WorldWideScience

Sample records for model ozone effects

  1. Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

    1990-01-01

    A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers.

  2. Tropospheric ozone and the environment II. Effects, modeling and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This was the sixth International Specialty Conference on ozone for the Air ampersand Waste Management Association since 1978 and the first to be held in the Southeast. Of the preceding five conferences, three were held in Houston, one in New England, and one in Los Angeles. The changing location continues to support the understanding that tropospheric ozone is a nationwide problem, requiring understanding and participation by representatives of all regions. Yet, questions such as the following continue to be raised over all aspects of the nation's efforts to control ozone. Are the existing primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone the appropriate targets for the ozone control strategy, or should they be modified to more effectively accommodate new health or ecological effects information, or better fit statistical analyses of ozone modeling data? Are the modeling tools presently available adequate to predict ozone concentrations for future precursor emission trends? What ozones attainment strategy will be the best means of meeting the ozone standard? To best answer these and other questions there needs to be a continued sharing of information among researchers working on these and other questions. While answers to these questions will often be qualitative and location specific, they will help focus future research programs and assist in developing future regulatory strategies

  3. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  4. Children's Models of Understanding of Two Major Global Environmental Issues (Ozone Layer and Greenhouse Effect).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Aims to quantify the models that 13- and 14 year-old students hold about the causes of the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. Assesses the prevalence of those ideas that link the two phenomena. Twice as many students think that holes in the ozone layer cause the greenhouse effect than think the greenhouse effect causes ozone depletion.…

  5. Modeling of regional climate change effects on ground-level ozone and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Perry E; Knowlton, Kim; Carr, Jessie L; Kinney, Patrick L

    2011-09-01

    The adverse respiratory effects of ground-level ozone are well established. Ozone is the air pollutant most consistently projected to increase under future climate change. To project future pediatric asthma emergency department visits associated with ground-level ozone changes, comparing 1990s to 2020s. This study assessed future numbers of asthma emergency department visits for children aged 0-17 years using (1) baseline New York City metropolitan area emergency department rates; (2) a dose-response relationship between ozone levels and pediatric asthma emergency department visits; and (3) projected daily 8-hour maximum ozone concentrations for the 2020s as simulated by a global-to-regional climate change and atmospheric chemistry model. Sensitivity analyses included population projections and ozone precursor changes. This analysis occurred in 2010. In this model, climate change could cause an increase in regional summer ozone-related asthma emergency department visits for children aged 0-17 years of 7.3% across the New York City metropolitan region by the 2020s. This effect diminished with inclusion of ozone precursor changes. When population growth is included, the projections of morbidity related to ozone are even larger. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the use of regional climate and atmospheric chemistry models make possible the projection of local climate change health effects for specific age groups and specific disease outcomes, such as emergency department visits for asthma. Efforts should be made to improve on this type of modeling to inform local and wider-scale climate change mitigation and adaptation policy. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Ozone on Intestinal Epithelial Homeostasis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sukhotnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The positive effects of ozone therapy have been described in many gastrointestinal disorders. The mechanisms of this positive effect of ozone therapy are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the use of ozone may potentiate the gut intestinal mucosal homeostasis in a rat model. Methods: Adult rats weighing 250–280 g were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups of 8 rats each: 1 Control rats were given 2 mL of water by gavage and intraperitoneally (IP for 5 days; 2 O3-PO rats were treated with 2 mL of ozone/oxygen mixture by gavage and 2 mL of water IP for 5 days; 3 O3-IP rats were treated with 2 mL of water by gavage and 2 mL of ozone/oxygen mixture IP for 5 days. Rats were sacrificed on day 6. Bowel and mucosal weight, mucosal DNA and protein, villus height and crypt depth, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated following sacrifice. Results: The group of O3-IP rats demonstrated a greater jejunal and ileal villus height and crypt depth, a greater enterocyte proliferation index in jejunum, and lower enterocyte apoptosis in ileum compared to control animals. Oral administration of the ozone/oxygen mixture resulted in a less significant effect on cell turnover. Conclusions: Treatment with an ozone/oxygen mixture stimulates intestinal cell turnover in a rat model. Intraperitoneal administration of ozone resulted in a more significant intestinal trophic effect than oral administration.

  7. Modeling the effects of reformulated gasoline usages on ambient concentrations of ozone and five air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligocki, M.P.; Schulhof, R.R.; Jackson, R.E.; Jimenez, M.M.; Atkinson, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of reformulated gasolines to reduce motor-vehicle-related hydrocarbon emissions has been mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for nine severely polluted urban areas. Using a version of the Urban Airshed Model that includes explicit representation of five motor-vehicle-related air toxics, the effects of reformulated gasoline usage on ambient ozone and toxics concentrations were simulated. Simulations were conducted for two urban areas. Baltimore-Washington and Houston, for the year 1995. Additional simulation were conducted for Baltimore-Washington including winter and 1999 scenarios. In the Baltimore-Washington areas, the 1995 Federal reformulated gasoline scenario produce reductions of 1.1 percent in simulated peak ozone and 2.7 percent in the areal extent of simulated ozone exceedances. Simulated ozone reductions were much smaller in Houston. In the reformulated gasoline simulations, secondary formulation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was reduced, and decreases in ambient benzene and polycyclic organic matter (POM) concentrations were simulated. Larger reductions in ozone and toxics concentrations were simulated for reformulated gasolines meeting California Phase II standards than for those meeting Federal standards. The effects of reductions in motor-vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions, alone and in combination with hydrocarbon reductions, were also examined

  8. Effect of Ozone Therapy (OT on Healing of Colonic Anastomosis in a Rat Model of Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Erginel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ozone is a three-oxygen molecule (O3. Ozone therapy (OT is systematically effective when pathological inflammatory and immunologic processes are activated. Among of these conditions are wound healing, macular degeneration related to aging, and conditions that are ischemic or infectious. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of OT on wound healing of intestinal anastomosis in the presence of peritonitis in a rat model. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: A total of 40 Wistar albino rats were randomized into four groups (n=10 including: sham (S, peritonitis (P, ozone 0 (O0, and ozone 24 (O24. In group S, only cecal dissection was carried out. The S group had only a cecal dissection and intestinal anastomosis performed, but no peritonitis. In all other groups, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP followed the cecal dissection to induce bacterial peritonitis. 24 h after puncture, a cecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis were performed. In group P, 24 h after CLP, a cecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis were performed and no ozone was administered. In group O0, immediately after the anastomosis, and in group O24, starting 24 hours after the anastomosis, an intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day ozone administration was applied for seven days. On the seventh day the animals were sacrificed, the anastomotic bursting pressures (BP and the hydroxyproline values of the anastomotic tissues were measured, and histopathologic examination of the anastomotic segment was carried out. Results: The highest BP was in group S, with 211±23.13 mmHg. The mean BP of group P was 141±56.25 mmHg, which was significantly lower than in the other two peritonitis groups that received ozone therapy, group O0 and O24, where it was 192±22 and 166±45 mmHg, respectively (p0.05. Histopathologic analyses of the anastomotic segments determined there was significantly more oedema and necrosis in the control group rats, and collagen deposition in

  9. Statistical Models to Assess the Health Effects and to Forecast Ground Level Ozone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlink, U.; Herbath, O.; Richter, M.; Dorling, S.; Nunnari, G.; Cawley, G.; Pelikán, Emil

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2006), s. 547-558 ISSN 1364-8152 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : statistical models * ground level ozone * health effects * logistic model * forecasting * prediction performance * neural network * generalised additive model * integrated assessment Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.992, year: 2006

  10. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  11. Modelling cloud effects on ozone on a regional scale : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, J.; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Meijer, E.W.; Boersen, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of clouds on ozone on a regional scale (Europe) with a regional scale photochemical dispersion model (LOTOS). The LOTOS-model calculates ozone and other photo-oxidant concentrations in the lowest three km of the troposphere, using actual meteorologic data and

  12. Sludge reduction by ozone: Insights and modeling of the dose-response effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, C; Silva-Hernández, B C; Hooijmans, C M; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Esparza-Soto, M; Lucero-Chávez, M; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2018-01-15

    Applying ozone to the return flow in an activated sludge (AS) process is a way for reducing the residual solids production. To be able to extend the activated sludge models to the ozone-AS process, adequate prediction of the tri-atoms effects on the particulate COD fractions is needed. In this study, the biomass inactivation, COD mineralization, and solids dissolution were quantified in batch tests and dose-response models were developed as a function of the reacted ozone doses (ROD). Three kinds of model-sludge were used. S1 was a lab-cultivated synthetic sludge with two components (heterotrophs X H and X P ). S2 was a digestate of S1 almost made by the endogenous residues, X P . S3 was from a municipal activated sludge plant. The specific ozone uptake rate (SO 3 UR, mgO 3 /gCOD.h) was determined as a tool for characterizing the reactivity of the sludges. SO 3 UR increased with the X H fraction and decreased with more X P . Biomass inactivation was exponential (e -β.ROD ) as a function of the ROD doses. The percentage of solids reduction was predictable through a linear model (C Miner  + Y sol ROD), with a fixed part due to mineralization (C Miner ) and a variable part from the solubilization process. The parameters of the models, i.e. the inactivation and the dissolution yields (β, 0.008-0.029 (mgO 3 /mgCOD ini ) -1 vs Y sol , 0.5-2.8 mg COD sol /mgO 3 ) varied in magnitude, depending on the intensity of the scavenging reactions and potentially the compactness of the flocs for each sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of model chemistry and data biases on stratospheric ozone assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Coy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The innovations or observation minus forecast (O–F residuals produced by a data assimilation system provide a convenient metric of evaluating global analyses. In this study, O–F statistics from the Global Ozone Assimilation Testing System (GOATS are used to examine how ozone assimilation products and their associated O–F statistics depend on input data biases and ozone photochemistry parameterizations (OPP. All the GOATS results shown are based on a 6-h forecast and analysis cycle using observations from SBUV/2 (Solar Backscatter UltraViolet instrument-2 during September–October 2002. Results show that zonal mean ozone analyses are more independent of observation biases and drifts when using an OPP, while the mean ozone O–Fs are more sensitive to observation drifts when using an OPP. In addition, SD O–Fs (standard deviations are reduced in the upper stratosphere when using an OPP due to a reduction of forecast model noise and to increased covariance between the forecast model and the observations. Experiments that changed the OPP reference state to match the observations by using an "adaptive" OPP scheme reduced the mean ozone O–Fs at the expense of zonal mean ozone analyses being more susceptible to data biases and drifts. Additional experiments showed that the upper boundary of the ozone DAS can affect the quality of the ozone analysis and therefore should be placed well above (at least a scale height the region of interest.

  14. Intervertebral Foramen Injection of Ozone Relieves Mechanical Allodynia and Enhances Analgesic Effect of Gabapentin in Animal Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen-Jun; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Fang-Fang; Wang, Jiang-Lin; Wang, Jia-Shuang; Guan, Su-Min; Chen, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In a 5-year follow-up study in a hospital in southern China, it was shown that intervertebral foramen (IVF) injection of ozone at the involved segmental levels could significantly alleviate paroxysmal spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia in patients with chronic, intractable postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and improve the quality of life. However, so far no proof-of-concept studies in animals have been available. This study was designed to investigate whether IVF ozone has an analgesic effect on animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Experimental trial in rats. Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain. By IVF injection, a volume of 50 µl containing 30 µg/mL ozone-oxygen mixture or 50 µl air was carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats of naïve, inflammatory pain states produced by injections of either bee venom or complete Freud's adjuvant, and neuropathic pain state produced by spared nerve injury, respectively. The effects of IVF ozone on pain-related behaviors were evaluated for 2 weeks or one month. Then combined use of gabapentin (100 mg/1 kg body weight) with IVF ozone was evaluated in rats with neuropathic pain by intraperitoneal administration 5 days after the ozone treatment. Finally, the analgesic effects of another 4 drugs, AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist), A-803467 (a selective Nav1.8 blocker), rapamycin (the mTOR inhibitor), and MGCD0103 (a selective histone deacetylase inhibitor) were evaluated for long term through IVF injection, respectively. (1) IVF injection of ozone at L4-5 was only effective in suppression of mechanical allodynia in rats with neuropathic pain but not with inflammatory pain; (2) the analgesic effects of IVF ozone lasted much longer (> 14 days) than other selective molecular target drugs (bee venom, complete Freud's adjuvant.

  15. Children's Models of the Ozone Layer and Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidou, Vasilia; Koulaidis, Vasilis

    1996-01-01

    The views of 40 primary students on ozone and its depletion were recorded through individual, semi-structured interviews. The data analysis resulted in the formation of a limited number of models concerning the distribution and role of ozone in the atmosphere, the depletion process, and the consequences of ozone depletion. Identifies five target…

  16. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations....

  17. The model evaluation of subsonic aircraft effect on the ozone and radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozanov, E.; Zubov, V.; Egorova, T.; Ozolin, Y. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Two dimensional transient zonally averaged model was used for the evaluation of the effect of subsonic aircraft exhausts upon the ozone, trace gases and radiation in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The mesoscale transformation of gas composition was included on the base of the box model simulations. It has been found that the transformation of the exhausted gases in sub-grid scale is able to influence the results of the modelling. The radiative forcing caused by gas, sulfate aerosol, soot and contrails changes was estimated as big as 0.12-0.15 W/m{sup 2} (0.08 W/m{sup 2} globally and annually averaged). (author) 10 refs.

  18. Modeled population exposures to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population exposures to ozone from APEX modeling for combinations of potential future air quality and demographic change scenarios. This dataset is not publicly...

  19. A Model of the Effect of Ozone Depletion on Lower-Stratospheric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Gupta, Mohan L.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Pawson, Steven

    2005-01-01

    We have run two twenty-year integrations of a global circulation model using 1978-1980 and 1998-2000 monthly mean ozone climatologies. The ozone climatology is used solely in the radiation scheme of the model. Several key differences between the model runs will be presented. The temperature and potential vorticity (PV) structure of the lower stratosphere, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, is significantly changed using the 1998-2000 ozone climatology. In the Southern Hemisphere summer, the lapse rate and PV-defined polar tropopauses are both at altitudes on the order of several hundred meters greater than the 1978-1980 climatological run. The 380 K potential temperature surf= is likewise at a greater altitude. The mass of the extratropical lowermost stratosphere (between the tropopause and 380 K surface) remains unchanged. The altitude differences are not observed in the Northern Hemisphere. The different ozone fields do not produce a significant change in the annual extratropical stratosphere-troposphere exchange of mass although slight variations in the spatial distribution of the exchange exist. We are also investigating a delay in the breakup of the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex due to the differing ozone climatologies.

  20. Sensitivity Modeling Study for an Ozone Occurrence during the 1996 Paso Del Norte Ozone Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjun Lu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface ozone pollution has been a persistent environmental problem in the US and Europe as well as the developing countries. A key prerequisite to find effective alternatives to meeting an ozone air quality standard is to understand the importance of local anthropogenic emissions, the significance of biogenic emissions, and the contribution of long-range transport. In this study, an air quality modeling system that includes chemistry and transport, CMAQ, an emission processing model, SMOKE, and a mesoscale numerical meteorological model, WRF, has been applied to investigate an ozone event occurring during the period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Campaign. The results show that the modeling system exhibits the capability to simulate this high ozone occurrence by providing a comparable temporal variation of surface ozone concentration at one station and to capture the spatial evolution of the event. Several sensitivity tests were also conducted to identify the contributions to high surface ozone concentration from eight VOC subspecies, biogenic VOCs, anthropogenic VOCs and long-range transportation of ozone and its precursors. It is found that the reductions of ETH, ISOP, PAR, OLE and FORM help to mitigate the surface ozone concentration, and like anthropogenic VOCs, biogenic VOC plays a nonnegligible role in ozone formation. But for this case, long-range transport of ozone and its precursors appears to produce an insignificant contribution.

  1. Sensitivity modeling study for an ozone occurrence during the 1996 Paso Del Norte Ozone Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Duanjun; Reddy, Remata S; Fitzgerald, Rosa; Stockwell, William R; Williams, Quinton L; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2008-12-01

    Surface ozone pollution has been a persistent environmental problem in the US and Europe as well as the developing countries. A key prerequisite to find effective alternatives to meeting an ozone air quality standard is to understand the importance of local anthropogenic emissions, the significance of biogenic emissions, and the contribution of long-range transport. In this study, an air quality modeling system that includes chemistry and transport, CMAQ, an emission processing model, SMOKE, and a mesoscale numerical meteorological model, WRF, has been applied to investigate an ozone event occurring during the period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Campaign. The results show that the modeling system exhibits the capability to simulate this high ozone occurrence by providing a comparable temporal variation of surface ozone concentration at one station and to capture the spatial evolution of the event. Several sensitivity tests were also conducted to identify the contributions to high surface ozone concentration from eight VOC subspecies, biogenic VOCs, anthropogenic VOCs and long-range transportation of ozone and its precursors. It is found that the reductions of ETH, ISOP, PAR, OLE and FORM help to mitigate the surface ozone concentration, and like anthropogenic VOCs, biogenic VOC plays a nonnegligible role in ozone formation. But for this case, long-range transport of ozone and its precursors appears to produce an insignificant contribution.

