay. However, the use of radioactive materials leads to regulatory restrictions regarding purchase, operation, and disposal. Here, we present a novel electron capture detector based on a non-radioactive electron source that shows similar detection limits compared to radioactive detectors but that is not subject to these limitations and offers further advantages such as adjustable electron densities and energies. In this work we show first experimental results using 1,1,2-trichloroethane and sevoflurane, and investigate the effect of several operating parameters on the analytical performance of this new non-radioactive electron capture detector (ECD.

  17. A kinetic model for runaway electrons in the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Garcia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrodynamic models and measurements with satellites and incoherent scatter radars predict large field aligned current densities on one side of the auroral arcs. Different authors and different kinds of studies (experimental or modeling agree that the current density can reach up to hundreds of µA/m2. This large current density could be the cause of many phenomena such as tall red rays or triggering of unstable ion acoustic waves. In the present paper, we consider the issue of electrons moving through an ionospheric gas of positive ions and neutrals under the influence of a static electric field. We develop a kinetic model of collisions including electrons/electrons, electrons/ions and electrons/neutrals collisions. We use a Fokker-Planck approach to describe binary collisions between charged particles with a long-range interaction. We present the essential elements of this collision operator: the Langevin equation for electrons/ions and electrons/electrons collisions and the Monte-Carlo and null collision methods for electrons/neutrals collisions. A computational example is given illustrating the approach to equilibrium and the impact of the different terms (electrons/electrons and electrons/ions collisions on the one hand and electrons/neutrals collisions on the other hand. Then, a parallel electric field is applied in a new sample run. In this run, the electrons move in the z direction parallel to the electric field. The first results show that all the electron distribution functions are non-Maxwellian. Furthermore, runaway electrons can carry a significant part of the total current density, up to 20% of the total current density.

  18. A kinetic model for runaway electrons in the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Garcia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrodynamic models and measurements with satellites and incoherent scatter radars predict large field aligned current densities on one side of the auroral arcs. Different authors and different kinds of studies (experimental or modeling agree that the current density can reach up to hundreds of µA/m2. This large current density could be the cause of many phenomena such as tall red rays or triggering of unstable ion acoustic waves. In the present paper, we consider the issue of electrons moving through an ionospheric gas of positive ions and neutrals under the influence of a static electric field. We develop a kinetic model of collisions including electrons/electrons, electrons/ions and electrons/neutrals collisions. We use a Fokker-Planck approach to describe binary collisions between charged particles with a long-range interaction. We present the essential elements of this collision operator: the Langevin equation for electrons/ions and electrons/electrons collisions and the Monte-Carlo and null collision methods for electrons/neutrals collisions. A computational example is given illustrating the approach to equilibrium and the impact of the different terms (electrons/electrons and electrons/ions collisions on the one hand and electrons/neutrals collisions on the other hand. Then, a parallel electric field is applied in a new sample run. In this run, the electrons move in the z direction parallel to the electric field. The first results show that all the electron distribution functions are non-Maxwellian. Furthermore, runaway electrons can carry a significant part of the total current density, up to 20% of the total current density.

  19. FTL Quantum Models of the Photon and the Electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    A photon is modeled by an uncharged superluminal quantum moving at 1.414c along an open 45-degree helical trajectory with radius R = λ/2π (where λ is the helical pitch or wavelength). A mostly superluminal spatial model of an electron is composed of a charged pointlike quantum circulating at an extremely high frequency ( 2.5 x 1020 hz) in a closed, double-looped hehcal trajectory whose helical pitch is one Compton wavelength h/mc. The quantum has energy and momentum but not rest mass, so its speed is not limited by c. sThe quantum's speed is superluminal 57% of the time and subluminal 43% of the time, passing through c twice in each trajectory cycle. The quantum's maximum speed in the electron's rest frame is 2.515c and its minimum speed is .707c. The electron model's helical trajectory parameters are selected to produce the electron's spin (ℎ/2π)/2 and approximate (without small QED corrections) magnetic moment e(ℎ/2π)/2m (the Bohr magneton μB) as well as its Dirac equation-related 'jittery motion' angular frequency 2mc2/(ℎ/2π), amplitude (ℎ/2π)/2mc and internal speed c. The two possible helicities of the electron model correspond to the electron and the positron. With these models, an electron is like a closed circulating photon. The electron's inertia is proposed to be related to the electron model's circulating internal Compton momentum mc. The internal superluminalily of the photon model, the internal superluminahty/subluminality of the electron model, and the proposed approach to the electron's inertia as ''momentum at rest'' within the electron, could be relevant to possible mechanisms of superluminal communication and transportation

  20. Charge superlattice effects on the electronic structure of a model acceptor graphite intercalation compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagnoli, G.; Tosatti, E.

    1981-08-01

    In the present attempt we have considered a model ordered situation (a super-superlattice) where starting from a basic stoichiometry C 8 X, a fraction 1/3 of the molecules acquire one electron, the remaining 2/3 being left neutral. We have performed an electronic structure calculation using tight-binding plus electrostatic (Hartree) self-consistency

  1. Phase-Space Models of Solitary Electron Hoies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans

    1985-01-01

    Two different phase-space models of solitary electron holes are investigated and compared with results from computer simulations of an actual laboratory experiment, carried out in a strongly magnetized, cylindrical plasma column. In the two models, the velocity distribution of the electrons...

  2. Photovoltaic array performance simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, D. F.

    1986-09-15

    The experience of the solar industry confirms that, despite recent cost reductions, the profitability of photovoltaic (PV) systems is often marginal and the configuration and sizing of a system is a critical problem for the design engineer. Construction and evaluation of experimental systems are expensive and seldom justifiable. A mathematical model or computer-simulation program is a desirable alternative, provided reliable results can be obtained. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), has been studying PV-system modeling techniques in an effort to develop an effective tool to be used by engineers and architects in the design of cost-effective PV systems. This paper reviews two of the sources of error found in previous PV modeling programs, presents the remedies developed to correct these errors, and describes a new program that incorporates these improvements.

  3. Final Report for 'Modeling Electron Cloud Diagnostics for High-Intensity Proton Accelerators'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.

    2009-01-01

    Electron clouds in accelerators such as the ILC degrade beam quality and limit operating efficiency. The need to mitigate electron clouds has a direct impact on the design and operation of these accelerators, translating into increased cost and reduced performance. Diagnostic techniques for measuring electron clouds in accelerating cavities are needed to provide an assessment of electron cloud evolution and mitigation. Accurate numerical modeling of these diagnostics is needed to validate the experimental techniques. In this Phase I, we developed detailed numerical models of microwave propagation through electron clouds in accelerating cavities with geometries relevant to existing and future high-intensity proton accelerators such as Project X and the ILC. Our numerical techniques and simulation results from the Phase I showed that there was a high probability of success in measuring both the evolution of electron clouds and the effects of non-uniform electron density distributions in Phase II.

  4. Maintenance Personnel Performance Simulation (MAPPS) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A stochastic computer model for simulating the actions and behavior of nuclear power plant maintenance personnel is described. The model considers personnel, environmental, and motivational variables to yield predictions of maintenance performance quality and time to perform. The mode has been fully developed and sensitivity tested. Additional evaluation of the model is now taking place

  5. Cognitive performance modeling based on general systems performance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V

    2010-01-01

    General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies involving two complex tasks (i.e., driving and performing laparoscopic surgery) and incorporating measures that are clearly related to cognitive performance (information processing speed and short-term memory capacity) were revisited. A GSPT-derived method of task analysis and performance prediction termed Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis (NCRA) was employed to determine the demand on basic cognitive performance resources required to support different levels of complex task performance. This approach is presented as a means to determine a cognitive workload profile and the subsequent computation of a single number measure of cognitive workload (CW). Computation of CW may be a viable alternative to measuring it. Various possible "more basic" performance resources that contribute to cognitive system performance are discussed. It is concluded from this preliminary exploration that a GSPT-based approach can contribute to defining cognitive performance models that are useful for both individual subjects and specific groups (e.g., military pilots).

  6. Orbital Models and Electronic Structure Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderberg, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This tribute to the work by Carl Johan Ballhausen focuses on the emergence of quantitative means for the study of the electronic properties of complexes and molecules. Development, refinement and application of the orbital picture elucidated electric and magnetic features of ranges of molecules...

  7. Financing the Electronic Library: Models and Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Richard L.; Kralisz, Victor Frank

    1981-01-01

    Places the cost considerations associated with public library automation in a framework of public finance comfortable to most administrators, discusses the importance of experience with use patterns in the electronic library in opening up new and innovative financing methods, and stresses the role of the library in the information industry. (JL)

  8. Assembly line performance and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Arun B.; Sunnapwar, Vivek K.

    2017-09-01

    Automobile sector forms the backbone of manufacturing sector. Vehicle assembly line is important section in automobile plant where repetitive tasks are performed one after another at different workstations. In this thesis, a methodology is proposed to reduce cycle time and time loss due to important factors like equipment failure, shortage of inventory, absenteeism, set-up, material handling, rejection and fatigue to improve output within given cost constraints. Various relationships between these factors, corresponding cost and output are established by scientific approach. This methodology is validated in three different vehicle assembly plants. Proposed methodology may help practitioners to optimize the assembly line using lean techniques.

  9. An Empirical Study of Logistics Organization, Electronic Linkage, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Anvari, M., "Electronic Data Interchange and Inventories," International Journal of Production Economics , 26, 1-3 (1992), 135-143. Baker, R. H., EDI: What...Electronic Data Interchange -- A Study of Norwegian Freight Forwarders Using EDI," International Journal of Production Economics , 24 (1991), 91-101. Henry, G

  10. A Comparison of Performances of Electronic and Electromechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ferraris (electromechanical) energy meter has had predominance in the metering of energy consumption using the alternating current supply system. Electronic energy meters are gaining popularity because of the possibility of remote reading and controllable non uniform rate of billing. In this work, an electronic energy ...

  11. Model of contamination sources of electron for radiotherapy of beams of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Infantes, W.; Lallena Rojo, A. M.; Anguiano Millan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Proposes a model of virtual sources of electrons, that allows to reproduce the sources to the input parameters of the representation of the patient. To compare performance in depth values and calculated profiles from the full simulation of the heads, with the calculated values using sources model, found that the model is capable of playing depth dose distributions and profiles. (Author)

  12. Simple model of electron beam initiated dielectric breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, B.L.; Daniell, R.E.; Delmer, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    A steady state model that describes the internal charge distribution of a planar dielectric sample exposed to a uniform electron beam was developed. The model includes the effects of charge deposition and ionization of the beam, separate trap-modulated mobilities for electrons and holes, electron-hole recombination, and pair production by drifting thermal electrons. If the incident beam current is greater than a certain critical value (which depends on sample thickness as well as other sample properties), the steady state solution is non-physical

  13. Laboratory design for high-performance electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Michael A.; Turner, John H.; Hetherington, Crispin J.D.; Cullis, A.G.; Carragher, Bridget; Jenkins, Ron; Milgrim, Julie; Milligan,Ronald A.; Potter, Clinton S.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Blom, Douglas A.; Degenhardt, Lynn; Sides, William H.

    2004-04-23

    Proliferation of electron microscopes with field emission guns, imaging filters and hardware spherical aberration correctors (giving higher spatial and energy resolution) has resulted in the need to construct special laboratories. As resolutions improve, transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs) become more sensitive to ambient conditions. State-of-the-art electron microscopes require state-of-the-art environments, and this means careful design and implementation of microscope sites, from the microscope room to the building that surrounds it. Laboratories have been constructed to house high-sensitive instruments with resolutions ranging down to sub-Angstrom levels; we present the various design philosophies used for some of these laboratories and our experiences with them. Four facilities are described: the National Center for Electron Microscopy OAM Laboratory at LBNL; the FEGTEM Facility at the University of Sheffield; the Center for Integrative Molecular Biosciences at TSRI; and the Advanced Microscopy Laboratory at ORNL.

  14. Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angioni, C.

    2001-10-01

    PRETOR. This code has been further extended and applied to the simulation of electron transport in TGV. In simulating the electron temperature profile of Ohmic sawtoothing plasmas, the proper description of the current density profile and the sawtooth activity play the dominant role and not the specific transport model, provided that a single parameter in the model is adjusted to match the global plasma performance. In TGV discharges with electron cyclotron heating (ECH), the behaviour of the electron temperature exhibits some characteristics which have been recently observed to be common to several tokamaks. In particular, with central heating the electron temperature profile is stiff outside the power deposition region, that is the gradient scale length is independent of the heating power and essentially constant along the minor radius. With off-axis heating, transport is strongly reduced in the central region of the plasma, whereas a steep increase of the heat conductivity is observed at the power deposition location. Although the semi-empirical Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) transport model does not involve a critical gradient scale length, as the experimental observations would suggest, rather a critical electron temperature gradient, we have shown that it allows simulations which reproduce the described experimental features with very good agreement. Due to the relatively low toroidal magnetic field of TCV, the experimental temperature gradient with ECH exceeds by far the threshold included in the model. It can thus be stated that the parametric dependence of the electron heat conductivity of this transport model is adequate to reproduce the electron transport for plasma parameters in the operation domain of TCV. PRETOR, interfaced with the experimental data and the code TORAY-GA for the computation of the ECH source, has hence been used as a reliable tool for transport analysis and planning of new experiments. This has contributed to the identification of an improved

  15. Modeling a Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope Focusing Column - Lessons Learned in Electron Optics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Jody; Gregory, Don; Gaskin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses work done to assess the design of a focusing column in a miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for use in-situ on the Moon-in particular for mineralogical analysis. The MSFC beam column design uses purely electrostatic fields for focusing, because of the severe constraints on mass and electrical power consumption imposed by the goals of lunar exploration and of spaceflight in general. The resolution of an SEM ultimately depends on the size of the focused spot of the scanning beam probe, for which the stated goal here is a diameter of 10 nanometers. Optical aberrations are the main challenge to this performance goal, because they blur the ideal geometrical optical image of the electron source, effectively widening the ideal spot size of the beam probe. In the present work the optical aberrations of the mini SEM focusing column were assessed using direct tracing of non-paraxial rays, as opposed to mathematical estimates of aberrations based on paraxial ray-traces. The geometrical ray-tracing employed here is completely analogous to ray-tracing as conventionally understood in the realm of photon optics, with the major difference being that in electron optics the lens is simply a smoothly varying electric field in vacuum, formed by precisely machined electrodes. Ray-tracing in this context, therefore, relies upon a model of the electrostatic field inside the focusing column to provide the mathematical description of the "lens" being traced. This work relied fundamentally on the boundary element method (BEM) for this electric field model. In carrying out this research the authors discovered that higher accuracy in the field model was essential if aberrations were to be reliably assessed using direct ray-tracing. This led to some work in testing alternative techniques for modeling the electrostatic field. Ultimately, the necessary accuracy was attained using a BEM

  16. Localization of electrons by electron-electron interaction in an Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritala, R.K.; Kurkijaervi, J.

    1981-01-01

    We study the effect of attractive Hubbard interaction on disordered electron system. We map the interacting system back to noninteracting one and determine self-consistently the disorder change due to interaction in the system. (author)

  17. Self-consistent modeling of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.; Lecot, C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to predict the performances of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS), it is necessary to perfectly model the different parts of these sources: (i) magnetic configuration; (ii) plasma characteristics; (iii) extraction system. The magnetic configuration is easily calculated via commercial codes; different codes also simulate the ion extraction, either in two dimension, or even in three dimension (to take into account the shape of the plasma at the extraction influenced by the hexapole). However the characteristics of the plasma are not always mastered. This article describes the self-consistent modeling of ECRIS: we have developed a code which takes into account the most important construction parameters: the size of the plasma (length, diameter), the mirror ratio and axial magnetic profile, whether a biased probe is installed or not. These input parameters are used to feed a self-consistent code, which calculates the characteristics of the plasma: electron density and energy, charge state distribution, plasma potential. The code is briefly described, and some of its most interesting results are presented. Comparisons are made between the calculations and the results obtained experimentally

  18. Self-consistent modeling of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.; Lécot, C.

    2004-05-01

    In order to predict the performances of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS), it is necessary to perfectly model the different parts of these sources: (i) magnetic configuration; (ii) plasma characteristics; (iii) extraction system. The magnetic configuration is easily calculated via commercial codes; different codes also simulate the ion extraction, either in two dimension, or even in three dimension (to take into account the shape of the plasma at the extraction influenced by the hexapole). However the characteristics of the plasma are not always mastered. This article describes the self-consistent modeling of ECRIS: we have developed a code which takes into account the most important construction parameters: the size of the plasma (length, diameter), the mirror ratio and axial magnetic profile, whether a biased probe is installed or not. These input parameters are used to feed a self-consistent code, which calculates the characteristics of the plasma: electron density and energy, charge state distribution, plasma potential. The code is briefly described, and some of its most interesting results are presented. Comparisons are made between the calculations and the results obtained experimentally.

  19. Phenomenological model of an electron flow with a virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovskij, A.A.; Khramov, A.E.; Anfinogenov, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    A phenomenological model of electron flow with a virtual cathode in diode space, which is a modification of cellular automation, is suggested. The type of models, called cellular conveyer, permits making allowance for distribution and delay in a beam with a virtual cathode. A good agreement between results of numerical study of electron flow dynamics and results obtained using the phenomenological model described has been achieved [ru

  20. Modelling of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission during ECRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.; Krivenski, V.

    1990-01-01

    The existence of suprathermal electrons during Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating experiments in tokamaks is today a well established fact. At low densities the creation of large non-thermal electron tails affects the temperature profile measurements obtained by 2 nd harmonic, X-mode, low-field side, electron cyclotron emission. At higher densities suprathermal electrons can be detected by high-field side emission. In electron cyclotron current drive experiments a high energy suprathermal tail, asymmetric in v, is observed. Non-Maxwellian electron distribution functions are also typically observed during lower-hybrid current drive experiments. Fast electrons have been observed during ionic heating by neutral beams as well. Two distinct approaches are currently used in the interpretation of the experimental results: simple analytical models which reproduce some of the expected non-Maxwellian characteristics of the electron distribution function are employed to get a qualitative picture of the phenomena; sophisticated numerical Fokker-Planck calculations give the electron distribution function from which the emission spectra are computed. No algorithm is known to solve the inverse problem, i.e. to compute the electron distribution function from the emitted spectra. The proposed methods all relay on the basic assumption that the electron distribution function has a given functional dependence on a limited number of free parameters, which are then 'measured' by best fitting the experimental results. Here we discuss the legitimacy of this procedure. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  1. Dynamic pricing models for electronic business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    learning. We present a detailed example of an e-business market to show the ... to auction based models and §6 is devoted to game theoretic models. ..... Machine learning models: An e-business market provides a rich playground for online.

  2. Electronic learning and constructivism: a model for nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Sasikarn; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Pohthong, Amnart

    2010-01-01

    Nurse educators are challenged to teach nursing students to become competent professionals, who have both in-depth knowledge and decision-making skills. The use of electronic learning methods has been found to facilitate the teaching-learning process in nursing education. Although learning theories are acknowledged as useful guides to design strategies and activities of learning, integration of these theories into technology-based courses appears limited. Constructivism is a theoretical paradigm that could prove to be effective in guiding the design of electronic learning experiences for the purpose of providing positive outcomes, such as the acquisition of knowledge and decision-making skills. Therefore, the purposes of this paper are to: describe electronic learning, present a brief overview of what is known about the outcomes of electronic learning, discuss constructivism theory, present a model for electronic learning using constructivism, and describe educators' roles emphasizing the utilization of the model in developing electronic learning experiences in nursing education.

  3. Power Electronic Packaging Design, Assembly Process, Reliability and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronic Packaging presents an in-depth overview of power electronic packaging design, assembly,reliability and modeling. Since there is a drastic difference between IC fabrication and power electronic packaging, the book systematically introduces typical power electronic packaging design, assembly, reliability and failure analysis and material selection so readers can clearly understand each task's unique characteristics. Power electronic packaging is one of the fastest growing segments in the power electronic industry, due to the rapid growth of power integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, especially for applications like portable, consumer, home, computing and automotive electronics. This book also covers how advances in both semiconductor content and power advanced package design have helped cause advances in power device capability in recent years. The author extrapolates the most recent trends in the book's areas of focus to highlight where further improvement in materials and techniques can d...

  4. A Electronic Map Data Model Based on PDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Yang, Chuncheng; Meng, Nina; Peng, Peng

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we proposed the PDFEMAP (PDF electronic map) that is a kind of new electronic map products aiming at the current situation and demand of the use of electronic map products. Firstly gives the definition and characteristics of PDFEMAP, followed by a detailed description of the data model and method for generating PDFEMAP, and finally expounds application modes of the PDFEMAP which feasibility and effectiveness are verified.

  5. Peculiarities of designing Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpos– the aim ok this paper is to develop a Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model which could ensure the efficient integration of electronic government services in the local self-government level.Methodolog– the following analyses have been carried out in thirkpaper: theoretical-systematic; normative and conceptual comparative analysis of the researcha A method of modeling has also been applied.Finding– the scientific work analyzes the improvement opportunities of the models of electronic government services and their application alternatives in Lithuanian municipalities. The newly developed model of electronic government services that has been designed basng on the principle of integrating online expert consultation is primarily targeted at improvement of inside processes’ changes of an organization. Practicing the application of that model in the local self-government level starting with improvement of inside processes of an organization should help adapt more accurately and efficiently to the changing needs of the society while providing electronic government services, thus establishing a higher public value.Practical implication– the practical novelty of work is reflected not only through the integration opportunities’ assessment of the principle of online expert consultation services into the theoretical models of electronic government services that have already been developed by the scientists, but also on the basis of this principle there has been created a “Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model” in accordance with “E-Diamond” model basis and its practical application realization with the design of “The project of implementing the principle of online expert consultation on the model of electronic government services” for the future investigations.Originalit– the systematic, comparative analysis of the models of electronic government services carried out in the scientific

  6. Simulation model for electron irradiated IGZO thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, G. K.; Shantharama Rai, C.; Jayarama, A.; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-02-01

    An efficient drain current simulation model for the electron irradiation effect on the electrical parameters of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) thin-film transistors is developed. The model is developed based on the specifications such as gate capacitance, channel length, channel width, flat band voltage etc. Electrical parameters of un-irradiated IGZO samples were simulated and compared with the experimental parameters and 1 kGy electron irradiated parameters. The effect of electron irradiation on the IGZO sample was analysed by developing a mathematical model.

  7. Work domain constraints for modelling surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morineau, Thierry; Riffaud, Laurent; Morandi, Xavier; Villain, Jonathan; Jannin, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Three main approaches can be identified for modelling surgical performance: a competency-based approach, a task-based approach, both largely explored in the literature, and a less known work domain-based approach. The work domain-based approach first describes the work domain properties that constrain the agent's actions and shape the performance. This paper presents a work domain-based approach for modelling performance during cervical spine surgery, based on the idea that anatomical structures delineate the surgical performance. This model was evaluated through an analysis of junior and senior surgeons' actions. Twenty-four cervical spine surgeries performed by two junior and two senior surgeons were recorded in real time by an expert surgeon. According to a work domain-based model describing an optimal progression through anatomical structures, the degree of adjustment of each surgical procedure to a statistical polynomial function was assessed. Each surgical procedure showed a significant suitability with the model and regression coefficient values around 0.9. However, the surgeries performed by senior surgeons fitted this model significantly better than those performed by junior surgeons. Analysis of the relative frequencies of actions on anatomical structures showed that some specific anatomical structures discriminate senior from junior performances. The work domain-based modelling approach can provide an overall statistical indicator of surgical performance, but in particular, it can highlight specific points of interest among anatomical structures that the surgeons dwelled on according to their level of expertise.

  8. Unified model of secondary electron cascades in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaja, Beata; London, Richard A.; Hajdu, Janos

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present a detailed and unified theoretical treatment of secondary electron cascades that follow the absorption of x-ray photons. A Monte Carlo model has been constructed that treats in detail the evolution of electron cascades induced by photoelectrons and by Auger electrons following inner shell ionizations. Detailed calculations are presented for cascades initiated by electron energies between 0.1 and 10 keV. The present article expands our earlier work [B. Ziaja, D. van der Spoel, A. Szoeke, and J. Hajdu, Phys. Rev. B 64, 214104 (2001), Phys. Rev. B 66, 024116 (2002)] by extending the primary energy range, by improving the treatment of secondary electrons, especially at low electron energies, by including ionization by holes, and by taking into account their coupling to the crystal lattice. The calculations describe the three-dimensional evolution of the electron cloud, and monitor the equivalent instantaneous temperature of the free electron gas as the system cools. The dissipation of the impact energy proceeds predominantly through the production of secondary electrons whose energies are comparable to the binding energies of the valence (40-50 eV) and of the core electrons (300 eV). The electron cloud generated by a 10 keV electron is strongly anisotropic in the early phases of the cascade (t≤1 fs). At later times, the sample is dominated by low energy electrons, and these are scattered more isotropically by atoms in the sample. Our results for the total number of secondary electrons agree with available experimental data, and show that the emission of secondary electrons approaches saturation within about 100 fs following the primary impact

  9. Teaching Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Power Electronics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of behavioral modeling of switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The methodology is oriented toward electrical engineering (EE) students at the undergraduate level, enrolled in courses such as "Power…

  10. Problem Resolution through Electronic Mail: A Five-Step Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgenett, Neal; Grandgenett, Don

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of electronic mail within the general resolution and management of administrative problems and emphasizes the need for careful attention to problem definition and clarity of language. Presents a research-based five-step model for the effective use of electronic mail based on experiences at the University of Nebraska at Omaha.…

  11. Constrained bayesian inference of project performance models

    OpenAIRE

    Sunmola, Funlade

    2013-01-01

    Project performance models play an important role in the management of project success. When used for monitoring projects, they can offer predictive ability such as indications of possible delivery problems. Approaches for monitoring project performance relies on available project information including restrictions imposed on the project, particularly the constraints of cost, quality, scope and time. We study in this paper a Bayesian inference methodology for project performance modelling in ...

  12. Diffusive and convective transport modelling from analysis of ECRH-stimulated electron heat wave propagation. [ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erckmann, V; Gasparino, U; Giannone, L. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    ECRH power modulation experiments in toroidal devices offer the chance to analyze the electron heat transport more conclusively: the electron heat wave propagation can be observed by ECE (or SX) leading to radial profiles of electron temperature modulation amplitude and time delay (phase shift). Taking also the stationary power balance into account, the local electron heat transport can be modelled by a combination of diffusive and convective transport terms. This method is applied to ECRH discharges in the W7-AS stellarator (B=2.5T, R=2m, a[<=]18 cm) where the ECRH power deposition is highly localized. In W7-AS, the T[sub e] modulation profiles measured by a high resolution ECE system are the basis for the local transport analysis. As experimental errors limit the separation of diffusive and convective terms in the electron heat transport for central power deposition, also ECRH power modulation experiments with off-axis deposition and inward heat wave propagation were performed (with 70 GHz o-mode as well as with 140 GHz x-mode for increased absorption). Because collisional electron-ion coupling and radiative losses are only small, low density ECRH discharges are best candidates for estimating the electron heat flux from power balance. (author) 2 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Transmutation Fuel Performance Code Thermal Model Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K. Miller; Pavel G. Medvedev

    2007-09-01

    FRAPCON fuel performance code is being modified to be able to model performance of the nuclear fuels of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). The present report documents the effort for verification of the FRAPCON thermal model. It was found that, with minor modifications, FRAPCON thermal model temperature calculation agrees with that of the commercial software ABAQUS (Version 6.4-4). This report outlines the methodology of the verification, code input, and calculation results.

  14. High performance Si immersion gratings patterned with electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gully-Santiago, Michael A.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Brooks, Cynthia B.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Muller, Richard E.

    2014-07-01

    Infrared spectrographs employing silicon immersion gratings can be significantly more compact than spectro- graphs using front-surface gratings. The Si gratings can also offer continuous wavelength coverage at high spectral resolution. The grooves in Si gratings are made with semiconductor lithography techniques, to date almost entirely using contact mask photolithography. Planned near-infrared astronomical spectrographs require either finer groove pitches or higher positional accuracy than standard UV contact mask photolithography can reach. A collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin Silicon Diffractive Optics Group and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Microdevices Laboratory has experimented with direct writing silicon immersion grating grooves with electron beam lithography. The patterning process involves depositing positive e-beam resist on 1 to 30 mm thick, 100 mm diameter monolithic crystalline silicon substrates. We then use the facility JEOL 9300FS e-beam writer at JPL to produce the linear pattern that defines the gratings. There are three key challenges to produce high-performance e-beam written silicon immersion gratings. (1) E- beam field and subfield stitching boundaries cause periodic cross-hatch structures along the grating grooves. The structures manifest themselves as spectral and spatial dimension ghosts in the diffraction limited point spread function (PSF) of the diffraction grating. In this paper, we show that the effects of e-beam field boundaries must be mitigated. We have significantly reduced ghost power with only minor increases in write time by using four or more field sizes of less than 500 μm. (2) The finite e-beam stage drift and run-out error cause large-scale structure in the wavefront error. We deal with this problem by applying a mark detection loop to check for and correct out minuscule stage drifts. We measure the level and direction of stage drift and show that mark detection reduces peak-to-valley wavefront error

  15. Modeling of electron-specimen interaction in scanning electron microscope for e-beam metrology and inspection: challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Kameda, Toshimasa; Doi, Ayumi; Borisov, Sergey; Babin, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    The interpretation of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the latest semiconductor devices is not intuitive and requires comparison with computed images based on theoretical modeling and simulations. For quantitative image prediction and geometrical reconstruction of the specimen structure, the accuracy of the physical model is essential. In this paper, we review the current models of electron-solid interaction and discuss their accuracy. We perform the comparison of the simulated results with our experiments of SEM overlay of under-layer, grain imaging of copper interconnect, and hole bottom visualization by angular selective detectors, and show that our model well reproduces the experimental results. Remaining issues for quantitative simulation are also discussed, including the accuracy of the charge dynamics, treatment of beam skirt, and explosive increase in computing time.

  16. Electron and photon reconstruction and performance in ATLAS using a dynamical, topological cell clustering-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The electron and photon reconstruction in ATLAS has moved towards the use of a dynamical, topo- logical cell-based approach for cluster building, owing to advancements in the calibration procedure which allow for such a method to be applied. The move to this new technique allows for improved measurements of electron and photon energies, particularly in situations where an electron radiates a bremsstrahlung photon, or a photon converts to an electron-poistron pair. This note details the changes to the ATLAS electron and photon reconstruction software, and assesses its performance under current LHC luminosity conditions using simulated data. Changes to the converted photon reconstruction are also detailed, which improve the reconstruction efficiency of double-track converted photons, as well as reducing the reconstruction of spurious one-track converted photons. The performance of the new reconstruction algorithm is also presented in a number of important topologies relevant to precision Standard Model physics,...

  17. Electronic field emission models beyond the Fowler-Nordheim one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    We propose several quantum mechanical models to describe electronic field emission from first principles. These models allow us to correlate quantitatively the electronic emission current with the electrode surface details at the atomic scale. They all rely on electronic potential energy surfaces obtained from three dimensional density functional theory calculations. They differ by the various quantum mechanical methods (exact or perturbative, time dependent or time independent), which are used to describe tunneling through the electronic potential energy barrier. Comparison of these models between them and with the standard Fowler-Nordheim one in the context of one dimensional tunneling allows us to assess the impact on the accuracy of the computed current of the approximations made in each model. Among these methods, the time dependent perturbative one provides a well-balanced trade-off between accuracy and computational cost.

  18. Application of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in electronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in electronic ticket purchase for ... current study examined the perceived usefulness and ease of use of online technology ... The findings are discussed in the light of these perspectives.

  19. Modelling and implementing electronic health records in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Knut; Rasmussen, Morten Bruun; Vingtoft, Søren

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Health IT strategy points out that integration between electronic health records (EHR) systems has a high priority. This paper reporst reports new tendencies in modelling and integration platforms globally and how this is reflected in the natinal development....

  20. Model performance analysis and model validation in logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Arboretti Giancristofaro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new model validation procedure for a logistic regression model is presented. At first, we illustrate a brief review of different techniques of model validation. Next, we define a number of properties required for a model to be considered "good", and a number of quantitative performance measures. Lastly, we describe a methodology for the assessment of the performance of a given model by using an example taken from a management study.

  1. Performance of the Fitch generator in a nanosecond electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyj, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of the Fitch generator in the nanosecond electron accelerator is discussed. The operating principle of the generator is based on the inversion of the voltage at the storage capacitances. Only one discharger is employed in the discharge circuit of the generator which provides for decreasing the generator impedance to 24 Ohms. The maximum accelerating voltage equals 0.6 MV

  2. Effects of electronic outlining on students' argumentative writing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, M.R.J.; Broekkamp, H.; Brand-Gruwel, S.; Kirschner, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of electronic outlining on the quality of students' writing products and how outlining affects perceived mental effort during the writing task. Additionally, it was studied how students appropriate and appreciate an outline tool and whether they need explicit

  3. Performing with Tape: Music for Clarinet and Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errante, F. Gerard

    1985-01-01

    In the past several decades, clarinet repertoire has increased enormously. Many pieces have been written that explore the wide range of timbral effects developed in the late 1950s and 1960s. This interest in timbre is due in large measure to the explorations taking place in electronic music. (RM)

  4. Model potentials in liquid water ionization by fast electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sanctis, M L; Stia, C R; Fojón, O A; Politis, M-F; Vuilleumier, R

    2015-01-01

    We study the ionization of water molecules in liquid phase by fast electron impact. We use our previous first-order model within an independent electron approximation that allows the reduction of the multielectronic problem into a monoelectronic one. The initial molecular states of the liquid water are represented in a realistic way through a Wannier orbital formalism. We complete our previous study by taking into account approximately the influence of the passive electrons of the target by means of different model potentials. We compute multiple differential cross sections for the most external orbital 1B 1 and compare them with other results

  5. Photovoltaic performance models - A report card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    Models for the analysis of photovoltaic (PV) systems' designs, implementation policies, and economic performance, have proliferated while keeping pace with rapid changes in basic PV technology and extensive empirical data compiled for such systems' performance. Attention is presently given to the results of a comparative assessment of ten well documented and widely used models, which range in complexity from first-order approximations of PV system performance to in-depth, circuit-level characterizations. The comparisons were made on the basis of the performance of their subsystem, as well as system, elements. The models fall into three categories in light of their degree of aggregation into subsystems: (1) simplified models for first-order calculation of system performance, with easily met input requirements but limited capability to address more than a small variety of design considerations; (2) models simulating PV systems in greater detail, encompassing types primarily intended for either concentrator-incorporating or flat plate collector PV systems; and (3) models not specifically designed for PV system performance modeling, but applicable to aspects of electrical system design. Models ignoring subsystem failure or degradation are noted to exclude operating and maintenance characteristics as well.

  6. Spreadsheet Modeling of Electron Distributions in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassy, Wingfield V.

