#### Sample records for model partial differential

1. Partial Differential Equations Modeling and Numerical Simulation

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Glowinski, Roland

2008-01-01

This book is dedicated to Olivier Pironneau. For more than 250 years partial differential equations have been clearly the most important tool available to mankind in order to understand a large variety of phenomena, natural at first and then those originating from human activity and technological development. Mechanics, physics and their engineering applications were the first to benefit from the impact of partial differential equations on modeling and design, but a little less than a century ago the Schrödinger equation was the key opening the door to the application of partial differential equations to quantum chemistry, for small atomic and molecular systems at first, but then for systems of fast growing complexity. Mathematical modeling methods based on partial differential equations form an important part of contemporary science and are widely used in engineering and scientific applications. In this book several experts in this field present their latest results and discuss trends in the numerical analy...

2. Partial differential equation models in macroeconomics.

Science.gov (United States)

Achdou, Yves; Buera, Francisco J; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Moll, Benjamin

2014-11-13

3. Parameter Estimation of Partial Differential Equation Models

KAUST Repository

Xun, Xiaolei

2013-09-01

Partial differential equation (PDE) models are commonly used to model complex dynamic systems in applied sciences such as biology and finance. The forms of these PDE models are usually proposed by experts based on their prior knowledge and understanding of the dynamic system. Parameters in PDE models often have interesting scientific interpretations, but their values are often unknown and need to be estimated from the measurements of the dynamic system in the presence of measurement errors. Most PDEs used in practice have no analytic solutions, and can only be solved with numerical methods. Currently, methods for estimating PDE parameters require repeatedly solving PDEs numerically under thousands of candidate parameter values, and thus the computational load is high. In this article, we propose two methods to estimate parameters in PDE models: a parameter cascading method and a Bayesian approach. In both methods, the underlying dynamic process modeled with the PDE model is represented via basis function expansion. For the parameter cascading method, we develop two nested levels of optimization to estimate the PDE parameters. For the Bayesian method, we develop a joint model for data and the PDE and develop a novel hierarchical model allowing us to employ Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to make posterior inference. Simulation studies show that the Bayesian method and parameter cascading method are comparable, and both outperform other available methods in terms of estimation accuracy. The two methods are demonstrated by estimating parameters in a PDE model from long-range infrared light detection and ranging data. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

4. Partial differential equations modeling, analysis and numerical approximation

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Le Dret, Hervé

2016-01-01

This book is devoted to the study of partial differential equation problems both from the theoretical and numerical points of view. After presenting modeling aspects, it develops the theoretical analysis of partial differential equation problems for the three main classes of partial differential equations: elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic. Several numerical approximation methods adapted to each of these examples are analyzed: finite difference, finite element and finite volumes methods, and they are illustrated using numerical simulation results. Although parts of the book are accessible to Bachelor students in mathematics or engineering, it is primarily aimed at Masters students in applied mathematics or computational engineering. The emphasis is on mathematical detail and rigor for the analysis of both continuous and discrete problems. .

5. Hidden physics models: Machine learning of nonlinear partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

2018-03-01

While there is currently a lot of enthusiasm about "big data", useful data is usually "small" and expensive to acquire. In this paper, we present a new paradigm of learning partial differential equations from small data. In particular, we introduce hidden physics models, which are essentially data-efficient learning machines capable of leveraging the underlying laws of physics, expressed by time dependent and nonlinear partial differential equations, to extract patterns from high-dimensional data generated from experiments. The proposed methodology may be applied to the problem of learning, system identification, or data-driven discovery of partial differential equations. Our framework relies on Gaussian processes, a powerful tool for probabilistic inference over functions, that enables us to strike a balance between model complexity and data fitting. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through a variety of canonical problems, spanning a number of scientific domains, including the Navier-Stokes, Schrödinger, Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, and time dependent linear fractional equations. The methodology provides a promising new direction for harnessing the long-standing developments of classical methods in applied mathematics and mathematical physics to design learning machines with the ability to operate in complex domains without requiring large quantities of data.

6. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences.

Science.gov (United States)

Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A

2014-11-13

Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

7. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

KAUST Repository

Burger, Martin

2014-10-06

Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective.

8. Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry

2014-01-01

We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications.

9. Modeling Tree Crown Dynamics with 3D Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Robert eBeyer

2014-07-01

Full Text Available We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth towards light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications.

10. Partial differential equations in action from modelling to theory

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Salsa, Sandro

2015-01-01

The book is intended as an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course for students from various disciplines, including applied mathematics, physics and engineering. It has evolved from courses offered on partial differential equations (PDEs) over the last several years at the Politecnico di Milano. These courses had a twofold purpose: on the one hand, to teach students to appreciate the interplay between theory and modeling in problems arising in the applied sciences, and on the other to provide them with a solid theoretical background in numerical methods, such as finite elements. Accordingly, this textbook is divided into two parts. The first part, chapters 2 to 5, is more elementary in nature and focuses on developing and studying basic problems from the macro-areas of diffusion, propagation and transport, waves and vibrations. In turn the second part, chapters 6 to 11, concentrates on the development of Hilbert spaces methods for the variational formulation and the analysis of (mainly) linear bo...

11. Partial differential equations in action from modelling to theory

CERN Document Server

Salsa, Sandro

2016-01-01

The book is intended as an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course for students from various disciplines, including applied mathematics, physics and engineering. It has evolved from courses offered on partial differential equations (PDEs) over the last several years at the Politecnico di Milano. These courses had a twofold purpose: on the one hand, to teach students to appreciate the interplay between theory and modeling in problems arising in the applied sciences, and on the other to provide them with a solid theoretical background in numerical methods, such as finite elements. Accordingly, this textbook is divided into two parts. The first part, chapters 2 to 5, is more elementary in nature and focuses on developing and studying basic problems from the macro-areas of diffusion, propagation and transport, waves and vibrations. In turn the second part, chapters 6 to 11, concentrates on the development of Hilbert spaces methods for the variational formulation and the analysis of (mainly) linear bo...

12. Application of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations to Reservoir Property Modelling

KAUST Repository

Potsepaev, R.

2010-09-06

Existing algorithms of geostatistics for stochastic modelling of reservoir parameters require a mapping (the \\'uvt-transform\\') into the parametric space and reconstruction of a stratigraphic co-ordinate system. The parametric space can be considered to represent a pre-deformed and pre-faulted depositional environment. Existing approximations of this mapping in many cases cause significant distortions to the correlation distances. In this work we propose a coordinate free approach for modelling stochastic textures through the application of stochastic partial differential equations. By avoiding the construction of a uvt-transform and stratigraphic coordinates, one can generate realizations directly in the physical space in the presence of deformations and faults. In particular the solution of the modified Helmholtz equation driven by Gaussian white noise is a zero mean Gaussian stationary random field with exponential correlation function (in 3-D). This equation can be used to generate realizations in parametric space. In order to sample in physical space we introduce a stochastic elliptic PDE with tensor coefficients, where the tensor is related to correlation anisotropy and its variation is physical space.

13. Stochastic partial differential equations a modeling, white noise functional approach

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Holden, Helge; Ubøe, Jan; Zhang, Tusheng

1996-01-01

This book is based on research that, to a large extent, started around 1990, when a research project on fluid flow in stochastic reservoirs was initiated by a group including some of us with the support of VISTA, a research coopera­ tion between the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and Den norske stats oljeselskap A.S. (Statoil). The purpose of the project was to use stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) to describe the flow of fluid in a medium where some of the parameters, e.g., the permeability, were stochastic or "noisy". We soon realized that the theory of SPDEs at the time was insufficient to handle such equations. Therefore it became our aim to develop a new mathematically rigorous theory that satisfied the following conditions. 1) The theory should be physically meaningful and realistic, and the corre­ sponding solutions should make sense physically and should be useful in applications. 2) The theory should be general enough to handle many of the interesting SPDEs that occur in r...

14. Partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Sloan, D; Süli, E

2001-01-01

/homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

15. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

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Witten, Matthew

1986-01-01

Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

16. Beginning partial differential equations

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O'Neil, Peter V

2011-01-01

A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

17. Beginning partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

O'Neil, Peter V

2014-01-01

A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

18. Partial differential equations

been a regular stream of high quality work done in these areas. Talking of elliptic partial differen- tial equations, important contributions have been made in the ...... [6] Evans L C 1992 Periodic homogenisation of certain fully nonlinear partial differential equations; Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh Sect. A 120 No. 3–4, 245–265.

19. Mathematical analysis of partial differential equations modeling electrostatic MEMS

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Esposito, Pierpaolo; Guo, Yujin

2010-01-01

Micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), which combine electronics with miniature-size mechanical devices, are essential components of modern technology. It is the mathematical model describing "electrostatically actuated" MEMS that is addressed in this monograph. Even the simplified models that the authors deal with still lead to very interesting second- and fourth-order nonlinear elliptic equations (in the stationary case) and to nonlinear parabolic equations (in the dynamic case). While nonlinear eigenvalue problems-where the stationary MEMS models fit-are a well-developed

20. Elliptic partial differential equations

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Volpert, Vitaly

If we had to formulate in one sentence what this book is about it might be "How partial differential equations can help to understand heat explosion, tumor growth or evolution of biological species". These and many other applications are described by reaction-diffusion equations. The theory of reaction-diffusion equations appeared in the first half of the last century. In the present time, it is widely used in population dynamics, chemical physics, biomedical modelling. The purpose of this book is to present the mathematical theory of reaction-diffusion equations in the context of their numerous applications. We will go from the general mathematical theory to specific equations and then to their applications. Mathematical anaylsis of reaction-diffusion equations will be based on the theory of Fredholm operators presented in the first volume. Existence, stability and bifurcations of solutions will be studied for bounded domains and in the case of travelling waves. The classical theory of reaction-diffusion equ...

1. Applied partial differential equations

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Logan, J David

2004-01-01

This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

2. Partial differential equations

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Evans, Lawrence C

2010-01-01

This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

3. Calculus for cognitive scientists partial differential equation models

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Peterson, James K

2016-01-01

This book shows cognitive scientists in training how mathematics, computer science and science can be usefully and seamlessly intertwined. It is a follow-up to the first two volumes on mathematics for cognitive scientists, and includes the mathematics and computational tools needed to understand how to compute the terms in the Fourier series expansions that solve the cable equation. The latter is derived from first principles by going back to cellular biology and the relevant biophysics.  A detailed discussion of ion movement through cellular membranes, and an explanation of how the equations that govern such ion movement leading to the standard transient cable equation are included. There are also solutions for the cable model using separation of variables, as well an explanation of why Fourier series converge and a description of the implementation of MatLab tools to compute the solutions. Finally, the standard Hodgkin - Huxley model is developed for an excitable neuron and is solved using MatLab.

4. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Generalized Partial Credit Model Analysis of Differential Item Functioning across Gender

Science.gov (United States)

Gomez, Rapson

2012-01-01

Objective: Generalized partial credit model, which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to test differential item functioning (DIF) for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.), inattention (IA), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms across boys and girls. Method: To accomplish this, parents completed…

5. Application of partial differential equation modeling of the control/structural dynamics of flexible spacecraft

Science.gov (United States)

Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Rajiyah, H.

1991-01-01

Partial differential equations for modeling the structural dynamics and control systems of flexible spacecraft are applied here in order to facilitate systems analysis and optimization of these spacecraft. Example applications are given, including the structural dynamics of SCOLE, the Solar Array Flight Experiment, the Mini-MAST truss, and the LACE satellite. The development of related software is briefly addressed.

6. New model reduction technique for a class of parabolic partial differential equations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vajta, Miklos

1991-01-01

A model reduction (or lumping) technique for a class of parabolic-type partial differential equations is given, and its application is discussed. The frequency response of the temperature distribution in any multilayer solid is developed and given by a matrix expression. The distributed transfer

7. Lattice Boltzmann model for high-order nonlinear partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Chai, Zhenhua; He, Nanzhong; Guo, Zhaoli; Shi, Baochang

2018-01-01

In this paper, a general lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation with the form ∂tϕ +∑k=1mαk∂xkΠk(ϕ ) =0 (1 ≤k ≤m ≤6 ), αk are constant coefficients, Πk(ϕ ) are some known differential functions of ϕ . As some special cases of the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation, the classical (m)KdV equation, KdV-Burgers equation, K (n ,n ) -Burgers equation, Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, and Kawahara equation can be solved by the present LB model. Compared to the available LB models, the most distinct characteristic of the present model is to introduce some suitable auxiliary moments such that the correct moments of equilibrium distribution function can be achieved. In addition, we also conducted a detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis, and found that the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation can be correctly recovered from the proposed LB model. Finally, a large number of simulations are performed, and it is found that the numerical results agree with the analytical solutions, and usually the present model is also more accurate than the existing LB models [H. Lai and C. Ma, Sci. China Ser. G 52, 1053 (2009), 10.1007/s11433-009-0149-3; H. Lai and C. Ma, Phys. A (Amsterdam) 388, 1405 (2009), 10.1016/j.physa.2009.01.005] for high-order nonlinear partial differential equations.

8. Partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Agranovich, M S

2002-01-01

Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

9. Elliptic partial differential equations

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Han, Qing

2011-01-01

Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

10. Partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Friedman, Avner

2008-01-01

This three-part treatment of partial differential equations focuses on elliptic and evolution equations. Largely self-contained, it concludes with a series of independent topics directly related to the methods and results of the preceding sections that helps introduce readers to advanced topics for further study. Geared toward graduate and postgraduate students of mathematics, this volume also constitutes a valuable reference for mathematicians and mathematical theorists.Starting with the theory of elliptic equations and the solution of the Dirichlet problem, the text develops the theory of we

11. Partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Levine, Harold

1997-01-01

The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

12. Nonelliptic Partial Differential Equations

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Tartakoff, David S

2011-01-01

This book provides a very readable description of a technique, developed by the author years ago but as current as ever, for proving that solutions to certain (non-elliptic) partial differential equations only have real analytic solutions when the data are real analytic (locally). The technique is completely elementary but relies on a construction, a kind of a non-commutative power series, to localize the analysis of high powers of derivatives in the so-called bad direction. It is hoped that this work will permit a far greater audience of researchers to come to a deep understanding of this tec

13. Introduction to partial differential equations

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Borthwick, David

2016-01-01

This modern take on partial differential equations does not require knowledge beyond vector calculus and linear algebra. The author focuses on the most important classical partial differential equations, including conservation equations and their characteristics, the wave equation, the heat equation, function spaces, and Fourier series, drawing on tools from analysis only as they arise.Within each section the author creates a narrative that answers the five questions: (1) What is the scientific problem we are trying to understand? (2) How do we model that with PDE? (3) What techniques can we use to analyze the PDE? (4) How do those techniques apply to this equation? (5) What information or insight did we obtain by developing and analyzing the PDE? The text stresses the interplay between modeling and mathematical analysis, providing a thorough source of problems and an inspiration for the development of methods.

14. An Odor Interaction Model of Binary Odorant Mixtures by a Partial Differential Equation Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Luchun Yan

2014-07-01

Full Text Available A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture’s odor intensity to the individual odorant’s relative odor activity value (OAV. Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.

15. An odor interaction model of binary odorant mixtures by a partial differential equation method.

Science.gov (United States)

Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Wang, Guihua; Wu, Chuandong

2014-07-09

A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE) method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method) of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture's odor intensity to the individual odorant's relative odor activity value (OAV). Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors) also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.

16. Modeling Solution of Nonlinear Dispersive Partial Differential Equations using the Marker Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lewandowski, Jerome L.V.

2005-01-01

A new method for the solution of nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations is described. The marker method relies on the definition of a convective field associated with the underlying partial differential equation; the information about the approximate solution is associated with the response of an ensemble of markers to this convective field. Some key aspects of the method, such as the selection of the shape function and the initial loading, are discussed in some details

17. Partial Differential Equations

CERN Document Server

1988-01-01

The volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 7th Symposium on differential geometry and differential equations (DD7) held at the Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin, China, in 1986. Most of the contributions are original research papers on topics including elliptic equations, hyperbolic equations, evolution equations, non-linear equations from differential geometry and mechanics, micro-local analysis.

18. An integro-partial differential equation for modeling biofluids flow in fractured biomaterials.

Science.gov (United States)

2011-03-21

A novel mathematical model in the framework of a nonlinear integro-partial differential equation governing biofluids flow in fractured biomaterials is proposed, solved, verified, and evaluated. A semi-analytical solution is derived for the equation, verified by a mass-lumped Galerkin finite element method (FEM), and calibrated with two in vitro experimental datasets. The solution process uses separation of variables and results in explicit expression involving complete and incomplete beta functions. The proposed semi-analytical model shows reasonable agreements with the finite element simulator as well as with two in vitro experimental time series and can be successfully used to simulate biofluids (e.g. water, blood, oil, etc.) flow in natural and synthetic porous biomaterials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

19. Introduction to partial differential equations

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Greenspan, Donald

2000-01-01

Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

20. Stochastic partial differential equations

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Chow, Pao-Liu

2014-01-01

Preliminaries Introduction Some Examples Brownian Motions and Martingales Stochastic Integrals Stochastic Differential Equations of Itô Type Lévy Processes and Stochastic IntegralsStochastic Differential Equations of Lévy Type Comments Scalar Equations of First Order Introduction Generalized Itô's Formula Linear Stochastic Equations Quasilinear Equations General Remarks Stochastic Parabolic Equations Introduction Preliminaries Solution of Stochastic Heat EquationLinear Equations with Additive Noise Some Regularity Properties Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion Equations Parabolic Equations with Grad

1. Methods for partial differential equations qualitative properties of solutions, phase space analysis, semilinear models

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Ebert, Marcelo R

2018-01-01

This book provides an overview of different topics related to the theory of partial differential equations. Selected exercises are included at the end of each chapter to prepare readers for the “research project for beginners” proposed at the end of the book. It is a valuable resource for advanced graduates and undergraduate students who are interested in specializing in this area. The book is organized in five parts: In Part 1 the authors review the basics and the mathematical prerequisites, presenting two of the most fundamental results in the theory of partial differential equations: the Cauchy-Kovalevskaja theorem and Holmgren's uniqueness theorem in its classical and abstract form. It also introduces the method of characteristics in detail and applies this method to the study of Burger's equation. Part 2 focuses on qualitative properties of solutions to basic partial differential equations, explaining the usual properties of solutions to elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic equations for the archetypes...

2. Elements of partial differential equations

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Sneddon, Ian Naismith

1957-01-01

Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

3. Basic linear partial differential equations

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Treves, Francois

1975-01-01

Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

4. Fractional Partial Differential Equation: Fractional Total Variation and Fractional Steepest Descent Approach-Based Multiscale Denoising Model for Texture Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yi-Fei Pu

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The traditional integer-order partial differential equation-based image denoising approaches often blur the edge and complex texture detail; thus, their denoising effects for texture image are not very good. To solve the problem, a fractional partial differential equation-based denoising model for texture image is proposed, which applies a novel mathematical method—fractional calculus to image processing from the view of system evolution. We know from previous studies that fractional-order calculus has some unique properties comparing to integer-order differential calculus that it can nonlinearly enhance complex texture detail during the digital image processing. The goal of the proposed model is to overcome the problems mentioned above by using the properties of fractional differential calculus. It extended traditional integer-order equation to a fractional order and proposed the fractional Green’s formula and the fractional Euler-Lagrange formula for two-dimensional image processing, and then a fractional partial differential equation based denoising model was proposed. The experimental results prove that the abilities of the proposed denoising model to preserve the high-frequency edge and complex texture information are obviously superior to those of traditional integral based algorithms, especially for texture detail rich images.

5. Algebraic aspects of evolution partial differential equation arising in the study of constant elasticity of variance model from financial mathematics

Science.gov (United States)

Motsepa, Tanki; Aziz, Taha; Fatima, Aeeman; Khalique, Chaudry Masood

2018-03-01

The optimal investment-consumption problem under the constant elasticity of variance (CEV) model is investigated from the perspective of Lie group analysis. The Lie symmetry group of the evolution partial differential equation describing the CEV model is derived. The Lie point symmetries are then used to obtain an exact solution of the governing model satisfying a standard terminal condition. Finally, we construct conservation laws of the underlying equation using the general theorem on conservation laws.

6. Stochastic Partial Differential Equation Solver for Hydroacoustic Modeling: Improvements to Paracousti Sound Propagation Solver

Science.gov (United States)

Preston, L. A.

2017-12-01

Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices offer a clean, renewable alternative energy source for the future. Responsible utilization of MHK devices, however, requires that the effects of acoustic noise produced by these devices on marine life and marine-related human activities be well understood. Paracousti is a 3-D full waveform acoustic modeling suite that can accurately propagate MHK noise signals in the complex bathymetry found in the near-shore to open ocean environment and considers real properties of the seabed, water column, and air-surface interface. However, this is a deterministic simulation that assumes the environment and source are exactly known. In reality, environmental and source characteristics are often only known in a statistical sense. Thus, to fully characterize the expected noise levels within the marine environment, this uncertainty in environmental and source factors should be incorporated into the acoustic simulations. One method is to use Monte Carlo (MC) techniques where simulation results from a large number of deterministic solutions are aggregated to provide statistical properties of the output signal. However, MC methods can be computationally prohibitive since they can require tens of thousands or more simulations to build up an accurate representation of those statistical properties. An alternative method, using the technique of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE), allows computation of the statistical properties of output signals at a small fraction of the computational cost of MC. We are developing a SPDE solver for the 3-D acoustic wave propagation problem called Paracousti-UQ to help regulators and operators assess the statistical properties of environmental noise produced by MHK devices. In this presentation, we present the SPDE method and compare statistical distributions of simulated acoustic signals in simple models to MC simulations to show the accuracy and efficiency of the SPDE method. Sandia National Laboratories

7. Dynamics of partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Wayne, C Eugene

2015-01-01

This book contains two review articles on the dynamics of partial differential equations that deal with closely related topics but can be read independently. Wayne reviews recent results on the global dynamics of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. This system exhibits stable vortex solutions: the topic of Wayne's contribution is how solutions that start from arbitrary initial conditions evolve towards stable vortices. Weinstein considers the dynamics of localized states in nonlinear Schrodinger and Gross-Pitaevskii equations that describe many optical and quantum systems. In this contribution, Weinstein reviews recent bifurcations results of solitary waves, their linear and nonlinear stability properties, and results about radiation damping where waves lose energy through radiation.   The articles, written independently, are combined into one volume to showcase the tools of dynamical systems theory at work in explaining qualitative phenomena associated with two classes of partial differential equ...

8. Abstract methods in partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Carroll, Robert W

2012-01-01

Detailed, self-contained treatment examines modern abstract methods in partial differential equations, especially abstract evolution equations. Suitable for graduate students with some previous exposure to classical partial differential equations. 1969 edition.

9. Partial differential equations an introduction

CERN Document Server

Colton, David

2004-01-01

Intended for a college senior or first-year graduate-level course in partial differential equations, this text offers students in mathematics, engineering, and the applied sciences a solid foundation for advanced studies in mathematics. Classical topics presented in a modern context include coverage of integral equations and basic scattering theory. This complete and accessible treatment includes a variety of examples of inverse problems arising from improperly posed applications. Exercises at the ends of chapters, many with answers, offer a clear progression in developing an understanding of

10. PARALLEL SOLUTION METHODS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Korhan KARABULUT

1998-03-01

Full Text Available Partial differential equations arise in almost all fields of science and engineering. Computer time spent in solving partial differential equations is much more than that of in any other problem class. For this reason, partial differential equations are suitable to be solved on parallel computers that offer great computation power. In this study, parallel solution to partial differential equations with Jacobi, Gauss-Siedel, SOR (Succesive OverRelaxation and SSOR (Symmetric SOR algorithms is studied.

11. Ambit processes and stochastic partial differential equations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

Ambit processes are general stochastic processes based on stochastic integrals with respect to Lévy bases. Due to their flexible structure, they have great potential for providing realistic models for various applications such as in turbulence and finance. This papers studies the connection between...... ambit processes and solutions to stochastic partial differential equations. We investigate this relationship from two angles: from the Walsh theory of martingale measures and from the viewpoint of the Lévy noise analysis....

12. First-order partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Rhee, Hyun-Ku; Amundson, Neal R

2001-01-01

This first volume of a highly regarded two-volume text is fully usable on its own. After going over some of the preliminaries, the authors discuss mathematical models that yield first-order partial differential equations; motivations, classifications, and some methods of solution; linear and semilinear equations; chromatographic equations with finite rate expressions; homogeneous and nonhomogeneous quasilinear equations; formation and propagation of shocks; conservation equations, weak solutions, and shock layers; nonlinear equations; and variational problems. Exercises appear at the end of mo

13. Approximations of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations

OpenAIRE

Di Nunno, Giulia; Zhang, Tusheng

2014-01-01

In this paper we show that solutions of stochastic partial differ- ential equations driven by Brownian motion can be approximated by stochastic partial differential equations forced by pure jump noise/random kicks. Applications to stochastic Burgers equations are discussed.

14. Partial differential equations of mathematical physics

CERN Document Server

Sobolev, S L

1964-01-01

Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics emphasizes the study of second-order partial differential equations of mathematical physics, which is deemed as the foundation of investigations into waves, heat conduction, hydrodynamics, and other physical problems. The book discusses in detail a wide spectrum of topics related to partial differential equations, such as the theories of sets and of Lebesgue integration, integral equations, Green's function, and the proof of the Fourier method. Theoretical physicists, experimental physicists, mathematicians engaged in pure and applied math

15. Numerical approximation of partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Bartels, Sören

2016-01-01

Finite element methods for approximating partial differential equations have reached a high degree of maturity, and are an indispensible tool in science and technology. This textbook aims at providing a thorough introduction to the construction, analysis, and implementation of finite element methods for model problems arising in continuum mechanics. The first part of the book discusses elementary properties of linear partial differential equations along with their basic numerical approximation, the functional-analytical framework for rigorously establishing existence of solutions, and the construction and analysis of basic finite element methods. The second part is devoted to the optimal adaptive approximation of singularities and the fast iterative solution of linear systems of equations arising from finite element discretizations. In the third part, the mathematical framework for analyzing and discretizing saddle-point problems is formulated, corresponding finte element methods are analyzed, and particular ...

16. Hamiltonian partial differential equations and applications

CERN Document Server

Nicholls, David; Sulem, Catherine

2015-01-01

This book is a unique selection of work by world-class experts exploring the latest developments in Hamiltonian partial differential equations and their applications. Topics covered within are representative of the field’s wide scope, including KAM and normal form theories, perturbation and variational methods, integrable systems, stability of nonlinear solutions as well as applications to cosmology, fluid mechanics and water waves. The volume contains both surveys and original research papers and gives a concise overview of the above topics, with results ranging from mathematical modeling to rigorous analysis and numerical simulation. It will be of particular interest to graduate students as well as researchers in mathematics and physics, who wish to learn more about the powerful and elegant analytical techniques for Hamiltonian partial differential equations.

17. Stochastic partial differential equations an introduction

CERN Document Server

Liu, Wei

2015-01-01

This book provides an introduction to the theory of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) of evolutionary type. SPDEs are one of the main research directions in probability theory with several wide ranging applications. Many types of dynamics with stochastic influence in nature or man-made complex systems can be modelled by such equations. The theory of SPDEs is based both on the theory of deterministic partial differential equations, as well as on modern stochastic analysis. Whilst this volume mainly follows the ‘variational approach’, it also contains a short account on the ‘semigroup (or mild solution) approach’. In particular, the volume contains a complete presentation of the main existence and uniqueness results in the case of locally monotone coefficients. Various types of generalized coercivity conditions are shown to guarantee non-explosion, but also a systematic approach to treat SPDEs with explosion in finite time is developed. It is, so far, the only book where the latter and t...

18. Introduction to partial differential equations with applications

CERN Document Server

Zachmanoglou, E C

1988-01-01

This text explores the essentials of partial differential equations as applied to engineering and the physical sciences. Discusses ordinary differential equations, integral curves and surfaces of vector fields, the Cauchy-Kovalevsky theory, more. Problems and answers.

19. Partial differential equations for scientists and engineers

CERN Document Server

Farlow, Stanley J

1993-01-01

Most physical phenomena, whether in the domain of fluid dynamics, electricity, magnetism, mechanics, optics, or heat flow, can be described in general by partial differential equations. Indeed, such equations are crucial to mathematical physics. Although simplifications can be made that reduce these equations to ordinary differential equations, nevertheless the complete description of physical systems resides in the general area of partial differential equations.This highly useful text shows the reader how to formulate a partial differential equation from the physical problem (constructing th

20. ERC Workshop on Geometric Partial Differential Equations

CERN Document Server

Novaga, Matteo; Valdinoci, Enrico

2013-01-01

This book is the outcome of a conference held at the Centro De Giorgi of the Scuola Normale of Pisa in September 2012. The aim of the conference was to discuss recent results on nonlinear partial differential equations, and more specifically geometric evolutions and reaction-diffusion equations. Particular attention was paid to self-similar solutions, such as solitons and travelling waves, asymptotic behaviour, formation of singularities and qualitative properties of solutions. These problems arise in many models from Physics, Biology, Image Processing and Applied Mathematics in general, and have attracted a lot of attention in recent years.

1. Modelling of oedemous limbs and venous ulcers using partial differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wilson Michael J

2005-08-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oedema, commonly known as tissue swelling, occurs mainly on the leg and the arm. The condition may be associated with a range of causes such as venous diseases, trauma, infection, joint disease and orthopaedic surgery. Oedema is caused by both lymphatic and chronic venous insufficiency, which leads to pooling of blood and fluid in the extremities. This results in swelling, mild redness and scaling of the skin, all of which can culminate in ulceration. Methods We present a method to model a wide variety of geometries of limbs affected by oedema and venous ulcers. The shape modelling is based on the PDE method where a set of boundary curves are extracted from 3D scan data and are utilised as boundary conditions to solve a PDE, which provides the geometry of an affected limb. For this work we utilise a mixture of fourth order and sixth order PDEs, the solutions of which enable us to obtain a good representative shape of the limb and associated ulcers in question. Results A series of examples are discussed demonstrating the capability of the method to produce good representative shapes of limbs by utilising a series of curves extracted from the scan data. In particular we show how the method could be used to model the shape of an arm and a leg with an associated ulcer. Conclusion We show how PDE based shape modelling techniques can be utilised to generate a variety of limb shapes and associated ulcers by means of a series of curves extracted from scan data. We also discuss how the method could be used to manipulate a generic shape of a limb and an associated wound so that the model could be fine-tuned for a particular patient.

2. Fractional partial differential equations with boundary conditions

Science.gov (United States)

Baeumer, Boris; Kovács, Mihály; Sankaranarayanan, Harish

2018-01-01

We identify the stochastic processes associated with one-sided fractional partial differential equations on a bounded domain with various boundary conditions. This is essential for modelling using spatial fractional derivatives. We show well-posedness of the associated Cauchy problems in C0 (Ω) and L1 (Ω). In order to do so we develop a new method of embedding finite state Markov processes into Feller processes on bounded domains and then show convergence of the respective Feller processes. This also gives a numerical approximation of the solution. The proof of well-posedness closes a gap in many numerical algorithm articles approximating solutions to fractional differential equations that use the Lax-Richtmyer Equivalence Theorem to prove convergence without checking well-posedness.

3. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Partial Differential ...

Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 4. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Partial Differential Equations and their Applications (PDEA-2017). Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 4 April 2017 pp 429-429 ...

4. Partial differential equations mathematical techniques for engineers

CERN Document Server

Epstein, Marcelo

2017-01-01

This monograph presents a graduate-level treatment of partial differential equations (PDEs) for engineers. The book begins with a review of the geometrical interpretation of systems of ODEs, the appearance of PDEs in engineering is motivated by the general form of balance laws in continuum physics. Four chapters are devoted to a detailed treatment of the single first-order PDE, including shock waves and genuinely non-linear models, with applications to traffic design and gas dynamics. The rest of the book deals with second-order equations. In the treatment of hyperbolic equations, geometric arguments are used whenever possible and the analogy with discrete vibrating systems is emphasized. The diffusion and potential equations afford the opportunity of dealing with questions of uniqueness and continuous dependence on the data, the Fourier integral, generalized functions (distributions), Duhamel's principle, Green's functions and Dirichlet and Neumann problems. The target audience primarily comprises graduate s...

5. Particle Systems and Partial Differential Equations I

CERN Document Server

Gonçalves, Patricia

2014-01-01

This book presents the proceedings of the international conference Particle Systems and Partial Differential Equations I, which took place at the Centre of Mathematics of the University of Minho, Braga, Portugal, from the 5th to the 7th of December, 2012.  The purpose of the conference was to bring together world leaders to discuss their topics of expertise and to present some of their latest research developments in those fields. Among the participants were researchers in probability, partial differential equations and kinetics theory. The aim of the meeting was to present to a varied public the subject of interacting particle systems, its motivation from the viewpoint of physics and its relation with partial differential equations or kinetics theory, and to stimulate discussions and possibly new collaborations among researchers with different backgrounds.  The book contains lecture notes written by François Golse on the derivation of hydrodynamic equations (compressible and incompressible Euler and Navie...

6. Diffusions, superdiffusions and partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Dynkin, E B

2002-01-01

Interactions between the theory of partial differential equations of elliptic and parabolic types and the theory of stochastic processes are beneficial for both probability theory and analysis. At the beginning, mostly analytic results were used by probabilists. More recently, analysts (and physicists) took inspiration from the probabilistic approach. Of course, the development of analysis in general and of the theory of partial differential equations in particular, was motivated to a great extent by problems in physics. A difference between physics and probability is that the latter provides

7. Generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Rosinger, EE

1987-01-01

During the last few years, several fairly systematic nonlinear theories of generalized solutions of rather arbitrary nonlinear partial differential equations have emerged. The aim of this volume is to offer the reader a sufficiently detailed introduction to two of these recent nonlinear theories which have so far contributed most to the study of generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations, bringing the reader to the level of ongoing research.The essence of the two nonlinear theories presented in this volume is the observation that much of the mathematics concernin

8. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

2004-11-25

From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

9. Partially Hidden Markov Models

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

1996-01-01

Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

10. Partially ordered models

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

2010-01-01

We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

11. Partial Differential Equations in General Relativity

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne

2008-01-01

General relativity is a physical theory basic in the modeling of the universe at the large and small scales. Its mathematical formulation, the Einstein partial differential equations, are geometrically simple, but intricate for the analyst, involving both hyperbolic and elliptic PDE, with local and global problems. Many problems remain open though remarkable progress has been made recently towards their solutions. Alan Rendall's book states, in a down-to-earth form, fundamental results used to solve different types of equations. In each case he gives applications to special models as well as to general properties of Einsteinian spacetimes. A chapter on ODE contains, in particular, a detailed discussion of Bianchi spacetimes. A chapter entitled 'Elliptic systems' treats the Einstein constraints. A chapter entitled 'Hyperbolic systems' is followed by a chapter on the Cauchy problem and a chapter 'Global results' which contains recently proved theorems. A chapter is dedicated to the Einstein-Vlasov system, of which the author is a specialist. On the whole, the book surveys, in a concise though precise way, many essential results of recent interest in mathematical general relativity, and it is very clearly written. Each chapter is followed by an up to date bibliography. In conclusion, this book will be a valuable asset to relativists who wish to learn clearly-stated mathematical results and to mathematicians who want to penetrate into the subtleties of general relativity, as a mathematical and physical theory. (book review)

12. Partial Differential Equations in General Relativity

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne

2008-09-07

General relativity is a physical theory basic in the modeling of the universe at the large and small scales. Its mathematical formulation, the Einstein partial differential equations, are geometrically simple, but intricate for the analyst, involving both hyperbolic and elliptic PDE, with local and global problems. Many problems remain open though remarkable progress has been made recently towards their solutions. Alan Rendall's book states, in a down-to-earth form, fundamental results used to solve different types of equations. In each case he gives applications to special models as well as to general properties of Einsteinian spacetimes. A chapter on ODE contains, in particular, a detailed discussion of Bianchi spacetimes. A chapter entitled 'Elliptic systems' treats the Einstein constraints. A chapter entitled 'Hyperbolic systems' is followed by a chapter on the Cauchy problem and a chapter 'Global results' which contains recently proved theorems. A chapter is dedicated to the Einstein-Vlasov system, of which the author is a specialist. On the whole, the book surveys, in a concise though precise way, many essential results of recent interest in mathematical general relativity, and it is very clearly written. Each chapter is followed by an up to date bibliography. In conclusion, this book will be a valuable asset to relativists who wish to learn clearly-stated mathematical results and to mathematicians who want to penetrate into the subtleties of general relativity, as a mathematical and physical theory. (book review)

13. Partially composite Higgs models

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

2018-01-01

We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...... constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension...

14. Computational partial differential equations using Matlab

CERN Document Server

Li, Jichun

2008-01-01

Brief Overview of Partial Differential Equations The parabolic equations The wave equations The elliptic equations Differential equations in broader areasA quick review of numerical methods for PDEsFinite Difference Methods for Parabolic Equations Introduction Theoretical issues: stability, consistence, and convergence 1-D parabolic equations2-D and 3-D parabolic equationsNumerical examples with MATLAB codesFinite Difference Methods for Hyperbolic Equations IntroductionSome basic difference schemes Dissipation and dispersion errors Extensions to conservation lawsThe second-order hyperbolic PDE

15. An Interesting Class of Partial Differential Equations

OpenAIRE

Yong, Wen-an

2007-01-01

This paper presents an observation that under reasonable conditions, many partial differential equations from mathematical physics possess three structural properties. One of them can be understand as a variant of the celebrated Onsager reciprocal relation in Modern Thermodynamics. It displays a direct relation of irreversible processes to the entropy change. We show that the properties imply various entropy dissipation conditions for hyperbolic relaxation problems. As an application of the o...

16. Partial differential equations in several complex variables

CERN Document Server

Chen, So-Chin

2001-01-01

This book is intended both as an introductory text and as a reference book for those interested in studying several complex variables in the context of partial differential equations. In the last few decades, significant progress has been made in the fields of Cauchy-Riemann and tangential Cauchy-Riemann operators. This book gives an up-to-date account of the theories for these equations and their applications. The background material in several complex variables is developed in the first three chapters, leading to the Levi problem. The next three chapters are devoted to the solvability and regularity of the Cauchy-Riemann equations using Hilbert space techniques. The authors provide a systematic study of the Cauchy-Riemann equations and the \\bar\\partial-Neumann problem, including L^2 existence theorems on pseudoconvex domains, \\frac 12-subelliptic estimates for the \\bar\\partial-Neumann problems on strongly pseudoconvex domains, global regularity of \\bar\\partial on more general pseudoconvex domains, boundary ...

17. Nonlinear partial differential equations and their applications

CERN Document Server

Lions, Jacques Louis

2002-01-01

This book contains the written versions of lectures delivered since 1997 in the well-known weekly seminar on Applied Mathematics at the Collège de France in Paris, directed by Jacques-Louis Lions. It is the 14th and last of the series, due to the recent and untimely death of Professor Lions. The texts in this volume deal mostly with various aspects of the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations. They present both theoretical and applied results in many fields of growing importance such as Calculus of variations and optimal control, optimization, system theory and control, op

18. Boundary value problems and partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Powers, David L

2005-01-01

Boundary Value Problems is the leading text on boundary value problems and Fourier series. The author, David Powers, (Clarkson) has written a thorough, theoretical overview of solving boundary value problems involving partial differential equations by the methods of separation of variables. Professors and students agree that the author is a master at creating linear problems that adroitly illustrate the techniques of separation of variables used to solve science and engineering.* CD with animations and graphics of solutions, additional exercises and chapter review questions* Nearly 900 exercises ranging in difficulty* Many fully worked examples

19. Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations

CERN Document Server

Guo, Ben-yu

1987-01-01

These Proceedings of the first Chinese Conference on Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations covers topics such as difference methods, finite element methods, spectral methods, splitting methods, parallel algorithm etc., their theoretical foundation and applications to engineering. Numerical methods both for boundary value problems of elliptic equations and for initial-boundary value problems of evolution equations, such as hyperbolic systems and parabolic equations, are involved. The 16 papers of this volume present recent or new unpublished results and provide a good overview of current research being done in this field in China.

20. Stochastic differential equations, backward SDEs, partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Pardoux, Etienne

2014-01-01

This research monograph presents results to researchers in stochastic calculus, forward and backward stochastic differential equations, connections between diffusion processes and second order partial differential equations (PDEs), and financial mathematics. It pays special attention to the relations between SDEs/BSDEs and second order PDEs under minimal regularity assumptions, and also extends those results to equations with multivalued coefficients. The authors present in particular the theory of reflected SDEs in the above mentioned framework and include exercises at the end of each chapter. Stochastic calculus and stochastic differential equations (SDEs) were first introduced by K. Itô in the 1940s, in order to construct the path of diffusion processes (which are continuous time Markov processes with continuous trajectories taking their values in a finite dimensional vector space or manifold), which had been studied from a more analytic point of view by Kolmogorov in the 1930s. Since then, this topic has...

1. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Hochberg, D; Molina-París, C; Pérez-Mercader, J; Visser, M

1999-12-01

Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this "direct approach" is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from QFT to the case of

2. Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory

CERN Document Server

Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

2009-01-01

"Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory" is a self-contained book divided into two parts: Part I is a coherent survey bringing together newly developed methods for solving PDEs. While some traditional techniques are presented, this part does not require thorough understanding of abstract theories or compact concepts. Well-selected worked examples and exercises shall guide the reader through the text. Part II provides an extensive exposition of the solitary waves theory. This part handles nonlinear evolution equations by methods such as Hirota’s bilinear method or the tanh-coth method. A self-contained treatment is presented to discuss complete integrability of a wide class of nonlinear equations. This part presents in an accessible manner a systematic presentation of solitons, multi-soliton solutions, kinks, peakons, cuspons, and compactons. While the whole book can be used as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics and engineering, Part II w...

3. Inverse problems for partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Isakov, Victor

2017-01-01

This third edition expands upon the earlier edition by adding nearly 40 pages of new material reflecting the analytical and numerical progress in inverse problems in last 10 years. As in the second edition, the emphasis is on new ideas and methods rather than technical improvements. These new ideas include use of the stationary phase method in the two-dimensional elliptic problems and of multi frequencies\\temporal data to improve stability and numerical resolution. There are also numerous corrections and improvements of the exposition throughout. This book is intended for mathematicians working with partial differential equations and their applications, physicists, geophysicists, and financial, electrical, and mechanical engineers involved with nondestructive evaluation, seismic exploration, remote sensing, and various kinds of tomography. Review of the second edition: "The first edition of this excellent book appeared in 1998 and became a standard reference for everyone interested in analysis and numerics of...

4. Analysis of linear partial differential operators

CERN Document Server

Hörmander , Lars

2005-01-01

This volume is an expanded version of Chapters III, IV, V and VII of my 1963 book "Linear partial differential operators". In addition there is an entirely new chapter on convolution equations, one on scattering theory, and one on methods from the theory of analytic functions of several complex variables. The latter is somewhat limited in scope though since it seems superfluous to duplicate the monographs by Ehrenpreis and by Palamodov on this subject. The reader is assumed to be familiar with distribution theory as presented in Volume I. Most topics discussed here have in fact been encountered in Volume I in special cases, which should provide the necessary motivation and background for a more systematic and precise exposition. The main technical tool in this volume is the Fourier- Laplace transformation. More powerful methods for the study of operators with variable coefficients will be developed in Volume III. However, constant coefficient theory has given the guidance for all that work. Although the field...