  2. Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eyring

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Projections of stratospheric ozone from a suite of chemistry-climate models (CCMs have been analyzed. In addition to a reference simulation where anthropogenic halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODSs and greenhouse gases (GHGs vary with time, sensitivity simulations with either ODS or GHG concentrations fixed at 1960 levels were performed to disaggregate the drivers of projected ozone changes. These simulations were also used to assess the two distinct milestones of ozone returning to historical values (ozone return dates and ozone no longer being influenced by ODSs (full ozone recovery. The date of ozone returning to historical values does not indicate complete recovery from ODSs in most cases, because GHG-induced changes accelerate or decelerate ozone changes in many regions. In the upper stratosphere where CO2-induced stratospheric cooling increases ozone, full ozone recovery is projected to not likely have occurred by 2100 even though ozone returns to its 1980 or even 1960 levels well before (~2025 and 2040, respectively. In contrast, in the tropical lower stratosphere ozone decreases continuously from 1960 to 2100 due to projected increases in tropical upwelling, while by around 2040 it is already very likely that full recovery from the effects of ODSs has occurred, although ODS concentrations are still elevated by this date. In the midlatitude lower stratosphere the evolution differs from that in the tropics, and rather than a steady decrease in ozone, first a decrease in ozone is simulated from 1960 to 2000, which is then followed by a steady increase through the 21st century. Ozone in the midlatitude lower stratosphere returns to 1980 levels by ~2045 in the Northern Hemisphere (NH and by ~2055 in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, and full ozone recovery is likely reached by 2100 in both hemispheres. Overall, in all regions except the tropical lower stratosphere, full ozone recovery from ODSs occurs significantly later than the

  3. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Büker, Patrick; Khalid, Sofia; Van Den Berg, Leon; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Wahid, Abdul; Emberson, Lisa; Power, Sally A.; Ashmore, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  4. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  5. NODA for EPA's Updated Ozone Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA's NODA for the Updated Ozone Transport Modeling Data for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) along with the ExitExtension of Public Comment Period on CSAPR for the 2008 NAAQS.

  6. The effect of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer growth on observed and modeled surface ozone in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, L.; Patton, E. G.; Pfister, G. G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Flocke, F.; Thompson, A. M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Halliday, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Ozone concentrations at the Earth's surface are controlled by meteorological and chemical processes and are a function of advection, entrainment, deposition, and net chemical production/loss. The relative contributions of these processes vary in time and space. Understanding the relative importance of these processes controlling surface ozone concentrations is an essential component for designing effective regulatory strategies. Here we focus on the diurnal cycle of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth in the Colorado Front Range. Aircraft soundings and surface observations collected in July/August 2014 during the DISCOVER-AQ/FRAPPÉ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality/Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment) campaigns and equivalent data simulated by a regional chemical transport model are analyzed. Entrainment through ABL growth is most important in the early morning, fumigating the surface at a rate of 5 ppbv/h. The fumigation effect weakens near noon and changes sign to become a small dilution effect in the afternoon on the order of -1 ppbv/h. The chemical transport model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry) underestimates ozone at all altitudes during this study on the order of 10-15 ppbv. The entrainment through ABL growth is overestimated by the model in the order of 0.6-0.8 ppbv/h. This results from differences in boundary layer growth in the morning and ozone concentration jump across the ABL top in the afternoon. This implicates stronger modeled fumigation in the morning and weaker modeled dilution after 11:00 LT.

  7. Effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Mehliyar; Tai, Amos P. K.; Lombardozzi, Danica; Martin, Maria Val

    2017-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the most hazardous air pollutants as it harms both human health and plant productivity. Foliage uptake of ozone via dry deposition damages photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. These foliage changes could lead to a cascade of biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects that not only modulate the carbon cycle, regional hydrometeorology and climate, but also cause feedbacks onto surface ozone concentration itself. In this study, we implement a semi-empirical parameterization of ozone damage on vegetation in the Community Earth System Model to enable online ozone-vegetation coupling, so that for the first time ecosystem structure and ozone concentration can coevolve in fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations. With ozone-vegetation coupling, present-day surface ozone is simulated to be higher by up to 4-6 ppbv over Europe, North America and China. Reduced dry deposition velocity following ozone damage contributes to ˜ 40-100 % of those increases, constituting a significant positive biogeochemical feedback on ozone air quality. Enhanced biogenic isoprene emission is found to contribute to most of the remaining increases, and is driven mainly by higher vegetation temperature that results from lower transpiration rate. This isoprene-driven pathway represents an indirect, positive meteorological feedback. The reduction in both dry deposition and transpiration is mostly associated with reduced stomatal conductance following ozone damage, whereas the modification of photosynthesis and further changes in ecosystem productivity are found to play a smaller role in contributing to the ozone-vegetation feedbacks. Our results highlight the need to consider two-way ozone-vegetation coupling in Earth system models to derive a more complete understanding and yield more reliable future predictions of ozone air quality.

  8. A modeling study of the impact of urban trees on ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Kevin L. Civerolo; S. Trivikrama Rao; Gopal Sistla; Christopher J. Luley; Daniel E. Crane

    2000-01-01

    Modeling the effects of increased urban tree cover on ozone concentrations (July 13-15, 1995) from Washington, DC, to central Massachusetts reveals that urban trees generally reduce ozone concentrations in cities, but tend to increase average ozone concentrations in the overall modeling domain. During the daytime, average ozone reductions in urban areas (1 ppb) were...

  9. The effect of ozone and irradiation in an in-vitro-model - a pilot study involving four gynecological tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlic, H.; Kucera, H.; Metka, M.; Schoenbauer, M.; Soeregi, G.

    1987-01-01

    Primary tissue cultures were established. Cultivation was performed according to standard techniques. The type of culture system did not influence the sensitivity of the culture cells to ozone and/or irradiation. Ozone treatment was performed with three different ozone concentrations. Irradiation was done with 100 rd Ra 226 , Ir 192 or Co 60 . A control experiment showed that the proliferative tendency of benign cells (skin fibroblasts) was not inhibited by the ozone concentrations. Ra 226 and even the combination of ozone and radium did not influence the proliferative activity of these benign cells. Ir 192 and Co 60 were cytotoxic to benign as well as to carcinoma cells. Cultivated cells from endometrial carcinoma resisted to ozone treatment was well as to Ra 226 (but they were destroyed by Ir 192 and Co 60 ). After pretreatment with ozone, Ra 226 treatment of endometrial carcinoma cells induced a cytostatic effect implying that no cell divisions were observed after irradiation and the cells lysed within two weeks after irradiation. For three ovarian carcinoma cell lines ozone treatment had a cytostatic effect even at the lowest concentration, with the two higher ozone concentrations a cytotoxic effect could be induced in ovarian carcinoma cells. Exclusive treatment with Ra 226 induced a cytostatic effect, but it was cytotoxic after combination with ozone treatment of the lowest concentration (Ir 192 and Co 60 were cytotoxic in all cases). Our investigation confirmed the radiosensitizing effect of ozone treatment. Exclusive ozone treatment even without combined irradiation displayed a selective cytotoxic action at the ovarian carcinoma cells. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Application of computational fluid dynamics modelling to an ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The turbulence effect induced by the gas injection was modelled by increasing the level of turbulence intensity at the ozone contactor inlet. The simulated tracer response corresponded closely to the experimental results. The framework of ozone reaction modelling was subsequently investigated using values of rate ...

  11. Sensitivity Modeling Study for an Ozone Occurrence during the 1996 Paso Del Norte Ozone Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Duanjun; Reddy, Remata S.; Fitzgerald, Rosa; Stockwell, William R.; Williams, Quinton L.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    Surface ozone pollution has been a persistent environmental problem in the US and Europe as well as the developing countries. A key prerequisite to find effective alternatives to meeting an ozone air quality standard is to understand the importance of local anthropogenic emissions, the significance of biogenic emissions, and the contribution of long-range transport. In this study, an air quality modeling system that includes chemistry and transport, CMAQ, an emission processing model, SMOKE, ...

  12. The effect of ozone on nicotine desorption from model surfaces:evidence for heterogeneous chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Singer, Brett C.; Lee, Sharon K.; Gundel, LaraA.

    2005-05-01

    Assessment of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using nicotine as a tracer or biomarker is affected by sorption of the alkaloid to indoor surfaces and by its long-term re-emission into the gas phase. However, surface chemical interactions of nicotine have not been sufficiently characterized. Here, the reaction of ozone with nicotine sorbed to Teflon and cotton surfaces was investigated in an environmental chamber by monitoring nicotine desorption over a week following equilibration in dry or humid air (65-70 % RH). The Teflon and cotton surfaces had N{sub 2}-BET surface areas of 0.19 and 1.17 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and water mass uptakes (at 70 % RH) of 0 and 7.1 % respectively. Compared with dry air baseline levels in the absence of O{sub 3}, gas phase nicotine concentrations decrease, by 2 orders of magnitude for Teflon after 50 h at 20-45 ppb O{sub 3}, and by a factor of 10 for cotton after 100 h with 13-15 ppb O{sub 3}. The ratios of pseudo first-order rate constants for surface reaction (r) to long-term desorption (k) were r/k = 3.5 and 2.0 for Teflon and cotton surfaces, respectively. These results show that surface oxidation was competitive with desorption. Hence, oxidative losses could significantly reduce long-term re-emissions of nicotine from indoor surfaces. Formaldehyde, N-methylformamide, nicotinaldehyde and cotinine were identified as oxidation products, indicating that the pyrrolidinic N was the site of electrophilic attack by O{sub 3}. The presence of water vapor had no effect on the nicotine-O{sub 3} reaction on Teflon surfaces. By contrast, nicotine desorption from cotton in humid air was unaffected by the presence of ozone. These observations are consistent with complete inhibition of ozone-nicotine surface reactions in an aqueous surface film present in cotton but not in Teflon surfaces.

  13. The effect of SST emissions on the earth's ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, R. C.; Turco, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    The work presented here is directed toward assessment of environmental effects of the supersonic transport (SST). The model used for the purpose includes vertical eddy transport and the photochemistry of the O-H-N system. It is found that the flight altitude has a pronounced effect on ozone depletion. The largest ozone reduction occurs for NO deposition above an altitude of 20 km.

  14. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    This paper describes the improvements introduced into the original version of ozone reference model of Keating and Young (1985, 1987) which is to be incorporated in the next COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide information on the global ozone distribution (including the ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from 25 to 90 km) combining data from five recent satellite experiments: the Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE), Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV Spectrometer, and SME 1.27 Micron Airglow. The improved version of the reference model uses reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extends the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the 1981-1983 time period. Comparisons are presented between the results of this ozone model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  15. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  16. Modelling the Ozone-Based Treatments for Inactivation of Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodowska, Agnieszka Joanna; Nowak, Agnieszka; Kondratiuk-Janyska, Alina; Piątkowski, Marcin; Śmigielski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-09

    The paper presents the development of a model for ozone treatment in a dynamic bed of different microorganisms ( Bacillus subtilis , B. cereus , B. pumilus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Aspergillus niger , Eupenicillium cinnamopurpureum ) on a heterogeneous matrix (juniper berries, cardamom seeds) initially treated with numerous ozone doses during various contact times was studied. Taking into account various microorganism susceptibility to ozone, it was of great importance to develop a sufficiently effective ozone dose to preserve food products using different strains based on the microbial model. For this purpose, we have chosen the Weibull model to describe the survival curves of different microorganisms. Based on the results of microorganism survival modelling after ozone treatment and considering the least susceptible strains to ozone, we selected the critical ones. Among tested strains, those from genus Bacillus were recognized as the most critical strains. In particular, B. subtilis and B. pumilus possessed the highest resistance to ozone treatment because the time needed to achieve the lowest level of its survival was the longest (up to 17.04 min and 16.89 min for B. pumilus reduction on juniper berry and cardamom seed matrix, respectively). Ozone treatment allow inactivate microorganisms to achieving lower survival rates by ozone dose (20.0 g O₃/m³ O₂, with a flow rate of 0.4 L/min) and contact time (up to 20 min). The results demonstrated that a linear correlation between parameters p and k in Weibull distribution, providing an opportunity to calculate a fitted equation of the process.

  17. Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünhage, Ludger; Pleijel, Håkan; Mills, Gina; Bender, Jürgen; Danielsson, Helena; Lehmann, Yvonne; Castell, Jean-Francois; Bethenod, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O(3) and H(2)O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ozone concentration dependent autohaemotherapy effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although ozone is widely used as an alternative medicine, its safety and efficiency are met with scepticism. To shed some light on this, we assessed the effect of ozone-autohaemotherapy, using an. O2/O3 gas mixture containing three different O3 concentrations (20, 40 and 80 ìg/ml), on the antioxidant status and lymphocyte ...

  19. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elstner, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Effect of in vivo ozone exposure to Dorset sheep, an animal model with low levels of erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Schulz, E.

    1981-02-01

    Considerable interest has recently been directed to the possible extrapulmonary effects caused by exposure to ambient ozone. As a result of ozone induced in vivo alteration of red cell function within human subjects, it has been hypothesized that individuals with an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency would be at increased hemolytic risk to elevated ambient ozone exposure. In order to evaluate such an hypothesis in an experimental setting it would be of great value to have an appropriate animal model with erythrocyte G-6-PD activity similar to the absolute activity range found in the human population. While no such unique animal model is presently known, the literature has revealed that Dorset sheep have an erythrocyte G-6-PD activity comparable in absolute units to a human G-6-PD deficient. Based on this information, we evaluated the mechanisms by which sheep and human G-6-PD deficient red cells handle oxidant stress. We evaluated the effects of in vivo ozone exposure in Dorset sheep over a broad range of concentrations.

  1. Spatio-temporal modeling for real-time ozone forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Lucia; Gelfand, Alan E; Holland, David M

    2013-05-01

    The accurate assessment of exposure to ambient ozone concentrations is important for informing the public and pollution monitoring agencies about ozone levels that may lead to adverse health effects. High-resolution air quality information can offer significant health benefits by leading to improved environmental decisions. A practical challenge facing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is to provide real-time forecasting of current 8-hour average ozone exposure over the entire conterminous United States. Such real-time forecasting is now provided as spatial forecast maps of current 8-hour average ozone defined as the average of the previous four hours, current hour, and predictions for the next three hours. Current 8-hour average patterns are updated hourly throughout the day on the EPA-AIRNow web site. The contribution here is to show how we can substantially improve upon current real-time forecasting systems. To enable such forecasting, we introduce a downscaler fusion model based on first differences of real-time monitoring data and numerical model output. The model has a flexible coefficient structure and uses an efficient computational strategy to fit model parameters. Our hybrid computational strategy blends continuous background updated model fitting with real-time predictions. Model validation analyses show that we are achieving very accurate and precise ozone forecasts.

  2. Application of computational fluid dynamics modelling to an ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling has been applied to examine the operation of the pre-ozonation system at Wiggins Waterworks, operated by Umgeni Water in Durban, South Africa. A hydraulic model has been satisfactorily verified by experimental tracer tests. The turbulence effect induced by the gas ...

  3. Ozonation control and effects of ozone on water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Chetri, Ravi K.

    2018-01-01

    To address the undesired effect of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture, ozone has been suggested as an alternative to improve water quality. To ensure safe and robust treatment, it is vital to define the ozone demand and ozone kinetics of the specific water matrix to avoid ozone overdose. Different...... ozone dosages were applied to water in freshwater recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Experiments were performed to investigate ozone kinetics and demand, and to evaluate the effects on the water quality, particularly in relation to fluorescent organic matter. This study aimed at predicting...

  4. Ecosystem Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground level ozone is absorbed by the leaves of plants, where it can reduce photosynthesis, damage leaves and slow growth. It can also make sensitive plants more susceptible to certain diseases, insects, harsh weather and other pollutants.

  5. Nitrogen fertiliser and stratospheric ozone - Latitudinal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Capone, L. A.; Riegel, C. A.; Turco, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Substantial increases in atmospheric N2O resulting from the increased use of nitrogen fertilizers might cause large (to 10%) decreases in the stratospheric ozone content. Such ozone decreases would be caused by catalytic reaction cycles involving odd-nitrogen that is formed by N2O decomposition in the upper stratosphere. Turco et al. (1978), using a background chlorine level of 2 ppbv, have shown that if the measured values of specified reactions are used a 50% increase in N2O would lead to a 2.7% increase in the stratospheric column density, although the ozone content above 30 km would be reduced by more than 5%; they also estimated (unpublished data) that the change in the ozone column density caused by doubling the N2O abundance would be very close to zero (within about 0.1%). The present paper extends these calculations of N2O/ozone effects to two dimensions, thereby identifying the latitude dependence expected for such ozone perturbations. The effects of changes in stratospheric chlorine levels on predicted ozone changes are also discussed.

  6. Effect of cumulative exposure on nasal response to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Chang, I.Y.; Scott, B.R.; Harkema, J.R. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1993-03-01

    To assess the potential health risks associated with exposure to low levels of ozone, it is essential to know if the ozone-induced responses are dependent on cumulative exposures or on the peak concentrations. To answer this question female F344/N rats, 11-13 weeks of age, were exposed to a matrix of equal concentration x time values that included exposures to 0, 0.12, 0.24, and 0.48 ppm ozone for 3, 6, 12, or 24 hr. the response of the nasal epithelium was measured as induced DNA synthesis determined by the uptake of bromodeoxyuridine (a thymidine analog) into epithelial cells lining the nasal anterior maxilloturbinates. No increased DNA synthesis was observed in rats exposed to 0.12 ppm ozone for any of the time periods. For exposures higher than 0.12 ppm ozone, the response of the nasal epithelium was similar for equal cumulative exposures. The responses, however, were not linearly related to the cumulative (concentration x time) exposures. It appeared that some mitigating factor was present which decreased the responses at the higher cumulative exposures. No frank toxicity or cellular necrosis was observed, indicating that sublethal cell damage was sufficient to induce DNA synthesis. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe the relationship between ozone exposure and the induction of DNA synthesis in the nasal epithelium. The model predicted that the threshold concentration of ozone for inducing DNA synthesis in the nasal epithelium was 0.1 +/- 0.1 ppm. For one measure of ozone toxicity (induced DNA synthesis) at a sensitive site in the respiratory tract (maxilloturbinates), the effects of ozone were dependent on cumulative exposures at concentrations > 0.12 ppm and within the time and concentration ranges used in this study.

  7. Experimental and modelling study of the effect of airflow orientation with respect to strip electrode on ozone production of surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeš, J.; Pekárek, S.; Soukup, I.