    2006-01-01

    A series of spreadsheet modeling exercises constructed as part of a new upper-level elective course on solid state materials and surface chemistry is described. The spreadsheet exercises are developed to provide students with the opportunity to interact with the conceptual framework where the role of the density of states and the Fermi-Dirac…

  7. Evaluation of performance of electronic dosimeters for individual monitoring: tests in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, W.J.; Khoury, H.J.; Barros, V.S.M. de; Medeiros, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic dosimeters based on direct ion storage technology are being widely used in many countries for individual monitoring in many applications of ionizing radiation. However, their use as routine dosimeter has been established in a few countries due to lack of accreditation or intercomparison programs. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of two direct íon storage dosimeters model available in the international market: the Miriom-Instadose-1 and RADOS DIS-1 to be eventually accepted for individual monitoring in Brazil. (author)

  8. Performance of different radiotherapy workload models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbera, Lisa; Jackson, Lynda D.; Schulze, Karleen; Groome, Patti A.; Foroudi, Farshad; Delaney, Geoff P.; Mackillop, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of different radiotherapy workload models using a prospectively collected dataset of patient and treatment information from a single center. Methods and Materials: Information about all individual radiotherapy treatments was collected for 2 weeks from the three linear accelerators (linacs) in our department. This information included diagnosis code, treatment site, treatment unit, treatment time, fields per fraction, technique, beam type, blocks, wedges, junctions, port films, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of the original and revised basic treatment equivalent (BTE) model, the simple and complex Addenbrooke models, the equivalent simple treatment visit (ESTV) model, fields per hour, and two local standards of workload measurement. Results: Data were collected for 2 weeks in June 2001. During this time, 151 patients were treated with 857 fractions. The revised BTE model performed better than the other models with a mean vertical bar observed - predicted vertical bar of 2.62 (2.44-2.80). It estimated 88.0% of treatment times within 5 min, which is similar to the previously reported accuracy of the model. Conclusion: The revised BTE model had similar accuracy and precision for data collected in our center as it did for the original dataset and performed the best of the models assessed. This model would have uses for patient scheduling, and describing workloads and case complexity

  9. Developing a model for application of electronic banking based on electronic trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hooshang Nazarpoori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for application of electronic banking based on electronic trust among costumers of Day bank in KhoramAbad city. A sample of 150 people was selected based on stratified random sampling. Questionnaires were used for the investigation. Results indicate that technology-based factors, user-based factors, and trust had negative relationships with perceived risk types including financial, functional, personal, and private. Moreover, trust including trust in system and trust in bank had a positive relationship with tendency to use and real application of electronic banking.

  10. Accounting of inter-electron correlations in the model of mobile electron shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, Yu.D.; Moskvin, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    One studied the basic peculiar features of the model for mobile electron shells for multielectron atom or cluster. One offered a variation technique to take account of the electron correlations where the coordinates of the centre of single-particle atomic orbital served as variation parameters. It enables to interpret dramatically variation of electron density distribution under anisotropic external effect in terms of the limited initial basis. One studied specific correlated states that might make correlation contribution into the orbital current. Paper presents generalization of the typical MO-LCAO pattern with the limited set of single particle functions enabling to take account of additional multipole-multipole interactions in the cluster [ru

  11. A Model for an Electronic Information Marketplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ge

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available As the information content on the Internet increases, the task of locating desired information and assessing its quality becomes increasingly difficult. This development causes users to be more willing to pay for information that is focused on specific issues, verifiable, and available upon request. Thus, the nature of the Internet opens up the opportunity for information trading. In this context, the Internet cannot only be used to close the transaction, but also to deliver the product - desired information - to the user. Early attempts to implement such business models have fallen short of expectations. In this paper, we discuss the limitations of such practices and present a modified business model for information trading, which uses a reverse auction approach together with a multiple-buyer price discovery process

  12. Numerical model of the plasma formation at electron beam welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trushnikov, D. N., E-mail: trdimitr@yandex.ru [The Department for Applied Physics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm 614990 (Russian Federation); The Department for Welding Production and Technology of Constructional Materials, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm 614990 (Russian Federation); Mladenov, G. M., E-mail: gmmladenov@abv.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Shose, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Technology Centre of Electron Beam and Plasma Technologies and Techniques, 68-70 Vrania, ap.10, Banishora, 1309 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-01-07

    The model of plasma formation in the keyhole in liquid metal as well as above the electron beam welding zone is described. The model is based on solution of two equations for the density of electrons and the mean electron energy. The mass transfer of heavy plasma particles (neutral atoms, excited atoms, and ions) is taken into account in the analysis by the diffusion equation for a multicomponent mixture. The electrostatic field is calculated using the Poisson equation. Thermionic electron emission is calculated for the keyhole wall. The ionization intensity of the vapors due to beam electrons and high-energy secondary and backscattered electrons is calibrated using the plasma parameters when there is no polarized collector electrode above the welding zone. The calculated data are in good agreement with experimental data. Results for the plasma parameters for excitation of a non-independent discharge are given. It is shown that there is a need to take into account the effect of a strong electric field near the keyhole walls on electron emission (the Schottky effect) in the calculation of the current for a non-independent discharge (hot cathode gas discharge). The calculated electron drift velocities are much bigger than the velocity at which current instabilities arise. This confirms the hypothesis for ion-acoustic instabilities, observed experimentally in previous research.

  13. DMILL circuits. The hardened electronics decuples its performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the DMILL (mixed logic-linear hardening) technology under development at the CEA, MHS, a French company specialized in the fabrication of integrated circuits now produces hardened electronic circuits ten times more resistant to radiations than its competitors. Outside the initial market (several thousands of circuits for the LHC particle accelerator of Geneva), a broad choice of applications is opened to this technology: national defense, space, civil nuclear and medical engineering, and high temperature applications. Short paper. (J.S.)

  14. Iowa calibration of MEPDG performance prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to improve the accuracy of AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) pavement : performance predictions for Iowa pavement systems through local calibration of MEPDG prediction models. A total of 130 : representative p...

  15. Electron correlations in narrow energy bands: modified polar model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Didukh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The electron correlations in narrow energy bands are examined within the framework of the modified form of polar model. This model permits to analyze the effect of strong Coulomb correlation, inter-atomic exchange and correlated hopping of electrons and explain some peculiarities of the properties of narrow-band materials, namely the metal-insulator transition with an increase of temperature, nonlinear concentration dependence of Curie temperature and peculiarities of transport properties of electronic subsystem. Using a variant of generalized Hartree-Fock approximation, the single-electron Green's function and quasi-particle energy spectrum of the model are calculated. Metal-insulator transition with the change of temperature is investigated in a system with correlated hopping. Processes of ferromagnetic ordering stabilization in the system with various forms of electronic DOS are studied. The static conductivity and effective spin-dependent masses of current carriers are calculated as a function of electron concentration at various DOS forms. The correlated hopping is shown to cause the electron-hole asymmetry of transport and ferromagnetic properties of narrow band materials.

  16. A model for electron currents near a field null

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.; Miley, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    The fluid approximation is invalid near a field null, since the local electron orbit size and the magnetic scale length are comparable. To model the electron currents in this region we propose a single equation of motion describing the bulk electron dynamics. The equation applies to the plasma within one thermal orbit size of the null. The region is treated as unmagnetized; electrons are accelerated by the inductive electric field and drag on ions; damping is provided by viscosity due to electrons and collisions with ions. Through variational calculations and a particle tracking code for electrons, the size of the terms in the equation of motion have been estimated. The resulting equation of motion combines with Faraday's Law to produce a governing equation which implicitly contains the self inductive field of the electrons. This governing equation predicts that viscosity prevents complete cancellation of the ion current density by the electrons in the null region. Thus electron dynamics near the field null should not prevent the formation and deepening of field reversal using neutral-beam injection

  17. High-performance green flexible electronics based on biodegradable cellulose nanofibril paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yei Hwan; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Zhang, Huilong; Yao, Chunhua; Zheng, Qifeng; Yang, Vina W; Mi, Hongyi; Kim, Munho; Cho, Sang June; Park, Dong-Wook; Jiang, Hao; Lee, Juhwan; Qiu, Yijie; Zhou, Weidong; Cai, Zhiyong; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2015-05-26

    Today's consumer electronics, such as cell phones, tablets and other portable electronic devices, are typically made of non-renewable, non-biodegradable, and sometimes potentially toxic (for example, gallium arsenide) materials. These consumer electronics are frequently upgraded or discarded, leading to serious environmental contamination. Thus, electronic systems consisting of renewable and biodegradable materials and minimal amount of potentially toxic materials are desirable. Here we report high-performance flexible microwave and digital electronics that consume the smallest amount of potentially toxic materials on biobased, biodegradable and flexible cellulose nanofibril papers. Furthermore, we demonstrate gallium arsenide microwave devices, the consumer wireless workhorse, in a transferrable thin-film form. Successful fabrication of key electrical components on the flexible cellulose nanofibril paper with comparable performance to their rigid counterparts and clear demonstration of fungal biodegradation of the cellulose-nanofibril-based electronics suggest that it is feasible to fabricate high-performance flexible electronics using ecofriendly materials.

  18. Model of contamination sources of electron for radiotherapy of beams of photons; Modelo de fuentes de contaminacion de electrones para radioterapia de haces de fotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Infantes, W.; Lallena Rojo, A. M.; Anguiano Millan, M.

    2013-07-01

    Proposes a model of virtual sources of electrons, that allows to reproduce the sources to the input parameters of the representation of the patient. To compare performance in depth values and calculated profiles from the full simulation of the heads, with the calculated values using sources model, found that the model is capable of playing depth dose distributions and profiles. (Author)

  19. Prediction Model for Relativistic Electrons at Geostationary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Lyatsky, Wladislaw

    2008-01-01

    We developed a new prediction model for forecasting relativistic (greater than 2MeV) electrons, which provides a VERY HIGH correlation between predicted and actually measured electron fluxes at geostationary orbit. This model implies the multi-step particle acceleration and is based on numerical integrating two linked continuity equations for primarily accelerated particles and relativistic electrons. The model includes a source and losses, and used solar wind data as only input parameters. We used the coupling function which is a best-fit combination of solar wind/interplanetary magnetic field parameters, responsible for the generation of geomagnetic activity, as a source. The loss function was derived from experimental data. We tested the model for four year period 2004-2007. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual values of the electron fluxes for whole four year period as well as for each of these years is stable and incredibly high (about 0.9). The high and stable correlation between the computed and actual electron fluxes shows that the reliable forecasting these electrons at geostationary orbit is possible.

  20. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  1. Assessing Ecosystem Model Performance in Semiarid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A.; Dietze, M.; Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    In ecosystem process modelling, comparing outputs to benchmark datasets observed in the field is an important way to validate models, allowing the modelling community to track model performance over time and compare models at specific sites. Multi-model comparison projects as well as models themselves have largely been focused on temperate forests and similar biomes. Semiarid regions, on the other hand, are underrepresented in land surface and ecosystem modelling efforts, and yet will be disproportionately impacted by disturbances such as climate change due to their sensitivity to changes in the water balance. Benchmarking models at semiarid sites is an important step in assessing and improving models' suitability for predicting the impact of disturbance on semiarid ecosystems. In this study, several ecosystem models were compared at a semiarid grassland in southwestern Arizona using PEcAn, or the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer, an open-source eco-informatics toolbox ideal for creating the repeatable model workflows necessary for benchmarking. Models included SIPNET, DALEC, JULES, ED2, GDAY, LPJ-GUESS, MAESPA, CLM, CABLE, and FATES. Comparison between model output and benchmarks such as net ecosystem exchange (NEE) tended to produce high root mean square error and low correlation coefficients, reflecting poor simulation of seasonality and the tendency for models to create much higher carbon sources than observed. These results indicate that ecosystem models do not currently adequately represent semiarid ecosystem processes.

  2. Modeling the customer in electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, M G; Khalid, H M

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews interface design of web pages for e-commerce. Different tasks in e-commerce are contrasted. A systems model is used to illustrate the information flow between three subsystems in e-commerce: store environment, customer, and web technology. A customer makes several decisions: to enter the store, to navigate, to purchase, to pay, and to keep the merchandize. This artificial environment must be designed so that it can support customer decision-making. To retain customers it must be pleasing and fun, and create a task with natural flow. Customers have different needs, competence and motivation, which affect decision-making. It may therefore be important to customize the design of the e-store environment. Future ergonomics research will have to investigate perceptual aspects, such as presentation of merchandize, and cognitive issues, such as product search and navigation, as well as decision making while considering various economic parameters. Five theories on e-commerce research are presented.

  3. Driver Performance Model: 1. Conceptual Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heimerl, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    ...'. At the present time, no such comprehensive model exists. This report discusses a conceptual framework designed to encompass the relationships, conditions, and constraints related to direct, indirect, and remote modes of driving and thus provides a guide or 'road map' for the construction and creation of a comprehensive driver performance model.

  4. Performance engineering in the community atmosphere model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, P; Mirin, A; Drake, J; Sawyer, W

    2006-01-01

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is the atmospheric component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and is the primary consumer of computer resources in typical CCSM simulations. Performance engineering has been an important aspect of CAM development throughout its existence. This paper briefly summarizes these efforts and their impacts over the past five years

  5. Performance of hedging strategies in interval models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Berend; Engwerda, Jacob; Schumacher, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    For a proper assessment of risks associated with the trading of derivatives, the performance of hedging strategies should be evaluated not only in the context of the idealized model that has served as the basis of strategy development, but also in the context of other models. In this paper we

  6. Modeling of Jupiter's electron an ion radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Angelica

    2004-01-01

    In the Fifties, James Van Allen showed the existence of regions of the terrestrial magnetosphere consisted of energetic particles, trapped by the magnetic field: the radiation belts. The radiation belts of the Earth were the subject of many modeling works and are studied since several years at the Departement Environnement Spatial (DESP) of ONERA. In 1998, the DESP decided to adapt the radiation belts model of the Earth, Salammbo, to radiation environment of Jupiter. A first thesis was thus carried out on the subject and a first radiation belts model of electrons of Jupiter was developed [Santos-Costa, 2001]. The aim of this second thesis is to develop a radiation belts model for protons and heavy ions. In order to validate the developed model, the comparisons between Salammbo results and observations are essential. However, the validation is difficult in the case of protons and heavy ions because in-situ measurements of the probes are very few and most of the time contaminated by very energetic electrons. To solve this problem, a very good model of electrons radiation belts is essential to confirm or cancel the contamination of protons and heavy ions measurements. Thus, in parallel to the development of the protons and heavy ions radiation belts model, the electrons models, already existing, has been improved. Then Salammbo results have been compared to the different observations available (in-situ measurements, radio-astronomical observations). The different comparisons show a very good agreement between Salammbo results and observations. (author) [fr

  7. Spin delocalization phase transition in a correlated electrons model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, L.

    1990-11-01

    In a simplified one-site model for correlated electrons systems we show the existence of a phase transition corresponding to spin delocalization. The system becomes a solvable model and zero-dimensional functional techniques are used. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  8. Modeling paraxial wave propagation in free-electron laser oscillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, J.G.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Volokhine, I.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for

  9. Performability assessment by model checking of Markov reward models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baier, Christel; Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Hermanns, H.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes efficient procedures for model checking Markov reward models, that allow us to evaluate, among others, the performability of computer-communication systems. We present the logic CSRL (Continuous Stochastic Reward Logic) to specify performability measures. It provides flexibility

  10. Analysing the temporal dynamics of model performance for hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusser, D.E.; Blume, T.; Schaefli, B.; Zehe, E.

    2009-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of hydrological model performance gives insights into errors that cannot be obtained from global performance measures assigning a single number to the fit of a simulated time series to an observed reference series. These errors can include errors in data, model parameters, or

  11. Medipix3 Demonstration and understanding of near ideal detector performance for 60 & 80 keV electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, J.A.; MacInnes, R.; Gough, C.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Sawada, H.; MacLaren, I.; Ballabriga, R.; Maneuski, D.; O'Shea, V.; McGrouther, D.; Kirkland, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    In our article we report first quantitative measurements of imaging performance for the current generation of hybrid pixel detector, Medipix3, as direct electron detector. Utilising beam energies of 60 & 80 keV, measurements of modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have revealed that, in single pixel mode (SPM), energy threshold values can be chosen to maximize either the MTF or DQE, obtaining values near to, or even exceeding, those for an ideal detector. We have demonstrated that the Medipix3 charge summing mode (CSM) can deliver simultaneous, near ideal values of both MTF and DQE. To understand direct detection performance further we have characterized the detector response to single electron events, building an empirical model which can predict detector MTF and DQE performance based on energy threshold. Exemplifying our findings we demonstrate the Medipix3 imaging performance, recording a fully exposed electron diffraction pattern at 24-bit depth and images in SPM a...

  12. The isotropic local Wigner-Seitz model: An accurate theoretical model for the quasi-free electron energy in fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cherice; Findley, Gary L.

    The quasi-free electron energy V0 (ρ) is important in understanding electron transport through a fluid, as well as for modeling electron attachment reactions in fluids. Our group has developed an isotropic local Wigner-Seitz model that allows one to successfully calculate the quasi-free electron energy for a variety of atomic and molecular fluids from low density to the density of the triple point liquid with only a single adjustable parameter. This model, when coupled with the quasi-free electron energy data and the thermodynamic data for the fluids, also can yield optimized intermolecular potential parameters and the zero kinetic energy electron scattering length. In this poster, we give a review of the isotropic local Wigner-Seitz model in comparison to previous theoretical models for the quasi-free electron energy. All measurements were performed at the University of Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center. This work was supported by a Grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF CHE-0956719), the Petroleum Research Fund (45728-B6 and 5-24880), the Louisiana Board of Regents Support Fund (LEQSF(2006-09)-RD-A33), and the Professional Staff Congress City University of New York.

  13. Modelling hot electron generation in short pulse target heating experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sircombe N.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Target heating experiments planned for the Orion laser facility, and electron beam driven fast ignition schemes, rely on the interaction of a short pulse high intensity laser with dense material to generate a flux of energetic electrons. It is essential that the characteristics of this electron source are well known in order to inform transport models in radiation hydrodynamics codes and allow effective evaluation of experimental results and forward modelling of future campaigns. We present results obtained with the particle in cell (PIC code EPOCH for realistic target and laser parameters, including first and second harmonic light. The hot electron distributions are characterised and their implications for onward transport and target heating are considered with the aid of the Monte-Carlo transport code THOR.

  14. Analytical performance modeling for computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tay, Y C

    2013-01-01

    This book is an introduction to analytical performance modeling for computer systems, i.e., writing equations to describe their performance behavior. It is accessible to readers who have taken college-level courses in calculus and probability, networking and operating systems. This is not a training manual for becoming an expert performance analyst. Rather, the objective is to help the reader construct simple models for analyzing and understanding the systems that they are interested in.Describing a complicated system abstractly with mathematical equations requires a careful choice of assumpti

  15. The practical model of electron emission in the radioisotope battery by fast ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhine, N.S.; Balebanov, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    Under the theoretical analysis of secondary-emission radioisotope source of current the estimate of energy spectrum F(E) of secondary electrons with energy E emitted from films is the important problem. This characteristic knowledge allows, in particular, studying the volt-ampere function, the dependence of electric power deposited in the load on the system parameters and so on. Since the rigorous calculations of energy spectrum F(E) are the complicated enough and labour-intensive there is necessity to elaborate the practical model which allows by the simple computer routine on the basis of generalized data (both experimental measurements and theoretical calculations) on the stopping powers and mean free path of suprathermal electrons to perform reliable express-estimates of the energy spectrum F(E) and the volt-ampere function I(V) for the concrete materials of battery emitter films. This paper devoted to description of of the practical model to calculate electron emission characteristics under the passage of fast ion fluxes from the radioisotope source through the battery emitter. The analytical approximations for the stopping power of emitter materials, the electron inelastic mean free path, the ion production of fast electrons and the probability for them to arrive the film surface are taken into account. In the cases of copper and gold films, the secondary electron escaping depth, the position of energy spectrum peak are considered in the dependence on surface potential barrier magnitude U. According to our calculations the energy spectrum peak shifted to higher electron energy under the U growth. The model described may be used for express estimates and computer simulations of fast alpha-particles and suprathermal electrons interactions with the solid state plasma of battery emitter films, to study the electron emission layer characteristics including the secondary electron escaping depth, to find the optimum conditions for excitation of nonequilibrium

  16. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Sanyam, E-mail: bajaj.10@osu.edu; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M. [Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States); Khurgin, Jacob [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.

  17. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, Sanyam; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10 7  cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10 11  cm −2 . An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs

  18. Modeling electron fractionalization with unconventional Fock spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanera, Emilio

    2017-08-02

    It is shown that certain fractionally-charged quasiparticles can be modeled on D-dimensional lattices in terms of unconventional yet simple Fock algebras of creation and annihilation operators. These unconventional Fock algebras are derived from the usual fermionic algebra by taking roots (the square root, cubic root, etc) of the usual fermionic creation and annihilation operators. If the fermions carry non-Abelian charges, then this approach fractionalizes the Abelian charges only. In particular, the mth-root of a spinful fermion carries charge e/m and spin 1/2. Just like taking a root of a complex number, taking a root of a fermion yields a mildly non-unique result. As a consequence, there are several possible choices of quantum exchange statistics for fermion-root quasiparticles. These choices are tied to the dimensionality [Formula: see text] of the lattice by basic physical considerations. One particular family of fermion-root quasiparticles is directly connected to the parafermion zero-energy modes expected to emerge in certain mesoscopic devices involving fractional quantum Hall states. Hence, as an application of potential mesoscopic interest, I investigate numerically the hybridization of Majorana and parafermion zero-energy edge modes caused by fractionalizing but charge-conserving tunneling.

  19. USign--a security enhanced electronic consent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Xie, Mengjun; Bian, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Electronic consent becomes increasingly popular in the healthcare sector given the many benefits it provides. However, security concerns, e.g., how to verify the identity of a person who is remotely accessing the electronic consent system in a secure and user-friendly manner, also arise along with the popularity of electronic consent. Unfortunately, existing electronic consent systems do not pay sufficient attention to those issues. They mainly rely on conventional password based authentication to verify the identity of an electronic consent user, which is far from being sufficient given that identity theft threat is real and significant in reality. In this paper, we present a security enhanced electronic consent model called USign. USign enhances the identity protection and authentication for electronic consent systems by leveraging handwritten signatures everyone is familiar with and mobile computing technologies that are becoming ubiquitous. We developed a prototype of USign and conducted preliminary evaluation on accuracy and usability of signature verification. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed model.

  20. Performance modeling, loss networks, and statistical multiplexing

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph presents a concise mathematical approach for modeling and analyzing the performance of communication networks with the aim of understanding the phenomenon of statistical multiplexing. The novelty of the monograph is the fresh approach and insights provided by a sample-path methodology for queueing models that highlights the important ideas of Palm distributions associated with traffic models and their role in performance measures. Also presented are recent ideas of large buffer, and many sources asymptotics that play an important role in understanding statistical multiplexing. I

  1. Shock circle model for ejector performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yinhai; Cai, Wenjian; Wen, Changyun; Li, Yanzhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a novel shock circle model for the prediction of ejector performance at the critical mode operation is proposed. By introducing the 'shock circle' at the entrance of the constant area chamber, a 2D exponential expression for velocity distribution is adopted to approximate the viscosity flow near the ejector inner wall. The advantage of the 'shock circle' analysis is that the calculation of ejector performance is independent of the flows in the constant area chamber and diffuser. Consequently, the calculation is even simpler than many 1D modeling methods and can predict the performance of critical mode operation ejectors much more accurately. The effectiveness of the method is validated by two experimental results reported earlier. The proposed modeling method using two coefficients is shown to produce entrainment ratio, efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP) accurately and much closer to experimental results than those of 1D analysis methods

  2. Advances in HTGR fuel performance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansfield, O.M.; Goodin, D.T.; Hanson, D.L.; Turner, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Advances in HTGR fuel performance models have improved the agreement between observed and predicted performance and contributed to an enhanced position of the HTGR with regard to investment risk and passive safety. Heavy metal contamination is the source of about 55% of the circulating activity in the HTGR during normal operation, and the remainder comes primarily from particles which failed because of defective or missing buffer coatings. These failed particles make up about 5 x 10 -4 fraction of the total core inventory. In addition to prediction of fuel performance during normal operation, the models are used to determine fuel failure and fission product release during core heat-up accident conditions. The mechanistic nature of the models, which incorporate all important failure modes, permits the prediction of performance from the relatively modest accident temperatures of a passively safe HTGR to the much more severe accident conditions of the larger 2240-MW/t HTGR. (author)

  3. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Shichang; Yang, Wu; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Jiangchuan

    2016-01-01

    Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers). Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall.

  4. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichang Xuan

    Full Text Available Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers. Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall.

  5. PORFLOW Modeling Supporting The H-Tank Farm Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J. M.; Flach, G. P.; Westbrook, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the vadose and saturated zones have been conducted using the PORFLOW code in support of an overall Performance Assessment (PA) of the H-Tank Farm. This report provides technical detail on selected aspects of PORFLOW model development and describes the structure of the associated electronic files. The PORFLOW models for the H-Tank Farm PA, Rev. 1 were updated with grout, solubility, and inventory changes. The aquifer model was refined. In addition, a set of flow sensitivity runs were performed to allow flow to be varied in the related probabilistic GoldSim models. The final PORFLOW concentration values are used as input into a GoldSim dose calculator

  6. PORFLOW Modeling Supporting The H-Tank Farm Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, J. M.; Flach, G. P.; Westbrook, M. L.

    2012-08-31

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the vadose and saturated zones have been conducted using the PORFLOW code in support of an overall Performance Assessment (PA) of the H-Tank Farm. This report provides technical detail on selected aspects of PORFLOW model development and describes the structure of the associated electronic files. The PORFLOW models for the H-Tank Farm PA, Rev. 1 were updated with grout, solubility, and inventory changes. The aquifer model was refined. In addition, a set of flow sensitivity runs were performed to allow flow to be varied in the related probabilistic GoldSim models. The final PORFLOW concentration values are used as input into a GoldSim dose calculator.

  7. Tailored model abstraction in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs) are likely to be one of the most significant parts of making safety cases for the continued development and licensing of geologic repositories for the disposal of spent fuel and HLW. Thus, it is critical that the TSPA model capture the 'essence' of the physical processes relevant to demonstrating the appropriate regulation is met. But how much detail about the physical processes must be modeled and understood before there is enough confidence that the appropriate essence has been captured? In this summary the level of model abstraction that is required is discussed. Approaches for subsystem and total system performance analyses are outlined, and the role of best estimate models is examined. It is concluded that a conservative approach for repository performance, based on limited amount of field and laboratory data, can provide sufficient confidence for a regulatory decision

  8. Revisioning Theoretical Framework of Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS within the Software Application Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Servet BAYRAM,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Revisioning Theoretical Framework of Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS within the Software Application Examples Assoc. Prof. Dr. Servet BAYRAM Computer Education & Instructional Technologies Marmara University , TURKEY ABSTRACT EPSS provides electronic support to learners in achieving a performance objective; a feature which makes it universally and consistently available on demand any time, any place, regardless of situation, without unnecessary intermediaries involved in the process. The aim of this review is to develop a set of theoretical construct that provide descriptive power for explanation of EPSS and its roots and features within the software application examples (i.e., Microsoft SharePoint Server”v2.0” Beta 2, IBM Lotus Notes 6 & Domino 6, Oracle 9i Collaboration Suite, and Mac OS X v10.2. From the educational and training point of view, the paper visualizes a pentagon model for the interrelated domains of the theoretical framework of EPSS. These domains are: learning theories, information processing theories, developmental theories, instructional theories, and acceptance theories. This descriptive framework explains a set of descriptions as to which outcomes occur under given theoretical conditions for a given EPSS model within software examples. It summarizes some of the theoretical concepts supporting to the EPSS’ related features and explains how such concepts sharing same features with the example software programs in education and job training.

  9. Hybrid Corporate Performance Prediction Model Considering Technical Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonhyuck Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have tried to predict corporate performance and stock prices to enhance investment profitability using qualitative approaches such as the Delphi method. However, developments in data processing technology and machine-learning algorithms have resulted in efforts to develop quantitative prediction models in various managerial subject areas. We propose a quantitative corporate performance prediction model that applies the support vector regression (SVR algorithm to solve the problem of the overfitting of training data and can be applied to regression problems. The proposed model optimizes the SVR training parameters based on the training data, using the genetic algorithm to achieve sustainable predictability in changeable markets and managerial environments. Technology-intensive companies represent an increasing share of the total economy. The performance and stock prices of these companies are affected by their financial standing and their technological capabilities. Therefore, we apply both financial indicators and technical indicators to establish the proposed prediction model. Here, we use time series data, including financial, patent, and corporate performance information of 44 electronic and IT companies. Then, we predict the performance of these companies as an empirical verification of the prediction performance of the proposed model.

  10. A Model for Electronic Good Governance in Electronic Learning Sector of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moghaddasi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the various models and frameworks on electronic good governance are introduced, the multiple dimensions model of electronic good governance in the field of e-Learning has not been reviewed this subject in a integrated, comprehensive, process-oriented and systematic model. In this article, in order to explain the process of electronic good governance, by a systematic review of the related literature and backgrounds, all factors were identified using meta-synthesis methodology. Then, based on grounded theory methodology and Strauss and Corbin paradigmatic approach, the open, axial and selective coding were conducted. In the following, by using survey method, we determined the importance and priority of all proposed factors. It was also indicated that this research was innovative in the fields of methodology, results and the proposed model which had not been considered in the previous researches. So that, the proposed model resolved the shortcomings of past researches and made it possible for the public sector, private and civil society organizations to consider the process of establishing electronic good governance in e-Learning sector in Iran as a dynamic process.

  11. A ballistic transport model for electronic excitation following particle impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, S.; Heuser, C.; Weidtmann, B.; Wucher, A.

    2018-01-01

    We present a ballistic model for the transport of electronic excitation energy induced by keV particle bombardment onto a solid surface. Starting from a free electron gas model, the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is employed to follow the evolution of the temporal and spatial distribution function f (r → , k → , t) describing the occupation probability of an electronic state k → at position r → and time t. Three different initializations of the distribution function are considered: i) a thermal distribution function with a locally and temporally elevated electron temperature, ii) a peak excitation at a specific energy above the Fermi level with a quasi-isotropic distribution in k-space and iii) an anisotropic peak excitation with k-vectors oriented in a specific transport direction. While the first initialization resembles a distribution function which may, for instance, result from electronic friction of moving atoms within an ion induced collision cascade, the peak excitation can in principle result from an autoionization process after excitation in close binary collisions. By numerically solving the BTE, we study the electronic energy exchange along a one dimensional transport direction to obtain a time and space resolved excitation energy distribution function, which is then analyzed in view of general transport characteristics of the chosen model system.

  12. Performance review of thermionic electron gun developed for RF linear accelerators at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanmode, Yashwant; Mulchandani, J.; Reddy, T.S.; Bhisikar, A.; Singh, H.G.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    RRCAT is engaged in development of RF electron linear accelerator for irradiation of industrial and agricultural products. Thermionic electron gun is primary source for this accelerator as beam current in the RF accelerator is modest and thermionic emission is most prevalent option for electron gun development. An electron gun has to meet high cathode emission capability, low filament power, good accessibility for cathode replacement and should provide short time for maintenance. Electron linear accelerator up to beam energy of 10 MeV require electron source of 45-50 keV beam energy and emission current of 1 A. Electron optics of gun and electron beam profile simulations were carried out using CST's particle tracking code and EGUN code. Triode type electron gun of cathode voltage 50 kV pulsed has been designed, developed and integrated with 10 MeV electron linear accelerators at RRCAT. Beam current of more than 600 mA has been measured with faraday cup in the test stand developed for characterizing the electron gun. Two accelerators one is imported and another one developed indigenously has been energized using this electron gun. Beam energy of 5-10 MeV has been achieved with beam current of 250-400 mA by integrating this electron gun with the linear accelerator. This paper reviews the performance of indigenously developed electron gun for both linear accelerators. (author)

  13. Electron scattering studies by means of various nuclear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essaniyazov, Sh.; Juraev, Sh.; Ismatov, E.I.

    2006-01-01

    transition of nucleus into the excited state in the region of the discrete spectrum (ω>0). The study of the scattered electrons energy spectrum directly allows separation of the excited energy levels. The study of the inelastic electrons scattering gives opportunity to establish possible application of various nuclear models. Quasi-elastic scattering. A wide maximum in the energy spectrum of the scattered electrons corresponds to the direct collisions of the electron with particular nucleons in nucleus. (author)

  14. First principles based multiparadigm modeling of electronic structures and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai

    enabling the tunability of CBO. We predict that Na further improves the CBO through electrostatically elevating the valence levels to decrease the CBO, explaining the observed essential role of Na for high performance. Moreover we find that K leads to a dramatic decrease in the CBO to 0.05 eV, much better than Na. We suggest that the efficiency of CIGS devices might be improved substantially by tuning the ratio of Na to K, with the improved phase stability of Na balancing phase instability from K. All these defects reduce interfacial stability slightly, but not significantly. A number of exotic structures have been formed through high pressure chemistry, but applications have been hindered by difficulties in recovering the high pressure phase to ambient conditions (i.e., one atmosphere and room temperature). Here we use dispersion-corrected DFT (PBE-ulg flavor) to predict that above 60 GPa the most stable form of N2O (the laughing gas in its molecular form) is a 1D polymer with an all-nitrogen backbone analogous to cis-polyacetylene in which alternate N are bonded (ionic covalent) to O. The analogous trans-polymer is only 0.03-0.10 eV/molecular unit less stable. Upon relaxation to ambient conditions both polymers relax below 14 GPa to the same stable non-planar trans-polymer, accompanied by possible electronic structure transitions. The predicted phonon spectrum and dissociation kinetics validate the stability of this trans-poly-NNO at ambient conditions, which has potential applications as a new type of conducting polymer with all-nitrogen chains and as a high-energy oxidizer for rocket propulsion. This work illustrates in silico materials discovery particularly in the realm of extreme conditions. Modeling non-adiabatic electron dynamics has been a long-standing challenge for computational chemistry and materials science, and the eFF method presents a cost-efficient alternative. However, due to the deficiency of FSG representation, eFF is limited to low-Z elements with

  15. Critical review of glass performance modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-07-01

    Borosilicate glass is to be used for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. Mechanistic chemical models are used to predict the rate at which radionuclides will be released from the glass under repository conditions. The most successful and useful of these models link reaction path geochemical modeling programs with a glass dissolution rate law that is consistent with transition state theory. These models have been used to simulate several types of short-term laboratory tests of glass dissolution and to predict the long-term performance of the glass in a repository. Although mechanistically based, the current models are limited by a lack of unambiguous experimental support for some of their assumptions. The most severe problem of this type is the lack of an existing validated mechanism that controls long-term glass dissolution rates. Current models can be improved by performing carefully designed experiments and using the experimental results to validate the rate-controlling mechanisms implicit in the models. These models should be supported with long-term experiments to be used for model validation. The mechanistic basis of the models should be explored by using modern molecular simulations such as molecular orbital and molecular dynamics to investigate both the glass structure and its dissolution process

  16. Critical review of glass performance modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Borosilicate glass is to be used for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. Mechanistic chemical models are used to predict the rate at which radionuclides will be released from the glass under repository conditions. The most successful and useful of these models link reaction path geochemical modeling programs with a glass dissolution rate law that is consistent with transition state theory. These models have been used to simulate several types of short-term laboratory tests of glass dissolution and to predict the long-term performance of the glass in a repository. Although mechanistically based, the current models are limited by a lack of unambiguous experimental support for some of their assumptions. The most severe problem of this type is the lack of an existing validated mechanism that controls long-term glass dissolution rates. Current models can be improved by performing carefully designed experiments and using the experimental results to validate the rate-controlling mechanisms implicit in the models. These models should be supported with long-term experiments to be used for model validation. The mechanistic basis of the models should be explored by using modern molecular simulations such as molecular orbital and molecular dynamics to investigate both the glass structure and its dissolution process.

  17. Probabilistic model for the simulation of secondary electron emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Furman

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide a detailed description of a model and its computational algorithm for the secondary electron emission process. The model is based on a broad phenomenological fit to data for the secondary-emission yield and the emitted-energy spectrum. We provide two sets of values for the parameters by fitting our model to two particular data sets, one for copper and the other one for stainless steel.

  18. Performance Analysis of Savonius Rotor Based Hydropower Generation Scheme with Electronic Load Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajen Pudur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance of electronic load controller (ELC of asynchronous generator (AG coupled to an uncontrolled Savonius turbine and variable water velocity. An AC-DC-AC converter with a dc link capacitor is employed to maintain the required frequency. The ELC which is feeding a resistive dump load is connected in parallel with the generating system and the power consumption is varied through the duty cycle of the chopper. Gate triggering of ELC is accomplished through sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM by sensing the load current. A MATLAB/Simulink model of Savonius rotor, asynchronous generator, ELC, and three-phase load is presented. The proposed scheme is tested under various load conditions under varying water velocities and the performances are observed to be satisfactory.