5. Hilbert space methods for partial differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ralph E. Showalter

1994-09-01

Full Text Available This book is an outgrowth of a course which we have given almost periodically over the last eight years. It is addressed to beginning graduate students of mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences. Thus, we have attempted to present it while presupposing a minimal background: the reader is assumed to have some prior acquaintance with the concepts of linear'' and continuous'' and also to believe $L^2$ is complete. An undergraduate mathematics training through Lebesgue integration is an ideal background but we dare not assume it without turning away many of our best students. The formal prerequisite consists of a good advanced calculus course and a motivation to study partial differential equations.

6. Handbook of differential equations stationary partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Chipot, Michel

2006-01-01

This handbook is volume III in a series devoted to stationary partial differential quations. Similarly as volumes I and II, it is a collection of self contained state-of-the-art surveys written by well known experts in the field. The topics covered by this handbook include singular and higher order equations, problems near critically, problems with anisotropic nonlinearities, dam problem, T-convergence and Schauder-type estimates. These surveys will be useful for both beginners and experts and speed up the progress of corresponding (rapidly developing and fascinating) areas of mathematics. Ke

7. Stochastic partial differential equations in turbulence related problems

Science.gov (United States)

Chow, P.-L.

1978-01-01

The theory of stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) and problems relating to turbulence are discussed by employing the theories of Brownian motion and diffusion in infinite dimensions, functional differential equations, and functional integration. Relevant results in probablistic analysis, especially Gaussian measures in function spaces and the theory of stochastic PDEs of Ito type, are taken into account. Linear stochastic PDEs are analyzed through linearized Navier-Stokes equations with a random forcing. Stochastic equations for waves in random media as well as model equations in turbulent transport theory are considered. Markovian models in fully developed turbulence are discussed from a stochastic equation viewpoint.

8. Multigrid methods for space fractional partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Jiang, Yingjun; Xu, Xuejun

2015-12-01

We propose some multigrid methods for solving the algebraic systems resulting from finite element approximations of space fractional partial differential equations (SFPDEs). It is shown that our multigrid methods are optimal, which means the convergence rates of the methods are independent of the mesh size and mesh level. Moreover, our theoretical analysis and convergence results do not require regularity assumptions of the model problems. Numerical results are given to support our theoretical findings.

9. The Application of Partial Differential Equations in Medical Image Processing

OpenAIRE

2013-01-01

Mathematical models are the foundation of biomedical computing. Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in Medical Imaging is concerned with acquiring images of the body for research, diagnosis and treatment. Biomedical Image Processing and its influence has undergoing a revolution in the past decade. Image processing has become an important component in contemporary science and technology and has been an interdisciplinary research field attracting expertise from applied mathematics, biology, c...

10. Symmetric solutions of evolutionary partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Bruell, Gabriele; Ehrnström, Mats; Geyer, Anna; Pei, Long

2017-10-01

We show that for a large class of evolutionary nonlinear and nonlocal partial differential equations, symmetry of solutions implies very restrictive properties of the solutions and symmetry axes. These restrictions are formulated in terms of three principles, based on the structure of the equations. The first principle covers equations that allow for steady solutions and shows that any spatially symmetric solution is in fact steady with a speed determined by the motion of the axis of symmetry at the initial time. The second principle includes equations that admit breathers and steady waves, and therefore is less strong: it holds that the axes of symmetry are constant in time. The last principle is a mixed case, when the equation contains terms of the kind from both earlier principles, and there may be different outcomes; for a class of such equations one obtains that a spatially symmetric solution must be constant in both time and space. We list and give examples of more than 30 well-known equations and systems in one and several dimensions satisfying these principles; corresponding results for weak formulations of these equations may be attained using the same techniques. Our investigation is a generalisation of a local and one-dimensional version of the first principle from Ehrnström et al (2009 Int. Math. Res. Not. 2009 4578-96) to nonlocal equations, systems and higher dimensions, as well as a study of the standing and mixed cases.

11. CIME course on Control of Partial Differential Equations

CERN Document Server

Alabau-Boussouira, Fatiha; Glass, Olivier; Le Rousseau, Jérôme; Zuazua, Enrique

2012-01-01

The term “control theory” refers to the body of results - theoretical, numerical and algorithmic - which have been developed to influence the evolution of the state of a given system in order to meet a prescribed performance criterion. Systems of interest to control theory may be of very different natures. This monograph is concerned with models that can be described by partial differential equations of evolution. It contains five major contributions and is connected to the CIME Course on Control of Partial Differential Equations that took place in Cetraro (CS, Italy), July 19 - 23, 2010.  Specifically, it covers the stabilization of evolution equations, control of the Liouville equation, control in fluid mechanics, control and numerics for the wave equation, and Carleman estimates for elliptic and parabolic equations with application to control. We are confident this work will provide an authoritative reference work for all scientists who are interested in this field, representing at the same time a fri...

12. Controllability of partial differential equations governed by multiplicative controls

CERN Document Server

Khapalov, Alexander Y

2010-01-01

The goal of this monograph is to address the issue of the global controllability of partial differential equations in the context of multiplicative (or bilinear) controls, which enter the model equations as coefficients. The mathematical models we examine include the linear and nonlinear parabolic and hyperbolic PDE's, the Schrödinger equation, and coupled hybrid nonlinear distributed parameter systems modeling the swimming phenomenon. The book offers a new, high-quality and intrinsically nonlinear methodology to approach the aforementioned highly nonlinear controllability problems.

13. Artificial neural networks for solving ordinary and partial differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Lagaris, I E; Likas, A; Fotiadis, D I

1998-01-01

We present a method to solve initial and boundary value problems using artificial neural networks. A trial solution of the differential equation is written as a sum of two parts. The first part satisfies the initial/boundary conditions and contains no adjustable parameters. The second part is constructed so as not to affect the initial/boundary conditions. This part involves a feedforward neural network containing adjustable parameters (the weights). Hence by construction the initial/boundary conditions are satisfied and the network is trained to satisfy the differential equation. The applicability of this approach ranges from single ordinary differential equations (ODE's), to systems of coupled ODE's and also to partial differential equations (PDE's). In this article, we illustrate the method by solving a variety of model problems and present comparisons with solutions obtained using the Galekrkin finite element method for several cases of partial differential equations. With the advent of neuroprocessors and digital signal processors the method becomes particularly interesting due to the expected essential gains in the execution speed.

14. System Entropy Measurement of Stochastic Partial Differential Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bor-Sen Chen

2016-03-01

Full Text Available System entropy describes the dispersal of a system’s energy and is an indication of the disorder of a physical system. Several system entropy measurement methods have been developed for dynamic systems. However, most real physical systems are always modeled using stochastic partial differential dynamic equations in the spatio-temporal domain. No efficient method currently exists that can calculate the system entropy of stochastic partial differential systems (SPDSs in consideration of the effects of intrinsic random fluctuation and compartment diffusion. In this study, a novel indirect measurement method is proposed for calculating of system entropy of SPDSs using a Hamilton–Jacobi integral inequality (HJII-constrained optimization method. In other words, we solve a nonlinear HJII-constrained optimization problem for measuring the system entropy of nonlinear stochastic partial differential systems (NSPDSs. To simplify the system entropy measurement of NSPDSs, the global linearization technique and finite difference scheme were employed to approximate the nonlinear stochastic spatial state space system. This allows the nonlinear HJII-constrained optimization problem for the system entropy measurement to be transformed to an equivalent linear matrix inequalities (LMIs-constrained optimization problem, which can be easily solved using the MATLAB LMI-toolbox (MATLAB R2014a, version 8.3. Finally, several examples are presented to illustrate the system entropy measurement of SPDSs.

15. Mathematical Modelling of Intraretinal Oxygen Partial Pressure

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Erah

pressure distribution under adapted conditions of light and darkness.. Method: A simple eight-layered mathematical model for intraretinal oxygen partial pressure distribution was developed using Fick's law of diffusion, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and oxygen delivery in the inner retina. The system of non-linear differential ...

16. Lagrangian vector field and Lagrangian formulation of partial differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M.Chen

2005-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper we consider the Lagrangian formulation of a system of second order quasilinear partial differential equations. Specifically we construct a Lagrangian vector field such that the flows of the vector field satisfy the original system of partial differential equations.

17. A note on the Lie symmetries of complex partial differential ...

Folklore suggests that the split Lie-like operators of a complex partial differential equation are symmetries of the split system of real partial differential equations. However, this is not the case generally. We illustrate this by using the complex heat equation, wave equation with dissipation, the nonlinear Burgers equation and ...

18. Exact solutions for some nonlinear systems of partial differential equations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Darwish, A.A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Helwan University (Egypt)], E-mail: profdarwish@yahoo.com; Ramady, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)], E-mail: aramady@yahoo.com

2009-04-30

A direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of nonlinear systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) is used and implemented in a computer algebraic system. New solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs) are obtained. Graphs of the solutions are displayed.

19. Topics in numerical partial differential equations and scientific computing

CERN Document Server

2016-01-01

Numerical partial differential equations (PDEs) are an important part of numerical simulation, the third component of the modern methodology for science and engineering, besides the traditional theory and experiment. This volume contains papers that originated with the collaborative research of the teams that participated in the IMA Workshop for Women in Applied Mathematics: Numerical Partial Differential Equations and Scientific Computing in August 2014.

20. A note on the Lie symmetries of complex partial differential ...

Abstract. Folklore suggests that the split Lie-like operators of a complex partial differential equa- tion are symmetries of the split system of real partial differential equations. However, this is not the case generally. We illustrate this by using the complex heat equation, wave equation with dissipation, the nonlinear Burgers ...

1. Reduced differential transform method for partial differential equations within local fractional derivative operators

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hossein Jafari

2016-04-01

Full Text Available The non-differentiable solution of the linear and non-linear partial differential equations on Cantor sets is implemented in this article. The reduced differential transform method is considered in the local fractional operator sense. The four illustrative examples are given to show the efficiency and accuracy features of the presented technique to solve local fractional partial differential equations.

2. Reduced differential transform method for partial differential equations within local fractional derivative operators

OpenAIRE

Hossein Jafari; Hassan K Jassim; Seithuti P Moshokoa; Vernon M Ariyan; Fairouz Tchier

2016-01-01

The non-differentiable solution of the linear and non-linear partial differential equations on Cantor sets is implemented in this article. The reduced differential transform method is considered in the local fractional operator sense. The four illustrative examples are given to show the efficiency and accuracy features of the presented technique to solve local fractional partial differential equations.

3. Optimal Control Problems for Partial Differential Equations on Reticulated Domains

CERN Document Server

Kogut, Peter I

2011-01-01

In the development of optimal control, the complexity of the systems to which it is applied has increased significantly, becoming an issue in scientific computing. In order to carry out model-reduction on these systems, the authors of this work have developed a method based on asymptotic analysis. Moving from abstract explanations to examples and applications with a focus on structural network problems, they aim at combining techniques of homogenization and approximation. Optimal Control Problems for Partial Differential Equations on Reticulated Domains is an excellent reference tool for gradu

4. Partial differential equations & boundary value problems with Maple

CERN Document Server

Articolo, George A

2009-01-01

Partial Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems with Maple presents all of the material normally covered in a standard course on partial differential equations, while focusing on the natural union between this material and the powerful computational software, Maple. The Maple commands are so intuitive and easy to learn, students can learn what they need to know about the software in a matter of hours- an investment that provides substantial returns. Maple''s animation capabilities allow students and practitioners to see real-time displays of the solutions of partial differential equations.  Maple files can be found on the books website. Ancillary list: Maple files- http://www.elsevierdirect.com/companion.jsp?ISBN=9780123747327  Provides a quick overview of the software w/simple commands needed to get startedIncludes review material on linear algebra and Ordinary Differential equations, and their contribution in solving partial differential equationsIncorporates an early introduction to Sturm-L...

5. Fem Formulation of Coupled Partial Differential Equations for Heat Transfer

Science.gov (United States)

Ameer Ahamad, N.; Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Anjum Badruddin, Irfan

2017-08-01

Heat Transfer in any field plays an important role for transfer of energy from one region to another region. The heat transfer in porous medium can be simulated with the help of two partial differential equations. These equations need an alternate and relatively easy method due to complexity of the phenomenon involved. This article is dedicated to discuss the finite element formulation of heat transfer in porous medium in Cartesian coordinates. A triangular element is considered to discretize the governing partial differential equations and matrix equations are developed for 3 nodes of element. Iterative approach is used for the two sets of matrix equations involved representing two partial differential equations.

6. First-order partial differential equations in classical dynamics

Science.gov (United States)

Smith, B. R.

2009-12-01

Carathèodory's classic work on the calculus of variations explores in depth the connection between ordinary differential equations and first-order partial differential equations. The n second-order ordinary differential equations of a classical dynamical system reduce to a single first-order differential equation in 2n independent variables. The general solution of first-order partial differential equations touches on many concepts central to graduate-level courses in analytical dynamics including the Hamiltonian, Lagrange and Poisson brackets, and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. For all but the simplest dynamical systems the solution requires one or more of these techniques. Three elementary dynamical problems (uniform acceleration, harmonic motion, and cyclotron motion) can be solved directly from the appropriate first-order partial differential equation without the use of advanced methods. The process offers an unusual perspective on classical dynamics, which is readily accessible to intermediate students who are not yet fully conversant with advanced approaches.

7. Improved stochastic approximation methods for discretized parabolic partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Guiaş, Flavius

2016-12-01

We present improvements of the stochastic direct simulation method, a known numerical scheme based on Markov jump processes which is used for approximating solutions of ordinary differential equations. This scheme is suited especially for spatial discretizations of evolution partial differential equations (PDEs). By exploiting the full path simulation of the stochastic method, we use this first approximation as a predictor and construct improved approximations by Picard iterations, Runge-Kutta steps, or a combination. This has as consequence an increased order of convergence. We illustrate the features of the improved method at a standard benchmark problem, a reaction-diffusion equation modeling a combustion process in one space dimension (1D) and two space dimensions (2D).

8. From ordinary to partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Esposito, Giampiero

2017-01-01

This book is addressed to mathematics and physics students who want to develop an interdisciplinary view of mathematics, from the age of Riemann, Poincaré and Darboux to basic tools of modern mathematics. It enables them to acquire the sensibility necessary for the formulation and solution of difficult problems, with an emphasis on concepts, rigour and creativity. It consists of eight self-contained parts: ordinary differential equations; linear elliptic equations; calculus of variations; linear and non-linear hyperbolic equations; parabolic equations; Fuchsian functions and non-linear equations; the functional equations of number theory; pseudo-differential operators and pseudo-differential equations. The author leads readers through the original papers and introduces new concepts, with a selection of topics and examples that are of high pedagogical value.

9. Introduction to partial differential equations and Hilbert space methods

CERN Document Server

Gustafson, Karl E

1997-01-01

Easy-to-use text examines principal method of solving partial differential equations, 1st-order systems, computation methods, and much more. Over 600 exercises, with answers for many. Ideal for a 1-semester or full-year course.

10. Numerical Analysis for Stochastic Partial Differential Delay Equations with Jumps

OpenAIRE

Li, Yan; Hu, Junhao

2013-01-01

We investigate the convergence rate of Euler-Maruyama method for a class of stochastic partial differential delay equations driven by both Brownian motion and Poisson point processes. We discretize in space by a Galerkin method and in time by using a stochastic exponential integrator. We generalize some results of Bao et al. (2011) and Jacob et al. (2009) in finite dimensions to a class of stochastic partial differential delay equations with jumps in infinite dimensions.

11. Partial differential equations and systems related to Morrey spaces

OpenAIRE

Ragusa, Maria Alessandra

2012-01-01

This PhD thesis deals with the study of well posedness, existence and regularity properties of solutions of partial differential equations and systems. Preparatory to the study of partial differential equations is the action of some integral operators, that are extensively used. Such results are very useful to obtain regularity properties of solutions of elliptic, parabolic and ultraparabolic equations of second order with discontinuous  coefficients, and later of systems. The thesis consists...

12. A Line-Tau Collocation Method for Partial Differential Equations ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The method of lines is used to convert the partial differential equation (PDE) to a sequence of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) which is then solved by the tau collocation method to obtain an approximate continuous solution in the spatial variable x at a fixed t-level. The choice of the tau collocation method over the tau ...

13. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

1996-01-01

Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....

14. Elliptic partial differential equations of second order

CERN Document Server

Gilbarg, David

2001-01-01

From the reviews: "This is a book of interest to any having to work with differential equations, either as a reference or as a book to learn from. The authors have taken trouble to make the treatment self-contained. It (is) suitable required reading for a PhD student. Although the material has been developed from lectures at Stanford, it has developed into an almost systematic coverage that is much longer than could be covered in a year's lectures". Newsletter, New Zealand Mathematical Society, 1985 "Primarily addressed to graduate students this elegant book is accessible and useful to a broad spectrum of applied mathematicians". Revue Roumaine de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées,1985.

15. Partial differential equations with numerical methods

CERN Document Server

2003-01-01

The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students of applied mathematics and engineering. The main theme is the integration of the theory of linear PDEs and the numerical solution of such equations. For each type of PDE, elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic, the text contains one chapter on the mathematical theory of the differential equation, followed by one chapter on finite difference methods and one on finite element methods. As preparation, the two-point boundary value problem and the initial-value problem for ODEs are discussed in separate chapters. There is also one chapter on the elliptic eigenvalue problem and eigenfunction expansion. The presentation does not presume a deep knowledge of mathematical and functional analysis. Some background on linear functional analysis and Sobolev spaces, and also on numerical linear algebra, is reviewed in two appendices.

16. On the relation between elementary partial difference equations and partial differential equations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van den Berg, I.P.

1998-01-01

The nonstandard stroboscopy method links discrete-time ordinary difference equations of first-order and continuous-time, ordinary differential equations of first order. We extend this method to the second order, and also to an elementary, yet general class of partial difference/differential

17. Partially molten magma ocean model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shirley, D.N.

1983-01-01

The properties of the lunar crust and upper mantle can be explained if the outer 300-400 km of the moon was initially only partially molten rather than fully molten. The top of the partially molten region contained about 20% melt and decreased to 0% at 300-400 km depth. Nuclei of anorthositic crust formed over localized bodies of magma segregated from the partial melt, then grew peripherally until they coverd the moon. Throughout most of its growth period the anorthosite crust floated on a layer of magma a few km thick. The thickness of this layer is regulated by the opposing forces of loss of material by fractional crystallization and addition of magma from the partial melt below. Concentrations of Sr, Eu, and Sm in pristine ferroan anorthosites are found to be consistent with this model, as are trends for the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-rich suites on a diagram of An in plagioclase vs. mg in mafics. Clustering of Eu, Sr, and mg values found among pristine ferroan anorthosites are predicted by this model

18. Nonlinear partial differential equation in engineering

CERN Document Server

Ames, William F

1972-01-01

In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

19. Numerical Search for Local (Partial) Differential Flatness

Science.gov (United States)

2016-10-09

trajectory x∗r (t), while α f lat and α̇ f lat are derived from the matrices product Kr ·Θ(·) (i.e. from the numerical flat model). Fig. 3. Ballbot...in the multimedia material related to this paper. Table I summarizes the time required for solving the nu- merical search and the consequent re

20. Solvency ii. partial internal model

OpenAIRE

Baltrėnas, Rokas

2016-01-01

Solvency II. Partial Internal Model Solvency is one of the most important characteristics of the insurance company. Sufficient solvency ratio ensures long–term performance of the company and the necessary protection of policyholders. The new solvency assessment framework (Solvency II) came into force across the EU on 1 January 2016. It is based on a variety of risk evaluation modules, so it better reflects the real state of the company’s solvency. Under the Solvency II insurance company’s sol...

1. Hyperbolic partial differential equations populations, reactors, tides and waves theory and applications

CERN Document Server

Witten, Matthew

1983-01-01

Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations, Volume 1: Population, Reactors, Tides and Waves: Theory and Applications covers three general areas of hyperbolic partial differential equation applications. These areas include problems related to the McKendrick/Von Foerster population equations, other hyperbolic form equations, and the numerical solution.This text is composed of 15 chapters and begins with surveys of age specific population interactions, populations models of diffusion, nonlinear age dependent population growth with harvesting, local and global stability for the nonlinear renewal eq

2. Strong solutions of semilinear stochastic partial differential equations

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Hofmanová, Martina

2013-01-01

Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 757-778 ISSN 1021-9722 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic partial differential equations * strongly elliptic differential operator * strongly continuous semigroup Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.971, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/hofmanova-0393085.pdf

3. Function spaces and partial differential equations volume 2 : contemporary analysis

CERN Document Server

Taheri, Ali

2015-01-01

This is a book written primarily for graduate students and early researchers in the fields of Analysis and Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Coverage of the material is essentially self-contained, extensive and novel with great attention to details and rigour.

4. Approximate factorization for time-dependent partial differential equations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

P.J. van der Houwen; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben)

1999-01-01

textabstractThe first application of approximate factorization in the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs) can be traced back to the celebrated papers of Peaceman and Rachford and of Douglas in 1955. For linear problems, the Peaceman-Rachford- Douglas method can

5. Advances in nonlinear partial differential equations and stochastics

CERN Document Server

Kawashima, S

1998-01-01

In the past two decades, there has been great progress in the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations. This book describes the progress, focusing on interesting topics in gas dynamics, fluid dynamics, elastodynamics etc. It contains ten articles, each of which discusses a very recent result obtained by the author. Some of these articles review related results.

6. Mild Solutions of Neutral Stochastic Partial Functional Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

T. E. Govindan

2011-01-01

Full Text Available This paper studies the existence and uniqueness of a mild solution for a neutral stochastic partial functional differential equation using a local Lipschitz condition. When the neutral term is zero and even in the deterministic special case, the result obtained here appears to be new. An example is included to illustrate the theory.

7. Initial and boundary value problems for partial functional differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. K. Ntouyas

1997-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper we study the existence of solutions to initial and boundary value problems of partial functional differential equations via a fixed-point analysis approach. Using the topological transversality theorem we derive conditions under which an initial or a boundary value problem has a solution.

8. Function spaces and partial differential equations 2 volume set

CERN Document Server

Taheri, Ali

2015-01-01

This is a book written primarily for graduate students and early researchers in the fields of Analysis and Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Coverage of the material is essentially self-contained, extensive and novel with great attention to details and rigour.

9. Exact solutions of some nonlinear partial differential equations using ...

The functional variable method is a powerful solution method for obtaining exact solutions of some nonlinear partial differential equations. In this paper, the functional variable method is used to establish exact solutions of the generalized forms of Klein–Gordon equation, the (2 + 1)-dimensional Camassa–Holm ...

10. Differential models in ecology

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barco Gomez, Carlos; Barco Gomez, German

2002-01-01

The models mathematical writings with differential equations are used to describe the populational behavior through the time of the animal species. These models can be lineal or no lineal. The differential models for unique specie include the exponential pattern of Malthus and the logistical pattern of Verlhust. The lineal differential models to describe the interaction between two species include the competition relationships, predation and symbiosis

11. Calculation of similarity solutions of partial differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dresner, L.

1980-08-01

When a partial differential equation in two independent variables is invariant to a group G of stretching transformations, it has similarity solutions that can be found by solving an ordinary differential equation. Under broad conditions, this ordinary differential equation is also invariant to another stretching group G', related to G. The invariance of the ordinary differential equation to G' can be used to simplify its solution, particularly if it is of second order. Then a method of Lie's can be used to reduce it to a first-order equation, the study of which is greatly facilitated by analysis of its direction field. The method developed here is applied to three examples: Blasius's equation for boundary layer flow over a flat plate and two nonlinear diffusion equations, cc/sub t/ = c/sub zz/ and c/sub t/ = (cc/sub z/)/sub z/

12. Adaptive solution of partial differential equations in multiwavelet bases

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alpert, B.; Beylkin, G.; Gines, D.; Vozovoi, L.

2002-01-01

We construct multiresolution representations of derivative and exponential operators with linear boundary conditions in multiwavelet bases and use them to develop a simple, adaptive scheme for the solution of nonlinear, time-dependent partial differential equations. The emphasis on hierarchical representations of functions on intervals helps to address issues of both high-order approximation and efficient application of integral operators, and the lack of regularity of multiwavelets does not preclude their use in representing differential operators. Comparisons with finite difference, finite element, and spectral element methods are presented, as are numerical examples with the heat equation and Burgers' equation

13. Plane waves and spherical means applied to partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

John, Fritz

2004-01-01

Elementary and self-contained, this heterogeneous collection of results on partial differential equations employs certain elementary identities for plane and spherical integrals of an arbitrary function, showing how a variety of results on fairly general differential equations follow from those identities. The first chapter deals with the decomposition of arbitrary functions into functions of the type of plane waves. Succeeding chapters introduce the first application of the Radon transformation and examine the solution of the initial value problem for homogeneous hyperbolic equations with con

14. Representations of Lie algebras and partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Xu, Xiaoping

2017-01-01

This book provides explicit representations of finite-dimensional simple Lie algebras, related partial differential equations, linear orthogonal algebraic codes, combinatorics and algebraic varieties, summarizing the author’s works and his joint works with his former students.  Further, it presents various oscillator generalizations of the classical representation theorem on harmonic polynomials, and highlights new functors from the representation category of a simple Lie algebra to that of another simple Lie algebra. Partial differential equations play a key role in solving certain representation problems. The weight matrices of the minimal and adjoint representations over the simple Lie algebras of types E and F are proved to generate ternary orthogonal linear codes with large minimal distances. New multi-variable hypergeometric functions related to the root systems of simple Lie algebras are introduced in connection with quantum many-body systems in one dimension. In addition, the book identifies certai...

15. Symposium on Nonlinear Semigroups, Partial Differential Equations and Attractors

CERN Document Server

Zachary, Woodford

1987-01-01

The original idea of the organizers of the Washington Symposium was to span a fairly narrow range of topics on some recent techniques developed for the investigation of nonlinear partial differential equations and discuss these in a forum of experts. It soon became clear, however, that the dynamical systems approach interfaced significantly with many important branches of applied mathematics. As a consequence, the scope of this resulting proceedings volume is an enlarged one with coverage of a wider range of research topics.

16. Spectral methods for time dependent partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Gottlieb, D.; Turkel, E.

1983-01-01

The theory of spectral methods for time dependent partial differential equations is reviewed. When the domain is periodic Fourier methods are presented while for nonperiodic problems both Chebyshev and Legendre methods are discussed. The theory is presented for both hyperbolic and parabolic systems using both Galerkin and collocation procedures. While most of the review considers problems with constant coefficients the extension to nonlinear problems is also discussed. Some results for problems with shocks are presented.

17. Some overdetermined systems of complex partial differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Le Hung Son.

1990-01-01

In this paper we extend some properties of analytic functions on several complex variables to solutions of overdetermined systems of complex partial differential equations. It is proved that many global properties of analytic functions are true for solutions of the Vekua system in special cases. The relation between analytic functions and solutions of quasi-linear systems is discussed in the paper. (author). 8 refs

18. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering partial differential equation applications with R

CERN Document Server

Schiesser, William E

2014-01-01

Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world PDE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving partial differential equations (PDEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Partial Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-world PDE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology, and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce and extend the com

19. Numerical models for differential problems

CERN Document Server

Quarteroni, Alfio

2017-01-01

In this text, we introduce the basic concepts for the numerical modelling of partial differential equations. We consider the classical elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic linear equations, but also the diffusion, transport, and Navier-Stokes equations, as well as equations representing conservation laws, saddle-point problems and optimal control problems. Furthermore, we provide numerous physical examples which underline such equations. We then analyze numerical solution methods based on finite elements, finite differences, finite volumes, spectral methods and domain decomposition methods, and reduced basis methods. In particular, we discuss the algorithmic and computer implementation aspects and provide a number of easy-to-use programs. The text does not require any previous advanced mathematical knowledge of partial differential equations: the absolutely essential concepts are reported in a preliminary chapter. It is therefore suitable for students of bachelor and master courses in scientific disciplines, an...

20. Formulae and Bounds connected to Optimal Design and Homogenization of Partial Differential Operators and Integral Functionals

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lukkassen, D.

1996-12-31

When partial differential equations are set up to model physical processes in strongly heterogeneous materials, effective parameters for heat transfer, electric conductivity etc. are usually required. Averaging methods often lead to convergence problems and in homogenization theory one is therefore led to study how certain integral functionals behave asymptotically. This mathematical doctoral thesis discusses (1) means and bounds connected to homogenization of integral functionals, (2) reiterated homogenization of integral functionals, (3) bounds and homogenization of some particular partial differential operators, (4) applications and further results. 154 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

1. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for (non)conservative partial differential equations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Rhebergen, Sander

2010-01-01

The first research topic in this thesis is the development of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element methods for partial differential equations containing nonconservative products, which are present in many two-phase flow models. For this, we combine the theory of Dal Maso, LeFloch and Murat, in

2. Numerical solution of two-dimensional non-linear partial differential ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

linear partial differential equations using a hybrid method. The solution technique involves discritizing the non-linear system of partial differential equations (PDEs) to obtain a corresponding nonlinear system of algebraic difference equations to be ...

3. A Novel Partial Differential Algebraic Equation (PDAE) Solver

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lim, Young-il; Chang, Sin-Chung; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

2004-01-01

accuracy and stability. The space-time CE/SE method is successfully implemented to solve PDAE systems through combining an iteration procedure for nonlinear algebraic equations. For illustration, chromatographic adsorption problems including convection, diffusion and reaction terms with a linear......For solving partial differential algebraic equations (PDAEs), the space-time conservation element/solution element (CE/SE) method is addressed in this study. The method of lines (MOL) using an implicit time integrator is compared with the CE/SE method in terms of computational efficiency, solution...

4. Analytical solutions for systems of partial differential-algebraic equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Benhammouda, Brahim; Vazquez-Leal, Hector

2014-01-01

This work presents the application of the power series method (PSM) to find solutions of partial differential-algebraic equations (PDAEs). Two systems of index-one and index-three are solved to show that PSM can provide analytical solutions of PDAEs in convergent series form. What is more, we present the post-treatment of the power series solutions with the Laplace-Padé (LP) resummation method as a useful strategy to find exact solutions. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is that the procedure is based on a few straightforward steps and it does not generate secular terms or depends of a perturbation parameter.

5. Convergence of method of lines approximations to partial differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Verwer, J.G.; Sanz-Serna, J.M.

1984-01-01

Many existing numerical schemes for evolutionary problems in partial differential equations (PDEs) can be viewed as method of lines (MOL) schemes. This paper treats the convergence of one-step MOL schemes. The main purpose is to set up a general framework for a convergence analysis applicable to nonlinear problems. The stability materials for this framework are taken from the field of nonlinear stiff ODEs. In this connection, important concepts are the logarithmic matrix norm and C-stability. A nonlinear parabolic equation and the cubic Schroedinger equation are used for illustrating the ideas. (Auth.)

6. An introduction to partial differential equations with Matlab

CERN Document Server

Coleman, Matthew P

2013-01-01

Introduction What are Partial Differential Equations? PDEs We Can Already Solve Initial and Boundary Conditions Linear PDEs-Definitions Linear PDEs-The Principle of Superposition Separation of Variables for Linear, Homogeneous PDEs Eigenvalue Problems The Big Three PDEsSecond-Order, Linear, Homogeneous PDEs with Constant CoefficientsThe Heat Equation and Diffusion The Wave Equation and the Vibrating String Initial and Boundary Conditions for the Heat and Wave EquationsLaplace's Equation-The Potential Equation Using Separation of Variables to Solve the Big Three PDEs Fourier Series Introduction

7. Constrained Optimization and Optimal Control for Partial Differential Equations

CERN Document Server

Leugering, Günter; Griewank, Andreas

2012-01-01

This special volume focuses on optimization and control of processes governed by partial differential equations. The contributors are mostly participants of the DFG-priority program 1253: Optimization with PDE-constraints which is active since 2006. The book is organized in sections which cover almost the entire spectrum of modern research in this emerging field. Indeed, even though the field of optimal control and optimization for PDE-constrained problems has undergone a dramatic increase of interest during the last four decades, a full theory for nonlinear problems is still lacking. The cont

8. Partial differential equations and boundary-value problems with applications

CERN Document Server

Pinsky, Mark A

2011-01-01

Building on the basic techniques of separation of variables and Fourier series, the book presents the solution of boundary-value problems for basic partial differential equations: the heat equation, wave equation, and Laplace equation, considered in various standard coordinate systems-rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical. Each of the equations is derived in the three-dimensional context; the solutions are organized according to the geometry of the coordinate system, which makes the mathematics especially transparent. Bessel and Legendre functions are studied and used whenever appropriate th

9. Numerical methods for stochastic partial differential equations with white noise

CERN Document Server

Zhang, Zhongqiang

2017-01-01

This book covers numerical methods for stochastic partial differential equations with white noise using the framework of Wong-Zakai approximation. The book begins with some motivational and background material in the introductory chapters and is divided into three parts. Part I covers numerical stochastic ordinary differential equations. Here the authors start with numerical methods for SDEs with delay using the Wong-Zakai approximation and finite difference in time. Part II covers temporal white noise. Here the authors consider SPDEs as PDEs driven by white noise, where discretization of white noise (Brownian motion) leads to PDEs with smooth noise, which can then be treated by numerical methods for PDEs. In this part, recursive algorithms based on Wiener chaos expansion and stochastic collocation methods are presented for linear stochastic advection-diffusion-reaction equations. In addition, stochastic Euler equations are exploited as an application of stochastic collocation methods, where a numerical compa...

10. Mathematical Modelling of Intraretinal Oxygen Partial Pressure ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Purpose: The aim of our present work is to develop a simple steady state model for intraretinal oxygen partial pressure distribution and to investigate the effect of various model parameters on the partial pressure distribution under adapted conditions of light and darkness.. Method: A simple eight-layered mathematical model ...

11. Haze image enhancement based on space fractional-order partial differential equation

Science.gov (United States)

Xue, Wendan; Zhao, Fengqun

2017-07-01

Based on good amplitude frequency characteristics and the spatial global correlation of fractional-order differential, an energy functional of haze image enhancement is established by taking fractional derivative on both sides of the atmospheric physics scattering model, and a haze image enhancement model based on space fractional-order partial differential equation is obtained by using steepest descent method. Based on fast wavelet transform, the low-frequency part of patch transmission and the high-frequency part of point transmission are fused to estimate the transmission. Finally, the numerical solution of the fractional-order partial differential equation is obtained by the finite difference method. The experimental results show that the algorithm can improve the contrast, brightness and clarity of the image, and it is an effective image enhancement method for haze images.

12. Partial wave analysis for folded differential cross sections

Science.gov (United States)

Machacek, J. R.; McEachran, R. P.

2018-03-01

The value of modified effective range theory (MERT) and the connection between differential cross sections and phase shifts in low-energy electron scattering has long been recognized. Recent experimental techniques involving magnetically confined beams have introduced the concept of folded differential cross sections (FDCS) where the forward (θ ≤ π/2) and backward scattered (θ ≥ π/2) projectiles are unresolved, that is the value measured at the angle θ is the sum of the signal for particles scattered into the angles θ and π - θ. We have developed an alternative approach to MERT in order to analyse low-energy folded differential cross sections for positrons and electrons. This results in a simplified expression for the FDCS when it is expressed in terms of partial waves and thereby enables one to extract the first few phase shifts from a fit to an experimental FDCS at low energies. Thus, this method predicts forward and backward angle scattering (0 to π) using only experimental FDCS data and can be used to determine the total elastic cross section solely from experimental results at low-energy, which are limited in angular range.

13. Taguchi method for partial differential equations with application in tumor growth.

Science.gov (United States)

Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Rotariu, M; Arotăriţei, D; Popescu, Marilena

2014-01-01

The growth of tumors is a highly complex process. To describe this process, mathematical models are needed. A variety of partial differential mathematical models for tumor growth have been developed and studied. Most of those models are based on the reaction-diffusion equations and mass conservation law. A variety of modeling strategies have been developed, each focusing on tumor growth. Systems of time-dependent partial differential equations occur in many branches of applied mathematics. The vast majority of mathematical models in tumor growth are formulated in terms of partial differential equations. We propose a mathematical model for the interactions between these three cancer cell populations. The Taguchi methods are widely used by quality engineering scientists to compare the effects of multiple variables, together with their interactions, with a simple and manageable experimental design. In Taguchi's design of experiments, variation is more interesting to study than the average. First, Taguchi methods are utilized to search for the significant factors and the optimal level combination of parameters. Except the three parameters levels, other factors levels other factors levels would not be considered. Second, cutting parameters namely, cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed rate are designed using the Taguchi method. Finally, the adequacy of the developed mathematical model is proved by ANOVA. According to the results of ANOVA, since the percentage contribution of the combined error is as small. Many mathematical models can be quantitatively characterized by partial differential equations. The use of MATLAB and Taguchi method in this article illustrates the important role of informatics in research in mathematical modeling. The study of tumor growth cells is an exciting and important topic in cancer research and will profit considerably from theoretical input. Interpret these results to be a permanent collaboration between math's and medical oncologists.

14. Fast Algorithms for Partial Differential Equations on Advanced Computers

Science.gov (United States)

1989-03-02

one to accurately predict the work required to solve the discrete system. Even more fruitful would be the examination of multigrid methods in this con...condition number using partial multigrid methods . These methods keep the coarsest grid very fine and never completely solve the coarsest mesh. This...exposed by this theory. 3. MULTIGRID METHODS FOR TRANSPORT THEORY Mathematical models of radiation transport in optically dense materials are a

15. Function Substitution in Partial Differential Equations: Nonhomogeneous Boundary Conditions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

T. V. Oblakova

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The paper considers a mixed initial-boundary value problem for a parabolic equation with nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. The classical approach to search for analytical solution of such problems in the first phase involves variable substitution, leading to a problem with homogeneous boundary conditions. Reference materials [1] give, as a rule, the simplest types of variable substitutions where new and old unknown functions differ by a term, linear in the spatial variable. The form of this additive term depends on the type of the boundary conditions, but is in no way related to the equation under consideration. Moreover, in the case of the second boundary-value problem, it is necessary to use a quadratic additive, since a linear substitution for this type of conditions may be unavailable. The courseware [2] - [4], usually, ends only with the first boundary-value problem generally formulated.The paper considers a substitution that takes into account, in principle, the form of a linear differential operator. Namely, as an additive term, it is proposed to use the parametrically time-dependent solution of the boundary value problem for an ordinary differential equation obtained from the original partial differential equation by the method of separation of the Fourier variables.The existence of the proposed substitution for boundary conditions of any type is proved by the example of a non-stationary heat-transfer equation with the heat exchange available with the surrounding medium. In this case, the additive term is a linear combination of hyperbolic functions. It is shown that, in addition to the "insensitivity" to the type of boundary conditions, the advantages of a new substitution in comparison with the traditional linear (or quadratic one include a much simpler structure of the solution obtained. Just the described approach allows us to obtain a solution with a clearly distinguished stationary component, in case a stationarity occurs, for

16. Paleomagnetic evidence for a partially differentiated H chondrite parent planetesimal

Science.gov (United States)

Bryson, J. F. J.; Weiss, B. P.; Scholl, A.; Getzin, B. L.; Abrahams, J. N. H.; Nimmo, F.

2016-12-01

The texture, composition and ages of chondrites have all been used to argue that the parent bodies of these meteorites did not undergo planetary differentiation. Without a core, these planetesimals could not have generated planetary magnetic fields, hence chondrites are predicted to be unmagnetized. Here, we test this hypothesis by applying synchrotron x-ray microscopy to the metallic melt veins in the metamorphosed H chondrite breccia Portales Valley. We find that tetrataenite nanostructures in these veins are uniformly magnetized, suggesting that the H chondrite parent body generated a stable, 10 µT ancient field. We also performed alternating field (AF) demagnetization on bulk silicate-rich portions of Portales Valley, finding that both the large grain size of the metal in these subsamples and the presence of tetrataenite hinder the reliable interpretation of these measurements. Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating and the metallographic cooling rate, we propose that this field inferred from x-ray microscopy was generated 100 Myr after solar system formation and lasted >5 Myr. These properties are consistent with a dynamo field generated by core solidification, implying that the H chondrite parent body was partially differentiated. This conclusion is supported by our analyses of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale, which show that H chondrite magnetization is unlikely to be a relic signature of early nebular or solar wind fields (Getzin et al., this meeting; Oran et al., this meeting). We propose that partial differentiation could result form prolonged accretion over millions of years, possibly in two stages. In this scenario, the earliest accreted material melted from the radioactive decay of abundant 26Al, forming a core and rocky achondritic mantle, while the later accreted material was less metamorphosed, forming an undifferentiated crust. We demonstrate that, with the inclusion of an insulating regolith, the thermal evolution of such a body is consistent with the measured

17. Black-box solvers for partial differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Weiss, R.; Schoenauer, W.

1993-01-01

The design principles of the black-box solvers FIDISOL/CADSOL and VECFEM are presented for the solution of system of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations by the finite difference and the finite element method. Special focus is directed to a high flexibility of the programs in order to solve a large range of problems. The solvers use state-of-the-art algorithms and are adapted to advanced computer architectures in order to achieve a high performance. As quality control an error estimate is implemented. The resulting numerical problems focus in the iterative linear solvers. It is a real challenge to select robust and efficient iterative solvers for an extremely wide class of problems. The strong relation between application problem and mathematical problems is pointed out. (orig.)

18. Essential partial differential equations analytical and computational aspects

CERN Document Server

Griffiths, David F; Silvester, David J

2015-01-01

This volume provides an introduction to the analytical and numerical aspects of partial differential equations (PDEs). It unifies an analytical and computational approach for these; the qualitative behaviour of solutions being established using classical concepts: maximum principles and energy methods.   Notable inclusions are the treatment of irregularly shaped boundaries, polar coordinates and the use of flux-limiters when approximating hyperbolic conservation laws. The numerical analysis of difference schemes is rigorously developed using discrete maximum principles and discrete Fourier analysis. A novel feature is the inclusion of a chapter containing projects, intended for either individual or group study, that cover a range of topics such as parabolic smoothing, travelling waves, isospectral matrices, and the approximation of multidimensional advection–diffusion problems.   The underlying theory is illustrated by numerous examples and there are around 300 exercises, designed to promote and test unde...

19. Algorithm refinement for stochastic partial differential equations I. linear diffusion

CERN Document Server

Alexander, F J; Tartakovsky, D M

2002-01-01

A hybrid particle/continuum algorithm is formulated for Fickian diffusion in the fluctuating hydrodynamic limit. The particles are taken as independent random walkers; the fluctuating diffusion equation is solved by finite differences with deterministic and white-noise fluxes. At the interface between the particle and continuum computations the coupling is by flux matching, giving exact mass conservation. This methodology is an extension of Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement to stochastic partial differential equations. Results from a variety of numerical experiments are presented for both steady and time-dependent scenarios. In all cases the mean and variance of density are captured correctly by the stochastic hybrid algorithm. For a nonstochastic version (i.e., using only deterministic continuum fluxes) the mean density is correct, but the variance is reduced except in particle regions away from the interface. Extensions of the methodology to fluid mechanics applications are discussed.