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the effect of airflow orientation with respect to the strip active electrode on concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide produced in a planar generator based on the surface dielectric barrier discharge. The orientation of the airflow was tested in parallel and perpendicular with respect to the strips. It was found that in the investigated range of average discharge power, the ozone concentration increases approximately by 25% when airflow was oriented in parallel with respect to the strips in comparison with perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Similarly the increase of nitrogen dioxide concentration was observed for parallel orientation of the airflow with respect to the strips in comparison with the perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Within the range of wavelengths from 250 to 1100 nm, the changes of intensities of spectral lines associated with airflow orientation have been observed. A 3D numerical model describing ion trajectories and airflow patterns have also been developed.

  8. Ozonation control and effects of ozone on water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula; Chhetri, Ravi K; Kaarsholm, Kamilla M S; Martin, Richard; Pedersen, Per B; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Andersen, Henrik R

    2018-04-15

    To address the undesired effect of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture, ozone has been suggested as an alternative to improve water quality. To ensure safe and robust treatment, it is vital to define the ozone demand and ozone kinetics of the specific water matrix to avoid ozone overdose. Different ozone dosages were applied to water in freshwater recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Experiments were performed to investigate ozone kinetics and demand, and to evaluate the effects on the water quality, particularly in relation to fluorescent organic matter. This study aimed at predicting a suitable ozone dosage for water treatment based on daily ozone demand via laboratory studies. These ozone dosages will be eventually applied and maintained at these levels in pilot-scale RAS to verify predictions. Selected water quality parameters were measured, including natural fluorescence and organic compound concentration changes during ozonation. Ozone reactions were described by first order kinetics. Organic matter, assessed as chemical oxygen demand and fluorescence, decreased by 25% (low O 3 ), 30% (middle O 3 ) and 53% (high O 3 ), while water transmittance improved by 15% over an 8-day period. No fish mortality was observed. Overall, this study confirms that ozone can improve RAS water quality, provides a better understanding of the ozone decay mechanisms that can be used to define further safe ozone treatment margins, and that fluorescence could be used as a monitoring tool to control ozone. This study might be used as a tool to design ozone systems for full-scale RAS by analysing water sample from the specific RAS in the laboratory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Curative effect of ozone hydrotherapy for pemphigus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fuqiong; Deng, Danqi; Li, Xiaolan; Wang, Wenfang; Xie, Hong; Wu, Yongzhuo; Luan, Chunyan; Yang, Binbin

    2018-02-28

    To determine clinical curative effects of ozone therapy for pemphigus vulgaris.
 Methods: Ozone hydrotherapy was used as an aid treatment for 32 patients with pemphigus vulgaris. The hydropathic compression of potassium permanganate solution for 34 patients with pemphigus vulgaris served as a control. The main treatment for both groups were glucocorticoids and immune inhibitors. The lesions of patients, bacterial infection, usage of antibiotics, patient's satisfaction, and clinical curative effect were evaluated in the 2 groups.
 Results: There was no significant difference in the curative effect and the average length of staying at hospital between the 2 groups (P>0.05). But rate for the usage of antibiotics was significantly reduced in the group of ozone hydrotherapy (P=0.039). The patients were more satisfied in using ozone hydrotherapy than the potassium permanganate solution after 7-day therapy (P>0.05).
 Conclusion: Ozone hydrotherapy is a safe and effective aid method for pemphigus vulgaris. It can reduce the usage of antibiotics.

  10. A national fine spatial scale land-use regression model for ozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, Jules|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411260502; Wang, Meng|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480279; Meliefste, Kees; Malmqvist, Ebba; Fischer, Paul; Janssen, Nicole A H; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    Uncertainty about health effects of long-term ozone exposure remains. Land use regression (LUR) models have been used successfully for modeling fine scale spatial variation of primary pollutants but very limited for ozone. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of developing a national LUR

  11. Sensitivity Assessment of Ozone Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorter, Jeffrey A.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Armstrong, Russell A.

    2000-01-24

    The activities under this contract effort were aimed at developing sensitivity analysis techniques and fully equivalent operational models (FEOMs) for applications in the DOE Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). MRC developed a new model representation algorithm that uses a hierarchical, correlated function expansion containing a finite number of terms. A full expansion of this type is an exact representation of the original model and each of the expansion functions is explicitly calculated using the original model. After calculating the expansion functions, they are assembled into a fully equivalent operational model (FEOM) that can directly replace the original mode.

  12. An Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Losses during the 1980s. Appendix K

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Robert M.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Shia, Run-Lie; Yang, Yajaing; Zhou, Shuntai; Molnar, Gyula

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the potential climatic effects of the ozone hole more directly and to assess the validity of previous lower resolution model results, the latest high spatial resolution version of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., seasonal radiative dynamical climate model is used to simulate the climatic effects of ozone changes relative to the other greenhouse gases. The steady-state climatic effect of a sustained decrease in lower stratospheric ozone, similar in magnitude to the observed 1979-90 decrease, is estimated by comparing three steady-state climate simulations: 1) 1979 greenhouse gas concentrations and 1979 ozone, II) 1990 greenhouse gas concentrations with 1979 ozone, and III) 1990 greenhouse gas concentrations with 1990 ozone. The simulated increase in surface air temperature resulting from nonozone greenhouse gases is 0.272 K. When changes in lower stratospheric ozone are included, the greenhouse warming is 0.165 K, which is approximately 39% lower than when ozone is fixed at the 1979 concentrations. Ozone perturbations at high latitudes result in a cooling of the surface-troposphere system that is greater (by a factor of 2.8) than that estimated from the change in radiative forcing resulting from ozone depiction and the model's 2 x CO, climate sensitivity. The results suggest that changes in meridional heat transport from low to high latitudes combined with the decrease in the infrared opacity of the lower stratosphere are very important in determining the steady-state response to high latitude ozone losses. The 39% compensation in greenhouse warming resulting from lower stratospheric ozone losses is also larger than the 28% compensation simulated previously by the lower resolution model. The higher resolution model is able to resolve the high latitude features of the assumed ozone perturbation, which are important in determining the overall climate sensitivity to these perturbations.

  13. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensit...

  14. Understanding Differences in Chemistry Climate Model Projections of Stratospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L. D.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry climate models (CCMs) are used to project future evolution of stratospheric ozone as concentrations of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) decrease and greenhouse gases increase, cooling the stratosphere. CCM projections exhibit not only many common features but also a broad range of values for quantities such as year of ozone return to 1980 and global ozone level at the end of the 21st century. Multiple linear regression is applied to each of 14 CCMs to separate ozone response to ODS concentration change from that due to climate change. We show that the sensitivity of lower stratospheric ozone to chlorine change Delta Ozone/Delta inorganic chlorine is a near-linear function of partitioning of total inorganic chlorine into its reservoirs; both inorganic chlorine and its partitioning are largely controlled by lower stratospheric transport. CCMs with best performance on transport diagnostics agree with observations for chlorine reservoirs and produce similar ozone responses to chlorine change. After 2035, differences in Delta Ozone/Delta inorganic chlorine contribute little to the spread in CCM projections as the anthropogenic contribution to inorganic chlorine becomes unimportant. Differences among upper stratospheric ozone increases due to temperature decreases are explained by differences in ozone sensitivity to temperature change Delta Ozone/Delta T due to different contributions from various ozone loss processes, each with its own temperature dependence. Ozone decrease in the tropical lower stratosphere caused by a projected speedup in the Brewer-Dobson circulation may or may not be balanced by ozone increases in the middle- and high-latitude lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. This balance, or lack thereof, contributes most to the spread in late 21st century projections.

  15. Model study of the impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and the effectiveness of emission reduction scenarios over eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhiwei; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Ueda, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    The impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and emission control scenarios has been numerically studied through a series of sensitivity model simulations. A typical episode with elevated ozone over eastern China from 12 to 16 August 2001 was investigated by using a tropospheric chemistry and transport model (TCTM), driven by a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MM5. The meteorological conditions during this period were characterized by high-pressure systems associated with low wind speeds, high temperatures and clear skies. Afternoon ozone concentrations exceeding 80 parts per billion (ppb) occurred over broad areas of eastern China. There is a generally good agreement between simulation and observation, indicating that the TCTM is able to represent major physical and chemical processes of tropospheric ozone and well reproduce the diurnal and day-to-day variability associated with synoptic conditions. The sensitivity analysis reveals a significant influence of biogenic hydrocarbons on regional ozone. Ozone levels are apparently enhanced by biogenic emission over large areas of eastern China. The largest increase up to 30 ppb in daytime average concentration is found in portions of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Yangtze Delta and northeast China. However, the response of ozone to biogenic emission varies spatially, showing more sensitivity in polluted areas than that in clean rural areas. The regimes limited by nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in eastern China are further investigated with respect to biogenic emission. Ozone shows a clear tendency to shift from VOC limitation to NO x limitation as it moves from urban and industrial areas to rural areas. Most of the rural areas in southern China tend to be NO x limited, whereas most of the northern parts of China appear to be VOC limited. By considering biogenic emission, ozone tends to become more NO x limited and less VOC limited, both in extent and intensity, over eastern

  16. Qualitative Analyses of the Antimicrobial Effect of Ozonated Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect of the ozonated water rinse on the salivary flow rate, salivary calcium and protein concentration. Conclusions: 0.1 ppm ozonated water rinse can be an effective adjunct to tooth brushing and flossing to maintain plaque and salivary bacterial load. Keywords: Fluorescent staining, In‑situ plaque, Ozonated water, Saliva ...

  17. Modelling stomatal ozone flux and deposition to grassland communities across Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, M.R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ma512@york.ac.uk; Bueker, P. [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Emberson, L.D. [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Terry, A.C. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Toet, S. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    Regional scale modelling of both ozone deposition and the risk of ozone impacts is poorly developed for grassland communities. This paper presents new predictions of stomatal ozone flux to grasslands at five different locations in Europe, using a mechanistic model of canopy development for productive grasslands to generate time series of leaf area index and soil water potential as inputs to the stomatal component of the DO{sub 3}SE ozone deposition model. The parameterisation of both models was based on Lolium perenne, a dominant species of productive pasture in Europe. The modelled seasonal time course of stomatal ozone flux to both the whole canopy and to upper leaves showed large differences between climatic zones, which depended on the timing of the start of the growing season, the effect of soil water potential, and the frequency of hay cuts. Values of modelled accumulated flux indices and the AOT40 index showed a five-fold difference between locations, but the locations with the highest flux differed depending on the index used; the period contributing to the accumulation of AOT40 did not always coincide with the modelled period of active ozone canopy uptake. Use of a fixed seasonal profile of leaf area index in the flux model produced very different estimates of annual accumulated total canopy and leaf ozone flux when compared with the flux model linked to a simulation of canopy growth. Regional scale model estimates of both the risks of ozone impacts and of total ozone deposition will be inaccurate unless the effects of climate and management in modifying grass canopy growth are incorporated. - Modelled stomatal flux of ozone to productive grasslands in Europe shows different spatial and temporal variation to AOT40, and is modified by management and soil water status.

  18. Effect of electrical potential of microbubbles on ozone dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, H.; Kataoka, H.; Asano, K.

    2009-02-01

    Microbubbles make ozone water generation effective due to the high dissolution rate of gas in contrast to a conventional generating method. Therefore, it is presumable that ozone water generation using microbubbles can be achieved by the low concentration ozone gas. In our previous study, a compact and low power microbubble generator was developed. The microbubbles are generated by the local shear stress in the flow through a pipe with slits. In the present study, in order to investigate the relationship between the electrical potential of the gas-water interface and the cleaning of cloth using ozone microbubbles, two models with different slit angles (θ=30 and 60 deg) were installed. High concentration ozone water is produced for θ = 60 deg in contrast to the θ=30 deg case. When a cloth is washed in the θ=60 deg case, the soiled cloth can be cleaned easily in comparison with the θ=30 deg case, because the zeta potential of microbubbles for θ=60 deg is larger than that for θ=30 deg.

  19. A study on the effects of ozone dosage on dissolved-ozone flotation (DOF) process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jin, Pengkang; Wang, Xiaochang

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved-ozone flotation (DOF) is a tertiary wastewater treatment process, which combines ozonation and flotation. In this paper, a pilot-scale DOF system fed by secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in China was used to study the effect of ozone dosage on the DOF process performance. The results show that an ozone dosage could affect the DOF performance to a large extent in terms of color and organic matter removal as well as disinfection performance. The optimal color and organic matter removal was achieved at an ozone dosage of 0.8 mg/l. For disinfection, significant improvement in performance could be achieved only when the organic matter removal was optimal. The optimal ozone dosage of at least 1.6 mg/l was put forward, in this case, in order to achieve the optimal color, turbidity, organic matter and disinfection performance.

  20. The effect of blood ozonation on mitochondrial function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, high concentrations of ozone were damaging to the cells, but this effect was diminished by antioxidants present in plasma. It is not certain if the in vitro damage will be propagated when ozonated blood is injected back into individuals. One must bear in mind that only a fraction of the total blood volume is ozonated.

  1. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion; Ozon in der Troposphaere. Bildung, Eigenschaften, Wirkungen. Gutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elstner, E.F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie

    1996-06-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Das Gutachten nimmt nur am Rande die Problematik der Bildung und Ausbreitung von troposphaerischen Ozon auf; Im Mittelpunkt steht die Auseinandersetzung mit den Wirkungen des bodennahen Ozons auf Pflanze, Tier und Mensch. Das Gutachten basiert auf einer Analyse der zugaenglichen wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten. (orig./MG)

  2. Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Elevated outdoor ozone levels are associated with adverse health effects. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone of outdoor origin would lower population exposures and might also lead to a reduction in ozone-associated adverse health effects. In most buildings, indoor ozone levels are diminished with respect to outdoor levels to an extent that depends on surface reactions and on the degree to which ozone penetrates the building envelope. Ozone enters buildings from outdoors together with the airflows that are driven by natural and mechanical means, including deliberate ventilation used to reduce concentrations of indoor-generated pollutants. When assessing the effect of deliberate ventilation on occupant health one should consider not only the positive effects on removing pollutants of indoor origin but also the possibility that enhanced ventilation might increase indoor levels of pollutants originating outdoors. This study considers how changes in residential ventilation that are designed to comply with ASHRAE Standard 62.2 might influence indoor levels of ozone. Simulation results show that the building envelope can contribute significantly to filtration of ozone. Consequently, the use of exhaust ventilation systems is predicted to produce lower indoor ozone concentrations than would occur with balanced ventilation systems operating at the same air-­exchange rate. We also investigated a strategy for reducing exposure to ozone that would deliberately reduce ventilation rates during times of high outdoor ozone concentration while still meeting daily average ventilation requirements.

  3. Effect of turbulent gas-liquid contact in a static mixer on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation by ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Stephen A; Smith, Daniel W; Chandrakanth, Mysore; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2003-09-01

    Static mixers may be used to dissolve gaseous ozone in water treatment facilities in order to provide protection against the waterborne parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a brief exposure to turbulent gas-liquid mixing conditions in a static mixer on inactivation of C. parvum oocysts by ozone. Inactivation measured in an ozone contacting apparatus that employed a static mixer for ozone dissolution was compared to predictions based on a previously published kinetic model of C. parvum inactivation by dissolved ozone in gently stirred batch reactors. Although initial contact in the static mixer had no immediate effect on the oocysts, a 20% increase in the rate of inactivation during subsequent contact with dissolved ozone was observed. Increasing the degree of turbulence within the static mixer did not yield additional inactivation. Use of static mixers for dissolution of ozone in drinking water treatment systems may provide limited enhancement of C. parvum inactivation by dissolved ozone.

  4. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx) in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Oikonomakis, Emmanouil; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry

    2018-01-01

    High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of t...

  5. Effects of ozone on plant pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of ozone on plants were studied, with emphasis on leaf bleaching, chlorosis, and appearance of reddish flecks on leaves. Leaves were analyzed with emphasis on ozone-induced destruction of chlorophyll and the formation of red anthrocyanin pigments. Leaves were exposed to 20 pphm to O/sub 3/. Pigments in Brassica pekinensis, morning glory, Zelkova serrata, and Prunus yedonensis were analyzed. Exposure to O/sub 3/ decreased the amount of chlorophyll, lowered the ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b, and caused anthrocyanin to form. From these results and from symptoms of O/sub 3/ injury to broad leaves (such as early appearance of yellow or red pigments in the leaves and premature fall of leaves), and published microscopic observations of chloroplast, it was deduced that O/sub 3/ accelerated the senescence of leaves and of the plant itself. 15 references.

  6. Ozone Effect On the Properties of Aramid Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The limitation of aramid fiber is its surface property, which results in its very poor interfacial adhesion to most of commercial resins. In order to improve the surface property of the aramid fiber, ozone treatment was carried out in this work. The aramid fabrics were evaluated in terms of surface morphology, wicking effect, tensile property, and ball bursting test. The results showed that the surface morphology of aramid fabrics did not undergo an obvious change; the wicking effect increased slightly with an increase in ozone treatment time; the tenacity and elongation of aramid fibers and fabrics did not significant change after ozone treatment, but the tenacity and elongation of aramid yarns showed significant improvement after ozone treatment, and increased with the increase of ozone treatment time; the ball bursting load and penetration displacement had a slight increase as well after ozone treatment. Therefore, ozone treatment could be one method to improve the surface property of the aramid fiber.