  19. Measuring the performance of electronic health records: a case study in residential aged care in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Qian, Siyu; Yu, Hui; Lei, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the performance of electronic health records (EHR) is an important, yet un-resolved challenge. Various measurements have addressed different aspects of EHR success, yet a holistic, comprehensive measurement tool needs to be developed to capture the potential EHR success variables completely. A self-administered questionnaire survey instrument was developed based on the theoretical framework of the DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model. It measures nigh variables of EHR success: system quality, information quality, service quality, training, self efficacy, intention to use, use, user satisfaction and net benefits. The instrument was used to measure the performance of aged care EHR systems in three aged care organizations. The results suggest that the instrument was reliable.

  20. Performance modeling, stochastic networks, and statistical multiplexing

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Ravi R

    2013-01-01

    This monograph presents a concise mathematical approach for modeling and analyzing the performance of communication networks with the aim of introducing an appropriate mathematical framework for modeling and analysis as well as understanding the phenomenon of statistical multiplexing. The models, techniques, and results presented form the core of traffic engineering methods used to design, control and allocate resources in communication networks.The novelty of the monograph is the fresh approach and insights provided by a sample-path methodology for queueing models that highlights the importan

  1. A theoretical study on the performances of thermoelectric heat engine and refrigerator with two-dimensional electron reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xiaoguang; Long, Kailin; Wang, Jun; Qiu, Teng; He, Jizhou; Liu, Nian

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical thermoelectric nanophysics models of low-dimensional electronic heat engine and refrigerator devices, comprising two-dimensional hot and cold reservoirs and an interconnecting filtered electron transport mechanism have been established. The models were used to numerically simulate and evaluate the thermoelectric performance and energy conversion efficiencies of these low-dimensional devices, based on three different types of electron transport momentum-dependent filters, referred to herein as k x , k y , and k r filters. Assuming the Fermi-Dirac distribution of electrons, expressions for key thermoelectric performance parameters were derived for the resonant transport processes, in which the transmission of electrons has been approximated as a Lorentzian resonance function. Optimizations were carried out and the corresponding optimized design parameters have been determined, including but not limited to the universal theoretical upper bound of the efficiency at maximum power for heat engines, and the maximum coefficient of performance for refrigerators. From the results, it was determined that k r filter delivers the best thermoelectric performance, followed by the k x filter, and then the k y filter. For refrigerators with any one of three filters, an optimum range for the full width at half maximum of the transport resonance was found to be B T.

  2. The Impact of the Perceived Purpose of Electronic Performance Monitoring on an Array of Attitudinal Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Deborah L.; Moorman, Robert H.; Werner, Jon M.

    2007-01-01

    As a form of performance monitoring, electronic performance monitoring (EPM) offers the opportunity for unobtrusive and continuous performance data gathering. These strengths can also make EPM stressful and threatening. Many features of performance evaluation systems, including the organizational purposes for which they are used, can affect…

  3. Modeling and Verification of Dependable Electronic Power System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ling; Fan, Ping; Zhang, Xiao-fang

    The electronic power system can be viewed as a system composed of a set of concurrently interacting subsystems to generate, transmit, and distribute electric power. The complex interaction among sub-systems makes the design of electronic power system complicated. Furthermore, in order to guarantee the safe generation and distribution of electronic power, the fault tolerant mechanisms are incorporated in the system design to satisfy high reliability requirements. As a result, the incorporation makes the design of such system more complicated. We propose a dependable electronic power system architecture, which can provide a generic framework to guide the development of electronic power system to ease the development complexity. In order to provide common idioms and patterns to the system *designers, we formally model the electronic power system architecture by using the PVS formal language. Based on the PVS model of this system architecture, we formally verify the fault tolerant properties of the system architecture by using the PVS theorem prover, which can guarantee that the system architecture can satisfy high reliability requirements.

  4. Two-parametric model of electron beam in computational dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazurik, V.M.; Lazurik, V.T.; Popov, G.; Zimek, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulation of irradiation process of various materials with electron beam (EB) can be applied to correct and control the performances of radiation processing installations. Electron beam energy measurements methods are described in the international standards. The obtained results of measurements can be extended by implementation computational dosimetry. Authors have developed the computational method for determination of EB energy on the base of two-parametric fitting of semi-empirical model for the depth dose distribution initiated by mono-energetic electron beam. The analysis of number experiments show that described method can effectively consider random displacements arising from the use of aluminum wedge with a continuous strip of dosimetric film and minimize the magnitude uncertainty value of the electron energy evaluation, calculated from the experimental data. Two-parametric fitting method is proposed for determination of the electron beam model parameters. These model parameters are as follow: E 0 – energy mono-energetic and mono-directional electron source, X 0 – the thickness of the aluminum layer, located in front of irradiated object. That allows obtain baseline data related to the characteristic of the electron beam, which can be later on applied for computer modeling of the irradiation process. Model parameters which are defined in the international standards (like E p – the most probably energy and R p – practical range) can be linked with characteristics of two-parametric model (E 0 , X 0 ), which allows to simulate the electron irradiation process. The obtained data from semi-empirical model were checked together with the set of experimental results. The proposed two-parametric model for electron beam energy evaluation and estimation of accuracy for computational dosimetry methods on the base of developed model are discussed. - Highlights: • Experimental and computational methods of electron energy evaluation. • Development

  5. Fundamental models of electronic transport in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.

    1982-01-01

    Significant fundamental questions lie at the heart of our understanding of the electronic and optical properties of semiconducting and insulating glasses. In this article the principal features of the Mott-CFO model and the small-polaron model are described. While the Mott-CFO model seems to apply to the high-mobility electron transport in glassy SiO 2 and Cd 2 As 3 it does not appear applicable to the most frequently studied chalocogenide glasses. Furthermore, the Mott-CFO model does not account for as basic a feature as the sign of the Hall effect. On the other hand, the small-polaron model accounts for the observed d.c. conductivity, Peltier heat and Hall mobility in a very simple and direct manner

  6. Modeling the electron-proton telescope on Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Sebastian; Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, S.R.; Tammen, Jan; Elftmann, Robert; Martin, Cesar; Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Boettcher, Stephan; Seimetz, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is one of four sensors in the Energetic Particle Detector suite for Solar Orbiter. It investigates low energy electrons and protons of solar events in an energy range from 20 - 400 keV for electrons and 20 keV - 7 MeV for protons. It distinguishes electrons from protons using a magnet/foil technique with silicon detectors. There will be two EPT units, each with double-barreled telescopes, one looking sunwards/antisunwards and the other north/south. We set up a Monte Carlo model of EPT using the GEANT4 framework, which we can use to simulate interactions of energetic particles in the sensor. Here we present simulation results of the energy coverage for different ion species, and we study how it is possible to distinguish between them.

  7. Modeling the process of interaction of 10 keV electrons with a plane dielectric surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokhmyanina, Kristina; Sotnikova, Valentina; Sotnikov, Alexey; Kaplii, Anna; Nikulicheva, Tatyana; Kubankin, Alexandr; Kishin, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    The effect of guiding of charged particles by dielectric channels is of noticeable interest at the present time. The phenomenon is widely studied experimentally and theoretically but some points still need to be clarified. A previously developed model of interaction of fast electrons with dielectric surface at grazing incidence is used to study the independence of electron deflection on the value of electron beam current. The calculations were performed assuming a smooth dependence of the surface conductivity on the beam current in the 40-3000 nA range.

  8. Wave and Wind Model Performance Metrics Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J. K.; Wang, D. W.

    2016-02-01

    Continual improvements and upgrades of Navy ocean wave and wind models are essential to the assurance of battlespace environment predictability of ocean surface wave and surf conditions in support of Naval global operations. Thus, constant verification and validation of model performance is equally essential to assure the progress of model developments and maintain confidence in the predictions. Global and regional scale model evaluations may require large areas and long periods of time. For observational data to compare against, altimeter winds and waves along the tracks from past and current operational satellites as well as moored/drifting buoys can be used for global and regional coverage. Using data and model runs in previous trials such as the planned experiment, the Dynamics of the Adriatic in Real Time (DART), we demonstrated the use of accumulated altimeter wind and wave data over several years to obtain an objective evaluation of the performance the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) model running in the Adriatic Sea. The assessment provided detailed performance of wind and wave models by using cell-averaged statistical variables maps with spatial statistics including slope, correlation, and scatter index to summarize model performance. Such a methodology is easily generalized to other regions and at global scales. Operational technology currently used by subject matter experts evaluating the Navy Coastal Ocean Model and the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model can be expanded to evaluate wave and wind models using tools developed for ArcMAP, a GIS application developed by ESRI. Recent inclusion of altimeter and buoy data into a format through the Naval Oceanographic Office's (NAVOCEANO) quality control system and the netCDF standards applicable to all model output makes it possible for the fusion of these data and direct model verification. Also, procedures were developed for the accumulation of match-ups of modelled and observed parameters to form a data base

  9. Status of the Galileo interim radiation electron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) were used to develop a new model of Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii (1 jovian radius = 71,400 km). 10-minute averages of these data formed an extensive database of observations of the jovian radiation belts between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and 2002. These data were then averaged to provide a differential flux spectrum at 0.174, 0.304, 0.527, 1.5, 2.0, 11.0, and 31 MeV in the jovian equatorial plane as a function of radial distance. This omni-directional, equatorial model was combined with the original Divine model of jovian electron radiation to yield estimates of the out-of-plane radiation environment. That model, referred to here as the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (or GIRE) model, was then used to calculate the Europa mission dose for an average and a 1-sigma worst-case situation. The prediction of the GIRE model is about a factor of 2 lower than the Divine model estimate over the range of 100 to 1000 mils (2.54 to 25.4 mm) of aluminum shielding, but exceeds the Divine model by about 50% for thicker shielding. The model, the steps leading to its creation, and relevant issues and concerns are discussed. While work remains to be done, the GIRE model clearly represents a significant step forward in the study of the jovian radiation environment, and it is a useful and valuable tool for estimating that environment for future space missions.

  10. Generating Performance Models for Irregular Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Ryan D.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2017-05-30

    Many applications have irregular behavior --- non-uniform input data, input-dependent solvers, irregular memory accesses, unbiased branches --- that cannot be captured using today's automated performance modeling techniques. We describe new hierarchical critical path analyses for the \\Palm model generation tool. To create a model's structure, we capture tasks along representative MPI critical paths. We create a histogram of critical tasks with parameterized task arguments and instance counts. To model each task, we identify hot instruction-level sub-paths and model each sub-path based on data flow, instruction scheduling, and data locality. We describe application models that generate accurate predictions for strong scaling when varying CPU speed, cache speed, memory speed, and architecture. We present results for the Sweep3D neutron transport benchmark; Page Rank on multiple graphs; Support Vector Machine with pruning; and PFLOTRAN's reactive flow/transport solver with domain-induced load imbalance.

  11. Measurement-based reliability/performability models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Mei-Chen

    1987-01-01

    Measurement-based models based on real error-data collected on a multiprocessor system are described. Model development from the raw error-data to the estimation of cumulative reward is also described. A workload/reliability model is developed based on low-level error and resource usage data collected on an IBM 3081 system during its normal operation in order to evaluate the resource usage/error/recovery process in a large mainframe system. Thus, both normal and erroneous behavior of the system are modeled. The results provide an understanding of the different types of errors and recovery processes. The measured data show that the holding times in key operational and error states are not simple exponentials and that a semi-Markov process is necessary to model the system behavior. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the significance of using a semi-Markov process, as opposed to a Markov process, to model the measured system.

  12. The Chemical Modeling of Electronic Materials and Interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilahti, J. K.

    2002-12-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling, together with careful experimental work, is of great help for developing new electronic materials such as lead-free solders, their compatible metallizations and diffusion-barrier layers, as well as joining and bonding processes for advanced electronics manufacturing. When combined, these modeling techniques lead to a rationalization of the trial-and-error methods employed in the electronics industry, limiting experimentation and, thus, reducing significantly time-to-market of new products. This modeling provides useful information on the stabilities of phases (microstructures), driving forces for chemical reactions, and growth rates of reaction products occurring in interconnections or thin-film structures during processing, testing, and in longterm use of electronic devices. This is especially important when manufacturing advanced lead-free electronics where solder joint volumes are decreasing while the number of dissimilar reactive materials is increasing markedly. Therefore, a new concept of local nominal composition was introduced and applied together with the relevant ternary and multicomponent phase diagrams to some solder/conductor systems.

  13. Performance Measurement Model A TarBase model with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rohit

    Model A 8.0 2.0 94.52% 88.46% 76 108 12 12 0.86 0.91 0.78 0.94. Model B 2.0 2.0 93.18% 89.33% 64 95 10 9 0.88 0.90 0.75 0.98. The above results for TEST – 1 show details for our two models (Model A and Model B).Performance of Model A after adding of 32 negative dataset of MiRTif on our testing set(MiRecords) ...

  14. A Procurement Performance Model for Construction Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Y M Lam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative construction frameworks have been developed in the United Kingdom (UK to create longer term relationships between clients and suppliers in order to improve project outcomes. Research undertaken into highways maintenance set within a major county council has confirmed that such collaborative procurement methods can improve time, cost and quality of construction projects. Building upon this and examining the same single case, this research aims to develop a performance model through identification of performance drivers in the whole project delivery process including pre and post contract phases. A priori performance model based on operational and sociological constructs was proposed and then checked by a pilot study. Factor analysis and central tendency statistics from the questionnaires as well as content analysis from the interview transcripts were conducted. It was confirmed that long term relationships, financial and non-financial incentives and stronger communication are the sociological behaviour factors driving performance. The interviews also established that key performance indicators (KPIs can be used as an operational measure to improve performance. With the posteriori performance model, client project managers can effectively collaboratively manage contractor performance through procurement measures including use of longer term and KPIs for the contract so that the expected project outcomes can be achieved. The findings also make significant contribution to construction framework procurement theory by identifying the interrelated sociological and operational performance drivers. This study is set predominantly in the field of highways civil engineering. It is suggested that building based projects or other projects that share characteristics are grouped together and used for further research of the phenomena discovered.

  15. Models for Automated Tube Performance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunkhorst, C.

    2002-01-01

    High power radio-frequency systems, as typically used in fusion research devices, utilize vacuum tubes. Evaluation of vacuum tube performance involves data taken from tube operating curves. The acquisition of data from such graphical sources is a tedious process. A simple modeling method is presented that will provide values of tube currents for a given set of element voltages. These models may be used as subroutines in iterative solutions of amplifier operating conditions for a specific loading impedance

  16. Modeling of Image Formation in Cryo-Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the structure of biological specimens is crucial for understanding life. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) permits structural studies of biological specimen at their near-native state. The research performed in this thesis represents one of two subprojects of the FOM industrial

  17. Kinetic modelling of runaway electron avalanches in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, E; Peysson, Y; Saint-Laurent, F; Decker, J; Granetz, R S; Vlainic, M

    2015-01-01

    Runaway electrons can be generated in tokamak plasmas if the accelerating force from the toroidal electric field exceeds the collisional drag force owing to Coulomb collisions with the background plasma. In ITER, disruptions are expected to generate runaway electrons mainly through knock-on collisions (Hender et al 2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 S128–202), where enough momentum can be transferred from existing runaways to slow electrons to transport the latter beyond a critical momentum, setting off an avalanche of runaway electrons. Since knock-on runaways are usually scattered off with a significant perpendicular component of the momentum with respect to the local magnetic field direction, these particles are highly magnetized. Consequently, the momentum dynamics require a full 3D kinetic description, since these electrons are highly sensitive to the magnetic non-uniformity of a toroidal configuration. For this purpose, a bounce-averaged knock-on source term is derived. The generation of runaway electrons from the combined effect of Dreicer mechanism and knock-on collision process is studied with the code LUKE, a solver of the 3D linearized bounce-averaged relativistic electron Fokker–Planck equation (Decker and Peysson 2004 DKE: a fast numerical solver for the 3D drift kinetic equation Report EUR-CEA-FC-1736, Euratom-CEA), through the calculation of the response of the electron distribution function to a constant parallel electric field. The model, which has been successfully benchmarked against the standard Dreicer runaway theory now describes the runaway generation by knock-on collisions as proposed by Rosenbluth (Rosenbluth and Putvinski 1997 Nucl. Fusion 37 1355–62). This paper shows that the avalanche effect can be important even in non-disruptive scenarios. Runaway formation through knock-on collisions is found to be strongly reduced when taking place off the magnetic axis, since trapped electrons can not contribute to the runaway electron population. Finally

  18. Electron inertia effects for an electron fluid model by the applied-B ion diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, A V; Levchenko, S V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Institute

    1997-12-31

    Numerical calculations within the framework of the one-dimensional vortex-like electron fluid model in applied-B ion diodes, taking account the electron inertia effects, are presented. The existence of the additional relation between the magnetic field and the electric potential offers an opportunity to reduce the ion diode problem to the system of the algebraic equations for the constants introduced. The ion current density in an ion diode is determined only by the magnetic flux cut out by the virtual cathode. As an illustration, the ion diode impedance for the KALIF device was calculated. (author). 2 figs., 6 refs.

  19. Performance Evaluation and Modelling of Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbaiah, K.; Rao, K. Narayana; Rao, M. Malleswara; Challa, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    The present paper evaluates and analyzes the performance of 28 container terminals of south East Asia through data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hybrid method of DEA-PCA. DEA technique is utilized to identify efficient decision making unit (DMU)s and to rank DMUs in a peer appraisal mode. PCA is a multivariate statistical method to evaluate the performance of container terminals. In hybrid method, DEA is integrated with PCA to arrive the ranking of container terminals. Based on the composite ranking, performance modelling and optimization of container terminals is carried out through response surface methodology (RSM).

  20. Room design for high-performance electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, David A.; Kirkland, Earl J.; Thomas, Malcolm G.; Grazul, John L.; Fitting, Lena; Weyland, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Aberration correctors correct aberrations, not instabilities. Rather, as spatial resolution improves, a microscope's sensitivity to room environment becomes more noticeable, not less. Room design is now an essential part of the microscope installation process. Previously ignorable annoyances like computer fans, desk lamps and that chiller in the service corridor now may become the limiting factors in the microscopes performance. We discuss methods to quantitatively characterize the instrument's response to magnetic, mechanical, acoustical and thermal disturbances and thus predict the limits that the environment places on imaging and spectroscopy

  1. Microchannel electron multiplier: improvement in gain performances and detection dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audier, M.; Delmotte, J.C.; Boutot, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The performances of an MCP are a function of its geometrical characteristics (diameter d and ratio 1/d of a channel, useful area) and of the applied voltage. Gain and mean output current are limited by saturation phenomena. By using a particular cascaded MCP's configuration, it is possible to simultaneously improve the gain, its associated fluctuations and the detection dynamics (detected level, counting rate). For gains 10 6 7 , the fluctuations, can be kept as low as 20% and an improvement by a factor > 10 can be obtained on the detection dynamics [fr

  2. Model of nanodegradation processes in electronic equipment of NPP Kozloduy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Boucher Blvd, 1164 Sofia, BG (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Sofia University, Faculty of Physics, 5 J. Boucher Blvd, 1164 Sofia, BG (Bulgaria))" >Popov, A

    2014-01-01

    From the complex studies it was proof that the main degradation processes in the three groups of elements for the extended period of time are slow; do not lead to a hopping change in basic parameters and to catastrophic failures. This gives grounds to suggest a common diffusion model, which is limited to the following: -in electronic components containing a p-n junction, is performed diffusion of residual cooper atoms, that are accumulated in the area of a spatial charge under the influence of the electric field and the local temperature, creating micro-shunt regions; -in the contactor systems whose contact surfaces are made of metal alloys under the influence of increased temperature starts decomposition of a homogeneous alloy. Conditions are created for diffusion of individual atoms to the surface, micro-phases of homogeneous atoms are formed and modify the contact resistances; -in the course of time in the insulating materials are changed the mechanisms of polarization, double bonds and dipoles are disrupting, leading to the release of carbon atoms. The latter diffuse at elevated temperatures and form conductive cords, which amend the dielectric losses and the specific resistance of the materials

  3. Test particle modeling of wave-induced energetic electron precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.C.; Inan, U.S.

    1985-01-01

    A test particle computer model of the precipitation of radiation belt electrons is extended to compute the dynamic energy spectrum of transient electron fluxes induced by short-duration VLF wave packets traveling along the geomagnetic field lines. The model is adapted to estimate the count rate and associated spectrum of precipitated electrons that would be observed by satellite-based particle detectors with given geometric factor and orientation with respect to the magnetic field. A constant-frequency wave pulse and a lightning-induced whistler wave packet are used as examples of the stimulating wave signals. The effects of asymmetry of particle mirror heights in the two hemispheres and the atmospheric backscatter of loss cone particles on the computed precipitated fluxes are discussed

  4. Performance of the Electronic Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, H; Aleksa, M; Aperio Bella, L; Archambault, JP; Arfaoui, S; Arnaez, O; Auge, E; Aurousseau, M; Bahinipati, S; Ban, J; Banfi, D; Barajas, A; Barillari, T; Bazan, A; Bellachia, F; Beloborodova, O; Benchekroun, D; Benslama, K; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Bernat, P; Bernier, R; Besson, N; Binet, S; Blanchard, JB; Blondel, A; Bobrovnikov, V; Bohner, O; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Bouchel, M; Bourdarios, C; Bozzone, A; Braun, HM; Breton, D; Brettel, H; Brooijmans, G; Caputo, R; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Caughron, S; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Chareyre, E; Chase, RL; Chekulaev, SV; Chen, H; Cheplakov, A; Chiche, R; Citterio, M; Cojocaru, C; Colas, J; Collard, C; Collot, J; Consonni, M; Cooke, M; Copic, K; Costa, GC; Courneyea, L; Cuisy, D; Cwienk, WD; Damazio, D; Dannheim, D; De Cecco, S; De La Broise, X; De La Taille, C; de Vivie, JB; Debennerot, B; Delagnes, E; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, L; Doan, O; Dudziak, F; Duflot, L; Dumont-Dayot, N; Dzahini, D; Elles, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Etienvre, AI; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farooque, T; Favre, P; Fayard, Louis; Fent, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, A; Fournier, D; Fournier, L; Fras, M; Froeschl, R; Gadfort, T; Gallin-Martel, ML; Gibson, A; Gillberg, D; Gingrich, DM; Göpfert, T; Goodson, J; Gouighri, M; Goy, C; Grassi, V; Gray, J; Guillemin, T; Guo, B; Habring, J; Handel, C; Heelan, L; Heintz, H; Helary, L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hervas, L; Hobbs, J; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, JY; Hoummada, A; Hrivnac, J; Hrynova, T; Hubaut, F; Huber, J; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Iengo, P; Imbert, P; Ishmukhametov, R; Jantsch, A; Javadov, N; Jezequel, S; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Ju, XY; Kado, M; Kalinowski, A; Kar, D; Karev, A; Katsanos, I; Kazarinov, M; Kerschen, N; Kierstead, J; Kim, MS; Kiryunin, A; Kladiva, E; Knecht, N; Kobel, M; Koletsou, I; König, S; Krieger, P; Kukhtin, V; Kuna, M; Kurchaninov, L; Labbe, J; Lacour, D; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lamarra, D; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Laskus, H; Le Coguie, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Lechowski, M; Lee, SC; Lefebvre, M; Leonhardt, K; Lethiec, L; Leveque, J; Liang, Z; Liu, C; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Loch, P; Lu, J; Ma, H; Mader, W; Majewski, S; Makovec, N; Makowiecki, D; Mandelli, L; Mangeard, PS; Mansoulie, B; Marchand, JF; Marchiori, G; Martin, D; Martin-Chassard, G; Martin dit Latour, B; Marzin, A; Maslennikov, A; Massol, N; Matricon, P; Maximov, D; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, T; McPherson, R; Menke, S; Meyer, JP; Ming, Y; Monnier, E; Mooshofer, P; Neganov, A; Niedercorn, F; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nugent, IM; Oakham, G; Oberlack, H; Ocariz, J; Odier, J; Oram, CJ; Orlov, I; Orr, R; Parsons, JA; Peleganchuk, S; Penson, A; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Perus, A; Petit, E; Pisarev, I; Plamondon, M; Poffenberger, P; Poggioli, L; Pospelov, G; Pralavorio, P; Prast, J; Prudent, X; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Quentin, M; Radeka, V; Rajagopalan, S; Rauter, E; Reimann, O; Rescia, S; Resende, B; Richer, JP; Ridel, M; Rios, R; Roos, L; Rosenbaum, G; Rosenzweig, H; Rossetto, O; Roudil, W; Rousseau, D; Ruan, X; Rudert, A; Rusakovich, N; Rusquart, P; Rutherfoord, J; Sauvage, G; Savine, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaffer, A; Schram, M; Schwemling, P; Seguin Moreau, N; Seifert, F; Serin, L; Seuster, R; Shalyugin, A; Shupe, M; Simion, S; Sinervo, P; Sippach, W; Skovpen, K; Sliwa, R; Soukharev, A; Spano, F; Stavina, P; Straessner, A; Strizenec, P; Stroynowski, R; Talyshev, A; Tapprogge, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, GF; Teuscher, R; Tikhonov, Yu; Tocut, V; Tompkins, D; Thompson, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Tomasz, F; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, Thi N; Trochet, S; Trocme, B; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsionou, D; Ueno, R; Unal, G; Urbaniec, D; Usov, Y; Voss, K; Veillet, JJ; Vincter, M; Vogt, S; Weng, Z; Whalen, K; Wicek, F; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wulf, E; Yang, Z; Ye, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zarzhitsky, P; Zerwas, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Zhou, N; Zimmer, J; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. ATLAS includes electromagnetic and hadronic liquid argon calorimeters, with almost 200,000 channels of data that must be sampled at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz. The calorimeter electronics calibration and readout are performed by custom electronics developed specifically for these purposes. This paper describes the system performance of the ATLAS liquid argon calibration and readout electronics, including noise, energy and time resolution, and long term stability, with data taken mainly from full-system calibration runs performed after installation of the system in the ATLAS detector hall at CERN.

  5. Utilities for high performance dispersion model PHYSIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1992-09-01

    The description and usage of the utilities for the dispersion calculation model PHYSIC were summarized. The model was developed in the study of developing high performance SPEEDI with the purpose of introducing meteorological forecast function into the environmental emergency response system. The procedure of PHYSIC calculation consists of three steps; preparation of relevant files, creation and submission of JCL, and graphic output of results. A user can carry out the above procedure with the help of the Geographical Data Processing Utility, the Model Control Utility, and the Graphic Output Utility. (author)

  6. Electronic Processes at Organic−Organic Interfaces: Insight from Modeling and Implications for Opto-electronic Devices †

    KAUST Repository

    Beljonne, David; Cornil, Jérôme; Muccioli, Luca; Zannoni, Claudio; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Castet, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We report on the recent progress achieved in modeling the electronic processes that take place at interfaces between π-conjugated materials in organic opto-electronic devices. First, we provide a critical overview of the current computational

  7. Influence of an imperfect energy profile on a seeded free electron laser performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Jia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A single-pass high-gain x-ray free electron laser (FEL calls for a high quality electron bunch. In particular, for a seeded FEL amplifier and for a harmonic generation FEL, the electron bunch initial energy profile uniformity is crucial for generating an FEL with a narrow bandwidth. After the acceleration, compression, and transportation, the electron bunch energy profile entering the undulator can acquire temporal nonuniformity. We study the influence of the electron bunch initial energy profile nonuniformity on the FEL performance. Intrinsically, for a harmonic generation FEL, the harmonic generation FEL in the final radiator starts with an electron bunch having energy modulation acquired in the previous stages, due to the FEL interaction at those FEL wavelengths and their harmonics. The influence of this electron bunch energy nonuniformity on the harmonic generation FEL in the final radiator is then studied.

  8. Modelling and Simulation of a Synchronous Machine with Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    is modelled in SIMULINK as well. The resulting model can more accurately represent non-idea situations such as non-symmetrical parameters of the electrical machines and unbalance conditions. The model may be used for both steady state and large-signal dynamic analysis. This is particularly useful......This paper reports the modeling and simulation of a synchronous machine with a power electronic interface in direct phase model. The implementation of a direct phase model of synchronous machines in MATLAB/SIMULINK is presented .The power electronic system associated with the synchronous machine...... in the systems where a detailed study is needed in order to assess the overall system stability. Simulation studies are performed under various operation conditions. It is shown that the developed model could be used for studies of various applications of synchronous machines such as in renewable and DG...

  9. Design and performance of TPC readout electronics for the NA49 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieser, F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cooper, G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cwienk, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Eckardt, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Fessler, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Fischer, H.G. [European Lab. for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Gabler, F. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 13 - Physik; Gornicki, E. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Hearn, W.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Heupke, W. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 13 - Physik; Irmscher, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jacobs, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kleinfelder, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lindenstruth, V. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Machowski, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Marks, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Milgrome, O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mock, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Noggle, T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Pimpl, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Poskanzer, A.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Rauch, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Renfordt, R. [European Lab. for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 13 -Physik; Ritter, H.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[European Lab. for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Roehrich, D. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 13 - Physik; Rudolph, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Rueschmann, G.W. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 13 - Physik; Schaefer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Seyboth, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Seyerlein, J.

    1997-02-01

    Highly integrated readout electronics were developed and produced for the 182000 channels of the four TPCs of the NA49 heavy-ion fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS. The large number of channels, the high packing density and required cost minimization led to the choice of a custom electronics system. The requirements, the design and the performance of the electronics components are described. (orig.).

  10. A practical model for sustainable operational performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlek, C.A.J.; Steg, E.M.; Feenstra, D.; Gerbens-Leenis, W.; Lindenberg, S.; Moll, H.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.; Sijtsma, F.; Van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2002-01-01

    By means of a concrete model for sustainable operational performance enterprises can report uniformly on the sustainability of their contributions to the economy, welfare and the environment. The development and design of a three-dimensional monitoring system is presented and discussed [nl

  11. Test of models for electron transport in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, D.G.; Manheimer, W.M.; Busquet, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines five different models of electron thermal transport in laser produced spherical implosions. These are classical, classical with a flux limit f, delocalization, beam deposition model, and Fokker-Planck solutions. In small targets, the results are strongly dependent on f for flux limit models, with small f's generating very steep temperature gradients. Delocalization models are characterized by large preheat in the center of the target. The beam deposition model agrees reasonably well with the Fokker-Planck simulation results. For large, high gain fusion targets, the delocalization model shows the gain substantially reduced by the preheat. However, flux limitation models show gain largely independent of f, with the beam deposition model also showing the same high gain

  12. Modeling of humidity-related reliability in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Reliability of electronics that operate outdoor is strongly affected by environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Fluctuations of these parameters can lead to water condensation inside enclosures. Therefore, modelling of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed...

  13. Towards model-based testing of electronic funds transfer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaadi, H.R.; Khosravi, R.; Mousavi, M.R.; Noroozi, N.; Arbab, F.; Sirjani, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on our first experience with applying model-based testing techniques to an operational Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) switch. The goal is to test the conformance of the EFT switch to the standard flows described by the ISO 8583 standard. To this end, we first make a formalization of the

  14. Towards model-based testing of electronic funds transfer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaadi, H.R.; Khosravi, R.; Mousavi, M.R.; Noroozi, N.

    2010-01-01

    We report on our first experience with applying model-based testing techniques to an operational Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) switch. The goal is to test the conformance of the EFT switch to the standard flows described by the ISO 8583 standard. To this end, we first make a formalization of the

  15. A multi water bag model of drift kinetic electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, P.; Dreydemy Ghiro, F.; Berionni, V.; Gurcan, O.D.; Coulette, D.; Besse, N.

    2014-01-01

    A Multi Water Bag model is proposed for describing drift kinetic plasmas in a magnetized cylindrical geometry, relevant for various experimental devices, solar wind modeling... The Multi Water Bag (MWB) model is adapted to the description of a plasma with kinetic electrons as well as an arbitrary number of kinetic ions. This allows to describe the kinetic dynamics of the electrons, making possible the study of electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, in addition to the effects of non adiabatic electrons on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes, that are of prime importance in the magnetized plasmas micro-turbulence [X. Garbet, Y. Idomura, L. Villard, T.H. Watanabe, Nucl. Fusion 50, 043002 (2010); J.A. Krommes, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 44, 175 (2012)]. The MWB model is shown to link kinetic and fluid descriptions, depending on the number of bags considered. Linear stability of the ETG modes is presented and compared to the existing results regarding cylindrical ITG modes [P. Morel, E. Gravier, N. Besse, R. Klein, A. Ghizzo, P. Bertrand, W. Garbet, Ph. Ghendrih, V. Grandgirard, Y. Sarazin, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. (authors)

  16. Three phase carbon EOS model with electronic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Thiel, M.; Ree, F.H.; Grover, R.

    1987-07-01

    A simple and rapid way for computing EOS data of multiphase solids with a liquid phase is described with emphasis on carbon. The method uses a scaling model for the liquid phase and includes a provision for electronic effects. The free energy minimum determines the stable phase

  17. Toward a generic model of trust for electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, YH; Thoen, W

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a generic model of trust for electronic commerce consisting of two basic components, party trust and control trust, based on the concept that trust in a transaction with another party combines trust in the other parry and trust in the control mechanisms that ensure the successful

  18. Classical model of the Dirac electron in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Pavsic, M.

    1987-01-01

    The action for the classical model of the electron exhibiting Zitterbewegung is generalized to curved space by introducing a spin connection. The dynamical equations and the symplectic structure are given for several different choices of the variables. In particular, we obtain the equation of motion for spin and compare it with the Papapetrou equation. (author)

  19. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  20. Phosphorescent rhenium emitters based on two electron-withdrawing diamine ligands: Structure, characterization and electroluminescent performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui, Mei, E-mail: meirui2015@163.com [College of Science, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000, Hebei (China); Yuhong, Wang [College of Science, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000, Hebei (China); Yinting, Wang; Na, Zhang [Communication Training Base of The Headquarters of The General Staff, Zhangjiakou 075100, Hebei (China)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, two diamine ligands having electron-withdrawing oxadiazole group and their corresponding Re(I) complexes were synthesized. Their geometric structure, electronic transition, photophysical property, thermal stability and electrochemical property were discussed in detail. Experimental data suggested that both complexes were promising yellow emitters with suited energy levels and good thermal stability for electroluminescent application. The correlation between emission performance and electron-withdrawing group was analyzed. It was found that electron-withdrawing group favored emission performance improvement. Their electroluminescence performance was also explored. Yellow electroluminescence was observed with maximum brightness of 1743 cd/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Oxadiazole derived diamine ligands and their Re(I) complexes were synthesized. • Their characters and properties were analyzed and compared in detail. • Electron-withdrawing group was proved to be positive for PL improvement. • Electroluminescence was obtained with maximum brightness of 1743 cd/m{sup 2}.

  1. Data Model Performance in Data Warehousing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorimpandey, G. C.; Sangkop, F. I.; Rantung, V. P.; Zwart, J. P.; Liando, O. E. S.; Mewengkang, A.

    2018-02-01

    Data Warehouses have increasingly become important in organizations that have large amount of data. It is not a product but a part of a solution for the decision support system in those organizations. Data model is the starting point for designing and developing of data warehouses architectures. Thus, the data model needs stable interfaces and consistent for a longer period of time. The aim of this research is to know which data model in data warehousing has the best performance. The research method is descriptive analysis, which has 3 main tasks, such as data collection and organization, analysis of data and interpretation of data. The result of this research is discussed in a statistic analysis method, represents that there is no statistical difference among data models used in data warehousing. The organization can utilize four data model proposed when designing and developing data warehouse.