20. Nonlinear partial differential equations for scientists and engineers

CERN Document Server

Debnath, Lokenath

1997-01-01

"An exceptionally complete overview. There are numerous examples and the emphasis is on applications to almost all areas of science and engineering. There is truly something for everyone here. This reviewer feels that it is a very hard act to follow, and recommends it strongly. [This book] is a jewel." ---Applied Mechanics Review (Review of First Edition) This expanded and revised second edition is a comprehensive and systematic treatment of linear and nonlinear partial differential equations and their varied applications. Building upon the successful material of the first book, this edition contains updated modern examples and applications from areas of fluid dynamics, gas dynamics, plasma physics, nonlinear dynamics, quantum mechanics, nonlinear optics, acoustics, and wave propagation. Methods and properties of solutions are presented, along with their physical significance, making the book more useful for a diverse readership. Topics and key features: * Thorough coverage of derivation and methods of soluti...

1. Learning partial differential equations via data discovery and sparse optimization

Science.gov (United States)

Schaeffer, Hayden

2017-01-01

We investigate the problem of learning an evolution equation directly from some given data. This work develops a learning algorithm to identify the terms in the underlying partial differential equations and to approximate the coefficients of the terms only using data. The algorithm uses sparse optimization in order to perform feature selection and parameter estimation. The features are data driven in the sense that they are constructed using nonlinear algebraic equations on the spatial derivatives of the data. Several numerical experiments show the proposed method's robustness to data noise and size, its ability to capture the true features of the data, and its capability of performing additional analytics. Examples include shock equations, pattern formation, fluid flow and turbulence, and oscillatory convection.

2. Bringing partial differential equations to life for students

Science.gov (United States)

José Cano, María; Chacón-Vera, Eliseo; Esquembre, Francisco

2015-05-01

Teaching partial differential equations (PDEs) carries inherent difficulties that an interactive visualization might help overcome in an active learning process. However, the generation of this kind of teaching material implies serious difficulties, mainly in terms of coding efforts. This work describes how to use an authoring tool, Easy Java Simulations, to build interactive simulations using FreeFem++ (Hecht F 2012 J. Numer. Math. 20 251) as a PDE solver engine. It makes possible to build simulations where students can change parameters, the geometry and the equations themselves getting an immediate feedback. But it is also possible for them to edit the simulations to set deeper changes. The process is ilustrated with some basic examples. These simulations show PDEs in a pedagogic manner and can be tuned by no experts in the field, teachers or students. Finally, we report a classroom experience and a survey from the third year students in the Degree of Mathematics at the University of Murcia.

3. Reduced basis methods for partial differential equations an introduction

CERN Document Server

Quarteroni, Alfio; Negri, Federico

2016-01-01

This book provides a basic introduction to reduced basis (RB) methods for problems involving the repeated solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising from engineering and applied sciences, such as PDEs depending on several parameters and PDE-constrained optimization.  The book presents a general mathematical formulation of RB methods, analyzes their fundamental theoretical properties, discusses the related algorithmic and implementation aspects, and highlights their built-in algebraic and geometric structures.  More specifically, the authors discuss alternative strategies for constructing accurate RB spaces using greedy algorithms and proper orthogonal decomposition techniques, investigate their approximation properties and analyze offline-online decomposition strategies aimed at the reduction of computational complexity. Furthermore, they carry out both a priori and a posteriori error analysis.  The whole mathematical presentation is made more stimulating by the use of representative examp...

4. Constructing and predicting solitary pattern solutions for nonlinear time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Arqub, Omar Abu; El-Ajou, Ahmad; Momani, Shaher

2015-07-01

Building fractional mathematical models for specific phenomena and developing numerical or analytical solutions for these fractional mathematical models are crucial issues in mathematics, physics, and engineering. In this work, a new analytical technique for constructing and predicting solitary pattern solutions of time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations is proposed based on the generalized Taylor series formula and residual error function. The new approach provides solutions in the form of a rapidly convergent series with easily computable components using symbolic computation software. For method evaluation and validation, the proposed technique was applied to three different models and compared with some of the well-known methods. The resultant simulations clearly demonstrate the superiority and potentiality of the proposed technique in terms of the quality performance and accuracy of substructure preservation in the construct, as well as the prediction of solitary pattern solutions for time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations.

5. BOOK REVIEW: Partial Differential Equations in General Relativity

Science.gov (United States)

Halburd, Rodney G.

2008-11-01

Although many books on general relativity contain an overview of the relevant background material from differential geometry, very little attention is usually paid to background material from the theory of differential equations. This is understandable in a first course on relativity but it often limits the kinds of problems that can be studied rigorously. Einstein's field equations lie at the heart of general relativity. They are a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) relating the curvature of spacetime to properties of matter. A central part of most problems in general relativity is to extract information about solutions of these equations. Most standard texts achieve this by studying exact solutions or numerical and analytical approximations. In the book under review, Alan Rendall emphasises the role of rigorous qualitative methods in general relativity. There has long been a need for such a book, giving a broad overview of the relevant background from the theory of partial differential equations, and not just from differential geometry. It should be noted that the book also covers the basic theory of ordinary differential equations. Although there are many good books on the rigorous theory of PDEs, methods related to the Einstein equations deserve special attention, not only because of the complexity and importance of these equations, but because these equations do not fit into any of the standard classes of equations (elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic) that one typically encounters in a course on PDEs. Even specifying exactly what ones means by a Cauchy problem in general relativity requires considerable care. The main problem here is that the manifold on which the solution is defined is determined by the solution itself. This means that one does not simply define data on a submanifold. Rendall's book gives a good overview of applications and results from the qualitative theory of PDEs to general relativity. It would be impossible to give detailed

6. From stochastic processes to numerical methods: A new scheme for solving reaction subdiffusion fractional partial differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Angstmann, C.N.; Donnelly, I.C.; Henry, B.I.; Jacobs, B.A.; Langlands, T.A.M.; Nichols, J.A.

2016-01-01

We have introduced a new explicit numerical method, based on a discrete stochastic process, for solving a class of fractional partial differential equations that model reaction subdiffusion. The scheme is derived from the master equations for the evolution of the probability density of a sum of discrete time random walks. We show that the diffusion limit of the master equations recovers the fractional partial differential equation of interest. This limiting procedure guarantees the consistency of the numerical scheme. The positivity of the solution and stability results are simply obtained, provided that the underlying process is well posed. We also show that the method can be applied to standard reaction–diffusion equations. This work highlights the broader applicability of using discrete stochastic processes to provide numerical schemes for partial differential equations, including fractional partial differential equations.

7. Preconditioning for partial differential equation constrained optimization with control constraints

KAUST Repository

Stoll, Martin

2011-10-18

Optimal control problems with partial differential equations play an important role in many applications. The inclusion of bound constraints for the control poses a significant additional challenge for optimization methods. In this paper, we propose preconditioners for the saddle point problems that arise when a primal-dual active set method is used. We also show for this method that the same saddle point system can be derived when the method is considered as a semismooth Newton method. In addition, the projected gradient method can be employed to solve optimization problems with simple bounds, and we discuss the efficient solution of the linear systems in question. In the case when an acceleration technique is employed for the projected gradient method, this again yields a semismooth Newton method that is equivalent to the primal-dual active set method. We also consider the Moreau-Yosida regularization method for control constraints and efficient preconditioners for this technique. Numerical results illustrate the competitiveness of these approaches. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

8. Final Report: Symposium on Adaptive Methods for Partial Differential Equations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pernice, M.; Johnson, C.R.; Smith, P.J.; Fogelson, A.

1998-12-10

OAK-B135 Final Report: Symposium on Adaptive Methods for Partial Differential Equations. Complex physical phenomena often include features that span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Accurate simulation of such phenomena can be difficult to obtain, and computations that are under-resolved can even exhibit spurious features. While it is possible to resolve small scale features by increasing the number of grid points, global grid refinement can quickly lead to problems that are intractable, even on the largest available computing facilities. These constraints are particularly severe for three dimensional problems that involve complex physics. One way to achieve the needed resolution is to refine the computational mesh locally, in only those regions where enhanced resolution is required. Adaptive solution methods concentrate computational effort in regions where it is most needed. These methods have been successfully applied to a wide variety of problems in computational science and engineering. Adaptive methods can be difficult to implement, prompting the development of tools and environments to facilitate their use. To ensure that the results of their efforts are useful, algorithm and tool developers must maintain close communication with application specialists. Conversely it remains difficult for application specialists who are unfamiliar with the methods to evaluate the trade-offs between the benefits of enhanced local resolution and the effort needed to implement an adaptive solution method.

9. Partial differential equations an accessible route through theory and applications

CERN Document Server

Vasy, András

2015-01-01

This text on partial differential equations is intended for readers who want to understand the theoretical underpinnings of modern PDEs in settings that are important for the applications without using extensive analytic tools required by most advanced texts. The assumed mathematical background is at the level of multivariable calculus and basic metric space material, but the latter is recalled as relevant as the text progresses. The key goal of this book is to be mathematically complete without overwhelming the reader, and to develop PDE theory in a manner that reflects how researchers would think about the material. A concrete example is that distribution theory and the concept of weak solutions are introduced early because while these ideas take some time for the students to get used to, they are fundamentally easy and, on the other hand, play a central role in the field. Then, Hilbert spaces that are quite important in the later development are introduced via completions which give essentially all the fea...

10. A weighted identity for stochastic partial differential operators and its applications

OpenAIRE

Fu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xu

2015-01-01

In this paper, a pointwise weighted identity for some stochastic partial differential operators (with complex principal parts) is established. This identity presents a unified approach in studying the controllability, observability and inverse problems for some deterministic/stochastic partial differential equations. Based on this identity, one can deduce all the known Carleman estimates and observability results, for some deterministic partial differential equations, stochastic heat equation...

11. (N+1)-dimensional fractional reduced differential transform method for fractional order partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

2017-07-01

In this paper, we pursue the general form of the fractional reduced differential transform method (DTM) to (N+1)-dimensional case, so that fractional order partial differential equations (PDEs) can be resolved effectively. The most distinct aspect of this method is that no prescribed assumptions are required, and the huge computational exertion is reduced and round-off errors are also evaded. We utilize the proposed scheme on some initial value problems and approximate numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear time fractional PDEs are obtained, which shows that the method is highly accurate and simple to apply. The proposed technique is thus an influential technique for solving the fractional PDEs and fractional order problems occurring in the field of engineering, physics etc. Numerical results are obtained for verification and demonstration purpose by using Mathematica software.

12. Multiscale functions, scale dynamics, and applications to partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Cresson, Jacky; Pierret, Frédéric

2016-05-01

Modeling phenomena from experimental data always begins with a choice of hypothesis on the observed dynamics such as determinism, randomness, and differentiability. Depending on these choices, different behaviors can be observed. The natural question associated to the modeling problem is the following: "With a finite set of data concerning a phenomenon, can we recover its underlying nature? From this problem, we introduce in this paper the definition of multi-scale functions, scale calculus, and scale dynamics based on the time scale calculus [see Bohner, M. and Peterson, A., Dynamic Equations on Time Scales: An Introduction with Applications (Springer Science & Business Media, 2001)] which is used to introduce the notion of scale equations. These definitions will be illustrated on the multi-scale Okamoto's functions. Scale equations are analysed using scale regimes and the notion of asymptotic model for a scale equation under a particular scale regime. The introduced formalism explains why a single scale equation can produce distinct continuous models even if the equation is scale invariant. Typical examples of such equations are given by the scale Euler-Lagrange equation. We illustrate our results using the scale Newton's equation which gives rise to a non-linear diffusion equation or a non-linear Schrödinger equation as asymptotic continuous models depending on the particular fractional scale regime which is considered.

13. An Accurate Approximate-Analytical Technique for Solving Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. Bishehniasar

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The demand of many scientific areas for the usage of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs to explain their real-world systems has been broadly identified. The solutions may portray dynamical behaviors of various particles such as chemicals and cells. The desire of obtaining approximate solutions to treat these equations aims to overcome the mathematical complexity of modeling the relevant phenomena in nature. This research proposes a promising approximate-analytical scheme that is an accurate technique for solving a variety of noninteger partial differential equations (PDEs. The proposed strategy is based on approximating the derivative of fractional-order and reducing the problem to the corresponding partial differential equation (PDE. Afterwards, the approximating PDE is solved by using a separation-variables technique. The method can be simply applied to nonhomogeneous problems and is proficient to diminish the span of computational cost as well as achieving an approximate-analytical solution that is in excellent concurrence with the exact solution of the original problem. In addition and to demonstrate the efficiency of the method, it compares with two finite difference methods including a nonstandard finite difference (NSFD method and standard finite difference (SFD technique, which are popular in the literature for solving engineering problems.

14. Generalized linear model for partially ordered data.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Qiang; Ip, Edward Haksing

2012-01-13

Within the rich literature on generalized linear models, substantial efforts have been devoted to models for categorical responses that are either completely ordered or completely unordered. Few studies have focused on the analysis of partially ordered outcomes, which arise in practically every area of study, including medicine, the social sciences, and education. To fill this gap, we propose a new class of generalized linear models--the partitioned conditional model--that includes models for both ordinal and unordered categorical data as special cases. We discuss the specification of the partitioned conditional model and its estimation. We use an application of the method to a sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to illustrate how the new method is able to extract from partially ordered data useful information about smoking youths that is not possible using traditional methods. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

15. Preconditioners based on windowed Fourier frames applied to elliptic partial differential equations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bhowmik, S.K.; Stolk, C.C.

2011-01-01

We investigate the application of windowed Fourier frames to the numerical solution of partial differential equations, focussing on elliptic equations. The action of a partial differential operator (PDO) on a windowed plane wave is close to a multiplication, where the multiplication factor is given

16. Mathematical Modelling of Intraretinal Oxygen Partial Pressure

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Erah

This minimum pressure may fall below the critical level of oxygen partial pressure and affect the retinal function. In order to restore normal retinal function, extreme hyperoxia may assist to make the choroid capable of supplying oxygen to the whole retina during total retinal artery occlusion. Keywords: Mathematical modeling ...

17. Partial differential equations with variable exponents variational methods and qualitative analysis

CERN Document Server

2015-01-01

Partial Differential Equations with Variable Exponents: Variational Methods and Qualitative Analysis provides researchers and graduate students with a thorough introduction to the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) with a variable exponent, particularly those of elliptic type. The book presents the most important variational methods for elliptic PDEs described by nonhomogeneous differential operators and containing one or more power-type nonlinearities with a variable exponent. The authors give a systematic treatment of the basic mathematical theory and constructive meth

18. Derivation of stochastic partial differential equations for size- and age-structured populations.

Science.gov (United States)

Allen, Edward J

2009-01-01

Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) for size-structured and age- and size-structured populations are derived from basic principles, i.e. from the changes that occur in a small time interval. Discrete stochastic models of size-structured and age-structured populations are constructed, carefully taking into account the inherent randomness in births, deaths, and size changes. As the time interval decreases, the discrete stochastic models lead to systems of Itô stochastic differential equations. As the size and age intervals decrease, SPDEs are derived for size-structured and age- and size-structured populations. Comparisons between numerical solutions of the SPDEs and independently formulated Monte Carlo calculations support the accuracy of the derivations.

19. Nonlinear partial differential equations: Integrability, geometry and related topics

Science.gov (United States)

Krasil'shchik, Joseph; Rubtsov, Volodya

2017-03-01

Geometry and Differential Equations became inextricably entwined during the last one hundred fifty years after S. Lie and F. Klein's fundamental insights. The two subjects go hand in hand and they mutually enrich each other, especially after the "Soliton Revolution" and the glorious streak of Symplectic and Poisson Geometry methods in the context of Integrability and Solvability problems for Non-linear Differential Equations.

20. Higher-order numerical solutions using cubic splines. [for partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.

1975-01-01

A cubic spline collocation procedure has recently been developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. In the present paper, this spline procedure is reformulated so that the accuracy of the second-derivative approximation is improved and parallels that previously obtained for lower derivative terms. The final result is a numerical procedure having overall third-order accuracy for a non-uniform mesh and overall fourth-order accuracy for a uniform mesh. Solutions using both spline procedures, as well as three-point finite difference methods, will be presented for several model problems.-

1. Coding with partially hidden Markov models

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Forchhammer, Søren; Rissanen, J.

1995-01-01

Partially hidden Markov models (PHMM) are introduced. They are a variation of the hidden Markov models (HMM) combining the power of explicit conditioning on past observations and the power of using hidden states. (P)HMM may be combined with arithmetic coding for lossless data compression. A general....... The PHMM structure and the conditions of the convergence proof allows for application of the PHMM to image coding. Relations between the PHMM and hidden Markov models (HMM) are treated. Results of coding bi-level images with the PHMM coding scheme is given. The results indicate that the PHMM can adapt...

2. Partial sum approaches to mathematical parameters of some growth models

Science.gov (United States)

Korkmaz, Mehmet

2016-04-01

Growth model is fitted by evaluating the mathematical parameters, a, b and c. In this study, the method of partial sums were used. For finding the mathematical parameters, firstly three partial sums were used, secondly four partial sums were used, thirdly five partial sums were used and finally N partial sums were used. The purpose of increasing the partial decomposition is to produce a better phase model which gives a better expected value by minimizing error sum of squares in the interval used.

3. Partial differential equations for self-organization in cellular and developmental biology

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baker, R E; Gaffney, E A; Maini, P K

2008-01-01

Understanding the mechanisms governing and regulating the emergence of structure and heterogeneity within cellular systems, such as the developing embryo, represents a multiscale challenge typifying current integrative biology research, namely, explaining the macroscale behaviour of a system from microscale dynamics. This review will focus upon modelling how cell-based dynamics orchestrate the emergence of higher level structure. After surveying representative biological examples and the models used to describe them, we will assess how developments at the scale of molecular biology have impacted on current theoretical frameworks, and the new modelling opportunities that are emerging as a result. We shall restrict our survey of mathematical approaches to partial differential equations and the tools required for their analysis. We will discuss the gap between the modelling abstraction and biological reality, the challenges this presents and highlight some open problems in the field. (invited article)

4. 3rd International Conference on Particle Systems and Partial Differential Equations

CERN Document Server

Soares, Ana

2016-01-01

The main focus of this book is on different topics in probability theory, partial differential equations and kinetic theory, presenting some of the latest developments in these fields. It addresses mathematical problems concerning applications in physics, engineering, chemistry and biology that were presented at the Third International Conference on Particle Systems and Partial Differential Equations, held at the University of Minho, Braga, Portugal in December 2014. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prominent researchers working in the fields of particle systems and partial differential equations, providing a venue for them to present their latest findings and discuss their areas of expertise. Further, it was intended to introduce a vast and varied public, including young researchers, to the subject of interacting particle systems, its underlying motivation, and its relation to partial differential equations. This book will appeal to probabilists, analysts and those mathematicians whose wor...

5. Lecture notes on geometrical aspects of partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Zharinov, V V

1992-01-01

This book focuses on the properties of nonlinear systems of PDE with geometrical origin and the natural description in the language of infinite-dimensional differential geometry. The treatment is very informal and the theory is illustrated by various examples from mathematical physics. All necessary information about the infinite-dimensional geometry is given in the text.

6. Non-linear partial differential equations an algebraic view of generalized solutions

CERN Document Server

Rosinger, Elemer E

1990-01-01

A massive transition of interest from solving linear partial differential equations to solving nonlinear ones has taken place during the last two or three decades. The availability of better computers has often made numerical experimentations progress faster than the theoretical understanding of nonlinear partial differential equations. The three most important nonlinear phenomena observed so far both experimentally and numerically, and studied theoretically in connection with such equations have been the solitons, shock waves and turbulence or chaotical processes. In many ways, these phenomen

7. Multiscale Representation and Segmentation of Hyperspectral Imagery Using Geometric Partial Differential Equations and Algebraic Multigrid Methods (PREPRINT)

Science.gov (United States)

2007-06-01

MULTISCALE REPRESENTATION AND SEGMENTATION OF HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY USING GEOMETRIC PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID METHODS By...Representation and Segmentation of Hyperspectral Imagery Using Geometric Partial Differential Equations and Algebraic Multigrid Methods (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT...Representation and Segmentation of Hyperspectral Imagery using Geometric Partial Differential Equations and Algebraic Multigrid Methods Julio M

8. Spectral Deferred Corrections for Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

2015-06-08

time, and therefore, requires an implicit method for its solution. Spectral Deferred Correction ( SDC ) methods use repeated iterations of a low-order...method (e.g. im- plicit Euler method) to generate a high-order scheme. As a result, SDC methods of arbitrary order can be constructed with the desired...stability properties necessary for the solution of stiff differential equations. Furthermore, for large-scale systems, SDC methods are more

9. Differential Equations Models to Study Quorum Sensing.

Science.gov (United States)

Pérez-Velázquez, Judith; Hense, Burkhard A

2018-01-01

Mathematical models to study quorum sensing (QS) have become an important tool to explore all aspects of this type of bacterial communication. A wide spectrum of mathematical tools and methods such as dynamical systems, stochastics, and spatial models can be employed. In this chapter, we focus on giving an overview of models consisting of differential equations (DE), which can be used to describe changing quantities, for example, the dynamics of one or more signaling molecule in time and space, often in conjunction with bacterial growth dynamics. The chapter is divided into two sections: ordinary differential equations (ODE) and partial differential equations (PDE) models of QS. Rates of change are represented mathematically by derivatives, i.e., in terms of DE. ODE models allow describing changes in one independent variable, for example, time. PDE models can be used to follow changes in more than one independent variable, for example, time and space. Both types of models often consist of systems (i.e., more than one equation) of equations, such as equations for bacterial growth and autoinducer concentration dynamics. Almost from the onset, mathematical modeling of QS using differential equations has been an interdisciplinary endeavor and many of the works we revised here will be placed into their biological context.

10. Neural Partial Differentiation for Aircraft Parameter Estimation Under Turbulent Atmospheric Conditions

Science.gov (United States)

Kuttieri, R. A.; Sinha, M.

2012-07-01

An approach based on neural partial differentiation is suggested for aircraft parameter estimation using the flight data gathered under turbulent atmospheric conditions. The classical methods such as output error and equation error methods suffer from severe convergence issues; resulting in biased, inaccurate, and inconsistent estimates. Though filter error method yields better estimates while dealing with the flight data having process noise, it has few demerits like computational overheads and it allows estimation of a single set of process noise distribution matrix. The proposed neural method does not face any such problem of the classical methods. Moreover, the neural method does not require parameter initialization and a priori knowledge of the model structure. The neural network maps the aircraft state and control variables into the output variables corresponding to aerodynamic forces and moments. The parameter estimation, pertaining to lateral-directional motion, of the research aircraft de Havilland DHC-2 with simulated process noise, is presented. The results obtained using the neural partial differentiation are compared with the nominal values given in literature and with the classical methods. The neural method yields the aerodynamic derivatives very close to the nominal values and having quite low standard deviation. The neural methodology is also validated by comparing actual output variables with the neural predicted and neural reconstructed variables.

11. Oscillation criteria for a class of partial functional-differential equations of higher order

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2002-01-01

Full Text Available Higher order partial differential equations with functional arguments including hyperbolic equations and beam equations are studied. Sufficient conditions are derived for every solution of certain boundary value problems to be oscillatory in a cylindrical domain. Our approach is to reduce the multi-dimensional oscillation problem to a one-dimensional problem for higher order functional differential inequalities.

12. Solving Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations with Maple and Mathematica

CERN Document Server

Shingareva, Inna K

2011-01-01

The emphasis of the book is given in how to construct different types of solutions (exact, approximate analytical, numerical, graphical) of numerous nonlinear PDEs correctly, easily, and quickly. The reader can learn a wide variety of techniques and solve numerous nonlinear PDEs included and many other differential equations, simplifying and transforming the equations and solutions, arbitrary functions and parameters, presented in the book). Numerous comparisons and relationships between various types of solutions, different methods and approaches are provided, the results obtained in Maple an

13. Advanced Topics in Computational Partial Differential Equations: Numerical Methods and Diffpack Programming

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Katsaounis, T D

2005-01-01

The scope of this book is to present well known simple and advanced numerical methods for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) and how to implement these methods using the programming environment of the software package Diffpack. A basic background in PDEs and numerical methods is required by the potential reader. Further, a basic knowledge of the finite element method and its implementation in one and two space dimensions is required. The authors claim that no prior knowledge of the package Diffpack is required, which is true, but the reader should be at least familiar with an object oriented programming language like C++ in order to better comprehend the programming environment of Diffpack. Certainly, a prior knowledge or usage of Diffpack would be a great advantage to the reader. The book consists of 15 chapters, each one written by one or more authors. Each chapter is basically divided into two parts: the first part is about mathematical models described by PDEs and numerical methods to solve these models and the second part describes how to implement the numerical methods using the programming environment of Diffpack. Each chapter closes with a list of references on its subject. The first nine chapters cover well known numerical methods for solving the basic types of PDEs. Further, programming techniques on the serial as well as on the parallel implementation of numerical methods are also included in these chapters. The last five chapters are dedicated to applications, modelled by PDEs, in a variety of fields. In summary, the book focuses on the computational and implementational issues involved in solving partial differential equations. The potential reader should have a basic knowledge of PDEs and the finite difference and finite element methods. The examples presented are solved within the programming framework of Diffpack and the reader should have prior experience with the particular software in order to take full advantage of the book. Overall

14. Elliptic–hyperbolic partial differential equations a mini-course in geometric and quasilinear methods

CERN Document Server

Otway, Thomas H

2015-01-01

This text is a concise introduction to the partial differential equations which change from elliptic to hyperbolic type across a smooth hypersurface of their domain. These are becoming increasingly important in diverse sub-fields of both applied mathematics and engineering, for example:   • The heating of fusion plasmas by electromagnetic waves • The behaviour of light near a caustic • Extremal surfaces in the space of special relativity • The formation of rapids; transonic and multiphase fluid flow • The dynamics of certain models for elastic structures • The shape of industrial surfaces such as windshields and airfoils • Pathologies of traffic flow • Harmonic fields in extended projective space   They also arise in models for the early universe, for cosmic acceleration, and for possible violation of causality in the interiors of certain compact stars. Within the past 25 years, they have become central to the isometric embedding of Riemannian manifolds and the prescription of Gauss curvatur...

15. Parameter Estimation for Partial Differential Equations by Collage-Based Numerical Approximation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xiaoyan Deng

2009-01-01

into a minimization problem of a function of several variables after the partial differential equation is approximated by a differential dynamical system. Then numerical schemes for solving this minimization problem are proposed, including grid approximation and ant colony optimization. The proposed schemes are applied to a parameter estimation problem for the Belousov-Zhabotinskii equation, and the results show that the proposed approximation method is efficient for both linear and nonlinear partial differential equations with respect to unknown parameters. At worst, the presented method provides an excellent starting point for traditional inversion methods that must first select a good starting point.

16. Multivariate Padé Approximation for Solving Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations of Fractional Order

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Veyis Turut

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Two tecHniques were implemented, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM and multivariate Padé approximation (MPA, for solving nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order. The fractional derivatives are described in Caputo sense. First, the fractional differential equation has been solved and converted to power series by Adomian decomposition method (ADM, then power series solution of fractional differential equation was put into multivariate Padé series. Finally, numerical results were compared and presented in tables and figures.

17. Differential invariants in nonclassical models of hydrodynamics

Science.gov (United States)

Bublik, Vasily V.

2017-10-01

In this paper, differential invariants are used to construct solutions for equations of the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas and the dynamics of a viscous incompressible fluid modified by nanopowder inoculators. To describe the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas, we use the complete system of Navier—Stokes equations with allowance for heat fluxes. Mathematical description of the dynamics of liquid metals under high-energy external influences (laser radiation or plasma flow) includes, in addition to the Navier—Stokes system of an incompressible viscous fluid, also heat fluxes and processes of nonequilibrium crystallization of a deformable fluid. Differentially invariant solutions are a generalization of partially invariant solutions, and their active study for various models of continuous medium mechanics is just beginning. Differentially invariant solutions can also be considered as solutions with differential constraints; therefore, when developing them, the approaches and methods developed by the science schools of academicians N. N. Yanenko and A. F. Sidorov will be actively used. In the construction of partially invariant and differentially invariant solutions, there are overdetermined systems of differential equations that require a compatibility analysis. The algorithms for reducing such systems to involution in a finite number of steps are described by Cartan, Finikov, Kuranishi, and other authors. However, the difficultly foreseeable volume of intermediate calculations complicates their practical application. Therefore, the methods of computer algebra are actively used here, which largely helps in solving this difficult problem. It is proposed to use the constructed exact solutions as tests for formulas, algorithms and their software implementations when developing and creating numerical methods and computational program complexes. This combination of effective numerical methods, capable of solving a wide class of problems, with

18. Partial differential equations of mathematical physics and integral equations

CERN Document Server

Guenther, Ronald B

1996-01-01

This book was written to help mathematics students and those in the physical sciences learn modern mathematical techniques for setting up and analyzing problems. The mathematics used is rigorous, but not overwhelming, while the authors carefully model physical situations, emphasizing feedback among a beginning model, physical experiments, mathematical predictions, and the subsequent refinement and reevaluation of the physical model itself. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of various physical problems and equations that play a central role in applications. The following chapters take up the t

19. Mobile point sensors and actuators in the controllability theory of partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Khapalov, Alexander Y

2017-01-01

This book presents a concise study of controllability theory of partial differential equations when they are equipped with actuators and/or sensors that are finite dimensional at every moment of time. Based on the author’s extensive research in the area of controllability theory, this monograph specifically focuses on the issues of controllability, observability, and stabilizability for parabolic and hyperbolic partial differential equations. The topics in this book also cover related applied questions such as the problem of localization of unknown pollution sources based on information obtained from point sensors that arise in environmental monitoring. Researchers and graduate students interested in controllability theory of partial differential equations and its applications will find this book to be an invaluable resource to their studies.

20. On the strong solution of a class of partial differential equations that arise in the pricing of mortgage backed securities

KAUST Repository

2011-01-01

We consider a reduced form pricing model for mortgage backed securities, formulated as a non-linear partial differential equation. We prove that the model possesses a weak solution. We then show that under additional regularity assumptions on the initial data, we also have a mild solution. This mild solution is shown to be a strong solution via further regularity arguments. We also numerically solve the reduced model via a Fourier spectral method. Lastly, we compare our numerical solution to real market data. We observe interestingly that the reduced model captures a number of recent market trends in this data, that have escaped previous models.

1. Filling the Polar Data Gap in Sea Ice Concentration Fields Using Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Courtenay Strong

2016-05-01

Full Text Available The “polar data gap” is a region around the North Pole where satellite orbit inclination and instrument swath for SMMR and SSM/I-SSMIS satellites preclude retrieval of sea ice concentrations. Data providers make the irregularly shaped data gap round by centering a circular “pole hole mask” over the North Pole. The area within the pole hole mask has conventionally been assumed to be ice-covered for the purpose of sea ice extent calculations, but recent conditions around the perimeter of the mask indicate that this assumption may already be invalid. Here we propose an objective, partial differential equation based model for estimating sea ice concentrations within the area of the pole hole mask. In particular, the sea ice concentration field is assumed to satisfy Laplace’s equation with boundary conditions determined by observed sea ice concentrations on the perimeter of the gap region. This type of idealization in the concentration field has already proved to be quite useful in establishing an objective method for measuring the “width” of the marginal ice zone—a highly irregular, annular-shaped region of the ice pack that interacts with the ocean, and typically surrounds the inner core of most densely packed sea ice. Realistic spatial heterogeneity in the idealized concentration field is achieved by adding a spatially autocorrelated stochastic field with temporally varying standard deviation derived from the variability of observations around the mask. To test the model, we examined composite annual cycles of observation-model agreement for three circular regions adjacent to the pole hole mask. The composite annual cycle of observation-model correlation ranged from approximately 0.6 to 0.7, and sea ice concentration mean absolute deviations were of order 10 − 2 or smaller. The model thus provides a computationally simple approach to solving the increasingly important problem of how to fill the polar data gap. Moreover, this

2. Solution of elliptic partial differential equations by fast Poisson solvers using a local relaxation factor. 2: Two-step method

Science.gov (United States)

Chang, S. C.

1986-01-01

A two-step semidirect procedure is developed to accelerate the one-step procedure described in NASA TP-2529. For a set of constant coefficient model problems, the acceleration factor increases from 1 to 2 as the one-step procedure convergence rate decreases from + infinity to 0. It is also shown numerically that the two-step procedure can substantially accelerate the convergence of the numerical solution of many partial differential equations (PDE's) with variable coefficients.

3. Numerical solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations in the frequency domain

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazi, G.; Por, G.

1997-01-01

Numerical problems during the noise simulation in a nuclear power plant are discussed. The solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations are studied in the frequency domain. Numerical methods by the transfer function method are applied. It is shown that the correctness of the numerical methods is limited for ordinary differential equations in the frequency domain. To overcome the difficulties, step-size selection is suggested. (author)

4. Partial least-squares-discriminant analysis differentiating Chinese wolfberries by UPLC-MS and flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints.

Science.gov (United States)

Lu, Weiying; Jiang, Qianqian; Shi, Haiming; Niu, Yuge; Gao, Boyan; Yu, Liangli Lucy

2014-09-17

Lycium barbarum L. fruits (Chinese wolfberries) were differentiated for their cultivation locations and the cultivars by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques combined with chemometrics analyses. The partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to the data projection and supervised learning with validation. The samples formed clusters in the projected data. The prediction accuracies by PLS-DA with bootstrapped Latin partition validation were greater than 90% for all models. The chemical profiles of Chinese wolfberries were also obtained. The differentiation techniques might be utilized for Chinese wolfberry authentication.

5. Second-order oriented partial-differential equations for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringes.

Science.gov (United States)

Tang, Chen; Han, Lin; Ren, Hongwei; Zhou, Dongjian; Chang, Yiming; Wang, Xiaohang; Cui, Xiaolong

2008-10-01

We derive the second-order oriented partial-differential equations (PDEs) for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringe patterns from two points of view. The first is based on variational methods, and the second is based on controlling diffusion direction. Our oriented PDE models make the diffusion along only the fringe orientation. The main advantage of our filtering method, based on oriented PDE models, is that it is very easy to implement compared with the published filtering methods along the fringe orientation. We demonstrate the performance of our oriented PDE models via application to two computer-simulated and experimentally obtained speckle fringes and compare with related PDE models.

6. Ulam Stabilities for the Darboux Problem for Partial Fractional Differential Inclusions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Abbas Saïd

2014-12-01

Full Text Available In this article, we investigate some Ulam’s type stability concepts for the Darboux problem of partial fractional differential inclusions with a nonconvex valued right hand side. Our results are based upon Covitz-Nadler fixed point theorem and fractional version of Gronwall’s inequality.

7. Numerical and computational analysis of the partial differential equations in hydrocodes and wavecodes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hicks, D.L.; Walsh, R.T.

1976-06-01

Discrete methods for the solution of the partial differential equations arising in hydrocodes and wavecodes are presented in a tutorial fashion. By discrete methods is meant, for example, the methods of finite differences, finite elements, discretized characteristics, etc. The concepts of stability, consistency, convergence, order of accuracy, true accuracy, etc., and their relevance to the hydrocodes and wavecodes are discussed

8. Applications of algebraic method to exactly solve some nonlinear partial differential equations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Darwish, A.A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Helwan University (Egypt)]. E-mail: profdarwish@yahoo.com; Ramady, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)]. E-mail: aramady@yahoo.com

2007-08-15

A direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations is used and implemented in a computer algebraic system. New solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDE's) are obtained. Graphs of the solutions are displayed.

9. An approximation theory for nonlinear partial differential equations with applications to identification and control

Science.gov (United States)

Banks, H. T.; Kunisch, K.

1982-01-01

Approximation results from linear semigroup theory are used to develop a general framework for convergence of approximation schemes in parameter estimation and optimal control problems for nonlinear partial differential equations. These ideas are used to establish theoretical convergence results for parameter identification using modal (eigenfunction) approximation techniques. Results from numerical investigations of these schemes for both hyperbolic and parabolic systems are given.

10. Introduction to partial differential equations from Fourier series to boundary-value problems

CERN Document Server

Broman, Arne

2010-01-01

This well-written, advanced-level text introduces students to Fourier analysis and some of its applications. The self-contained treatment covers Fourier series, orthogonal systems, Fourier and Laplace transforms, Bessel functions, and partial differential equations of the first and second orders. Over 260 exercises with solutions reinforce students' grasp of the material. 1970 edition.

11. Local Fractional Laplace Variational Iteration Method for Solving Linear Partial Differential Equations with Local Fractional Derivative

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ai-Min Yang

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The local fractional Laplace variational iteration method was applied to solve the linear local fractional partial differential equations. The local fractional Laplace variational iteration method is coupled by the local fractional variational iteration method and Laplace transform. The nondifferentiable approximate solutions are obtained and their graphs are also shown.

12. Global Uniqueness Results for Fractional Order Partial Hyperbolic Functional Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Benchohra Mouffak

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the global existence and uniqueness of solutions for some classes of partial hyperbolic differential equations involving the Caputo fractional derivative with finite and infinite delays. The existence results are obtained by applying some suitable fixed point theorems.

13. Existence of solutions to fractional-order impulsive hyperbolic partial differential inclusions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Said Abbas

2014-09-01

Full Text Available In this article we use the upper and lower solution method combined with a fixed point theorem for condensing multivalued maps, due to Martelli, to study the existence of solutions to impulsive partial hyperbolic differential inclusions at fixed instants of impulse.

14. A Population of Linear, Second Order, Elliptic Partial Differential Equations on Rectangular Domains. Part 1

Science.gov (United States)

1980-05-01

Houstis and Rice, 1980], [Crowder, Dembo and Mulvey, 19791; it suffic.es here to say that a properly chosen problem population is an essential ingredient...evaluation of partial differential equations software, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 5 , pp. 418-425. 2. H. Crowder, R. S. Dembo and j. m

15. Parameter estimates for linear partial differential equations with fractional boundary noise

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Maslowski, Bohdan; Pospíšil, J.

2007-01-01

Roč. 7, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-20 ISSN 1526-7555 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/07/0237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : parameter identification * ergodicity * stochastic partial differential equations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

16. A higher order numerical method for time fractional partial differential equations with nonsmooth data

Science.gov (United States)

Xing, Yanyuan; Yan, Yubin

2018-03-01

Gao et al. [11] (2014) introduced a numerical scheme to approximate the Caputo fractional derivative with the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 definition of the Caputo fractional derivative, see also Lv and Xu [20] (2016), where k is the time step size. Under the assumption that the solution of the time fractional partial differential equation is sufficiently smooth, Lv and Xu [20] (2016) proved by using energy method that the corresponding numerical method for solving time fractional partial differential equation has the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 time variable t. However, in general the solution of the time fractional partial differential equation has low regularity and in this case the numerical method fails to have the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 time variable t. In this paper, we first obtain a similar approximation scheme to the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative with the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 time discretization scheme to approximate the time fractional partial differential equation and show by using Laplace transform methods that the time discretization scheme has the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 0 for smooth and nonsmooth data in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. Numerical examples are given to show that the theoretical results are consistent with the numerical results.

17. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

consumption. The DC-gain of the proposed OTA is improved by adding a partial feedback loop. A Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) circuit is required for fully differential rail-to-rail operation. Simulations show that the OTA topology has a low stand-by power consumption of 96μW and a high FoM of 3.84 [(V...

18. Model-based detection of partially obstructed endotracheal tube.

Science.gov (United States)

Visaria, Rachana K; Westenskow, Dwayne R

2005-01-01

A five-element lumped pulmonary model was developed to estimate respiratory mechanics automatically and noninvasively. The model was applied to diagnose obstructed endotracheal tube. Events like bronchospasm and stiff chest wall were also tested to determine the specificity of the diagnosis. Cases with positive end-expiratory pressure were also included in the analysis to see the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on the model. Randomized controlled animal study. University department of anesthesiology. Ten anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated mongrel dogs (19-45 kg) of either gender. Two levels of upper airway obstruction were induced in ten dogs by partially constricting the endotracheal tube. Acute bronchial constriction was produced in five dogs by injecting methacholine through a central venous catheter. In the same five dogs, the chest wall was stiffened by wrapping a pressure cuff around the chest. Positive end-expiratory pressure was also applied as a separate event in these five animals. Airway pressure and flow were continuously recorded at the mouth. Model parameters were iteratively identified until the root mean square error between respiratory impedance (obtained from airway pressure and flow) and model-predicted impedance (calculated using Ohm's law) was minimum. The peak inspiratory pressure increased and the peak expiratory flow rate decreased with increasing levels of partial obstruction. The value of the model parameters R(1) and C(2) increased and C(1) decreased with partial obstructed endotracheal tube, whereas R(1) increased and L and C(2) decreased with bronchospasm. With stiff chest wall, R(2) increased and C(2) decreased. With positive end-expiratory pressure, the L parameter decreased and no significant change in other model parameters was observed. Obstructed endotracheal tube is indicated if R(1) increased > or =30%, C(1) decreased > or =10%, and C(2) increased > or =10% from baseline. The test results using 45

19. A three operator split-step method covering a larger set of non-linear partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Zia, Haider

2017-06-01

This paper describes an updated exponential Fourier based split-step method that can be applied to a greater class of partial differential equations than previous methods would allow. These equations arise in physics and engineering, a notable example being the generalized derivative non-linear Schrödinger equation that arises in non-linear optics with self-steepening terms. These differential equations feature terms that were previously inaccessible to model accurately with low computational resources. The new method maintains a 3rd order error even with these additional terms and models the equation in all three spatial dimensions and time. The class of non-linear differential equations that this method applies to is shown. The method is fully derived and implementation of the method in the split-step architecture is shown. This paper lays the mathematical ground work for an upcoming paper employing this method in white-light generation simulations in bulk material.

20. Sparse grid spectral methods for the numerical solution of partial differential equations with periodic boundary conditions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kupka, F.

1997-11-01

This thesis deals with the extension of sparse grid techniques to spectral methods for the solution of partial differential equations with periodic boundary conditions. A review on boundary and initial-boundary value problems and a discussion on numerical resolution is used to motivate this research. Spectral methods are introduced by projection techniques, and by three model problems: the stationary and the transient Helmholtz equations, and the linear advection equation. The approximation theory on the hyperbolic cross is reviewed and its close relation to sparse grids is demonstrated. This approach extends to non-periodic problems. Various Sobolev spaces with dominant mixed derivative are introduced to provide error estimates for Fourier approximation and interpolation on the hyperbolic cross and on sparse grids by means of Sobolev norms. The theorems are immediately applicable to the stability and convergence analysis of sparse grid spectral methods. This is explicitly demonstrated for the three model problems. A variant of the von Neumann condition is introduced to simplify the stability analysis of the time-dependent model problems. The discrete Fourier transformation on sparse grids is discussed together with its software implementation. Results on numerical experiments are used to illustrate the performance of the new method with respect to the smoothness properties of each example. The potential of the method in mathematical modelling is estimated and generalizations to other sparse grid methods are suggested. The appendix includes a complete Fortran90 program to solve the linear advection equation by the sparse grid Fourier collocation method and a third-order Runge-Kutta routine for integration in time. (author)

1. Collage-based approaches for elliptic partial differential equations inverse problems

Science.gov (United States)

Yodzis, Michael; Kunze, Herb

2017-01-01

The collage method for inverse problems has become well-established in the literature in recent years. Initial work developed a collage theorem, based upon Banach's fixed point theorem, for treating inverse problems for ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Amongst the subsequent work was a generalized collage theorem, based upon the Lax-Milgram representation theorem, useful for treating inverse problems for elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). Each of these two different approaches can be applied to elliptic PDEs in one space dimension. In this paper, we explore and compare how the two different approaches perform for the estimation of the diffusivity for a steady-state heat equation.