  7. Nicotiana tabacum as model for ozone - plant surface reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Werner; Fischer, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Tissier, Alain; Canaval, Eva; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants, responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billion dollars per year. The ensuing injuries have been related to the uptake of ozone through the stomatal pores and oxidative effects damaging the internal leaf tissue. A striking question of current research is the environment and plant specific partitioning of ozone loss between gas phase, stomatal or plant surface sink terms. Here we show results from ozone fumigation experiments using various Nicotiana Tabacum varieties, whose surfaces are covered with different amounts of unsaturated diterpenoids exuded by their glandular trichomes. Exposure to elevated ozone levels (50 to 150 ppbv) for 5 to 15 hours in an exceptionally clean cuvette system did neither result in a reduction of photosynthesis nor caused any visible leaf damage. Both these ozone induced stress effects have been observed previously in ozone fumigation experiments with the ozone sensitive tobacco line Bel-W3. In our case ozone fumigation was accompanied by a continuous release of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, which could be clearly associated to their condensed phase precursors for the first time. Gas phase reactions of ozone were avoided by choosing a high enough gas exchange rate of the plant cuvette system. In the case of the Ambalema variety, that is known to exude only the diterpenoid cis-abienol, ozone fumigation experiments yield the volatiles formaldehyde and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK). The latter could be unequivocally separated from isomeric methacrolein (MACR) by the aid of a Selective Reagent Ion Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (SRI-ToF-MS), which was switched every six minutes from H3O+ to NO+ primary ion mode and vice versa. Consistent with the picture of an ozone protection mechanism caused by reactive diterpenoids at the leaf surface are the results from dark-light experiments. The ozone loss obtained from the

  8. Ozone generation by negative corona discharge: the effect of Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanallah, K.; Pontiga, F.; Fernández-Rueda, A.; Castellanos, A.; Belasri, A.

    2008-10-01

    Ozone generation in pure oxygen using a wire-to-cylinder corona discharge reactor is experimentally and numerically investigated. Ozone concentration is determined by means of direct UV spectroscopy and the effects of Joule heating and ozone decomposition on the electrodes are analysed for different discharge gaps. The numerical model combines the physical processes in the corona discharge with the chemistry of ozone formation and destruction. The chemical kinetics model and the electrical model are coupled through Poisson's equation, and the current-voltage (CV) characteristic measured in experiments is used as input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to predict the radial distributions of electrons, ions, atoms and molecules for each applied voltage of the CV characteristic. In particular, the evolution of ozone density inside the discharge cell has been investigated as a function of current intensity and applied voltage.

  9. Ozone generation by negative corona discharge: the effect of Joule heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A; Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A; Belasri, A

    2008-01-01

    Ozone generation in pure oxygen using a wire-to-cylinder corona discharge reactor is experimentally and numerically investigated. Ozone concentration is determined by means of direct UV spectroscopy and the effects of Joule heating and ozone decomposition on the electrodes are analysed for different discharge gaps. The numerical model combines the physical processes in the corona discharge with the chemistry of ozone formation and destruction. The chemical kinetics model and the electrical model are coupled through Poisson's equation, and the current-voltage (CV) characteristic measured in experiments is used as input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to predict the radial distributions of electrons, ions, atoms and molecules for each applied voltage of the CV characteristic. In particular, the evolution of ozone density inside the discharge cell has been investigated as a function of current intensity and applied voltage

  10. Ozone generation by negative corona discharge: the effect of Joule heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Belasri, A [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, des Materiaux Conducteur et Leurs Applications, Universite d' Oran (Algeria)

    2008-10-07

    Ozone generation in pure oxygen using a wire-to-cylinder corona discharge reactor is experimentally and numerically investigated. Ozone concentration is determined by means of direct UV spectroscopy and the effects of Joule heating and ozone decomposition on the electrodes are analysed for different discharge gaps. The numerical model combines the physical processes in the corona discharge with the chemistry of ozone formation and destruction. The chemical kinetics model and the electrical model are coupled through Poisson's equation, and the current-voltage (CV) characteristic measured in experiments is used as input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to predict the radial distributions of electrons, ions, atoms and molecules for each applied voltage of the CV characteristic. In particular, the evolution of ozone density inside the discharge cell has been investigated as a function of current intensity and applied voltage.

  11. Human mortality effects of future concentrations of tropospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.; Szopa, S.; Hauglustaine, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Here we explore the effects of projected future changes in global ozone concentrations on premature human mortality, under three scenarios for 2030. We use daily surface ozone concentrations from a global atmospheric transport and chemistry model, and ozone-mortality relationships from daily time-series studies. The population-weighted annual average 8-h daily maximum ozone is projected to increase, relative to the present, in each of ten world regions under the SRES A2 scenario and the current legislation (CLE) scenario, with the largest growth in tropical regions, while decreases are projected in each region in the maximum feasible reduction (MFR) scenario. Emission reductions in the CLE scenario, relative to A2, are estimated to reduce about 190,000 premature human mortalities globally in 2030, with the most avoided mortalities in Africa. The MFR scenario will avoid about 460,000 premature mortalities relative to A2 in 2030, and 270,000 relative to CLE, with the greatest reductions in South Asia. (authors)

  12. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quant...

  13. The Effect of Ozone Therapy on Experimental Vasospasm in the Rat Femoral Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakdogen, Metin; Uslu, Serap; Emon, Selin Tural; Somay, Hakan; Meric, Zeynep Cingu; Hakan, Tayfun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation products following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are among the causative substances of cerebral vasospasm and poor outcome. Ozone (O3) is a gas that contains three atoms of oxygen with a cyclic structure. It has been suggested that application of low-dose ozone has an antioxidant effect and provides resistance to oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of oxygen-ozone therapy on rat femoral artery vasospasm. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into vasospasm, vasospasm + ozone and control groups. The femoral artery vasospasm model was used. Rats in the vasospasm + ozone group were given 4 mL of ozone (20 μ/mL) daily for 7 days. Femoral arteries were examined by light microscopy for histological changes and morphometric analysis. Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. The values of p Ozone treatment reduced the morphometric changes as irregularity of the elastic lamina, disruption of the endothelial cells, vacuolization and hemorrhages that caused by vasospasm. The measurements of the wall thickness (p=0.003; p ozone groups. Ozone therapy may be useful in the treatment of post-hemorrhagic vasospasm.

  14. Reducing Uncertainty in Chemistry Climate Model Predictions of Stratospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L. D.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry climate models (CCMs) are used to predict the future evolution of stratospheric ozone as ozone-depleting substances decrease and greenhouse gases increase, cooling the stratosphere. CCM predictions exhibit many common features, but also a broad range of values for quantities such as year of ozone-return-to-1980 and global ozone level at the end of the 21st century. Multiple linear regression is applied to each of 14 CCMs to separate ozone response to chlorine change from that due to climate change. We show that the sensitivity of lower atmosphere ozone to chlorine change deltaO3/deltaCly is a near linear function of partitioning of total inorganic chlorine (Cly) into its reservoirs; both Cly and its partitioning are controlled by lower atmospheric transport. CCMs with realistic transport agree with observations for chlorine reservoirs and produce similar ozone responses to chlorine change. After 2035 differences in response to chlorine contribute little to the spread in CCM results as the anthropogenic contribution to Cly becomes unimportant. Differences among upper stratospheric ozone increases due to temperature decreases are explained by differences in ozone sensitivity to temperature change deltaO3/deltaT due to different contributions from various ozone loss processes, each with their own temperature dependence. In the lower atmosphere, tropical ozone decreases caused by a predicted speed-up in the Brewer-Dobson circulation may or may not be balanced by middle and high latitude increases, contributing most to the spread in late 21st century predictions.

  15. A Statistical Modeling Framework for Projecting Future Ambient Ozone and its Health Impact due to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Howard H; Hao, Hua; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2014-06-01

    The adverse health effects of ambient ozone are well established. Given the high sensitivity of ambient ozone concentrations to meteorological conditions, the impacts of future climate change on ozone concentrations and its associated health effects are of concern. We describe a statistical modeling framework for projecting future ozone levels and its health impacts under a changing climate. This is motivated by the continual effort to evaluate projection uncertainties to inform public health risk assessment. The proposed approach was applied to the 20-county Atlanta metropolitan area using regional climate model (RCM) simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Future ozone levels and ozone-related excesses in asthma emergency department (ED) visits were examined for the period 2041-2070. The computationally efficient approach allowed us to consider 8 sets of climate model outputs based on different combinations of 4 RCMs and 4 general circulation models. Compared to the historical period of 1999-2004, we found consistent projections across climate models of an average 11.5% higher ozone levels (range: 4.8%, 16.2%), and an average 8.3% (range: -7% to 24%) higher number of ozone exceedance days. Assuming no change in the at-risk population, this corresponds to excess ozone-related ED visits ranging from 267 to 466 visits per year. Health impact projection uncertainty was driven predominantly by uncertainty in the health effect association and climate model variability. Calibrating climate simulations with historical observations reduced differences in projections across climate models.

  16. Short-term effects of multiple ozone metrics on daily mortality in a megacity of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Yan, Meilin; Ma, Wenjun; Ban, Jie; Liu, Tao; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Zhaorong

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have widely demonstrated association between ambient ozone and mortality, though controversy remains, and most of them only use a certain metric to assess ozone levels. However, in China, few studies have investigated the acute effects of ambient ozone, and rare studies have compared health effects of multiple daily metrics of ozone. The present analysis aimed to explore variability of estimated health effects by using multiple temporal ozone metrics. Six metrics of ozone, 1-h maximum, maximum 8-h average, 24-h average, daytime average, nighttime average, and commute average, were used in a time-series study to investigate acute mortality associated with ambient ozone pollution in Guangzhou, China, using 3 years of daily data (2006-2008). We used generalized linear models with Poisson regression incorporating natural spline functions to analyze the mortality, ozone, and covariate data. We also examined the association by season. Daily 1- and 8-h maximum, 24-h average, and daytime average concentrations yielded statistically significant associations with mortality. An interquartile range (IQR) of O3 metric increase of each ozone metric (lag 2) corresponds to 2.92 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 5.66), 3.60 % (95 % CI, 0.92 to 8.49), 3.03 % (95 % CI, 0.57 to 15.8), and 3.31 % (95 % CI, 0.69 to 10.4) increase in daily non-accidental mortality, respectively. Nighttime and commute metrics were weakly associated with increased mortality rate. The associations between ozone and mortality appeared to be more evident during cool season than in the warm season. Results were robust to adjustment for co-pollutants, weather, and time trend. In conclusion, these results indicated that ozone, as a widespread pollutant, adversely affects mortality in Guangzhou.

  17. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J.

    2006-06-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes on a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63, and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but indicates that there are still large errors at 120 km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over east Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution. However, subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is not greatly affected. We find that the export of short-lived precursors such as NOx by convection is overestimated at coarse resolution.

  18. Indirect radiative forcing of climate change through ozone effects on the land-carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitch, S; Cox, P M; Collins, W J; Huntingford, C

    2007-08-16

    The evolution of the Earth's climate over the twenty-first century depends on the rate at which anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are removed from the atmosphere by the ocean and land carbon cycles. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models suggest that global warming will act to limit the land-carbon sink, but these first generation models neglected the impacts of changing atmospheric chemistry. Emissions associated with fossil fuel and biomass burning have acted to approximately double the global mean tropospheric ozone concentration, and further increases are expected over the twenty-first century. Tropospheric ozone is known to damage plants, reducing plant primary productivity and crop yields, yet increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are thought to stimulate plant primary productivity. Increased carbon dioxide and ozone levels can both lead to stomatal closure, which reduces the uptake of either gas, and in turn limits the damaging effect of ozone and the carbon dioxide fertilization of photosynthesis. Here we estimate the impact of projected changes in ozone levels on the land-carbon sink, using a global land carbon cycle model modified to include the effect of ozone deposition on photosynthesis and to account for interactions between ozone and carbon dioxide through stomatal closure. For a range of sensitivity parameters based on manipulative field experiments, we find a significant suppression of the global land-carbon sink as increases in ozone concentrations affect plant productivity. In consequence, more carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere. We suggest that the resulting indirect radiative forcing by ozone effects on plants could contribute more to global warming than the direct radiative forcing due to tropospheric ozone increases.

  19. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx) in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakis, Emmanouil; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry

    2018-02-01

    the latter, suggesting that high uncertainties in NOx emissions might originate mainly from the road-transport sector rather than from other sectors. The impact of meteorology was examined with three sensitivity tests: (i) increased surface temperature by 4 °C, (ii) reduced wind speed by 50 % and (iii) doubled wind speed. The first two scenarios led to a consistent increase in all surface ozone mixing ratios, thus improving the model performance for the high ozone values but significantly degrading it for the low ozone values, while the third scenario had exactly the opposite effects. Overall, the modeled ozone is predicted to be more sensitive to its precursor emissions (especially traffic NOx) and therefore their uncertainties, which seem to be responsible for the model underestimation of the observed high ozone mixing ratios and ozone production.

  20. Toward an ozone standard to protect vegetation based on effective dose: a review of deposition resistances and a possible metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massman, W. J.

    Present air quality standards to protect vegetation from ozone are based on measured concentrations (i.e., exposure) rather than on plant uptake rates (or dose). Some familiar cumulative exposure-based indices include SUM06, AOT40, and W126. However, plant injury is more closely related to dose, or more appropriately to effective dose, than to exposure. This study develops and applies a simple model for estimating effective ozone dose that combines the plant canopy's rate of stomatal ozone uptake with the plant's defense to ozone uptake. Here the plant defense is explicitly parameterized as a function of gross photosynthesis and the model is applied using eddy covariance (ozone and CO 2) flux data obtained at a vineyard site in the San Joaquin Valley during the California Ozone Deposition Experiment (CODE91). With the ultimate intention of applying these concepts using prognostic models and remotely sensed data, the pathways for ozone deposition are parameterized (as much as possible) in terms of canopy LAI and the surface friction velocity. Results indicate that (1) the daily maximum potential for plant injury (based on effective dose) tends to coincide with the daily peak in ozone mixing ratio (ppbV), (2) potentially there are some significant differences between ozone metrics based on dose (no plant defense) and effective dose, and (3) nocturnal conductance can contribute significantly to the potential for plant ozone injury.

  1. The contribution of anthropogenic bromine emissions to past stratospheric ozone trends: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-M. Sinnhuber

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bromine compounds play an important role in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. We have calculated the changes in stratospheric ozone in response to changes in the halogen loading over the past decades, using a two-dimensional (latitude/height model constrained by source gas mixing ratios at the surface. Model calculations of the decrease of total column ozone since 1980 agree reasonably well with observed ozone trends, in particular when the contribution from very short-lived bromine compounds is included. Model calculations with bromine source gas mixing ratios fixed at 1959 levels, corresponding approximately to a situation with no anthropogenic bromine emissions, show an ozone column reduction between 1980 and 2005 at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes of only ≈55% compared to a model run including all halogen source gases. In this sense anthropogenic bromine emissions are responsible for ≈45% of the model estimated column ozone loss at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. However, since a large fraction of the bromine induced ozone loss is due to the combined BrO/ClO catalytic cycle, the effect of bromine would have been smaller in the absence of anthropogenic chlorine emissions. The chemical efficiency of bromine relative to chlorine for global total ozone depletion from our model calculations, expressed by the so called α-factor, is 64 on an annual average. This value is much higher than previously published results. Updates in reaction rate constants can explain only part of the differences in α. The inclusion of bromine from very short-lived source gases has only a minor effect on the global mean α-factor.

  2. A multi-model analysis of vertical ozone profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson, J. E.; Stohl, A.; Fiore, A. M.; Hess, P.; Szopa, S.; Wild, O.; Zeng, G.; Dentener, F. J.; Lupu, A.; Schultz, M. G.; Duncan, B. N.; Sudo, K.; Wind, P.; Schulz, M.; Marmer, E.; Cuvelier, C.; Keating, T.; Zuber, A.; Valdebenito, A.; Dorokhov, V.; de Backer, H.; Davies, J.; Chen, G. H.; Johnson, B.; Tarasick, D. W.; Stübi, R.; Newchurch, M. J.; von der Gathen, P.; Steinbrecht, W.; Claude, H.

    2010-06-01

    A multi-model study of the long-range transport of ozone and its precursors from major anthropogenic source regions was coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). Vertical profiles of ozone at 12-h intervals from 2001 are available from twelve of the models contributing to this study and are compared here with observed profiles from ozonesondes. The contributions from each major source region are analysed for selected sondes, and this analysis is supplemented by retroplume calculations using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model to provide insight into the origin of ozone transport events and the cause of differences between the models and observations. In the boundary layer ozone levels are in general strongly affected by regional sources and sinks. With a considerably longer lifetime in the free troposphere, ozone here is to a much larger extent affected by processes on a larger scale such as intercontinental transport and exchange with the stratosphere. Such individual events are difficult to trace over several days or weeks of transport. This may explain why statistical relationships between models and ozonesonde measurements are far less satisfactory than shown in previous studies for surface measurements at all seasons. The lowest bias between model-calculated ozone profiles and the ozonesonde measurements is seen in the winter and autumn months. Following the increase in photochemical activity in the spring and summer months, the spread in model results increases, and the agreement between ozonesonde measurements and the individual models deteriorates further. At selected sites calculated contributions to ozone levels in the free troposphere from intercontinental transport are shown. Intercontinental transport is identified based on differences in model calculations with unperturbed emissions and emissions reduced by 20% by region

  3. A multi-model analysis of vertical ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Jonson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-model study of the long-range transport of ozone and its precursors from major anthropogenic source regions was coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP. Vertical profiles of ozone at 12-h intervals from 2001 are available from twelve of the models contributing to this study and are compared here with observed profiles from ozonesondes. The contributions from each major source region are analysed for selected sondes, and this analysis is supplemented by retroplume calculations using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model to provide insight into the origin of ozone transport events and the cause of differences between the models and observations.

    In the boundary layer ozone levels are in general strongly affected by regional sources and sinks. With a considerably longer lifetime in the free troposphere, ozone here is to a much larger extent affected by processes on a larger scale such as intercontinental transport and exchange with the stratosphere. Such individual events are difficult to trace over several days or weeks of transport. This may explain why statistical relationships between models and ozonesonde measurements are far less satisfactory than shown in previous studies for surface measurements at all seasons. The lowest bias between model-calculated ozone profiles and the ozonesonde measurements is seen in the winter and autumn months. Following the increase in photochemical activity in the spring and summer months, the spread in model results increases, and the agreement between ozonesonde measurements and the individual models deteriorates further.