  2. Performance model for a CCTV-MTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.R.; Dunbar, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    CCTV-MTI (closed circuit television--moving target indicator) monitors represent typical components of access control systems, as for example in a material control and accounting (MC and A) safeguards system. This report describes a performance model for a CCTV-MTI monitor. The performance of a human in an MTI role is a separate problem and is not addressed here. This work was done in conjunction with the NRC sponsored LLL assessment procedure for MC and A systems which is presently under development. We develop a noise model for a generic camera system and a model for the detection mechanism for a postulated MTI design. These models are then translated into an overall performance model. Measures of performance are probabilities of detection and false alarm as a function of intruder-induced grey level changes in the protected area. Sensor responsivity, lens F-number, source illumination and spectral response were treated as design parameters. Some specific results are illustrated for a postulated design employing a camera with a Si-target vidicon. Reflectance or light level changes in excess of 10% due to an intruder will be detected with a very high probability for the portion of the visible spectrum with wavelengths above 500 nm. The resulting false alarm rate was less than one per year. We did not address sources of nuisance alarms due to adverse environments, reliability, resistance to tampering, nor did we examine the effects of the spatial frequency response of the optics. All of these are important and will influence overall system detection performance

  3. Electron Flux Models for Different Energies at Geostationary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, R. J.; Balikhin, M. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Walker, S. N.; Billings, S. A.; Ganushkina, N.

    2016-01-01

    Forecast models were derived for energetic electrons at all energy ranges sampled by the third-generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). These models were based on Multi-Input Single-Output Nonlinear Autoregressive Moving Average with Exogenous inputs methodologies. The model inputs include the solar wind velocity, density and pressure, the fraction of time that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward, the IMF contribution of a solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function proposed by Boynton et al. (2011b), and the Dst index. As such, this study has deduced five new 1 h resolution models for the low-energy electrons measured by GOES (30-50 keV, 50-100 keV, 100-200 keV, 200-350 keV, and 350-600 keV) and extended the existing >800 keV and >2 MeV Geostationary Earth Orbit electron fluxes models to forecast at a 1 h resolution. All of these models were shown to provide accurate forecasts, with prediction efficiencies ranging between 66.9% and 82.3%.

  4. Design and Fabrication of Cryostat Interface and Electronics for High Performance Antimatter Trap (HI-PAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    Included in Appendix I to this report is a complete set of design and assembly schematics for the high vacuum inner trap assembly, cryostat interfaces and electronic components for the MSFC HI-PAT. Also included in the final report are summaries of vacuum tests, and electronic tests performed upon completion of the assembly.

  5. Performance enhancement of electronic sensor through mask-less lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-03-30

    The escalating applications of miniaturized sensors have led the microelectronics industry to stay abreast with the precise micro-fabrication technologies. The following article describes a new technique for the fabrication of miniaturized interdigitated capacitive sensors that own highly sensitive and real-time detections capabilities. In standard lithographic procedure, the sensors are fabricated applying different photoresist materials that give rise to the variable characteristic profile of the fabricated product. Single crystal p-doped Silicon wafer was used as a substrate material due to its advantageous properties over Germanium. Heidelberg system was used for the maskless lithographic patterning of the new interdigital sensors on a silicon substrate. The process was carried out in a clean room in the absence of ultraviolet light at a fixed temperature. The fabricated sensors were used for inflammable gas sensing application. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy was applied to read the resistive and capacitive impedance measured by the sensor. The results proclaimed that the fabricated sensors own better performance in LPG detection as compared to its commercial counterparts.

  6. Assessing The Performance of Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knijff, Johan

    The performance of hydrological models is often characterized using the coefficient of efficiency, E. The sensitivity of E to extreme streamflow values, and the difficulty of deciding what value of E should be used as a threshold to identify 'good' models or model parameterizations, have proven to be serious shortcomings of this index. This paper reviews some alternative performance indices that have appeared in the litera- ture. Legates and McCabe (1999) suggested a more generalized form of E, E'(j,B). Here, j is a parameter that controls how much emphasis is put on extreme streamflow values, and B defines a benchmark or 'null hypothesis' against which the results of the model are tested. E'(j,B) was used to evaluate a large number of parameterizations of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, using 6 different combinations of j and B. First, the effect of j and B is explained. Second, it is demonstrated how the index can be used to explicitly test hypotheses about the model and the data. This approach appears to be particularly attractive if the index is used as a likelihood measure within a GLUE-type analysis.

  7. Band electron spectrum and thermodynamic properties of the pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ya.Farenyuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels is considered. Generalization of dynamic mean-field method for systems with correlated hopping was applied to the investigation of the model. Electron spectra, electron concentrations, average values of pseudospins and grand canonical potential were calculated within the alloy-analogy approximation. Electron spectrum and dependencies of the electron concentrations on chemical potential were obtained. It was shown that in the alloy-analogy approximation, the model possesses the first order phase transition to ferromagnetic state with the change of chemical potential and the second order phase transition with the change of temperature.

  8. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitmore, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kaffine, Leah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  9. Many-electron model for multiple ionization in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archubi, C D; Montanari, C C; Miraglia, J E

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a many-electron model for multiple ionization of heavy atoms bombarded by bare ions. It is based on the transport equation for an ion in an inhomogeneous electronic density. Ionization probabilities are obtained by employing the shell-to-shell local plasma approximation with the Levine and Louie dielectric function to take into account the binding energy of each shell. Post-collisional contributions due to Auger-like processes are taken into account by employing recent photoemission data. Results for single-to-quadruple ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe by protons are presented showing a very good agreement with experimental data

  10. Many-electron model for multiple ionization in atomic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archubi, C D [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28 (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montanari, C C [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28 (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28 (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-03-14

    We have developed a many-electron model for multiple ionization of heavy atoms bombarded by bare ions. It is based on the transport equation for an ion in an inhomogeneous electronic density. Ionization probabilities are obtained by employing the shell-to-shell local plasma approximation with the Levine and Louie dielectric function to take into account the binding energy of each shell. Post-collisional contributions due to Auger-like processes are taken into account by employing recent photoemission data. Results for single-to-quadruple ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe by protons are presented showing a very good agreement with experimental data.

  11. Electoronic Performance Monitoring in Call Centers: An Ethical Decision Model

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, David

    2013-01-01

    Ever since it emerged on a widespread basis in the 1990s, electronic performance monitoring of employees has received significant scrutiny in the literature. Call centers have been the focus of many of these studies. This particular study addresses the issue of electronic performance monitoring in call centers from an ethical perspective. The following ethical dilemma is offered: "Is it ethical for a call center manager to evaluate the performance of a call center employee using electronic pe...

  12. Magnetic Electron Filtering by Fluid Models for the PEGASES Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Gary; Chabert, Pascal; Lichtenberg, Allan; Lieberman, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The PEGASES thruster produces thrust by creating positive and negative ions, which are then accelerated. To accelerate both type of ions, electrons need to be filtered, which is achieved by applying a static magnetic field strong enough to magnetize the electrons but not the ions. A 1D fluid model with three species (electrons, positive and negative ions) and an analytical model are proposed to understand this process for an oxygen plasma with p = 10 mTorr and B0 = 300 G [1]. The resulting ion-ion plasma formation in the transverse direction (perpendicular to the magnetic field) is demonstrated. It is shown that an additional electron/positive ion loss term is required. The solutions are evaluated for two main parameters: the ionizing fraction at the plasma center (x = 0), ne0/ng, and the electronegativity ratio at the center, α0=nn0/ne0. The effect of geometry and magnetic field amplitude are also discussed. [4pt] [1] Leray G, Chabert P, Lichtenberg A J and Lieberman M A, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Plasma Modelling Cluster issue, to appear (2009)

  13. A new Predictive Model for Relativistic Electrons in Outer Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Relativistic electrons trapped in the Earth's outer radiation belt present a highly hazardous radiation environment for spaceborne electronics. These energetic electrons, with kinetic energies up to several megaelectron-volt (MeV), manifest a highly dynamic and event-specific nature due to the delicate interplay of competing transport, acceleration and loss processes. Therefore, developing a forecasting capability for outer belt MeV electrons has long been a critical and challenging task for the space weather community. Recently, the vital roles of electron resonance with waves (including such as chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron) have been widely recognized; however, it is still difficult for current diffusion radiation belt models to reproduce the behavior of MeV electrons during individual geomagnetic storms, mainly because of the large uncertainties existing in input parameters. In this work, we expanded our previous cross-energy cross-pitch-angle coherence study and developed a new predictive model for MeV electrons over a wide range of L-shells inside the outer radiation belt. This new model uses NOAA POES observations from low-Earth-orbits (LEOs) as inputs to provide high-fidelity nowcast (multiple hour prediction) and forecast (> 1 day prediction) of the energization of MeV electrons as well as the evolving MeV electron distributions afterwards during storms. Performance of the predictive model is quantified by long-term in situ data from Van Allen Probes and LANL GEO satellites. This study adds new science significance to an existing LEO space infrastructure, and provides reliable and powerful tools to the whole space community.

  14. Analog electronic model of the lobster pyloric central pattern generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkovskii, A [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Brugioni, S [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata Largo E. Fermi 6 50125 Florence (Italy); Levi, R [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Rabinovich, M [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Selverston, A [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Abarbane, H D I [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    An electronic circuit intended to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of a simplified 3-cell model of the pyloric central pattern generator in California spiny lobster stomato gastric ganglion is presented. The model employs the synaptic phase locked loop (SPLL) concept where the frequency of oscillations of a postsynaptic cell is mainly controlled by the synaptic current which depends on the phase shift between the oscillations. The theoretical study showed that the system has a stable steady state with correct phase shifts between the oscillations and that this regime is stable when the frequency of the pacemaker cell is varied over a wide range. The main bifurcations in the system were studied analytically, in computer simulations, and in experiments with the electronic circuit. The experimental measurements are in good agreement with the expectations of the theoretical model.

  15. A theoretical model on surface electronic behavior: Strain effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, W.G.; Shaw, D.

    2009-01-01

    Deformation from mechanical loading can affect surface electronic behavior. Surface deformation and electronic behavior can be quantitatively expressed using strain and work function, respectively, and their experimental relationship can be readily determined using the Kelvin probing technique. However, the theoretical correlation between work function and strain has been unclear. This study reports our theoretical exploration, for the first time, of the effect of strain on work function. We propose a simple electrostatic action model by considering the effect of a dislocation on work function of a one-dimensional lattice and further extend this model to the complex conditions for the effect of dislocation density. Based on this model, we established successfully a theoretical correlation between work function and strain.

  16. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  17. Design and performance of a 30 KV electron gun with ten independent cathodes & a magnetic lens.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren

    2006-08-01

    Measurements on a 30 kV electron gun with ten independent cathodes, operating in a 6.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field are presented. An earlier paper covered the design of this electron gun [1]. Experimental results are compared to model predictions. Beam current is compared to theoretical space charge limited flow.

  18. An electronic edition of eighteenth-century drama: the materiality of editing in performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the domain of electronic edition, drama’s specificity has been considered in terms of metadata improvements and possibilities. At the same time, an increasing closeness between art history research and performance art has demonstrated its methodological value to assess the complex nature of the archive. My post-doctoral research follows the lead and goes as far as proposing that performance art can be an adequate methodology when preparing the electronic edition of eighteenth-century drama...

  19. Performance modeling of network data services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, R.A.; Pierson, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    Networks at major computational organizations are becoming increasingly complex. The introduction of large massively parallel computers and supercomputers with gigabyte memories are requiring greater and greater bandwidth for network data transfers to widely dispersed clients. For networks to provide adequate data transfer services to high performance computers and remote users connected to them, the networking components must be optimized from a combination of internal and external performance criteria. This paper describes research done at Sandia National Laboratories to model network data services and to visualize the flow of data from source to sink when using the data services.

  20. Probabilistic Radiological Performance Assessment Modeling and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, J.

    2004-12-01

    A generic probabilistic radiological Performance Assessment (PA) model is presented. The model, built using the GoldSim systems simulation software platform, concerns contaminant transport and dose estimation in support of decision making with uncertainty. Both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) require assessments of potential future risk to human receptors of disposal of LLW. Commercially operated LLW disposal facilities are licensed by the NRC (or agreement states), and the DOE operates such facilities for disposal of DOE-generated LLW. The type of PA model presented is probabilistic in nature, and hence reflects the current state of knowledge about the site by using probability distributions to capture what is expected (central tendency or average) and the uncertainty (e.g., standard deviation) associated with input parameters, and propagating through the model to arrive at output distributions that reflect expected performance and the overall uncertainty in the system. Estimates of contaminant release rates, concentrations in environmental media, and resulting doses to human receptors well into the future are made by running the model in Monte Carlo fashion, with each realization representing a possible combination of input parameter values. Statistical summaries of the results can be compared to regulatory performance objectives, and decision makers are better informed of the inherently uncertain aspects of the model which supports their decision-making. While this information may make some regulators uncomfortable, they must realize that uncertainties which were hidden in a deterministic analysis are revealed in a probabilistic analysis, and the chance of making a correct decision is now known rather than hoped for. The model includes many typical features and processes that would be part of a PA, but is entirely fictitious. This does not represent any particular site and is meant to be a generic example. A

  1. About the free electron model in electric conduction of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.

    1991-01-01

    In the model proposed by Drude to describe, among others, the electric conduction in metals, it is supposed that electrons move freely in the material with a time interval between encounters T and a probability distribution g(t). The name, 'electron pause time', will be assigned to the time T with that probability distribution. The calculations made by Drude turned out to be erroneous. The error can be corrected observing that the random variable 'pause time' appearing in this intuitive idea is not the previously defined random variable T, 'electron pause time', but another random variable S, which will be called 'observed pause time' whose probability density is Csg(s), where C is a normalization constant. With this distribution, the characteristics of the distribution, q(u), of the wait time can be obtained. (Author) [es

  2. Modeling power electronics and interfacing energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Discusses the application of mathematical and engineering tools for modeling, simulation and control oriented for energy systems, power electronics and renewable energy. This book builds on the background knowledge of electrical circuits, control of dc/dc converters and inverters, energy conversion and power electronics. The book shows readers how to apply computational methods for multi-domain simulation of energy systems and power electronics engineering problems. Each chapter has a brief introduction on the theoretical background, a description of the problems to be solved, and objectives to be achieved. Block diagrams, electrical circuits, mathematical analysis or computer code are covered. Each chapter concludes with discussions on what should be learned, suggestions for further studies and even some experimental work.

  3. Statistics of excitations in the electron glass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palassini, Matteo

    2011-03-01

    We study the statistics of elementary excitations in the classical electron glass model of localized electrons interacting via the unscreened Coulomb interaction in the presence of disorder. We reconsider the long-standing puzzle of the exponential suppression of the single-particle density of states near the Fermi level, by measuring accurately the density of states of charged and electron-hole pair excitations via finite temperature Monte Carlo simulation and zero-temperature relaxation. We also investigate the statistics of large charge rearrangements after a perturbation of the system, which may shed some light on the slow relaxation and glassy phenomena recently observed in a variety of Anderson insulators. In collaboration with Martin Goethe.

  4. UROX 2.0: an interactive tool for fitting atomic models into electron-microscopy reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, Xavier; Navaza, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    UROX is software designed for the interactive fitting of atomic models into electron-microscopy reconstructions. The main features of the software are presented, along with a few examples. Electron microscopy of a macromolecular structure can lead to three-dimensional reconstructions with resolutions that are typically in the 30–10 Å range and sometimes even beyond 10 Å. Fitting atomic models of the individual components of the macromolecular structure (e.g. those obtained by X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance) into an electron-microscopy map allows the interpretation of the latter at near-atomic resolution, providing insight into the interactions between the components. Graphical software is presented that was designed for the interactive fitting and refinement of atomic models into electron-microscopy reconstructions. Several characteristics enable it to be applied over a wide range of cases and resolutions. Firstly, calculations are performed in reciprocal space, which results in fast algorithms. This allows the entire reconstruction (or at least a sizeable portion of it) to be used by taking into account the symmetry of the reconstruction both in the calculations and in the graphical display. Secondly, atomic models can be placed graphically in the map while the correlation between the model-based electron density and the electron-microscopy reconstruction is computed and displayed in real time. The positions and orientations of the models are refined by a least-squares minimization. Thirdly, normal-mode calculations can be used to simulate conformational changes between the atomic model of an individual component and its corresponding density within a macromolecular complex determined by electron microscopy. These features are illustrated using three practical cases with different symmetries and resolutions. The software, together with examples and user instructions, is available free of charge at http://mem.ibs.fr/UROX/

  5. Modeling and the analysis of control logic for a digital PWM controller based on a nano electronic single electron transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathnakannan Kailasam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the modelling and the analysis of control logic for a Nano-Device- based PWM controller. A comprehensive simple SPICE schematic model for Single Electron transistor has been proposed. The operation of basic Single Electron Transistor logic gates and SET flip flops were successfully designed and their performances analyzed. The proposed design for realizing the logic gates and flip-flops is used in constructing the PWM controller utilized for switching the buck converter circuit. The output of the converter circuit is compared with reference voltage, and when the error voltage and the reference are matched the latch is reset so as to generate the PWM signal. Due to the simplicity and accuracy of the compact model, the simulation time and speed are much faster, which makes it potentially applicable in large-scale circuit simulation. This study confirms that the SET-based PWM controller is small in size, consumes ultra low power and operates at high speeds without compromising any performance. In addition these devices are capable of measuring charges of extremely high sensitivity.

  6. Performance assessment modeling of pyrometallurgical process wasteforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.M.; Hill, R.N.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment analyses have been completed to estimate the behavior of high-level nuclear wasteforms generated from the pyrometallurgical processing of liquid metal reactor (LMR) and light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. Waste emplaced in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is investigated as the basis for the study. The resulting cumulative actinide and fission product releases to the accessible environment within a 100,000 year period from the various pyrometallurgical process wasteforms are compared to those of directly disposed LWR spent fuel using the same total repository system model. The impact of differing radionuclide transport models on the overall release characteristics is investigated

  7. Electron performance measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2010 LHC proton-proton collision data

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin–Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-03-09

    Detailed measurements of the electron performance of the ATLAS detector at the LHC are reported, using decays of the Z, W and J/psi particles. Data collected in 2010 at sqrt(s)=7 TeV are used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of almost 40 pb^-1. The inter-alignment of the inner detector and the electromagnetic calorimeter, the determination of the electron energy scale and resolution, and the performance in terms of response uniformity and linearity are discussed. The electron identification, reconstruction and trigger efficiencies, as well as the charge misidentification probability, are also presented.

  8. Enhancement of ECR performances by means of carbon nano-tubes based electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odorici, F.; Cuffiani, M.; Malferrari, L.; Rizzoli, R.; Veronese, G.P.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Miracoli, R.; Romano, F.P.; Gambino, N.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Serafino, T.

    2012-01-01

    The CANTES experiment at INFN-LNS tested the use of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) to emit electrons by field emission effect, in order to provide additional electrons to the plasma core of an ECR ion source. This technique was used with the Caesar source, demonstrating that the total extracted ion current is increased and that a relevant reduction of the number of 'high energy' electrons (above 100 keV) may be observed. The injection of additional electrons inside the plasma increases the amount of cold and warm electrons, and then the number of ionizing collisions. Details of the construction of CNTs based electron gun and of the improvement of performances of the Caesar ECR ion source will be presented. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  9. Modeling and Simulation for the Investigation of Radar Responses to Electronic Attacks in Electronic Warfare Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Ryoung Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic warfare (EW simulator is presented to investigate and evaluate the tracking performance of radar system under the electronic attack situations. The EW simulator has the input section in which the characteristic parameters of radar threat, radar warning receiver, jammer, electromagnetic wave propagation, and simulation scenario can be set up. During the process of simulation, the simulator displays the situations of simulation such as the received signal and its spectrum, radar scope, and angle tracking scope and also calculates the transient and root-mean-squared tracking errors of the range and angle tracking system of radar. Using the proposed EW simulator, we analyze the effect of concealment according to the noise and signal powers under the noise jamming and also analyze the effect of deception by calculating errors between the desired value and the estimated one under the deceptive jamming. Furthermore, the proposed EW simulator can be used to figure out the feature of radar threats based on the information collected from the EW receiver and also used to carry out the electronic attacks efficiently in electronic warfare.

  10. Model description and evaluation of model performance: DOSDIM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewyckyj, N.; Zeevaert, T.

    1996-01-01

    DOSDIM was developed to assess the impact to man from routine and accidental atmospheric releases. It is a compartmental, deterministic, radiological model. For an accidental release, dynamic transfer are used in opposition to a routine release for which equilibrium transfer factors are used. Parameters values were chosen to be conservative. Transfer between compartments are described by first-order differential equations. 2 figs

  11. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimley, Brian, E-mail: brian.plimley@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, Kai [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  12. Power electronic converters modeling and control with case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Seddik; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Modern power electronic converters are involved in a very broad spectrum of applications: switched-mode power supplies, electrical-machine-motion-control, active power filters, distributed power generation, flexible AC transmission systems, renewable energy conversion systems and vehicular technology, among them. Power Electronics Converters Modeling and Control teaches the reader how to analyze and model the behavior of converters and so to improve their design and control. Dealing with a set of confirmed algorithms specifically developed for use with power converters, this text is in two parts: models and control methods. The first is a detailed exposition of the most usual power converter models: ·        switched and averaged models; ·        small/large-signal models; and ·        time/frequency models. The second focuses on three groups of control methods: ·        linear control approaches normally associated with power converters; ·        resonant controllers b...

  13. Modelling and evaluation of surgical performance using hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megali, Giuseppe; Sinigaglia, Stefano; Tonet, Oliver; Dario, Paolo

    2006-10-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has become very widespread in the last ten years. Since surgeons experience difficulties in learning and mastering minimally invasive techniques, the development of training methods is of great importance. While the introduction of virtual reality-based simulators has introduced a new paradigm in surgical training, skill evaluation methods are far from being objective. This paper proposes a method for defining a model of surgical expertise and an objective metric to evaluate performance in laparoscopic surgery. Our approach is based on the processing of kinematic data describing movements of surgical instruments. We use hidden Markov model theory to define an expert model that describes expert surgical gesture. The model is trained on kinematic data related to exercises performed on a surgical simulator by experienced surgeons. Subsequently, we use this expert model as a reference model in the definition of an objective metric to evaluate performance of surgeons with different abilities. Preliminary results show that, using different topologies for the expert model, the method can be efficiently used both for the discrimination between experienced and novice surgeons, and for the quantitative assessment of surgical ability.

  14. Hybrid Modeling Improves Health and Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Monitoring Inc. was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to create a new, simplified health-monitoring approach for flight vehicles and flight equipment. The project developed a hybrid physical model concept that provided a structured approach to simplifying complex design models for use in health monitoring, allowing the output or performance of the equipment to be compared to what the design models predicted, so that deterioration or impending failure could be detected before there would be an impact on the equipment's operational capability. Based on the original modeling technology, Scientific Monitoring released I-Trend, a commercial health- and performance-monitoring software product named for its intelligent trending, diagnostics, and prognostics capabilities, as part of the company's complete ICEMS (Intelligent Condition-based Equipment Management System) suite of monitoring and advanced alerting software. I-Trend uses the hybrid physical model to better characterize the nature of health or performance alarms that result in "no fault found" false alarms. Additionally, the use of physical principles helps I-Trend identify problems sooner. I-Trend technology is currently in use in several commercial aviation programs, and the U.S. Air Force recently tapped Scientific Monitoring to develop next-generation engine health-management software for monitoring its fleet of jet engines. Scientific Monitoring has continued the original NASA work, this time under a Phase III SBIR contract with a joint NASA-Pratt & Whitney aviation security program on propulsion-controlled aircraft under missile-damaged aircraft conditions.

  15. Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jiao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy extraction efficiency of a free electron laser (FEL can be greatly increased using a tapered undulator and self-seeding. However, the extraction rate is limited by various effects that eventually lead to saturation of the peak intensity and power. To better understand these effects, we develop a model extending the Kroll-Morton-Rosenbluth, one-dimensional theory to include the physics of diffraction, optical guiding, and radially resolved particle trapping. The predictions of the model agree well with that of the GENESIS single-frequency numerical simulations. In particular, we discuss the evolution of the electron-radiation interaction along the tapered undulator and show that the decreasing of refractive guiding is the major cause of the efficiency reduction, particle detrapping, and then saturation of the radiation power. With this understanding, we develop a multidimensional optimization scheme based on GENESIS simulations to increase the energy extraction efficiency via an improved taper profile and variation in electron beam radius. We present optimization results for hard x-ray tapered FELs, and the dependence of the maximum extractable radiation power on various parameters of the initial electron beam, radiation field, and the undulator system. We also study the effect of the sideband growth in a tapered FEL. Such growth induces increased particle detrapping and thus decreased refractive guiding that together strongly limit the overall energy extraction efficiency.

  16. High-performance electronics for time-of-flight PET systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choong, W-S; Peng, Q; Vu, C Q; Turko, B T; Moses, W W

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and built a high-performance readout electronics system for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) cameras. The electronics architecture is based on the electronics for a commercial whole-body PET camera (Siemens/CPS Cardinal electronics), modified to improve the timing performance. The fundamental contributions in the electronics that can limit the timing resolution include the constant fraction discriminator (CFD), which converts the analog electrical signal from the photo-detector to a digital signal whose leading edge is time-correlated with the input signal, and the time-to-digital converter (TDC), which provides a time stamp for the CFD output. Coincident events are identified by digitally comparing the values of the time stamps. In the Cardinal electronics, the front-end processing electronics are performed by an Analog subsection board, which has two application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), each servicing a PET block detector module. The ASIC has a built-in CFD and TDC. We found that a significant degradation in the timing resolution comes from the ASIC's CFD and TDC. Therefore, we have designed and built an improved Analog subsection board that replaces the ASIC's CFD and TDC with a high-performance CFD (made with discrete components) and TDC (using the CERN high-performance TDC ASIC). The improved Analog subsection board is used in a custom single-ring LSO-based TOF PET camera. The electronics system achieves a timing resolution of 60 ps FWHM. Prototype TOF detector modules are read out with the electronics system and give coincidence timing resolutions of 259 ps FWHM and 156 ps FWHM for detector modules coupled to LSO and LaBr 3 crystals respectively.

  17. Two-point model for electron transport in EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.; Guest, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The electron transport in EBT is simulated by a two-point model corresponding to the central plasma and the edge. The central plasma is assumed to obey neoclassical collisionless transport. The edge plasma is assumed turbulent and modeled by Bohm diffusion. The steady-state temperatures and densities in both regions are obtained as functions of neutral influx and microwave power. It is found that as the neutral influx decreases and power increases, the edge density decreases while the core density increases. We conclude that if ring instability is responsible for the T-M mode transition, and if stability is correlated with cold electron density at the edge, it will depend sensitively on ambient gas pressure and microwave power

  18. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  19. Modeling Electronic Circular Dichroism within the Polarizable Embedding Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Morten S; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Steinmann, Casper

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the key components needed to model single chromophore electronic circular dichroism (ECD) within the polarizable embedding (PE) approach. By relying on accurate forms of the embedding potential, where especially the inclusion of local field effects...... are in focus, we show that qualitative agreement between rotatory strength parameters calculated by full quantum mechanical calculations and the more efficient embedding calculations can be obtained. An important aspect in the computation of reliable absorption parameters is the need for conformational...... sampling. We show that a significant number of snapshots are needed to avoid artifacts in the calculated electronic circular dichroism parameters due to insufficient configurational sampling, thus highlighting the efficiency of the PE model....

  20. Multilevel Modeling of the Performance Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Teixeira Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the identification of the role played by Industry on the relations between Corporate Strategic Factors and Performance, the hierarchical multilevel modeling method was adopted when measuring and analyzing the relations between the variables that comprise each level of analysis. The adequacy of the multilevel perspective to the study of the proposed relations was identified and the relative importance analysis point out to the lower relevance of industry as a moderator of the effects of corporate strategic factors on performance, when the latter was measured by means of return on assets, and that industry don‟t moderates the relations between corporate strategic factors and Tobin‟s Q. The main conclusions of the research are that the organizations choices in terms of corporate strategy presents a considerable influence and plays a key role on the determination of performance level, but that industry should be considered when analyzing the performance variation despite its role as a moderator or not of the relations between corporate strategic factors and performance.

  1. Modelling fuel cell performance using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaji, S. O. T.; Singh, R.; Pilidis, P.; Diacakis, M.

    Over the last few years, fuel cell technology has been increasing promisingly its share in the generation of stationary power. Numerous pilot projects are operating worldwide, continuously increasing the amount of operating hours either as stand-alone devices or as part of gas turbine combined cycles. An essential tool for the adequate and dynamic analysis of such systems is a software model that enables the user to assess a large number of alternative options in the least possible time. On the other hand, the sphere of application of artificial neural networks has widened covering such endeavours of life such as medicine, finance and unsurprisingly engineering (diagnostics of faults in machines). Artificial neural networks have been described as diagrammatic representation of a mathematical equation that receives values (inputs) and gives out results (outputs). Artificial neural networks systems have the capacity to recognise and associate patterns and because of their inherent design features, they can be applied to linear and non-linear problem domains. In this paper, the performance of the fuel cell is modelled using artificial neural networks. The inputs to the network are variables that are critical to the performance of the fuel cell while the outputs are the result of changes in any one or all of the fuel cell design variables, on its performance. Critical parameters for the cell include the geometrical configuration as well as the operating conditions. For the neural network, various network design parameters such as the network size, training algorithm, activation functions and their causes on the effectiveness of the performance modelling are discussed. Results from the analysis as well as the limitations of the approach are presented and discussed.

  2. Modelling fuel cell performance using artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogaji, S.O.T.; Singh, R.; Pilidis, P.; Diacakis, M. [Power Propulsion and Aerospace Engineering Department, Centre for Diagnostics and Life Cycle Costs, Cranfield University (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-09

    Over the last few years, fuel cell technology has been increasing promisingly its share in the generation of stationary power. Numerous pilot projects are operating worldwide, continuously increasing the amount of operating hours either as stand-alone devices or as part of gas turbine combined cycles. An essential tool for the adequate and dynamic analysis of such systems is a software model that enables the user to assess a large number of alternative options in the least possible time. On the other hand, the sphere of application of artificial neural networks has widened covering such endeavours of life such as medicine, finance and unsurprisingly engineering (diagnostics of faults in machines). Artificial neural networks have been described as diagrammatic representation of a mathematical equation that receives values (inputs) and gives out results (outputs). Artificial neural networks systems have the capacity to recognise and associate patterns and because of their inherent design features, they can be applied to linear and non-linear problem domains. In this paper, the performance of the fuel cell is modelled using artificial neural networks. The inputs to the network are variables that are critical to the performance of the fuel cell while the outputs are the result of changes in any one or all of the fuel cell design variables, on its performance. Critical parameters for the cell include the geometrical configuration as well as the operating conditions. For the neural network, various network design parameters such as the network size, training algorithm, activation functions and their causes on the effectiveness of the performance modelling are discussed. Results from the analysis as well as the limitations of the approach are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Use of mathematical modelling in electron beam processing: A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The use of electron beam irradiation for industrial applications, like the sterilization of medical devices or cross-linking of polymers, has a long and successful track record and has proven itself to be a key technology. Emerging fields, including environmental applications of ionizing radiation, the sterilization of complex medical and pharmaceutical products or advanced material treatment, require the design and control of even more complex irradiators and irradiation processes. Mathematical models can aid the design process, for example by calculating absorbed dose distributions in a product, long before any prototype is built. They support process qualification through impact assessment of process variable uncertainties, and can be an indispensable teaching tool for technologists in training in the use of radiation processing. The IAEA, through various mechanisms, including its technical cooperation programme, coordinated research projects, technical meetings, guidelines and training materials, is promoting the use of radiation technologies to minimize the effects of harmful contaminants and develop value added products originating from low cost natural and human made raw materials. The need to publish a guidebook on the use of mathematical modelling for design processes in the electron beam treatment of materials was identified through the increased interest of radiation processing laboratories in Member States and as a result of recommendations from several IAEA expert meetings. In response, the IAEA has prepared this report using the services of an expert in the field. This publication should serve as both a guidebook and introductory tutorial for the use of mathematical modelling (using mostly Monte Carlo methods) in electron beam processing. The emphasis of this guide is on industrial irradiation methodologies with a strong reference to existing literature and applicable standards. Its target audience is readers who have a basic understanding of electron

  4. Transverse Momentum Distributions of Electron in Simulated QED Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navdeep; Dahiya, Harleen

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we have studied the transverse momentum distributions (TMDs) for the electron in simulated QED model. We have used the overlap representation of light-front wave functions where the spin-1/2 relativistic composite system consists of spin-1/2 fermion and spin-1 vector boson. The results have been obtained for T-even TMDs in transverse momentum plane for fixed value of longitudinal momentum fraction x.

  5. Enhanced angular overlap model for nonmetallic f -electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.

    2005-07-01

    An efficient method of interpretation of the crystal field effect in nonmetallic f -electron systems, the enhanced angular overlap model (EAOM), is presented. The method is established on the ground of perturbation expansion of the effective Hamiltonian for localized electrons and first-principles calculations related to available experimental data. The series of actinide compounds AO2 , oxychalcogenides AOX , and dichalcogenides UX2 where X=S ,Se,Te and A=U ,Np serve as probes of the effectiveness of the proposed method. An idea is to enhance the usual angular overlap model with ab initio calculations of those contributions to the crystal field potential, which cannot be represented by the usual angular overlap model (AOM). The enhancement leads to an improved fitting and makes the approach intrinsically coherent. In addition, the ab initio calculations of the main, AOM-consistent part of the crystal field potential allows one to fix the material-specific relations for the EAOM parameters in the effective Hamiltonian. Consequently, the electronic structure interpretation based on EAOM can be extended to systems of the lowest point symmetries or/and deficient experimental data. Several examples illustrating the promising capabilities of EAOM are given.

  6. A model for hot electron phenomena: Theory and general results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J.L.; Rodriquez, M.A.

    1988-10-01

    We propose a model for the description of the hot electron phenomena in semiconductors. Based on this model we are able to reproduce accurately the main characteristics observed in experiments of electric field transport, optical absorption, steady state photoluminescence and relaxation process. Our theory does not contain free nor adjustable parameters, it is very fast computerwise, and incorporates the main collision mechanisms including screening and phonon heating effects. Our description on a set of nonlinear rate equations in which the interactions are represented by coupling coefficients or effective frequencies. We calculate three coefficients from the characteristic constants and the band structure of the material. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  7. Modeling of the atomic and electronic structures of interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent tight binding and Car-Parrinello simulations of grain boundaries in semiconductors are reviewed. A critique is given of some models of embrittlement that are based on electronic structure considerations. The structural unit model of grain boundary structure is critically assessed using some results for mixed tilt and twist grain boundaries. A new method of characterizing interfacial structure in terms of bond angle distribution functions is described. A new formulation of thermodynamic properties of interfaces is presented which focusses on the local atomic environment. Effective, temperature dependent N-body atomic interactions are derived for studying grain boundary structure at elevated temperature

  8. Towards model-based testing of electronic funds transfer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Asaadi, H.R.; Khosravi, R.; Mousavi, M.R.; Noroozi, N.

    2010-01-01

    We report on our first experience with applying model-based testing techniques to an operational Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) switch. The goal is to test the conformance of the EFT switch to the standard flows described by the ISO 8583 standard. To this end, we first make a formalization of the transaction flows specified in the ISO 8583 standard in terms of a Labeled Transition System (LTS). This formalization paves the way for model-based testing based on the formal notion of Input-Outpu...

  9. Fuse Modeling for Reliability Study of Power Electronic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive modeling approach on reliability of fuses used in power electronic circuits. When fuses are subjected to current pulses, cyclic temperature stress is introduced to the fuse element and will wear out the component. Furthermore, the fuse may be used in a large......, and rated voltage/current are opposed to shift in time to effect early breaking during the normal operation of the circuit. Therefore, in such cases, a reliable protection required for the other circuit components will not be achieved. The thermo-mechanical models, fatigue analysis and thermo...