2. The application of Legendre-tau approximation to parameter identification for delay and partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Ito, K.

1983-01-01

Approximation schemes based on Legendre-tau approximation are developed for application to parameter identification problem for delay and partial differential equations. The tau method is based on representing the approximate solution as a truncated series of orthonormal functions. The characteristic feature of the Legendre-tau approach is that when the solution to a problem is infinitely differentiable, the rate of convergence is faster than any finite power of 1/N; higher accuracy is thus achieved, making the approach suitable for small N.

3. A practical course in differential equations and mathematical modeling

CERN Document Server

Ibragimov , Nail H

2009-01-01

A Practical Course in Differential Equations and Mathematical Modelling is a unique blend of the traditional methods of ordinary and partial differential equations with Lie group analysis enriched by the author's own theoretical developments. The book which aims to present new mathematical curricula based on symmetry and invariance principles is tailored to develop analytic skills and working knowledge in both classical and Lie's methods for solving linear and nonlinear equations. This approach helps to make courses in differential equations, mathematical modelling, distributions and fundame

4. Patch Similarity Modulus and Difference Curvature Based Fourth-Order Partial Differential Equation for Image Denoising

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yunjiao Bai

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The traditional fourth-order nonlinear diffusion denoising model suffers the isolated speckles and the loss of fine details in the processed image. For this reason, a new fourth-order partial differential equation based on the patch similarity modulus and the difference curvature is proposed for image denoising. First, based on the intensity similarity of neighbor pixels, this paper presents a new edge indicator called patch similarity modulus, which is strongly robust to noise. Furthermore, the difference curvature which can effectively distinguish between edges and noise is incorporated into the denoising algorithm to determine the diffusion process by adaptively adjusting the size of the diffusion coefficient. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only preserve edges and texture details, but also avoid isolated speckles and staircase effect while filtering out noise. And the proposed algorithm has a better performance for the images with abundant details. Additionally, the subjective visual quality and objective evaluation index of the denoised image obtained by the proposed algorithm are higher than the ones from the related methods.

5. Application of symbolic manipulation for solving partial differential equation with finite element method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lee, Goung Jin; Chang, Soon Heung

1988-01-01

In solving partial differential equations using finite element method, the great parts of the computing time is taken to calculate the local element matrices. Also the much programming efforts are taken for the local element matrices calculations. To reduce the computing time and the efforts of programming, local elements matrices are calculated by symbolic manipulation method. In this study, symbolic manipulation code REDUCE 3.2 is used. As a results, Fortran subroutine form of local element matrices package is obtained. Using this package, programming efforts would be much reduced. Also the computing time is greatly reduced using the developed package. As a conclusion, it can be said that the developed method can be used to solve the partial differential equation with the less computing times and the less programming efforts than the conventional method

6. Partial differential equations II elements of the modern theory equations with constant coefficients

CERN Document Server

Shubin, M

1994-01-01

This book, the first printing of which was published as Volume 31 of the Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences, contains a survey of the modern theory of general linear partial differential equations and a detailed review of equations with constant coefficients. Readers will be interested in an introduction to microlocal analysis and its applications including singular integral operators, pseudodifferential operators, Fourier integral operators and wavefronts, a survey of the most important results about the mixed problem for hyperbolic equations, a review of asymptotic methods including short wave asymptotics, the Maslov canonical operator and spectral asymptotics, a detailed description of the applications of distribution theory to partial differential equations with constant coefficients including numerous interesting special topics.

7. Lump solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations via Hirota bilinear forms

Science.gov (United States)

Ma, Wen-Xiu; Zhou, Yuan

2018-02-01

Lump solutions are analytical rational function solutions localized in all directions in space. We analyze a class of lump solutions, generated from quadratic functions, to nonlinear partial differential equations. The basis of success is the Hirota bilinear formulation and the primary object is the class of positive multivariate quadratic functions. A complete determination of quadratic functions positive in space and time is given, and positive quadratic functions are characterized as sums of squares of linear functions. Necessary and sufficient conditions for positive quadratic functions to solve Hirota bilinear equations are presented, and such polynomial solutions yield lump solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations under the dependent variable transformations u = 2(ln ⁡ f) x and u = 2(ln ⁡ f) xx, where x is one spatial variable. Applications are made for a few generalized KP and BKP equations.

8. Partial differential variational inequalities involving nonlocal boundary conditions in Banach spaces

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Zhenhai; Migórski, Stanisław; Zeng, Shengda

2017-10-01

In this paper, we firstly introduce a complicated system obtained by mixing a nonlinear evolutionary partial differential equation and a mixed variational inequality in infinite dimensional Banach spaces in the case where the set of constraints is not necessarily bounded and the problem is driven by nonlocal boundary conditions, which is called partial differential variational inequality ((PDVI), for short). Then, we show that the solution set of the mixed variational inequality involved in problem (PDVI) is nonempty, bounded, closed and convex. Moreover, the upper semicontinuity and measurability properties for set-valued mapping U : [ 0 , T ] ×E2 → Cbv (E1) (see (3.7), below) are also established. Finally, several existence results for (PDVI) are obtained by using a fixed point theorem for condensing set-valued operators and theory of measure of noncompactness.

9. A Schauder approach to degenerate-parabolic partial differential equations with unbounded coefficients

Science.gov (United States)

Feehan, Paul M. N.; Pop, Camelia A.

Motivated by applications to probability and mathematical finance, we consider a parabolic partial differential equation on a half-space whose coefficients are suitably Hölder continuous and allowed to grow linearly in the spatial variable and which become degenerate along the boundary of the half-space. We establish existence and uniqueness of solutions in weighted Hölder spaces which incorporate both the degeneracy at the boundary and the unboundedness of the coefficients. In our companion article (Feehan and Pop [12]), we apply the main result of this article to show that the martingale problem associated with a degenerate-elliptic partial differential operator is well-posed in the sense of Stroock and Varadhan.

10. A Posteriori Finite Element Bounds for Sensitivity Derivatives of Partial-Differential-Equation Outputs. Revised

Science.gov (United States)

Lewis, Robert Michael; Patera, Anthony T.; Peraire, Jaume

1998-01-01

We present a Neumann-subproblem a posteriori finite element procedure for the efficient and accurate calculation of rigorous, 'constant-free' upper and lower bounds for sensitivity derivatives of functionals of the solutions of partial differential equations. The design motivation for sensitivity derivative error control is discussed; the a posteriori finite element procedure is described; the asymptotic bounding properties and computational complexity of the method are summarized; and illustrative numerical results are presented.

11. Analytical Solutions for Systems of Singular Partial Differential-Algebraic Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

U. Filobello-Nino

2015-01-01

Full Text Available This paper proposes power series method (PSM in order to find solutions for singular partial differential-algebraic equations (SPDAEs. We will solve three examples to show that PSM method can be used to search for analytical solutions of SPDAEs. What is more, we will see that, in some cases, Padé posttreatment, besides enlarging the domain of convergence, may be employed in order to get the exact solution from the truncated series solutions of PSM.

12. Explicit finite difference predictor and convex corrector with applications to hyperbolic partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Dey, C.; Dey, S. K.

1983-01-01

An explicit finite difference scheme consisting of a predictor and a corrector has been developed and applied to solve some hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). The corrector is a convex-type function which is applied at each time level and at each mesh point. It consists of a parameter which may be estimated such that for larger time steps the algorithm should remain stable and generate a fast speed of convergence to the steady-state solution. Some examples have been given.

13. Baecklund transformations and zero-curvature representations of systems of partial differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brandt, F.

1993-01-01

It is shown that Baecklund transformations (BTs) and zero-curvature representations (ZCRs) of systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) are closely related. The connection is established by nonlinear representations of the symmetry group underlying the ZCR which induce gauge transformations relating different BTs. This connection is used to construct BTs from ZCRs (and vice versa). Furthermore a procedure is outlined which allows a systematic search for ZCRs of a given system of PDEs. (orig.)

14. New finite volume methods for approximating partial differential equations on arbitrary meshes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hermeline, F.

2008-12-01

This dissertation presents some new methods of finite volume type for approximating partial differential equations on arbitrary meshes. The main idea lies in solving twice the problem to be dealt with. One addresses the elliptic equations with variable (anisotropic, antisymmetric, discontinuous) coefficients, the parabolic linear or non linear equations (heat equation, radiative diffusion, magnetic diffusion with Hall effect), the wave type equations (Maxwell, acoustics), the elasticity and Stokes'equations. Numerous numerical experiments show the good behaviour of this type of method. (author)

15. Parabolic partial differential equations with discrete state-dependent delay: Classical solutions and solution manifold

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Krisztin, T.; Rezunenko, Oleksandr

2016-01-01

Roč. 260, č. 5 (2016), s. 4454-4472 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/12/2431 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Parabolic partial differential equations * State dependent delay * Solution manifold Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/rezunenko-0457879.pdf

16. Existence of pseudo almost periodic solutions for a class of partial functional differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hui-Sheng Ding

2013-04-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we first introduce a new class of pseudo almost periodic type functions and investigate some properties of pseudo almost periodic type functions; and then we discuss the existence of pseudo almost periodic solutions to the class of abstract partial functional differential equations $x'(t=Ax(t+f(t,x_t$ with finite delay in a Banach space X.

17. Conservation laws for certain time fractional nonlinear systems of partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Singla, Komal; Gupta, R. K.

2017-12-01

In this study, an extension of the concept of nonlinear self-adjointness and Noether operators is proposed for calculating conserved vectors of the time fractional nonlinear systems of partial differential equations. In our recent work (J Math Phys 2016; 57: 101504), by proposing the symmetry approach for time fractional systems, the Lie symmetries for some fractional nonlinear systems have been derived. In this paper, the obtained infinitesimal generators are used to find conservation laws for the corresponding fractional systems.

18. Bayesian mixture models for partially verified data

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kostoulas, Polychronis; Browne, William J.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

2013-01-01

Bayesian mixture models can be used to discriminate between the distributions of continuous test responses for different infection stages. These models are particularly useful in case of chronic infections with a long latent period, like Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection...

19. Molecular analysis of B-cell differentiation in selective or partial IgA deficiency.

Science.gov (United States)

Asano, T; Kaneko, H; Terada, T; Kasahara, Y; Fukao, T; Kasahara, K; Kondo, N

2004-05-01

Selective IgA deficiency is the most common form of primary immunodeficiency, the molecular basis of which is unknown. To investigate the cause of selective IgA deficiency, we examined what stage of B-cell differentiation was blocked. DNA and RNA were extracted from three Japanese patients with selective IgA deficiency and three with a partial IgA deficiency. In selective IgA deficiency patients, Ialpha germline transcript expression levels decreased and alpha circle transcripts were not detected. Stimulation with PMA and TGF-beta1 up-regulated Ialpha germline and alpha circle transcripts. In some patients, IgA secretion was induced by stimulation with anti-CD40, IL-4 and IL-10. In partial IgA deficiency patients, Ialpha germline, alpha circle transcripts and Calpha mature transcripts were detected in the absence of stimulation. Our findings suggest that the decreased expression level of Ialpha germline transcripts before a class switch might be critical for the pathogenesis of some patients with selective IgA deficiency. However, in patients with a partial IgA deficiency, B-cell differentiation might be disturbed after a class switch.

20. BOOK REVIEW: Advanced Topics in Computational Partial Differential Equations: Numerical Methods and Diffpack Programming

Science.gov (United States)

Katsaounis, T. D.

2005-02-01

The scope of this book is to present well known simple and advanced numerical methods for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) and how to implement these methods using the programming environment of the software package Diffpack. A basic background in PDEs and numerical methods is required by the potential reader. Further, a basic knowledge of the finite element method and its implementation in one and two space dimensions is required. The authors claim that no prior knowledge of the package Diffpack is required, which is true, but the reader should be at least familiar with an object oriented programming language like C++ in order to better comprehend the programming environment of Diffpack. Certainly, a prior knowledge or usage of Diffpack would be a great advantage to the reader. The book consists of 15 chapters, each one written by one or more authors. Each chapter is basically divided into two parts: the first part is about mathematical models described by PDEs and numerical methods to solve these models and the second part describes how to implement the numerical methods using the programming environment of Diffpack. Each chapter closes with a list of references on its subject. The first nine chapters cover well known numerical methods for solving the basic types of PDEs. Further, programming techniques on the serial as well as on the parallel implementation of numerical methods are also included in these chapters. The last five chapters are dedicated to applications, modelled by PDEs, in a variety of fields. The first chapter is an introduction to parallel processing. It covers fundamentals of parallel processing in a simple and concrete way and no prior knowledge of the subject is required. Examples of parallel implementation of basic linear algebra operations are presented using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming environment. Here, some knowledge of MPI routines is required by the reader. Examples solving in parallel simple PDEs using

1. Optimal Retail Price Model for Partial Consignment to Multiple Retailers

OpenAIRE

Po-Yu Chen

2017-01-01

This paper investigates the product pricing decision-making problem under a consignment stock policy in a two-level supply chain composed of one supplier and multiple retailers. The effects of the supplier’s wholesale prices and its partial inventory cost absorption of the retail prices of retailers with different market shares are investigated. In the partial product consignment model this paper proposes, the seller and the retailers each absorb part of the inventory costs. This model also p...

2. Workshop on Recent Trends in Complex Methods for Partial Differential Equations

CERN Document Server

Celebi, A; Tutschke, Wolfgang

1999-01-01

This volume is a collection of manscripts mainly originating from talks and lectures given at the Workshop on Recent Trends in Complex Methods for Par­ tial Differential Equations held from July 6 to 10, 1998 at the Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey, sponsored by The Scientific and Tech­ nical Research Council of Turkey and the Middle East Technical University. This workshop is a continuation oftwo workshops from 1988 and 1993 at the In­ ternational Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy entitled Functional analytic Methods in Complex Analysis and Applications to Partial Differential Equations. Since classical complex analysis of one and several variables has a long tra­ dition it is of high level. But most of its basic problems are solved nowadays so that within the last few decades it has lost more and more attention. The area of complex and functional analytic methods in partial differential equations, however, is still a growing and flourishing field, in particular as these ...

3. Iterative Observer-based Estimation Algorithms for Steady-State Elliptic Partial Differential Equation Systems

KAUST Repository

2017-07-19

Steady-state elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) are frequently used to model a diverse range of physical phenomena. The source and boundary data estimation problems for such PDE systems are of prime interest in various engineering disciplines including biomedical engineering, mechanics of materials and earth sciences. Almost all existing solution strategies for such problems can be broadly classified as optimization-based techniques, which are computationally heavy especially when the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time-like. In this regard, first, an iterative observer algorithm is developed that sweeps over regular-shaped domains and solves boundary estimation problems for steady-state Laplace equation. It is well-known that source and boundary estimation problems for the elliptic PDEs are highly sensitive to noise in the data. For this, an optimal iterative observer algorithm, which is a robust counterpart of the iterative observer, is presented to tackle the ill-posedness due to noise. The iterative observer algorithm and the optimal iterative algorithm are then used to solve source localization and estimation problems for Poisson equation for noise-free and noisy data cases respectively. Next, a divide and conquer approach is developed for three-dimensional domains with two congruent parallel surfaces to solve the boundary and the source data estimation problems for the steady-state Laplace and Poisson kind of systems respectively. Theoretical results are shown using a functional analysis framework, and consistent numerical simulation results are presented for several test cases using finite difference discretization schemes.

4. Interactive differential equations modeling program

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rust, B.W.; Mankin, J.B.

1976-01-01

Due to the recent emphasis on mathematical modeling, many ecologists are using mathematics and computers more than ever, and engineers, mathematicians and physical scientists are now included in ecological projects. However, the individual ecologist, with intuitive knowledge of the system, still requires the means to critically examine and adjust system models. An interactive program was developed with the primary goal of allowing an ecologist with minimal experience in either mathematics or computers to develop a system model. It has also been used successfully by systems ecologists, engineers, and mathematicians. This program was written in FORTRAN for the DEC PDP-10, a remote terminal system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, with relatively minor modifications, it can be implemented on any remote terminal system with a FORTRAN IV compiler, or equivalent. This program may be used to simulate any phenomenon which can be described as a system of ordinary differential equations. The program allows the user to interactively change system parameters and/or initial conditions, to interactively select a set of variables to be plotted, and to model discontinuities in the state variables and/or their derivatives. One of the most useful features to the non-computer specialist is the ability to interactively address the system parameters by name and to interactively adjust their values between simulations. These and other features are described in greater detail

5. Partially natural Two Higgs Doublet Models

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Draper, Patrick [Department of Physics, University of California,Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Haber, Howard E. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California,1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Ruderman, Joshua T. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,4 Washington Pl. New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2016-06-21

It is possible that the electroweak scale is low due to the fine-tuning of microscopic parameters, which can result from selection effects. The experimental discovery of new light fundamental scalars other than the Standard Model Higgs boson would seem to disfavor this possibility, since generically such states imply parametrically worse fine-tuning with no compelling connection to selection effects. We discuss counterexamples where the Higgs boson is light because of fine-tuning, and a second scalar doublet is light because a discrete symmetry relates its mass to the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson. Our examples require new vectorlike fermions at the electroweak scale, and the models possess a rich electroweak vacuum structure. The mechanism that we discuss does not protect a small CP-odd Higgs mass in split or high-scale supersymmetry-breaking scenarios of the MSSM due to an incompatibility between the discrete symmetries and holomorphy.

6. Total, partial and differential ionization cross sections in proton-hydrogen collisions at low energy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zou, Shiyang; Pichl, Lukas; Kimura, Mineo; Kato, Takako

2003-01-01

Single-differential, partial and total ionization cross sections for the proton-hydrogen collision system at low energy range (0.1-10 keV/amu) are determined by using the electron translation factor corrected molecular-orbital close-coupling method. Full convergence of ionization cross sections as a function of H 2 + molecular basis size is achieved by including up to 10 bound states, and 11 continuum partial waves. The present cross sections are in an excellent agreement with the recent experiments of Shah et al., but decrease more rapidly than the cross sections measured by Pieksma et al. with decreasing energy. The calculated cross section data are included in this report. (author)

7. Differential geometry based multiscale models.

Science.gov (United States)

Wei, Guo-Wei

2010-08-01

Large chemical and biological systems such as fuel cells, ion channels, molecular motors, and viruses are of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, these complex systems in conjunction with their aquatic environment pose a fabulous challenge to theoretical description, simulation, and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm to model complex macromolecular systems, and to put macroscopic and microscopic descriptions on an equal footing. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum mechanical description of the aquatic environment with the microscopic discrete atomistic description of the macromolecule. Multiscale free energy functionals, or multiscale action functionals are constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales and different descriptions. Two types of aqueous macromolecular complexes, ones that are near equilibrium and others that are far from equilibrium, are considered in our formulations. We show that generalized Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid dynamics, generalized Poisson equations or generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equations for electrostatic interactions, and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived by the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows. Comparison is given to classical descriptions of the fluid and electrostatic interactions without geometric flow based micro-macro interfaces. The detailed balance of forces is emphasized in the present work. We further extend the proposed multiscale paradigm to micro-macro analysis of electrohydrodynamics, electrophoresis, fuel cells, and ion channels. We derive generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations that are

8. Differential Geometry Based Multiscale Models

Science.gov (United States)

Wei, Guo-Wei

2010-01-01

Large chemical and biological systems such as fuel cells, ion channels, molecular motors, and viruses are of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, these complex systems in conjunction with their aquatic environment pose a fabulous challenge to theoretical description, simulation, and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm to model complex macromolecular systems, and to put macroscopic and microscopic descriptions on an equal footing. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum mechanical description of the aquatic environment with the microscopic discrete atom-istic description of the macromolecule. Multiscale free energy functionals, or multiscale action functionals are constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales and different descriptions. Two types of aqueous macromolecular complexes, ones that are near equilibrium and others that are far from equilibrium, are considered in our formulations. We show that generalized Navier–Stokes equations for the fluid dynamics, generalized Poisson equations or generalized Poisson–Boltzmann equations for electrostatic interactions, and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived by the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows. Comparison is given to classical descriptions of the fluid and electrostatic interactions without geometric flow based micro-macro interfaces. The detailed balance of forces is emphasized in the present work. We further extend the proposed multiscale paradigm to micro-macro analysis of electrohydrodynamics, electrophoresis, fuel cells, and ion channels. We derive generalized Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations that

9. Building bridges connections and challenges in modern approaches to numerical partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Brezzi, Franco; Cangiani, Andrea; Georgoulis, Emmanuil

2016-01-01

This volume contains contributed survey papers from the main speakers at the LMS/EPSRC Symposium “Building bridges: connections and challenges in modern approaches to numerical partial differential equations”. This meeting took place in July 8-16, 2014, and its main purpose was to gather specialists in emerging areas of numerical PDEs, and explore the connections between the different approaches. The type of contributions ranges from the theoretical foundations of these new techniques, to the applications of them, to new general frameworks and unified approaches that can cover one, or more than one, of these emerging techniques.

10. Survey of the status of finite element methods for partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Temam, Roger

1986-01-01

The finite element methods (FEM) have proved to be a powerful technique for the solution of boundary value problems associated with partial differential equations of either elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic type. They also have a good potential for utilization on parallel computers particularly in relation to the concept of domain decomposition. This report is intended as an introduction to the FEM for the nonspecialist. It contains a survey which is totally nonexhaustive, and it also contains as an illustration, a report on some new results concerning two specific applications, namely a free boundary fluid-structure interaction problem and the Euler equations for inviscid flows.

11. Survey of the status of finite element methods for partial differential equations. Final report

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Temam, R.

1986-11-01

The finite element methods (FEM) have proved to be a powerful technique for the solution of boundary value problems associated with partial differential equations of either elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic type. They also have a good potential for utilization on parallel computers particularly in relation to the concept of domain decomposition. This report is intended as an introduction to the FEM for the nonspecialist. It contains a survey which is totally nonexhaustive, and it also contains as an illustration, a report on some new results concerning two specific applications, namely a free boundary fluid-structure interaction problem and the Euler equations for inviscid flows

12. Discretized partial differential equations - Examples of control systems defined on modules

Science.gov (United States)

Brockett, R. W.; Willems, J. L.

1974-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to show how the important problems of linear system theory can be solved concisely for a particular class of linear systems, namely block circulant systems, by exploiting the algebraic structure. This type of system arises in lumped approximations to linear partial differential equations. The computation of the transition matrix, the variation of constants formula, observability, controllability, pole allocation, realization theory, stability and quadratic optimal control are discussed. In principle, all questions which are solved here could also be solved by standard methods; the present paper clearly exposes the structure of the solution, and thus permits various savings in computational effort.

13. Solution of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations by New Laplace Variational Iteration Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Eman M. A. Hilal

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to give a good strategy for solving some linear and nonlinear partial differential equations in engineering and physics fields, by combining Laplace transform and the modified variational iteration method. This method is based on the variational iteration method, Laplace transforms, and convolution integral, introducing an alternative Laplace correction functional and expressing the integral as a convolution. Some examples in physical engineering are provided to illustrate the simplicity and reliability of this method. The solutions of these examples are contingent only on the initial conditions.

14. Distribution of the Discretization and Algebraic Error in Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Papež, Jan; Liesen, J.; Strakoš, Z.

2014-01-01

Roč. 449, 15 May (2014), s. 89-114 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300802; GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202; GA UK(CZ) 695612 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : numerical solution of partial differential equations * finite element method * adaptivity * a posteriori error analysis * discretization error * algebra ic error * spatial distribution of the error Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

15. Student Solutions Manual to Boundary Value Problems and Partial Differential Equations

CERN Document Server

Powers, David L

2005-01-01

This student solutions manual accompanies the text, Boundary Value Problems and Partial Differential Equations, 5e. The SSM is available in print via PDF or electronically, and provides the student with the detailed solutions of the odd-numbered problems contained throughout the book.Provides students with exercises that skillfully illustrate the techniques used in the text to solve science and engineering problemsNearly 900 exercises ranging in difficulty from basic drills to advanced problem-solving exercisesMany exercises based on current engineering applications

16. Simple equation method for nonlinear partial differential equations and its applications

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Taher A. Nofal

2016-04-01

Full Text Available In this article, we focus on the exact solution of the some nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs such as, Kodomtsev–Petviashvili (KP equation, the (2 + 1-dimensional breaking soliton equation and the modified generalized Vakhnenko equation by using the simple equation method. In the simple equation method the trial condition is the Bernoulli equation or the Riccati equation. It has been shown that the method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear wave equations in mathematical physics and engineering problems.

17. First-order systems of linear partial differential equations: normal forms, canonical systems, transform methods

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Heinz Toparkus

2014-04-01

Full Text Available In this paper we consider first-order systems with constant coefficients for two real-valued functions of two real variables. This is both a problem in itself, as well as an alternative view of the classical linear partial differential equations of second order with constant coefficients. The classification of the systems is done using elementary methods of linear algebra. Each type presents its special canonical form in the associated characteristic coordinate system. Then you can formulate initial value problems in appropriate basic areas, and you can try to achieve a solution of these problems by means of transform methods.

18. Parametric Borel summability for some semilinear system of partial differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hiroshi Yamazawa

2015-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper we study the Borel summability of formal solutions with a parameter of first order semilinear system of partial differential equations with \\(n\\ independent variables. In [Singular perturbation of linear systems with a regular singularity, J. Dynam. Control. Syst. 8 (2002, 313-322], Balser and Kostov proved the Borel summability of formal solutions with respect to a singular perturbation parameter for a linear equation with one independent variable. We shall extend their results to a semilinear system of equations with general independent variables.

19. Mathematical Methods for Engineers and Scientists 3 Fourier Analysis, Partial Differential Equations and Variational Methods

CERN Document Server

Tang, Kwong-Tin

2007-01-01

Pedagogical insights gained through 30 years of teaching applied mathematics led the author to write this set of student oriented books. Topics such as complex analysis, matrix theory, vector and tensor analysis, Fourier analysis, integral transforms, ordinary and partial differential equations are presented in a discursive style that is readable and easy to follow. Numerous clearly stated, completely worked out examples together with carefully selected problem sets with answers are used to enhance students' understanding and manipulative skill. The goal is to make students comfortable and confident in using advanced mathematical tools in junior, senior, and beginning graduate courses.

20. The Spectral/hp-Finite Element Method for Partial Differential Equations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

2009-01-01

dimensions. In the course the chosen programming environment is Matlab, however, this is by no means a necessary requirement. The mathematical level needed to grasp the details of this set of notes requires an elementary background in mathematical analysis and linear algebra. Each chapter is supplemented......This set of lecture notes provides an elementary introduction to both the classical Finite Element Method (FEM) and the extended Spectral/$hp$-Finite Element Method for solving Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Many problems in science and engineering can be formulated mathematically...

1. "Real-Time Optical Laboratory Linear Algebra Solution Of Partial Differential Equations"

Science.gov (United States)

Casasent, David; Jackson, James

1986-03-01

A Space Integrating (SI) Optical Linear Algebra Processor (OLAP) employing space and frequency-multiplexing, new partitioning and data flow, and achieving high accuracy performance with a non base-2 number system is described. Laboratory data on the performance of this system and the solution of parabolic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) is provided. A multi-processor OLAP system is also described for the first time. It use in the solution of multiple banded matrices that frequently arise is then discussed. The utility and flexibility of this processor compared to digital systolic architectures should be apparent.

2. Average and deviation for slow-fast stochastic partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, W.; Roberts, A. J.

Averaging is an important method to extract effective macroscopic dynamics from complex systems with slow modes and fast modes. This article derives an averaged equation for a class of stochastic partial differential equations without any Lipschitz assumption on the slow modes. The rate of convergence in probability is obtained as a byproduct. Importantly, the stochastic deviation between the original equation and the averaged equation is also studied. A martingale approach proves that the deviation is described by a Gaussian process. This gives an approximation to errors of order O(ɛ) instead of order O(√{ɛ}) attained in previous averaging.

3. ADI splitting schemes for a fourth-order nonlinear partial differential equation from image processing

KAUST Repository

Calatroni, Luca

2013-08-01

We present directional operator splitting schemes for the numerical solution of a fourth-order, nonlinear partial differential evolution equation which arises in image processing. This equation constitutes the H -1-gradient flow of the total variation and represents a prototype of higher-order equations of similar type which are popular in imaging for denoising, deblurring and inpainting problems. The efficient numerical solution of this equation is very challenging due to the stiffness of most numerical schemes. We show that the combination of directional splitting schemes with implicit time-stepping provides a stable and computationally cheap numerical realisation of the equation.

4. Parallelizing across time when solving time-dependent partial differential equations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Worley, P.H.

1991-09-01

The standard numerical algorithms for solving time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs) are inherently sequential in the time direction. This paper describes algorithms for the time-accurate solution of certain classes of linear hyperbolic and parabolic PDEs that can be parallelized in both time and space and have serial complexities that are proportional to the serial complexities of the best known algorithms. The algorithms for parabolic PDEs are variants of the waveform relaxation multigrid method (WFMG) of Lubich and Ostermann where the scalar ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that make up the kernel of WFMG are solved using a cyclic reduction type algorithm. The algorithms for hyperbolic PDEs use the cyclic reduction algorithm to solve ODEs along characteristics. 43 refs.

5. An Efficient Numerical Approach for Solving Nonlinear Coupled Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations with Nonlocal Conditions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. H. Bhrawy

2014-01-01

Full Text Available One of the most important advantages of collocation method is the possibility of dealing with nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs as well as PDEs with variable coefficients. A numerical solution based on a Jacobi collocation method is extended to solve nonlinear coupled hyperbolic PDEs with variable coefficients subject to initial-boundary nonlocal conservation conditions. This approach, based on Jacobi polynomials and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature integration, reduces solving the nonlinear coupled hyperbolic PDEs with variable coefficients to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equation which is far easier to solve. In fact, we deal with initial-boundary coupled hyperbolic PDEs with variable coefficients as well as initial-nonlocal conditions. Using triangular, soliton, and exponential-triangular solutions as exact solutions, the obtained results show that the proposed numerical algorithm is efficient and very accurate.

6. Partial differential equation-based localization of a monopole source from a circular array.

Science.gov (United States)

Ando, Shigeru; Nara, Takaaki; Levy, Tsukassa

2013-10-01

Wave source localization from a sensor array has long been the most active research topics in both theory and application. In this paper, an explicit and time-domain inversion method for the direction and distance of a monopole source from a circular array is proposed. The approach is based on a mathematical technique, the weighted integral method, for signal/source parameter estimation. It begins with an exact form of the source-constraint partial differential equation that describes the unilateral propagation of wide-band waves from a single source, and leads to exact algebraic equations that include circular Fourier coefficients (phase mode measurements) as their coefficients. From them, nearly closed-form, single-shot and multishot algorithms are obtained that is suitable for use with band-pass/differential filter banks. Numerical evaluation and several experimental results obtained using a 16-element circular microphone array are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

7. Spreadsheet Implementation of Numerical and Analytical Solutions to Some Classical Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mark A Lau

2016-09-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of numerical and analytical solutions of some of the classical partial differential equations using Excel spreadsheets. In particular, the heat equation, wave equation, and Laplace’s equation are presented herein since these equations have well known analytical solutions. The numerical solutions can be easily obtained once the differential equations are discretized via finite differences and then using cell formulas to implement the resulting recursive algorithms and other iterative methods such as the successive over-relaxation (SOR method. The graphing capabilities of spreadsheets can be exploited to enhance the visualization of the solutions to these equations. Furthermore, using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA can greatly facilitate the implementation of the analytical solutions to these equations, and in the process, one obtains Fourier series approximations to functions governing initial and/or boundary conditions.

8. Variance Function Partially Linear Single-Index Models1.

Science.gov (United States)

Lian, Heng; Liang, Hua; Carroll, Raymond J

2015-01-01

We consider heteroscedastic regression models where the mean function is a partially linear single index model and the variance function depends upon a generalized partially linear single index model. We do not insist that the variance function depend only upon the mean function, as happens in the classical generalized partially linear single index model. We develop efficient and practical estimation methods for the variance function and for the mean function. Asymptotic theory for the parametric and nonparametric parts of the model is developed. Simulations illustrate the results. An empirical example involving ozone levels is used to further illustrate the results, and is shown to be a case where the variance function does not depend upon the mean function.

9. ICCG3, 3-D Partial Differential Equations Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anderson, D.V.

2001-01-01

Description of program or function: ICCG3 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 3d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from discretization of three-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE's are discretized with finite-difference or finite-element methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG3, the discretization of the three-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block- tridiagonal matrix. Its elements in turn are block-tridiagonal sub- matrices composed of elementary sub-sub-matrices that are also tridiagonal. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectors on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having an asymmetric matrix, ILUCG3 (NESC 9927) should be used. Similar methods in two dimensions are available in ILUCG2 (NESC 9929) and ICCG2 (NESC 9928)

10. 4th International Conference on Particle Systems and Partial Differential Equations

CERN Document Server

Soares, Ana

2017-01-01

'This book addresses mathematical problems motivated by various applications in physics, engineering, chemistry and biology. It gathers the lecture notes from the mini-course presented by Jean-Christophe Mourrat on the construction of the various stochastic “basic” terms involved in the formulation of the dynamic Ö4  theory in three space dimensions, as well as selected contributions presented at the fourth meeting on Particle Systems and PDEs, which was held at the University of Minho’s Centre of Mathematics in December 2015. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prominent researchers working in the fields of particle systems and partial differential equations, offering them a forum to present their recent results and discuss their topics of expertise. The meeting was also intended to present to a vast and varied public, including young researchers, the area of interacting particle systems, its underlying motivation, and its relation to partial differential equations.  The book w...

11. ICM: an Integrated Compartment Method for numerically solving partial differential equations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yeh, G.T.

1981-05-01

An integrated compartment method (ICM) is proposed to construct a set of algebraic equations from a system of partial differential equations. The ICM combines the utility of integral formulation of finite element approach, the simplicity of interpolation of finite difference approximation, and the flexibility of compartment analyses. The integral formulation eases the treatment of boundary conditions, in particular, the Neumann-type boundary conditions. The simplicity of interpolation provides great economy in computation. The flexibility of discretization with irregular compartments of various shapes and sizes offers advantages in resolving complex boundaries enclosing compound regions of interest. The basic procedures of ICM are first to discretize the region of interest into compartments, then to apply three integral theorems of vectors to transform the volume integral to the surface integral, and finally to use interpolation to relate the interfacial values in terms of compartment values to close the system. The Navier-Stokes equations are used as an example of how to derive the corresponding ICM alogrithm for a given set of partial differential equations. Because of the structure of the algorithm, the basic computer program remains the same for cases in one-, two-, or three-dimensional problems.

12. Modulating Function-Based Method for Parameter and Source Estimation of Partial Differential Equations

KAUST Repository

Asiri, Sharefa M.

2017-10-08

Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) are commonly used to model complex systems that arise for example in biology, engineering, chemistry, and elsewhere. The parameters (or coefficients) and the source of PDE models are often unknown and are estimated from available measurements. Despite its importance, solving the estimation problem is mathematically and numerically challenging and especially when the measurements are corrupted by noise, which is often the case. Various methods have been proposed to solve estimation problems in PDEs which can be classified into optimization methods and recursive methods. The optimization methods are usually heavy computationally, especially when the number of unknowns is large. In addition, they are sensitive to the initial guess and stop condition, and they suffer from the lack of robustness to noise. Recursive methods, such as observer-based approaches, are limited by their dependence on some structural properties such as observability and identifiability which might be lost when approximating the PDE numerically. Moreover, most of these methods provide asymptotic estimates which might not be useful for control applications for example. An alternative non-asymptotic approach with less computational burden has been proposed in engineering fields based on the so-called modulating functions. In this dissertation, we propose to mathematically and numerically analyze the modulating functions based approaches. We also propose to extend these approaches to different situations. The contributions of this thesis are as follows. (i) Provide a mathematical analysis of the modulating function-based method (MFBM) which includes: its well-posedness, statistical properties, and estimation errors. (ii) Provide a numerical analysis of the MFBM through some estimation problems, and study the sensitivity of the method to the modulating functions\\' parameters. (iii) Propose an effective algorithm for selecting the method\\'s design parameters

13. Unraveling the differential structural stability and dynamics features of T7 endolysin partially folded conformations.

Science.gov (United States)

Sharma, Meenakshi; Kumar, Dinesh; Poluri, Krishna Mohan

2018-04-01

Characterization of partially collapsed protein conformations at atomic level is a daunting task due to their inherent flexibility and conformational heterogeneity. T7 bacteriophage endolysin (T7L) is a single-domain amidase that facilitates the lysis of Gram-negative bacteria. T7L exhibits a pH-dependent structural transition from native state to partially folded (PF) conformation. In the pH range 5-3, T7L PF states display differential ANS binding characteristics. CD, fluorescence, NMR spectroscopy and lysis assays were used to investigate the structure-stability- dynamics relationships of T7L PF conformations. Structural studies indicated a partial loss of secondary/tertiary structures compared to its native state. The loss in the tertiary structure and the hydrophobic core opening increases upon decrease of pH from 5 to 3. Thermal denaturation experiments delineated that the pH 5 conformation is thermally irreversible in contrast to pH 3, depicting that hydrophobic core opening is essential for thermal reversibility. Further, urea dependent unfolding features of PF state at pH 5 and 4 evidenced for a collapsed conformation at intermediate urea concentrations. Residue level studies revealed that α1-helix and β3-β4 segment of T7L are the major contributors for such a structural collapse and inherent dynamics. The results suggested that the low pH PF states of T7L are heterogeneous and exhibits differential structural, unfolding, thermal reversibility, and dynamic features. Unraveling the structure-stability characteristics of different endolysin conformations is essential for designing novel chimeric and engineered phage endolysins as broadband antimicrobial agents over a varied pH range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

14. Latent Partially Ordered Classification Models and Normal Mixtures

Science.gov (United States)

Tatsuoka, Curtis; Varadi, Ferenc; Jaeger, Judith

2013-01-01

Latent partially ordered sets (posets) can be employed in modeling cognitive functioning, such as in the analysis of neuropsychological (NP) and educational test data. Posets are cognitively diagnostic in the sense that classification states in these models are associated with detailed profiles of cognitive functioning. These profiles allow for…

15. Partial-Order Reduction for GPU Model Checking

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Neele, T.; Wijs, A.; Bosnacki, D.; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Artho, C; Legay, A.; Peled, D.

2016-01-01

Model checking using GPUs has seen increased popularity over the last years. Because GPUs have a limited amount of memory, only small to medium-sized systems can be verified. For on-the-fly explicit-state model checking, we improve memory efficiency by applying partial-order reduction. We propose

16. Assessing The Suitability Of Partial Equilibrium Modelling In ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

This paper evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of applying partial equilibrium modeling for forest sector analysis in Tanzania. The aim of the evaluation is to determine the usefulness of this model framework in analyzing the impact of various policies on the development of the forest sector. The structure and ...

17. Partially Compensatory Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models: Two Alternate Model Forms

Science.gov (United States)

DeMars, Christine E.

2016-01-01

Partially compensatory models may capture the cognitive skills needed to answer test items more realistically than compensatory models, but estimating the model parameters may be a challenge. Data were simulated to follow two different partially compensatory models, a model with an interaction term and a product model. The model parameters were…

18. Flow Modelling for partially Cavitating Two-dimensional Hydrofoils

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2001-01-01

The present work addresses te computational analysis of partial sheet hydrofoil cavitation in two dimensions. Particular attention is given to the method of simulating the flow at the end of the cavity. A fixed-length partially cavitating panel method is used to predict the height of the re...... of the model and comparing the present calculations with numerical results. The flow around the partially cavitating hydrofoil with a re-entrant jet has also been treated with a viscous/inviscid interactive method. The viscous flow model is based on boundary layer theory applied on the compound foil......, consisting of the union of the cavity and the hydrofoil surface. The change in the flow direction in the cavity closure region is seen to have a slightly adverse effect on the viscous pressure distribution. Otherwise, it is seen that the viscous re-entrant jet solution compares favourably with experimental...

19. Partial dynamical symmetry in the symplectic shell model

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Escher, J. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Leviatan, A. [Hebrew Univ., Racah Inst. of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel)

2000-08-01

We present an example of a partial dynamical symmetry (PDS) in an interacting fermion system and demonstrate the close relationship of the associated Hamiltonians with a realistic quadrupole-quadrupole interaction, thus shedding light on this important interaction. Specifically, in the framework of the symplectic shell model of nuclei, we prove the existence of a family of fermionic Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry. We outline the construction process for the PDS eigenstates with good symmetry and give analytic expressions for the energies of these states and E2 transition strengths between them. Characteristics of both pure and mixed-symmetry PDS eigenstates are discussed and the resulting spectra and transition strengths are compared to those of real nuclei. The PDS concept is shown to be relevant to the description of prolate, oblate, as well as triaxially deformed nuclei. Similarities and differences between the fermion case and the previously established partial SU(3) symmetry in the interacting boson model are considered. (author)

20. Partial dynamical symmetry in the symplectic shell model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Escher, Jutta; Leviatan, Amiram

2002-01-01

We present an example of a partial dynamical symmetry (PDS) in an interacting fermion system and demonstrate the close relationship of the associated Hamiltonians with a realistic quadrupole-quadrupole interaction, thus shedding light on this important interaction. Specifically, in the framework of the symplectic shell model of nuclei, we prove the existence of a family of fermionic Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry. We outline the construction process for the PDS eigenstates with good symmetry and give analytic expressions for the energies of these states and E2 transition strengths between them. Characteristics of both pure and mixed-symmetry PDS eigenstates are discussed and the resulting spectra and transition strengths are compared to those of real nuclei. The PDS concept is shown to be relevant to the description of prolate, oblate, as well as triaxially deformed nuclei. Similarities and differences between the fermion case and the previously established partial SU(3) symmetry in the interacting boson model are considered

1. Computable Error Estimates for Finite Element Approximations of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations with Rough Stochastic Data

KAUST Repository

Hall, Eric Joseph

2016-12-08

We derive computable error estimates for finite element approximations of linear elliptic partial differential equations with rough stochastic coefficients. In this setting, the exact solutions contain high frequency content that standard a posteriori error estimates fail to capture. We propose goal-oriented estimates, based on local error indicators, for the pathwise Galerkin and expected quadrature errors committed in standard, continuous, piecewise linear finite element approximations. Derived using easily validated assumptions, these novel estimates can be computed at a relatively low cost and have applications to subsurface flow problems in geophysics where the conductivities are assumed to have lognormal distributions with low regularity. Our theory is supported by numerical experiments on test problems in one and two dimensions.

2. Mathematical and numerical methods for partial differential equations applications for engineering sciences

CERN Document Server

2014-01-01

This self-tutorial offers a concise yet thorough introduction into the mathematical analysis of approximation methods for partial differential equation. A particular emphasis is put on finite element methods. The unique approach first summarizes and outlines the finite-element mathematics in general and then, in the second and major part, formulates problem examples that clearly demonstrate the techniques of functional analysis via numerous and diverse exercises. The solutions of the problems are given directly afterwards. Using this approach, the author motivates and encourages the reader to actively acquire the knowledge of finite- element methods instead of passively absorbing the material, as in most standard textbooks. This English edition is based on the Finite Element Methods for Engineering Sciences by Joel Chaskalovic

3. An ansatz for solving nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

Science.gov (United States)

Akbar, M Ali; Ali, Norhashidah Hj Mohd

2016-01-01

In this article, we introduce an ansatz involving exact traveling wave solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations. To obtain wave solutions using direct method, the choice of an appropriate ansatz is of great importance. We apply this ansatz to examine new and further general traveling wave solutions to the (1+1)-dimensional modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation. Abundant traveling wave solutions are derived including solitons, singular solitons, periodic solutions and general solitary wave solutions. The solutions emphasize the nobility of this ansatz in providing distinct solutions to various tangible phenomena in nonlinear science and engineering. The ansatz could be more efficient tool to deal with higher dimensional nonlinear evolution equations which frequently arise in many real world physical problems.