    At selected sites calculated contributions to ozone levels in the free troposphere from intercontinental transport are shown. Intercontinental transport is identified based on differences in model calculations with unperturbed emissions and

  4. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oikonomakis

    2018-02-01

    (where both NOx and VOC emissions are increased leads to a better model performance. Although increasing only the traffic NOx emissions by a factor of 4 gave very similar results to the doubling of all NOx emissions, the first scenario is more consistent with the uncertainties reported by other studies than the latter, suggesting that high uncertainties in NOx emissions might originate mainly from the road-transport sector rather than from other sectors. The impact of meteorology was examined with three sensitivity tests: (i increased surface temperature by 4 °C, (ii reduced wind speed by 50 % and (iii doubled wind speed. The first two scenarios led to a consistent increase in all surface ozone mixing ratios, thus improving the model performance for the high ozone values but significantly degrading it for the low ozone values, while the third scenario had exactly the opposite effects. Overall, the modeled ozone is predicted to be more sensitive to its precursor emissions (especially traffic NOx and therefore their uncertainties, which seem to be responsible for the model underestimation of the observed high ozone mixing ratios and ozone production.

  5. Ozone Production With Dielectric Barrier Discharge: Effects of Power Source and Humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2016-08-24

    Ozone synthesis in air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was studied with an emphasis on the effects of power sources and humidity. Discharge characteristics were investigated to understand the physical properties of plasma and corresponding system performance. It was found that 10-ns pulsed DBD produced a homogeneous discharge mode, while ac DBD yielded an inhomogeneous pattern with many microdischarge channels. At a similar level of the energy density (ED), decreasing the flowrate is more effective in the production of ozone for the cases of the ac DBD, while increased voltage is more effective for the pulsed DBD. Note that the maximum ozone production efficiency (110 g/kWh) was achieved with the pulsed DBD. At the ED of ∼ 85 J/L, the ozone concentrations with dry air were over three times higher than those with the relative humidity of 100% for both the ac DBD and pulsed DBD cases. A numerical simulation was conducted using a global model to understand a detailed chemical role of water vapor to ozone production. It was found HO and OH radicals from water vapor significantly consumed O atoms, resulting in a reduction in ozone production. The global model qualitatively captured the experimental trends, providing further evidence that the primary effect of humidity on ozone production is chemical in nature.

  6. Regulatory ozone modeling: status, directions, and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, P G

    1995-03-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have established selected comprehensive, three-dimensional, Photochemical Air Quality Simulation Models (PAQSMs) as the required regulatory tools for analyzing the urban and regional problem of high ambient ozone levels across the United States. These models are currently applied to study and establish strategies for meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone in nonattainment areas; State Implementation Plans (SIPs) resulting from these efforts must be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in November 1994. The following presentation provides an overview and discussion of the regulatory ozone modeling process and its implications. First, the PAQSM-based ozone attainment demonstration process is summarized in the framework of the 1994 SIPs. Then, following a brief overview of the representation of physical and chemical processes in PAQSMs, the essential attributes of standard modeling systems currently in regulatory use are presented in a nonmathematical, self-contained format, intended to provide a basic understanding of both model capabilities and limitations. The types of air quality, emission, and meteorological data needed for applying and evaluating PAQSMs are discussed, as well as the sources, availability, and limitations of existing databases. The issue of evaluating a model's performance in order to accept it as a tool for policy making is discussed, and various methodologies for implementing this objective are summarized. Selected interim results from diagnostic analyses, which are performed as a component of the regulatory ozone modeling process for the Philadelphia-New Jersey region, are also presented to provide some specific examples related to the general issues discussed in this work. Finally, research needs related to a) the evaluation and refinement of regulatory ozone modeling, b) the characterization of uncertainty in photochemical modeling, and c

  7. Mass-dependent and non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone photolysis: Resolving theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Amanda S.; Boering, Kristie A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to the anomalous 17 O and 18 O isotope effects in the three-body ozone formation reaction O+O 2 +M, isotope effects in the destruction of ozone by photolysis may also play a role in determining the isotopic composition of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. While previous experiments on ozone photolysis at 254 nm were interpreted as evidence for preferential loss of light ozone that is anomalous (or 'non-mass-dependent'), recent semiempirical theoretical calculations predicted a preferential loss of heavy ozone at that wavelength that is mass dependent. Through photochemical modeling results presented here, we resolve this apparent contradiction between experiment and theory. Specifically, we show that the formation of ozone during the UV photolysis experiments is not negligible, as had been assumed, and that the well-known non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone formation can account for the non-mass-dependent enrichment of the heavy isotopologs of ozone observed in the experiment. Thus, no unusual non-mass-dependent fractionation in ozone photolysis must be invoked to explain the experimental results. Furthermore, we show that theoretical predictions of a mass-dependent preferential loss of the heavy isotopologs of ozone during UV photolysis are not inconsistent with the experimental data, particularly if mass-dependent isotope effects in the chemical loss reactions of ozone during the photolysis experiments or experimental artifacts enrich the remaining ozone in 17 O and 18 O. Before the calculated fractionation factors can be quantitatively evaluated, however, further investigation of possible mass-dependent isotope effects in the reactions of ozone with O( 1 D), O( 3 P), O 2 ( 1 Δ), and O 2 ( 1 Σ) is needed through experiments we suggest here

  8. Tropospheric ozone using an emission tagging technique in the CAM-Chem and WRF-Chem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupascu, A.; Coates, J.; Zhu, S.; Butler, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a short-lived climate forcing pollutant. High concentration of ozone can affect human health (cardiorespiratory and increased mortality due to long-term exposure), and also it damages crops. Attributing ozone concentrations to the contributions from different sources would indicate the effects of locally emitted or transported precursors on ozone levels in specific regions. This information could be used as an important component of the design of emissions reduction strategies by indicating which emission sources could be targeted for effective reductions, thus reducing the burden of ozone pollution. Using a "tagging" approach within the CAM-Chem (global) and WRF-Chem (regional) models, we can quantify the contribution of individual emission of NOx and VOC precursors on air quality. Hence, when precursor emissions of NOx are tagged, we have seen that the largest contributors on ozone levels are the anthropogenic sources, while in the case of precursor emissions of VOCs, the biogenic sources and methane account for more than 50% of ozone levels. Further, we have extended the NOx tagging method in order to investigate continental source region contributions to concentrations of ozone over various receptor regions over the globe, with a zoom over Europe. In general, summertime maximum ozone in most receptor regions is largely attributable to local emissions of anthropogenic NOx and biogenic VOC. During the rest of the year, especially during springtime, ozone in most receptor regions shows stronger influences from anthropogenic emissions of NOx and VOC in remote source regions.

  9. Fluorine photochemistry in the stratosphere. [effect on ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, R. S.; Rundel, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The photochemistry of fluorine in the stratosphere is surveyed in order to estimate the effect on ozone of fluorine atoms released by the breakdown of chlorofluoromethanes. The catalytic efficiency for ozone destruction by fluorine is found to be less than .0001 that of chlorine in the altitude range from 25 to 50 km.

  10. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of ozone treatment on chemical and physical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gluten, glutenin and gliadin. Methods: Wheat proteins isolated from wheat flour were treated with ozone gas. The physical and chemical properties of gluten proteins were investigated after treatment ...

  11. Systemic ozone effects on root hydraulic properties in pima cotton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grantz, D.A.; Yang, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)]|[Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ambient ozone concentrations have become problematic even in rural, agricultural areas such as the San Joaquin Valley of California. Pima cotton (cv. S6) has been shown to be relatively sensitive to ozone air pollution, at levels occurring in this production area. In this semi-arid area acquisition of water and nutrients may limit yield and biological productivity. Therefore maximal proliferation, exploration, and efficiency of root systems is desirable. Hydraulic conductance provides a parameter to characterize the efficiency of roots and shoots and their interaction. The authors have used a variety of transpiration and pressure vessel techniques to document ozone-induced reduction of root hydraulic conductance in cotton. They hypothesized that these effects are caused by reduced carbohydrate supply due to reduction of photosynthetic capacity of the shoot associated with direct oxidant damage to foliage. However, the authors simulated this reduced photosynthetic capacity by continuously removing leaf area to match that of ozone treated plants. This resulted in a reduction of whole plant biomass similar to ozone-treated plants, but a root/shoot biomass ratio and root hydraulic properties similar to control plants and contrasting with ozone-treated plants. Thus leaf removal did not simulate effects of ozone on root hydraulic properties. A systematic effect of ozone on whole plant function is indicated, perhaps mediated by direct effects on carbohydrate translocation throughout the plant.

  12. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators "Emistym C" and "Agrostymulin" was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide "Strobi" and natural growth regulator "Emistym C" demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  13. Solar response in tropical stratospheric ozone: a 3-D chemical transport model study using ERA reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhomse

    2011-12-01

    reduces the modelled ozone signal. The large positive upper stratospheric solar response seen in SBUV/SAGE and SAGE-based data can be reproduced in model runs with fixed dynamical fields (i.e. no inter-annual meteorological changes. As these runs effectively assume no long-term temperature changes (solar-induced or otherwise, it should provide an upper limit of the ozone solar response. Overall, full quantification of the solar response in stratospheric ozone is limited by differences in the observed data sets and by uncertainties in the solar response in stratospheric temperatures.

  14. In search for evidence: combining ad hoc survey, monitoring, and modeling to estimate the potential and actual impact of ground level ozone on forests in Trentino (Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardini, Elena; Cristofolini, Fabiana; Cristofori, Antonella; Ferretti, Marco

    2017-09-27

    A 5-year project was carried out over the period 2007-2011 to estimate the potential and actual ozone effect on forests in Trentino, Northern Italy (6207 km 2 ) (Ozone EFFORT). The objective was to provide explicit answers to three main questions: (i) is there a potential risk placed by ozone to vegetation? (ii) are there specific ozone symptoms on vegetation, and are they related to ozone levels? (iii) are there ozone-related effects on forest health and growth? Different methods and techniques were adopted as follows: monitoring ozone levels, ad hoc field survey for symptoms on vegetation and chlorophyll-related measurements, modeling to upscale ozone measurements, ozone flux estimation, statistical analysis, and modeling to detect whether a significant effect attributable to ozone exists. Ozone effects were assessed on an ad hoc-introduced bioindicator, on spontaneous woody species, and on forest trees. As for question (i), the different ozone-risk critical levels for both exposure and stomatal flux were largely exceeded in Trentino, evidencing a potentially critical situation for vegetation. As for question (ii), specific ozone foliar symptoms related to ozone exposure levels were observed on the introduced supersensitive Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bel-W3 and on the spontaneous, ozone-sensitive Viburnum lantana L., but not on other 33 species surveyed in the field studies. Regarding question (iii), statistical analyses on forest health (in terms of defoliation) and growth (in terms of basal area increment) measured at 15 forest monitoring plots and tree rings (at one site) revealed no significant relationship with ozone exposure and flux. Instead, a set of factors related to biotic and abiotic causes, foliar nutrients, age, and site were identified as the main drivers of forest health and growth. In conclusion, while ozone levels and fluxes in the investigated region were much higher than current critical levels, evidence of impact on vegetation-and on forest

  15. The Effect of Zonally Asymmetric Ozone Heating on the Northern Hemisphere Winter Polar Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    solar ultraviolet ir- radiance, stratospheric ozone, and planetary wave activity that have often been cited as possible mechanisms linking solar... photochemistry both contribute to the ZAOH effect, up to ∼0.01 hPa (∼65 km) where the ZAOH effect is controlled by ozone photochemistry . Overall, the... photochemistry parameterization for high-altitude NWP and climate models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4943–4972. December 9, 2010, 2:01pm X - 12 MCCORMACK ET

  16. Future-year ozone prediction for the United States using updated models and inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Susan; Kidokoro, Toru; Karamchandani, Prakash; Shah, Tejas; Jung, Jaegun

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between emission reductions and changes in ozone can be studied using photochemical grid models. These models are updated with new information as it becomes available. The primary objective of this study was to update the previous Collet et al. studies by using the most up-to-date (at the time the study was done) modeling emission tools, inventories, and meteorology available to conduct ozone source attribution and sensitivity studies. Results show future-year, 2030, design values for 8-hr ozone concentrations were lower than base-year values, 2011. The ozone source attribution results for selected cities showed that boundary conditions were the dominant contributors to ozone concentrations at the western U.S. locations, and were important for many of the eastern U.S. Point sources were generally more important in the eastern United States than in the western United States. The contributions of on-road mobile emissions were less than 5 ppb at a majority of the cities selected for analysis. The higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM) results showed that in most of the locations selected for analysis, NOx emission reductions were more effective than VOC emission reductions in reducing ozone levels. The source attribution results from this study provide useful information on the important source categories and provide some initial guidance on future emission reduction strategies. The relationship between emission reductions and changes in ozone can be studied using photochemical grid models, which are updated with new available information. This study was to update the previous Collet et al. studies by using the most current, at the time the study was done, models and inventory to conduct ozone source attribution and sensitivity studies. The source attribution results from this study provide useful information on the important source categories and provide some initial guidance on future emission reduction strategies.

  17. A Model and Satellite-Based Analysis of the Tropospheric Ozone Distribution in Clear Versus Convectively Cloudy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strode, Sarah A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Manyin, Michael; Nielsen, J. Eric; Oman, Luke D.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite observations of in-cloud ozone concentrations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and Microwave Limb Sounder instruments show substantial differences from background ozone concentrations. We develop a method for comparing a free-running chemistry-climate model (CCM) to in-cloud and background ozone observations using a simple criterion based on cloud fraction to separate cloudy and clear-sky days. We demonstrate that the CCM simulates key features of the in-cloud versus background ozone differences and of the geographic distribution of in-cloud ozone. Since the agreement is not dependent on matching the meteorological conditions of a specific day, this is a promising method for diagnosing how accurately CCMs represent the relationships between ozone and clouds, including the lower ozone concentrations shown by in-cloud satellite observations. Since clouds are associated with convection as well as changes in chemistry, we diagnose the tendency of tropical ozone at 400 hPa due to chemistry, convection and turbulence, and large-scale dynamics. While convection acts to reduce ozone concentrations at 400 hPa throughout much of the tropics, it has the opposite effect over highly polluted regions of South and East Asia.

  18. Antimicrobial Effect of Ozone Made by KP Syringe of High-Frequency Ozone Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebeg, Domagoj; Katunarić, Marina; Budimir, Ana; Pavelić, Božidar; Šegović, Sanja; Anić, Ivica

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antibacterial effect of ozone on suspension of three different bacteria inoculated in prepared canals of extracted human teeth. Ozone was produced by special KP syringe of high frequency ozone generator Ozonytron (Biozonix, München, Germany) from aspirated atmospheric air by dielectric barrier discharge and applied through the tip of the syringe to the prepared root canal. The microorganisms used were Enterococcus faecalis , Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis . However, none of the methods was 100% effective against the three bacterial types in suspension. Application of ozone significantly decreased the absolute count of microorganisms (89.3%), as well as the count of each type of bacteria separately ( Staphylococcus aureus 94.0%; Staphylococcus epidermidis 88.6% and Enterococcus faecalis 79.7%). Ozone generated by KP syringe was statistically more effective compared to NaOCl as positive control, for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis . The absolute count of Enterococcus faecalis was statistically decreased without a statistically significant difference between the tested group and positive control, respectively. Among the three types of bacteria in suspension, KP probe had the lowest antimicrobial effect against Enterococcus faecalis .