  10. Modelling the predictive performance of credit scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Shen

    2013-07-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this empirical paper was to examine the predictive performance of credit scoring systems in Taiwan. Motivation for the study: Corporate lending remains a major business line for financial institutions. However, in light of the recent global financial crises, it has become extremely important for financial institutions to implement rigorous means of assessing clients seeking access to credit facilities. Research design, approach and method: Using a data sample of 10 349 observations drawn between 1992 and 2010, logistic regression models were utilised to examine the predictive performance of credit scoring systems. Main findings: A test of Goodness of fit demonstrated that credit scoring models that incorporated the Taiwan Corporate Credit Risk Index (TCRI, micro- and also macroeconomic variables possessed greater predictive power. This suggests that macroeconomic variables do have explanatory power for default credit risk. Practical/managerial implications: The originality in the study was that three models were developed to predict corporate firms’ defaults based on different microeconomic and macroeconomic factors such as the TCRI, asset growth rates, stock index and gross domestic product. Contribution/value-add: The study utilises different goodness of fits and receiver operator characteristics during the examination of the robustness of the predictive power of these factors.

  11. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bilić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheapest and the simplest form of business communication. The aim of this paper is to investigate relationship between three groups of different criteria; including main characteristics of performed electronic recruiting, corporate communication and selected financial performances. Selected companies were ranked separately by each group of criteria by usage of multicriteria decision making method PROMETHEE II. The main idea is to research whether companies which are the highest performers by certain group of criteria obtain the similar results regarding other group of criteria or performing results.

  12. Preparation of high performance NBR/HNTs nanocomposites using an electron transferring interaction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuyan; Zhou, Yanxue; Zhang, Peng; Cai, Zhuodi; Li, Yangping; Fan, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    Interfacial interaction is one of the key factors to improve comprehensive properties of polymer/inorganic filler nanocomposites. In this work, a new interfacial interaction called electron transferring interaction is reported in the nitrile-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes (NBR/HNTs) nanocomposites. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in-situ controlling temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have confirmed that electrons of electron-rich -CN groups in NBR can transfer to the electron-deficiency aluminum atoms of HNTs, which packs a part of NBR molecules onto the surface of HNTs to form bound rubber and stabilize the homogeneous dispersion of HNTs with few agglomeration as revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) performances, even at high HNTs addition, resulting in high light transmittance. The tensile strength of NBR/30wt%HNTs nanocomposites is about 291% higher than pure NBR, without sacrificing the elongation at break.

  13. CASTOR detector. Model, objectives and simulated performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, A. L. S.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Aslanoglou, X.; Nicolis, N.; Lobanov, M.; Erine, S.; Kharlov, Y. V.; Bogolyubsky, M. Y.; Kurepin, A. B.; Chileev, K.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    2001-01-01

    It is presented a phenomenological model describing the formation and evolution of a Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich region in nucleus-nucleus interactions in the upper atmosphere and at the LHC. The small particle multiplicity and imbalance of electromagnetic and hadronic content characterizing a Centauro event and also the strongly penetrating particles (assumed to be strangelets) frequently accompanying them can be naturally explained. It is described the CASTOR calorimeter, a sub detector of the ALICE experiment dedicated to the search for Centauro in the very forward, baryon-rich region of central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. The basic characteristics and simulated performance of the calorimeter are presented

  14. Modeling the high-energy electronic state manifold of adenine: Calibration for nonlinear electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenov, Artur, E-mail: Artur.Nenov@unibo.it; Giussani, Angelo; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K. [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, IT-40126 Bologna (Italy); Rivalta, Ivan [Université de Lyon, CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Cerullo, Giulio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, IFN-CNR, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Mukamel, Shaul [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States); Garavelli, Marco, E-mail: marco.garavelli@unibo.it, E-mail: marco.garavelli@ens-lyon.fr [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, IT-40126 Bologna (Italy); Université de Lyon, CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2015-06-07

    Pump-probe electronic spectroscopy using femtosecond laser pulses has evolved into a standard tool for tracking ultrafast excited state dynamics. Its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart is becoming an increasingly available and promising technique for resolving many of the limitations of pump-probe caused by spectral congestion. The ability to simulate pump-probe and 2D spectra from ab initio computations would allow one to link mechanistic observables like molecular motions and the making/breaking of chemical bonds to experimental observables like excited state lifetimes and quantum yields. From a theoretical standpoint, the characterization of the electronic transitions in the visible (Vis)/ultraviolet (UV), which are excited via the interaction of a molecular system with the incoming pump/probe pulses, translates into the determination of a computationally challenging number of excited states (going over 100) even for small/medium sized systems. A protocol is therefore required to evaluate the fluctuations of spectral properties like transition energies and dipole moments as a function of the computational parameters and to estimate the effect of these fluctuations on the transient spectral appearance. In the present contribution such a protocol is presented within the framework of complete and restricted active space self-consistent field theory and its second-order perturbation theory extensions. The electronic excited states of adenine have been carefully characterized through a previously presented computational recipe [Nenov et al., Comput. Theor. Chem. 1040–1041, 295-303 (2014)]. A wise reduction of the level of theory has then been performed in order to obtain a computationally less demanding approach that is still able to reproduce the characteristic features of the reference data. Foreseeing the potentiality of 2D electronic spectroscopy to track polynucleotide ground and excited state dynamics, and in particular its expected ability to provide

  15. A relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive efficiency in tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Liu Y.R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A fully relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD efficiency based on the adjoint function techniques is considered. Numerical calculations of the current drive efficiency in a tokamak by using the variational approach are performed. A fully relativistic extension of the variational principle with the modified basis functions for the Spitzer function with momentum conservation in the electron-electron collision is described in general tokamak geometry. The model developed has generalized that of Marushchenko’s (N.B . Marushchenko, et al. Fusion Sci. & Tech., 2009, which is extended for arbitrary temperatures and covers exactly the asymptotic for u ≫ 1 when Z → ∞, and suitable for ray-tracing calculations.

  16. Design and performance of vacuum capable detector electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, R.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Funk, L.L.; Clonts, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors. The eight tube assembly requires 10 W of power and can be controlled via digital communication links. The electronics can be used without modification in vacuum. Using a transimpedance amplifier and gated integration, we achieve a highly linear system with coefficient of determinations of 0.9999 or better. Typical resolution is one percent of tube length.

  17. Design and performance of vacuum capable detector electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, R.A., E-mail: riedelra@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Cooper, R.G.; Funk, L.L.; Clonts, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We describe the design and performance of electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors. The eight tube assembly requires 10 W of power and can be controlled via digital communication links. The electronics can be used without modification in vacuum. Using a transimpedance amplifier and gated integration, we achieve a highly linear system with coefficient of determinations of 0.9999 or better. Typical resolution is one percent of tube length.

  18. Diffusive and convective transport modelling from analysis of ECRH-stimulated electron heat wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erckmann, V.; Gasparino, U.; Giannone, L.

    1992-01-01

    ECRH power modulation experiments in toroidal devices offer the chance to analyze the electron heat transport more conclusively: the electron heat wave propagation can be observed by ECE (or SX) leading to radial profiles of electron temperature modulation amplitude and time delay (phase shift). Taking also the stationary power balance into account, the local electron heat transport can be modelled by a combination of diffusive and convective transport terms. This method is applied to ECRH discharges in the W7-AS stellarator (B=2.5T, R=2m, a≤18 cm) where the ECRH power deposition is highly localized. In W7-AS, the T e modulation profiles measured by a high resolution ECE system are the basis for the local transport analysis. As experimental errors limit the separation of diffusive and convective terms in the electron heat transport for central power deposition, also ECRH power modulation experiments with off-axis deposition and inward heat wave propagation were performed (with 70 GHz o-mode as well as with 140 GHz x-mode for increased absorption). Because collisional electron-ion coupling and radiative losses are only small, low density ECRH discharges are best candidates for estimating the electron heat flux from power balance. (author) 2 refs., 3 figs

  19. Modeling and control of three phase rectifier with electronic smoothing inductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simple, direct method for deriving the approximate, small-signal, average model and control strategy for three-phase diode bridge rectifier operating with electronic smoothing technique. Electronic smoothing inductor (ESI) performs the function of an inductor that has...... controlled variable impedance. This increases power factor (PF) and reduces total harmonic distortions (THDs) in mains current. The ESI based rectifier enables compact and cost effective design of three phase electric drive as size of passive components is reduced significantly. In order to carry out...

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of Different Phase Change Materials to Improve Cooling Performance of Heat Sinks for Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper thermo-physically characterizes salt hydrate, paraffin wax and milk fat as phase change materials (PCMs. The three PCMs are compared in terms of improving heat sink (HS performance for cooling electronic packaging. An experimental study is carried out on commercially available finned HS with and without PCM under natural ventilation (NV and forced ventilation (FV at different heat loads (4 W to 10 W. The results indicate that integration of all of the PCMs into the HS improves its cooling performance; however, milk fat lags behind the other two PCMs in terms of cooling produced. A three-dimensional pressure-based conjugate heat transfer model has been developed and validated with experimental results. The model predicts the parametric influence of PCM melting range, thermal conductivity and density on HS thermal management performance. The HS cooling performance improves with increased density and conductivity while it deteriorates with the wider melting range of the PCMs.

  1. The Dismantling of the Japanese Model in Consumer Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens; Holm Olesen, Michael; Kjær, Jonas

    This paper addresses an issue of great importance for the future organization of the consumerelectronics industry: the "battle" of control over component-based digitization. We are now witnessing the dismantling of the Japanese Model that has prevailed in consumer electronicsover the past 30 years....... Specialized and large-scale component suppliers have taken the lead inmost component-based innovations and have obtained increasingly powerful positions in thevalue chain of consumer electronics. This paper provides an in-depth study of the strategic andstructural ramifications of one such component...... technology. Aframework is developed to explain the reluctance of most of the large consumer electronicsgiants in developing/adopting this new technology.Key words: Consumer electronics, Industrial dynamics, Open InnovationJEL Codes: L6, L68, O32...

  2. Electronic Commerce Success Model: A Search for Multiple Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Achjari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempts to develop and examine framework of e-commerce success. In order to obtain comprehensive and robust measures, the framework accomodates key factors that are identified in the literature concerning the success of electronic commerce. The structural model comprises of four exogenous variables (Internal Driver, Internal Impediment, External Driver and Exgternal Impediment and one endogenous variable (Electornic Commerce Success eith 24 observed variables. The study that was administered within large Australian companies using questionaire survey concluded that benefits for both internal organization and external parties from the use of e-commerce were the main factor tro predict perceived and/or expected success of electronic commerce.

  3. Electron distribution in polar heterojunctions within a realistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, Nguyen Thanh, E-mail: thanhtienctu@gmail.com [College of Natural Science, Can Tho University, 3-2 Road, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Thao, Dinh Nhu [Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, College of Education, Hue University, 34 Le Loi Street, Hue City (Viet Nam); Thao, Pham Thi Bich [College of Natural Science, Can Tho University, 3-2 Road, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Quang, Doan Nhat [Institute of Physics, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 10 Dao Tan Street, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-12-15

    We present a theoretical study of the electron distribution, i.e., two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in polar heterojunctions (HJs) within a realistic model. The 2DEG is confined along the growth direction by a triangular quantum well with a finite potential barrier and a bent band figured by all confinement sources. Therein, interface polarization charges take a double role: they induce a confining potential and, furthermore, they can make some change in other confinements, e.g., in the Hartree potential from ionized impurities and 2DEG. Confinement by positive interface polarization charges is necessary for the ground state of 2DEG existing at a high sheet density. The 2DEG bulk density is found to be increased in the barrier, so that the scattering occurring in this layer (from interface polarization charges and alloy disorder) becomes paramount in a polar modulation-doped HJ.

  4. Electron electric dipole moment in Inverse Seesaw models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, Asmaa; Toma, Takashi [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-08-11

    We consider the contribution of sterile neutrinos to the electric dipole moment of charged leptons in the most minimal realisation of the Inverse Seesaw mechanism, in which the Standard Model is extended by two right-handed neutrinos and two sterile fermion states. Our study shows that the two pairs of (heavy) pseudo-Dirac mass eigenstates can give significant contributions to the electron electric dipole moment, lying close to future experimental sensitivity if their masses are above the electroweak scale. The major contribution comes from two-loop diagrams with pseudo-Dirac neutrino states running in the loops. In our analysis we further discuss the possibility of having a successful leptogenesis in this framework, compatible with a large electron electric dipole moment.

  5. Electron electric dipole moment in Inverse Seesaw models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Asmaa; Toma, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We consider the contribution of sterile neutrinos to the electric dipole moment of charged leptons in the most minimal realisation of the Inverse Seesaw mechanism, in which the Standard Model is extended by two right-handed neutrinos and two sterile fermion states. Our study shows that the two pairs of (heavy) pseudo-Dirac mass eigenstates can give significant contributions to the electron electric dipole moment, lying close to future experimental sensitivity if their masses are above the electroweak scale. The major contribution comes from two-loop diagrams with pseudo-Dirac neutrino states running in the loops. In our analysis we further discuss the possibility of having a successful leptogenesis in this framework, compatible with a large electron electric dipole moment.

  6. The COD Model: Simulating Workgroup Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggiero, Lucio; Sevi, Enrico

    Though the question of the determinants of workgroup performance is one of the most central in organization science, precise theoretical frameworks and formal demonstrations are still missing. In order to fill in this gap the COD agent-based simulation model is here presented and used to study the effects of task interdependence and bounded rationality on workgroup performance. The first relevant finding is an algorithmic demonstration of the ordering of interdependencies in terms of complexity, showing that the parallel mode is the most simplex, followed by the sequential and then by the reciprocal. This result is far from being new in organization science, but what is remarkable is that now it has the strength of an algorithmic demonstration instead of being based on the authoritativeness of some scholar or on some episodic empirical finding. The second important result is that the progressive introduction of realistic limits to agents' rationality dramatically reduces workgroup performance and addresses to a rather interesting result: when agents' rationality is severely bounded simple norms work better than complex norms. The third main finding is that when the complexity of interdependence is high, then the appropriate coordination mechanism is agents' direct and active collaboration, which means teamwork.

  7. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eusebio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy, it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  8. Electron reactions in model liquids and biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakale, G.; Gregg, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following studies: (1) Field-dependent electron attachment; (2) Dependence of electron attachment rate on electron-acceptor dipole moment; (3) Electron attachment in i-octane/TMS mixtures; (4) Electron attachment/detachment equilibria; (5) Electron attachment to reversed micelles; (6) Electron attachment to chemical carcinogens; (7) Radiation-induced bacterial mutagenesis; and (8) Bacterial mutagenicity of nitrobenzene derivatives. 14 references

  9. Theoretical modeling of electron mobility in superfluid {sup 4}He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, Frédéric; Bonifaci, Nelly [G2ELab-GreEn-ER, Equipe MDE, 21 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90624, 38031 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Haeften, Klaus von [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Eloranta, Jussi, E-mail: Jussi.Eloranta@csun.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University at Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff St., Northridge, California 91330 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    The Orsay-Trento bosonic density functional theory model is extended to include dissipation due to the viscous response of superfluid {sup 4}He present at finite temperatures. The viscous functional is derived from the Navier-Stokes equation by using the Madelung transformation and includes the contribution of interfacial viscous response present at the gas-liquid boundaries. This contribution was obtained by calibrating the model against the experimentally determined electron mobilities from 1.2 K to 2.1 K along the saturated vapor pressure line, where the viscous response is dominated by thermal rotons. The temperature dependence of ion mobility was calculated for several different solvation cavity sizes and the data are rationalized in the context of roton scattering and Stokes limited mobility models. Results are compared to the experimentally observed “exotic ion” data, which provides estimates for the corresponding bubble sizes in the liquid. Possible sources of such ions are briefly discussed.

  10. Modeling of electron time variations in the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.W.; Teague, M.J.; Schofield, N.J.; Vette, J.I.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the temporal variation in the trapped electron population of the inner and outer radiation zones is presented. Techniques presently used for modeling these zones are discussed and their deficiencies identified. An intermediate region is indicated between the zones in which the present modeling techniques are inadequate due to the magnitude and frequency of magnetic storms. Future trends are examined, and it is suggested that modeling of individual magnetic storms may be required in certain L bands. An analysis of seven magnetic storms is presented, establishing the independence of the depletion time of the storm flux and the storm magnitude. Provisional correlation between the storm magnitude and the Dst index is demonstrated

  11. Modeling of the outer electron belt during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desorgher, L.; Buehler, P.; Zehnder, A.; Daly, E.; Adams, L.

    1999-01-01

    The flux dropout of relativistic electrons in the earth's outer radiation belt, during the main phase of the 26 March 1995 magnetic storm is examined. Outer belt measurements by the Radiation Environment Monitor, REM aboard the STRV-1b satellite are presented to characterize this dropout. In order to simulate the dynamics of the electron belt during the storm main phase a particle tracing code was developed which allows to trace the trajectories of equatorially mirroring electrons in a dynamic magnetospheric electromagnetic field. Two simulations were performed in a non-stationary magnetic field, one taking only the induced electric field into account (fully adiabatic motion), and one with an additional non-stationary convection electric field. The simulations show, that adiabatic deceleration can produce the observed count rate decrease and also the observed inward motion of the count rate peak. The convection electric field causes diffusion, which can take particles from low L values out to the magnetopause and contribute to an additional loss of particles, which is suggested by the observations

  12. Modeling nitrogen plasmas produced by intense electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, J. R.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.; Hinshelwood, D. D. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mosher, D.; Ottinger, P. F. [Independent contractors for NRL through Engility, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia 22314 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    A new gas–chemistry model is presented to treat the breakdown of a nitrogen gas with pressures on the order of 1 Torr from intense electron beams with current densities on the order of 10 kA/cm{sup 2} and pulse durations on the order of 100 ns. For these parameter regimes, the gas transitions from a weakly ionized molecular state to a strongly ionized atomic state on the time scale of the beam pulse. The model is coupled to a 0D–circuit model using the rigid–beam approximation that can be driven by specifying the time and spatial profiles of the beam pulse. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the line–integrated electron density from experiments done using the Gamble II generator at the Naval Research Laboratory. It is found that the species are mostly in the ground and metastable states during the atomic phase, but that ionization proceeds predominantly through thermal ionization of optically allowed states with excitation energies close to the ionization limit.

  13. Model for measuring complex performance in an aviation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to identify models of pilot performance through the attainment and analysis of concurrent verbal protocols. Sixteen models were identified. Novice and expert pilots differed with respect to the models they used. Models were correlated to performance, particularly in the case of expert subjects. Models were not correlated to performance shaping factors (i.e. workload). 3 refs., 1 tab

  14. Intersite electron correlations in a Hubbard model on inhomogeneous lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemori, Nayuta; Koga, Akihisa; Hafermann, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    We study intersite electron correlations in the half-filled Hubbard model on square lattices with periodic and open boundary conditions by means of a real-space dual fermion approach. By calculating renormalization factors, we clarify that nearest-neighbor intersite correlations already significantly reduce the critical interaction. The Mott transition occurs at U/t ∼ 6.4, where U is the interaction strength and t is the hopping integral. This value is consistent with quantum Monte Carlo results. It shows the importance of short-range intersite correlations, which are taken into account in the framework of the real-space dual fermion approach. (paper)

  15. An experimental electronic model for a neuronal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos-Cantón, I; Martel-Gallegos, G; Rangel-López, A; Vertiz-Hérnandez, A; Zarazúa, S

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the study of information transmission in living beings has acquired great relevance, because it regulates and conducts the functioning of all of the organs in the body. In information transmission pathways, the neuron plays an important role in that it receives, transmits, and processes electrical signals from different parts of the human body; these signals are transmitted as electrical impulses called action potentials, and they transmit information from one neuron to another. In this work, and with the aim of developing experiments for teaching biological processes, we implemented an electronic circuit of the neuron cell device and its mathematical model based on piecewise linear functions. (paper)

  16. Numerical modeling capabilities to predict repository performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This report presents a summary of current numerical modeling capabilities that are applicable to the design and performance evaluation of underground repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. The report includes codes that are available in-house, within Golder Associates and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories; as well as those that are generally available within the industry and universities. The first listing of programs are in-house codes in the subject areas of hydrology, solute transport, thermal and mechanical stress analysis, and structural geology. The second listing of programs are divided by subject into the following categories: site selection, structural geology, mine structural design, mine ventilation, hydrology, and mine design/construction/operation. These programs are not specifically designed for use in the design and evaluation of an underground repository for nuclear waste; but several or most of them may be so used

  17. Model Development for MODIS Thermal Band Electronic Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiejun; Wu, Aisheng; Geng, Xu; Li, Yonghonh; Brinkman, Jake; Keller, Graziela; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 bands. Among them, 16 thermal emissive bands covering a wavelength range from 3.8 to 14.4 m. After 16 years on-orbit operation, the electronic crosstalk of a few Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands developed substantial issues that cause biases in the EV brightness temperature measurements and surface feature contamination. The crosstalk effects on band 27 with center wavelength at 6.7 m and band 29 at 8.5 m increased significantly in recent years, affecting downstream products such as water vapor and cloud mask. The crosstalk effect is evident in the near-monthly scheduled lunar measurements, from which the crosstalk coefficients can be derived. The development of an alternative approach is very helpful for independent verification.In this work, a physical model was developed to assess the crosstalk impact on calibration as well as in Earth view brightness temperature retrieval. This model was applied to Terra MODIS band 29 empirically to correct the Earth brightness temperature measurements. In the model development, the detectors nonlinear response is considered. The impact of the electronic crosstalk is assessed in two steps. The first step consists of determining the impact on calibration using the on-board blackbody (BB). Due to the detectors nonlinear response and large background signal, both linear and nonlinear coefficients are affected by the crosstalk from sending bands. The second step is to calculate the effects on the Earth view brightness temperature retrieval. The effects include those from affected calibration coefficients and the contamination of Earth view measurements. This model links the measurement bias with crosstalk coefficients, detector non-linearity, and the ratio of Earth measurements between the sending and receiving bands. The correction of the electronic cross talk can be implemented empirically from the processed bias at different brightness temperature. The implementation

  18. Isotopic modelling using the ENIGMA-B fuel performance code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiter, G.D.; Cook, P.M.A.; Weston, R.

    2001-01-01

    A number of experimental programmes by BNFL and other MOX fabricators have now shown that the in-pile performance of MOX fuel is generally similar to that of conventional UO 2 fuel. Models based on UO 2 fuel experience form a good basis for a description of MOX fuel behaviour. However, an area where the performance of MOX fuel is sufficiently different from that of UO 2 to warrant model changes is in the radial power and burnup profile. The differences in radial power and burnup profile arise from the presence of significant concentrations of plutonium in MOX fuel, at beginning of life, and their subsequent evolution with burnup. Amongst other effects, plutonium has a greater neutron absorption cross-section than uranium. This paper focuses on the development of a new model for the radial power and burnup profile within a UO 2 or MOX fuel rod, in which the underlying fissile isotope concentration distributions are tracked during irradiation. The new model has been incorporated into the ENIGMA-B fuel performance code and has been extended to track the isotopic concentrations of the fission gases, xenon and krypton. The calculated distributions have been validated against results from rod puncture measurements and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) linescans, performed during the M501 post irradiation examination (PIE) programme. The predicted gas inventory of the fuel/clad gap is compared with the isotopic composition measured during rod puncture and the measured radial distributions of burnup (from neodymium measurements) and plutonium in the fuel are compared with the calculated distributions. It is shown that there is good agreement between the code predictions and the measurements. (author)

  19. Development and performance of a suprathermal electron spectrometer to study auroral precipitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Keiichi, E-mail: kogasawara@swri.edu; Stange, Jason L.; Trevino, John A.; Webster, James [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States); Grubbs, Guy [University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA circle, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States); Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Michell, Robert G.; Samara, Marilia [Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Jahn, Jörg-Micha [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States); University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA circle, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The design, development, and performance of Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), dedicated to the in situ observation of suprathermal electrons in the auroral ionosphere, are summarized in this paper. MESP employs a permanent magnet filter with a light tight structure to select electrons with proper energies guided to the detectors. A combination of two avalanche photodiodes and a large area solid-state detector (SSD) provided 46 total energy bins (1 keV resolution for 3−20 keV range for APDs, and 7 keV resolution for >20 keV range for SSDs). Multi-channel ultra-low power application-specific integrated circuits are also verified for the flight operation to read-out and analyze the detector signals. MESP was launched from Poker Flat Research Range on 3 March 2014 as a part of ground-to-rocket electrodynamics-electrons correlative experiment (GREECE) mission. MESP successfully measured the precipitating electrons from 3 to 120 keV in 120-ms time resolution and characterized the features of suprathermal distributions associated with auroral arcs throughout the flight. The measured electrons were showing the inverted-V type spectra, consistent with the past measurements. In addition, investigations of the suprathermal electron population indicated the existence of the energetic non-thermal distribution corresponding to the brightest aurora.

  20. Development and performance of a suprathermal electron spectrometer to study auroral precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Keiichi; Stange, Jason L.; Trevino, John A.; Webster, James; Grubbs, Guy; Michell, Robert G.; Samara, Marilia; Jahn, Jörg-Micha

    2016-01-01

    The design, development, and performance of Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), dedicated to the in situ observation of suprathermal electrons in the auroral ionosphere, are summarized in this paper. MESP employs a permanent magnet filter with a light tight structure to select electrons with proper energies guided to the detectors. A combination of two avalanche photodiodes and a large area solid-state detector (SSD) provided 46 total energy bins (1 keV resolution for 3−20 keV range for APDs, and 7 keV resolution for >20 keV range for SSDs). Multi-channel ultra-low power application-specific integrated circuits are also verified for the flight operation to read-out and analyze the detector signals. MESP was launched from Poker Flat Research Range on 3 March 2014 as a part of ground-to-rocket electrodynamics-electrons correlative experiment (GREECE) mission. MESP successfully measured the precipitating electrons from 3 to 120 keV in 120-ms time resolution and characterized the features of suprathermal distributions associated with auroral arcs throughout the flight. The measured electrons were showing the inverted-V type spectra, consistent with the past measurements. In addition, investigations of the suprathermal electron population indicated the existence of the energetic non-thermal distribution corresponding to the brightest aurora.

  1. Performance of the advanced photon source (APS) linac beam position monitors (BPMs) with logarithmic amplifier electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuja, R.E.; White, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the logarithmic amplifier electronics system used with stripline BPMs to measure electron and positron beam positions at the APS linac. The 2856-MHz, S-band linac accelerates 30-nsec pulses of 1.7 A of electrons to 200 MeV, and focuses them onto a positron conversion target. The resulting 8 mA of positrons are further accelerated to 450 MeV by the positron linac. Beam position resolutions of 50 μm are easily obtainable in both the electron and positron linacs. The resolution of the 12-bit A/D converters limits the ultimate beam positron resolution to between 20 and 30 μm at this time

  2. Simulated performance of the in-beam conversion-electron spectrometer, SPICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelhut, S., E-mail: ketelhut@triumf.ca [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Evitts, L.J.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Bolton, C.; Ball, G.C.; Churchman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Dunlop, R. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Hackman, G.; Henderson, R.; Moukaddam, M. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Rand, E.T.; Svensson, C.E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Witmer, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The SPICE spectrometer is a new in-beam electron spectrometer designed to operate in conjunction with the TIGRESS HPGe Clover array at TRIUMF-ISAC. The spectrometer consists of a large area, annular, segmented lithium-drifted silicon electron detector shielded from the target by a photon shield. A permanent magnetic lens directs electrons around the photon shield to the detector. Experiments will be performed utilising Coulomb excitation, inelastic-scattering, transfer and fusion–evaporation reactions using stable and radioactive ion beams with suitable heavy-ion detection. Good detection efficiency can be achieved in a large energy range up to 3500 keV electron energy using several magnetic lens designs which are quickly interchangeable. COMSOL and Geant4 simulations have been used to maximise the detection efficiency. In addition, the simulations have guided the design of components to minimise the contributions from various sources of backgrounds.

  3. Modeling of a new electron-streamer acceleration mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihaddadene, K. M. A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Liu, N.; Celestin, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning stepped leaders and laboratory spark discharges in air are known to produce X-rays [e.g., Dwyer et al., Geophys. Res. lett., 32, L20809, 2005; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012]. However, the processes behind the production of these X-rays are still not very well understood. During discharges, encounters between streamers of different polarities are very common. For example, during the formation of a new leader step, the negative streamer zone around the tip of a negative leader and the positive streamers initiated from the posiive part of a bidirectional space leader strongly interact. In laboratory experiments, when streamers are approaching a sharp electrode, streamers with the opposite polarity are initiated from the electrode and collide with the former streamers. Recently, the encounter between negative and positive streamers has been proposed as a plausible mechanism for the production of X-rays by spark discharges [Cooray et la., JASTP, 71, 1890, 2009; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012], but modeling results have shown later that the increase of the electric field involved in this process, which is above the conventional breakdown threshold field, is accompanied by a strong increase of the electron density. The resulting increase in the conductivity, in turn, causes this electric field to collapse over a few tens of picoseconds, preventing the electrons reaching high energies and producing significant X-ray emissions [e.g., Ihaddadene and Celestin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 5644, 2015]. In this work, we will present simulation results of a new electron acceleration mechanism for producing runaway electron energies above hundred keV. The mechanism couples multiple single streamers and streamer head-on collisions, similar to a laboratory discharge, and is suitable for explaining the high-energy X-rays produced by discharges in air and by lightning stepped leaders.

  4. Performance of a direct detection camera for off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shery L.Y., E-mail: shery.chang@asu.edu [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); LeRoy Eyring Center for Solid State Science, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Dwyer, Christian [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Barthel, Juri; Boothroyd, Chris B.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The performance of a direct detection camera (DDC) is evaluated in the context of off-axis electron holographic experiments in a transmission electron microscope. Its performance is also compared directly with that of a conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The DDC evaluated here can be operated either by the detection of individual electron events (counting mode) or by the effective integration of many such events during a given exposure time (linear mode). It is demonstrated that the improved modulation transfer functions and detective quantum efficiencies of both modes of the DDC give rise to significant benefits over the conventional CCD cameras, specifically, a significant improvement in the visibility of the holographic fringes and a reduction of the statistical error in the phase of the reconstructed electron wave function. The DDC's linear mode, which can handle higher dose rates, allows optimisation of the dose rate to achieve the best phase resolution for a wide variety of experimental conditions. For suitable conditions, the counting mode can potentially utilise a significantly lower dose to achieve a phase resolution that is comparable to that achieved using the linear mode. The use of multiple holograms and correlation techniques to increase the total dose in counting mode is also demonstrated. - Highlights: • Performance of a direct detection camera for off-axis electron holography has been evaluated. • Better holographic fringe visibility and phase resolution are achieved using DDC. • Both counting and linear modes offered by DDC are advantageous for different dose regimes.

  5. Performance of a direct detection camera for off-axis electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shery L.Y.; Dwyer, Christian; Barthel, Juri; Boothroyd, Chris B.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a direct detection camera (DDC) is evaluated in the context of off-axis electron holographic experiments in a transmission electron microscope. Its performance is also compared directly with that of a conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The DDC evaluated here can be operated either by the detection of individual electron events (counting mode) or by the effective integration of many such events during a given exposure time (linear mode). It is demonstrated that the improved modulation transfer functions and detective quantum efficiencies of both modes of the DDC give rise to significant benefits over the conventional CCD cameras, specifically, a significant improvement in the visibility of the holographic fringes and a reduction of the statistical error in the phase of the reconstructed electron wave function. The DDC's linear mode, which can handle higher dose rates, allows optimisation of the dose rate to achieve the best phase resolution for a wide variety of experimental conditions. For suitable conditions, the counting mode can potentially utilise a significantly lower dose to achieve a phase resolution that is comparable to that achieved using the linear mode. The use of multiple holograms and correlation techniques to increase the total dose in counting mode is also demonstrated. - Highlights: • Performance of a direct detection camera for off-axis electron holography has been evaluated. • Better holographic fringe visibility and phase resolution are achieved using DDC. • Both counting and linear modes offered by DDC are advantageous for different dose regimes.

  6. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1989-04-01

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  7. Electronic Processes at Organic−Organic Interfaces: Insight from Modeling and Implications for Opto-electronic Devices †

    KAUST Repository

    Beljonne, David

    2011-02-08

    We report on the recent progress achieved in modeling the electronic processes that take place at interfaces between π-conjugated materials in organic opto-electronic devices. First, we provide a critical overview of the current computational techniques used to assess the morphology of organic: organic heterojunctions; we highlight the compromises that are necessary to handle large systems and multiple time scales while preserving the atomistic details required for subsequent computations of the electronic and optical properties. We then review some recent theoretical advances in describing the ground-state electronic structure at heterojunctions between donor and acceptor materials and highlight the role played by charge-transfer and long-range polarization effects. Finally, we discuss the modeling of the excited-state electronic structure at organic:organic interfaces, which is a key aspect in the understanding of the dynamics of photoinduced electron-transfer processes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Modelling and performance of heat pipes with long evaporator sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wits, Wessel W.; te Riele, Gert Jan

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a planar cooling strategy for advanced electronic applications using heat pipe technology. The principle idea is to use an array of relatively long heat pipes, whereby heat is disposed to a long section of the pipes. The proposed design uses 1 m long heat pipes and top cooling through a fan-based heat sink. Successful heat pipe operation and experimental performances are determined for seven heating configurations, considering active bottom, middle and top sections, and four orientation angles (0°, 30°, 60° and 90°). For all heating sections active, the heat pipe oriented vertically in an evaporator-down mode and a power input of 150 W, the overall thermal resistance was 0.014 K/W at a thermal gradient of 2.1 K and an average operating temperature of 50.7 °C. Vertical operation showed best results, as can be expected; horizontally the heat pipe could not be tested up to the power limit and dry-out occurred between 20 and 80 W depending on the heating configuration. Heating configurations without the bottom section active demonstrated a dynamic start-up effect, caused by heat conduction towards the liquid pool and thereafter batch-wise introducing the working fluid into the two-phase cycle. By analysing the heat pipe limitations for the intended operating conditions, a suitable heat pipe geometry was chosen. To predict the thermal performance a thermal model using a resistance network was created. The model compares well with the measurement data, especially for higher input powers. Finally, the thermal model is used for the design of a 1 kW planar system-level electronics cooling infrastructure featuring six 1 m heat pipes in parallel having a long ( 75%) evaporator section.

  9. High-performance phase-field modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2015-04-27

    Many processes in engineering and sciences involve the evolution of interfaces. Among the mathematical frameworks developed to model these types of problems, the phase-field method has emerged as a possible solution. Phase-fields nonetheless lead to complex nonlinear, high-order partial differential equations, whose solution poses mathematical and computational challenges. Guaranteeing some of the physical properties of the equations has lead to the development of efficient algorithms and discretizations capable of recovering said properties by construction [2, 5]. This work builds-up on these ideas, and proposes novel discretization strategies that guarantee numerical energy dissipation for both conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The temporal discretization is based on a novel method which relies on Taylor series and ensures strong energy stability. It is second-order accurate, and can also be rendered linear to speed-up the solution process [4]. The spatial discretization relies on Isogeometric Analysis, a finite element method that possesses the k-refinement technology and enables the generation of high-order, high-continuity basis functions. These basis functions are well suited to handle the high-order operators present in phase-field models. Two-dimensional and three dimensional results of the Allen-Cahn, Cahn-Hilliard, Swift-Hohenberg and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.