4. On Direct Transformation Approach to Asymptotical Analytical Solutions of Perturbed Partial Differential Equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu Hongzhun; Pan Zuliang; Li Peng

2006-01-01

In this article, we will derive an equality, where the Taylor series expansion around ε = 0 for any asymptotical analytical solution of the perturbed partial differential equation (PDE) with perturbing parameter ε must be admitted. By making use of the equality, we may obtain a transformation, which directly map the analytical solutions of a given unperturbed PDE to the asymptotical analytical solutions of the corresponding perturbed one. The notion of Lie-Baecklund symmetries is introduced in order to obtain more transformations. Hence, we can directly create more transformations in virtue of known Lie-Baecklund symmetries and recursion operators of corresponding unperturbed equation. The perturbed Burgers equation and the perturbed Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation are used as examples.

5. Smoothing and enhancement algorithms for underwater images based on partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Nnolim, Uche A.

2017-03-01

The formulation and application of an algorithm based on partial differential equations for processing underwater images are presented. The proposed algorithm performs simultaneous smoothing and enhancement operations on the image and yields better contrast enhancement, color correction, and rendition compared to conventional algorithms. Further modification of the proposed algorithm and its combination with the powerful contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) method using an adaptive computation of the clip limit enhances the local enhancement results while mitigating the color distortion and intrinsic noise enhancement observed in the CLAHE algorithm. Ultimately, an optimized version of the algorithm based on image information metric is developed for best possible results for all images. The method is compared with existing algorithms from the literature using subjective and objective measures, and results indicate considerable improvement over several well-known algorithms.

6. A Table Lookup Method for Exact Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ji Juan-Juan

2017-01-01

Full Text Available A table lookup method for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs is proposed in this paper. Looking up the corresponding tables, we can quickly obtain the exact analytical solutions of fPDEs by using this method. To illustrate the validity of the method, we apply it to construct the exact analytical solutions of four nonlinear fPDEs, namely, the time fractional simplified MCH equation, the space-time fractional combined KdV-mKdV equation, the (2+1-dimensional time fractional Zoomeron equation, and the space-time fractional ZKBBM equation. As a result, many new types of exact analytical solutions are obtained including triangular periodic solution, hyperbolic function solution, singular solution, multiple solitary wave solution, and Jacobi elliptic function solution.

7. Harmonic analysis, partial differential equations and applications in honor of Richard L. Wheeden

CERN Document Server

Franchi, Bruno; Lu, Guozhen; Perez, Carlos; Sawyer, Eric

2017-01-01

This is a collection of contributed papers by many eminent Harmonic Analysts and specialists of Partial Differential equations. The papers focus on weighted norm equalities for singular integrals, focusing wave equations, degenerate elliptic equations, Navier-Stokes flow in two dimensions and Poincare-Sobolev inequalities in the setting of metric spaces equipped with measures among others. Many topics considered in this volume stem from the interests of Richard L. Wheeden whose contributions to Potential Theory, singular integral theory and degenerate elliptic PDE theory this volume honors. Luis Caffarelli, Sagun Chanillo, Bruno Franchi, Cristian Guttierez, Xiaojun Huang, Carlos Kenig, Ermanno Lanconelli, Eric Sawyer and Alexander Volberg, are some of the many contributors to this volume. .

8. Basis adaptation and domain decomposition for steady-state partial differential equations with random coefficients

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tipireddy, R.; Stinis, P.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

2017-12-01

We present a novel approach for solving steady-state stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) with high-dimensional random parameter space. The proposed approach combines spatial domain decomposition with basis adaptation for each subdomain. The basis adaptation is used to address the curse of dimensionality by constructing an accurate low-dimensional representation of the stochastic PDE solution (probability density function and/or its leading statistical moments) in each subdomain. Restricting the basis adaptation to a specific subdomain affords finding a locally accurate solution. Then, the solutions from all of the subdomains are stitched together to provide a global solution. We support our construction with numerical experiments for a steady-state diffusion equation with a random spatially dependent coefficient. Our results show that highly accurate global solutions can be obtained with significantly reduced computational costs.

9. Basis adaptation and domain decomposition for steady-state partial differential equations with random coefficients

Science.gov (United States)

Tipireddy, R.; Stinis, P.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

2017-12-01

We present a novel approach for solving steady-state stochastic partial differential equations in high-dimensional random parameter space. The proposed approach combines spatial domain decomposition with basis adaptation for each subdomain. The basis adaptation is used to address the curse of dimensionality by constructing an accurate low-dimensional representation of the stochastic PDE solution (probability density function and/or its leading statistical moments) in each subdomain. Restricting the basis adaptation to a specific subdomain affords finding a locally accurate solution. Then, the solutions from all of the subdomains are stitched together to provide a global solution. We support our construction with numerical experiments for a steady-state diffusion equation with a random spatially dependent coefficient. Our results show that accurate global solutions can be obtained with significantly reduced computational costs.

10. ICCG2, 2-D Partial Differential Equations Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anderson, D.V.

2001-01-01

Description of program or function: ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2-D symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE's are discretized with finite-difference or finite-element methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block- tridiagonal super-matrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint

11. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

Science.gov (United States)

Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

2011-01-01

In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

12. A Differential Evolution Based MPPT Method for Photovoltaic Modules under Partial Shading Conditions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kok Soon Tey

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Partially shaded photovoltaic (PV modules have multiple peaks in the power-voltage (P-V characteristic curve and conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm, such as perturbation and observation (P&O, which is unable to track the global maximum power point (GMPP accurately due to its localized search space. Therefore, this paper proposes a differential evolution (DE based optimization algorithm to provide the globalized search space to track the GMPP. The direction of mutation in the DE algorithm is modified to ensure that the mutation always converges to the best solution among all the particles in the generation. This helps to provide the rapid convergence of the algorithm. Simulation of the proposed PV system is carried out in PSIM and the results are compared to P&O algorithm. In the hardware implementation, a high step-up DC-DC converter is employed to verify the proposed algorithm experimentally on partial shading conditions, load variation, and solar intensity variation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to converge to the GMPP within 1.2 seconds with higher efficiency than P&O.

13. Can simple population genetic models reconcile partial match ...

A recent study of partial matches in the Arizona offender database of DNA profiles has revealed a large number of nine and ten locus matches. I use simple models that incorporate the product rule, population substructure, and relatedness to predict the expected number of matches in large databases. I find that there is a ...

14. Reduced basis ANOVA methods for partial differential equations with high-dimensional random inputs

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liao, Qifeng, E-mail: liaoqf@shanghaitech.edu.cn [School of Information Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Lin, Guang, E-mail: guanglin@purdue.edu [Department of Mathematics & School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

2016-07-15

In this paper we present a reduced basis ANOVA approach for partial deferential equations (PDEs) with random inputs. The ANOVA method combined with stochastic collocation methods provides model reduction in high-dimensional parameter space through decomposing high-dimensional inputs into unions of low-dimensional inputs. In this work, to further reduce the computational cost, we investigate spatial low-rank structures in the ANOVA-collocation method, and develop efficient spatial model reduction techniques using hierarchically generated reduced bases. We present a general mathematical framework of the methodology, validate its accuracy and demonstrate its efficiency with numerical experiments.

15. The analysis of a sparse grid stochastic collocation method for partial differential equations with high-dimensional random input data.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Webster, Clayton; Tempone, Raul (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL); Nobile, Fabio (Politecnico di Milano, Italy)

2007-12-01

This work describes the convergence analysis of a Smolyak-type sparse grid stochastic collocation method for the approximation of statistical quantities related to the solution of partial differential equations with random coefficients and forcing terms (input data of the model). To compute solution statistics, the sparse grid stochastic collocation method uses approximate solutions, produced here by finite elements, corresponding to a deterministic set of points in the random input space. This naturally requires solving uncoupled deterministic problems and, as such, the derived strong error estimates for the fully discrete solution are used to compare the computational efficiency of the proposed method with the Monte Carlo method. Numerical examples illustrate the theoretical results and are used to compare this approach with several others, including the standard Monte Carlo.

16. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part II: Application to Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Roger P. Pawlowski

2012-01-01

Full Text Available A template-based generic programming approach was presented in Part I of this series of papers [Sci. Program. 20 (2012, 197–219] that separates the development effort of programming a physical model from that of computing additional quantities, such as derivatives, needed for embedded analysis algorithms. In this paper, we describe the implementation details for using the template-based generic programming approach for simulation and analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs. We detail several of the hurdles that we have encountered, and some of the software infrastructure developed to overcome them. We end with a demonstration where we present shape optimization and uncertainty quantification results for a 3D PDE application.

17. Semi-implicit spectral deferred correction methods for highly nonlinear partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Guo, Ruihan; Xia, Yinhua; Xu, Yan

2017-06-01

The goal of this paper is to develop a novel semi-implicit spectral deferred correction (SDC) time marching method. The method can be used in a large class of problems, especially for highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) without easily separating of stiff and non-stiff components, which is more general and efficient comparing with traditional semi-implicit SDC methods. The proposed semi-implicit SDC method is based on low order time integration methods and corrected iteratively. The order of accuracy is increased for each additional iteration. And we also explore its local truncation error analytically. This SDC method is intended to be combined with the method of lines, which provides a flexible framework to develop high order semi-implicit time marching methods for nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). In this paper we mainly focus on the applications of the nonlinear PDEs with higher order spatial derivatives, e.g. convection diffusion equation, the surface diffusion and Willmore flow of graphs, the Cahn-Hilliard equation, the Cahn-Hilliard-Brinkman system and the phase field crystal equation. Coupled with the local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) spatial discretization, the fully discrete schemes are all high order accurate in both space and time, and stable numerically with the time step proportional to the spatial mesh size. Numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate the accuracy and capability of the proposed semi-implicit SDC method.

18. XMDS2: Fast, scalable simulation of coupled stochastic partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Dennis, Graham R.; Hope, Joseph J.; Johnsson, Mattias T.

2013-01-01

XMDS2 is a cross-platform, GPL-licensed, open source package for numerically integrating initial value problems that range from a single ordinary differential equation up to systems of coupled stochastic partial differential equations. The equations are described in a high-level XML-based script, and the package generates low-level optionally parallelised C++ code for the efficient solution of those equations. It combines the advantages of high-level simulations, namely fast and low-error development, with the speed, portability and scalability of hand-written code. XMDS2 is a complete redesign of the XMDS package, and features support for a much wider problem space while also producing faster code. Program summaryProgram title: XMDS2 Catalogue identifier: AENK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 872490 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 45522370 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python and C++. Computer: Any computer with a Unix-like system, a C++ compiler and Python. Operating system: Any Unix-like system; developed under Mac OS X and GNU/Linux. RAM: Problem dependent (roughly 50 bytes per grid point) Classification: 4.3, 6.5. External routines: The external libraries required are problem-dependent. Uses FFTW3 Fourier transforms (used only for FFT-based spectral methods), dSFMT random number generation (used only for stochastic problems), MPI message-passing interface (used only for distributed problems), HDF5, GNU Scientific Library (used only for Bessel-based spectral methods) and a BLAS implementation (used only for non-FFT-based spectral methods). Nature of problem: General coupled initial-value stochastic partial differential equations. Solution method: Spectral method

19. Fixed-point Theorem and the Nishida-Nirenberg Method in Solving Certain Nonlinear Singular Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jose Ernie C. Lope

2013-12-01

Full Text Available In their 2012 work, Lope, Roque, and Tahara considered singular nonlinear partial differential equations of the form tut = F(t; x; u; ux, where the function F is assumed to be continuous in t and holomorphic in the other variables. They have shown that under some growth conditions on the coefficients of the partial Taylor expansion of F as t 0, the equation has a unique solution u(t; x with the same growth order as that of F(t; x; 0; 0. Koike considered systems of partial differential equations using the Banach fixed point theorem and the iterative method of Nishida and Nirenberg. In this paper, we prove the result obtained by Lope and others using the method of Koike, thereby avoiding the repetitive step of differentiating a recursive equation with respect to x as was done by the aforementioned authors.

20. Differential geometry in string models

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alvarez, O.

1986-01-01

In this article the author reviews the differential geometric approach to the quantization of strings. A seminal paper demonstrates the connection between the trace anomaly and the critical dimension. The role played by the Faddeev-Popov ghosts has been instrumental in much of the subsequent work on the quantization of strings. This paper discusses the differential geometry of two dimensional surfaces and its importance in the quantization of strings. The path integral quantization approach to strings will be carefully analyzed to determine the correct effective measure for string theories. The choice of measure for the path integral is determined by differential geometric considerations. Once the measure is determined, the manifest diffeomorphism invariance of the theory will have to be broken by using the Faddeev-Popov ansatz. The gauge fixed theory is studied in detail with emphasis on the role of conformal and gravitational anomalies. In the analysis, the path integral formulation of the gauge fixed theory requires summing over all the distinct complex structures on the manifold

1. Three tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee: can we differentiate complete from partial tears?

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dyck, Pieter van; Gielen, Jan L.; Parizel, Paul M.; Vanhoenacker, Filip M.; Dossche, Lieven; Gestel, Jozef van; Wouters, Kristien

2011-01-01

To determine the ability of 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to identify partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to allow distinction of complete from partial ACL tears. One hundred seventy-two patients were prospectively studied by 3.0T MR imaging and arthroscopy in our institution. MR images were interpreted in consensus by two experienced reviewers, and the ACL was diagnosed as being normal, partially torn, or completely torn. Diagnostic accuracy of 3.0T MR for the detection of both complete and partial tears of the ACL was calculated using arthroscopy as the standard of reference. There were 132 patients with an intact ACL, 17 had a partial, and 23 had a complete tear of the ACL seen at arthroscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 3.0T MR for complete ACL tears were 83, 99, and 97%, respectively, and, for partial ACL tears, 77, 97, and 95%, respectively. Five of 40 ACL lesions (13%) could not correctly be identified as complete or partial ACL tears. MR imaging at 3.0T represents a highly accurate method for identifying tears of the ACL. However, differentiation between complete and partial ACL tears and identification of partial tears of this ligament remains difficult, even at 3.0T. (orig.)

2. Three tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee: can we differentiate complete from partial tears?

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dyck, Pieter van; Gielen, Jan L.; Parizel, Paul M. [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Edegem) (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, Filip M. [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Edegem) (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten Duffel/Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Duffel (Belgium); Dossche, Lieven; Gestel, Jozef van [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Orthopedics, Antwerp (Edegem) (Belgium); Wouters, Kristien [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Scientific Coordination and Biostatistics, Antwerp (Edegem) (Belgium)

2011-06-15

To determine the ability of 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to identify partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to allow distinction of complete from partial ACL tears. One hundred seventy-two patients were prospectively studied by 3.0T MR imaging and arthroscopy in our institution. MR images were interpreted in consensus by two experienced reviewers, and the ACL was diagnosed as being normal, partially torn, or completely torn. Diagnostic accuracy of 3.0T MR for the detection of both complete and partial tears of the ACL was calculated using arthroscopy as the standard of reference. There were 132 patients with an intact ACL, 17 had a partial, and 23 had a complete tear of the ACL seen at arthroscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 3.0T MR for complete ACL tears were 83, 99, and 97%, respectively, and, for partial ACL tears, 77, 97, and 95%, respectively. Five of 40 ACL lesions (13%) could not correctly be identified as complete or partial ACL tears. MR imaging at 3.0T represents a highly accurate method for identifying tears of the ACL. However, differentiation between complete and partial ACL tears and identification of partial tears of this ligament remains difficult, even at 3.0T. (orig.)

3. Seismoelectric wave propagation numerical modelling in partially saturated materials

Science.gov (United States)

Warden, S.; Garambois, S.; Jouniaux, L.; Brito, D.; Sailhac, P.; Bordes, C.

2013-09-01

To better understand and interpret seismoelectric measurements acquired over vadose environments, both the existing theory and the wave propagation modelling programmes, available for saturated materials, should be extended to partial saturation conditions. We propose here an extension of Pride's equations aiming to take into account partially saturated materials, in the case of a water-air mixture. This new set of equations was incorporated into an existing seismoelectric wave propagation modelling code, originally designed for stratified saturated media. This extension concerns both the mechanical part, using a generalization of the Biot-Gassmann theory, and the electromagnetic part, for which dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity were expressed against water saturation. The dynamic seismoelectric coupling was written as a function of the streaming potential coefficient, which depends on saturation, using four different relations derived from recent laboratory or theoretical studies. In a second part, this extended programme was used to synthesize the seismoelectric response for a layered medium consisting of a partially saturated sand overburden on top of a saturated sandstone half-space. Subsequent analysis of the modelled amplitudes suggests that the typically very weak interface response (IR) may be best recovered when the shallow layer exhibits low saturation. We also use our programme to compute the seismoelectric response of a capillary fringe between a vadose sand overburden and a saturated sand half-space. Our first modelling results suggest that the study of the seismoelectric IR may help to detect a sharp saturation contrast better than a smooth saturation transition. In our example, a saturation contrast of 50 per cent between a fully saturated sand half-space and a partially saturated shallow sand layer yields a stronger IR than a stepwise decrease in saturation.

4. Geochemical modelization of differentiation processes by crystallization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cebria, J.M.; Lopez Ruiz, J.

1994-01-01

During crystallization processes, major and trace elements and stable isotopes fractionate, whereas radiogenic isotopes do not change. The different equations proposed allow us to reproduce the variation in major and trace elements during these differentiation processes. In the case of simple fractional crystallization, the residual liquid is impoverished in compatible elements faster than it is enriched in incompatible elements as crystallization proceeds. During in situ crystallization the incompatible elements evolve in a similar way to the case of simple fractional crystallization but the enrichment rate of the moderately incompatible elements is slower and the compatible elements do not suffer a depletion as strong as the one observed during simple fractional crystallization, even for higher f values. In a periodically replenished magma chamber if all the liquid present is removed at the end of each cycle, the magma follows patterns similar to those generated by simple fractional crystallization. On the contrary, if the liquid fraction that crystallizes during each cycle and the one that is extruded at the end of the cycle are small, the residual liquid shows compositions similar to those that would be obtained by equilibrium crystallization. Crystallization processes modelling is in general less difficult than for partial melting. If a rock series is the result of simple fractional crystallization, a C''i L -C''i L plot in which i is a compatible element and j is highly incompatible, allows us to obtain a good approximation to the initial liquid composition. Additionally, long C''i L -log C''i L diagrams in which i is a highly incompatible element, allow us to identify steps in the process and to calculate the bulk distribution coefficients of the trace elements during each step

5. Constraints on the rheology of the partially molten mantle from numerical models of laboratory experiments

Science.gov (United States)

Rudge, J. F.; Alisic Jewell, L.; Rhebergen, S.; Katz, R. F.; Wells, G. N.

2015-12-01

One of the fundamental components in any dynamical model of melt transport is the rheology of partially molten rock. This rheology is poorly understood, and one way in which a better understanding can be obtained is by comparing the results of laboratory deformation experiments to numerical models. Here we present a comparison between numerical models and the laboratory setup of Qi et al. 2013 (EPSL), where a cylinder of partially molten rock containing rigid spherical inclusions was placed under torsion. We have replicated this setup in a finite element model which solves the partial differential equations describing the mechanical process of compaction. These computationally-demanding 3D simulations are only possible due to the recent development of a new preconditioning method for the equations of magma dynamics. The experiments show a distinct pattern of melt-rich and melt-depleted regions around the inclusions. In our numerical models, the pattern of melt varies with key rheological parameters, such as the ratio of bulk to shear viscosity, and the porosity- and strain-rate-dependence of the shear viscosity. These observed melt patterns therefore have the potential to constrain rheological properties. While there are many similarities between the experiments and the numerical models, there are also important differences, which highlight the need for better models of the physics of two-phase mantle/magma dynamics. In particular, the laboratory experiments display more pervasive melt-rich bands than is seen in our numerics.

6. semPLS: Structural Equation Modeling Using Partial Least Squares

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Armin Monecke

2012-05-01

Full Text Available Structural equation models (SEM are very popular in many disciplines. The partial least squares (PLS approach to SEM offers an alternative to covariance-based SEM, which is especially suited for situations when data is not normally distributed. PLS path modelling is referred to as soft-modeling-technique with minimum demands regarding mea- surement scales, sample sizes and residual distributions. The semPLS package provides the capability to estimate PLS path models within the R programming environment. Different setups for the estimation of factor scores can be used. Furthermore it contains modular methods for computation of bootstrap confidence intervals, model parameters and several quality indices. Various plot functions help to evaluate the model. The well known mobile phone dataset from marketing research is used to demonstrate the features of the package.

7. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling with R

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hamdollah Ravand

2016-09-01

Full Text Available Structural equation modeling (SEM has become widespread in educational and psychological research. Its flexibility in addressing complex theoretical models and the proper treatment of measurement error has made it the model of choice for many researchers in the social sciences. Nevertheless, the model imposes some daunting assumptions and restrictions (e.g. normality and relatively large sample sizes that could discourage practitioners from applying the model. Partial least squares SEM (PLS-SEM is a nonparametric technique which makes no distributional assumptions and can be estimated with small sample sizes. In this paper a general introduction to PLS-SEM is given and is compared with conventional SEM. Next, step by step procedures, along with R functions, are presented to estimate the model. A data set is analyzed and the outputs are interpreted

8. Moving finite element method: Applications to general partial differential equations with multiple large gradients

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Miller, K.

1981-01-01

The moving finite element (MFE) method has been reduced to practice in the automatic solution program DYLA for general systems of transient partial differential equations (PDEs) in 1-D. Several test examples are presented which illustrate the unique node movement and systematic control features which are intrinsic in the MFE method. Computational dilemmas of numerical diffusion, Gibbs overshooting and undershooting, zone tangling, and grid remap (or re-connection) aliasing, which occur frequently in conventional PDE methods, are essentially eliminated in the MFE mehtod. Arbitrarily large gradients (or shocks) can be solved with extremely high resolution and accuracy for non-coincident, or even counterdirected, propagating wavefronts. Boundary layers of arbitrarily small dimensions are solved with high accuracy simultaneously with the large-scale structures in reactive and non-reactive fluid calculations. The MFE method requires a small fraction of the grid nodes which are used in conventional PDE solution methods because the nodes migrate continuously and systematically to those positions where they are most needed in order to yield accurate PDE solutions on entire problem domains. Courant--Friedrichs--Lewy time-step limits are exceeded by wide margins (by factors of two to several thousand). Finally, the extension of the MFE method to 2-D is briefly discussed

9. Solving variational problems and partial differential equations that map between manifolds via the closest point method

Science.gov (United States)

King, Nathan D.; Ruuth, Steven J.

2017-05-01

Maps from a source manifold M to a target manifold N appear in liquid crystals, color image enhancement, texture mapping, brain mapping, and many other areas. A numerical framework to solve variational problems and partial differential equations (PDEs) that map between manifolds is introduced within this paper. Our approach, the closest point method for manifold mapping, reduces the problem of solving a constrained PDE between manifolds M and N to the simpler problems of solving a PDE on M and projecting to the closest points on N. In our approach, an embedding PDE is formulated in the embedding space using closest point representations of M and N. This enables the use of standard Cartesian numerics for general manifolds that are open or closed, with or without orientation, and of any codimension. An algorithm is presented for the important example of harmonic maps and generalized to a broader class of PDEs, which includes p-harmonic maps. Improved efficiency and robustness are observed in convergence studies relative to the level set embedding methods. Harmonic and p-harmonic maps are computed for a variety of numerical examples. In these examples, we denoise texture maps, diffuse random maps between general manifolds, and enhance color images.

10. Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves.

Science.gov (United States)

Pérez-Jordá, José M

2016-02-01

Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations Ax=b, where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O(NlogN) memory and executing an iteration in O(Nlog(2)N) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.

11. Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves

Science.gov (United States)

Pérez-Jordá, José M.

2016-02-01

Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations A x =b , where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O (N logN ) memory and executing an iteration in O (N log2N ) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.

12. Partial differential equation-based approach for empirical mode decomposition: application on image analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Niang, Oumar; Thioune, Abdoulaye; El Gueirea, Mouhamed Cheikh; Deléchelle, Eric; Lemoine, Jacques

2012-09-01

The major problem with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm is its lack of a theoretical framework. So, it is difficult to characterize and evaluate this approach. In this paper, we propose, in the 2-D case, the use of an alternative implementation to the algorithmic definition of the so-called "sifting process" used in the original Huang's EMD method. This approach, especially based on partial differential equations (PDEs), was presented by Niang in previous works, in 2005 and 2007, and relies on a nonlinear diffusion-based filtering process to solve the mean envelope estimation problem. In the 1-D case, the efficiency of the PDE-based method, compared to the original EMD algorithmic version, was also illustrated in a recent paper. Recently, several 2-D extensions of the EMD method have been proposed. Despite some effort, 2-D versions for EMD appear poorly performing and are very time consuming. So in this paper, an extension to the 2-D space of the PDE-based approach is extensively described. This approach has been applied in cases of both signal and image decomposition. The obtained results confirm the usefulness of the new PDE-based sifting process for the decomposition of various kinds of data. Some results have been provided in the case of image decomposition. The effectiveness of the approach encourages its use in a number of signal and image applications such as denoising, detrending, or texture analysis.

13. High-order asynchrony-tolerant finite difference schemes for partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

2017-12-01

Synchronizations of processing elements (PEs) in massively parallel simulations, which arise due to communication or load imbalances between PEs, significantly affect the scalability of scientific applications. We have recently proposed a method based on finite-difference schemes to solve partial differential equations in an asynchronous fashion - synchronization between PEs is relaxed at a mathematical level. While standard schemes can maintain their stability in the presence of asynchrony, their accuracy is drastically affected. In this work, we present a general methodology to derive asynchrony-tolerant (AT) finite difference schemes of arbitrary order of accuracy, which can maintain their accuracy when synchronizations are relaxed. We show that there are several choices available in selecting a stencil to derive these schemes and discuss their effect on numerical and computational performance. We provide a simple classification of schemes based on the stencil and derive schemes that are representative of different classes. Their numerical error is rigorously analyzed within a statistical framework to obtain the overall accuracy of the solution. Results from numerical experiments are used to validate the performance of the schemes.

14. A Stochastic Collocation Method for Elliptic Partial Differential Equations with Random Input Data

KAUST Repository

Babuška, Ivo

2010-01-01

This work proposes and analyzes a stochastic collocation method for solving elliptic partial differential equations with random coefficients and forcing terms. These input data are assumed to depend on a finite number of random variables. The method consists of a Galerkin approximation in space and a collocation in the zeros of suitable tensor product orthogonal polynomials (Gauss points) in the probability space, and naturally leads to the solution of uncoupled deterministic problems as in the Monte Carlo approach. It treats easily a wide range of situations, such as input data that depend nonlinearly on the random variables, diffusivity coefficients with unbounded second moments, and random variables that are correlated or even unbounded. We provide a rigorous convergence analysis and demonstrate exponential convergence of the “probability error” with respect to the number of Gauss points in each direction of the probability space, under some regularity assumptions on the random input data. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the method. Finally, we include a section with developments posterior to the original publication of this work. There we review sparse grid stochastic collocation methods, which are effective collocation strategies for problems that depend on a moderately large number of random variables.

15. Approximation of a partial differential operator by bounded operators on a class of functions of finite smoothness

Science.gov (United States)

Kudryavtsev, S. N.

1996-04-01

We established the weak asymptotic decrease of the corresponding value in the problem of best approximation in the class of functions for which the moduli of continuity of the leading derivatives of a partial differential operator are majorized by prescribed bounded operators from one space with an integral norm to another.

16. Dimensional analysis to transform the differential equations in partial derivates in the theory of heat transmission into ordinary ones

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diaz Sanchidrian, C.

1989-01-01

The present paper applies dimensional analysis with spatial discrimination to transform the differential equations in partial derivatives developed in the theory of heat transmission into ordinary ones. The effectivity of the method is comparable to that methods based in transformations of uni or multiparametric groups, with the advantage of being more direct and simple. (Author)

17. Issues in developing parallel iterative algorithms for solving partial differential equations on a (transputer-based) distributed parallel computing system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rajagopalan, S.; Jethra, A.; Khare, A.N.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Srivenkateshan, R.; Menon, S.V.G.

1990-01-01

Issues relating to implementing iterative procedures, for numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations, on a distributed parallel computing system are discussed. Preliminary investigations show that a speed-up of about 3.85 is achievable on a four transputer pipeline network. (author). 2 figs., 3 a ppendixes., 7 refs

18. Advances in phase space analysis of partial differential equations in honor of Ferruccio Colombini's 60th birthday

CERN Document Server

Bove, Antonio; Murthy, MK Venkatesha

2009-01-01

This collection of original articles and surveys addresses the recent advances in linear and nonlinear aspects of the theory of partial differential equations. The key topics include operators as "sums of squares" of real and complex vector fields, nonlinear evolution equations, local solvability, and hyperbolic questions.

19. Global convergence of successive approximations of the Darboux problem for partial functional differential equations with infinite delay

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tomasz Człapiński

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We consider the Darboux problem for the hyperbolic partial functional differential equation with infinite delay. We deal with generalized (in the "almost everywhere" sense solutions of this problem. We prove a theorem on the global convergence of successive approximations to a unique solution of the Darboux problem.

20. Mechanical hemolysis in blood flow: user-independent predictions with the solution of a partial differential equation.

Science.gov (United States)

Lacasse, David; Garon, Andre; Pelletier, Dominique

2007-02-01

This paper presents for the first time numerical predictions of mechanical blood hemolysis obtained by solving a hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) modelling the hemolysis in a Eulerian frame of reference. This provides hemolysis predictions over the entire computational domain as an alternative to the Lagrangian approach consisting in evaluating cell hemolysis along their trajectories. The solution of a PDE over a computational domain, such as in the approach presented herein, yields a unique solution. This is a clear advantage over the Lagrangian approach, which requires the human-made choice of a limited number of trajectories for integration and inevitably results in the incomplete coverage of the computational domain. The hyperbolic hemolysis model is solved with a Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. The solution algorithm also includes adaptive remeshing to provide high accuracy simulations. Predictions of the modified index of hemolysis (MIH) are presented for flows in dialysis cannulae and sudden contractions. MIH predictions for cannulae differ significantly from those obtained by other authors using the Lagrangian approach. The predictions for flows in sudden contractions are used, along with our own experimental measurements, to assess the value of the threshold shear stress required for hemolysis that is included in the hemolysis model.

1. Solving partial differential equations on irregular domains with moving interfaces, with applications to superconformal electrodeposition in semiconductor manufacturing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sethian, J.A.; Shan, Y.

2007-12-10

We present a numerical algorithm for solving partial differential equations on irregular domains with moving interfaces. Instead of the typical approach of solving in a larger rectangular domain, our approach performs most calculations only in the desired domain. To do so efficiently, we have developed a one-sided multigrid method to solve the corresponding large sparse linear systems. Our focus is on the simulation of the electrodeposition process in semiconductor manufacturing in both two and three dimensions. Our goal is to track the position of the interface between the metal and the electrolyte as the features are filled and to determine which initial configurations and physical parameters lead to superfilling. We begin by motivating the set of equations which model the electrodeposition process. Building on existing models for superconformal electrodeposition, we develop a model which naturally arises from a conservation law form of surface additive evolution. We then introduce several numerical algorithms, including a conservative material transport level set method and our multigrid method for one-sided diffusion equations. We then analyze the accuracy of our numerical methods. Finally, we compare our result with experiment over a wide range of physical parameters.

2. Optimal Retail Price Model for Partial Consignment to Multiple Retailers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Po-Yu Chen

2017-01-01

Full Text Available This paper investigates the product pricing decision-making problem under a consignment stock policy in a two-level supply chain composed of one supplier and multiple retailers. The effects of the supplier’s wholesale prices and its partial inventory cost absorption of the retail prices of retailers with different market shares are investigated. In the partial product consignment model this paper proposes, the seller and the retailers each absorb part of the inventory costs. This model also provides general solutions for the complete product consignment and the traditional policy that adopts no product consignment. In other words, both the complete consignment and nonconsignment models are extensions of the proposed model (i.e., special cases. Research results indicated that the optimal retail price must be between 1/2 (50% and 2/3 (66.67% times the upper limit of the gross profit. This study also explored the results and influence of parameter variations on optimal retail price in the model.

3. Bayesian Plackett-Luce Mixture Models for Partially Ranked Data.

Science.gov (United States)

Mollica, Cristina; Tardella, Luca

2017-06-01

The elicitation of an ordinal judgment on multiple alternatives is often required in many psychological and behavioral experiments to investigate preference/choice orientation of a specific population. The Plackett-Luce model is one of the most popular and frequently applied parametric distributions to analyze rankings of a finite set of items. The present work introduces a Bayesian finite mixture of Plackett-Luce models to account for unobserved sample heterogeneity of partially ranked data. We describe an efficient way to incorporate the latent group structure in the data augmentation approach and the derivation of existing maximum likelihood procedures as special instances of the proposed Bayesian method. Inference can be conducted with the combination of the Expectation-Maximization algorithm for maximum a posteriori estimation and the Gibbs sampling iterative procedure. We additionally investigate several Bayesian criteria for selecting the optimal mixture configuration and describe diagnostic tools for assessing the fitness of ranking distributions conditionally and unconditionally on the number of ranked items. The utility of the novel Bayesian parametric Plackett-Luce mixture for characterizing sample heterogeneity is illustrated with several applications to simulated and real preference ranked data. We compare our method with the frequentist approach and a Bayesian nonparametric mixture model both assuming the Plackett-Luce model as a mixture component. Our analysis on real datasets reveals the importance of an accurate diagnostic check for an appropriate in-depth understanding of the heterogenous nature of the partial ranking data.

4. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

2013-01-01

In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It

5. Highly Scalable Asynchronous Computing Method for Partial Differential Equations: A Path Towards Exascale

Science.gov (United States)

Many natural and engineering systems are governed by nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) which result in a multiscale phenomena, e.g. turbulent flows. Numerical simulations of these problems are computationally very expensive and demand for extreme levels of parallelism. At realistic conditions, simulations are being carried out on massively parallel computers with hundreds of thousands of processing elements (PEs). It has been observed that communication between PEs as well as their synchronization at these extreme scales take up a significant portion of the total simulation time and result in poor scalability of codes. This issue is likely to pose a bottleneck in scalability of codes on future Exascale systems. In this work, we propose an asynchronous computing algorithm based on widely used finite difference methods to solve PDEs in which synchronization between PEs due to communication is relaxed at a mathematical level. We show that while stability is conserved when schemes are used asynchronously, accuracy is greatly degraded. Since message arrivals at PEs are random processes, so is the behavior of the error. We propose a new statistical framework in which we show that average errors drop always to first-order regardless of the original scheme. We propose new asynchrony-tolerant schemes that maintain accuracy when synchronization is relaxed. The quality of the solution is shown to depend, not only on the physical phenomena and numerical schemes, but also on the characteristics of the computing machine. A novel algorithm using remote memory access communications has been developed to demonstrate excellent scalability of the method for large-scale computing. Finally, we present a path to extend this method in solving complex multi-scale problems on Exascale machines.

6. Exploring the interplay of resilience and energy consumption for a task-based partial differential equations preconditioner

KAUST Repository

Rizzi, F.

2017-05-25

We discuss algorithm-based resilience to silent data corruptions (SDCs) in a task-based domain-decomposition preconditioner for partial differential equations (PDEs). The algorithm exploits a reformulation of the PDE as a sampling problem, followed by a solution update through data manipulation that is resilient to SDCs. The implementation is based on a server-client model where all state information is held by the servers, while clients are designed solely as computational units. Scalability tests run up to ∼ 51K cores show a parallel efficiency greater than 90%. We use a 2D elliptic PDE and a fault model based on random single and double bit-flip to demonstrate the resilience of the application to synthetically injected SDC. We discuss two fault scenarios: one based on the corruption of all data of a target task, and the other involving the corruption of a single data point. We show that for our application, given the test problem considered, a four-fold increase in the number of faults only yields a 2% change in the overhead to overcome their presence, from 7% to 9%. We then discuss potential savings in energy consumption via dynamic voltage/frequency scaling, and its interplay with fault-rates, and application overhead.

7. Estimation and variable selection for generalized additive partial linear models

KAUST Repository

Wang, Li

2011-08-01

We study generalized additive partial linear models, proposing the use of polynomial spline smoothing for estimation of nonparametric functions, and deriving quasi-likelihood based estimators for the linear parameters. We establish asymptotic normality for the estimators of the parametric components. The procedure avoids solving large systems of equations as in kernel-based procedures and thus results in gains in computational simplicity. We further develop a class of variable selection procedures for the linear parameters by employing a nonconcave penalized quasi-likelihood, which is shown to have an asymptotic oracle property. Monte Carlo simulations and an empirical example are presented for illustration. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2011.

8. Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Granita; Bahar, Arifah

2015-01-01

The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution

9. Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Granita, E-mail: granitafc@gmail.com [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Malaysia (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Malaysia (Malaysia); UTM Center for Industrial & Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) (Malaysia)

2015-10-22

The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution.

10. Optimization Method of Fusing Model Tree into Partial Least Squares

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yu Fang

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Partial Least Square (PLS can’t adapt to the characteristics of the data of many fields due to its own features multiple independent variables, multi-dependent variables and non-linear. However, Model Tree (MT has a good adaptability to nonlinear function, which is made up of many multiple linear segments. Based on this, a new method combining PLS and MT to analysis and predict the data is proposed, which build MT through the main ingredient and the explanatory variables(the dependent variable extracted from PLS, and extract residual information constantly to build Model Tree until well-pleased accuracy condition is satisfied. Using the data of the maxingshigan decoction of the monarch drug to treat the asthma or cough and two sample sets in the UCI Machine Learning Repository, the experimental results show that, the ability of explanation and predicting get improved in the new method.

11. An XFEM Model for Hydraulic Fracturing in Partially Saturated Rocks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a complex multi-physics phenomenon. Numerous analytical and numerical models of hydraulic fracturing processes have been proposed. Analytical solutions commonly are able to model the growth of a single hydraulic fracture into an initially intact, homogeneous rock mass. Numerical models are able to analyse complex problems such as multiple hydraulic fractures and fracturing in heterogeneous media. However, majority of available models are restricted to single-phase flow through fracture and permeable porous rock. This is not compatible with actual field conditions where the injected fluid does not have similar properties as the host fluid. In this study we present a fully coupled hydro-poroelastic model which incorporates two fluids i.e. fracturing fluid and host fluid. Flow through fracture is defined based on lubrication assumption, while flow through matrix is defined as Darcy flow. The fracture discontinuity in the mechanical model is captured using eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM while the fracture propagation criterion is defined through cohesive fracture model. The discontinuous matrix fluid velocity across fracture is modelled using leak-off loading which couples fracture flow and matrix flow. The proposed model has been discretised using standard Galerkin method, implemented in Matlab and verified against several published solutions. Multiple hydraulic fracturing simulations are performed to show the model robustness and to illustrate how problem parameters such as injection rate and rock permeability affect the hydraulic fracturing variables i.e. injection pressure, fracture aperture and fracture length. The results show the impact of partial saturation on leak-off and the fact that single-phase models may underestimate the leak-off.

12. Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations by Modified q-Homotopy Analysis Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shaheed N. Huseen

2013-01-01

Full Text Available A modified q-homotopy analysis method (mq-HAM was proposed for solving nth-order nonlinear differential equations. This method improves the convergence of the series solution in the nHAM which was proposed in (see Hassan and El-Tawil 2011, 2012. The proposed method provides an approximate solution by rewriting the nth-order nonlinear differential equation in the form of n first-order differential equations. The solution of these n differential equations is obtained as a power series solution. This scheme is tested on two nonlinear exactly solvable differential equations. The results demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm developed.

13. Implicit particle filtering for models with partial noise, and an application to geomagnetic data assimilation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. Morzfeld

2012-06-01

Full Text Available Implicit particle filtering is a sequential Monte Carlo method for data assimilation, designed to keep the number of particles manageable by focussing attention on regions of large probability. These regions are found by minimizing, for each particle, a scalar function F of the state variables. Some previous implementations of the implicit filter rely on finding the Hessians of these functions. The calculation of the Hessians can be cumbersome if the state dimension is large or if the underlying physics are such that derivatives of F are difficult to calculate, as happens in many geophysical applications, in particular in models with partial noise, i.e. with a singular state covariance matrix. Examples of models with partial noise include models where uncertain dynamic equations are supplemented by conservation laws with zero uncertainty, or with higher order (in time stochastic partial differential equations (PDE or with PDEs driven by spatially smooth noise processes. We make the implicit particle filter applicable to such situations by combining gradient descent minimization with random maps and show that the filter is efficient, accurate and reliable because it operates in a subspace of the state space. As an example, we consider a system of nonlinear stochastic PDEs that is of importance in geomagnetic data assimilation.

14. Partial equilibrium model – Case study of the poultry market

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lenka Šobrová

2011-01-01

Full Text Available This paper deals with identifying the main determinants in the poultry agri-food chain in the Czech Republic and examines their relationships. The partial equilibrium model, defined as a seven-equation model in power form, is employed for this purpose. The analysis is based on both time-series and panel data of the main factors in the poultry market. The time-series as well as panel data contain annual data of selected variables for the period from 1995 to 2009. The analysis is focused on supply and demand of poultry meat, specifically on production, consumption and foreign trade in poultry meat in the Czech Republic. Firstly, the main factors influencing the poultry market are determined, then, an appropriate model is employed. The parameters of the model are estimated using the ordinary least squares method in statistical and econometric software. Estimated parameters confirm assumed relationships among the selected variables. Moreover, the long-term tendencies of the selected indicators are proven. Among other, the analysis proves an inertial consumption, the price level as the main factor influencing the consumption and one-way or mutual relationship among the selected variables. The statistical features of the model are satisfied as well – the estimated parameters are statistically significant, the model does not contain, neither the problem of autocorrelation of residuals nor the problem of heteroskedasticity.

15. Polynomial chaos methods for hyperbolic partial differential equations numerical techniques for fluid dynamics problems in the presence of uncertainties

CERN Document Server

2015-01-01

This monograph presents computational techniques and numerical analysis to study conservation laws under uncertainty using the stochastic Galerkin formulation. With the continual growth of computer power, these methods are becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to more classical sampling-based techniques. The approach described in the text takes advantage of stochastic Galerkin projections applied to the original conservation laws to produce a large system of modified partial differential equations, the solutions to which directly provide a full statistical characterization of the effect of uncertainties. Polynomial Chaos Methods of Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations focuses on the analysis of stochastic Galerkin systems obtained for linear and non-linear convection-diffusion equations and for a systems of conservation laws; a detailed well-posedness and accuracy analysis is presented to enable the design of robust and stable numerical methods. The exposition is restricted to one spatial dime...

16. Equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator in algebraic dynamics algorithm for partial differential evolution equation

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Chengshi

2010-08-01

We give an equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator for partial differential evolution equation in the algebraic dynamics algorithm proposed by Shun-Jin Wang and his students. Our construction involves only simple partial differentials and avoids the derivative terms of δ function which appear in the course of computation by means of Wang-Zhang operator. We prove Wang’s equivalent theorem which says that our construction and Wang-Zhang’s are equivalent. We use our construction to deal with several typical equations such as nonlinear advection equation, Burgers equation, nonlinear Schrodinger equation, KdV equation and sine-Gordon equation, and obtain at least second order approximate solutions to them. These equations include the cases of real and complex field variables and the cases of the first and the second order time derivatives.

17. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics

CERN Document Server

Goldstein, M; Haussmann, W; Hayman, W; Rogge, L

1992-01-01

This volume consists of the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics, which was held at Hanstholm, Denmark. These proceedings include the main invited talks and contributed papers given during the workshop. The aim of these lectures was to present a selection of results of the latest research in the field. In addition to covering topics in approximation by solutions of partial differential equations and quadrature formulae, this volume is also concerned with related areas, such as Gaussian quadratures, the Pompelu problem, rational approximation to the Fresnel integral, boundary correspondence of univalent harmonic mappings, the application of the Hilbert transform in two dimensional aerodynamics, finely open sets in the limit set of a finitely generated Kleinian group, scattering theory, harmonic and maximal measures for rational functions and the solution of the classical Dirichlet problem. In ...

18. Solving the Poisson partial differential equation using vector space projection methods

Science.gov (United States)

Marendic, Boris

This research presents a new approach at solving the Poisson partial differential equation using Vector Space Projection (VSP) methods. The work attacks the Poisson equation as encountered in two-dimensional phase unwrapping problems, and in two-dimensional electrostatic problems. Algorithms are developed by first considering simple one-dimensional cases, and then extending them to two-dimensional problems. In the context of phase unwrapping of two-dimensional phase functions, we explore an approach to the unwrapping using a robust extrapolation-projection algorithm. The unwrapping is done iteratively by modification of the Gerchberg-Papoulis (GP) extrapolation algorithm, and the solution is refined by projecting onto the available global data. An important contribution to the extrapolation algorithm is the formulation of the algorithm with the relaxed bandwidth constraint, and the proof that such modified GP extrapolation algorithm still converges. It is also shown that the unwrapping problem is ill-posed in the VSP setting, and that the modified GP algorithm is the missing link to pushing the iterative algorithm out of the trap solution under certain conditions. Robustness of the algorithm is demonstrated through its performance in a noisy environment. Performance is demonstrated by applying it to phantom phase functions, as well as to the real phase functions. Results are compared to well known algorithms in literature. Unlike many existing unwrapping methods which perform unwrapping locally, this work approaches the unwrapping problem from a globally, and eliminates the need for guiding instruments, like quality maps. VSP algorithm also very effectively battles problems of shadowing and holes, where data is not available or is heavily corrupted. In solving the classical Poisson problems in electrostatics, we demonstrate the effectiveness and ease of implementation of the VSP methodology to solving the equation, as well as imposing of the boundary conditions

19. Modelling conjugation with stochastic differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Philipsen, K R; Christiansen, L E; Hasman, H; Madsen, H

2010-03-07

Conjugation is an important mechanism involved in the transfer of resistance between bacteria. In this article a stochastic differential equation based model consisting of a continuous time state equation and a discrete time measurement equation is introduced to model growth and conjugation of two Enterococcus faecium strains in a rich exhaustible media. The model contains a new expression for a substrate dependent conjugation rate. A maximum likelihood based method is used to estimate the model parameters. Different models including different noise structure for the system and observations are compared using a likelihood-ratio test and Akaike's information criterion. Experiments indicating conjugation on the agar plates selecting for transconjugants motivates the introduction of an extended model, for which conjugation on the agar plate is described in the measurement equation. This model is compared to the model without plate conjugation. The modelling approach described in this article can be applied generally when modelling dynamical systems. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

20. Modeling animal movements using stochastic differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Haiganoush K. Preisler; Alan A. Ager; Bruce K. Johnson; John G. Kie

2004-01-01

We describe the use of bivariate stochastic differential equations (SDE) for modeling movements of 216 radiocollared female Rocky Mountain elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeastern Oregon. Spatially and temporally explicit vector fields were estimated using approximating difference equations and nonparametric regression techniques. Estimated...

1. Complete and partial-thickness tears of the anterior cruciate ligament: differential features seen on MR imaging

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eo, Geun; Pyo, Hyun Sun; Lee, Hyung Rae; Kim, Jang Min; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Hee [Kwangmyungsungae Hospital, Kwangmyung (Korea, Republic of)

1999-07-01

To evaluate the differential features of complete and partial-thickness tears of the anterior cruciate ligament, as seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively reviewed MR images of 36 patients with ACL injuries (complete tear 16, incomplete tear 20). In all cases, the presence of an ACL tear was determined by arthroscopy or surgery. Primary and secondary signs of ACL injury and associated injuries were assessed. Ligamentous discontinuity of the ACL was observed in ten complete tears (63%), but in only four (10%) of those that were partial (p=0.009). In addition, complete tears were more likely to show a low degree of ACL axis, less than 45 deg (11/16 : 2/20, p=0.001). There was, however, no statistically significant difference between complete and partial tears with regard to signal intensity of ACL, PCL buckling or angle, anterior displacement of the tibia, uncovered meniscus sign, deep notch sign, empty notch sign, and associated injuries. Ligamentous discontinuity and the ACL axis are features which usefully differentiate between complete and partial tears of the ACL.

2. The chemical energy unit partial oxidation reactor operation simulation modeling

Science.gov (United States)

Mrakin, A. N.; Selivanov, A. A.; Batrakov, P. A.; Sotnikov, D. G.

2018-01-01

The chemical energy unit scheme for synthesis gas, electric and heat energy production which is possible to be used both for the chemical industry on-site facilities and under field conditions is represented in the paper. The partial oxidation reactor gasification process mathematical model is described and reaction products composition and temperature determining algorithm flow diagram is shown. The developed software product verification showed good convergence of the experimental values and calculations according to the other programmes: the temperature determining relative discrepancy amounted from 4 to 5 %, while the absolute composition discrepancy ranged from 1 to 3%. The synthesis gas composition was found out practically not to depend on the supplied into the partial oxidation reactor (POR) water vapour enthalpy and compressor air pressure increase ratio. Moreover, air consumption coefficient α increase from 0.7 to 0.9 was found out to decrease synthesis gas target components (carbon and hydrogen oxides) specific yield by nearly 2 times and synthesis gas target components required ratio was revealed to be seen in the water vapour specific consumption area (from 5 to 6 kg/kg of fuel).

3. MODELLING AND CONTROL OF PARTIALLY SHADED PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAYS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chia Seet Chin

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The photovoltaic (PV array controlled by Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method for optimum PV power generation, particularly when the PV array is under partially shaded condition is presented in this paper. The system modelling is carried out in MATLAB-SIMULINK where the PV array is formed by five series connected identical PV modules. Under uniform solar irradiance conditions, the PV module and the PV array present nonlinear P-V characteristic but the maximum power point (MPP can be easily identified. However, when the PV array is under shaded conditions, the P-V characteristic becomes more complex with the present of multiple MPP. While the PV array operated at local MPP, the generated power is limited. Thus, the investigation on MPPT approach is carried out to maximize the PV generated power even when the PV array is under partially shaded conditions (PSC. Fuzzy logic is adopted into the conventional MPPT to form fuzzy logic based MPPT (FMPPT for better performance. The developed MPPT and FMPPT are compared, particularly the performances on the transient response and the steady state response when the array is under various shaded conditions. FMPPT shows better performance where the simulation results demonstrate FMPPT is able to facilitate the PV array to reach the MPP faster while it helps the PV array to produce a more stable output power.

4. Modelling conjugation with stochastic differential equations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Hasman, Henrik

2010-01-01

using a likelihood-ratio test and Akaike's information criterion. Experiments indicating conjugation on the agar plates selecting for transconjugants motivates the introduction of an extended model, for which conjugation on the agar plate is described in the measurement equation. This model is compared......Conjugation is an important mechanism involved in the transfer of resistance between bacteria. In this article a stochastic differential equation based model consisting of a continuous time state equation and a discrete time measurement equation is introduced to model growth and conjugation of two...

5. Introduction to partial differential equations for scientists and engineers using Mathematica

CERN Document Server

2013-01-01

Fourier Series The Fourier Series of a Periodic Function Convergence of Fourier Series Integration and Differentiation of Fourier Series Fourier Sine and Fourier Cosine Series Mathematica Projects Integral TransformsThe Fourier Transform and Elementary Properties Inversion Formula of the Fourier Transform Convolution Property of the Fourier TransformThe Laplace Transform and Elementary Properties Differentiation and Integration of the Laplace Transform Heaviside and Dirac Delta Functions Convolution Property of the Laplace Transform Solution of Differential Equations by the Integral Transforms

6. Solutions of a partial differential equation related to the oplus operator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wanchak Satsanit

2010-06-01

Full Text Available In this article, we consider the equation $$oplus^ku(x=sum^{m}_{r=0}c_{r}oplus^{r}delta$$ where $oplus^k$ is the operator iterated k times and defined by $$oplus^k=Big(Big(sum^p_{i=1}frac{partial^2}{partial x^2_i}Big^{4}-Big(sum^{p+q}_{j=p+1}frac{partial^2}{partial x^2_j}Big^{4}Big^k,$$ where $p+q=n$, $x=(x_1,x_2,dots,x_n$ is in the n-dimensional Euclidian space $mathbb{R}^n$, $c_{r}$ is a constant, $delta$ is the Dirac-delta distribution, $oplus^{0}delta=delta$, and $k=0,1,2,3,dots$. It is shown that, depending on the relationship between k and m, the solution to this equation can be ordinary functions, tempered distributions, or singular distributions.

7. Stochastic differential equations used to model conjugation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

be split into measurement noise and system noise. The system noise is used to compensate for those biological processes not explicitly described by the model. Many authors model conjugation by a simple mass action model first proposed by Levin et al. (1979). Also Michaelis-Menten dependence...... by an experiment conducted with E. faecium. In addition, we suggest that a 3rd order time-delay must be included in the model to account for the delay before a newly conjugated plasmid is expressed. A ML estimate of the parameters based on experimental data is found using the software CTSM. The conjugation rate......Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are used to model horizontal transfer of antibiotic resis- tance by conjugation. The model describes the concentration of donor, recipient, transconjugants and substrate. The strength of the SDE model over the traditional ODE models is that the noise can...

8. Modeling and Prediction Using Stochastic Differential Equations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Juhl, Rune; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

2016-01-01

deterministic and can predict the future perfectly. A more realistic approach would be to allow for randomness in the model due to e.g., the model be too simple or errors in input. We describe a modeling and prediction setup which better reflects reality and suggests stochastic differential equations (SDEs......) for modeling and forecasting. It is argued that this gives models and predictions which better reflect reality. The SDE approach also offers a more adequate framework for modeling and a number of efficient tools for model building. A software package (CTSM-R) for SDE-based modeling is briefly described....... that describes the variation between subjects. The ODE setup implies that the variation for a single subject is described by a single parameter (or vector), namely the variance (covariance) of the residuals. Furthermore the prediction of the states is given as the solution to the ODEs and hence assumed...

9. Optimal difference-based estimation for partially linear models

KAUST Repository

Zhou, Yuejin

2017-12-16

Difference-based methods have attracted increasing attention for analyzing partially linear models in the recent literature. In this paper, we first propose to solve the optimal sequence selection problem in difference-based estimation for the linear component. To achieve the goal, a family of new sequences and a cross-validation method for selecting the adaptive sequence are proposed. We demonstrate that the existing sequences are only extreme cases in the proposed family. Secondly, we propose a new estimator for the residual variance by fitting a linear regression method to some difference-based estimators. Our proposed estimator achieves the asymptotic optimal rate of mean squared error. Simulation studies also demonstrate that our proposed estimator performs better than the existing estimator, especially when the sample size is small and the nonparametric function is rough.

10. Risk and Management Control: A Partial Least Square Modelling Approach

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nielsen, Steen; Pontoppidan, Iens Christian

and interrelations between risk and areas within management accounting. The idea is that management accounting should be able to conduct a valid feed forward but also predictions for decision making including risk. This study reports the test of a theoretical model using partial least squares (PLS) on survey data...... collected from 72 different types of organizations within different Danish sectors. The results show direct relationships between risk practices and two dimensions; an identify/control dimension and an internal attitude dimension. Also indirect relationships exist between a future expectation dimension...... and a external attitude dimension. The results have important implications for both management control research and for the management control systems design for the way accountants consider the element of risk in their different tasks, both operational and strategic. Specifically, it seems that different risk...

11. The meat market in Brazil: a partial equilibrium model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Geraldo da Silva e Souza

2008-12-01

Full Text Available A partial equilibrium model for the meat market is fit to Brazilian data by three stages least squares. The model is consistent with the data and may be used for simulation purposes. In this context we compare model simulations for the near future with the OECD/ Aglink outlook. To illustrate using the model for simulations in policy assessments, we investigate the effect of a relative increase in corn price on the poultry and pork markets, coeteris paribus.Um modelo de equilíbrio parcial para o mercado brasileiro de carnes é ajustado por meio de mínimos quadrados em três estágios. O modelo mostra-se consistente com as observações e pode ser usado para simulações. Neste contexto, comparam-se simulações para o futuro próximo com as projeções da OECD/Aglink. Para ilustrar o emprego do modelo em simulações de políticas investiga-se o efeito de um aumento relativo no preço do milho nos mercados de carne suína e de frango, coeteris paribus.

12. A partially ionized plasma modeling; Un modele de plasma partiellement ionise

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Le Thanh, K.C.; Raviart, P.A

2003-07-01

We propose a model for the partially ionized plasma sheaths near the anode of an anodic spot electric arc where the cathode is considered as an electron emitter. A fluid description takes into account the heating and the ionization of the plasma induced by the electron beam. As physical hypothesis we assume that the condition of charge neutrality is valid. According that the electron mass can be neglected compared to the ion mass, we can assume that ions and atoms have the same velocity and the same temperature. Electrons and heavy particles are then regarded as two separate fluids coexisting in the plasma. Governing equations are then multi-fluid equations with relaxation correction to the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and heating by Joule effect. Equations are solved by an operator splitting procedure. That is we first discretize the homogeneous conservation laws (i.e. without source terms) by a finite volume method. The second step is to solve the ordinary differential system (i.e, governing equation without transport terms) with an implicit scheme. (authors)

13. Scaffolding learning by modelling: The effects of partially worked-out models

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Mulder, Y.G.; Bollen, Lars; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Lazonder, Adrianus W.

2016-01-01

Creating executable computer models is a potentially powerful approach to science learning. Learning by modelling is also challenging because students can easily get overwhelmed by the inherent complexities of the task. This study investigated whether offering partially worked-out models can

14. Existence of solutions for discontinuous hyperbolic partial differential equations in Banach algebras

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bapurao C. Dhage

2006-03-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we prove an existence theorem for hyperbolic differential equations in Banach algebras under Lipschitz and Caratheodory conditions. The existence of extremal solutions is also proved under certain monotonicity conditions.

15. Darboux problem for implicit impulsive partial hyperbolic fractional order differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Said Abbas

2011-11-01

Full Text Available In this article we investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions for the initial value problems, for a class of hyperbolic impulsive fractional order differential equations by using some fixed point theorems.

16. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bockgaard, Niclas

2010-12-01

As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

17. Models of a partially hydrated Titan interior with clathrate crust

Science.gov (United States)

Lunine, J. I.; Castillo-Rogez, J.

2012-04-01

We present an updated model of the interior evolution of Titan over time, assuming the silicate core was hydrated early in Titan's history and is dehydrating over time. The original model presented in Castillo-Rogez and Lunine (2010) was motivated by a Cassini-derived moment of inertia (Iess et al., 2010) for Titan too large to be accommodated by classical fully differentiated models in which an anhydrous silicate core was overlain by a water ice (with possible perched ocean) mantle. Our model consisted of a silicate core still in the process of dehydrating today, a situation made possible by the leaching of radiogenic potassium from the silicates into the liquid water ocean. The crust of Titan was assumed to be pure water ice I. The model was consistent with the moment of inertia of Titan, but neglected the presence of large amounts of methane in the upper crust invoked to explain methane's persistence at present and through geologic time (Tobie et al. 2006). We have updated our model with such a feature. We have also improved our modeling with a better physical model for the dehydration of antigorite and other hydrated minerals. In particular our modeling now simulates heat advection resulting from water circulation (e.g., Seipold and Schilling 2003), rather than the purely conductive heat transfer regime assumed in the first version of our model. The modeling proceeds as in Castillo-Rogez and Lunine (2010), with the thermal conductivity of the methane clathrate crust rather than that of ice I. The former is several times lower than that of the latter, and the two have rather different temperature dependences (English and Tse, 2009). The crust turns out to have essentially no bearing on the temperature of the silicate core and hence the timing of dehydration, but it profoundly affects the thickness of the high-pressure ice layer beneath the ocean. Indeed, with the insulating methane clathrate crust, there must be a liquid water ocean beneath the methane clathrate

18. A Contraction Fixed Point Theorem in Partially Ordered Metric Spaces and Application to Fractional Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xiangbing Zhou

2012-01-01

Full Text Available We generalize a fixed point theorem in partially ordered complete metric spaces in the study of A. Amini-Harandi and H. Emami (2010. We also give an application on the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution of a multipoint boundary value problem with fractional derivatives.

19. Acute versus chronic partial sleep deprivation in middle-aged people: differential effect on performance and sleepiness.

Science.gov (United States)

Philip, Pierre; Sagaspe, Patricia; Prague, Mélanie; Tassi, Patricia; Capelli, Aurore; Bioulac, Bernard; Commenges, Daniel; Taillard, Jacques

2012-07-01

To evaluate the effects of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction on vigilance, performance, and self-perception of sleepiness. Habitual night followed by 1 night of total sleep loss (acute sleep deprivation) or 5 consecutive nights of 4 hr of sleep (chronic sleep restriction) and recovery night. Eighteen healthy middle-aged male participants (age [(± standard deviation] = 49.7 ± 2.6 yr, range 46-55 yr). Multiple sleep latency test trials, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores, simple reaction time test (lapses and 10% fastest reaction times), and nocturnal polysomnography data were recorded. Objective and subjective sleepiness increased immediately in response to sleep restriction. Sleep latencies after the second and third nights of sleep restriction reached levels equivalent to those observed after acute sleep deprivation, whereas Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores did not reach these levels. Lapse occurrence increased after the second day of sleep restriction and reached levels equivalent to those observed after acute sleep deprivation. A statistical model revealed that sleepiness and lapses did not progressively worsen across days of sleep restriction. Ten percent fastest reaction times (i.e., optimal alertness) were not affected by acute or chronic sleep deprivation. Recovery to baseline levels of alertness and performance occurred after 8-hr recovery night. In middle-aged study participants, sleep restriction induced a high increase in sleep propensity but adaptation to chronic sleep restriction occurred beyond day 3 of restriction. This sleepiness attenuation was underestimated by the participants. One recovery night restores daytime sleepiness and cognitive performance deficits induced by acute or chronic sleep deprivation. Philip P; Sagaspe P; Prague M; Tassi P; Capelli A; Bioulac B; Commenges D; Taillard J. Acute versus chronic partial sleep deprivation in middle-aged people: differential effect on performance and sleepiness. SLEEP 2012;35(7):997-1002.

20. A HAM-based wavelet approach for nonlinear partial differential equations: Two dimensional Bratu problem as an application

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Zhaochen; Liao, Shijun

2017-12-01

In this paper, a new analytic approach, namely the wavelet homotopy analysis method (wHAM), is developed for boundary value problems (BVPs) governed by nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs), which successfully combines the homotopy analysis method (HAM) and the generalized Coiflet-type wavelet. To improve the computational efficiency and accuracy, a section-based wavelet approximation for partial derivatives is proposed. The two-dimensional Bratu equation is used as an example to illustrate its basic ideas of the wHAM. Numerical results verify the validity as well as great advantages of the wHAM. Compared with the normal HAM, the wHAM possesses not only larger freedom to choose the auxiliary linear operator, but also better convergence property and higher computational efficiency. In addition, the iteration approach can greatly accelerate convergence.

1. Nonlinear self-adjointness, conservation laws, and the construction of solutions of partial differential equations using conservation laws

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ibragimov, N Kh; Avdonina, E D

2013-01-01

The method of nonlinear self-adjointness, which was recently developed by the first author, gives a generalization of Noether's theorem. This new method significantly extends approaches to constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries, since it does not require the existence of a Lagrangian. In particular, it can be applied to any linear equations and any nonlinear equations that possess at least one local conservation law. The present paper provides a brief survey of results on conservation laws which have been obtained by this method and published mostly in recent preprints of the authors, along with a method for constructing exact solutions of systems of partial differential equations with the use of conservation laws. In most cases the solutions obtained by the method of conservation laws cannot be found as invariant or partially invariant solutions. Bibliography: 23 titles

2. Modulating functions-based method for parameters and source estimation in one-dimensional partial differential equations

KAUST Repository

Asiri, Sharefa M.

2016-10-20

In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space–time-dependent unknowns in one-dimensional partial differential equations. The proposed method simplifies the problem into a system of algebraic equations linear in unknown parameters. The well-posedness of the modulating functions-based solution is proved. The wave and the fifth-order KdV equations are used as examples to show the effectiveness of the proposed method in both noise-free and noisy cases.

3. The orthogonal gradients method: A radial basis functions method for solving partial differential equations on arbitrary surfaces

KAUST Repository

Piret, Cécile

2012-05-01

Much work has been done on reconstructing arbitrary surfaces using the radial basis function (RBF) method, but one can hardly find any work done on the use of RBFs to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we investigate methods to solve PDEs on arbitrary stationary surfaces embedded in . R3 using the RBF method. We present three RBF-based methods that easily discretize surface differential operators. We take advantage of the meshfree character of RBFs, which give us a high accuracy and the flexibility to represent the most complex geometries in any dimension. Two out of the three methods, which we call the orthogonal gradients (OGr) methods are the result of our work and are hereby presented for the first time. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

4. Simulation, optimal control and parametric sensitivity analysis of a molten carbonate fuel cell using a partial differential algebraic dynamic equation system; Simulation, Optimale Steuerung und Sensitivitaetsanalyse einer Schmelzkarbonat-Brennstoffzelle mithilfe eines partiellen differential-algebraischen dynamischen Gleichungssystems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sternberg, K.

2007-02-08

Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) allow an efficient and environmentally friendly energy production by converting the chemical energy contained in the fuel gas in virtue of electro-chemical reactions. In order to predict the effect of the electro-chemical reactions and to control the dynamical behavior of the fuel cell a mathematical model has to be found. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) can indeed be described by a highly complex,large scale, semi-linear system of partial differential algebraic equations. This system includes a reaction-diffusion-equation of parabolic type, several reaction-transport-equations of hyperbolic type, several ordinary differential equations and finally a system of integro-differential algebraic equations which describes the nonlinear non-standard boundary conditions for the entire partial differential algebraic equation system (PDAE-system). The existence of an analytical or the computability of a numerical solution for this high-dimensional PDAE-system depends on the kind of the differential equations and their special characteristics. Apart from theoretical investigations, the real process has to be controlled, more precisely optimally controlled. Hence, on the basis of the PDAE-system an optimal control problem is set up, whose analytical and numerical solvability is closely linked to the solvability of the PDAE-system. Moreover the solution of that optimal control problem is made more difficult by inaccuracies in the underlying database, which does not supply sufficiently accurate values for the model parameters. Therefore the optimal control problem must also be investigated with respect to small disturbances of model parameters. The aim of this work is to analyze the relevant dynamic behavior of MCFCs and to develop concepts for their optimal process control. Therefore this work is concerned with the simulation, the optimal control and the sensitivity analysis of a mathematical model for MCDCs, which can be characterized

5. Partially solved differential systems with two-point non-linear boundary conditions

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Rontó, András; Rontó, M.; Varga, I.

2017-01-01

Roč. 18, č. 2 (2017), s. 1001-1014 ISSN 1787-2405 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : implicit differential systems * non-linear two-point boundary conditions * parametrization technique Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.388, year: 2016 http://mat76.mat.uni-miskolc.hu/mnotes/article/2491

6. Reactor modeling and process analysis for partial oxidation of natural gas

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Albrecht, B.A.

2004-01-01

This thesis analyses a novel process of partial oxidation of natural gas and develops a numerical tool for the partial oxidation reactor modeling. The proposed process generates syngas in an integrated plant of a partial oxidation reactor, a syngas turbine and an air separation unit. This is called

7. Modelling Evolutionary Algorithms with Stochastic Differential Equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Heredia, Jorge Pérez

2017-11-20

There has been renewed interest in modelling the behaviour of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) by more traditional mathematical objects, such as ordinary differential equations or Markov chains. The advantage is that the analysis becomes greatly facilitated due to the existence of well established methods. However, this typically comes at the cost of disregarding information about the process. Here, we introduce the use of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for the study of EAs. SDEs can produce simple analytical results for the dynamics of stochastic processes, unlike Markov chains which can produce rigorous but unwieldy expressions about the dynamics. On the other hand, unlike ordinary differential equations (ODEs), they do not discard information about the stochasticity of the process. We show that these are especially suitable for the analysis of fixed budget scenarios and present analogues of the additive and multiplicative drift theorems from runtime analysis. In addition, we derive a new more general multiplicative drift theorem that also covers non-elitist EAs. This theorem simultaneously allows for positive and negative results, providing information on the algorithm's progress even when the problem cannot be optimised efficiently. Finally, we provide results for some well-known heuristics namely Random Walk (RW), Random Local Search (RLS), the (1+1) EA, the Metropolis Algorithm (MA), and the Strong Selection Weak Mutation (SSWM) algorithm.

8. Differential and Integral Models of TOKAMAK

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ivo Dolezel

2004-01-01

Full Text Available Modeling of 3D electromagnetic phenomena in TOKAMAK with typically distributed main and additional coils is not an easy business. Evaluated must be not only distribution of the magnetic field, but also forces acting in particular coils. Use of differential methods (such as FDM or FEM for this purpose may be complicated because of geometrical incommensurability of particular subregions in the investigated area or problems with the boundary conditions. That is why integral formulation of the problem may sometimes be an advantages. The theoretical analysis is illustrated on an example processed by both methods, whose results are compared and discussed.

9. Active and Purely Dissipative Nambu Systems in General Thermostatistical Settings Described by Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations Involving Generalized Entropy Measures

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

T. D. Frank

2016-12-01

Full Text Available In physics, several attempts have been made to apply the concepts and tools of physics to the life sciences. In this context, a thermostatistic framework for active Nambu systems is proposed. The so-called free energy Fokker–Planck equation approach is used to describe stochastic aspects of active Nambu systems. Different thermostatistic settings are considered that are characterized by appropriately-defined entropy measures, such as the Boltzmann–Gibbs–Shannon entropy and the Tsallis entropy. In general, the free energy Fokker–Planck equations associated with these generalized entropy measures correspond to nonlinear partial differential equations. Irrespective of the entropy-related nonlinearities occurring in these nonlinear partial differential equations, it is shown that semi-analytical solutions for the stationary probability densities of the active Nambu systems can be obtained provided that the pumping mechanisms of the active systems assume the so-called canonical-dissipative form and depend explicitly only on Nambu invariants. Applications are presented both for purely-dissipative and for active systems illustrating that the proposed framework includes as a special case stochastic equilibrium systems.

10. Architectures And Algorithms For Digital Optical Computing Systems With Applications To Numerical Transforms And Partial Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Drabik, Timothy J.; Title, Mark A.; Lee, Sing H.

1986-06-01

The potential and promise of very high-performance spatial light modulators (SLMs) capable of performing logic operations has motivated the investigation of digital computing systems that possess many desirable attributes of optical systems, namely massive parallelism, global communication at high bandwidths, high reliability, many useful degrees of freedom, robustness in the presence of defects, and simplicity. The parallelism of easily realizable optical single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) arrays makes them a natural choice for implementation of highly structured algorithms for the numerical solution of multi-dimensional partial differential equations and the computation of fast numerical transforms. A system comprising several SLMs, an optical read/write memory, and a functional block to perform simple, space-invariant shifts on images has enough flexibility to implement the fastest known methods for partial differential equations (e.g. multi-level methods) as well as a wide variety of numerical transforms (e.g., FFT, Walsh-Hadamard transform, rapid transform), in two or more dimensions, and using either fixed or floating-point arithmetic. Performance is projected at greater than 109 floating-point operations/s using SLMs with resolution 1000 x 1000 operating at 1 MHz frame rates.

11. Semigroup Approach to Semilinear Partial Functional Differential Equations with Infinite Delay

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hassane Bouzahir

2007-02-01

Full Text Available We describe a semigroup of abstract semilinear functional differential equations with infinite delay by the use of the Crandall Liggett theorem. We suppose that the linear part is not necessarily densely defined but satisfies the resolvent estimates of the Hille-Yosida theorem. We clarify the properties of the phase space ensuring equivalence between the equation under investigation and the nonlinear semigroup.

12. Characterization and partial purification of pectinesterase, a differentiation-specific enzyme of Uromyces viciae-fabae

OpenAIRE

Frittrang, Alexander K.; Deising, Holger; Mendgen, Kurt

1992-01-01

The differentiation-specific formation of three isoforms of pectinesterase by the broad bean rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae is described. Activity becomes detectable when substomatal vesicles are formed. In crude extracts isoform A contributed 78% of the total pectinesterase activity, and isoforms B and C contributed 20% and 2%, respectively. All three isoforms were found extracellularly in ratios identical to those in extracts. The isoelectric points of the pectinesterase isoforms were 8·...

13. Bayesian inference for partially identified models exploring the limits of limited data

CERN Document Server

Gustafson, Paul

2015-01-01

Introduction Identification What Is against Us? What Is for Us? Some Simple Examples of Partially Identified ModelsThe Road Ahead The Structure of Inference in Partially Identified Models Bayesian Inference The Structure of Posterior Distributions in PIMs Computational Strategies Strength of Bayesian Updating, Revisited Posterior MomentsCredible Intervals Evaluating the Worth of Inference Partial Identification versus Model Misspecification The Siren Call of Identification Comp

14. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

Science.gov (United States)

Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

2017-01-01

Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

15. 16S rRNA partial gene sequencing for the differentiation and molecular subtyping of Listeria species.

Science.gov (United States)

Hellberg, Rosalee S; Martin, Keely G; Keys, Ashley L; Haney, Christopher J; Shen, Yuelian; Smiley, R Derike

2013-12-01

Use of 16S rRNA partial gene sequencing within the regulatory workflow could greatly reduce the time and labor needed for confirmation and subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes. The goal of this study was to build a 16S rRNA partial gene reference library for Listeria spp. and investigate the potential for 16S rRNA molecular subtyping. A total of 86 isolates of Listeria representing L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. monocytogenes were obtained for use in building the custom library. Seven non-Listeria species and three additional strains of Listeria were obtained for use in exclusivity and food spiking tests. Isolates were sequenced for the partial 16S rRNA gene using the MicroSeq ID 500 Bacterial Identification Kit (Applied Biosystems). High-quality sequences were obtained for 84 of the custom library isolates and 23 unique 16S sequence types were discovered for use in molecular subtyping. All of the exclusivity strains were negative for Listeria and the three Listeria strains used in food spiking were consistently recovered and correctly identified at the species level. The spiking results also allowed for differentiation beyond the species level, as 87% of replicates for one strain and 100% of replicates for the other two strains consistently matched the same 16S type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

16. Stochastic partial differential fluid equations as a diffusive limit of deterministic Lagrangian multi-time dynamics.

Science.gov (United States)

Cotter, C J; Gottwald, G A; Holm, D D

2017-09-01

In Holm (Holm 2015 Proc. R. Soc. A 471 , 20140963. (doi:10.1098/rspa.2014.0963)), stochastic fluid equations were derived by employing a variational principle with an assumed stochastic Lagrangian particle dynamics. Here we show that the same stochastic Lagrangian dynamics naturally arises in a multi-scale decomposition of the deterministic Lagrangian flow map into a slow large-scale mean and a rapidly fluctuating small-scale map. We employ homogenization theory to derive effective slow stochastic particle dynamics for the resolved mean part, thereby obtaining stochastic fluid partial equations in the Eulerian formulation. To justify the application of rigorous homogenization theory, we assume mildly chaotic fast small-scale dynamics, as well as a centring condition. The latter requires that the mean of the fluctuating deviations is small, when pulled back to the mean flow.

17. MR imaging in the differentiation of mucosal from partial development of paranasal sinuses in pediatric patients

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Duerinckx, A.J.; Hall, T.R.; Lufkin, R.; Boechat, I.; Kangarloo, H.

1989-01-01

The purpose of this two-part study was to determine whether MR imaging can help distinguish pediatric patients with mucosal disease of the paranasal sinuses from patients with normal but only partially developed sinuses, thus reducing the number of patients erroneously labeled as having incidental sinusitis. First, a retrospective study was done to evaluate the paranasal sinuses in 80 infants and children aged 0-17 years. The authors developed anatomic MR criteria for independent grading of paranasal sinus development and mucosal disease. The extent of sinus pneumatization ( a measure of sinus development) is very variable at younger ages, and this variation decreases with age. Second, using the anatomic MR imaging criteria developed in the first study, a double-blind prospective study was performed on 40 patients to correlate clinical sinus disease with anatomic sinus disease as seen with MR imaging

18. Study and optimization of the partial discharges in capacitor model ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

by a digital sinusoidal generator. The acquisitions of Partial Discharges are made every 5 mn. The sensibility of measure is adjusted to limit the number of discharges emerging from chosen measuring range. An electric detection system with an assembly of current pulses visualization composed from a measuring resistor as ...

19. On models for continuous facility location with partial coverage

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Körner, Mark-Christoph

2014-01-01

This paper presents a new concept of partial coverage distance, where demand points within a given threshold distance of a new facility are covered in the traditional sense, while non-covered demand points are penalized an amount proportional to their distance to the covered region. Two single...

20. Study and optimization of the partial discharges in capacitor model ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

that the main cause of failure of these devices is the appearance of partial discharges initiated on edges of armatures. These devices can quickly slam if discharges occur continuously during the liquid impregnation. One of the criteria for selecting impregnating liquids is the behavior of gas bubbles when discharges occur.

1. Study and optimization of the partial discharges in capacitor model ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Decay on the thin film of Polyethylene Terephthalate,. Journal of Electrostatics; Elsevier, Vol. 67, Issue 2+3,. 198-202. [10] Dervos C., Bourkas P.d., kayafos E.A & Stathopules. I.A., 1990. Enhanced Partial Discharges due to temperature increase in the combined system of a solid liquid dielectric, IEEE Trans on Elect Insula, ...

2. Differentiation of partial acylglycerols derived from different animal fats by EA-IRMS and GCMS techniques

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nina Naquiah, A.N.; Marikkar, J.M.N.; Shuhaimi, M.

2016-07-01

A study was carried out to compare partial acylglycerols of lard with those of chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analysis–Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). Mono- (MAG) and di-(DAG) acylglycerols of animal fats were prepared according to a chemical glycerolysis method and isolated using column chromatography. The fatty acid composition and δ13C carbon isotope ratio of MAG and DAG derived from individual animal fat were determined separately to establish their identity characteristics. The results showed that the δ13C values of MAG and DAG of lard were significantly different from those of MAG and DAG derived from chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. According to the loading plots based on a principle component analysis (PCA), fatty acids namely stearic, oleic and linoleic were the most discriminating parameters to distinctly identify MAG and DAG derived from different animal fats. This demonstrated that the EA-IRMS and the PCA of fatty acid data have considerable potential for discriminating MAG and DAG derived from lard from other animal fats for Halal authentication purposes. (Author)

3. The analysis of linear partial differential operators I distribution theory and Fourier analysis

CERN Document Server

Hörmander, Lars

2003-01-01

The main change in this edition is the inclusion of exercises with answers and hints. This is meant to emphasize that this volume has been written as a general course in modern analysis on a graduate student level and not only as the beginning of a specialized course in partial differen­ tial equations. In particular, it could also serve as an introduction to harmonic analysis. Exercises are given primarily to the sections of gen­ eral interest; there are none to the last two chapters. Most of the exercises are just routine problems meant to give some familiarity with standard use of the tools introduced in the text. Others are extensions of the theory presented there. As a rule rather complete though brief solutions are then given in the answers and hints. To a large extent the exercises have been taken over from courses or examinations given by Anders Melin or myself at the University of Lund. I am grateful to Anders Melin for letting me use the problems originating from him and for numerous valuable comm...

4. Quantifying uncertainty, variability and likelihood for ordinary differential equation models

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Weisse, Andrea Y

2010-10-28

Abstract Background In many applications, ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are subject to uncertainty or variability in initial conditions and parameters. Both, uncertainty and variability can be quantified in terms of a probability density function on the state and parameter space. Results The partial differential equation that describes the evolution of this probability density function has a form that is particularly amenable to application of the well-known method of characteristics. The value of the density at some point in time is directly accessible by the solution of the original ODE extended by a single extra dimension (for the value of the density). This leads to simple methods for studying uncertainty, variability and likelihood, with significant advantages over more traditional Monte Carlo and related approaches especially when studying regions with low probability. Conclusions While such approaches based on the method of characteristics are common practice in other disciplines, their advantages for the study of biological systems have so far remained unrecognized. Several examples illustrate performance and accuracy of the approach and its limitations.

5. Climate models with delay differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Keane, Andrew; Krauskopf, Bernd; Postlethwaite, Claire M.

2017-11-01

A fundamental challenge in mathematical modelling is to find a model that embodies the essential underlying physics of a system, while at the same time being simple enough to allow for mathematical analysis. Delay differential equations (DDEs) can often assist in this goal because, in some cases, only the delayed effects of complex processes need to be described and not the processes themselves. This is true for some climate systems, whose dynamics are driven in part by delayed feedback loops associated with transport times of mass or energy from one location of the globe to another. The infinite-dimensional nature of DDEs allows them to be sufficiently complex to reproduce realistic dynamics accurately with a small number of variables and parameters. In this paper, we review how DDEs have been used to model climate systems at a conceptual level. Most studies of DDE climate models have focused on gaining insights into either the global energy balance or the fundamental workings of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) system. For example, studies of DDEs have led to proposed mechanisms for the interannual oscillations in sea-surface temperature that is characteristic of ENSO, the irregular behaviour that makes ENSO difficult to forecast and the tendency of El Niño events to occur near Christmas. We also discuss the tools used to analyse such DDE models. In particular, the recent development of continuation software for DDEs makes it possible to explore large regions of parameter space in an efficient manner in order to provide a "global picture" of the possible dynamics. We also point out some directions for future research, including the incorporation of non-constant delays, which we believe could improve the descriptive power of DDE climate models.

6. Growth factors in porcine full and partial thickness burn repair. Differing targets and effects of keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, epidermal growth factor, and neu differentiation factor.

OpenAIRE

Danilenko, D. M.; Ring, B. D.; Tarpley, J. E.; Morris, B.; Van, G. Y.; Morawiecki, A.; Callahan, W.; Goldenberg, M.; Hershenson, S.; Pierce, G. F.

1995-01-01

The topical application of recombinant growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB homodimer (rPDGF-BB), keratinocyte growth factor (rKGF), and neu differentiation factor has resulted in significant acceleration of healing in several animal models of wound repair. In this study, we established highly reproducible and quantifiable full and deep partial thickness porcine burn models in which burns were escharectomized 4 or 5 days postburn and covered with a...

7. (Free Software for general partial differential equation problems in non-rectangular 2D and 3D regions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Granville Sewell

2013-01-01

Full Text Available PDE2D is a general-purpose partial differential equation solver which solves very general systems of nonlinear, steady-state, time-dependent and eigenvalue PDEs in 1D intervals, general 2D regions (see Figure 1, and a wide range of simple 3D regions (see Figure 2, with general boundary conditions. It uses a collocation finite element method [2] for 3D problems, and either a collocation or Galerkin finite element method can be used for 1D and 2D problems. It has been sold commercially for 30 years, but recently a version has been made available, which can be downloaded at no cost from www.pde2d.com.

8. A Sequential, Implicit, Wavelet-Based Solver for Multi-Scale Time-Dependent Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Donald A. McLaren

2013-04-01

Full Text Available This paper describes and tests a wavelet-based implicit numerical method for solving partial differential equations. Intended for problems with localized small-scale interactions, the method exploits the form of the wavelet decomposition to divide the implicit system created by the time-discretization into multiple smaller systems that can be solved sequentially. Included is a test on a basic non-linear problem, with both the results of the test, and the time required to calculate them, compared with control results based on a single system with fine resolution. The method is then tested on a non-trivial problem, its computational time and accuracy checked against control results. In both tests, it was found that the method requires less computational expense than the control. Furthermore, the method showed convergence towards the fine resolution control results.

9. Generalized Wronskian relations one dimensional Schroedinger equation and nonlinear partial differential equations solvable by the inverse scattering method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calogero, F.

1976-01-01

A generalized Wronskian type relation is used to obtain a number of expressions for the scattering and bound state parameters (reflection and transmission coefficients, bound state energies and normalization constants) in the context of the one dimensional Schroedinger equation. These expressions are in the form of integrals over the wave functions multiplied by appropriate (generally nonlinear) combinations of the potentials and their derivatives. Some of them provide the basis for deriving classes of nonlinear partial differential equations that are solvable by the inverse scattering method. The main interest of this approach rests in its simplicity and in its delivery of nonlinear evolution equations that may involve more than one (space) variable and contain coefficients that are not constant

10. An Equation-Type Approach for the Numerical Solution of the Partial Differential Equations Governing Transport Phenomena in Porous Media

KAUST Repository

Sun, Shuyu

2012-06-02

A new technique for the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing transport phenomena in porous media is introduced. In this technique, the governing equations as depicted from the physics of the problem are used without extra manipulations. In other words, there is no need to reduce the number of governing equations by some sort of mathematical manipulations. This technique enables the separation of the physics part of the problem and the solver part, which makes coding more robust and could be used in several other applications with little or no modifications (e.g., multi-phase flow in porous media). In this method, one abandons the need to construct the coefficient matrix for the pressure equation. Alternatively, the coefficients are automatically generated within the solver routine. We show examples of using this technique to solving several flow problems in porous media.

11. Symbolic computation of exact solutions expressible in rational formal hyperbolic and elliptic functions for nonlinear partial differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang Qi; Chen Yong

2007-01-01

With the aid of symbolic computation, some algorithms are presented for the rational expansion methods, which lead to closed-form solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The new algorithms are given to find exact rational formal polynomial solutions of PDEs in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions, solutions of the Riccati equation and solutions of the generalized Riccati equation. They can be implemented in symbolic computation system Maple. As applications of the methods, we choose some nonlinear PDEs to illustrate the methods. As a result, we not only can successfully obtain the solutions found by most existing Jacobi elliptic function methods and Tanh-methods, but also find other new and more general solutions at the same time

12. A meshless scheme for partial differential equations based on multiquadric trigonometric B-spline quasi-interpolation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gao Wen-Wu; Wang Zhi-Gang

2014-01-01

Based on the multiquadric trigonometric B-spline quasi-interpolant, this paper proposes a meshless scheme for some partial differential equations whose solutions are periodic with respect to the spatial variable. This scheme takes into account the periodicity of the analytic solution by using derivatives of a periodic quasi-interpolant (multiquadric trigonometric B-spline quasi-interpolant) to approximate the spatial derivatives of the equations. Thus, it overcomes the difficulties of the previous schemes based on quasi-interpolation (requiring some additional boundary conditions and yielding unwanted high-order discontinuous points at the boundaries in the spatial domain). Moreover, the scheme also overcomes the difficulty of the meshless collocation methods (i.e., yielding a notorious ill-conditioned linear system of equations for large collocation points). The numerical examples that are presented at the end of the paper show that the scheme provides excellent approximations to the analytic solutions. (general)

13. Automated Solution of Partial Differential Equations with Discontinuities using the Partition of Unity Method

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Nikbakht, M.