  19. Predicting trace organic compound attenuation by ozone oxidation: Development of indicator and surrogate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minkyu; Anumol, Tarun; Daniels, Kevin D; Wu, Shimin; Ziska, Austin D; Snyder, Shane A

    2017-08-01

    Ozone oxidation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment process for the attenuation of trace organic compounds (TOrCs); however, predicting TOrC attenuation by ozone processes is challenging in wastewaters. Since ozone is rapidly consumed, determining the exposure times of ozone and hydroxyl radical proves to be difficult. As direct potable reuse schemes continue to gain traction, there is an increasing need for the development of real-time monitoring strategies for TOrC abatement in ozone oxidation processes. Hence, this study is primarily aimed at developing indicator and surrogate models for the prediction of TOrC attenuation by ozone oxidation. To this end, the second-order kinetic equations with a second-phase R ct value (ratio of hydroxyl radical exposure to molecular ozone exposure) were used to calculate comparative kinetics of TOrC attenuation and the reduction of indicator and spectroscopic surrogate parameters, including UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA 254 ) and total fluorescence (TF). The developed indicator model using meprobamate as an indicator compound and the surrogate models with UVA 254 and TF exhibited good predictive power for the attenuation of 13 kinetically distinct TOrCs in five filtered and unfiltered wastewater effluents (R 2 values > 0.8). This study is intended to help provide a guideline for the implementation of indicator/surrogate models for real-time monitoring of TOrC abatement with ozone processes and integrate them into a regulatory framework in water reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antiarrhythmic effect of acute oxygen-ozone administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, Clara; Cervone, Carmela; Rossi, Claudia; di Ronza, Cristina; Marfella, Raffaele; Capodanno, Paola; Luongo, Carlo; Rossi, Francesco; D'Amico, Michele

    2010-03-10

    The antiarrhythmic effects of 100; 150; and 300microg/kg i.p. oxygen/ozone mixture were tested on arrhythmias induced by i) ischemia; ii) ischemia/reperfusion; iii) aconitine (15microg/kg/i.v.); potassium chloride (1.5% i.v.) in rats. 25min of cardiac left descending coronary artery ischemia caused severe incidence of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and mortality. These were significantly reduced by pre-treatment of rats with oxygen/ozone mixture at doses of 150 and 300microg/kg. In separate experiments using a protocol of 5min ischemia followed by 8min reperfusion this caused arrhythmias starting within 6+/-1s. The incidence of ventricular tachycardia was 100%, while ventricular fibrillation occurred in 75% of the animals and lasted 85+/-14s. The mortality was 62.5%. These figures were significantly (Pozone and a substantial increase observed with 300microg/kg, whilst not affected by the lower dose of 100microg/kg. 150 and 300microg/kg oxygen/ozone prolonged the onset time for the appearance of arrhythmias induced by aconitine (300microg/kg oxygen/ozone, approximately 81% longer). Oxygen/ozone also reduced the ventricular tachycardia duration, ventricular fibrillation incidence, arrhythmia score, and increased the rat's survival rate. As for example, this latter was increased from 25% (aconitine) to 50% (aconitine+oxygen/ozone 150microg/kg). 100microg/kg oxygen/ozone was without effect. None of the oxygen/ozone doses affected the arrhythmias caused by potassium chloride 1.5% i.v. All the oxygen/ozone antiarrhythmic effects were similar to those observed with lidocaine (1.5mg/kg i.v.). In conclusion, oxygen/ozone has antiarrhythmic effects against arrhythmias caused by aconitine, myocardial ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment ozone profiles and evaluation of stratospheric transport in a global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, A.T.J.; Landgraf, J.; Aben, I.; Hasekamp, O.; Bregman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone (O3) profiles which are used to evaluate stratospheric transport in the chemistry transport model (CTM) Tracer Model version 5 (TM5) using a linearized stratospheric O3 chemistry scheme. A

  2. Antibacterial effect of ozone on cariogenic bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, E; Claesson, R; van Dijken, J W V

    2009-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of ozone on cariogenic bacterial species with and without the presence of saliva and a possible effect on the salivary proteins. Suspensions of Actinomyces naeslundii (ACTCC 12104(T)), Lactobacilli casei (N CTC 151) and Streptococcus mutans (NCTC 10449), in salt buffer or in saliva, were exposed to ozone gas delivered by the ozone generator Healozone 2130C. Aliquots of the suspensions were taken after 10, 30 and 60s ozone exposures and cultivated on agar plates. Initial number of bacteria per ml was 8.0 x 10(7) (SD 2.2 x 10(7)) (A. naeslundii), 1.0 x 10(8) (SD 3.1 x 10(6)) (L. casei) and 1.0 x 10(8) (SD 7.0 x 10(5)) (S. mutans), respectively. The proteins were separated by SDS electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. In salt buffer 92%, 73% and 64% of the initial numbers of A. naeslundii, S. mutans and L. casei, respectively, were killed already after 10s ozone exposure, while approximately 99.9% of the bacteria were dead after a 60s exposure. After 10 and 30s, but not after 60s exposure to ozone, S. mutans and L. casei were less efficiently killed in saliva compared to the salt buffer. Various saliva proteins were degraded by ozone after a 60s exposure. The cariogenic species S. mutans, L. casei and A. naeslundii were almost eliminated following 60s of ozone treatment. This killing was reduced in the presence of saliva although increasing the ozone application time to 60s overcame these reductants in saliva. Detection of altered salivary proteins indicates that saliva components constitute additional targets for ozone.

  3. Proposed ozone reference models for the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G. M.; Young, D. F.

    Since the publication of the last COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA 72), large amounts of ozone data acquired from satellites have become available in addition to increasing quantities of rocketsonde, balloonsonde, Dobson, M83, and Umkehr measurements. From the available archived satellite data, models are developed for the new CIRA using 5 satellite experiments (Nimbus 7 SBUV and LIMS, AEM-2 SAGE, and SME IR and UVS) of the monthly latitudinal and altitudinal variations in the ozone mixing ratio in the middle atmosphere. Standard deviations and interannual variations are also quantified. The satellite models are shown to agree well with a previous reference model based on rocket and balloon measurements.

  4. Effects of ozone on isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larini, A; Bocci, V

    2005-02-01

    We have investigated the release of cytokines from isolated peripheral human blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to various ozone concentrations for 10 min and the release of both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine after 24, 48 and 76 h incubation. Ozonation was performed by exposing for 10 min equal cell numbers and volumes of cell suspension to equal volumes of a gas mixture (1:1 ratio) composed of oxygen-ozone with precise ozone concentrations ranging from 1.0 up to 80 microg/ml (0.02 up to 1.68 mM). Markers of oxidative stress showed a significant relationship between ozone doses and both lipid peroxidation and protein thiol groups content. With the exception of the lowest ozone concentration, the cytokine production of PBMC was depressed particularly at concentrations from 40 mug/ml upwards. There was no significant effect on IL-6 production between exposed or unexposed cells, up to 72 h of incubation. IL-4 production was markedly affected by ozone exposure, showing a marked decrease even at the lowest ozone concentration (2.5 microg/ml) already after 24 h incubation. On the other hand, production of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was slightly stimulated by the lowest ozone dose either at all times or only after 72 h incubation, respectively. Analysis of the proliferation index (PI) is consistent with these results showing that, while the lowest concentration stimulates it, progressively increasing O(3) concentrations inhibit the PI. These data show that there is a significant relationship between cytokine production and ozone concentrations and that PBMC are very sensitive to oxidation particularly in presence of serum with low antioxidant capacity.

  5. Effect of pesticides on surface ozone concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.A.; Rizk, H.F.S.; Elbahnasawy, R.M.; Meleigy, M.I.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study through seasonal variation of surface ozone concentration was carried out recently (1991-1992) at a background area free from expected urban pollutants (Shebin ElKom) and industrial and urban areas (Cairo). Surface ozone concentrations in ppb were generally lower in such area compared with urban or industrial areas studied through the comparative seasonal variations. Notable smog values (>100 ppb) of hourly surface ozone concentrations appeared during summer season in this rural area; during this season, some pesticides were sprayed over cotton and other crops fields in near by agricultural areas. The unexpected jump in the values of diurnal concentrations of surface ozone in that area may be due to the photochemical reactions of these organic pesticides in the atmosphere. 1 fig, 3 tab

  6. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 1: Short-term changes in ozone air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations and models demonstrate that ozone and its precursors can be transported between continents and across oceans. We model the influences of 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions on surface ozone air quality in that region and all other regions. In doing so, we quantify the relative importance of long-range transport between all source-receptor pairs, for direct short-term ozone changes. We find that for population-weighted concentrations during the three-month "ozone-season", the strongest inter-regional influences are from Europe to the Former Soviet Union, East Asia to Southeast Asia, and Europe to Africa. The largest influences per unit of NOx reduced, however, are seen for source regions in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, which we attribute mainly to greater sensitivity to changes in NOx in the lower troposphere, and secondarily to increased vertical convection to the free troposphere in tropical regions, allowing pollutants to be transported further. Results show, for example, that NOx reductions in North America are ~20% as effective per unit NOx in reducing ozone in Europe during summer, as NOx reductions from Europe itself. Reducing anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide (CO by 10% in selected regions, can have as large an impact on long-range ozone transport as NOx reductions, depending on the source region. We find that for many source-receptor pairs, the season of greatest long-range influence does not coincide with the season when ozone is highest in the receptor region. Reducing NOx emissions in most source regions causes a larger decrease in export of ozone from the source region than in ozone production outside of the source region.

  7. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. I: Model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl F.

    2003-01-01

    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to link ozone deposition with carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. - A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology. FORFLUX consists of four interconnected modules-a leaf photosynthesis model, a canopy flux model, a soil heat-, water- and CO 2 - transport model, and a snow pack model. Photosynthesis, water-vapor flux and ozone uptake at the leaf level are computed by the LEAFC3 sub-model. The canopy module scales leaf responses to a stand level by numerical integration of the LEAFC3 model over canopy leaf area index (LAI). The integration takes into account (1) radiative transfer inside the canopy, (2) variation of foliage photosynthetic capacity with canopy depth, (3) wind speed attenuation throughout the canopy, and (4) rainfall interception by foliage elements. The soil module uses principles of the diffusion theory to predict temperature and moisture dynamics within the soil column, evaporation, and CO 2 efflux from soil. The effect of soil heterogeneity on field-scale fluxes is simulated employing the Bresler-Dagan stochastic concept. The accumulation and melt of snow on the ground is predicted using an explicit energy balance approach. Ozone deposition is modeled as a sum of three fluxes- ozone uptake via plant stomata, deposition to non-transpiring plant surfaces, and ozone flux into the ground. All biophysical interactions are computed hourly while model projections are made at either hourly or daily time step. FORFLUX represents a comprehensive approach to studying ozone deposition and its link to carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems

  9. Control-oriented modeling and real-time control for the ozone dosing process of drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Shihua; Zhou, Xingpeng

    2013-03-05

    Ozonation is one of the most important steps during drinking water treatment. To improve the efficiency of ozonation and to stabilize the quality of the treated water, control-oriented modeling and a real-time control method for the ozone dosing process are developed in this study. Compared with existing ozonation models developed by bench-scale and pilot-scale batch experiments, the model reported herein is control-oriented and based on plant-scale batch experiments. A real-time control strategy for maintaining a constant ozone exposure is attempted to meet primary disinfection requirements. An internal model control scheme is proposed to maintain a constant ozone exposure by adjusting the ozone dosage. The proposed real-time control method can cope with changing water quality, water flow rate, and process operational conditions. Both simulations and experimental studies have been carried out and implemented for the ozone dosing process control system, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of this real-time control method.

  10. Prolonged ozone exposure in an allergic airway disease model: Adaptation of airway responsiveness and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term exposure to high concentrations of ozone has been shown to increase airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR. Because the changes in AHR and airway inflammation and structure after chronic ozone exposure need to be determined, the goal of this study was to investigate these effects in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Methods We exposed BALB/c mice to 2 ppm ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. We measured the enhanced pause (Penh to methacholine and performed cell differentials in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We quantified the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the supernatants of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids using enzyme immunoassays, and examined the airway architecture under light and electron microscopy. Results The groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks demonstrated decreased Penh at methacholine concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml, with a dose-response curve to the right of that for the filtered-air group. Neutrophils and eosinophils increased in the group exposed to ozone for 4 weeks compared to those in the filtered-air group. The ratio of IL-4 to INF-γ increased significantly after exposure to ozone for 8 and 12 weeks compared to the ratio for the filtered-air group. The numbers of goblet cells, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells showed time-dependent increases in lung tissue sections from the groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the increase in AHR associated with the allergic airway does not persist during chronic ozone exposure, indicating that airway remodeling and adaptation following repeated exposure to air pollutants can provide protection against AHR.

  11. Why do Models Overestimate Surface Ozone in the Southeastern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine R.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Kim, Patrick S.; Marais, Eloise A.; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Karen; Miller, Christopher C.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2) and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25 deg. x 0.3125 deg. horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30-60%, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft, and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a 15 regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 8 +/- 13 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes launched during midday hours show a 7 ppb ozone

  12. Why do Models Overestimate Surface Ozone in the Southeastern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, K.; Jacob, D.; Fisher, J. A.; Kim, S.; Marais, E. A.; Zhu, L.; Yu, K.; Miller, C. E.; Yantosca, R.; Payer Sulprizio, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Wennberg, P. O.; Crounse, J.; St Clair, J. M.; Cohen, R. C.; Laughner, J.; Dibb, J. E.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Wolfe, G.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Neuman, J. A.; Zhou, X.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2) and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25°×0.3125° horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for NO­x from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is too high in the Southeast and nationally by a factor of 2. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Upper tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to the satellite observations that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft, and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 8±13 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes launched during midday hours show a 7 ppb ozone decrease from 1.5 km to the surface that GEOS-Chem does not capture. This may be caused by excessively dry conditions in the model, representing another

  13. Why do Models Overestimate Surface Ozone in the Southeastern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine R.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Kim, Patrick S.; Marais, Eloise A.; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Karen; Miller, Christopher C.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Thompson, Anne M.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Crounse, John D.; St Clair, Jason M.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Laughner, Joshua L.; Dibb, Jack E.; Hall, Samuel R.; Ullmann, Kirk; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Pollack, Illana B.; Peischl, Jeff; Neuman, Jonathan A.; Zhou, Xianliang

    2018-01-01

    Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25°×0.3125° horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30–60%, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft, and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 8±13 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes launched during midday hours show a 7 ppb ozone decrease

  14. Why do models overestimate surface ozone in the Southeast United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Travis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx  ≡  NO + NO2 and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25°  ×  0.3125° horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30–60 %, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper-tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 6 ± 14 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes

  15. Effect of low-dose gaseous ozone on pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes Belchor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of chronically infected wounds is a challenge, and bacterial environmental contamination is a growing issue in infection control. Ozone may have a role in these situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether a low dose of gaseous ozone/oxygen mixture eliminates pathogenic bacteria cultivated in Petri dishes. Methods A pilot study with 6 bacterial strains was made using different concentrations of ozone in an ozone-oxygen mixture to determine a minimally effective dose that completely eliminated bacterial growth. The small and apparently bactericidal gaseous dose of 20 μg/mL ozone/oxygen (1:99 mixture, applied for 5min under atmospheric pressure was selected. In the 2nd phase, eight bacterial strains with well characterized resistance patterns were evaluated in vitro using agar-blood in adapted Petri dishes (105 bacteria/dish. The cultures were divided into 3 groups: 1- ozone-oxygen gaseous mixture containing 20 μg of O3/mL for 5 min; 2- 100% oxygen for 5 min; 3- baseline: no gas was used. Results The selected ozone dose was applied to the following eight strains: Escherichia coli, oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter baumannii susceptible only to carbapenems, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. All isolates were completely inhibited by the ozone-oxygen mixture while growth occurred in the other 2 groups. Conclusion A single topical application by nebulization of a low ozone dose completely inhibited the growth of all potentially pathogenic bacterial strains with known resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  16. Simplified Modeling of Tropospheric Ozone Formation Considering Alternative Fuels Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aragão Ferreira da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian cities have been constantly exposed to air quality episodes of high ozone concentrations (O3 . Known for not be emitted directly into the environment, O3 is a result of several chemical reactions of other pollutants emitted to atmosphere. The growth of vehicle fleet and government incentives for using alternative fuels like ethanol and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG are changing the Brazilian Metropolitan Areas in terms of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde emissions, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's present in the atmosphere and known to act on the kinetics of ozone. Driven by high concentrations of tropospheric ozone in urban/industry centers and its implications for environment and population health, the target of this work is understand the kinetics of ozone formation through the creation of a mathematical model in FORTRAN 90, describing a system of coupled ordinary differential equations able to represent a simplified mechanism of photochemical reactions in the Brazilian Metropolitan Area. Evaluating the concentration results of each pollutant were possible to observe the precursor’s influence on tropospheric ozone formation, which seasons were more conducive to this one and which are the influences of weather conditions on formation of photochemical smog.

  17. The catalytic ozonization of model lignin compounds in the presence of Fe(III) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben'ko, E. M.; Mukovnya, A. V.; Lunin, V. V.

    2007-05-01

    The ozonization of several model lignin compounds (guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, phenol, and vanillin) was studied in acid media in the presence of iron(III) ions. It was found that Fe3+ did not influence the initial rate of the reactions between model phenols and ozone but accelerated the oxidation of intermediate ozonolysis products. The metal concentration dependences of the total ozone consumption and effective rate constants of catalytic reaction stages were determined. Data on reactions in the presence of oxalic acid as a competing chelate ligand showed that complex formation with Fe3+ was the principal factor that accelerated the ozonolysis of model phenols at the stage of the oxidation of carboxylic dibasic acids and C2 aldehydes formed as intermediate products.

  18. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  19. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx) in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    E. Oikonomakis; S. Aksoyoglu; G. Ciarelli; U. Baltensperger; A. S. H. Prévôt

    2018-01-01

    High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of t...

  20. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Assessment of global-scale model performance for global and regional ozone distributions, variability, and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Young

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR is to provide the research community with an up-to-date scientific assessment of tropospheric ozone, from the surface to the tropopause. While a suite of observations provides significant information on the spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone, observational gaps make it necessary to use global atmospheric chemistry models to synthesize our understanding of the processes and variables that control tropospheric ozone abundance and its variability. Models facilitate the interpretation of the observations and allow us to make projections of future tropospheric ozone and trace gas distributions for different anthropogenic or natural perturbations. This paper assesses the skill of current-generation global atmospheric chemistry models in simulating the observed present-day tropospheric ozone distribution, variability, and trends. Drawing upon the results of recent international multi-model intercomparisons and using a range of model evaluation techniques, we demonstrate that global chemistry models are broadly skillful in capturing the spatio-temporal variations of tropospheric ozone over the seasonal cycle, for extreme pollution episodes, and changes over interannual to decadal periods. However, models are consistently biased high in the northern hemisphere and biased low in the southern hemisphere, throughout the depth of the troposphere, and are unable to replicate particular metrics that define the longer term trends in tropospheric ozone as derived from some background sites. When the models compare unfavorably against observations, we discuss the potential causes of model biases and propose directions for future developments, including improved evaluations that may be able to better diagnose the root cause of the model-observation disparity. Overall, model results should be approached critically, including determining whether the model performance is acceptable for

  1. Application of computational fluid dynamics modelling to an ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Turbulent kinetic energy m2·s-2 km. Disinfection rate constant for .... modelling the kinetic reactions to achieve the most efficient use of the ozone dosed to the system. The USEPA techniques .... be globally categorised into off-gas losses, consumption, and loss by self-decomposition. (Bredtmann, 1982).

  2. Ozone transmittance in a model atmosphere at Ikeja, Lagos state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation of ozone transmittance with height in the atmosphere for radiation in the 9.6m absorption band was studied using Goody's model atmosphere, with cubic spline interpolation technique to improve the quality of the curve. The data comprising of pressure and temperature at different altitudes (0-22 km) for the month of ...

  3. UV- Radiation Absorption by Ozone in a Model Atmosphere using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UV- radiation absorption is studied through variation of ozone transmittance with altitude in the atmosphere for radiation in the 9.6μm absorption band using Goody's model atmosphere with cubic spline interpolation technique to improve the quality of the curve. The data comprising of pressure and temperature at different ...