  10. ORBDA: An openEHR benchmark dataset for performance assessment of electronic health record servers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Teodoro

    Full Text Available The openEHR specifications are designed to support implementation of flexible and interoperable Electronic Health Record (EHR systems. Despite the increasing number of solutions based on the openEHR specifications, it is difficult to find publicly available healthcare datasets in the openEHR format that can be used to test, compare and validate different data persistence mechanisms for openEHR. To foster research on openEHR servers, we present the openEHR Benchmark Dataset, ORBDA, a very large healthcare benchmark dataset encoded using the openEHR formalism. To construct ORBDA, we extracted and cleaned a de-identified dataset from the Brazilian National Healthcare System (SUS containing hospitalisation and high complexity procedures information and formalised it using a set of openEHR archetypes and templates. Then, we implemented a tool to enrich the raw relational data and convert it into the openEHR model using the openEHR Java reference model library. The ORBDA dataset is available in composition, versioned composition and EHR openEHR representations in XML and JSON formats. In total, the dataset contains more than 150 million composition records. We describe the dataset and provide means to access it. Additionally, we demonstrate the usage of ORBDA for evaluating inserting throughput and query latency performances of some NoSQL database management systems. We believe that ORBDA is a valuable asset for assessing storage models for openEHR-based information systems during the software engineering process. It may also be a suitable component in future standardised benchmarking of available openEHR storage platforms.

  11. ORBDA: An openEHR benchmark dataset for performance assessment of electronic health record servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvall, Erik; João Junior, Mario; Ruch, Patrick; Miranda Freire, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    The openEHR specifications are designed to support implementation of flexible and interoperable Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems. Despite the increasing number of solutions based on the openEHR specifications, it is difficult to find publicly available healthcare datasets in the openEHR format that can be used to test, compare and validate different data persistence mechanisms for openEHR. To foster research on openEHR servers, we present the openEHR Benchmark Dataset, ORBDA, a very large healthcare benchmark dataset encoded using the openEHR formalism. To construct ORBDA, we extracted and cleaned a de-identified dataset from the Brazilian National Healthcare System (SUS) containing hospitalisation and high complexity procedures information and formalised it using a set of openEHR archetypes and templates. Then, we implemented a tool to enrich the raw relational data and convert it into the openEHR model using the openEHR Java reference model library. The ORBDA dataset is available in composition, versioned composition and EHR openEHR representations in XML and JSON formats. In total, the dataset contains more than 150 million composition records. We describe the dataset and provide means to access it. Additionally, we demonstrate the usage of ORBDA for evaluating inserting throughput and query latency performances of some NoSQL database management systems. We believe that ORBDA is a valuable asset for assessing storage models for openEHR-based information systems during the software engineering process. It may also be a suitable component in future standardised benchmarking of available openEHR storage platforms. PMID:29293556

  12. ORBDA: An openEHR benchmark dataset for performance assessment of electronic health record servers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Douglas; Sundvall, Erik; João Junior, Mario; Ruch, Patrick; Miranda Freire, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    The openEHR specifications are designed to support implementation of flexible and interoperable Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems. Despite the increasing number of solutions based on the openEHR specifications, it is difficult to find publicly available healthcare datasets in the openEHR format that can be used to test, compare and validate different data persistence mechanisms for openEHR. To foster research on openEHR servers, we present the openEHR Benchmark Dataset, ORBDA, a very large healthcare benchmark dataset encoded using the openEHR formalism. To construct ORBDA, we extracted and cleaned a de-identified dataset from the Brazilian National Healthcare System (SUS) containing hospitalisation and high complexity procedures information and formalised it using a set of openEHR archetypes and templates. Then, we implemented a tool to enrich the raw relational data and convert it into the openEHR model using the openEHR Java reference model library. The ORBDA dataset is available in composition, versioned composition and EHR openEHR representations in XML and JSON formats. In total, the dataset contains more than 150 million composition records. We describe the dataset and provide means to access it. Additionally, we demonstrate the usage of ORBDA for evaluating inserting throughput and query latency performances of some NoSQL database management systems. We believe that ORBDA is a valuable asset for assessing storage models for openEHR-based information systems during the software engineering process. It may also be a suitable component in future standardised benchmarking of available openEHR storage platforms.

  13. Performance and Economic Analysis of Distributed Power Electronics in Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Granata, J.; Gonzalez, S.

    2011-01-01

    Distributed electronics like micro-inverters and DC-DC converters can help recover mismatch and shading losses in photovoltaic (PV) systems. Under partially shaded conditions, the use of distributed electronics can recover between 15-40% of annual performance loss or more, depending on the system configuration and type of device used. Additional value-added features may also increase the benefit of using per-panel distributed electronics, including increased safety, reduced system design constraints and added monitoring and diagnostics. The economics of these devices will also become more favorable as production volume increases, and integration within the solar panel?s junction box reduces part count and installation time. Some potential liabilities of per-panel devices include increased PV system cost, additional points of failure, and an insertion loss that may or may not offset performance gains under particular mismatch conditions.

  14. Landauer-Datta-Lundstrom Generalized Transport Model for Nano electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglyak, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The Landauer-Datta-Lundstrom electron transport model is briefly summarized. If a band structure is given, the number of conduction modes can be evaluated and if a model for a mean-free-path for backscattering can be established, then the near-equilibrium thermoelectric transport coefficients can be calculated using the final expressions listed below for 1D, 2D, and 3D resistors in ballistic, quasi ballistic, and diffusive linear response regimes when there are differences in both voltage and temperature across the device. The final expressions of thermoelectric transport coefficients through the Fermi-Dirac integrals are collected for 1D, 2D, and 3D semiconductors with parabolic band structure and for 2D graphene linear dispersion in ballistic and diffusive regimes with the power law scattering.

  15. Multichannel model of magneto tunneling in disordered electron nanodevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, M.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Diez, E.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multichannel model of magnetotunneling transport in unintentionally disordered double-barrier GaAs-Al x Ga 1-x As heterostructures. The source of disorder comes from interface roughness at the heterojunctions. Disorder break translational symmetry along the lateral direction and therefore electrons can be scattered off the growth direction. The model correctly describes channel mixing due to these elastic scattering events. The magnetic field applied to the double-barrier heterostructure splits the resonant level into a set of equally-spaced resonances, the level spacing increasing with the magnetic field. We discuss the influence of the various parameters (epilayer widths and magnitude or disorder) on the lineshape of the resonant levels

  16. Modeling electron beam parameters and plasma interface position in an anode plasma electron gun with hydrogen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze, A.; Virbulis, J.; Kravtsov, A.

    2018-05-01

    A beam glow discharge based electron gun can be applied as heater for silicon crystal growth systems in which silicon rods are pulled from melt. Impacts of high-energy charged particles cause wear and tear of the gun and generate an additional source of silicon contamination. A steady-state model for electron beam formation has been developed to model the electron gun and optimize its design. Description of the model and first simulation results are presented. It has been shown that the model can simulate dimensions of particle impact areas on the cathode and anode, but further improvements of the model are needed to correctly simulate electron trajectory distribution in the beam and the beam current dependence on the applied gas pressure.

  17. Development of a physical and electronic model for RuO 2 nanorod rectenna devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Justin

    Ruthenium oxide (RuO2) nanorods are an emergent technology in nanostructure devices. As the physical size of electronics approaches a critical lower limit, alternative solutions to further device miniaturization are currently under investigation. Thin-film nanorod growth is an interesting technology, being investigated for use in wireless communications, sensor systems, and alternative energy applications. In this investigation, self-assembled RuO2 nanorods are grown on a variety of substrates via a high density plasma, reactive sputtering process. Nanorods have been found to grow on substrates that form native oxide layers when exposed to air, namely silicon, aluminum, and titanium. Samples were analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) measurements were performed on single nanorods to characterize structure and electrical conductivity. The C-AFM probe tip is placed on a single nanorod and I-V characteristics are measured, potentially exhibiting rectifying capabilities. An analysis of these results using fundamental semiconductor physics principles is presented. Experimental data for silicon substrates was most closely approximated by the Simmons model for direct electron tunneling, whereas that of aluminum substrates was well approximated by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The native oxide of titanium is regarded as a semiconductor rather than an insulator and its ability to function as a rectifier is not strong. An electronic model for these nanorods is described herein.

  18. Modeling Blazar Spectra by Solving an Electron Transport Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tiffany; Finke, Justin; Becker, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    Blazars are luminous active galaxies across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, but the spectral formation mechanisms, especially the particle acceleration, in these sources are not well understood. We develop a new theoretical model for simulating blazar spectra using a self-consistent electron number distribution. Specifically, we solve the particle transport equation considering shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, stochastic acceleration due to MHD waves, Bohm diffusive particle escape, synchrotron radiation, and Compton radiation, where we implement the full Compton cross-section for seed photons from the accretion disk, the dust torus, and 26 individual broad lines. We used a modified Runge-Kutta method to solve the 2nd order equation, including development of a new mathematical method for normalizing stiff steady-state ordinary differential equations. We show that our self-consistent, transport-based blazar model can qualitatively fit the IR through Fermi g-ray data for 3C 279, with a single-zone, leptonic configuration. We use the solution for the electron distribution to calculate multi-wavelength SED spectra for 3C 279. We calculate the particle and magnetic field energy densities, which suggest that the emitting region is not always in equipartition (a common assumption), but sometimes matter dominated. The stratified broad line region (based on ratios in quasar reverberation mapping, and thus adding no free parameters) improves our estimate of the location of the emitting region, increasing it by ~5x. Our model provides a novel view into the physics at play in blazar jets, especially the relative strength of the shock and stochastic acceleration, where our model is well suited to distinguish between these processes, and we find that the latter tends to dominate.

  19. Applied economic model development algorithm for electronics company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailov I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report about received experience in the field of creating the actual methods and algorithms that help to simplify development of applied decision support systems. It reports about an algorithm, which is a result of two years research and have more than one-year practical verification. In a case of testing electronic components, the time of the contract conclusion is crucial point to make the greatest managerial mistake. At this stage, it is difficult to achieve a realistic assessment of time-limit and of wage-fund for future work. The creation of estimating model is possible way to solve this problem. In the article is represented an algorithm for creation of those models. The algorithm is based on example of the analytical model development that serves for amount of work estimation. The paper lists the algorithm’s stages and explains their meanings with participants’ goals. The implementation of the algorithm have made possible twofold acceleration of these models development and fulfilment of management’s requirements. The resulting models have made a significant economic effect. A new set of tasks was identified to be further theoretical study.

  20. A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, C.L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Sidikman, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes is developed which focuses on an improved description of the ion dynamics. The model is simple enough to allow nonlinear calculations with many harmonics for the times necessary to reach saturation. The model is motivated by a discussion that starts with the gyro-kinetic equation and emphasizes the importance of simultaneously including particular features of magnetic drift resonance, shear, and Landau effects. To ensure that these features are simultaneously incorporated in a Landau fluid model with only two evolution equations, a new approach to determining the closure coefficients is employed. The effect of this technique is to reduce the matching of fluid and kinetic responses to a single variable, rather than two, and to allow focusing on essential features of the fluctuations in question, rather than features that are only important for other types of fluctuations. Radially resolved nonlinear calculations of this model, advanced in time to reach saturation, are presented to partially illustrate its intended use. These calculations have a large number of poloidal and toroidal harmonics to represent the nonlinear dynamics in a converged steady state which includes cascading of energy to both short and long wavelengths

  1. Improved rate control for electron-beam evaporation and evaluation of optical performance improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevelber, Michael; Xu, Bing; Smith, Douglas

    2006-03-01

    A new deposition-rate-control and electron-beam-gun (e-gun) strategy was developed that significantly reduces the growth-rate variations for e-beam-deposited SiO2 coatings. The resulting improvements in optical performance are evaluated for multilayer bandpass filters. The adverse effect of uneven silica-source depletion on coating spectral performances during long deposition runs is discussed.

  2. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections

  3. Modelling of electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margine, Elena Roxana

    The main goals of this dissertation work are the analysis and prediction of the properties of nanoscale carbon materials which hold great potential for nanotechnological applications such as strong conductive composites, field-effect transistors, diodes, rechargeable batteries, etc. Some of these exciting applications are already being actively developed, however their design via trial-and-error experimentation is often difficult and expensive. State-of-the-art simulation methods can be used as a powerful tool to streamline the path to practical implementations. In this thesis I use ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations to explore the response of nanoscale carbon materials to doping. A brief overview of the theoretical methods and of some basic concepts on carbon nanotubes are given in the first two chapters. In Chapter 3 we study the effect of doping in double-walled carbon nanotubes. These systems can be considered as nanoscale capacitors since they have two conducting (or semi-conducting) shells. The experimental work of our collaborators demonstrated for the first time that such a capacitor can be realized by the adsorption of bromine anions at the surface of the outer tube. Our theoretical analysis of the experimental results revealed that this quantum system, surprisingly, behaves exactly as the classical Faraday cage: the electric charge always resides on the outside surface of the conductor, even when the pristine tubes are not metallic. In Chapter 4 I present our findings on the phonon frequencies' response to electron doping in single-walled carbon nanotubes. It is well established that when graphite is doped with electrons, carbon-carbon bonds lengthen and all vibrational frequencies soften. However, in semiconducting carbon nanotubes, the frequency of one mode increases at low levels of alkali doping. Having carefully modelled the process with ab initio methods we conclude that the unusual behavior of the vibrational mode depends on which electronic

  4. Training Corrective Maintenance Performance on Electronic Equipment with CAI Terminals: I. A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Joseph W.

    A report is given of a feasibility study in which several possible relationships between student, computer terminal, and electronic equipment were considered. The simplest of these configurations was set up and examined in terms of its feasibility for teaching the performance of fault localization on a Navy transceiver. An instructional program…

  5. Design of an electronic performance support system for food chemistry laboratory classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    The design oriented research described in this thesis aims at designing an realizing an electronic performance support system for food chemistry laboratory classes (labEPSS). Four design goals related to food chemistry laboratory classes were identified. Firstly, labEPSS should avoid extraneous

  6. Performance and calibration of the CHORUS scintillating fiber tracker and opto-electronics readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Aoki, S.; Brunner, J.; De Jong, M.; Fabre, J.P.; Ferreira, R.; Flegel, W.; Frekers, D.; Gregoire, G.; Herin, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Konijn, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Macina, D.; Meijer Drees, R.; Meinhard, H.; Michel, L.; Mommaert, C.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Niu, E.; Panman, J.; Riccardi, F.; Rondeshagen, D.; Sato, O.; Stefanini, G.; Vander Donckt, M.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.T.

    1995-01-01

    An essential component of the CERN WA95/CHORUS experiment is a scintillating fiber tracker system for precise track reconstruction of particles. The tracker design, its opto-electronics readout and calibration system are discussed. Performances of the detector are presented. (orig.)

  7. Evaluating electronic performance support systems: A methodology focused on future use-in-practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Verwijs, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Electronic performance support systems, as an emerging type of software environment, present many new challenges in relation to effective evaluation. In this paper, a global approach to a 'usage-orientated' evaluation methodology for software product is presented, followed by a specific example of

  8. Effectiveness of an Electronic Performance Support System on Computer Ethics and Ethical Decision-Making Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kert, Serhat Bahadir; Uz, Cigdem; Gecu, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an electronic performance support system (EPSS) on computer ethics education and the ethical decision-making processes. There were five different phases to this ten month study: (1) Writing computer ethics scenarios, (2) Designing a decision-making framework (3) Developing EPSS software (4) Using EPSS in a…

  9. Impact of Performance Feedback Delivered via Electronic Mail on Preschool Teachers' Use of Descriptive Praise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia; Kinder, Kiersten; Artman, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a professional development intervention that included data-based performance feedback delivered via electronic mail (e-mail) on preschool teachers' use of descriptive praise and whether increased use of descriptive praise was associated with changes in classroom-wide measures of child engagement and challenging behavior.…

  10. Working and learning with electronic performance support systems: An effectiveness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaens, T.J.; Nijhof, W.J.; Streumer, Jan; Abma, Harmen J.

    1997-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of electronic performance support systems (EPSS) is reported. Some of the expected advantages of EPSS, such as an increase in productivity and improved learning are evaluated with insurance agents using laptop computers. Theoretical statements, research design and

  11. Performance of a restrictive flow device and an electronic syringe driver for continuous subcutaneous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capes, D; Martin, K; Underwood, R

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the flow performance of the mechanical Springfusor 30 short model and the electronic Graseby MS16A. Flow rate was measured gravimetrically in a temperature-controlled cabinet. There was no statistically significant difference between the Graseby and Springfusor syringe drivers in the flow rate error at 25 degrees C. The percentage of flow rates within +/-20% accuracy during a 35-min periods at 25 degrees C was significantly less with the Graseby, being 91.9% compared with 100% for the Springfusor. Only 58.2% of flow rates with the Graseby were within the manufacturer claimed accuracy of +/-5%. The flow rate of the Springfusor was affected by temperature; at 30 degrees C the mean flow rate was 10.8% greater than at 25 degrees C. These results indicate that the Springfusor 30 had less flow rate variation than the Graseby MS16A. However, this would not be expected to cause noticeable clinical effects when used for opioid infusion in palliative care.

  12. The Upgrade of the ATLAS Electron and Photon Triggers for LHC Run 2 and their Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220717; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs particle. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based (Level 1) and a software based high level trigger (HLT), both of which were upgraded during the long shutdown of the LHC in preparation for data taking at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13TeV. The increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions as well as the planned higher center-of-mass energy demanded the optimisation of the trigger selections at each level, to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To improve the performance multivariate analysis techniques are introduced at the HLT. Th...

  13. Mimicking Daphnia magna bioassay performance by an electronic tongue for urban water quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zagrebin, Anatoly; Ignatieva, Natalia; Rybakin, Vladimir [Institute of Limnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • -Daphnia magna bioassay can be simulated with multisensor system. • Urban water toxicity can be predicted from potentiometric ET data. • Independent test set validation confirms statistical significance of the results. - Abstract: Toxicity is one of the key parameters of water quality in environmental monitoring. However, being evaluated as a response of living beings (as their mobility, fertility, death rate, etc.) to water quality, toxicity can only be assessed with the help of these living beings. This imposes certain restrictions on toxicity bioassay as an analytical method: biotest organisms must be properly bred, fed and kept under strictly regulated conditions and duration of tests can be quite long (up to several days), thus making the whole procedure the prerogative of the limited number of highly specialized laboratories. This report describes an original application of potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue) when the set of electrochemical sensors was calibrated against Daphnia magna death rate in order to perform toxicity assessment of urban waters without immediate involvement of living creatures. PRM (partial robust M) and PLS (projections on latent structures) regression models based on the data from this multisensor system allowed for prediction of toxicity of unknown water samples in terms of biotests but in the fast and simple instrumental way. Typical errors of water toxicity predictions were below 20% in terms of Daphnia death rate which can be considered as a good result taking into account the complexity of the task.

  14. Theoretical modeling of electronic transport in molecular devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinin, Simone

    In this thesis a novel approach for simulating electronic transport in nanoscale structures is introduced. We consider an open quantum system (the electrons of structure) accelerated by an external electromotive force and dissipating energy through inelastic scattering with a heat bath (phonons) acting on the electrons. This method can be regarded as a quantum-mechanical extension of the semi-classical Boltzmann transport equation. We use periodic boundary conditions and employ Density Functional Theory to recast the many-particle problem in an effective single-particle mean-field problem. By explicitly treating the dissipation in the electrodes, the behavior of the potential is an outcome of our method, at variance with the scattering approaches based on the Landauer formalism. We study the self-consistent steady-state solution, analyzing the out-of-equilibrium electron distribution, the electrical characteristics, the behavior of the self-consistent potential and the density of states of the system. We apply the method to the study of electronic transport in several molecular devices, consisting of small organic molecules or atomic wires sandwiched between gold surfaces. For gold wires we recover the experimental evidence that transport in short wires is ballistic, independent of the length of the wire and with conductance of one quantum. In benzene-1,4-dithiol we find that the delocalization of the frontier orbitals of the molecule is responsible for the high value of conductance and that, by inserting methylene groups to decouple the sulfur atoms from the carbon ring, the current is reduced, in agreement with the experimental measurements. We study the effect a geometrical distortion in a molecular device, namely the relative rotation of the carbon rings in a biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol molecule. We find that the reduced coupling between pi orbitals of the rings induced by the rotation leads to a reduction of the conductance and that this behavior is captured by a

  15. Discrete modelling of the electrochemical performance of SOFC electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, L.C.R.; Martin, C.L.; Bultel, Y.; Bouvard, D.; Siebert, E.

    2006-01-01

    The composite anode and cathode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are modelled as sintered mixtures of electrolyte and electrocatalyst particles. A particle packing is first created numerically by the discrete element method (DEM) from a loose packing of 40 000 spherical, monosized, homogeneously mixed, and randomly positioned particles. Once the microstructure is sintered numerically, the effective electrode conductivity is determined by discretization of the particle packing into a resistance network. Each particle contact is characteristic of a bond resistance that depends on contact geometry and particle properties. The network, which typically consists of 120 000 bond resistances in total, is solved using Kirchhoff's current law. Distributions of local current densities and particle potentials are then performed. We investigate how electrode performance depends on parameters such as electrode composition, thickness, density and intrinsic material conductivities that are temperature dependent. The simulations show that the best electrode performance is obtained for compositions close to the percolation threshold of the electronic conductor. Depending on particle conductivities, the electrode performance is a function of its thickness. Additionally, DEM simulations generate useful microstructural information such as: coordination numbers, triple phase boundary length and percolation thresholds

  16. DETRA: Model description and evaluation of model performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suolanen, V.

    1996-01-01

    The computer code DETRA is a generic tool for environmental transfer analyses of radioactive or stable substances. The code has been applied for various purposes, mainly problems related to the biospheric transfer of radionuclides both in safety analyses of disposal of nuclear wastes and in consideration of foodchain exposure pathways in the analyses of off-site consequences of reactor accidents. For each specific application an individually tailored conceptual model can be developed. The biospheric transfer analyses performed by the code are typically carried out for terrestrial, aquatic and food chain applications. 21 refs, 35 figs, 15 tabs

  17. Plasma potentials and performance of the advanced electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The mean plasma potential was measured on the LBL advanced electron cyclotron resonance (AECR) ion source for a variety of conditions. The mean potentials for plasmas of oxygen, argon, and argon mixed with oxygen in the AECR were determined. These plasma potentials are positive with respect to the plasma chamber wall and are on the order of tens of volts. Electrons injected into the plasma by an electron gun or from an aluminum oxide wall coating with a very high secondary electron emission reduce the plasma potential as does gas mixing. A lower plasma potential in the AECR source coincides with enhanced production of high charged state ions indicating longer ion confinement times. The effect of the extra electrons from external injection or wall coatings is to lower the average plasma potential and to increase the n e τ i of the ECR plasma. With sufficient extra electrons, the need for gas mixing can be eliminated or reduced to a lower level, so the source can operate at lower neutral pressures. A reduction of the neutral pressure decreases charge exchange between ions and neutrals and enhances the production of high charge state ions. An aluminum oxide coating results in the lowest plasma potential among the three methods discussed and the best source performance

  18. Performance Enhancement of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Electron-Injection Materials of Metal Carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong-Yeol; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Gwi-Yeol; Lee, Su-Min; Shrestha, Bhanu; Hong, Jin-Woong

    2016-05-01

    Performance of organic light-emitting diodes was investigated depending on the electron-injection materials of metal carbonates (Li2CO3 and Cs2CO3 ); and number of layers. In order to improve the device efficiency, two types of devices were manufactured by using the hole-injection material (Teflon-amorphous fluoropolymer -AF) and electron-injection materials; one is a two-layer reference device ( ITO/Teflon-AF/Alq3/Al ) and the other is a three-layer device (ITO/Teflon-AF/Alq3/metal carbonate/Al). From the results of the efficiency for the devices with hole-injection layer and electron-injection layer, it was found that the electron-injection layer affects the electrical properties of the device more than the hole-injection layer. The external-quantum efficiency for the three-layer device with Li2CO3 and Cs2CO3 layer is improved by approximately six and eight times, respectively, compared with that of the two-layer reference device. It is thought that a use of electron-injection layer increases recombination rate of charge carriers by the active injection of electrons and the blocking of holes.

  19. Analysis and modeling of electronic portal imaging exit dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistorius, S.; Yeboah, C.

    1995-01-01

    In spite of the technical advances in treatment planning and delivery in recent years, it is still unclear whether the recommended accuracy in dose delivery is being achieved. Electronic portal imaging devices, now in routine use in many centres, have the potential for quantitative dosimetry. As part of a project which aims to develop an expert-system based On-line Dosimetric Verification (ODV) system we have investigated and modelled the dose deposited in the detector of a video based portal imaging system. Monte Carlo techniques were used to simulate gamma and x-ray beams in homogeneous slab phantom geometries. Exit doses and energy spectra were scored as a function of (i) slab thickness, (ii) field size and (iii) the air gap between the exit surface and the detector. The results confirm that in order to accurately calculate the dose in the high atomic number Gd 2 O 2 S detector for a range of air gaps, field sizes and slab thicknesses both the magnitude of the primary and scattered components and their effective energy need to be considered. An analytic, convolution based model which attempts to do this is proposed. The results of the simulation and the ability of the model to represent these data will be presented and discussed. This model is used to show that, after training, a back-propagation feed-forward cascade correlation neural network has the ability to identify and recognise the cause of, significant dosimetric errors

  20. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics: 2016 Performance Data Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meydbray, Jenya [PV Evolution Labs (PVEL), Davis, CA (United States); Donovan, Matt [PV Evolution Labs (PVEL), Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The 2012 NREL report 'Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics' provides a standard methodology for estimating the performance benefit of distributed power electronics under partial shading conditions. Since the release of the report, experiments have been conducted for a number of products and for different system configurations. Drawing from these experiences, updates to the test and analysis methods are recommended. Proposed changes in data processing have the benefit of reducing the sensitivity to measurement errors and weather variability, as well as bringing the updated performance score in line with measured and simulated values of the shade recovery benefit of distributed PV power electronics. Also, due to the emergence of new technologies including sub-module embedded power electronics, the shading method has been extended to include power electronics that operate at a finer granularity than the module level. An update to the method is proposed to account for these emerging technologies that respond to shading differently than module-level devices. The partial shading test remains a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations as would be experienced by typical residential or commercial rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. Performance data for multiple products tested using this method are discussed, based on equipment from Enphase, Solar Edge, Maxim Integrated and SMA. In general, the annual recovery of shading losses from the module-level electronics evaluated is 25-35%, with the major difference between different trials being related to the number of parallel strings in the test installation rather than differences between the equipment tested. Appendix D data has been added in this update.

  1. Modeling skin collimation using the electron pencil beam redefinition algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Pai-Chun M.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Starkschall, George; Antolak, John A.; Boyd, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Skin collimation is an important tool for electron beam therapy that is used to minimize the penumbra when treating near critical structures, at extended treatment distances, with bolus, or using arc therapy. It is usually made of lead or lead alloy material that conforms to and is placed on patient surface. Presently, commercially available treatment-planning systems lack the ability to model skin collimation and to accurately calculate dose in its presence. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the use of the pencil beam redefinition algorithm (PBRA) in calculating dose in the presence of skin collimation. Skin collimation was incorporated into the PBRA by terminating the transport of electrons once they enter the skin collimator. Both fixed- and arced-beam dose calculations for arced-beam geometries were evaluated by comparing them with measured dose distributions for 10- and 15-MeV beams. Fixed-beam dose distributions were measured in water at 88-cm source-to-surface distance with an air gap of 32 cm. The 6x20-cm 2 field (dimensions projected to isocenter) had a 10-mm thick lead collimator placed on the surface of the water with its edge 5 cm inside the field's edge located at +10 cm. Arced-beam dose distributions were measured in a 13.5-cm radius polystyrene circular phantom. The beam was arced 90 deg. (-45 deg. to +45 deg. ), and 10-mm thick lead collimation was placed at ±30 deg. . For the fixed beam at 10 MeV, the PBRA-calculated dose agreed with measured dose to within 2.0-mm distance to agreement (DTA) in the regions of high-dose gradient and 2.0% in regions of low dose gradient. At 15 MeV, the PBRA agreed to within a 2.0-mm DTA in the regions of high-dose gradient; however, the PBRA underestimated the dose by as much as 5.3% over small regions at depths less than 2 cm because it did not model electrons scattered from the edge of the skin collimation. For arced beams at 10 MeV, the agreement was 1-mm DTA in the high-dose gradient regions, and 2

  2. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ningbo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS. In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionospheric coefficients are discussed and the characteristics of the NeQuick coefficients are also analyzed. The accuracy of Global Position System (GPS broadcast Klobuchar, original NeQuick2 and fitted NeQuickC as well as Galileo broadcast NeQuickG models is evaluated over the continental and oceanic regions, respectively, in comparison with the ionospheric total electron content (TEC provided by global ionospheric maps (GIM, GPS test stations and JASON-2 altimeter. The results show that NeQuickG can mitigate ionospheric delay by 54.2%~65.8% on a global scale, and NeQuickC can correct for 71.1%~74.2% of the ionospheric delay. NeQuick2 performs at the same level with NeQuickG, which is a bit better than that of GPS broadcast Klobuchar model.

  3. Baking oven improvement by performance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The first phase of the project included both the derivation of an oven model and the development of a portable, rapid-response heat-flux sensor. Heat flux (defined as the instantaneous rate of heat flow per unit at the surface of the baking biscuit and expressed in W/cm[sup 2]) has been shown to be a more useful measure of oven performance than temperature alone. Fixed-point heat-flux sensors have already been developed and marketed, but a need was expressed at the start of this project for a travelling sensor which could be used to construct a more detailed picture of heat-flux variation in an oven. The travelling monitor developed can be used to measure variations in the heat flux experienced at the surface of products being baked in a travelling oven, both when oven conditions are fixed and when they are varied. It can also be used to identify the optimum locations within an oven for fixed heat-flux probes. It has been used effectively throughout the project for both purposes. Fuel savings of 18% and 21%, respectively, were achieved with two ovens. (author)

  4. Electronic and magnetic interactions in high temperature superconducting and high coercivity materials. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    The issue addressed in the research was how to understand what controls the competition between two types of phase transition (ordering) which may be present in a hybridizing correlated-electron system containing two transition-shell atomic species; and how the variation of behavior observed can be used to understand the mechanisms giving the observed ordered state. This is significant for understanding mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity and other states of highly correlated electron systems. Thus the research pertains to magnetic effects as related to interactions giving high temperature superconductivity; where the working hypothesis is that the essential feature governing the magnetic and superconducting behavior of copper-oxide-type systems is a cooperative valence fluctuation mechanism involving the copper ions, as mediated through hybridization effects dominated by the oxygen p electrons. (Substitution of praseodymium at the rare earth sites in the 1·2·3 material provides an interesting illustration of this mechanism since experimentally such substitution strongly suppresses and destroys the superconductivity; and, at 100% Pr, gives Pr f-electron magnetic ordering at a temperature above 16K). The research was theoretical and computational and involved use of techniques aimed at correlated-electron systems that can be described within the confines of model hamiltonians such as the Anderson lattice hamiltonian. Specific techniques used included slave boson methodology used to treat modification of electronic structure and the Mori projection operator (memory function) method used to treat magnetic response (dynamic susceptibility)

  5. A neural network model of the relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, H.C.; Gorney, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A neural network has been developed to model the temporal variations of relativistic (>3 MeV) electrons at geosynchronous orbit based on model inputs consisting of 10 consecutive days of the daily sum of the planetary magnetic index ΣKp. The neural network consists of three layers of neurons, containing 10 neurons in the input layer, 6 neurons in a hidden layer, and 1 output neuron. The output is a prediction of the daily-averaged electron flux for the tenth day. The neural network was trained using 62 days of data from July 1, 1984, through August 31, 1984, from the SEE spectrometer on the geosynchronous spacecraft 1982-019. The performance of the model was measured by comparing model outputs with measured fluxes over a 6-year period from April 19, 1982, to June 4, 1988. For the entire data set the rms logarithmic error of the neural network is 0.76, and the average logarithmic error is 0.58. The neural network is essentially zero biased, and for accumulation intervals of 3 days or longer the average logarithmic error is less than 0.1. The neural network provides results that are significantly more accurate than those from linear prediction filters. The model has been used to simulate conditions which are rarely observed in nature, such as long periods of quiet (ΣKp = 0) and ideal impulses. It has also been used to make reasonably accurate day-ahead forecasts of the relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit

  6. An electronic edition of eighteenth-century drama: the materiality of editing in performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the domain of electronic edition, drama’s specificity has been considered in terms of metadata improvements and possibilities. At the same time, an increasing closeness between art history research and performance art has demonstrated its methodological value to assess the complex nature of the archive. My post-doctoral research follows the lead and goes as far as proposing that performance art can be an adequate methodology when preparing the electronic edition of eighteenth-century drama. Furthermore, “performing the archive” can help to fill the gap between the eventful nature of drama manuscripts and the audience of today, suggesting new ways of approaching the specific materiality of the plays.

  7. Optimization of flexible substrate by gradient elastic modulus design for performance improvement of flexible electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minggang; Liang, Chunping; Hu, Ruixue; Cheng, Zhaofang; Liu, Shiru; Zhang, Shengli

    2018-05-01

    It is imperative and highly desirable to buffer the stress in flexible electronic devices. In this study, we designed and fabricated lamellate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) samples with gradient elastic moduli, motivated by the protection of the pomelo pulp by its skin, followed by the measurements of their elastic moduli. We demonstrated that the electrical and fatigue performances of a Ag-nanowire thin film device on the PDMS substrate with a gradient elastic modulus are significantly better than those of a device on a substrate with a monolayer PDMS. This study provides a robust scheme to effectively protect flexible electronic devices.

  8. Decontamination of digital image sensors and assessment of electron microscope performance in a BSL-3 containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Sherman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A unique biological safety level (BSL-3 cryo-electron microscopy facility with a 200 keV high-end cryo-electron microscope has been commissioned at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB to study the structure of viruses and bacteria classified as select agents. We developed a microscope decontamination protocol based on chlorine dioxide gas with a continuous flow system. In this paper we report on testing digital camera sensors (both CCD and CMOS direct detector in a BSL-3 environment, and microscope performance after chlorine dioxide (ClO2 decontamination cycles.

  9. Image timing and detector performance of a matrix ion-chamber electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Oncology Centre of Auckland Hospital recently purchased a Varian PortalVision TM electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Image acquisition times, input-output characteristics and contrast-detail curves of this matrix liquid ion-chamber EPID have been measured to examine the variation in imaging performance with acquisition mode. The variation in detector performance with acquisition mode has been examined. The HV cycle time can be increased to improve image quality. Consideration should be given to the acquisition mode and HV cycle time used when imaging to ensure adequate imaging performance with reasonable imaging time. (author)

  10. A Model of Electron-Positron Pair Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The elementary electron-positron pair formation process is consideredin terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory, with specialattention to the conservation of energy, spin, and electric charge.The theory leads to a wave-packet photon model of narrow line widthand needle-radiation properties, not being available from conventionalquantum electrodynamics which is based on Maxwell's equations. Themodel appears to be consistent with the observed pair productionprocess, in which the created electron and positron form two raysthat start within a very small region and have original directionsalong the path of the incoming photon. Conservation of angular momentum requires the photon to possess a spin, as given by the present theory but not by the conventional one. The nonzero electric field divergence further gives rise to a local intrinsic electric charge density within the photon body, whereas there is a vanishing total charge of the latter. This may explain the observed fact that the photon decays on account of the impact from an external electric field. Such a behaviour should not become possible for a photon having zero local electric charge density.

  11. Modeling of the response under radiation of electronic dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.

    2003-01-01

    The simulation with with calculation codes the interactions and the transport of primary and secondary radiations in the detectors allows to reduce the number of developed prototypes and the number of experiments under radiation. The simulation makes possible the determination of the response of the instrument for exposure configurations more extended that these ones of references radiations produced in laboratories. The M.C.N.P.X. allows to transport, over the photons, electrons and neutrons, the charged particles heavier than the electrons and to simulate the radiation - matter interactions for a certain number of particles. The present paper aims to present the interest of the use of the M.C.N.P.X. code in the study, research and evaluation phases of the instrumentation necessary to the dosimetry monitoring. To do that the presentation gives the results of the modeling of a prototype of a equivalent tissue proportional counter (C.P.E.T.) and of the C.R.A.M.A.L. ( radiation protection apparatus marketed by the Eurisys Mesures society). (N.C.)