2012-01-01

Although computers were invented to automate tedious and error-prone tasks, computer programming is a tedious and error-prone task itself. This is a well-known paradox in the field of computational mathematical modelling. Recently, automatic code generation has been proposed to solve this paradox.

14. Special Functions, Partial Differential Equations and Harmonic Analysis : Conference in Honor of Calixto P. Calderon

CERN Document Server

Stokolos, Alexander; Urbina, Wilfredo

2014-01-01

This volume of papers presented at the conference in honor of Calixto P. Calderón by his friends, colleagues, and students is intended to make the mathematical community aware of his important scholarly and research contributions in contemporary Harmonic Analysis and Mathematical Models applied to Biology and Medicine, and to stimulate further research in the future in this area of pure and applied mathematics.

15. Solving nonlinear, High-order partial differential equations using a high-performance isogeometric analysis framework

KAUST Repository

2014-01-01

In this paper we present PetIGA, a high-performance implementation of Isogeometric Analysis built on top of PETSc. We show its use in solving nonlinear and time-dependent problems, such as phase-field models, by taking advantage of the high-continuity of the basis functions granted by the isogeometric framework. In this work, we focus on the Cahn-Hilliard equation and the phase-field crystal equation.

16. Finite difference numerical methods for boundary control problems governed by hyperbolic partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, G.; Zheng, Q.; Coleman, M.; Weerakoon, S.

1983-01-01

This paper briefly reviews convergent finite difference schemes for hyperbolic initial boundary value problems and their applications to boundary control systems of hyperbolic type which arise in the modelling of vibrations. These difference schemes are combined with the primal and the dual approaches to compute the optimal control in the unconstrained case, as well as the case when the control is subject to inequality constraints. Some of the preliminary numerical results are also presented.

17. A first course in differential equations, modeling, and simulation

CERN Document Server

Smith, Carlos A

2011-01-01

IntroductionAn Introductory ExampleModelingDifferential EquationsForcing FunctionsBook ObjectivesObjects in a Gravitational FieldAn Example Antidifferentiation: Technique for Solving First-Order Ordinary Differential EquationsBack to Section 2-1Another ExampleSeparation of Variables: Technique for Solving First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations Back to Section 2-5Equations, Unknowns, and Degrees of FreedomClassical Solutions of Ordinary Linear Differential EquationsExamples of Differential EquationsDefinition of a Linear Differential EquationIntegrating Factor MethodCharacteristic Equation

18. Introduction to computation and modeling for differential equations

CERN Document Server

Edsberg, Lennart

2008-01-01

An introduction to scientific computing for differential equationsIntroduction to Computation and Modeling for Differential Equations provides a unified and integrated view of numerical analysis, mathematical modeling in applications, and programming to solve differential equations, which is essential in problem-solving across many disciplines, such as engineering, physics, and economics. This book successfully introduces readers to the subject through a unique ""Five-M"" approach: Modeling, Mathematics, Methods, MATLAB, and Multiphysics. This approach facilitates a thorough understanding of h

19. MRI differential diagnosis of complete and partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee: the usefulness of oblique coronal T2-weighted image

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lee, Seo Young; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Bang, Sun Woo; Ryu, Seok Jong; Kim, Ho Kyun [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Seok [College of Medicine, Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-04-01

To assess the usefulness of T2-weighted oblique coronal MR imaging (T2OCI) in the differential diagnosis of complete and partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. Thirty-three patients with ACL tear (16 complete and 17 partial tears), comfirmed by arthroscopy, were included in this study. Conventional MR imaging and T2OCI were performed, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists in terms of continuity, shape, axis and internal signal intensity of the ligament. Each finding was tested if there were stastistically significant differences in its prevalence between partial and complete tears. The diagnostic accuracy of T2OCI and conventional MR imaging in the detection of partial and complete tears of the ACL were compared. Conventional MR imaging revealed no statistically significant finding for differential diagnosis of complete and partial ACL tears. The reliable and statistically significant (p<0.001) findings of T2OCI were complete discontinuity of the ligament in cases involving complete ACL tears (14 of 16 complete tears and 2 of 17 partial tears) and the preservation of the band form for partial ACL tears (2 of 16 complete tears and 15 of 17 partial tears). The accuracy of T2OCI and conventional MR imaging was 88% and 70%, respectively. When ACL injury is vague on conventional MR images, a modality which is more useful in the differential diagnosis of partial and complete tears of the ACL, and in predicting the site of a tear, is T2-weighted oblique coronal imaging.

20. Robust and adaptive techniques for numerical simulation of nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order

Science.gov (United States)

2017-03-01

In this paper, some nonlinear space-fractional order reaction-diffusion equations (SFORDE) on a finite but large spatial domain x ∈ [0, L], x = x(x , y , z) and t ∈ [0, T] are considered. Also in this work, the standard reaction-diffusion system with boundary conditions is generalized by replacing the second-order spatial derivatives with Riemann-Liouville space-fractional derivatives of order α, for 0 Fourier spectral method is introduced as a better alternative to existing low order schemes for the integration of fractional in space reaction-diffusion problems in conjunction with an adaptive exponential time differencing method, and solve a range of one-, two- and three-components SFORDE numerically to obtain patterns in one- and two-dimensions with a straight forward extension to three spatial dimensions in a sub-diffusive (0 reaction-diffusion case. With application to models in biology and physics, different spatiotemporal dynamics are observed and displayed.

1. Building a Flexible Software Factory Using Partial Domain Specific Models

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Warmer, J.B.; Kleppe, A.G.

2006-01-01

This paper describes some experiences in building a software factory by defining multiple small domain specific languages (DSLs) and having multiple small models per DSL. This is in high contrast with traditional approaches using monolithic models, e.g. written in UML. In our approach, models behave

2. Globally COnstrained Local Function Approximation via Hierarchical Modelling, a Framework for System Modelling under Partial Information

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2000-01-01

be obtained. This paper presents a new approach for system modelling under partial (global) information (or the so called Gray-box modelling) that seeks to perserve the benefits of the global as well as local methodologies sithin a unified framework. While the proposed technique relies on local approximations......Local function approximations concern fitting low order models to weighted data in neighbourhoods of the points where the approximations are desired. Despite their generality and convenience of use, local models typically suffer, among others, from difficulties arising in physical interpretation...... simultaneously with the (local estimates of) function values. The approach is applied to modelling of a linear time variant dynamic system under prior linear time invariant structure where local regression fails as a result of high dimensionality....

3. Differential geometry based solvation model II: Lagrangian formulation.

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Zhan; Baker, Nathan A; Wei, G W

2011-12-01

computation, thanks to the equivalence of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the two representations. The coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) are solved with an iterative procedure to reach a steady state, which delivers desired solvent-solute interface and electrostatic potential for problems of interest. These quantities are utilized to evaluate the solvation free energies and protein-protein binding affinities. A number of computational methods and algorithms are described for the interconversion of Lagrangian and Eulerian representations, and for the solution of the coupled PDE system. The proposed approaches have been extensively validated. We also verify that the mean curvature flow indeed gives rise to the minimal molecular surface and the proposed variational procedure indeed offers minimal total free energy. Solvation analysis and applications are considered for a set of 17 small compounds and a set of 23 proteins. The salt effect on protein-protein binding affinity is investigated with two protein complexes by using the present model. Numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and to those obtained by using other theoretical methods in the literature. © Springer-Verlag 2011

4. A partial backlogging inventory model for deteriorating items with time-varying demand and holding cost: An interval number approach

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Debashis Dutta

2015-10-01

Full Text Available This paper proposes a differential equation inventory model that incorporates partial backlogging and deterioration. Holding cost and demand rate are time dependent. Shortages are allowed and assumed to be partially backlogged. Two versions are presented, the first one with deterministic values of the parameters and the second one taking into the account the interval uncertainty of the parameters. In the crisp case, Taylor’s series expansion is used, and graphically shown that the cost function is convex. While, in the case of intervals, the interval arithmetic is used and then the problem is transformed into a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem and an interval objective function. To solve this problem, the weighted-sum method is used. The proposed procedure is validated with the help of a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis on various parameters has also been carried out.

5. Applied partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Logan, J David

2015-01-01

This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs.  Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e...

6. Stochastic partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Lototsky, Sergey V

2017-01-01

Taking readers with a basic knowledge of probability and real analysis to the frontiers of a very active research discipline, this textbook provides all the necessary background from functional analysis and the theory of PDEs. It covers the main types of equations (elliptic, hyperbolic and parabolic) and discusses different types of random forcing. The objective is to give the reader the necessary tools to understand the proofs of existing theorems about SPDEs (from other sources) and perhaps even to formulate and prove a few new ones. Most of the material could be covered in about 40 hours of lectures, as long as not too much time is spent on the general discussion of stochastic analysis in infinite dimensions. As the subject of SPDEs is currently making the transition from the research level to that of a graduate or even undergraduate course, the book attempts to present enough exercise material to fill potential exams and homework assignments. Exercises appear throughout and are usually directly connected ...

7. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Lax, Peter D

2006-01-01

The theory of hyperbolic equations is a large subject, and its applications are many: fluid dynamics and aerodynamics, the theory of elasticity, optics, electromagnetic waves, direct and inverse scattering, and the general theory of relativity. This book is an introduction to most facets of the theory and is an ideal text for a second-year graduate course on the subject. The first part deals with the basic theory: the relation of hyperbolicity to the finite propagation of signals, the concept and role of characteristic surfaces and rays, energy, and energy inequalities. The structure of soluti

8. Applied partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

DuChateau, Paul

2012-01-01

Book focuses mainly on boundary-value and initial-boundary-value problems on spatially bounded and on unbounded domains; integral transforms; uniqueness and continuous dependence on data, first-order equations, and more. Numerous exercises included.

9. Partial differential equations

This conjecture remained hopelessly open till the work by Srikanth and col- laborators [23]. The result in [23] exploited the topological information of mountain pass solutions through Morse index and in a way also provided a new way of looking at break of symmetry of solu- tions. Other significant contributions in the area.

10. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

KAUST Repository

Maity, Arnab

2012-10-01

We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.

11. Spatial and temporal accuracy of asynchrony-tolerant finite difference schemes for partial differential equations at extreme scales

Science.gov (United States)

Kumari, Komal; Donzis, Diego

2017-11-01

Highly resolved computational simulations on massively parallel machines are critical in understanding the physics of a vast number of complex phenomena in nature governed by partial differential equations. Simulations at extreme levels of parallelism present many challenges with communication between processing elements (PEs) being a major bottleneck. In order to fully exploit the computational power of exascale machines one needs to devise numerical schemes that relax global synchronizations across PEs. This asynchronous computations, however, have a degrading effect on the accuracy of standard numerical schemes.We have developed asynchrony-tolerant (AT) schemes that maintain order of accuracy despite relaxed communications. We show, analytically and numerically, that these schemes retain their numerical properties with multi-step higher order temporal Runge-Kutta schemes. We also show that for a range of optimized parameters,the computation time and error for AT schemes is less than their synchronous counterpart. Stability of the AT schemes which depends upon history and random nature of delays, are also discussed. Support from NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

12. Matrix-oriented implementation for the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing flows and transport in porous media

KAUST Repository

Sun, Shuyu

2012-09-01

In this paper we introduce a new technique for the numerical solution of the various partial differential equations governing flow and transport phenomena in porous media. This method is proposed to be used in high level programming languages like MATLAB, Python, etc., which show to be more efficient for certain mathematical operations than for others. The proposed technique utilizes those operations in which these programming languages are efficient the most and keeps away as much as possible from those inefficient, time-consuming operations. In particular, this technique is based on the minimization of using multiple indices looping operations by reshaping the unknown variables into one-dimensional column vectors and performing the numerical operations using shifting matrices. The cell-centered information as well as the face-centered information are shifted to the adjacent face-center and cell-center, respectively. This enables the difference equations to be done for all the cells at once using matrix operations rather than within loops. Furthermore, for results post-processing, the face-center information can further be mapped to the physical grid nodes for contour plotting and stream lines constructions. In this work we apply this technique to flow and transport phenomena in porous media. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

13. Partial differential equation methods for stochastic dynamic optimization: an application to wind power generation with energy storage.

Science.gov (United States)

Johnson, Paul; Howell, Sydney; Duck, Peter

2017-08-13

A mixed financial/physical partial differential equation (PDE) can optimize the joint earnings of a single wind power generator (WPG) and a generic energy storage device (ESD). Physically, the PDE includes constraints on the ESD's capacity, efficiency and maximum speeds of charge and discharge. There is a mean-reverting daily stochastic cycle for WPG power output. Physically, energy can only be produced or delivered at finite rates. All suppliers must commit hourly to a finite rate of delivery C , which is a continuous control variable that is changed hourly. Financially, we assume heavy 'system balancing' penalties in continuous time, for deviations of output rate from the commitment C Also, the electricity spot price follows a mean-reverting stochastic cycle with a strong evening peak, when system balancing penalties also peak. Hence the economic goal of the WPG plus ESD, at each decision point, is to maximize expected net present value (NPV) of all earnings (arbitrage) minus the NPV of all expected system balancing penalties, along all financially/physically feasible future paths through state space. Given the capital costs for the various combinations of the physical parameters, the design and operating rules for a WPG plus ESD in a finite market may be jointly optimizable.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

14. Application Of Waterloo Maple 9.5 And Wolfram Mathematica 5.1 Software For Analytic Solving Of Certain Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations Of Physics

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Łukasz T. Stępień

2008-01-01

Full Text Available In the current paper some applications of the packet MAPLE (v. 9.5 for analytic solving ofcertain nonline partial differential equations have been presented. Additionally, for graphicpresentation of the found solutions packet MATHEMATICA (v. 5.1 has been applied.

15. the Modeling of Hydraulic Jump Generated Partially on Sloping Apron

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shaker Abdulatif Jalil

2017-12-01

Full Text Available Modeling aims to characterize system behavior and achieve simulation close as possible of the reality. The rapid energy exchange in supercritical flow to generate quiet or subcritical flow in hydraulic jump phenomenon is important in design of hydraulic structures. Experimental and numerical modeling is done on type B hydraulic jump which starts first on sloping bed and its end on horizontal bed.  Four different apron slopes are used, for each one of these slopes the jump is generated on different locations by controlling the tail water depth.  Modelling validation is based on 120 experimental runs which they show that there is reliability. The air volume fraction which creates in through hydraulic jump varied between 0.18 and 0.28. While the energy exchanges process take place within 6.6, 6.1, 5.8, 5.5 of the average relative jump height for apron slopes of 0.18, 0.14, 0.10, 0.07 respectively. Within the limitations of this study, mathematical prediction model for relative hydraulic jump height is suggested.The model having an acceptable coefficient of determination.

16. The Dif Identification in Constructed Response Items Using Partial Credit Model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Heri Retnawati

2017-10-01

17. Using Partial Credit and Response History to Model User Knowledge

Science.gov (United States)

Van Inwegen, Eric G.; Adjei, Seth A.; Wang, Yan; Heffernan, Neil T.

2015-01-01

User modelling algorithms such as Performance Factors Analysis and Knowledge Tracing seek to determine a student's knowledge state by analyzing (among other features) right and wrong answers. Anyone who has ever graded an assignment by hand knows that some answers are "more wrong" than others; i.e. they display less of an understanding…

18. Empirical bayes model comparisons for differential methylation analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Teng, Mingxiang; Wang, Yadong; Kim, Seongho; Li, Lang; Shen, Changyu; Wang, Guohua; Liu, Yunlong; Huang, Tim H M; Nephew, Kenneth P; Balch, Curt

2012-01-01

A number of empirical Bayes models (each with different statistical distribution assumptions) have now been developed to analyze differential DNA methylation using high-density oligonucleotide tiling arrays. However, it remains unclear which model performs best. For example, for analysis of differentially methylated regions for conservative and functional sequence characteristics (e.g., enrichment of transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs)), the sensitivity of such analyses, using various empirical Bayes models, remains unclear. In this paper, five empirical Bayes models were constructed, based on either a gamma distribution or a log-normal distribution, for the identification of differential methylated loci and their cell division-(1, 3, and 5) and drug-treatment-(cisplatin) dependent methylation patterns. While differential methylation patterns generated by log-normal models were enriched with numerous TFBSs, we observed almost no TFBS-enriched sequences using gamma assumption models. Statistical and biological results suggest log-normal, rather than gamma, empirical Bayes model distribution to be a highly accurate and precise method for differential methylation microarray analysis. In addition, we presented one of the log-normal models for differential methylation analysis and tested its reproducibility by simulation study. We believe this research to be the first extensive comparison of statistical modeling for the analysis of differential DNA methylation, an important biological phenomenon that precisely regulates gene transcription.

19. Empirical Bayes Model Comparisons for Differential Methylation Analysis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mingxiang Teng

2012-01-01

Full Text Available A number of empirical Bayes models (each with different statistical distribution assumptions have now been developed to analyze differential DNA methylation using high-density oligonucleotide tiling arrays. However, it remains unclear which model performs best. For example, for analysis of differentially methylated regions for conservative and functional sequence characteristics (e.g., enrichment of transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs, the sensitivity of such analyses, using various empirical Bayes models, remains unclear. In this paper, five empirical Bayes models were constructed, based on either a gamma distribution or a log-normal distribution, for the identification of differential methylated loci and their cell division—(1, 3, and 5 and drug-treatment-(cisplatin dependent methylation patterns. While differential methylation patterns generated by log-normal models were enriched with numerous TFBSs, we observed almost no TFBS-enriched sequences using gamma assumption models. Statistical and biological results suggest log-normal, rather than gamma, empirical Bayes model distribution to be a highly accurate and precise method for differential methylation microarray analysis. In addition, we presented one of the log-normal models for differential methylation analysis and tested its reproducibility by simulation study. We believe this research to be the first extensive comparison of statistical modeling for the analysis of differential DNA methylation, an important biological phenomenon that precisely regulates gene transcription.

20. Models & Searches of CPT Violation: a personal, very partial, list

Science.gov (United States)

Mavromatos, Nick E.

2018-01-01

In this talk, first I motivate theoretically, and then I review the phenomenology of, some models entailing CPT Violation (CPTV). The latter is argued to be responsible for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Cosmos, and may owe its origin to either Lorentz-violating background geometries, whose effects are strong in early epochs of the Universe but very weak today, being temperature dependent in general, or to an ill-defined CPT generator in some quantum gravity models entailing decoherence of quantum matter as a result of quantum degrees of freedom in the gravity sector that are inaccessible to the low-energy observers. In particular, for the latter category of CPTV, I argue that entangled states of neutral mesons (Kaons or B-systems), of central relevance to KLOE-2 experiment, can provide smoking-gun sensitive tests or even falsify some of these models. If CPT is ill-defined one may also encounter violations of the spin-statistics theorem, with possible consequences for the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which I only briefly touch upon.

1. Models & Searches of CPT Violation: a personal, very partial, list

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mavromatos Nick E.

2018-01-01

Full Text Available In this talk, first I motivate theoretically, and then I review the phenomenology of, some models entailing CPT Violation (CPTV. The latter is argued to be responsible for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Cosmos, and may owe its origin to either Lorentz-violating background geometries, whose effects are strong in early epochs of the Universe but very weak today, being temperature dependent in general, or to an ill-defined CPT generator in some quantum gravity models entailing decoherence of quantum matter as a result of quantum degrees of freedom in the gravity sector that are inaccessible to the low-energy observers. In particular, for the latter category of CPTV, I argue that entangled states of neutral mesons (Kaons or B-systems, of central relevance to KLOE-2 experiment, can provide smoking-gun sensitive tests or even falsify some of these models. If CPT is ill-defined one may also encounter violations of the spin-statistics theorem, with possible consequences for the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which I only briefly touch upon.

2. Soft sensor modelling by time difference, recursive partial least squares and adaptive model updating

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fu, Y; Xu, O; Yang, W; Zhou, L; Wang, J

2017-01-01

To investigate time-variant and nonlinear characteristics in industrial processes, a soft sensor modelling method based on time difference, moving-window recursive partial least square (PLS) and adaptive model updating is proposed. In this method, time difference values of input and output variables are used as training samples to construct the model, which can reduce the effects of the nonlinear characteristic on modelling accuracy and retain the advantages of recursive PLS algorithm. To solve the high updating frequency of the model, a confidence value is introduced, which can be updated adaptively according to the results of the model performance assessment. Once the confidence value is updated, the model can be updated. The proposed method has been used to predict the 4-carboxy-benz-aldehyde (CBA) content in the purified terephthalic acid (PTA) oxidation reaction process. The results show that the proposed soft sensor modelling method can reduce computation effectively, improve prediction accuracy by making use of process information and reflect the process characteristics accurately. (paper)

3. Investigating Importance Weighting of Satisfaction Scores from a Formative Model with Partial Least Squares Analysis

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Lung Hung; Tsai, Ying-Mei

2009-01-01

This study introduced a formative model to investigate the utility of importance weighting on satisfaction scores with partial least squares analysis. Based on the bottom-up theory of satisfaction evaluations, the measurement structure for weighted/unweighted domain satisfaction scores was modeled as a formative model, whereas the measurement…

4. A simple procedure to model water level fluctuations in partially inundated wetlands

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Spieksma, JFM; Schouwenaars, JM

When modelling groundwater behaviour in wetlands, there are specific problems related to the presence of open water in small-sized mosaic patterns. A simple quasi two-dimensional model to predict water level fluctuations in partially inundated wetlands is presented. In this model, the ratio between

5. Distinguishing Differential Testlet Functioning from Differential Bundle Functioning Using the Multilevel Measurement Model

Science.gov (United States)

Beretvas, S. Natasha; Walker, Cindy M.

2012-01-01

This study extends the multilevel measurement model to handle testlet-based dependencies. A flexible two-level testlet response model (the MMMT-2 model) for dichotomous items is introduced that permits assessment of differential testlet functioning (DTLF). A distinction is made between this study's conceptualization of DTLF and that of…

6. Error propagation of partial least squares for parameters optimization in NIR modeling

Science.gov (United States)

Du, Chenzhao; Dai, Shengyun; Qiao, Yanjiang; Wu, Zhisheng

2018-03-01

A novel methodology is proposed to determine the error propagation of partial least-square (PLS) for parameters optimization in near-infrared (NIR) modeling. The parameters include spectral pretreatment, latent variables and variable selection. In this paper, an open source dataset (corn) and a complicated dataset (Gardenia) were used to establish PLS models under different modeling parameters. And error propagation of modeling parameters for water quantity in corn and geniposide quantity in Gardenia were presented by both type І and type II error. For example, when variable importance in the projection (VIP), interval partial least square (iPLS) and backward interval partial least square (BiPLS) variable selection algorithms were used for geniposide in Gardenia, compared with synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS), the error weight varied from 5% to 65%, 55% and 15%. The results demonstrated how and what extent the different modeling parameters affect error propagation of PLS for parameters optimization in NIR modeling. The larger the error weight, the worse the model. Finally, our trials finished a powerful process in developing robust PLS models for corn and Gardenia under the optimal modeling parameters. Furthermore, it could provide a significant guidance for the selection of modeling parameters of other multivariate calibration models.

7. A new Bayesian model applied to cytogenetic partial body irradiation estimation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Higueras, Manuel; Puig, Pedro; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Vinnikov, Volodymyr A.; Rothkamm, Kai

2016-01-01

A new zero-inflated Poisson model is introduced for the estimation of partial body irradiation dose and fraction of body irradiated. The Bayes factors are introduced as tools to help determine whether a data set of chromosomal aberrations obtained from a blood sample reflects partial or whole body irradiation. Two examples of simulated cytogenetic radiation exposure data are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this methodology in cytogenetic biological dosimetry. (authors)

8. A new Bayesian model applied to cytogenetic partial body irradiation estimation.

Science.gov (United States)

Higueras, Manuel; Puig, Pedro; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Vinnikov, Volodymyr A; Rothkamm, Kai

2016-03-01

A new zero-inflated Poisson model is introduced for the estimation of partial body irradiation dose and fraction of body irradiated. The Bayes factors are introduced as tools to help determine whether a data set of chromosomal aberrations obtained from a blood sample reflects partial or whole body irradiation. Two examples of simulated cytogenetic radiation exposure data are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this methodology in cytogenetic biological dosimetry. © Crown copyright 2015.

9. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reynolds, Jacob G.

2013-01-01

Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH 4 H 2 O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H 2 O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH) 4 are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results detennined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components

10. Stochastic pulse models of a partially-coherent elementary field representation of pulse coherence.

Science.gov (United States)

Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R

2013-04-22

A representation of the mutual coherence function (MCF) of a light pulse as an incoherent sum of partially-coherent elementary pulses is introduced. It is shown that this MCF can be decomposed into fully and partially-coherent constituents and three different pulse models of partially-coherent constituents are constructed: single elementary-pulse fluctuations, emission of elementary fields driven by white noise, and elementary pulses triggered by Poisson impulses. The fourth-order correlation function of this last model includes as limit cases those of the fluctuating-pulse and noise-driven-emission models. These results provide a means of extending elementary-field models to higher-order coherence theory.

11. Partial least squares regression can aid in detecting differential abundance of multiple features in sets of metagenomic samples

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ondrej eLibiger

2015-12-01

Full Text Available It is now feasible to examine the composition and diversity of microbial communities (i.e., `microbiomes‘ that populate different human organs and orifices using DNA sequencing and related technologies. To explore the potential links between changes in microbial communities and various diseases in the human body, it is essential to test associations involving different species within and across microbiomes, environmental settings and disease states. Although a number of statistical techniques exist for carrying out relevant analyses, it is unclear which of these techniques exhibit the greatest statistical power to detect associations given the complexity of most microbiome datasets. We compared the statistical power of principal component regression, partial least squares regression, regularized regression, distance-based regression, Hill's diversity measures, and a modified test implemented in the popular and widely used microbiome analysis methodology 'Metastats‘ across a wide range of simulated scenarios involving changes in feature abundance between two sets of metagenomic samples. For this purpose, simulation studies were used to change the abundance of microbial species in a real dataset from a published study examining human hands. Each technique was applied to the same data, and its ability to detect the simulated change in abundance was assessed. We hypothesized that a small subset of methods would outperform the rest in terms of the statistical power. Indeed, we found that the Metastats technique modified to accommodate multivariate analysis and partial least squares regression yielded high power under the models and data sets we studied. The statistical power of diversity measure-based tests, distance-based regression and regularized regression was significantly lower. Our results provide insight into powerful analysis strategies that utilize information on species counts from large microbiome data sets exhibiting skewed frequency

12. A chiral quark model for meson electroproduction in the S11 partial wave

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Golli, B.; Sirca, S.

2011-01-01

We calculate the meson scattering and electroproduction amplitudes in the S11 partial wave in a coupled-channel approach that incorporates quasi-bound quark-model states. Using the quark wave functions and the quark-meson interaction from the Cloudy Bag Model, we obtain a good overall agreement with the available experimental results for the partial widths of the N(1535) and the N(1650) resonances as well as for the pion, eta and kaon electroproduction amplitudes. Our model is consistent with the N(1535) resonance being dominantly a genuine three-quark state rather than a quasi-bound state of mesons and baryons. (orig.)

13. An isotonic partial credit model for ordering subjects on the basis of their sum scores

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ligtvoet, R.

2012-01-01

In practice, the sum of the item scores is often used as a basis for comparing subjects. For items that have more than two ordered score categories, only the partial credit model (PCM) and special cases of this model imply that the subjects are stochastically ordered on the common latent variable.

14. The partial duration series method in regional index-flood modeling

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1997-01-01

A regional index-flood method based on the partial duration series model is introduced. The model comprises the assumptions of a Poisson-distributed number of threshold exceedances and generalized Pareto (GP) distributed peak magnitudes. The regional T-year event estimator is based on a regional...

15. Logical Specification and Analysis of Fault Tolerant Systems through Partial Model Checking

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Gnesi, S.; Etalle, Sandro; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Lenzini, G.; Martinelli, F.; Roychoudhury, A.

2003-01-01

This paper presents a framework for a logical characterisation of fault tolerance and its formal analysis based on partial model checking techniques. The framework requires a fault tolerant system to be modelled using a formal calculus, here the CCS process algebra. To this aim we propose a uniform

16. COMPUTATION MODELING OF TCDD DISRUPTION OF B CELL TERMINAL DIFFERENTIATION

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we established a computational model describing the molecular circuit underlying B cell terminal differentiation and how TCDD may affect this process by impinging upon various molecular targets.

17. Dynamic data analysis modeling data with differential equations

CERN Document Server

Ramsay, James

2017-01-01

This text focuses on the use of smoothing methods for developing and estimating differential equations following recent developments in functional data analysis and building on techniques described in Ramsay and Silverman (2005) Functional Data Analysis. The central concept of a dynamical system as a buffer that translates sudden changes in input into smooth controlled output responses has led to applications of previously analyzed data, opening up entirely new opportunities for dynamical systems. The technical level has been kept low so that those with little or no exposure to differential equations as modeling objects can be brought into this data analysis landscape. There are already many texts on the mathematical properties of ordinary differential equations, or dynamic models, and there is a large literature distributed over many fields on models for real world processes consisting of differential equations. However, a researcher interested in fitting such a model to data, or a statistician interested in...

18. Illness-death model: statistical perspective and differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Brinks, Ralph; Hoyer, Annika

2018-01-27

The aim of this work is to relate the theory of stochastic processes with the differential equations associated with multistate (compartment) models. We show that the Kolmogorov Forward Differential Equations can be used to derive a relation between the prevalence and the transition rates in the illness-death model. Then, we prove mathematical well-definedness and epidemiological meaningfulness of the prevalence of the disease. As an application, we derive the incidence of diabetes from a series of cross-sections.

19. Methods for constructing exact solutions of partial differential equations mathematical and analytical techniques with applications to engineering

CERN Document Server

Meleshko, Sergey V

2005-01-01

Differential equations, especially nonlinear, present the most effective way for describing complex physical processes. Methods for constructing exact solutions of differential equations play an important role in applied mathematics and mechanics. This book aims to provide scientists, engineers and students with an easy-to-follow, but comprehensive, description of the methods for constructing exact solutions of differential equations.

20. Maximum profile likelihood estimation of differential equation parameters through model based smoothing state estimates.

Science.gov (United States)

Campbell, D A; Chkrebtii, O

2013-12-01

Statistical inference for biochemical models often faces a variety of characteristic challenges. In this paper we examine state and parameter estimation for the JAK-STAT intracellular signalling mechanism, which exemplifies the implementation intricacies common in many biochemical inference problems. We introduce an extension to the Generalized Smoothing approach for estimating delay differential equation models, addressing selection of complexity parameters, choice of the basis system, and appropriate optimization strategies. Motivated by the JAK-STAT system, we further extend the generalized smoothing approach to consider a nonlinear observation process with additional unknown parameters, and highlight how the approach handles unobserved states and unevenly spaced observations. The methodology developed is generally applicable to problems of estimation for differential equation models with delays, unobserved states, nonlinear observation processes, and partially observed histories. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Thirring model partition functions and harmonic differentials

Science.gov (United States)

Freedman, D. Z.; Pilch, K.

1988-10-01

The partition function of the Thirring model on a Riemann surface is calculated using the representation of the model as a fermion interacting with an auxiliary vector potential. The Hodge decomposition of the potential is used and the integral over the harmonic forms is shown to reproduce exactly the soliton sum in the bosonic version of the theory.

2. Predictive Models in Differentiating Vertebral Lesions Using Multiparametric MRI.

Science.gov (United States)

Rathore, R; Parihar, A; Dwivedi, D K; Dwivedi, A K; Kohli, N; Garg, R K; Chandra, A

2017-12-01

Conventional MR imaging has high sensitivity but limited specificity in differentiating various vertebral lesions. We aimed to assess the ability of multiparametric MR imaging in differentiating spinal vertebral lesions and to develop statistical models for predicting the probability of malignant vertebral lesions. One hundred twenty-six consecutive patients underwent multiparametric MRI (conventional MR imaging, diffusion-weighted MR imaging, and in-phase/opposed-phase imaging) for vertebral lesions. Vertebral lesions were divided into 3 subgroups: infectious, noninfectious benign, and malignant. The cutoffs for apparent diffusion coefficient (expressed as 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and signal intensity ratio values were calculated, and 3 predictive models were established for differentiating these subgroups. Of the lesions of the 126 patients, 62 were infectious, 22 were noninfectious benign, and 42 were malignant. The mean ADC was 1.23 ± 0.16 for infectious, 1.41 ± 0.31 for noninfectious benign, and 1.01 ± 0.22 mm 2 /s for malignant lesions. The mean signal intensity ratio was 0.80 ± 0.13 for infectious, 0.75 ± 0.19 for noninfectious benign, and 0.98 ± 0.11 for the malignant group. The combination of ADC and signal intensity ratio showed strong discriminatory ability to differentiate lesion type. We found an area under the curve of 0.92 for the predictive model in differentiating infectious from malignant lesions and an area under the curve of 0.91 for the predictive model in differentiating noninfectious benign from malignant lesions. On the basis of the mean ADC and signal intensity ratio, we established automated statistical models that would be helpful in differentiating vertebral lesions. Our study shows that multiparametric MRI differentiates various vertebral lesions, and we established prediction models for the same. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

3. Numerical modelling of accretion, sintering and differentiation of asteroid 4 Vesta

Science.gov (United States)

Neumann, W.; Breuer, D.; Spohn, T.

2012-09-01

The Dawn mission provided more precise values of e.g. the mass, the bulk density and the dimensions of the asteroid 4 Vesta. The ground-based observations prior to the mission indicated a dry, basaltic surface composition meaning that the body is differentiated and has been resurfaced by basaltic lava flows. The latter distinguishes Vesta from primordial planetesimals like 21 Lutetia which retained its native surface material (and may still be partially differentiated[1]). The differentiated interior is confirmed by the mass concentration towards the centre of Vesta measured by Dawn. In fact, the core is expected to have 214-226 km in diameter[2]. In the present study numerical calculations of the thermochemical evolution of the asteroid 4 Vesta have been performed adopting the new data obtained by the Dawn mission. We have used the thermal evolution model by [3], which includes accretion (based on the accretion model by [4]), sintering of the accreting porous material due to hot pressing[5], associated changes of the material properties (such as density and thermal conductivity), melting, convective heat transport and differentiation by porous flow of chondritic planetesimals. The heat transport by melt segregation is modeled assuming melt flow in porous media and by supplementing the energy balance equation with additional advection terms. The advection terms for iron and silicate melts are calculated using the Darcy flow equation. This approach is valid for melt fractions large enough such that the melt forms an interconnected network but lower than the rheological critical melt fraction (≈50%). In particular we compare the evolution scenarios arising from the instantaneous (Fig. 1)accretion of Vesta at different formation times t0 (relative to the formation of the calcium-aluminum rich inclusions) with those arising from various noninstantaneous accretion rates. This is important due to the competition between heating in the interior and heat loss through the

4. Highly accelerated cardiac cine parallel MRI using low-rank matrix completion and partial separability model

Science.gov (United States)

Lyu, Jingyuan; Nakarmi, Ukash; Zhang, Chaoyi; Ying, Leslie

2016-05-01

This paper presents a new approach to highly accelerated dynamic parallel MRI using low rank matrix completion, partial separability (PS) model. In data acquisition, k-space data is moderately randomly undersampled at the center kspace navigator locations, but highly undersampled at the outer k-space for each temporal frame. In reconstruction, the navigator data is reconstructed from undersampled data using structured low-rank matrix completion. After all the unacquired navigator data is estimated, the partial separable model is used to obtain partial k-t data. Then the parallel imaging method is used to acquire the entire dynamic image series from highly undersampled data. The proposed method has shown to achieve high quality reconstructions with reduction factors up to 31, and temporal resolution of 29ms, when the conventional PS method fails.

5. Simplified Method for Modeling the Impact of Arbitrary Partial Shading Conditions on PV Array Performance: Preprint

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris

2015-09-15

It is often difficult to model the effects of partial shading conditions on PV array performance, as shade losses are nonlinear and depend heavily on a system's particular configuration. This work describes and implements a simple method for modeling shade loss: a database of shade impact results (loss percentages), generated using a validated, detailed simulation tool and encompassing a wide variety of shading scenarios. The database is intended to predict shading losses in crystalline silicon PV arrays and is accessed using basic inputs generally available in any PV simulation tool. Performance predictions using the database are within 1-2% of measured data for several partially shaded PV systems, and within 1% of those predicted by the full, detailed simulation tool on an annual basis. The shade loss database shows potential to considerably improve performance prediction for partially shaded PV systems.

6. Implementing The Automated Phases Of The Partially-Automated Digital Triage Process Model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gary D Cantrell

2012-12-01

Full Text Available Digital triage is a pre-digital-forensic phase that sometimes takes place as a way of gathering quick intelligence. Although effort has been undertaken to model the digital forensics process, little has been done to date to model digital triage. This work discuses the further development of a model that does attempt to address digital triage the Partially-automated Crime Specific Digital Triage Process model. The model itself will be presented along with a description of how its automated functionality was implemented to facilitate model testing.

7. An Efficient Implementation of Partial Condensing for Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Frison, Gianluca; Kouzoupis, Dimitris; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

2016-01-01

Partial (or block) condensing is a recently proposed technique to reformulate a Model Predictive Control (MPC) problem into a form more suitable for structure-exploiting Quadratic Programming (QP) solvers. It trades off horizon length for input vector size, and this degree of freedom can...

8. Bioeconomic modelling of a prey predator system using differential ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Bioeconomic modelling of a prey predator system using differential algebraic equations. ... Through considering delay as a bifurcation parameter, the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation of the proposed model system with positive economic profit is shown in the neighborhood of the co-existing equilibrium point. Finally, some ...

9. Linear Mixture Models and Partial Unmixing in Multi- and Hyperspectral Image Data

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

1998-01-01

As a supplement or an alternative to classification of hyperspectral image data the linear mixture model is considered in order to obtain estimates of abundance of each class or end-member in pixels with mixed membership. Full unmixing and the partial unmixing methods orthogonal subspace projection...... partial unmixing when we know the desired end-member spectra only and not the full set of end-member spectra. This is an advantage over full unmixing and OSP. An example with a simple simulated 2-band image shows the ability of the CEM method to isolate the desired signal. A case study with a 30 bands...

10. Doubly robust estimation of generalized partial linear models for longitudinal data with dropouts.

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, Huiming; Fu, Bo; Qin, Guoyou; Zhu, Zhongyi

2017-12-01

We develop a doubly robust estimation of generalized partial linear models for longitudinal data with dropouts. Our method extends the highly efficient aggregate unbiased estimating function approach proposed in Qu et al. (2010) to a doubly robust one in the sense that under missing at random (MAR), our estimator is consistent when either the linear conditional mean condition is satisfied or a model for the dropout process is correctly specified. We begin with a generalized linear model for the marginal mean, and then move forward to a generalized partial linear model, allowing for nonparametric covariate effect by using the regression spline smoothing approximation. We establish the asymptotic theory for the proposed method and use simulation studies to compare its finite sample performance with that of Qu's method, the complete-case generalized estimating equation (GEE) and the inverse-probability weighted GEE. The proposed method is finally illustrated using data from a longitudinal cohort study. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

11. The partial duration series method in regional index-flood modeling

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1997-01-01

A regional index-flood method based on the partial duration series model is introduced. The model comprises the assumptions of a Poisson-distributed number of threshold exceedances and generalized Pareto (GP) distributed peak magnitudes. The regional T-year event estimator is based on a regional ...... preferable to at-site estimation in moderately heterogeneous and homogeneous regions for large sample sizes. Modest intersite dependence has only a small effect on the performance of the regional index-flood estimator.......A regional index-flood method based on the partial duration series model is introduced. The model comprises the assumptions of a Poisson-distributed number of threshold exceedances and generalized Pareto (GP) distributed peak magnitudes. The regional T-year event estimator is based on a regional...

12. Multidimensional model of apathy in older adults using partial least squares--path modeling.

Science.gov (United States)

Raffard, Stéphane; Bortolon, Catherine; Burca, Marianna; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Capdevielle, Delphine

2016-06-01

Apathy defined as a mental state characterized by a lack of goal-directed behavior is prevalent and associated with poor functioning in older adults. The main objective of this study was to identify factors contributing to the distinct dimensions of apathy (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) in older adults without dementia. One hundred and fifty participants (mean age, 80.42) completed self-rated questionnaires assessing apathy, emotional distress, anticipatory pleasure, motivational systems, physical functioning, quality of life, and cognitive functioning. Data were analyzed using partial least squares variance-based structural equation modeling in order to examine factors contributing to the three different dimensions of apathy in our sample. Overall, the different facets of apathy were associated with cognitive functioning, anticipatory pleasure, sensitivity to reward, and physical functioning, but the contribution of these different factors to the three dimensions of apathy differed significantly. More specifically, the impact of anticipatory pleasure and physical functioning was stronger for the cognitive than for emotional apathy. Conversely, the impact of sensibility to reward, although small, was slightly stronger on emotional apathy. Regarding behavioral apathy, again we found similar latent variables except for the cognitive functioning whose impact was not statistically significant. Our results highlight the need to take into account various mechanisms involved in the different facets of apathy in older adults without dementia, including not only cognitive factors but also motivational variables and aspects related to physical disability. Clinical implications are discussed.

13. Stochastic Differential Equations in Artificial Pancreas Modelling

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

Type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5% of the total diabetes population. It is caused by the destruction of insulin producing β-cells in the pancreas. Various treatment strategies are available today, some of which include advanced technological devices such as an insulin pump...... and a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). Despite these technological advances in the treatment of type 1 diabetes, the disease still poses an enormous and constant challenge for the patients. To obtain tight glucose control the patients are required to assess how much they will eat prior to the meal. They have...... the benefits and challenges by using SDEs compared to traditional methods on the basis of the results of the project. First of all, we designed a clinical study to obtain high quality data from type 1 diabetes patients to identify the models from. The study included the main factors influencing the glucose...

14. Exotic smoothness and physics differential topology and spacetime models

CERN Document Server

Asselmeyer-Maluga, T

2007-01-01

The recent revolution in differential topology related to the discovery of non-standard ("exotic") smoothness structures on topologically trivial manifolds such as R4 suggests many exciting opportunities for applications of potentially deep importance for the spacetime models of theoretical physics, especially general relativity. This rich panoply of new differentiable structures lies in the previously unexplored region between topology and geometry. Just as physical geometry was thought to be trivial before Einstein, physicists have continued to work under the tacit - but now shown to be incorrect - assumption that differentiability is uniquely determined by topology for simple four-manifolds. Since diffeomorphisms are the mathematical models for physical coordinate transformations, Einstein's relativity principle requires that these models be physically inequivalent. This book provides an introductory survey of some of the relevant mathematics and presents preliminary results and suggestions for further app...