  4. Radiative effects of ozone on the climate of a Snowball Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some geochemical and geological evidence has been interpreted to suggest that the concentration of atmospheric oxygen was only 1–10 % of the present level in the time interval from 750 to 580 million years ago when several nearly global glaciations or Snowball Earth events occurred. This low concentration of oxygen would have been accompanied by a lower ozone concentration than exists at present. Since ozone is a greenhouse gas, this change in ozone concentration would alter surface temperature, and thereby could have an important influence on the climate of the Snowball Earth. Previous works that have focused either on initiation or deglaciation of the proposed Snowball Earth has not taken the radiative effects of ozone changes into account. We address this issue herein by performing a series of simulations using an atmospheric general circulation model with various ozone concentrations.

    Our simulation results demonstrate that, as ozone concentration is uniformly reduced from 100 % to 50 %, surface temperature decreases by approximately 0.8 K at the Equator, with the largest decreases located in the middle latitudes reaching as high as 2.5 K. When ozone concentration is reduced and its vertical and horizontal distribution is simultaneously modulated, surface temperature decreases by 0.4–1.0 K at the Equator and by 4–7 K in polar regions. These results here have uncertainties, depending on model parameterizations of cloud, surface snow albedo, and relevant feedback processes, while they are qualitatively consistent with radiative-convective model results that do not involve such parameterizations and feedbacks. These results suggest that ozone variations could have had a moderate impact on the climate during the Neoproterozoic glaciations.

  5. A model study of the Eastern Mediterranean ozone levels during the hot summer of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodnebrog, Ø.; Solberg, S.; Stordal, F.; Svendby, T. M.; Simpson, D.; Gauss, M.; Hilboll, A.; Pfister, G. G.; Turquety, S.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2012-03-01

    The hot summer of 2007 in Southeast Europe has been studied using two regional atmospheric chemistry models; WRF-Chem and EMEP MSC-W. The region was struck by three heat waves and a number of forest fire episodes, greatly affecting air pollution levels. We have focused on ozone and its precursors using state-of-the-art inventories for anthropogenic, biogenic and forest fire emissions. The models have been evaluated against measurement data, and processes leading to ozone formation have been quantified. Heat wave episodes are projected to occur more frequently in a future climate, and therefore this study also makes a contribution to climate change research. The plume from the Greek forest fires in August 2007 is clearly seen in satellite observations of CO and NO2 columns, showing extreme levels of CO in and downwind of the fires. Model simulations reflect the location and influence of the fires relatively well, but the modelled magnitude of CO in the plume core is too low. Most likely, this is caused by underestimation of CO in the emission inventories, suggesting that the CO/NOx ratios of fire emissions should be re-assessed. Moreover, higher maximum values are seen in WRF-Chem than in EMEP MSC-W, presumably due to differences in plume rise altitudes as the first model emits a larger fraction of the fire emissions in the lowermost model layer. The model results are also in fairly good agreement with surface ozone measurements. Biogenic VOC emissions reacting with anthropogenic NOx emissions are calculated to contribute significantly to the levels of ozone in the region, but the magnitude and geographical distribution depend strongly on the model and biogenic emission module used. During the July and August heat waves, ozone levels increased substantially due to a combination of forest fire emissions and the effect of high temperatures. We found that the largest temperature impact on ozone was through the temperature dependence of the biogenic emissions, closely

  6. Modelling of stomatal conductance and ozone deposition flux of Norway Spruce using deposition model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, M.; Chroust, P.; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Cudlín, Pavel; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Czerný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, 2-3 (2009), s. 75-81 ISSN 1335-339X R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/1B7/189/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ozone concentration * ozone deposition * stomatal conductance * deposition velocity * resistance model * tropo-spheric ozone Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  7. Evaluation of two ozone air quality modelling systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ortega

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare two different modelling systems and to evaluate their ability to simulate high values of ozone concentration in typical summer episodes which take place in the north of Spain near the metropolitan area of Barcelona. As the focus of the paper is the comparison of the two systems, we do not attempt to improve the agreement by adjusting the emission inventory or model parameters. The first model, or forecasting system, is made up of three modules. The first module is a mesoscale model (MASS. This provides the initial condition for the second module, which is a nonlocal boundary layer model based on the transilient turbulence scheme. The third module is a photochemical box model (OZIPR, which is applied in Eulerian and Lagrangian modes and receives suitable information from the two previous modules. The model forecast is evaluated against ground base stations during summer 2001. The second model is the MM5/UAM-V. This is a grid model designed to predict the hourly three-dimensional ozone concentration fields. The model is applied during an ozone episode that occurred between 21 and 23 June 2001. Our results reflect the good performance of the two modelling systems when they are used in a specific episode.

  8. Effects of ozone on kraft process pulp mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Effluent from a kraft process pulp mill was studied in a batch reactor for ozone doses between 50 and 200 mg O 3 /L to identify the suitability of ozone application locations in the treatment process and see the improvements in biotreatability of wastewaters from a kraft process pulp mill. Laboratory acclimatized seed were used for (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) BOD tests for ozonated and unozonated samples. The inhibitory effects were minimized by using optimum dilutions. The studies were divided into three major sections: characterization of mill effluent; ozone system calibration, and reactor design; and ozonation of mill effluent. Seed for BOD tests were acclimatized in batch units for primary, bleach and secondary effluents separately. The results were analyzed using the open-quote t close-quote test for paired experiments and an ANOVA table for statistical confirmation. Residuals were plotted to check the assumptions of constant variance and normal distribution. It was concluded that ozone is most effective for the removal of color and the increase of BOD in secondary effluent. 21 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Ozone response to emission changes: a modeling study during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of ozone production to precursor emissions was investigated under five different meteorological conditions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO field campaign using the gridded photochemical model CAMx driven by observation-nudged WRF meteorology. Precursor emissions were constrained by the comprehensive data from the field campaign and the routine ambient air quality monitoring network. Simulated plume mixing and transport were examined by comparing with measurements from the G-1 aircraft during the campaign. The observed concentrations of ozone precursors and ozone were reasonably well reproduced by the model. The effects of reducing precursor emissions on urban ozone production were performed for three representative emission control scenarios. A 50% reduction in VOC emissions led to 7 to 22 ppb decrease in daily maximum ozone concentrations, while a 50% reduction in NOx emissions leads to 4 to 21 ppb increase, and 50% reductions in both NOx and VOC emission decrease the daily maximum ozone concentrations up to 10 ppb. These results along with a chemical indicator analysis using the chemical production ratios of H2O2 to HNO3 demonstrate that the MCMA urban core region is VOC-limited for all meteorological episodes, which is consistent with the results from MCMA-2003 field campaign; however the degree of the VOC-sensitivity is higher during MCMA-2006 due to lower VOCs, lower VOC reactivity and moderately higher NOx emissions. Ozone formation in the surrounding mountain/rural area is mostly NOx-limited, but can be VOC-limited, and the range of the NOx-limited or VOC-limited areas depends on meteorology.

  10. Diagnostic Evaluation of Ozone Production and Horizontal Transport in a Regional Photochemical Air Quality Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diagnostic model evaluation effort has been performed to focus on photochemical ozone formation and the horizontal transport process since they strongly impact the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ozone (O3) within the lower troposphere. Results from th...

  11. Neural Models for Imputation of Missing Ozone Data in Air-Quality Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Arroyo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is one of the pollutants with most negative effects on human health and in general on the biosphere. Many data-acquisition networks collect data about ozone values in both urban and background areas. Usually, these data are incomplete or corrupt and the imputation of the missing values is a priority in order to obtain complete datasets, solving the uncertainty and vagueness of existing problems to manage complexity. In the present paper, multiple-regression techniques and Artificial Neural Network models are applied to approximate the absent ozone values from five explanatory variables containing air-quality information. To compare the different imputation methods, real-life data from six data-acquisition stations from the region of Castilla y León (Spain are gathered in different ways and then analyzed. The results obtained in the estimation of the missing values by applying these techniques and models are compared, analyzing the possible causes of the given response.

  12. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 2: Steady-state changes in ozone air quality and impacts on human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale changes in ozone precursor emissions affect ozone directly in the short term, and also affect methane, which in turn causes long-term changes in ozone that affect surface ozone air quality. Here we assess the effects of changes in ozone precursor emissions on the long-term change in surface ozone via methane, as a function of the emission region, by modeling 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions. Reductions in NOx emissions from all world regions increase methane and long-term surface ozone. While this long-term increase is small compared to the intra-regional short-term ozone decrease, it is comparable to or larger than the short-term inter-continental ozone decrease for some source-receptor pairs. The increase in methane and long-term surface ozone per ton of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, exceeding that from temperate Northern Hemisphere regions by roughly a factor of ten. We also assess changes in premature ozone-related human mortality associated with regional precursor reductions and long-range transport, showing that for 10% regional NOx reductions, the strongest inter-regional influence is for emissions from Europe affecting mortalities in Africa. Reductions of NOx in North America, Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and Australia are shown to reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, NOx reductions in India cause the greatest number of avoided mortalities per ton, mainly in India itself. Finally, by increasing global methane, NOx reductions in one hemisphere tend to cause long-term increases in ozone concentration and mortalities in the opposite hemisphere. Reducing emissions of methane, and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds, alongside NOx reductions would

  13. Effects of ozone and ozone/peroxide on trace organic contaminants and NDMA in drinking water and water reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Stanford, Benjamin D; Yan, Dongxu; Gerrity, Daniel; Snyder, Shane A

    2012-02-01

    An ozone and ozone/peroxide oxidation process was evaluated at pilot scale for trace organic contaminant (TOrC) mitigation and NDMA formation in both drinking water and water reuse applications. A reverse osmosis (RO) pilot was also evaluated as part of the water reuse treatment train. Ozone/peroxide showed lower electrical energy per order of removal (EEO) values for TOrCs in surface water treatment, but the addition of hydrogen peroxide increased EEO values during wastewater treatment. TOrC oxidation was correlated to changes in UV(254) absorbance and fluorescence offering a surrogate model for predicting contaminant removal. A decrease in N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential (after chloramination) was observed after treatment with ozone and ozone/peroxide. However, during spiking experiments with surface water, ozone/peroxide achieved limited destruction of NDMA, while in wastewaters net direct formation of NDMA of 6-33 ng/L was observed after either ozone or ozone/peroxide treatment. Once formed during ozonation, NDMA passed through the subsequent RO membranes, which highlights the significance of the potential for direct NDMA formation during oxidation in reuse applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Iron decreases biological effects of ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Ozone (0(3)) exposure is associated with a disruption of iron homeostasis and increased availability of this metal which potentially contributes to an oxidative stress and biologicaleffects. OBJECTIVE: We tested the postulate that increased concentrations of iron in c...

  15. Chemical effect on ozone deposition over seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over seawater. Recent studies suggest that surface layer resistance over sea-water is influenced by wind-speed and chemical interaction at the air-water interface. Here, we investigate the e...

  16. Radiative forcing and climate metrics for ozone precursor emissions: the impact of multi-model averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. MacIntosh

    2015-04-01

    times larger using the ensemble-mean fields than using the individual models to calculate the RF. The source of this effect is largely due to the construction of the input ozone fields, which overestimate the true ensemble spread. Hence, while the average of multi-model fields are normally appropriate for calculating mean RF, GWP and GTP, they are not a reliable method for calculating the uncertainty in these fields, and in general overestimate the uncertainty.

  17. Total electron count variability and stratospheric ozone effects on solar backscatter and LWIR emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John S.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2017-05-01

    The development of an accurate ionospheric Total Electron Count (TEC) model is of critical importance to high frequency (HF) radio propagation and satellite communications. However, the TEC is highly variable and is continually influenced by geomagnetic storms, extreme UV radiation, and planetary waves. Being able to capture this variability is essential to improve current TEC models. The growing body of data involving ionospheric fluctuations and stratospheric variations has revealed a correlation. In particular, there is a marked and persistent association between increases in stratospheric ozone and variability of the TEC. The spectral properties of ozone show that it is a greenhouse gas that alters long wave emissions from Earth and interacts with the UV spectrum coming from the sun. This study uses the Laser Environment Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) radiative transfer and atmospheric characterization code to model the effects of changes in stratospheric ozone on solar backscatter and longwave (LWIR) terrestrial emissions and infer TEC and TEC variability.

  18. Nitrogen oxides from high-altitude aircraft - An update of potential effects on ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Harold S.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    In the study of fuel consumption rate by stratospheric aircraft, the range of nitric oxide injection is interpreted as an eightfold range of emission index (5-40) with both the one- and the two-dimensional models. Possible effects of future aircraft NO(x) emissions on stratospheric ozone are considered for a broad range in magnitude, altitude, and latitude of the assumed NO(x) emissions. Results of the sensitivity studies using both models are discussed. Large ozone reductions are found to be outside the expected range of validity of these models and are to be anticipated if there should be a large fleet of stratospheric aircraft with NO(x) emission characteristics of current commercial aircraft. Under the test conditions, a global ozone reduction of about 9 percent is estimated for a jet engine emission index of 15 in both models. If engines are redesigned to reduce the emission index to the NASA goal of 5, global average ozone reductions are between 2 and 3 percent, and those of the Northern Hemisphere are about 4 percent. The effects of stratospheric aircraft on ozone could be further reduced through operation at lower altitudes, reduction of aircraft, and efficient fuel consumption.

  19. The Effect of Climate Change on Ozone Depletion through Changes in Stratospheric Water Vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Davidoff, Daniel B.; Hintsa, Eric J.; Anderson, James G.; Keith, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Several studies have predicted substantial increases in Arctic ozone depletion due to the stratospheric cooling induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. But climate change may additionally influence Arctic ozone depletion through changes in the water vapor cycle. Here we investigate this possibility by combining predictions of tropical tropopause temperatures from a general circulation model with results from a one-dimensional radiative convective model, recent progress in understanding the stratospheric water vapor budget, modelling of heterogeneous reaction rates and the results of a general circulation model on the radiative effect of increased water vapor. Whereas most of the stratosphere will cool as greenhouse-gas concentrations increase, the tropical tropopause may become warmer, resulting in an increase of the mean saturation mixing ratio of water vapor and hence an increased transport of water vapor from the troposphere to the stratosphere. Stratospheric water vapor concentration in the polar regions determines both the critical temperature below which heterogeneous reactions on cold aerosols become important (the mechanism driving enhanced ozone depletion) and the temperature of the Arctic vortex itself. Our results indicate that ozone loss in the later winter and spring Arctic vortex depends critically on water vapor variations which are forced by sea surface temperature changes in the tropics. This potentially important effect has not been taken into account in previous scenarios of Arctic ozone loss under climate change conditions.

  20. The effect of aircraft emissions on atmospheric ozone in the northern hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck JP; Reeves CE; de Leeuw FAAM; Penkett SA

    1990-01-01

    The effect of aircraft emissions on tropospheric ozone was studied using a 2-D zonal model, of longitude versus altitude. An emission inventory for the 1987 civil aircraft fleet was constructed based on fuel usage and civil aviation statistics. For the area covered by the model (30 - 60 degrees N)

  1. Sensitivity of modeled ozone concentrations to uncertainties in biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselle, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    The study examines the sensitivity of regional ozone (O3) modeling to uncertainties in biogenic emissions estimates. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) was used to simulate the photochemistry of the northeastern United States for the period July 2-17, 1988. An operational model evaluation showed that ROM had a tendency to underpredict O3 when observed concentrations were above 70-80 ppb and to overpredict O3 when observed values were below this level. On average, the model underpredicted daily maximum O3 by 14 ppb. Spatial patterns of O3, however, were reproduced favorably by the model. Several simulations were performed to analyze the effects of uncertainties in biogenic emissions on predicted O3 and to study the effectiveness of two strategies of controlling anthropogenic emissions for reducing high O3 concentrations. Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were adjusted by a factor of 3 to account for the existing range of uncertainty in these emissions. The impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on O3 predictions depended upon the availability of NOx. In some extremely NOx-limited areas, increasing the amount of biogenic emissions decreased O3 concentrations. Two control strategies were compared in the simulations: (1) reduced anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions, and (2) reduced anthropogenic hydrocarbon and NOx emissions. The simulations showed that hydrocarbon emission controls were more beneficial to the New York City area, but that combined NOx and hydrocarbon controls were more beneficial to other areas of the Northeast. Hydrocarbon controls were more effective as biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were reduced, whereas combined NOx and hydrocarbon controls were more effective as biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were increased

  2. The effects of global changes upon regional ozone pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Avise, J.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E.; Mass, C.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; O'Neill, S.; McKenzie, D.; Larkin, N.