  12. A proposed model of e-trust for electronic banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Yousefi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Customer’s trust is the most important and one of the key factors of success in e-commerce. However, trust is the essential aspects of e-banking adoption and the main element for building long-term relationships with the bank's customers. So the purpose of this research is to investigate the factors influencing on customer′s trust in e-banking services and prioritize them. Therefore, designed questionnaire was distributed among 177 electronic service customers in number of banks in the city of Karaj, Iran. Likert quintuplet scales were used to measure the variables. After collecting the questionnaires, the data were analyzed by structural equation modeling (by using LISREL 8.5. The results revealed that quality of electronic services such as ease of use, privacy and security, individual characteristics of customers such as disposition to trust and features of bank such as reputation, size and dependence on government, have had the greatest effect on customer′s trust in e-banking services.

  13. Monte Carlo modeling of ion beam induced secondary electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, U., E-mail: uhuh@vols.utk.edu [Biochemistry & Cellular & Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0840 (United States); Cho, W. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 (United States); Joy, D.C. [Biochemistry & Cellular & Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0840 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Ion induced secondary electrons (iSE) can produce high-resolution images ranging from a few eV to 100 keV over a wide range of materials. The interpretation of such images requires knowledge of the secondary electron yields (iSE δ) for each of the elements and materials present and as a function of the incident beam energy. Experimental data for helium ions are currently limited to 40 elements and six compounds while other ions are not well represented. To overcome this limitation, we propose a simple procedure based on the comprehensive work of Berger et al. Here we show that between the energy range of 10–100 keV the Berger et al. data for elements and compounds can be accurately represented by a single universal curve. The agreement between the limited experimental data that is available and the predictive model is good, and has been found to provide reliable yield data for a wide range of elements and compounds. - Highlights: • The Universal ASTAR Yield Curve was derived from data recently published by NIST. • IONiSE incorporated with the Curve will predict iSE yield for elements and compounds. • This approach can also handle other ion beams by changing basic scattering profile.

  14. Core-electron binding energies from self-consistent field molecular orbital theory using a mixture of all-electron real atoms and valence-electron model atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, C.M.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The chemistry of large systems such as clusters may be readily investigated by valence-electron theories based on model potentials, but such an approach does not allow for the examination of core-electron binding energies which are commonly measured experimentally for such systems. Here we merge our previously developed Gaussian based valence-electron model potential theory with all-electron ab initio theory to allow for the calculation of core orbital binding energies when desired. For the atoms whose cores are to be examined, we use the real nuclear changes, all of the electrons, and the appropriate many-electron basis sets. For the rest of the system we use reduced nuclear charges, the Gaussian based model potentials, only the valence electrons, and appropriate valence-electron basis sets. Detailed results for neutral Al 2 are presented for the cases of all-electron, mixed real--model, and model--model SCF--MO calculations. Several different all-electron and valence electron calculations have been done to test the use of the model potential per se, as well as the effect of basis set choice. The results are in all cases in excellent agreement with one another. Based on these studies, a set of ''double-zeta'' valence and all-electron basis functions have been used for further SCF--MO studies on Al 3 , Al 4 , AlNO, and OAl 3 . For a variety of difference combinations of real and model atoms we find excellent agreement for relative total energies, orbital energies (both core and valence), and Mulliken atomic populations. Finally, direct core-hole-state ionic calculations are reported in detail for Al 2 and AlNO, and noted for Al 3 and Al 4 . Results for corresponding frozen-orbital energy differences, relaxed SCF--MO energy differences, and relaxation energies are in all cases in excellent agreement (never differing by more than 0.07 eV, usually by somewhat less). The study clearly demonstrates the accuracy of the mixed real--model theory

  15. Energy deposition model for low-energy electrons (10-10 000 eV) in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan, A.; Perez, J.M.; Williart, A.; Blanco, F.; Garcia, G.

    2004-01-01

    An energy deposition model for electrons in air that can be useful in microdosimetric applications is presented in this study. The model is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the single electron scattering processes that can take place with the molecular constituents of the air in the energy range 10-10 000 eV. The input parameters for this procedure have been the electron scattering cross sections, both differential and integral. These parameters were calculated using a model potential method which describes the electron scattering with the molecular constituent of air. The reliability of the calculated integral cross section values has been evaluated by comparison with direct total electron scattering cross-section measurements performed by us in a transmission beam experiment. Experimental energy loss spectra for electrons in air have been used as probability distribution functions to define the electron energy loss in single collision events. The resulting model has been applied to simulate the electron transport through a gas cell containing air at different pressures and the results have been compared with those observed in the experiments. Finally, as an example of its applicability to dosimetric issues, the energy deposition of 10 000 eV by means of successive collisions in a free air chamber has been simulated

  16. Comprehensive Power Losses Model for Electronic Power Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Quanyou; Li, Canbing; Cao, Yijia

    2018-01-01

    and considering the impact of the non-unity power factor and the three-phase unbalanced current, the overall power losses in the distribution network when using the EPT to replace the conventional transformer is analyzed, and the conditions in which the application of the EPT can cause less power losses...... reduced power losses in the distribution network require a comprehensive consideration when comparing the power losses of theEPT and conventional transformer. In this paper, a comprehensive power losses analysis model for the EPT in distribution networks is proposed. By analyzing the EPT self-losses......The electronic power transformer (EPT) has highe rpower losses than the conventional transformer. However, the EPT can correct the power factor, compensate the unbalanced current and reduce the line power losses in the distribution network.Therefore, the higher losses of the EPT and the consequent...

  17. Electron localization in liquid hydrocarbons: The Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, Gordon L.; Mozumder, A.

    2008-01-01

    Anderson's model is applied for initial localization in liquid hydrocarbons (particularly n-alkanes) in conjunction with certain results of scaling theory. Medium connectivity is calculated using experimental X-ray data on liquid structure, from which critical disorder (W/V) c is computed, where W is diagonal disorder and V is the transfer energy. Actual W prevailing in the liquid is computed from anisotropic molecular polarizability. V is estimated by a heuristic procedure originating in scaling theory. These values are used to compute the percentage of initially delocalized states available for low-energy electrons in alkane liquids. This percentage decreases monotonically from methane (100%) to n-pentane and beyond (0%). In ethane and propane, the initial states are highly delocalized (97.6% and 83.9%, respectively). Subsequent trapping changes the situation as evidenced in mobility studies. Butane presents a partially, intermediate delocalized case (53.2%)

  18. Numerical model of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Important features of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model the dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that a gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for a few sources. Changes in the simulated extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.

  19. Comprehensive Power Losses Model for Electronic Power Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Quanyou; Li, Canbing; Cao, Yijia

    2018-01-01

    The electronic power transformer (EPT) has highe rpower losses than the conventional transformer. However, the EPT can correct the power factor, compensate the unbalanced current and reduce the line power losses in the distribution network.Therefore, the higher losses of the EPT and the consequent...... reduced power losses in the distribution network require a comprehensive consideration when comparing the power losses of theEPT and conventional transformer. In this paper, a comprehensive power losses analysis model for the EPT in distribution networks is proposed. By analyzing the EPT self......-losses and considering the impact of the non-unity power factor and the three-phase unbalanced current, the overall power losses in the distribution network when using the EPT to replace the conventional transformer is analyzed, and the conditions in which the application of the EPT can cause less power losses...

  20. Modeling and Optimization of a High-Tc Hot-Electron Superconducting Mixer for Terahertz Applicaitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; Gaidis, M. C.; Burns, M. J.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Delin, K. A.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a YBa(sub 2)Cu(sub 3)O(sub 7-(kronecker delta))(YBCO) hot-electron bolometer (HEB) quasioptical mixer for a 2.5 heterodyne receiver is discussed. The modeled device is a submicron bridge made from a 10 nm thick film on a high thermal conductance substrate. The mixer performance expected for this device is analyzed in the framework of a two-temperature model which includes heating both of the electrons and the lattice. Also, the contribution of heat diffusion from the film through the substrate and from the film to the normal metal contacts is evaluated....a single sideband temperature of less than 2000k is predicted.

  1. Progress in the understanding and the performance of electron cyclotron heating and plasma shaping on TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moret, J.-M.; Alberti, S.; Andrebe, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Powerful ECH with an adaptable launching geometry and plasma shaping capability are exploited on TCV to create and control high performance regimes, with 3MW of 2nd and 1.5MW of 3rd harmonic (X3) and real time optimisation of the absorption by mirror feedback. Full X3 absorption with launching parallel to the resonant surface was obtained. Electron temperature profile stiffness was measured as a function of the shape up for a large range of temperature gradients and confirmed that the diffusivity is lower at negative triangularity and high elongation. The link between shear and transport was verified by interleaved modulation of co- and counter- ECCD. ECCD efficiency and fast electron generation and transport measurements demonstrate the role of transport on the driven current profile. Stationary electron ITBs were created and the role of the current profile in transport reduction was clarified by improving or destroying the barrier with a small induced electric field. (author)

  2. Performance of the electronics for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter system of the SLC large detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, E.; Abt, I.; Haller, G.M.; Honma, A.

    1988-10-01

    Results of performance tests on electronics for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) for the SLD experiment at SLAC are presented. The behavior of a sub-unit called a ''tophat,'' which processes 720 detector signals, is described. The electronics consists of charge sensitive preamplifiers, analog memories, A/D converters, and associated control and readout circuitry. An internal charge injection system is used to calibrate the overall response of the devices. Linearity is better than 1% of 0--28 pC charge at the input of the amplifiers. Noise (expressed as equivalent input charge) is less than 3000 electrons at a shaping time of 4 μs, with a slope of 2600 e/sup /minus///nF. Crosstalk to adjacent channels is less than 0.5%. The power consumption at a duty cycle of 13% is 61 W. 3 refs., 7 figs

  3. Thermal expansion model for multiphase electronic packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, B.E.; Warren, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Control of thermal expansion is often necessary in the design and selection of electronic packages. In some instances, it is desirable to have a coefficient of thermal expansion intermediate between values readily attainable with single or two phase materials. The addition of a third phase in the form of fillers, whiskers, or fibers can be used to attain intermediate expansions. To help design the thermal expansion of multiphase materials for specific applications, a closed form model has been developed that accurately predicts the effective elastic properties of isotropic filled materials and transversely isotropic lamina. Properties of filled matrix materials are used as inputs to the lamina model to obtain the composite elastic properties as a function of the volume fraction of each phase. Hybrid composites with two or more fiber types are easily handled with this model. This paper reports that results for glass, quartz, and Kevlar fibers with beta-eucryptite filled polymer matrices show good agreement with experimental results for X, Y, and Z thermal expansion coefficients

  4. The Five Key Questions of Human Performance Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu

    2018-01-01

    Via building computational (typically mathematical and computer simulation) models, human performance modeling (HPM) quantifies, predicts, and maximizes human performance, human-machine system productivity and safety. This paper describes and summarizes the five key questions of human performance modeling: 1) Why we build models of human performance; 2) What the expectations of a good human performance model are; 3) What the procedures and requirements in building and verifying a human performance model are; 4) How we integrate a human performance model with system design; and 5) What the possible future directions of human performance modeling research are. Recent and classic HPM findings are addressed in the five questions to provide new thinking in HPM's motivations, expectations, procedures, system integration and future directions.

  5. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  6. Models for the transport of low energy electrons in water and the yield of hydrated electrons at early times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Miller, J.H.; Ritchie, R.H.; Bichsel, H.

    1985-01-01

    An insulator model with four experimental energy bands was used to fit the optical properties of liquid water and to extend these data to non-zero momentum transfer. Inelastic mean free paths derived from this dielectric response function provided the basic information necessary to degrade high energy electrons to the subexcitation energy domain. Two approaches for the transport of subexcitation electrons were investigated. (i) Gas phase cross sections were used to degrade subexcitation electrons to thermal energy and the thermalization lengths were scaled to unit density. (ii) Thermalization lengths were estimated by age-diffusion theory with a stopping power deduced from the data on liquid water and transport cross sections derived from elastic scattering in water vapor. Theoretical ranges were compared to recent experimental results. A stochastic model was used to calculate the rapid diffusion and reaction of hydrated electrons with other radiolysis products. The sensitivity of the calculated yields to the model assumptions and comparison with experimental data are discussed

  7. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for a flue gas boiler covering the flue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been defined for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2......: a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat......Lab/Simulink has been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  8. Electron mean-free-path filtering in Dirac material for improved thermoelectric performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te-Huan; Zhou, Jiawei; Li, Mingda; Ding, Zhiwei; Song, Qichen; Liao, Bolin; Fu, Liang; Chen, Gang

    2018-01-30

    Recent advancements in thermoelectric materials have largely benefited from various approaches, including band engineering and defect optimization, among which the nanostructuring technique presents a promising way to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit ( zT ) by means of reducing the characteristic length of the nanostructure, which relies on the belief that phonons' mean free paths (MFPs) are typically much longer than electrons'. Pushing the nanostructure sizes down to the length scale dictated by electron MFPs, however, has hitherto been overlooked as it inevitably sacrifices electrical conduction. Here we report through ab initio simulations that Dirac material can overcome this limitation. The monotonically decreasing trend of the electron MFP allows filtering of long-MFP electrons that are detrimental to the Seebeck coefficient, leading to a dramatically enhanced power factor. Using SnTe as a material platform, we uncover this MFP filtering effect as arising from its unique nonparabolic Dirac band dispersion. Room-temperature zT can be enhanced by nearly a factor of 3 if one designs nanostructures with grain sizes of ∼10 nm. Our work broadens the scope of the nanostructuring approach for improving the thermoelectric performance, especially for materials with topologically nontrivial electronic dynamics.

  9. Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer attitude control electronics box design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.

  10. Models and criteria for waste repository performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    A primary objective of the Waste Management Program is to assure that public health is protected. Predictive modeling, to some extent, will play a role in assuring that this objective is met. This paper considers the requirements and limitations of predictive modeling in providing useful inputs to waste management decision making. Criteria development needs and the relation between criteria and models are also discussed

  11. Electronic Structure Control of Tungsten Oxide Activated by Ni for Ultrahigh-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian; Kou, Zongkui; Amiinu, Ibrahim Saana; Hong, Xufeng; Li, Qingwei; Tang, Yongfu; Zhao, Yufeng; Liu, Shaojun; Mai, Liqiang; Mu, Shichun

    2018-04-17

    Tuning the electron structure is of vital importance for designing high active electrode materials. Here, for boosting the capacitive performance of tungsten oxide, an atomic scale engineering approach to optimize the electronic structure of tungsten oxide by Ni doping is reported. Density functional theory calculations disclose that through Ni doping, the density of state at Fermi level for tungsten oxide can be enhanced, thus promoting its electron transfer. When used as electrode of supercapacitors, the obtained Ni-doped tungsten oxide with 4.21 at% Ni exhibits an ultrahigh mass-specific capacitance of 557 F g -1 at the current density of 1 A g -1 and preferable durability in a long-term cycle test. To the best of knowledge, this is the highest supercapacitor performance reported so far in tungsten oxide and its composites. The present strategy demonstrates the validity of the electronic structure control in tungsten oxide via introducing Ni atoms for pseudocapacitors, which can be extended to other related fields as well. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Measurement and evaluation of the public administration performance through delivery of electronic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirlinda Batalli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper concerns the relation between delivery of electronic services (e-services and evaluation of public administration performance. Public sector organizations should pay attention and determine the strategies to be followed in order to increase the satisfaction of citizens and businesses in relation to delivery of electronic services. The study aims to review the demands toward progress to the competitiveness, the sustainability, efficiency and effectives in public administration that have rapidly enforced the wide reforms in the public sector, in order to modernize the initiatives to offer better electronic services for the citizens. The article aims to present that the transformation process toward providing electronic services to the citizens should be assessed continuously, in light with challenges, demands and process of globalization, in order to strengthen the capacities of public administration and make it more efficient. In this regard, the regular evaluation and measurement of the public administration performance leads toward the promotion of enhanced public services and higher level of accountability. Through receiving the e-services, citizens can save their time, can reduce the expenses and create an easier access of communication with all levels of the government.

  13. PET/CT Biograph trademark Sensation 16. Performance improvement using faster electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.; Bercier, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: the new PET/CT biograph sensation 16 (BS16) tomographs have faster detector electronics which allow a reduced timing coincidence window and an increased lower energy threshold (from 350 to 400 keV). This paper evaluates the performance of the BS16 PET scanner before and after the Pico-3D electronics upgrade. Methods: four NEMA NU 2-2001 protocols, (i) spatial resolution, (ii) scatter fraction, count losses and random measurement, (iii) sensitivity, and (iv) image quality, have been performed. Results: a considerable change in both PET count-rate performance and image quality is observed after electronics upgrade. The new scatter fraction obtained using Pico-3D electronics showed a 14% decrease compared to that obtained with the previous electronics. At the typical patient background activity (5.3 kBq/ml), the new scatter fraction was approximately 0.42. The noise equivalent count-rate (R NEC ) performance was also improved. The value at which the R NEC curve peaked, increased from 3.7 . 10 4 s -1 at 14 kBq/ml to 6.4 . 10 4 s -1 at 21 kBq/ml (2R-NEC rate). Likewise, the peak true count-rate value increased from 1.9 . 10 5 s -1 at 22 kBq/ml to 3.4 . 10 5 s -1 at 33 kBq/ml. An average increase of 45% in contrast was observed for hot spheres when using AW-OSEM (4ix8s) as the reconstruction algorithm. For cold spheres, the average increase was 12%. Conclusion: the performance of the PET scanners in the BS16 tomographs is improved by the optimization of the signal processing. The narrower energy and timing coincidence windows lead to a considerable increase of signal-to-noise ratio. The existing combination of fast detectors and adapted electronics in the BS16 tomographs allow imaging protocols with reduced acquisition time, providing higher patient throughput. (orig.)

  14. Model of two-dimensional electron gas formation at ferroelectric interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado-Puente, P.; Bristowe, N. C.; Yin, B.; Shirasawa, R.; Ghosez, Philippe; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces as a consequence of polar discontinuities has generated an enormous amount of activity due to the variety of interesting effects it gives rise to. Here, we study under what circumstances similar processes can also take place underneath ferroelectric thin films. We use a simple Landau model to demonstrate that in the absence of extrinsic screening mechanisms, a monodomain phase can be stabilized in ferroelectric films by means of an electronic reconstruction. Unlike in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure, the emergence with thickness of the free charge at the interface is discontinuous. This prediction is confirmed by performing first-principles simulations of free-standing slabs of PbTiO3. The model is also used to predict the response of the system to an applied electric field, demonstrating that the two-dimensional electron gas can be switched on and off discontinuously and in a nonvolatile fashion. Furthermore, the reversal of the polarization can be used to switch between a two-dimensional electron gas and a two-dimensional hole gas, which should, in principle, have very different transport properties. We discuss the possible formation of polarization domains and how such configuration competes with the spontaneous accumulation of free charge at the interfaces.

  15. Sustaining Team Performance: A Systems Model\\

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-31

    member performance of specific behaviors" ( Nivea et al., 1978, p. 59). They have identified four major performance categories, and several performance...within the fire direction center several artillerymen work additively. The number of men in the fire direction center does not add steps to the sequence...Instructional strategies for training men of high and low aptitude. HumRRO-TR-73-10. Alexandria, VA: Human Resources Organization, April 1973. Blum, M.L. and

  16. Estimation of edge electron temperature profiles via forward modelling of the electron cyclotron radiation transport at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathgeber, S K; Barrera, L; Eich, T; Fischer, R; Suttrop, W; Wolfrum, E; Nold, B; Willensdorfer, M

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to obtain reliable edge profiles of the electron temperature by forward modelling of the electron cyclotron radiation transport. While for the core of ASDEX Upgrade plasmas, straightforward analysis of electron cyclotron intensity measurements based on the optically thick plasma approximation is usually justified, reasonable analysis of the steep and optically thin plasma edge needs to consider broadened emission and absorption profiles and radiation transport processes. This is carried out in the framework of integrated data analysis which applies Bayesian probability theory for joint analysis of the electron density and temperature with data of different interdependent and complementary diagnostics. By this means, electron cyclotron radiation intensity delivers highly spatially resolved electron temperature data for the plasma edge. In H-mode, the edge gradient of the electron temperature can be several times higher than the one of the radiation temperature. Furthermore, we are able to reproduce the ‘shine-through’ peak—the observation of increased radiation temperatures at frequencies resonant in the optically thin scrape-off layer. This phenomenon is caused by strongly down-shifted radiation of Maxwellian tail electrons located in the H-mode edge region and, therefore, contains valuable information about the electron temperature edge gradient. (paper)

  17. Advanced prior modeling for 3D bright field electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM3D, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior model. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use 3D non-local means (NLM) as the prior model in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior model.

  18. Data for a pre-performance test of self-developed electronic tongue sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Isabell Immohr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data, which can be applied for a pre-performance test of self-developed electronic tongue sensors. Contained data is related to the research article “Impact of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate in oral liquids on E-Tongue Measurements” (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.10.045; (L.I. Immohr, R. Turner, M. Pein-Hackelbusch, 2016 [1]. Sensor responses were obtained from 10 subsequent measurements and four different concentrations of quinine hydrochloride by electronic tongue (TS-5000Z, Insent Inc., Atsugi-Shi, Japan measurements. Based on the data for the pre-performance testing, which were calculated based on the fluctuation range of the sensor responses around the median, stability criteria and required preconditions cycles were defined.

  19. Performance testing of selected types of electronic personal dosimeters used in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Yousif, E.H.; Beineen, A.A.; Yousif, B.E.; Hassan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements were carried out for calibration and performance testing of a set of 10 electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. Calibrations were carried out at three X-ray beam qualities described in ISO standard 4037 in addition to 137 Cs and 60 Co gamma ray beams. The experimental was performed with EPDs mounted on ICRU Slab phantom. X-ray and γ-ray beams were characterized in terms of air kerma free-in-air which were converted to the known delivered personal dose equivalent, H p (10) using appropriate the air kerma to personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Dosimeters tested showed excellent energy and angular response and relative error of indication within the recommended limit for photon energies from 65 keV to 1.25 MeV. The study showed encouraging results for using electronic dosimeters in personal dosimetry.

  20. Effect of cathode electron-receiver on the performance of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiaoying; Li, Dong [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Sun, Yongming; Yuan, Zhenhong; Li, Lianhua; Li, Yin [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Performance of cathode electron receivers has direct effect on the voltage and power density of MFC. This paper explored the electrical performance of MFC with potassium permanganate, ferricyanide solution and dissolved oxygen (DO) as cathode electron receivers. The results showed that the internal resistance of MFC with DO depends on catalyst and is higher than that of MFC with potassium permanganate and potassium ferricyanide solution. The maximum volume power density is 4.35 W/m{sup 3}, and the smallest internal resistance is only about 54 {omega}. In case of DO, the internal resistance and power density is different depending on the catalyst and is not too much related to the membranes. (author)

  1. Combined performance studies for electrons at the 2004 ATLAS combined test-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abat, E; Arik, E; Abdallah, J M; Addy, T N; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Ahmad, A; Akesson, T P A; Aleksa, M; Anghinolfi, F; Baron, S; Alexa, C; Anderson, K; Andreazza, A; Banfi, D; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G; Atkinson, T; Baines, J; Baker, O K

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 at the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) combined test beam, one slice of the ATLAS barrel detector (including an Inner Detector set-up and the Liquid Argon calorimeter) was exposed to particles from the H8 SPS beam line at CERN. It was the first occasion to test the combined electron performance of ATLAS. This paper presents results obtained for the momentum measurement p with the Inner Detector and for the performance of the electron measurement with the LAr calorimeter (energy E linearity and resolution) in the presence of a magnetic field in the Inner Detector for momenta ranging from 20 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c. Furthermore the particle identification capabilities of the Transition Radiation Tracker, Bremsstrahlungs-recovery algorithms relying on the LAr calorimeter and results obtained for the E/p ratio and a way how to extract scale parameters will be discussed.

  2. Combined performance studies for electrons at the 2004 ATLAS combined test-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abat, E; Arik, E [Bogazici University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, TR - 80815 Bebek-Istanbul (Turkey); Abdallah, J M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, ES - 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona Spain (Spain); Addy, T N [Hampton University, Department of Physics, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Adragna, P [Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS, London (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik, Staudinger Weg 7, DE 55099 (Germany); Ahmad, A [Insitute of Physics, Academia Sinica, TW - Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Akesson, T P A [Lunds universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysiska institutionen, Box 118, SE - 221 00, Lund (Sweden); Aleksa, M; Anghinolfi, F; Baron, S [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Alexa, C [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Bucharest -IFIN-HH), P.O. Box MG-6, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Andreazza, A; Banfi, D [INFN Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT - 20133 Milano (Italy); Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G [University of Athens, Nuclear and Particle Physics Department of Physics, Panepistimiopouli Zografou, GR 15771 Athens (Greece); Atkinson, T [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, AU - Parkvill, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Baines, J [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Baker, O K, E-mail: robert.froeschl@cern.c [Yale University, Department of Physics, PO Box 208121, New Haven, CT06520-8121 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    In 2004 at the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) combined test beam, one slice of the ATLAS barrel detector (including an Inner Detector set-up and the Liquid Argon calorimeter) was exposed to particles from the H8 SPS beam line at CERN. It was the first occasion to test the combined electron performance of ATLAS. This paper presents results obtained for the momentum measurement p with the Inner Detector and for the performance of the electron measurement with the LAr calorimeter (energy E linearity and resolution) in the presence of a magnetic field in the Inner Detector for momenta ranging from 20 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c. Furthermore the particle identification capabilities of the Transition Radiation Tracker, Bremsstrahlungs-recovery algorithms relying on the LAr calorimeter and results obtained for the E/p ratio and a way how to extract scale parameters will be discussed.

  3. Performance and cost characteristics of multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange non-aqueous redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramie, Sydney M.; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Breault, Tanya M.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Thompson, Levi T.

    2016-09-01

    Non-aqueous redox flow batteries (NAqRFBs) have recently received considerable attention as promising high energy density, low cost grid-level energy storage technologies. Despite these attractive features, NAqRFBs are still at an early stage of development and innovative design techniques are necessary to improve performance and decrease costs. In this work, we investigate multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange NAqRFBs. Common ion systems decrease the supporting electrolyte requirement, which subsequently improves active material solubility and decreases electrolyte cost. Voltammetric and electrolytic techniques are used to study the electrochemical performance and chemical compatibility of model redox active materials, iron (II) tris(2,2‧-bipyridine) tetrafluoroborate (Fe(bpy)3(BF4)2) and ferrocenylmethyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Fc1N112-BF4). These results help disentangle complex cycling behavior observed in flow cell experiments. Further, a simple techno-economic model demonstrates the cost benefits of employing common ion exchange NAqRFBs, afforded by decreasing the salt and solvent contributions to total chemical cost. This study highlights two new concepts, common ion exchange and multi-electron transfer, for NAqRFBs through a demonstration flow cell employing model active species. In addition, the compatibility analysis developed for asymmetric chemistries can apply to other promising species, including organics, metal coordination complexes (MCCs) and mixed MCC/organic systems, enabling the design of low cost NAqRFBs.

  4. An X-Ray facility to perform irradiation tests and TID studies on electronics and detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brundu, Davide; Cadeddu, Sandro; Wyllie, Ken; Ciambrone, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The X-Ray irradiation system of the LHCb group, installed in Cagliari, is presented; with a particular focus on the setup configuration and dose rate calibration. The system can be used to perform Total Ionizing Dose (TID) studies for detectors, readout and front-end electronics. It was already used to test the nSYNC chip, an ASIC for the readout of the LHCb upgraded muon system.

  5. Research on the Environmental Performance Evaluation of Electronic Waste Reverse Logistics Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Fei-Yang; Tong, Tong

    According to the characteristic of e-waste reverse logistics, environmental performance evaluation system of electronic waste reverse logistics enterprise is proposed. We use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method to evaluate the system. In addition, this paper analyzes the enterprise X, as an example, to discuss the evaluation method. It's important to point out attributes and indexes which should be strengthen during the process of ewaste reverse logistics and provide guidance suggestions to domestic e-waste reverse logistics enterprises.

  6. Calculations of the self-amplified spontaneous emission performance of a free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The linear integral equation based computer code (RON: Roger Oleg Nikolai), which was recently developed at Argonne National Laboratory, was used to calculate the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) performance of the free-electron laser (FEL) being built at Argonne. Signal growth calculations under different conditions are used for estimating tolerances of actual design parameters. The radiation characteristics are discussed, and calculations using an ideal undulator magnetic field and a real measured magnetic field will be compared and discussed

  7. Giant onsite electronic entropy enhances the performance of ceria for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naghavi, S. Shahab; Emery, Antoine A.; Hansen, Heine Anton

    2017-01-01

    lanthanides, and reaches a maximum value of ≈4.7 kB per oxygen vacancy for Ce4+/Ce3+ reduction. This unique and large positive entropy source in ceria explains its excellent performance for high-temperature catalytic redox reactions such as water splitting. Our calculations also show that terbium dioxide has...... a high electronic entropy and thus could also be a potential candidate for solar thermochemical reactions....

  8. Evaluating Electronic Customer Relationship Management Performance: Case Studies from Persian Automotive and Computer Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Narges; Safari, Fariba; Olesen, Karin; Shahmehr, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This research paper investigates the influence of industry on electronic customer relationship management (e-CRM) performance. A case study approach with two cases was applied to evaluate the influence of e-CRM on customer behavioral and attitudinal loyalty along with customer pyramid. The cases covered two industries consisting of computer and automotive industries. For investigating customer behavioral loyalty and customer pyramid companies database were computed while for examining custome...

  9. Ion implantation in compound semiconductors for high-performance electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced electronic devices based on compound semiconductors often make use of selective area ion implantation doping or isolation. The implantation processing becomes more complex as the device dimensions are reduced and more complex material systems are employed. The authors review several applications of ion implantation to high performance junction field effect transistors (JFETs) and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) that are based on compound semiconductors, including: GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaP, and AlGaSb

  10. Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-01-16

    The increasing availability of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data and specifically free-text patient notes presents opportunities for phenotype extraction. Text-mining methods in particular can help disease modeling by mapping named-entities mentions to terminologies and clustering semantically related terms. EHR corpora, however, exhibit specific statistical and linguistic characteristics when compared with corpora in the biomedical literature domain. We focus on copy-and-paste redundancy: clinicians typically copy and paste information from previous notes when documenting a current patient encounter. Thus, within a longitudinal patient record, one expects to observe heavy redundancy. In this paper, we ask three research questions: (i) How can redundancy be quantified in large-scale text corpora? (ii) Conventional wisdom is that larger corpora yield better results in text mining. But how does the observed EHR redundancy affect text mining? Does such redundancy introduce a bias that distorts learned models? Or does the redundancy introduce benefits by highlighting stable and important subsets of the corpus? (iii) How can one mitigate the impact of redundancy on text mining? We analyze a large-scale EHR corpus and quantify redundancy both in terms of word and semantic concept repetition. We observe redundancy levels of about 30% and non-standard distribution of both words and concepts. We measure the impact of redundancy on two standard text-mining applications: collocation identification and topic modeling. We compare the results of these methods on synthetic data with controlled levels of redundancy and observe significant performance variation. Finally, we compare two mitigation strategies to avoid redundancy-induced bias: (i) a baseline strategy, keeping only the last note for each patient in the corpus; (ii) removing redundant notes with an efficient fingerprinting-based algorithm. (a)For text mining, preprocessing the EHR corpus with fingerprinting yields

  11. A Massless-Point-Charge Model for the Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available “It is rather remarkable that the modern concept of electrodynamics is not quite 100 years old and yet still does not rest firmly upon uniformly accepted theoretical foun- dations. Maxwell’s theory of the electromagnetic field is firmly ensconced in modern physics, to be sure, but the details of how charged particles are to be coupled to this field remain somewhat uncertain, despite the enormous advances in quantum electrody- namics over the past 45 years. Our theories remain mathematically ill-posed and mired in conceptual ambiguities which quantum mechanics has only moved to another arena rather than resolve. Fundamentally, we still do not understand just what is a charged particle” [1, p.367]. As a partial answer to the preceeding quote, this paper presents a new model for the electron that combines the seminal work of Puthoff [2] with the theory of the Planck vacuum (PV [3], the basic idea for the model following from [2] with the PV theory adding some important details.

  12. A Massless-Point-Charge Model for the Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "It is rather remarkable that the modern concept of electrodynamics is not quite 100 years old and yet still does not rest firmly upon uniformly accepted theoretical foundations. Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field is firmly ensconced in modern physics, to be sure, but the details of how charged particles are to be coupled to this field remain somewhat uncertain, despite the enormous advances in quantum electrodynamics over the past 45 years. Our theories remain mathematically ill-posed and mired in conceptual ambiguities which quantum mechanics has only moved to another arena rather than resolve. Fundamentally, we still do not understand just what is a charged particle" (Grandy W.T. Jr. Relativistic quantum mechanics of leptons and fields. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht-London, 1991, p.367. As a partial answer to the preceeding quote, this paper presents a new model for the electron that combines the seminal work of Puthoff with the theory of the Planck vacuum (PV, the basic idea for the model following from Puthoff with the PV theory adding some important details.

  13. Electron percolation in realistic models of carbon nanotube networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoneau, Louis-Philippe; Villeneuve, Jérémie; Rochefort, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The influence of penetrable and curved carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the charge percolation in three-dimensional disordered CNT networks have been studied with Monte-Carlo simulations. By considering carbon nanotubes as solid objects but where the overlap between their electron cloud can be controlled, we observed that the structural characteristics of networks containing lower aspect ratio CNT are highly sensitive to the degree of penetration between crossed nanotubes. Following our efficient strategy to displace CNT to different positions to create more realistic statistical models, we conclude that the connectivity between objects increases with the hard-core/soft-shell radii ratio. In contrast, the presence of curved CNT in the random networks leads to an increasing percolation threshold and to a decreasing electrical conductivity at saturation. The waviness of CNT decreases the effective distance between the nanotube extremities, hence reducing their connectivity and degrading their electrical properties. We present the results of our simulation in terms of thickness of the CNT network from which simple structural parameters such as the volume fraction or the carbon nanotube density can be accurately evaluated with our more realistic models

  14. Electron beam lithographic modeling assisted by artificial intelligence technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayamada, Noriaki; Nishimura, Rieko; Miura, Satoru; Nomura, Haruyuki; Kamikubo, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    We propose a new concept of tuning a point-spread function (a "kernel" function) in the modeling of electron beam lithography using the machine learning scheme. Normally in the work of artificial intelligence, the researchers focus on the output results from a neural network, such as success ratio in image recognition or improved production yield, etc. In this work, we put more focus on the weights connecting the nodes in a convolutional neural network, which are naturally the fractions of a point-spread function, and take out those weighted fractions after learning to be utilized as a tuned kernel. Proof-of-concept of the kernel tuning has been demonstrated using the examples of proximity effect correction with 2-layer network, and charging effect correction with 3-layer network. This type of new tuning method can be beneficial to give researchers more insights to come up with a better model, yet it might be too early to be deployed to production to give better critical dimension (CD) and positional accuracy almost instantly.

  15. Electron percolation in realistic models of carbon nanotube networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, Louis-Philippe; Villeneuve, Jérémie; Rochefort, Alain

    2015-09-01

    The influence of penetrable and curved carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the charge percolation in three-dimensional disordered CNT networks have been studied with Monte-Carlo simulations. By considering carbon nanotubes as solid objects but where the overlap between their electron cloud can be controlled, we observed that the structural characteristics of networks containing lower aspect ratio CNT are highly sensitive to the degree of penetration between crossed nanotubes. Following our efficient strategy to displace CNT to different positions to create more realistic statistical models, we conclude that the connectivity between objects increases with the hard-core/soft-shell radii ratio. In contrast, the presence of curved CNT in the random networks leads to an increasing percolation threshold and to a decreasing electrical conductivity at saturation. The waviness of CNT decreases the effective distance between the nanotube extremities, hence reducing their connectivity and degrading their electrical properties. We present the results of our simulation in terms of thickness of the CNT network from which simple structural parameters such as the volume fraction or the carbon nanotube density can be accurately evaluated with our more realistic models.