15. Normal differential renal function does not indicate a normal kidney after partial ureteropelvic obstruction and subsequent relief in 2-week-old piglets

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dissing, Thomas H.; Mikkelsen, Mette Marie; Pedersen, Michael; Froekiaer, Joergen; Djurhuus, Jens Christian [University of Aarhus, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus (Denmark); Eskild-Jensen, Anni [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus (Denmark); Gordon, Isky [University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Radiology and Physics Unit, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

2008-09-15

We investigated the functional consequences of relieving ureteric obstruction in young pigs with experimental hydronephrosis (HN) induced by partial unilateral ureteropelvic obstruction. Three groups of animals were followed from the age of 2 weeks to the age of 14 weeks: Eight animals had severe or grades 3-4 HN throughout the study. Six animals had relief of the obstruction after 4 weeks. Six animals received sham operations at both ages. Morphological and functional examinations were performed at age 6 weeks and again at age 14 weeks and consisted of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), technetium-diethylenetriaminepentaaceticacid ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) renography, renal technetium-dimercaptosuccinicacid ({sup 99m}Tc-DMSA) scintigraphy, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. After relief of the partial obstruction, there was reduction of the pelvic diameter and improvement of urinary drainage. Global and relative kidney function was not significantly affected by either obstruction or its relief. Renal {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy showed a change in both the appearance of the kidney and a change in the distribution within kidneys even after relief of obstruction. This study shows that partial ureteric obstruction in young pigs may be associated with little effect on global and differential kidney function. However, even after relief of HN, the distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in the kidney remains abnormal suggesting that a normal differential renal function may not represent a normal kidney. (orig.)

16. A regional and nonstationary model for partial duration series of extreme rainfall

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

2017-01-01

of extreme rainfall. The framework is built on a partial duration series approach with a nonstationary, regional threshold value. The model is based on generalized linear regression solved by generalized estimation equations. It allows a spatial correlation between the stations in the network and accounts...... furthermore for variable observation periods at each station and in each year. Marginal regional and temporal regression models solved by generalized least squares are used to validate and discuss the results of the full spatiotemporal model. The model is applied on data from a large Danish rain gauge network...

17. Periodic solutions of nonautonomous differential systems modeling obesity population

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arenas, Abraham J.; Gonzalez-Parra, Gilberto; Jodar, Lucas

2009-01-01

In this paper we study the periodic behaviour of the solutions of a nonautonomous model for obesity population. The mathematical model represented by a nonautonomous system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is used to model the dynamics of obese populations. Numerical simulations suggest periodic behaviour of subpopulations solutions. Sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a periodic positive solution are obtained using a continuation theorem based on coincidence degree theory.

18. Periodic solutions of nonautonomous differential systems modeling obesity population

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arenas, Abraham J. [Departamento de Matematicas y Estadistica, Universidad de Cordoba Monteria (Colombia)], E-mail: aarenas@sinu.unicordoba.edu.co; Gonzalez-Parra, Gilberto [Departamento de Calculo, Universidad de los Andes, Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: gcarlos@ula.ve; Jodar, Lucas [Instituto de Matematica Multidisciplinar, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Edificio 8G, 2o, 46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: ljodar@imm.upv.es

2009-10-30

In this paper we study the periodic behaviour of the solutions of a nonautonomous model for obesity population. The mathematical model represented by a nonautonomous system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is used to model the dynamics of obese populations. Numerical simulations suggest periodic behaviour of subpopulations solutions. Sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a periodic positive solution are obtained using a continuation theorem based on coincidence degree theory.

19. Inventory Model with Partial Backordering When Backordered Customers Delay Purchase after Stockout-Restoration

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ren-Qian Zhang

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Many inventory models with partial backordering assume that the backordered demand must be filled instantly after stockout restoration. In practice, however, the backordered customers may successively revisit the store because of the purchase delay behavior, producing a limited backorder demand rate and resulting in an extra inventory holding cost. Hence, in this paper we formulate the inventory model with partial backordering considering the purchase delay of the backordered customers and assuming that the backorder demand rate is proportional to the remaining backordered demand. Particularly, we model the problem by introducing a new inventory cost component of holding the backordered items, which has not been considered in the existing models. We propose an algorithm with a two-layer structure based on Lipschitz Optimization (LO to minimize the total inventory cost. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm outperforms two benchmarks in both optimality and efficiency. We also observe that the earlier the backordered customer revisits the store, the smaller the inventory cost and the fill rate are, but the longer the order cycle is. In addition, if the backordered customers revisit the store without too much delay, the basic EOQ with partial backordering approximates our model very well.

20. Benefits and limitations of animal models in partial bladder outlet obstruction for translational research.

Science.gov (United States)

Kitta, Takeya; Kanno, Yukiko; Chiba, Hiroki; Higuchi, Madoka; Ouchi, Mifuka; Togo, Mio; Moriya, Kimihiko; Shinohara, Nobuo

2018-01-01

The functions of the lower urinary tract have been investigated for more than a century. Lower urinary tract symptoms, such as incomplete bladder emptying, weak urine stream, daytime urinary frequency, urgency, urge incontinence and nocturia after partial bladder outlet obstruction, is a frequent cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia in aging men. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The use of animal models is absolutely imperative for understanding the pathophysiological processes involved in bladder dysfunction. Surgical induction has been used to study lower urinary tract functions of numerous animal species, such as pig, dog, rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse, of both sexes. Several morphological and functional modifications under partial bladder outlet obstruction have not only been observed in the bladder, but also in the central nervous system. Understanding the changes of the lower urinary tract functions induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction would also contribute to appropriate drug development for treating these pathophysiological conditions. In the present review, we discuss techniques for creating partial bladder outlet obstruction, the characteristics of several species, as well as issues of each model, and their translational value. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

1. The role of sonography in differentiating full versus partial distal biceps tendon tears: correlation with surgical findings.

Science.gov (United States)

Lobo, Lucas Da Gama; Fessell, David P; Miller, Bruce S; Kelly, Aine; Lee, Jee Young; Brandon, Catherine; Jacobson, Jon A

2013-01-01

The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of ultrasound for distinguishing complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon versus partial tear and versus a normal biceps tendon. Surgical findings were used as the reference standard in cases of tear. Clinical follow-up was used to assess the normal tendons. The study population consisted of 45 consecutive elbow ultrasound cases with surgical confirmation and six cases of a clinically normal distal biceps tendon that underwent elbow ultrasound for suspicion of injury to a structure other than the biceps tendon. Cases underwent consensus review by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendons were classified as normal biceps tendon, partial tear, or complete tear. The presence or absence of posterior acoustic shadowing at the distal biceps tendon was also assessed. The ultrasound findings were then compared with the surgical findings and clinical follow-up. Ultrasound showed 95% sensitivity, 71% specificity, and 91% accuracy for the diagnosis of complete versus partial distal biceps tendon tears. Posterior acoustic shadowing at the distal biceps had sensitivity of 97% and accuracy of 91% for indicating complete tear versus partial tear and sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 98% for indicating complete tear versus normal tendon. Ultrasound can play a role in the diagnosis of elbow injuries when a distal biceps brachii tendon tear is suspected.

2. Differential model of macroeconomic growth with endogenic cyclicity

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-09-01

Full Text Available Objective to elaborate a mathematical model of economic growth taking into account the cyclical nature of macroeconomic dynamics with the model parameters based on the Russian economy statistics. Methods economic and mathematical modeling system analysis regression factor analysis econometric time series analysis. Results the article states that under unstable economic growth in Russia forecasting of strategic prospects of the Russian economy is one of the topical directions of scientific studies. Furthermore construction of predictive models should be based on multiple factors taking into account such basic concepts as the neoKeynesian HarrodDomar model Ramsey ndash Cass ndash Koopmans model S. V. Dubovskiyrsquos concept as well as the neoclassical growth model by R. Solow. They served as the basis for developing a multifactor differential economic growth model which is a modification of the neoclassical growth model by R. Solow taking into account the laborsaving and capitalsaving forms of scientifictechnical progress and the Keynesian concept of investment. The model parameters are determined based on the dynamics of actual GDP employment fixed assets and investments in fixed assets for 19652016 in Russia on the basis of official statistics. The generalized model showed the presence of longwave fluctuations that are not detected during the individual periods modeling. The cyclical nature of macroeconomic dynamics with a period of 54 years was found which corresponds to the parameters of long waves by N. D. Kondratiev. Basing on the model the macroeconomic growth forecast was generated which shows that after 2020 the increase of scientifictechnical progress will be negative. Scientific novelty a model is proposed of the scientifictechnical progress indicator showing the growth rate of the capital productivity ratio to the saving rate a differential model of macroeconomic growth is obtained which endogenously takes cyclicity into account

3. 2D sigma models and differential Poisson algebras

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arias, Cesar [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Boulanger, Nicolas [Service de Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons - UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique,Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson,Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Sundell, Per [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Torres-Gomez, Alexander [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile-UACh,Valdivia (Chile)

2015-08-18

We construct a two-dimensional topological sigma model whose target space is endowed with a Poisson algebra for differential forms. The model consists of an equal number of bosonic and fermionic fields of worldsheet form degrees zero and one. The action is built using exterior products and derivatives, without any reference to a worldsheet metric, and is of the covariant Hamiltonian form. The equations of motion define a universally Cartan integrable system. In addition to gauge symmetries, the model has one rigid nilpotent supersymmetry corresponding to the target space de Rham operator. The rigid and local symmetries of the action, respectively, are equivalent to the Poisson bracket being compatible with the de Rham operator and obeying graded Jacobi identities. We propose that perturbative quantization of the model yields a covariantized differential star product algebra of Kontsevich type. We comment on the resemblance to the topological A model.

4. Alternans promotion in cardiac electrophysiology models by delay differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Gomes, Johnny M.; dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Cherry, Elizabeth M.

2017-09-01

Cardiac electrical alternans is a state of alternation between long and short action potentials and is frequently associated with harmful cardiac conditions. Different dynamic mechanisms can give rise to alternans; however, many cardiac models based on ordinary differential equations are not able to reproduce this phenomenon. A previous study showed that alternans can be induced by the introduction of delay differential equations (DDEs) in the formulations of the ion channel gating variables of a canine myocyte model. The present work demonstrates that this technique is not model-specific by successfully promoting alternans using DDEs for five cardiac electrophysiology models that describe different types of myocytes, with varying degrees of complexity. By analyzing results across the different models, we observe two potential requirements for alternans promotion via DDEs for ionic gates: (i) the gate must have a significant influence on the action potential duration and (ii) a delay must significantly impair the gate's recovery between consecutive action potentials.

5. Alternans promotion in cardiac electrophysiology models by delay differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Gomes, Johnny M; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Cherry, Elizabeth M

2017-09-01

Cardiac electrical alternans is a state of alternation between long and short action potentials and is frequently associated with harmful cardiac conditions. Different dynamic mechanisms can give rise to alternans; however, many cardiac models based on ordinary differential equations are not able to reproduce this phenomenon. A previous study showed that alternans can be induced by the introduction of delay differential equations (DDEs) in the formulations of the ion channel gating variables of a canine myocyte model. The present work demonstrates that this technique is not model-specific by successfully promoting alternans using DDEs for five cardiac electrophysiology models that describe different types of myocytes, with varying degrees of complexity. By analyzing results across the different models, we observe two potential requirements for alternans promotion via DDEs for ionic gates: (i) the gate must have a significant influence on the action potential duration and (ii) a delay must significantly impair the gate's recovery between consecutive action potentials.

6. Systematic model development for partial nitrification of landfill leachate in a SBR

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ganigue, R.; Volcke, E.I.P.; Puig, S.

2010-01-01

This study deals with partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (PN-SBR) treating raw urban landfill leachate. In order to enhance process insight (e.g. quantify interactions between aeration, CO2 stripping, alkalinity, pH, nitrification kinetics), a mathematical model has been set up....... Following a systematic procedure, the model was successfully constructed, calibrated and validated using data from short-term (one cycle) operation of the PN-SBR. The evaluation of the model revealed a good fit to the main physical-chemical measurements (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and inorganic carbon...

7. Building Context with Tumor Growth Modeling Projects in Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Beier, Julie C.; Gevertz, Jana L.; Howard, Keith E.

2015-01-01

The use of modeling projects serves to integrate, reinforce, and extend student knowledge. Here we present two projects related to tumor growth appropriate for a first course in differential equations. They illustrate the use of problem-based learning to reinforce and extend course content via a writing or research experience. Here we discuss…

8. Constructive remodeling of biologic scaffolds is dependent on early exposure to physiologic bladder filling in a canine partial cystectomy model.

Science.gov (United States)

Boruch, Alan V; Nieponice, Alejandro; Qureshi, Irfan R; Gilbert, Thomas W; Badylak, Stephen F

2010-06-15

Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been used to facilitate the constructive remodeling of several tissue types. Previous studies suggest that the ECM scaffold remodeling process is dependent on microenvironmental factors, including tissue-specific biomechanical loading. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of long-term catheterization (LTC), with its associated inhibition of bladder filling and physiologic biomechanical loading, on ECM scaffold remodeling following partial cystectomy in a canine model. Reconstruction of the partial cystectomy site was performed using ECM scaffolds prepared from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) or porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM). Animals were randomly assigned to either a long-term catheterization (LTC) group (n=5, catheterized 28 d) or a short-term catheterization group (STC, n=5, catheterized 24 h), and scaffold remodeling was assessed by histologic methods at 4 and 12 wk postoperatively. By 4 wk, animals in the STC group showed a well-developed and highly differentiated urothelium, a robust vascularization network, abundant smooth muscle actin (SMA), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) expressing spindle-shaped cells, and many neuronal processes associated with newly formed arterioles. In contrast, at 4 wk the scaffolds in LTC animals were not epithelialized, and did not express neuronal markers. The scaffolds in the LTC group developed a dense granulation tissue containing SMA+, smMHC-, spindle-shaped cells that were morphologically and phenotypically consistent with myofibroblasts, but not smooth muscle cells. By 12 wk postoperatively, the ECM scaffolds in the STC animals showed a constructive remodeling response, with a differentiated urothelium and islands of smooth muscle cells within the remodeled scaffold. In contrast, at 12 wk the scaffolds in LTC animals had a remodeling response more consistent with fibrosis even though catheters had been

9. Effect of runway training on rat brain tyrosine hydroxylase: differential effect of continuous and partial reinforcement schedules.

Science.gov (United States)

Boarder, M R; Feldon, J; Gray, J A; Fillenz, M

1979-12-01

Previous experiments have implicated ascending noradrenergic systems in the development of the behavioural responses to different patterns of reward. In this report food deprived male Sprague--Dawley rats were trained to run a straight alley for good reward on a continuous reinforcement (CRF) or a partial reinforcement (PRF) schedule. Tyrosine hydroxylase measured in a partially solubilized preparation from hippocampus and hypothalamus at the end of acquisition was not different from controls, indicating that enzyme induction does not occur during either training schedules. However, hippocampal synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylation rates from the CRF group was significantly higher than from either the PRF group or the handled controls. This indicates that at the end of the acquisition schedule the noradrenergic projection to hippocampus was more active in the CRF group than with the PRF group or the handled control.

10. Comparison of annual maximum series and partial duration series methods for modeling extreme hydrologic events

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Madsen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Peter F.; Rosbjerg, Dan

1997-01-01

Two different models for analyzing extreme hydrologic events, based on, respectively, partial duration series (PDS) and annual maximum series (AMS), are compared. The PDS model assumes a generalized Pareto distribution for modeling threshold exceedances corresponding to a generalized extreme value...... distribution for annual maxima. The performance of the two models in terms of the uncertainty of the T-year event estimator is evaluated in the cases of estimation with, respectively, the maximum likelihood (ML) method, the method of moments (MOM), and the method of probability weighted moments (PWM...... of the considered methods reveals that in general, one should use the PDS model with MOM estimation for negative shape parameters, the PDS model with exponentially distributed exceedances if the shape parameter is close to zero, the AMS model with MOM estimation for moderately positive shape parameters, and the PDS...

11. Mathematical Modeling of Partial-Porous Circular Cylinders with Water Waves

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Min-Su Park

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The interaction of water waves with partially porous-surfaced circular cylinders was investigated. A three-dimensional numerical modeling was developed based on the complete mathematical formulation of the eigenfunction expansion method in the potential flow. Darcy’s law was applied to describe the porous boundary. The partial-porous cylinder is composed of a porous-surfaced body near the free surface, and an impermeable-surfaced body with an end-capped rigid bottom below the porous region. The optimal ratio of the porous portion to the impermeable portion can be adopted to design an effective ocean structure with minimal hydrodynamic impact. To scrutinize the hydrodynamic interactions in N partial-porous circular cylinders, the computational fluid domain is divided into three regions: an exterior region, N inner porous body regions, and N regions beneath the body. Wave excitation forces and wave run-up on multibodied partial-porous cylinders are calculated and compared for various porous-portion ratios and wave conditions, all of which significantly influence the hydrodynamic property.

12. A partial hearing animal model for chronic electro-acoustic stimulation

Science.gov (United States)

Irving, S.; Wise, A. K.; Millard, R. E.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

2014-08-01

Objective. Cochlear implants (CIs) have provided some auditory function to hundreds of thousands of people around the world. Although traditionally carried out only in profoundly deaf patients, the eligibility criteria for implantation have recently been relaxed to include many partially-deaf patients with useful levels of hearing. These patients receive both electrical stimulation from their implant and acoustic stimulation via their residual hearing (electro-acoustic stimulation; EAS) and perform very well. It is unclear how EAS improves speech perception over electrical stimulation alone, and little evidence exists about the nature of the interactions between electric and acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, clinical results suggest that some patients that undergo cochlear implantation lose some, if not all, of their residual hearing, reducing the advantages of EAS over electrical stimulation alone. A reliable animal model with clinically-relevant partial deafness combined with clinical CIs is important to enable these issues to be studied. This paper outlines such a model that has been successfully used in our laboratory. Approach. This paper outlines a battery of techniques used in our laboratory to generate, validate and examine an animal model of partial deafness and chronic CI use. Main results. Ototoxic deafening produced bilaterally symmetrical hearing thresholds in neonatal and adult animals. Electrical activation of the auditory system was confirmed, and all animals were chronically stimulated via adapted clinical CIs. Acoustic compound action potentials (CAPs) were obtained from partially-hearing cochleae, using the CI amplifier. Immunohistochemical analysis allows the effects of deafness and electrical stimulation on cell survival to be studied. Significance. This animal model has applications in EAS research, including investigating the functional interactions between electric and acoustic stimulation, and the development of techniques to maintain residual

13. Methods of mathematical modelling continuous systems and differential equations

CERN Document Server

Witelski, Thomas

2015-01-01

This book presents mathematical modelling and the integrated process of formulating sets of equations to describe real-world problems. It describes methods for obtaining solutions of challenging differential equations stemming from problems in areas such as chemical reactions, population dynamics, mechanical systems, and fluid mechanics. Chapters 1 to 4 cover essential topics in ordinary differential equations, transport equations and the calculus of variations that are important for formulating models. Chapters 5 to 11 then develop more advanced techniques including similarity solutions, matched asymptotic expansions, multiple scale analysis, long-wave models, and fast/slow dynamical systems. Methods of Mathematical Modelling will be useful for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in applied mathematics, engineering and other applied sciences.

14. High Voltage Breakdown, Partial Discharge and Aging in Lapped Tape Insulated Cold Dielectric Model Cables

Science.gov (United States)

Sauers, I.; James, D. R.; Pace, M. O.; Ellis, A. R.; Muller, A. C.

2004-06-01

High temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables generally follow either of two generic designs, cold dielectric and warm dielectric. In the cold dielectric design, lapped tape insulation and liquid nitrogen are used in combination to provide the electrical insulation between the conductor and the ground shield of an HTS cable. Lapped tape insulated model cables have been tested at high voltage, including AC breakdown, negative impulse breakdown, partial discharge, and long term aging under AC stress. Tapes tested include Cryoflex™ (a proprietary tape developed by Southwire) and PPLP® (a commercial semi synthetic tape). Two high voltage cryostats have been built for short and long term aging studies that permit testing of model cables under the combined conditions of high electric stress, cryogenic temperature and elevated pressures up to 15 bar. For the aging studies, a log-log plot of electric stress versus time-to-breakdown has yielded an estimate of cable lifetime. Since aging at cryogenic temperatures is not expected to have a thermal cause, dielectric wear in HTS cables reduces to partial discharge as the primary aging mechanism. Phase and amplitude resolved partial discharge data of model cables in liquid nitrogen will be presented.

15. Filtering a statistically exactly solvable test model for turbulent tracers from partial observations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gershgorin, B.; Majda, A.J.

2011-01-01

A statistically exactly solvable model for passive tracers is introduced as a test model for the authors' Nonlinear Extended Kalman Filter (NEKF) as well as other filtering algorithms. The model involves a Gaussian velocity field and a passive tracer governed by the advection-diffusion equation with an imposed mean gradient. The model has direct relevance to engineering problems such as the spread of pollutants in the air or contaminants in the water as well as climate change problems concerning the transport of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide with strongly intermittent probability distributions consistent with the actual observations of the atmosphere. One of the attractive properties of the model is the existence of the exact statistical solution. In particular, this unique feature of the model provides an opportunity to design and test fast and efficient algorithms for real-time data assimilation based on rigorous mathematical theory for a turbulence model problem with many active spatiotemporal scales. Here, we extensively study the performance of the NEKF which uses the exact first and second order nonlinear statistics without any approximations due to linearization. The role of partial and sparse observations, the frequency of observations and the observation noise strength in recovering the true signal, its spectrum, and fat tail probability distribution are the central issues discussed here. The results of our study provide useful guidelines for filtering realistic turbulent systems with passive tracers through partial observations.

16. Uniqueness of solutions of a generalized Cauchy problem for a system of first order partial functional differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Milena Netka

2009-01-01

Full Text Available The paper is concerned with weak solutions of a generalized Cauchy problem for a nonlinear system of first order differential functional equations. A theorem on the uniqueness of a solution is proved. Nonlinear estimates of the Perron type are assumed. A method of integral functional inequalities is used.

17. Model test on partial expansion in stratified subsidence during foundation pit dewatering

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Jianxiu; Deng, Yansheng; Ma, Ruiqiang; Liu, Xiaotian; Guo, Qingfeng; Liu, Shaoli; Shao, Yule; Wu, Linbo; Zhou, Jie; Yang, Tianliang; Wang, Hanmei; Huang, Xinlei

2018-02-01

Partial expansion was observed in stratified subsidence during foundation pit dewatering. However, the phenomenon was suspected to be an error because the compression of layers is known to occur when subsidence occurs. A slice of the subsidence cone induced by drawdown was selected as the prototype. Model tests were performed to investigate the phenomenon. The underlying confined aquifer was generated as a movable rigid plate with a hinge at one end. The overlying layers were simulated with remolded materials collected from a construction site. Model tests performed under the conceptual model indicated that partial expansion occurred in stratified settlements under coordination deformation and consolidation conditions. During foundation pit dewatering, rapid drawdown resulted in rapid subsidence in the dewatered confined aquifer. The rapidly subsiding confined aquifer top was the bottom deformation boundary of the overlying layers. Non-coordination deformation was observed at the top and bottom of the subsiding overlying layers. The subsidence of overlying layers was larger at the bottom than at the top. The layers expanded and became thicker. The phenomenon was verified using numerical simulation method based on finite difference method. Compared with numerical simulation results, the boundary effect of the physical tests was obvious in the observation point close to the movable endpoint. The tensile stress of the overlying soil layers induced by the underlying settlement of dewatered confined aquifer contributed to the expansion phenomenon. The partial expansion of overlying soil layers was defined as inversed rebound. The inversed rebound was induced by inversed coordination deformation. Compression was induced by the consolidation in the overlying soil layers because of drainage. Partial expansion occurred when the expansion exceeded the compression. Considering the inversed rebound, traditional layer-wise summation method for calculating subsidence should be

18. A stochastic differential equation model for transcriptional regulatory networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Quirk Michelle D

2007-05-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background This work explores the quantitative characteristics of the local transcriptional regulatory network based on the availability of time dependent gene expression data sets. The dynamics of the gene expression level are fitted via a stochastic differential equation model, yielding a set of specific regulators and their contribution. Results We show that a beta sigmoid function that keeps track of temporal parameters is a novel prototype of a regulatory function, with the effect of improving the performance of the profile prediction. The stochastic differential equation model follows well the dynamic of the gene expression levels. Conclusion When adapted to biological hypotheses and combined with a promoter analysis, the method proposed here leads to improved models of the transcriptional regulatory networks.

19. Optimal control in a model of malaria with differential susceptibility

Science.gov (United States)

Hincapié, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan

2014-06-01

A malaria model with differential susceptibility is analyzed using the optimal control technique. In the model the human population is classified as susceptible, infected and recovered. Susceptibility is assumed dependent on genetic, physiological, or social characteristics that vary between individuals. The model is described by a system of differential equations that relate the human and vector populations, so that the infection is transmitted to humans by vectors, and the infection is transmitted to vectors by humans. The model considered is analyzed using the optimal control method when the control consists in using of insecticide-treated nets and educational campaigns; and the optimality criterion is to minimize the number of infected humans, while keeping the cost as low as is possible. One first goal is to determine the effects of differential susceptibility in the proposed control mechanism; and the second goal is to determine the algebraic form of the basic reproductive number of the model. All computations are performed using computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is claimed that the analytical results obtained are important for the design and implementation of control measures for malaria. It is suggested some future investigations such as the application of the method to other vector-borne diseases such as dengue or yellow fever; and also it is suggested the possible application of free software of computer algebra like Maxima.

20. Comparison of annual maximum series and partial duration series methods for modeling extreme hydrologic events

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Madsen, Henrik; Pearson, Charles P.; Rosbjerg, Dan

1997-01-01

Two regional estimation schemes, based on, respectively, partial duration series (PDS) and annual maximum series (AMS), are compared. The PDS model assumes a generalized Pareto (GP) distribution for modeling threshold exceedances corresponding to a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution......-way grouping based on annual average rainfall is sufficient to attain homogeneity for PDS, whereas a further partitioning is necessary for AMS. In determination of the regional parent distribution using L-moment ratio diagrams, PDS data, in contrast to AMS data, provide an unambiguous interpretation......, supporting a GP distribution....

1. Exotic muon-to-positron conversion in nuclei: partial transition sum evaluation by using shell model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Divari, P.C.; Vergados, J.D.; Kosmas, T.S.; Skouras, L.D.

2001-01-01

A comprehensive study of the exotic (μ - ,e + ) conversion in 27 Al, 27 Al(μ - ,e + ) 27 Na is presented. The relevant operators are deduced assuming one-pion and two-pion modes in the framework of intermediate neutrino mixing models, paying special attention to the light neutrino case. The total rate is calculated by summing over partial transition strengths for all kinematically accessible final states derived with s-d shell model calculations employing the well-known Wildenthal realistic interaction

2. Pseudo-partial likelihood estimators for the Cox regression model with missing covariates.

Science.gov (United States)

Luo, Xiaodong; Tsai, Wei Yann; Xu, Qiang

2009-09-01

By embedding the missing covariate data into a left-truncated and right-censored survival model, we propose a new class of weighted estimating functions for the Cox regression model with missing covariates. The resulting estimators, called the pseudo-partial likelihood estimators, are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal. A simulation study demonstrates that, compared with the popular inverse-probability weighted estimators, the new estimators perform better when the observation probability is small and improve efficiency of estimating the missing covariate effects. Application to a practical example is reported.

3. Robust-BD Estimation and Inference for General Partially Linear Models

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Chunming Zhang

2017-11-01

Full Text Available The classical quadratic loss for the partially linear model (PLM and the likelihood function for the generalized PLM are not resistant to outliers. This inspires us to propose a class of “robust-Bregman divergence (BD” estimators of both the parametric and nonparametric components in the general partially linear model (GPLM, which allows the distribution of the response variable to be partially specified, without being fully known. Using the local-polynomial function estimation method, we propose a computationally-efficient procedure for obtaining “robust-BD” estimators and establish the consistency and asymptotic normality of the “robust-BD” estimator of the parametric component β o . For inference procedures of β o in the GPLM, we show that the Wald-type test statistic W n constructed from the “robust-BD” estimators is asymptotically distribution free under the null, whereas the likelihood ratio-type test statistic Λ n is not. This provides an insight into the distinction from the asymptotic equivalence (Fan and Huang 2005 between W n and Λ n in the PLM constructed from profile least-squares estimators using the non-robust quadratic loss. Numerical examples illustrate the computational effectiveness of the proposed “robust-BD” estimators and robust Wald-type test in the appearance of outlying observations.

4. Continuous/discontinuous finite element modelling of Kirchhoff plate structures in R^3 using tangential differential calculus

Science.gov (United States)

Hansbo, Peter; Larson, Mats G.

2017-10-01

We employ surface differential calculus to derive models for Kirchhoff plates including in-plane membrane deformations. We also extend our formulation to structures of plates. For solving the resulting set of partial differential equations, we employ a finite element method based on elements that are continuous for the displacements and discontinuous for the rotations, using C^0-elements for the discretisation of the plate as well as for the membrane deformations. Key to the formulation of the method is a convenient definition of jumps and averages of forms that are d-linear in terms of the element edge normals.

5. Partial Overhaul and Initial Parallel Optimization of KINETICS, a Coupled Dynamics and Chemistry Atmosphere Model

Science.gov (United States)

Nguyen, Howard; Willacy, Karen; Allen, Mark

2012-01-01

KINETICS is a coupled dynamics and chemistry atmosphere model that is data intensive and computationally demanding. The potential performance gain from using a supercomputer motivates the adaptation from a serial version to a parallelized one. Although the initial parallelization had been done, bottlenecks caused by an abundance of communication calls between processors led to an unfavorable drop in performance. Before starting on the parallel optimization process, a partial overhaul was required because a large emphasis was placed on streamlining the code for user convenience and revising the program to accommodate the new supercomputers at Caltech and JPL. After the first round of optimizations, the partial runtime was reduced by a factor of 23; however, performance gains are dependent on the size of the data, the number of processors requested, and the computer used.

6. Partial molar volume of proteins studied by the three-dimensional reference interaction site model theory.

Science.gov (United States)

Imai, Takashi; Kovalenko, Andriy; Hirata, Fumio

2005-04-14

The three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory is applied to the analysis of hydration effects on the partial molar volume of proteins. For the native structure of some proteins, the partial molar volume is decomposed into geometric and hydration contributions using the 3D-RISM theory combined with the geometric volume calculation. The hydration contributions are correlated with the surface properties of the protein. The thermal volume, which is the volume of voids around the protein induced by the thermal fluctuation of water molecules, is directly proportional to the accessible surface area of the protein. The interaction volume, which is the contribution of electrostatic interactions between the protein and water molecules, is apparently governed by the charged atomic groups on the protein surface. The polar atomic groups do not make any contribution to the interaction volume. The volume differences between low- and high-pressure structures of lysozyme are also analyzed by the present method.

7. Influence of variable selection on partial least squares discriminant analysis models for explosive residue classification

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

De Lucia, Frank C., E-mail: frank.delucia@us.army.mil; Gottfried, Jennifer L.

2011-02-15

Using a series of thirteen organic materials that includes novel high-nitrogen energetic materials, conventional organic military explosives, and benign organic materials, we have demonstrated the importance of variable selection for maximizing residue discrimination with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). We built several PLS-DA models using different variable sets based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectra of the organic residues on an aluminum substrate under an argon atmosphere. The model classification results for each sample are presented and the influence of the variables on these results is discussed. We found that using the whole spectra as the data input for the PLS-DA model gave the best results. However, variables due to the surrounding atmosphere and the substrate contribute to discrimination when the whole spectra are used, indicating this may not be the most robust model. Further iterative testing with additional validation data sets is necessary to determine the most robust model.

8. A Leasing Model to Deal with Partial Failures in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Science.gov (United States)

Gonzalez Boix, Elisa; van Cutsem, Tom; Vallejos, Jorge; de Meuter, Wolfgang; D'Hondt, Theo

In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) many partial failures are the result of temporary network partitions due to the intermittent connectivity of mobile devices. Some of these failures will be permanent and require application-level failure handling. However, it is impossible to distinguish a permanent from a transient failure. Leasing provides a solution to this problem based on the temporal restriction of resources. But to date no leasing model has been designed specifically for MANETs. In this paper, we identify three characteristics required for a leasing model to be usable in a MANET, discuss the issues with existing leasing models and then propose the leased object references model, which integrates leasing with remote object references. In addition, we describe an implementation of the model in the programming language AmbientTalk. Leased object references provide an extensible framework that allows programmers to express their own leasing patterns and enables both lease holders (clients) and lease grantors (services) to deal with permanent failures.

9. Life time test of a partial model of HTGR helium-helium heat exchanger

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kitagawa, Masaki; Hattori, Hiroshi; Ohtomo, Akira; Teramae, Tetsuo; Hamanaka, Junichi; Itoh, Mitsuyoshi; Urabe, Shigemi

1984-01-01

Authors had proposed a design guide for the HTGR components and applied it to the design and construction of the 1.5 Mwt helium heat exchanger test loop for the nuclear steel making under the financial support of the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry. In order to assure that the design method covers all the conceivable failure mode and has enough safety margin, a series of life time tests of partial model may be needed. For this project, three types of model tests were performed. A life time test of a partial model of the center manifold pipe and eight heat exchanger tubes were described in this report. A damage criterion with a set of material constants and a simplified method for stress-strain analysis for stub tube under three dimensional load were newly developed and used to predict the lives of each tube. The predicted lives were compared with the experimental lives and good agreement was found between the two. The life time test model was evaluated according to the proposed design guide and it was found that the guide has a safety factor of approximately 200 in life for this particular model. (author)

10. Partially ordered mixed hidden Markov model for the disablement process of older adults.

Science.gov (United States)

Ip, Edward H; Zhang, Qiang; Rejeski, W Jack; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen

2013-06-01

At both the individual and societal levels, the health and economic burden of disability in older adults is enormous in developed countries, including the U.S. Recent studies have revealed that the disablement process in older adults often comprises episodic periods of impaired functioning and periods that are relatively free of disability, amid a secular and natural trend of decline in functioning. Rather than an irreversible, progressive event that is analogous to a chronic disease, disability is better conceptualized and mathematically modeled as states that do not necessarily follow a strict linear order of good-to-bad. Statistical tools, including Markov models, which allow bidirectional transition between states, and random effects models, which allow individual-specific rate of secular decline, are pertinent. In this paper, we propose a mixed effects, multivariate, hidden Markov model to handle partially ordered disability states. The model generalizes the continuation ratio model for ordinal data in the generalized linear model literature and provides a formal framework for testing the effects of risk factors and/or an intervention on the transitions between different disability states. Under a generalization of the proportional odds ratio assumption, the proposed model circumvents the problem of a potentially large number of parameters when the number of states and the number of covariates are substantial. We describe a maximum likelihood method for estimating the partially ordered, mixed effects model and show how the model can be applied to a longitudinal data set that consists of N = 2,903 older adults followed for 10 years in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. We further statistically test the effects of various risk factors upon the probabilities of transition into various severe disability states. The result can be used to inform geriatric and public health science researchers who study the disablement process.

11. A new nonlinear turbulence model based on Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu, J T; Wu, Y L; Cai, C; Liu, S H; Wang, L Q

2013-01-01

Partially-averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) Model was recognized as a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to direct numerical simulation (DNS) bridging method. PANS model was purported for any filter width-from RANS to DNS. PANS method also shared some similarities with the currently popular URANS (unsteady RANS) method. In this paper, a new PANS model was proposed, which was based on RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Standard and RNG k-ε turbulence model were both isotropic models, as well as PANS models. The sheer stress in those PANS models was solved by linear equation. The linear hypothesis was not accurate in the simulation of complex flow, such as stall phenomenon. The sheer stress here was solved by nonlinear method proposed by Ehrhard. Then, the nonlinear PANS model was set up. The pressure coefficient of the suction side of the NACA0015 hydrofoil was predicted. The result of pressure coefficient agrees well with experimental result, which proves that the nonlinear PANS model can capture the high pressure gradient flow. A low specific centrifugal pump was used to verify the capacity of the nonlinear PANS model. The comparison between the simulation results of the centrifugal pump and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) results proves that the nonlinear PANS model can be used in the prediction of complex flow field

12. Numerical modeling of spray combustion in DI diesel engine using partially stirred reactor (PaSR) model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Khaleghi, H.; Hosseini, S.M.

2003-01-01

In recent years special attention has been paid to the topic of diesel engine combustion. Various combustion models are used in CFD codes. In this paper Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model, one of the newest turbulent combustion models, is introduced. This model has been employed in conjunction with the non-iterative PISO algorithm to calculate spray combustion in an axi-symmetric, direct injection diesel engine. Qualitative consideration of the results shows very good agreement with physical expectations and other numerical and experimental results. (author)

13. A review of sleepwalking (somnambulism): the enigma of neurophysiology and polysomnography with differential diagnosis of complex partial seizures.

Science.gov (United States)

Hughes, John R

2007-12-01

The goal of this report is to review all aspects of sleepwalking (SW), also known as somnambulism. Various factors seem to initiate SW, especially drugs, stress, and sleep deprivation. As an etiology, heredity is important, but other conditions include thyrotoxicosis, stress, and herpes simplex encephalitis. Psychological characteristics of sleepwalkers often include aggression, anxiety, panic disorder, and hysteria. Polysomnographic characteristics emphasize abnormal deep sleep associated with arousal and slow wave sleep fragmentation. In the differential diagnosis, the EEG is important to properly identify a seizure disorder, rather than SW. Associated disorders are Tourette's syndrome, sleep-disordered breathing, and migraine. Various kinds of treatment are discussed, as are legal considerations, especially murder during sleepwalking.

14. Host-Associated Differentiation: The Gape-and-Pinch Model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Stephen B. Heard

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Ecological speciation via host shifting has contributed to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects. The importance for host shifting of trait differences between alternative host plants is well established, but much less is known about trait variation within hosts. I outline a conceptual model, the “gape-and-pinch” (GAP model, of insect response to host-plant trait variation during host shifting and host-associated differentiation. I offer four hypotheses about insect use of plant trait variation on two alternative hosts, for insects at different stages of host-associated differentiation. Collectively, these hypotheses suggest that insect responses to plant trait variation can favour or oppose critical steps in herbivore diversification. I provide statistical tools for analysing herbivore trait-space use, demonstrate their application for four herbivores of the goldenrods Solidago altissima and S. gigantea, and discuss their broader potential to advance our understanding of diet breadth and ecological speciation in phytophagous insects.

15. Stochastic Differential Equation-Based Flexible Software Reliability Growth Model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

P. K. Kapur

2009-01-01

Full Text Available Several software reliability growth models (SRGMs have been developed by software developers in tracking and measuring the growth of reliability. As the size of software system is large and the number of faults detected during the testing phase becomes large, so the change of the number of faults that are detected and removed through each debugging becomes sufficiently small compared with the initial fault content at the beginning of the testing phase. In such a situation, we can model the software fault detection process as a stochastic process with continuous state space. In this paper, we propose a new software reliability growth model based on Itô type of stochastic differential equation. We consider an SDE-based generalized Erlang model with logistic error detection function. The model is estimated and validated on real-life data sets cited in literature to show its flexibility. The proposed model integrated with the concept of stochastic differential equation performs comparatively better than the existing NHPP-based models.

16. Comparison of using different bridge prosthetic designs for partial defect restoration through mathematical modeling.

Science.gov (United States)

Styranivska, Oksana; Kliuchkovska, Nataliia; Mykyyevych, Nataliya

2017-01-01

To analyze the stress-strain states of bone and abutment teeth during the use of different prosthetic designs of fixed partial dentures with the use of relevant mathematical modeling principles. The use of Comsol Multiphysics 3.5 (Comsol AB, Sweden) software during the mathematical modeling of stress-strain states provided numerical data for analytical interpretation in three different clinical scenarios with fixed dentures and different abutment teeth and demountable prosthetic denture with the saddle-shaped intermediate part. Microsoft Excel Software (Microsoft Office 2017) helped to evaluate absolute mistakes of stress and strain parameters of each abutment tooth during three modeled scenarios and normal condition and to summarize data into the forms of tables. In comparison with the fixed prosthetic denture supported by the canine, first premolar, and third molar, stresses at the same abutment teeth with the use of demountable denture with the saddle-shaped intermediate part decreased: at the mesial abutment tooth by 2.8 times, at distal crown by 6.1 times, and at the intermediate part by 11.1 times, respectively, the deformation level decreased by 3.1, 1.9, and 1.4 times at each area. The methods of mathematical modeling proved that complications during the use of fixed partial dentures based on the overload effect of the abutment teeth and caused by the deformation process inside the intermediate section of prosthetic construction.

17. Partial least squares path modeling basic concepts, methodological issues and applications

CERN Document Server

Noonan, Richard

2017-01-01

This edited book presents the recent developments in partial least squares-path modeling (PLS-PM) and provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the most advanced research related to PLS-PM. The first section of this book emphasizes the basic concepts and extensions of the PLS-PM method. The second section discusses the methodological issues that are the focus of the recent development of the PLS-PM method. The third part discusses the real world application of the PLS-PM method in various disciplines. The contributions from expert authors in the field of PLS focus on topics such as the factor-based PLS-PM, the perfect match between a model and a mode, quantile composite-based path modeling (QC-PM), ordinal consistent partial least squares (OrdPLSc), non-symmetrical composite-based path modeling (NSCPM), modern view for mediation analysis in PLS-PM, a multi-method approach for identifying and treating unobserved heterogeneity, multigroup analysis (PLS-MGA), the assessment of the common method b...

18. Schwinger effect and negative differential conductivity in holographic models

Science.gov (United States)

2015-01-01

The consequences of the Schwinger effect for conductivity are computed for strong coupling systems using holography. The one-loop diagram on the flavor brane introduces an O (λ/Nc) imaginary part in the effective action for a Maxwell flavor gauge field. This in turn introduces a real conductivity in an otherwise insulating phase of the boundary theory. Moreover, in certain regions of parameter space the differential conductivity is negative. This is computed in the context of the Sakai-Sugimoto model.

19. Evaluation of a differentiation model of preschoolers’ executive functions

OpenAIRE

Howard, Steven J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Ellis, Yvonne G.

2015-01-01

Despite the prominent role of executive functions in children’s emerging competencies, there remains debate regarding the structure and development of executive functions. In an attempt to reconcile these discrepancies, a differentiation model of executive function development was evaluated in the early years using 6-month age groupings. Specifically, 281 preschoolers completed measures of working memory, inhibition, and shifting. Results contradicted suggestions that executive functions foll...

20. Traveling wave solutions to some nonlinear fractional partial differential equations through the rational (G′/G-expansion method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tarikul Islam

2018-03-01

Full Text Available In this article, the analytical solutions to the space-time fractional foam drainage equation and the space-time fractional symmetric regularized long wave (SRLW equation are successfully examined by the recently established rational (G′/G-expansion method. The suggested equations are reduced into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations with the aid of the fractional complex transform. Consequently, the theories of the ordinary differential equations are implemented effectively. Three types closed form traveling wave solutions, such as hyperbolic function, trigonometric function and rational, are constructed by using the suggested method in the sense of conformable fractional derivative. The obtained solutions might be significant to analyze the depth and spacing of parallel subsurface drain and small-amplitude long wave on the surface of the water in a channel. It is observed that the performance of the rational (G′/G-expansion method is reliable and will be used to establish new general closed form solutions for any other NPDEs of fractional order.