  16. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  17. Enhancing electronic and optoelectronic performances of tungsten diselenide by plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuan; Wu, Enxiu; Hu, Ruixue; Qian, Shuangbei; Feng, Zhihong; Chen, Xuejiao; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Linyan; Hu, Xiaodong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daihua

    2018-06-21

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have recently become spotlighted as nanomaterials for future electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this work, we develop an effective approach to enhance the electronic and optoelectronic performances of WSe2-based devices by N2O plasma treatment. The hole mobility and sheet density increase by 2 and 5 orders of magnitude, reaching 110 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.2 × 1012 cm-2, respectively, after the treatment. At the same time, the contact resistance (Rc) between WSe2 and its metal electrode drop by 5 orders of magnitude from 1.0 GΩ μm to 28.4 kΩ μm. The WSe2 photoconductor exhibits superior performance with high responsivity (1.5 × 105 A W-1), short response time (106). We have also built a lateral p-n junction on a single piece of WSe2 flake by selective plasma exposure. The junction reaches an exceedingly high rectifying ratio of 106, an excellent photoresponsivity of 2.49 A W-1 and a fast response of 8 ms. The enhanced optoelectronic performance is attributed to band-engineering through the N2O plasma treatment, which can potentially serve as an effective and versatile approach for device engineering and optimization in a wide range of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D materials.

  18. Models and criteria for LLW disposal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    A primary objective of the Low Level Waste (LLW) Management Program is to assure that public health is protected. Predictive modeling, to some extent, will play a role in meeting this objective. This paper considers the requirements and limitations of predictive modeling in providing useful inputs to waste mangement decision making. In addition, criteria development needs and the relation between criteria and models are discussed

  19. Models and criteria for LLW disposal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A primary objective of the Low Level Waste (LLW) Management Program is to assure that public health is protected. Predictive modeling, to some extent, will play a role in meeting this objective. This paper considers the requirements and limitations of predictive modeling in providing useful inputs to waste management decision making. In addition, criteria development needs and the relation between criteria and models are discussed

  20. Analysis of performance reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of car-tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko О.Р.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the operational reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of vehicles, trucks Mercedes-Benz Actros 1844 LS and Volvo FH 1242, conducting international cargo transportation is performed. It is established that the equipment is reliable, which meets modern requirements, but where there is a violation of the resolution. The reason for repair work is constructive and operational factors. Distribution of efficiency and overall performance of operational reliability is retrieved. Items with more bounce are found. Common factors of violation of efficiency cars, trucks in operation, are largely different stages in warranty runs are obtained.

  1. Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA) Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model performance evaluation consists of metrics and model diagnostics. These metrics provides modelers with statistical goodness-of-fit measures that capture magnitude only, sequence only, and combined magnitude and sequence errors.

  2. Fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes for potential thermal control of foldable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Chang, Chao; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A flexible and high-performance heat pipe is fabricated. • Bending effect on thermal performance of flexible heat pipes is evaluated. • Theoretical analysis is carried out to reveal the change of thermal resistance with bending. • Thermal control of foldable electronics with flexible heat pipes is demonstrated. - Abstract: In this work, we report the fabrication and thermal performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes prepared by using a fluororubber tube as the connector in the adiabatic section and using strong base treated hydrophilic copper meshes as the wick structure. Deionized water was chosen as working fluid and three different filling ratios (10%, 20%, and 30%) of working fluid were loaded into the heat pipe to investigate its impact on thermal performance. The fabricated heat pipes can be easily bended from 0"o to 180"o in the horizontal operation mode and demonstrated consistently low thermal resistances after repeated bending. It was found that with optimized amount of working fluid, the thermal resistance of flexible heat pipes increased with larger bending angles. Theoretical analysis reveals that bending disturbs the normal vapor flow from evaporator to condenser in the heat pipe, thus leads to increased liquid–vapor interfacial thermal resistance in the evaporator section. The flexible heat pipes have been successfully applied for thermal control of foldable electronic devices showing superior uniform heat-transfer performance.

  3. Structural changes and tribological performance of thermosetting polyimide induced by proton and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Mei; Wang, Yanming; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei; Liang, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    The structural changes and tribological performance of thermosetting polyimide were investigated by electron, proton or both combined irradiations at 25 keV in a ground-based simulation facility. Three forms of irradiations could lead to the formation of the carbonized layer on the polymer surface that could increase the hardness and adhesive force of the material. Proton irradiation induced more extensive changes in structure and friction behavior than electron irradiation by reason of the higher linear energy transfer value, and combined irradiation resulted in the largest impact, but which was less than the sum of the radiation effects of electron and proton. Moreover, the experimental results indicated that the changes in friction behavior are closely related with the carbonized layer, which was easily worn out in friction process and could introduce a shift from adhesion wear to three-body abrasive wear that reduced the wear rate and the friction coefficient. The friction process of irradiated samples could be divided into the initial stage and the steady stage. Three forms of irradiations all induced the high friction coefficient in the initial stage and the low friction coefficient in the steady stage, and the wear rate of the irradiated samples decreased in the order: electron irradiation>proton irradiation>combined irradiation. - Highlights: • Proton irradiation induced more extensive changes in structure and friction behavior than electron irradiation. • The effect of combined irradiation was less than that of the sum of electron and proton irradiation. • Three forms of irradiations all induced the high initial friction coefficient and the low steady-stage friction coefficient. • The initial friction stage means a fast-wearing adhesive process while the steady-state of the system is a three-body abrasion

  4. Impact of stand-by energy losses in electronic devices on smart network performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Lukić Jasmina S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy resources and environmental concerns due to ever increasing energy consumption, more and more emphasis is being put on energy savings. Smart networks are promoted worldwide as a powerful tool used to improve the energy efficiency through consumption management, as well as to enable the distributed power generation, primarily based on renewable energy sources, to be optimally explored. To make it possible for the smart networks to function, a large number of electronic devices is needed to operate or to be in their stand-by mode. The consumption of these devices is added to the consumption of many other electronic devices already in use in households and offices, thus giving rise to the overall power consumption and threatening to counteract the primary function of smart networks. This paper addresses the consumption of particular electronic devices, with an emphasis placed on their thermal losses when in stand-by mode and their total share in the overall power consumption in certain countries. The thermal losses of electronic devices in their stand-by mode are usually neglected, but it seems theoretically possible that a massive increase in their number can impact net performance of the future smart networks considerably so that above an optimum level of energy savings achieved by their penetration, total consumption begins to increase. Based on the current stand-by energy losses from the existing electronic devices, we propose that the future penetration of smart networks be optimized taking also into account losses from their own electronic devices, required to operate in stand-by mode.

  5. Modelling Flexible Pavement Response and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    This textbook is primarily concerned with models for predicting the future condition of flexible pavements, as a function of traffic loading, climate, materials, etc., using analytical-empirical methods.......This textbook is primarily concerned with models for predicting the future condition of flexible pavements, as a function of traffic loading, climate, materials, etc., using analytical-empirical methods....

  6. Detailed Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, H.; Mancilla-David, F.; Ellis, K.; Muljadi, E.; Jenkins, P.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a modified current-voltage relationship for the single diode model. The single-diode model has been derived from the well-known equivalent circuit for a single photovoltaic cell. The modification presented in this paper accounts for both parallel and series connections in an array.

  7. Acute Myocardial Infarction Readmission Risk Prediction Models: A Systematic Review of Model Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren N; Makam, Anil N; Darden, Douglas; Mayo, Helen; Das, Sandeep R; Halm, Ethan A; Nguyen, Oanh Kieu

    2018-01-01

    Hospitals are subject to federal financial penalties for excessive 30-day hospital readmissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Prospectively identifying patients hospitalized with AMI at high risk for readmission could help prevent 30-day readmissions by enabling targeted interventions. However, the performance of AMI-specific readmission risk prediction models is unknown. We systematically searched the published literature through March 2017 for studies of risk prediction models for 30-day hospital readmission among adults with AMI. We identified 11 studies of 18 unique risk prediction models across diverse settings primarily in the United States, of which 16 models were specific to AMI. The median overall observed all-cause 30-day readmission rate across studies was 16.3% (range, 10.6%-21.0%). Six models were based on administrative data; 4 on electronic health record data; 3 on clinical hospital data; and 5 on cardiac registry data. Models included 7 to 37 predictors, of which demographics, comorbidities, and utilization metrics were the most frequently included domains. Most models, including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services AMI administrative model, had modest discrimination (median C statistic, 0.65; range, 0.53-0.79). Of the 16 reported AMI-specific models, only 8 models were assessed in a validation cohort, limiting generalizability. Observed risk-stratified readmission rates ranged from 3.0% among the lowest-risk individuals to 43.0% among the highest-risk individuals, suggesting good risk stratification across all models. Current AMI-specific readmission risk prediction models have modest predictive ability and uncertain generalizability given methodological limitations. No existing models provide actionable information in real time to enable early identification and risk-stratification of patients with AMI before hospital discharge, a functionality needed to optimize the potential effectiveness of readmission reduction interventions

  8. Time-dependent approach to electron scattering and ionization in the s-wave model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihra, W.; Draeger, M.; Handke, G.; Friedrich, H.

    1995-01-01

    The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is integrated for continuum states of two-electron atoms in the framework of the s-wave model, in which both electrons are restricted to having vanishing individual orbital angular momenta. The method is suitable for studying the time evolution of correlations in the two-electron wave functions and yields probabilities for elastic and inelastic electron scattering and for electron-impact ionization. The spin-averaged probabilities for electron-impact ionization of hydrogen in the s-wave model reproduce the shape of the experimentally observed integrated ionization cross section remarkably well for energies near and above the maximum

  9. Modelling Flat Spring performance using FEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatola, B O; Keogh, P; Hicks, B

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports how the stiffness of a Flat Spring can be predicted using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The analysis of a Flat Spring is a nonlinear problem involving contact mechanics, geometric nonlinearity and material property nonlinearity. Research has been focused on improving the accuracy of the model by identifying and exploring the significant assumptions contributing to errors. This paper presents results from some of the models developed using FEA software. The validation process is shown to identify where improvements can be made to the model assumptions to increase the accuracy of prediction. The goal is to achieve an accuracy level of ±10 % as the intention is to replace practical testing with FEA modelling, thereby reducing the product development time and cost. Results from the FEA models are compared with experimental results to validate the accuracy.

  10. Performances of the electromagnetic calorimeter and search for new gauge bosons in the di-electron channel at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laisne, E.

    2012-10-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics has known a tremendous rise during the twentieth century. Built up, from the early thirties to the seventies, this theory describing elementary particles and their interactions (electromagnetic, weak, strong) has now been intensively tested by LEP and Tevatron colliders. Besides its success, some problems remain and have lead to new theories attempting to go beyond the standard model. Many of them are predicting the existence of a new gauge boson Z', which is supposed to be observed at the TeV scale. Data recorded by the LHC since autumn 2008 are a new opportunity to check the consistency of the Standard Model and to search for new physics evidence. The work that has been done by the ATLAS collaboration during the last four years has focused on understanding detector's behaviour and analysing the very first collected collisions. This thesis is reflecting these two aspects. Therefore, the first part of this thesis describes the characterisation of a pathology of ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter electronics and of coherent noise bursts that have both been observed since the beginning of ATLAS operation. The policy deployed to preserve data quality is also detailed. The second part is focusing on the search for new Z' gauge boson. In case this particle was to exist, its decay into an electron and a positron would lead to a new massive resonance in the dielectron invariant mass spectrum. Therefore electron reconstruction and identification performances are closely looked at, especially at high transverse momentum. Analysis made on the 4.9 fb -1 of collected data is reported. As no significant excess with respect to Standard Model predictions is observed, the dielectron invariant mass spectrum is interpreted to derive mass limits concerning the existence of new Z' gauge bosons appearing in grand unification theories (E6) and effective sequential standard model (SSM). These limits and those derived by the CMS collaboration are the

  11. Collaboration for Innovation and Sustainable Performance: Evidence of Relationship in Electro-Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Kuhl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify how collaboration for innovation relates to the sustainable performance of the electronics industry in Brazil. We used a quantitative approach, collecting data by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 112 companies. The main result indicates that the relationship between collaboration and sustainable performance is positive and significant, but of low intensity, confirming the indication from the literature. The same is noticed in checking the relationship between the collaboration and the three dimensions of sustainable performance, although no statistically significant difference was found between the degree of correlation and the three dimensions. Intervening factors such as size, age, internationalization and capital structure were also considered in verifying the relationship between collaboration for innovation and sustainable performance.

  12. Three-dimensional analysis of free-electron laser performance using brightness scaled variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gullans

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional analysis of radiation generation in a free-electron laser (FEL is performed in the small signal regime. The analysis includes beam conditioning, harmonic generation, flat beams, and a new scaling of the FEL equations using the six-dimensional beam brightness. The six-dimensional beam brightness is an invariant under Liouvillian flow; therefore, any nondissipative manipulation of the phase space, performed, for example, in order to optimize FEL performance, must conserve this brightness. This scaling is more natural than the commonly used scaling with the one-dimensional growth rate. The brightness-scaled equations allow for the succinct characterization of the optimal FEL performance under various additional constraints. The analysis allows for the simple evaluation of gain enhancement schemes based on beam phase space manipulations such as emittance exchange and conditioning. An example comparing the gain in the first and third harmonics of round or flat and conditioned or unconditioned beams is presented.

  13. Methodology and consistency of slant and vertical assessments for ionospheric electron content models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Roma-Dollase, David; Krankowski, Andrzej; García-Rigo, Alberto; Orús-Pérez, Raül

    2017-12-01

    A summary of the main concepts on global ionospheric map(s) [hereinafter GIM(s)] of vertical total electron content (VTEC), with special emphasis on their assessment, is presented in this paper. It is based on the experience accumulated during almost two decades of collaborative work in the context of the international global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) service (IGS) ionosphere working group. A representative comparison of the two main assessments of ionospheric electron content models (VTEC-altimeter and difference of Slant TEC, based on independent global positioning system data GPS, dSTEC-GPS) is performed. It is based on 26 GPS receivers worldwide distributed and mostly placed on islands, from the last quarter of 2010 to the end of 2016. The consistency between dSTEC-GPS and VTEC-altimeter assessments for one of the most accurate IGS GIMs (the tomographic-kriging GIM `UQRG' computed by UPC) is shown. Typical error RMS values of 2 TECU for VTEC-altimeter and 0.5 TECU for dSTEC-GPS assessments are found. And, as expected by following a simple random model, there is a significant correlation between both RMS and specially relative errors, mainly evident when large enough number of observations per pass is considered. The authors expect that this manuscript will be useful for new analysis contributor centres and in general for the scientific and technical community interested in simple and truly external ways of validating electron content models of the ionosphere.

  14. Modeling and optimization of LCD optical performance

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, Dmitry A; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the theoretical foundations of modeling the optical characteristics of liquid crystal displays, critically reviewing modern modeling methods and examining areas of applicability. The modern matrix formalisms of optics of anisotropic stratified media, most convenient for solving problems of numerical modeling and optimization of LCD, will be considered in detail. The benefits of combined use of the matrix methods will be shown, which generally provides the best compromise between physical adequacy and accuracy with computational efficiency and optimization fac

  15. Performances of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter Modules for Electrons and Pions

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A

    2004-01-01

    With the aim of establishing of an electromagnetic energy scale of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter and understanding of performance of the calorimeter to electrons 12 \\% of modules have been exposed in electron beams with various energies by three possible ways: cell-scan at $\\theta =20^o$ at the centers of the front face cells, $\\eta$-scan and tilerow scan at $\\theta = 90^o$ for the module side cells. We have extracted the electron calibration constants and electron energy resolutions some of these barrel and extended barrel modules at energies E = 10, 20, 50, 100 and 180 GeV for the cell-scan at $\\theta = 20^o$, the $\\eta$ scan and the tile scan at $90^o$. The average values of these constants are equal to $\\langle R_e \\rangle =1.157\\pm0.002$ pC/GeV for the cell-scan at $\\theta = 20^o$, $\\langle R_e \\rangle =1.143\\pm0.005$ pC/GeV for the $\\eta$-scan and $\\langle R_e\\rangle =1.196\\pm0.005$ pC/GeV for the tile-scan at $\\theta = 90^o$. The RMS values are the following: for the cell-scan is $RMS=2.6\\pm0.1$ \\%, for t...

  16. Performance studies of the vibration wire monitor on the test stand with low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    2015-01-01

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic. (author)

  17. Giant onsite electronic entropy enhances the performance of ceria for water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi, S Shahab; Emery, Antoine A; Hansen, Heine A; Zhou, Fei; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Wolverton, Chris

    2017-08-18

    Previous studies have shown that a large solid-state entropy of reduction increases the thermodynamic efficiency of metal oxides, such as ceria, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles. In this context, the configurational entropy arising from oxygen off-stoichiometry in the oxide, has been the focus of most previous work. Here we report a different source of entropy, the onsite electronic configurational entropy, arising from coupling between orbital and spin angular momenta in lanthanide f orbitals. We find that onsite electronic configurational entropy is sizable in all lanthanides, and reaches a maximum value of ≈4.7 k B per oxygen vacancy for Ce 4+ /Ce 3+ reduction. This unique and large positive entropy source in ceria explains its excellent performance for high-temperature catalytic redox reactions such as water splitting. Our calculations also show that terbium dioxide has a high electronic entropy and thus could also be a potential candidate for solar thermochemical reactions.Solid-state entropy of reduction increases the thermodynamic efficiency of ceria for two-step thermochemical water splitting. Here, the authors report a large and different source of entropy, the onsite electronic configurational entropy arising from coupling between orbital and spin angular momenta in f orbitals.

  18. Status and performance of the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O. [University of Florence, IFAC (CNR) and INFN (Italy); Akaike, Y. [ICRR, University of Tokyo (Japan); Asaoka, Y. [Waseda University (Japan); Asano, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Bagliesi, M.G.; Bigongiari, G. [University of Siena and INFN (Italy); Binns, W.R. [Washington University-St. Louis (United States); Bongi, M. [University of Florence, IFAC (CNR) and INFN (Italy); Buckley, J.H. [Washington University-St. Louis (United States); Cassese, A.; Castellini, G. [University of Florence, IFAC (CNR) and INFN (Italy); Cherry, M.L. [Louisiana State University (United States); Collazuol, G. [University of Padova and INFN (Italy); Ebisawa, K. [JAXA/ISAS (Japan); Di Felice, V. [University of Rome Tor Vergata and INFN (Italy); Fuke, H. [JAXA/ISAS (Japan); Guzik, T.G. [Louisiana State University (United States); Hams, T. [CRESST/NASA/GSFC and University of Maryland (United States); Hasebe, N. [Waseda University (Japan); Hareyama, M. [St. Marianna University School of Medicine (Japan); and others

    2014-11-15

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (including positrons) to 20 TeV, gamma rays to 10 TeV and nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to 1,000 TeV during a two-year mission on the International Space Station (ISS), extendable to five years. These measurements are essential to search for dark matter signatures, investigate the mechanism of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation in the Galaxy and discover possible astrophysical sources of high-energy electrons nearby the Earth. The instrument consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for the cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), a 3 radiation length thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 27 radiation length thick lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). CALET has sufficient depth, imaging capabilities and excellent energy resolution to allow for a clear separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays. The instrument will be launched to the ISS within 2014 Japanese Fiscal Year (by the end of March 2015) and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). In this paper, we will review the status and main science goals of the mission and describe the instrument configuration and performance.

  19. Integrated thermodynamic model for ignition target performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Springer P.T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have derived a 3-dimensional synthetic model for NIF implosion conditions, by predicting and optimizing fits to a broad set of x-ray and nuclear diagnostics obtained on each shot. By matching x-ray images, burn width, neutron time-of-flight ion temperature, yield, and fuel ρr, we obtain nearly unique constraints on conditions in the hotspot and fuel in a model that is entirely consistent with the observables. This model allows us to determine hotspot density, pressure, areal density (ρr, total energy, and other ignition-relevant parameters not available from any single diagnostic. This article describes the model and its application to National Ignition Facility (NIF tritium–hydrogen–deuterium (THD and DT implosion data, and provides an explanation for the large yield and ρr degradation compared to numerical code predictions.

  20. The CREATIVE Decontamination Performance Evaluation Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelly, Erin E

    2008-01-01

    The project objective is to develop a semi-empirical, deterministic model to characterize and predict laboratory-scale decontaminant efficacy and hazards for a range of: chemical agents (current focus on HD...

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Circadian/Performance Countermeasures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We developed and refined our current mathematical model of circadian rhythms to incorporate melatonin as a marker rhythm. We used an existing physiologically based...

  2. Fully coupled opto-electronic modelling of organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, Nils A.; Haeusermann, Roger; Huber, Evelyne; Moos, Michael [ZHAW, Institute of Comp. Physics (Germany); Flatz, Thomas [Fluxim AG (Switzerland); Ruhstaller, Beat [ZHAW, Institute of Comp. Physics (Germany); Fluxim AG (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    Record solar power conversion efficiencies of up to 5.5 % for single junction organic solar cells (OSC) are encouraging but still inferior to values of inorganic solar cells. For further progress, a detailed analysis of the mechanisms that limit the external quantum efficiency is crucial. It is widely believed that the device physics of OSCs can be reduced to the processes, which take place at the donor/acceptor-interface. Neglecting transport, trapping and ejection of charge carriers at the electrodes raises the question of the universality of such a simplification. In this study we present a fully coupled opto-electronic simulator, which calculates the spatial and spectral photon flux density inside the OSC, the formation of the charge transfer state and its dissociation into free charge carriers. Our simulator solves the drift- diffusion equations for the generated charge carriers as well as their ejection at the electrodes. Our results are in good agreement with both steady-state and transient OSC characteristics. We address the influence of physical quantities such as the optical properties, film-thicknesses, the recombination rate and charge carrier mobilities on performance figures. For instance the short circuit current can be enhanced by 15% to 25% when using a silver instead of an aluminium cathode. Our simulations lead to rules of thumb, which help to optimise a given OSC structure.

  3. Modelling of Supercapacitors: Factors Influencing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kroupa, M; Offer, GJ; Kosek, J

    2016-01-01

    The utilizable capacitance of Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs) is a function of the frequency at which they are operated and this is strongly dependent on the construction and physical parameters of the device. We simulate the dynamic behavior of an EDLC using a spatially resolved model based on the porous electrode theory. The model of Verbrugge and Liu (J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, D79 (2005)) was extended with a dimension describing the transport into the carbon particle pores....

  4. A unified tool for performance modelling and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Stephen; Kloul, Leila

    2005-01-01

    We describe a novel performability modelling approach, which facilitates the efficient solution of performance models extracted from high-level descriptions of systems. The notation which we use for our high-level designs is the Unified Modelling Language (UML) graphical modelling language. The technology which provides the efficient representation capability for the underlying performance model is the multi-terminal binary decision diagram (MTBDD)-based PRISM probabilistic model checker. The UML models are compiled through an intermediate language, the stochastic process algebra PEPA, before translation into MTBDDs for solution. We illustrate our approach on a real-world analysis problem from the domain of mobile telephony

  5. A Model of Electronic Document Management System for Limited Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Faiqunisa, Faiqunisa; Nugroho, Eko; Santosa, Paulus Insap

    2013-01-01

    Both types of documents, electronic and non-electronic are a major component supporting activities. In addition to the documents, communications capabilities to employees and managers effectively with other stakeholders are one of the important key achievements of organizational goals. LP. XYZ is one of the Consultants in the field of Information Technology, but the storage and management of electronic documents and archives themselves carried on a server without a management information sy...

  6. Collaborative Research and Development. Delivery Order 0006: Transmission Electron Microscope Image Modeling and Semiconductor Heterointerface Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahalingam, Krishnamurthy

    2006-01-01

    .... Transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization studies were performed on a variety of novel III-V semiconductor heterostructures being developed for advanced optoelectronic device applications...

  7. Soluble fullerene derivatives : The effect of electronic structure on transistor performance and air stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, James M.; Bouwer, Ricardo K.M.; Kooistra, Floris B.; Frost, Jarvist M.; Qi, Yabing; Buchaca Domingo, Ester; Smith, Jeremy; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Nelson, Jenny; Kahn, Antoine; Stingelin, Natalie; Bradley, Donal D.C.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    The family of soluble fullerene derivatives comprises a widely studied group of electron transporting molecules for use in organic electronic and optoelectronic devices. For electronic applications, electron transporting (n-channel) materials are required for implementation into organic

  8. Performance of Carbon Coatings for Mitigation of Electron Cloud in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Yin Vallgren, C; Costa Pinto, P; Neupert, H; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Taborelli, M; Kato, S

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings have been tested in electron cloud monitors (ECM) in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and have shown for LHC type beams a reduction of the electron cloud current by a factor 104 compared to stainless steel (StSt). This performance has been maintained for more than 3 years under SPS operation conditions. Secondary electron yield (SEY) laboratory data confirm that after more than 1 year of SPS operation, the coating maintains a SEY below 1.0. The compatibility of coexisting StSt and a-C surfaces has been studied in an ECM having coated and uncoated areas. The results show no degradation of the properties of the a-C areas. The performance of diamond like carbon (DLC) coating has also been studied. DLC shows a less effective reduction of the EC current than a-C, but conditioning is faster than for StSt. Three a-C coated dipoles were inserted in the SPS. However, even with no EC detected, the dynamic pressure rise is similar to the one observed in the StSt reference dipoles. Measu...

  9. Research on heightening of performance of optical system for free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoshiyuki; Toyada, Koichi

    1996-01-01

    Free electron laser will become in future the center of industrial laser technology as a high efficiency, high power output laser. For the development of free electron laser, the development of the elementary technologies such as accelerator, wiggler, optical system and so on must be carried out. For the stable functioning of free electron laser for long hours, the innovative technical development of the optical technology has been strongly desired. In this research, the development of the method of manufacturing a new high performance, multilayer film reflection mirror and the research on compound optical damage by new high energy photon generation process were advanced. The research on the formation of aluminum oxide thin films by using surface reaction, the development of the technology for forming high accuracy, multi-layer thin films and the evaluation of the optical performance of multi-layer films are reported. The constitution of compound optical damage evaluation system, the calculation of the luminance of high energy photons and the experiment on the generation of photons by a carbon dioxide gas laser are described regarding the compound optical damage research. (K.I.)

  10. Performance and electron transport properties of TiO2 nanocomposite dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J-J; Chen, G-R; Lu, C-C; Wu, W-T; Chen, J-S

    2008-01-01

    TiO 2 nanowire (NW)/nanoparticle (NP) composite films have been fabricated by hybridizing various ratios of hydrothermal anatase NWs and TiO 2 NPs for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal that uniform NW/NP composite films were formed on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by the dip-coating method. The NWs are randomly but neither vertically nor horizontally oriented within the composite film. The TiO 2 NP DSSC possesses superior performance to those of the NW/NP composite and the pure NW cells, and the efficiency of the NW/NP composite DSSC increases on increasing the NP/NW ratio in the composite anode. All types of DSSC possess the same dependence of performance on the anode thickness that the efficiency increases with the anode thickness to a maximum value, then it decreases when the anode is thickened further. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses reveal that the NP DSSCs possess larger effective electron diffusion coefficients (D eff ) in the photoanodes and smaller diffusion resistances of I 3 - in electrolytes compared to those in the NW/NP and the NW DSSCs. D eff decreases when NWs are added into the photoanode. These results suggest that the vertical feature of the NWs within the anodes is crucial for achieving a high electron transport rate in the anode

  11. Cluster model calculations of the solid state materials electron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelikan, P.; Biskupic, S.; Banacky, P.; Zajac, A.; Svrcek, A.; Noga, J.

    1997-01-01

    Materials of the general composition ACuO 2 are the parent compounds of so called infinite layer superconductors. In the paper presented the electron structure of the compounds CaCuO 2 , SrCuO2, Ca 0.86 Sr 0.14 CuO2 and Ca 0.26 Sr 0.74 CuO 2 were calculated. The cluster models consisting of 192 atoms were computed using quasi relativistic version of semiempirical INDO method. The obtained results indicate the strong ionicity of Ca/Sr-O bonds and high covalency of Cu-bonds. The width of energy gap at the Fermi level increases as follows: Ca 0.26 Sr 0.74 CuO 2 0.86 Sr 0.14 CuO2 2 . This order correlates with the fact that materials of the composition Ca x Sr 1-x CuO 2 have have the high temperatures of the superconductive transition (up to 110 K). Materials partially substituted by Sr 2+ have also the higher density of states in the close vicinity at the Fermi level that ai the additional condition for the possibility of superconductive transition. It was calculated the strong influence of the vibration motions to the energy gap at the Fermi level. (authors). 1 tabs., 2 figs., 10 refs

  12. Developing an Energy Performance Modeling Startup Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the NAHB Research Center began assessing the needs and motivations of residential remodelers regarding energy performance remodeling. This report outlines: the current remodeling industry and the role of energy efficiency; gaps and barriers to adding energy efficiency into remodeling; and support needs of professional remodelers to increase sales and projects involving improving home energy efficiency.

  13. Modeling vibrato and portamento in music performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.W.M.; Honing, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Research in the psychology of music dealing with expression is often concerned with the discrete aspects of music performance, and mainly concentrates on the study of piano music (partly because of the ease with which piano music can be reduced to discrete note events). However, on other

  14. Model of charge-state distributions for electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Edgell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model for the ion charge-state distribution (CSD in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma is presented that incorporates non-Maxwellian distribution functions, multiple atomic species, and ion confinement due to the ambipolar potential well that arises from confinement of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR heated electrons. Atomic processes incorporated into the model include multiple ionization and multiple charge exchange with rate coefficients calculated for non-Maxwellian electron distributions. The electron distribution function is calculated using a Fokker-Planck code with an ECR heating term. This eliminates the electron temperature as an arbitrary user input. The model produces results that are a good match to CSD data from the ANL-ECRII ECRIS. Extending the model to 1D axial will also allow the model to determine the plasma and electrostatic potential profiles, further eliminating arbitrary user input to the model.

  15. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  16. Evaluating Models of Human Performance: Safety-Critical Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Evaluating Models of Human Performance. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the increasing use of models in the world today and specifically focus on how to describe and evaluate models of human performance. My presentation will focus on discussions of generating distributions of performance, and the evaluation of different strategies for humans performing tasks with mixed initiative (Human-Automation) systems. I will also discuss issues with how to provide Human Performance modeling data to support decisions on acceptability and tradeoffs in the design of safety critical systems. I will conclude with challenges for the future.

  17. First Results of Modeling Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics with the SAMI3 Plasmasphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, C. M.; Glocer, A.; Huba, J.; Fok, M. C. H.; Kang, S. B.; Buzulukova, N.

    2017-12-01

    The radiation belts were one of the first discoveries of the Space Age some sixty years ago and radiation belt models have been improving since the discovery of the radiation belts. The plasmasphere is one region that has been critically important to determining the dynamics of radiation belt populations. This region of space plays a critical role in describing the distribution of chorus and magnetospheric hiss waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. Both of these waves have been shown to interact with energetic electrons in the radiation belts and can result in the energization or loss of radiation belt electrons. However, radiation belt models have been historically limited in describing the distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma and have relied on empirically determined plasmasphere models. Some plasmasphere models use an azimuthally symmetric distribution of the plasmasphere which can fail to capture important plasmaspheric dynamics such as the development of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. Previous work have coupled the kinetic bounce-averaged Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model used to model ring current and radiation belt populations with the Block-adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATSRUS) global magnetohydrodynamic model to self-consistently obtain the magnetospheric magnetic field and ionospheric potential. The present work will utilize this previous coupling and will additionally couple the SAMI3 plasmasphere model to better represent the dynamics on the plasmasphere and its role in determining the distribution of waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. First results on the relevance of chorus, hiss, and ultralow frequency waves on radiation belt electron dynamics will be discussed in context of the June 1st, 2013 storm-time dropout event.

  18. Comparison of optimal performance at 300 keV of three direct electron detectors for use in low dose electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullan, G.; Faruqi, A.R.; Clare, D.; Henderson, R.

    2014-01-01

    Low dose electron imaging applications such as electron cryo-microscopy are now benefitting from the improved performance and flexibility of recently introduced electron imaging detectors in which electrons are directly incident on backthinned CMOS sensors. There are currently three commercially available detectors of this type: the Direct Electron DE-20, the FEI Falcon II and the Gatan K2 Summit. These have different characteristics and so it is important to compare their imaging properties carefully with a view to optimise how each is used. Results at 300 keV for both the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are presented. Of these, the DQE is the most important in the study of radiation sensitive samples where detector performance is crucial. We find that all three detectors have a better DQE than film. The K2 Summit has the best DQE at low spatial frequencies but with increasing spatial frequency its DQE falls below that of the Falcon II. - Highlights: • Three direct electron detectors offer better DQE than film at 300 keV. • Recorded 300 keV electron events on the detectors have very similar Landau distributions. • The Gatan K2 Summit detector has the highest DQE at low spatial frequency. • The FEI Falcon II detector has the highest DQE beyond one half the Nyquist frequency. • The Direct Electron DE-20 detector has the fastest data acquisition rate

  19. Comparison of optimal performance at 300 keV of three direct electron detectors for use in low dose electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullan, G., E-mail: gm2@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Faruqi, A.R. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Clare, D. [Crystallography and Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Henderson, R. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Low dose electron imaging applications such as electron cryo-microscopy are now benefitting from the improved performance and flexibility of recently introduced electron imaging detectors in which electrons are directly incident on backthinned CMOS sensors. There are currently three commercially available detectors of this type: the Direct Electron DE-20, the FEI Falcon II and the Gatan K2 Summit. These have different characteristics and so it is important to compare their imaging properties carefully with a view to optimise how each is used. Results at 300 keV for both the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are presented. Of these, the DQE is the most important in the study of radiation sensitive samples where detector performance is crucial. We find that all three detectors have a better DQE than film. The K2 Summit has the best DQE at low spatial frequencies but with increasing spatial frequency its DQE falls below that of the Falcon II. - Highlights: • Three direct electron detectors offer better DQE than film at 300 keV. • Recorded 300 keV electron events on the detectors have very similar Landau distributions. • The Gatan K2 Summit detector has the highest DQE at low spatial frequency. • The FEI Falcon II detector has the highest DQE beyond one half the Nyquist frequency. • The Direct Electron DE-20 detector has the fastest data acquisition rate.

  20. Development of Electronic Load Controllers for Free-Piston Stirling Convertors Aided by Stirling Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling convertor end-to-end modeling effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center has produced a software-based test bed in which free-piston Stirling convertors can be simulated and evaluated. The simulation model includes all the components of the convertor: the Stirling cycle engine, heat source, linear alternator, controller, and load. So far, it has been used in evaluating the performance of electronic controller designs. Three different controller design concepts were simulated using the model: 1) Controllers with parasitic direct current loading. 2) Controllers with parasitic alternating current loading. 3) Controllers that maintain a reference current. The free-piston Stirling convertor is an electromechanical device that operates at resonance. It is the function of the electronic load controller to ensure that the electrical load seen by the machine is always great enough to keep the amplitude of the piston and alternator oscillation at the rated value. This is done by regulating the load on the output bus. The controller monitors the instantaneous voltage, regulating it by switching loads called parasitic loads onto the bus whenever the bus voltage is too high and removing them whenever the voltage is too low. In the first type of controller, the monitor-ing and switching are done on the direct-current (dc) bus. In the second type, the alternating current bus is used. The model allows designers to test a controller concept before investing time in hardware. The simulation code used to develop the model also offers detailed models of digital and analog electronic components so that the resulting designs are realistic enough to translate directly into hardware circuits.