    2009-02-01

    A comprehensive numerical modeling framework was developed to estimate the effects of collective global changes upon ozone pollution in the US in 2050. The framework consists of the global climate and chemistry models, PCM (Parallel Climate Model) and MOZART-2 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers v.2), coupled with regional meteorology and chemistry models, MM5 (Mesoscale Meteorological model) and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model). The modeling system was applied for two 10-year simulations: 1990-1999 as a present-day base case and 2045-2054 as a future case. For the current decade, the daily maximum 8-h moving average (DM8H) ozone mixing ratio distributions for spring, summer and fall showed good agreement with observations. The future case simulation followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A2 scenario together with business-as-usual US emission projections and projected alterations in land use, land cover (LULC) due to urban expansion and changes in vegetation. For these projections, US anthropogenic NOx (NO+NO2) and VOC (volatile organic carbon) emissions increased by approximately 6% and 50%, respectively, while biogenic VOC emissions decreased, in spite of warmer temperatures, due to decreases in forested lands and expansion of croplands, grasslands and urban areas. A stochastic model for wildfire emissions was applied that projected 25% higher VOC emissions in the future. For the global and US emission projection used here, regional ozone pollution becomes worse in the 2045-2054 period for all months. Annually, the mean DM8H ozone was projected to increase by 9.6 ppbv (22%). The changes were higher in the spring and winter (25%) and smaller in the summer (17%). The area affected by elevated ozone within the US continent was projected to increase; areas with levels exceeding the 75 ppbv ozone standard at least once a year increased by 38%. In addition, the length of the ozone season was projected to increase with

  3. The effects of global changes upon regional ozone pollution in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive numerical modeling framework was developed to estimate the effects of collective global changes upon ozone pollution in the US in 2050. The framework consists of the global climate and chemistry models, PCM (Parallel Climate Model and MOZART-2 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers v.2, coupled with regional meteorology and chemistry models, MM5 (Mesoscale Meteorological model and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. The modeling system was applied for two 10-year simulations: 1990–1999 as a present-day base case and 2045–2054 as a future case. For the current decade, the daily maximum 8-h moving average (DM8H ozone mixing ratio distributions for spring, summer and fall showed good agreement with observations. The future case simulation followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC A2 scenario together with business-as-usual US emission projections and projected alterations in land use, land cover (LULC due to urban expansion and changes in vegetation. For these projections, US anthropogenic NOx (NO+NO2 and VOC (volatile organic carbon emissions increased by approximately 6% and 50%, respectively, while biogenic VOC emissions decreased, in spite of warmer temperatures, due to decreases in forested lands and expansion of croplands, grasslands and urban areas. A stochastic model for wildfire emissions was applied that projected 25% higher VOC emissions in the future. For the global and US emission projection used here, regional ozone pollution becomes worse in the 2045–2054 period for all months. Annually, the mean DM8H ozone was projected to increase by 9.6 ppbv (22%. The changes were higher in the spring and winter (25% and smaller in the summer (17%. The area affected by elevated ozone within the US continent was projected to increase; areas with levels exceeding the 75 ppbv ozone standard at least once a year increased by 38%. In addition, the length of the ozone

  4. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. I: model description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl F

    2003-01-01

    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology. FORFLUX consists of four interconnected modules-a leaf photosynthesis model, a canopy flux model, a soil heat-, water- and CO2- transport model, and a snow pack model. Photosynthesis, water-vapor flux and ozone uptake at the leaf level are computed by the LEAFC3 sub-model. The canopy module scales leaf responses to a stand level by numerical integration of the LEAFC3model over canopy leaf area index (LAI). The integration takes into account (1) radiative transfer inside the canopy, (2) variation of foliage photosynthetic capacity with canopy depth, (3) wind speed attenuation throughout the canopy, and (4) rainfall interception by foliage elements. The soil module uses principles of the diffusion theory to predict temperature and moisture dynamics within the soil column, evaporation, and CO2 efflux from soil. The effect of soil heterogeneity on field-scale fluxes is simulated employing the Bresler-Dagan stochastic concept. The accumulation and melt of snow on the ground is predicted using an explicit energy balance approach. Ozone deposition is modeled as a sum of three fluxes- ozone uptake via plant stomata, deposition to non-transpiring plant surfaces, and ozone flux into the ground. All biophysical interactions are computed hourly while model projections are made at either hourly or daily time step. FORFLUX represents a comprehensive approach to studying ozone deposition and its link to carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems.

  5. The Extrapolar SWIFT model (version 1.0): fast stratospheric ozone chemistry for global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Daniel; Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2018-03-01

    The Extrapolar SWIFT model is a fast ozone chemistry scheme for interactive calculation of the extrapolar stratospheric ozone layer in coupled general circulation models (GCMs). In contrast to the widely used prescribed ozone, the SWIFT ozone layer interacts with the model dynamics and can respond to atmospheric variability or climatological trends.The Extrapolar SWIFT model employs a repro-modelling approach, in which algebraic functions are used to approximate the numerical output of a full stratospheric chemistry and transport model (ATLAS). The full model solves a coupled chemical differential equation system with 55 initial and boundary conditions (mixing ratio of various chemical species and atmospheric parameters). Hence the rate of change of ozone over 24 h is a function of 55 variables. Using covariances between these variables, we can find linear combinations in order to reduce the parameter space to the following nine basic variables: latitude, pressure altitude, temperature, overhead ozone column and the mixing ratio of ozone and of the ozone-depleting families (Cly, Bry, NOy and HOy). We will show that these nine variables are sufficient to characterize the rate of change of ozone. An automated procedure fits a polynomial function of fourth degree to the rate of change of ozone obtained from several simulations with the ATLAS model. One polynomial function is determined per month, which yields the rate of change of ozone over 24 h. A key aspect for the robustness of the Extrapolar SWIFT model is to include a wide range of stratospheric variability in the numerical output of the ATLAS model, also covering atmospheric states that will occur in a future climate (e.g. temperature and meridional circulation changes or reduction of stratospheric chlorine loading).For validation purposes, the Extrapolar SWIFT model has been integrated into the ATLAS model, replacing the full stratospheric chemistry scheme. Simulations with SWIFT in ATLAS have proven that the

  6. Photo-chemical transport modelling of tropospheric ozone: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Sharma, Prateek; Khare, Mukesh

    2017-06-01

    Ground level ozone (GLO), a secondary pollutant having adverse impact on human health, ecology, and agricultural productivity, apart from being a major contributor to global warming, has been a subject matter of several studies. In order to identify appropriate strategies to control GLO levels, accurate assessment and prediction is essential, for which elaborate simulation and modelling is required. Several studies have been undertaken in the past to simulate GLO levels at different scales and for various applications. It is important to evaluate these studies, widely spread over in literature. This paper aims to critically review various studies that have been undertaken, especially in the past 15 years (2000-15) to model GLO. The review has been done of the studies that range over different spatial scales - urban to regional and continental to global. It also includes a review of performance evaluation and sensitivity analysis of photo-chemical transport models in order to assess the extent of application of these models and their predictive capability. The review indicates following major findings: (a) models tend to over-estimate the night-time GLO concentrations due to limited titration of GLO with NO within the model; (b) dominance of contribution from far-off regional sources to average ozone concentration in the urban region and higher contribution of local sources during days of high ozone episodes; requiring strategies for controlling precursor emissions at both regional and local scales; (c) greater influence of NOx over VOC in export of ozone from urban regions due to shifting of urban plumes from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive as they move out from city centres to neighbouring rural regions; (d) models with finer resolution inputs perform better to a certain extent, however, further improvement in resolutions (beyond 10 km) did not show improvement always; (e) future projections show an increase in GLO concentrations mainly due to rise in

  7. Sensitivity analysis of ground level ozone in India using WRF-CMAQ models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Sumit; Chatani, Satoru; Mahtta, Richa; Goel, Anju; Kumar, Atul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/333244869

    2016-01-01

    Ground level ozone is emerging as a pollutant of concern in India. Limited surface monitoring data reveals that ozone concentrations are well above the prescribed national standards. This study aims to simulate the regional and urban scale ozone concentrations in India using WRF-CMAQ models.

  8. Does UV instrumentation effectively measure ozone abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of O3 on Mars provide significant information about the chemistry and composition of the atmosphere, including long-term changes. The most extensive and accurate data were inferred from the Mariner 9 UV spectrometer experiment. Mars O3 shows strong seasonal and latitudinal variation, with column abundances ranging from 0.2 microns at equatorial latitudes to 60 microns over the northern winter polar latitudes (1 micron-atm is a column abundance of 2.689 x 10(exp 15) molecules cm(exp-2)). The Mariner 9 UV spectrometer scanned from 2100 to 3500 Angstroms in one of its two spectral channels every 3 seconds with a spectral resolution of 15 Angstroms and an effective field-of-view of approximately 300 km(exp 2). Measurements were made for almost half a Martian year, with winter and spring in the Northern Hemisphere and summer and fall in the Southern Hemisphere. The detectability limit of the spectrometer was approximately 3 microns of ozone. The UV spectrometer on Mariner 9 was incapable of penetrating the dust during dust storms; the single-scattering albedo and phase function of airborne dust and cloud ice are not known to the degree required to extract the small UV signal reflected up from near the surface. The reflectance spectroscopy technique would also have difficulty detecting the total column abundance of O3 in cases where large dust abundances exist together with the polar hood, especially at high latitudes where large solar zenith angles magnify those optical depths; yet these cases would contain the maximum O3, based on theoretical results. It is quite possible that the maximum O3 column abundance observed by Mariner 9 of 60 microns is common. In fact, larger quantities may exist in some of the colder areas with optically thick clouds and dust. As the Viking period often had more atmospheric dust loading than did that of Mariner 9, the reflectance spectroscopy technique may even have been incapable of detecting the entire O3 column abundance

  9. Tropospheric ozone trend over Beijing from 2001-2010: ozonesonde measurements and modeling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Konopka, P.; Liu, Y.; Chen, H.; Müller, R.; Plöger, F.; Riese, M.; Cai, Z.; Lü, D.

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of ozonesonde data and numerical simulations of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS), the trend of tropospheric ozone (O3) during 2002–2010 over Beijing was investigated. Tropospheric ozone over Beijing shows a winter minimum and a broad summer maximum with a clear positive trend in the maximum summer ozone concentration over the last decade. The observed significant trend of tropospheric column ozone is mainly caused by photoche...

  10. Tropospheric ozone trend over Beijing from 2002–2010: ozonesonde measurements and modeling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Wang; P. Konopka; Y. Liu; H. Chen; R. Müller; F. Plöger; M. Riese; Z. Cai; D. Lü

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of ozonesonde data and numerical simulations of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS), the trend of tropospheric ozone (O3) during 2002–2010 over Beijing was investigated. Tropospheric ozone over Beijing shows a winter minimum and a broad summer maximum with a clear positive trend in the maximum summer ozone concentration over the last decade. The observed significant trend of tropospheric column ozone for the entire time serie...

  11. Impact of high speed civil transports on stratospheric ozone. A 2-D model investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnison, D.E.; Connell, P.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This study investigates the effect on stratospheric ozone from a fleet of proposed High Speed Civil Transports (HSCTs). The new LLNL 2-D operator-split chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere is used for this HSCT investigation. This model is integrated in a diurnal manner, using an implicit numerical solver. Therefore, rate coefficients are not modified by any sort of diurnal average factor. This model also does not make any assumptions on lumping of chemical species into families. Comparisons to previous model-derived HSCT assessment of ozone change are made, both to the previous LLNL 2-D model and to other models from the international assessment modeling community. The sensitivity to the NO{sub x} emission index and sulfate surface area density is also explored. (author) 7 refs.

  12. Evaluation of atmospheric aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min

    The increasing human activities have produced large amounts of air pollutants ejected into the atmosphere, in which atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered to be especially important because of their negative impacts on human health and their impacts on global climate through either their direct radiative effect or indirect effect on land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. This dissertation dedicates to quantifying and evaluating the aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem dynamics using a modeling approach. An ecosystem model, the integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (iTem), is developed to simulate biophysical and biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems. A two-broad-band atmospheric radiative transfer model together with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured atmospheric parameters are used to well estimate global downward solar radiation and the direct and diffuse components in comparison with observations. The atmospheric radiative transfer modeling framework were used to quantify the aerosol direct radiative effect, showing that aerosol loadings cause 18.7 and 12.8 W m -2 decrease of direct-beam Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) and Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) respectively, and 5.2 and 4.4 W m -2 increase of diffuse PAR and NIR, respectively, leading to a total 21.9 W m-2 decrease of total downward solar radiation over the global land surface during the period of 2003-2010. The results also suggested that the aerosol effect may be overwhelmed by clouds because of the stronger extinction and scattering ability of clouds. Applications of the iTem with solar radiation data and with or without considering the aerosol loadings shows that aerosol loading enhances the terrestrial productions [Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)] and carbon emissions through plant respiration (RA) in global terrestrial ecosystems over the

  13. Ozone and Water Stress: Effects on the Behaviour of Two White Clover Biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available ozone pollution, water stress, stomata conductance, ozone uptake, clover, OTC.Ozone is a strong oxidizing pollutant which derives by alteration of the photolytic NOx cycle and it accumulates in the troposphere spreading in rural areas and therefore determining injuries on natural vegetation and crops. Since its penetration occurs mainly through stomata, all factors which alter plant-atmosphere relations could be able to modify plant response to ozone. Interaction between ozone and water stress in Mediterranean environment was studied on ozone resistant and sensitive biotypes of white clover, which were grown in charcoal filtered and notfiltered Open Top Chambers in factorial combination with different levels of water supply. Measurements of biomass, leaf area and stomatal conductance were made during the growth period. Ozone injuries were estimated as not-filtered/filtered OTC yield ratio; the stomatal flux of ozone was estimated multiplying stomata conductance x diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour (0.613 x ozone hourly concentrations. The hourly values of ozone uptake were cumulated throughout the cropping periods of the two years. In the sensitive biotype, water stress reduced yield losses due to ozone from 38% to 22%, as well as yield losses due to water stress were reduced by the presence of ozone from 43% to 29%, while no interaction between ozone and water stress was observed in the resistant biotype. Biomass yield losses of the sensitive biotype were strictly correlated to cumulated ozone uptake (R2 = 0.99, while biomass yield losses of the resistant biotype were not affected by the ozone fluxes variations created by the treatments. Flux based models could better estimate yield losses due to ozone in Mediterranean environments in which other stresses could be contemporary present; therefore, the new European directives might replace the actual thresholds based

  14. QBO effects manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnov, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of ozonesonde records up to 1998 the responses on the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind (QBO effects) were isolated in the region from the ground to altitudes as high as 35km at 22 stations located in Europe (7), North America (7), Japan (4), Hawaii (1), Australia (2), and Antarctic (1).

    The vertical structures of the QBO effects of ozone are represented as an alternati...

  15. Combined Effect of Ultrasound and Ozone on Bacteria in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashimi, Amna M; Mason, Timothy J; Joyce, Eadaoin M

    2015-10-06

    The aim of this study is to assess the synergetic effect of combined ultrasound and ozone treatment on the biological disinfection of water on a large-scale application using viable plate counts and flow cytometry. Escherichia coli B bacteria in saline suspension was treated using a commercially available combined ultrasound and ozone system (USO3 (Ultrasonic Systems Gmbh)) for 16 min. Two analytical methods were used to assess the results in terms of live and dead cells in the bulk liquid: standard viable plate counting recorded in terms of colony forming units per milliliter and flow cytometry. In the latter case 1 mL of bacterial suspension was stained simultaneously with the fluorescent stains SYTO9 and propidium iodide (PI). Transmission electron microscopy was used to generate images identifying the biological effects of different treatments using ultrasound and ozone on bacterial cell walls. Results demonstrated that treatment with ozone alone (1 mg/L) resulted in a significant reduction (93%) in the number of live cells after 16 min treatment whereas ultrasound alone showed only a small reduction (24%). However, a combination of ozone and ultrasound showed a synergistic effect and enhanced the inactivation to 99% after 4 min. A combined ultrasound and ozone treatment of bacterial suspensions using a commercial system affords a promising method for water disinfection that is better than treatment using either method alone. Standard viable plate count analysis is normally used to assess the effectiveness of disinfection treatments; however flow cytometry proved to be a more sensitive method to determine the actual effects in terms of not only live and dead cells but also damaged cells. This type of analysis (cell damage) is difficult if not impossible to achieve using traditional plate counting methodology.

  16. Simulation of Halocarbon Production and Emissions and Effects on Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes; Ellis

    1997-09-01

    / This paper describes an integrated model that simulates future halocarbon production/emissions and potential ozone depletion. Applications and historical production levels for various halocarbons are discussed first. A framework is then presented for modeling future halocarbon impacts incorporating differences in underlying demands, applications, regulatory mandates, and environmental characteristics. The model is used to simulate the potential impacts of several prominent issues relating to halocarbon production, regulation, and environmental interactions, notably: changes in agricultural methyl bromide use, increases in effectiveness of bromine for ozone depletion, modifications to the elimination schedule for HCFCs, short-term expansion of CFC demand in low use compliance countries, and delays in Russian Federation compliance. Individually, each issue does not unequivocally represent a significant likely increase in long-term atmospheric halogen loading and stratospheric ozone depletion. In combination, however, these impacts could increase peak halogen concentrations and long-term integral halogen loading, resulting in higher levels of stratospheric ozone depletion and longer exposure to increased levels of UV radiation.KEY WORDS: Halocarbons; Ozone depletion; Montreal Protocol; Integrated assessment

  17. Effect of ozone therapy on cell apoptosis and angiogenesis in retina tissue of diabetic retinopathy rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of ozone therapy on cell apoptosis and angiogenesis in retina tissue of diabetic retinopathy rats. Methods: SD rats were selected as experimental animals and divided into control group, model group and ozone group, and after diabetic models were built, ozone enema was conducted. Retina tissue was collected, TUNEL kits were used to detect the number of apoptotic cells, and Elisa kits were used to detect the contents of nerve damage molecules, angiogenesis-related molecules and endoplasmic reticulum stress molecules. Results: The number of apoptotic cells in retina tissue of model group was significantly more than that of control group, and the number of apoptotic cells in retina tissue of ozone group was significantly less than that of model group; NgR, NR2B, ERK1, ERK2, GFAP, VEGF, STAT-3, HIF-1α, Apelin, APJ, PERK, IRE-1α, ATF-6, eIF2α and XBP-1 contents in retina tissue of model group were significantly higher than those of control group, and PEDF content was lower than that of control group; NgR, NR2B, ERK1, ERK2, GFAP, VEGF, STAT-3, HIF-1α, Apelin, APJ, PERK, IRE-1α, ATF-6, eIF2α and XBP-1 contents in retina tissue of ozone group were significantly lower than those of model group, and PEDF content was higher than that of model group. Conclusion: Ozone therapy can reduce the number of apoptotic cells while reduce nerve cell injury and inhibit angiogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum stress in retina tissue of diabetic rats.

  18. Zeolite Membranes: Ozone Detemplation, Modeling, and Performance Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, J.

    2009-01-01

    Membrane technology plays an increasingly important role in developing a more sustainable process industry. Zeolites are a novel class of membrane materials with unique properties enabling molecular sieving and affinity based separations. This thesis proposes some new concepts in zeolite membrane synthesis, application, and modeling. The influence of zeolite polarity is assessed and the use of a hydrophobic zeolite membrane for water separation is explored. Ozonication, a novel method for zeo...

  19. The protective effect of plasma antioxidants during ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozone (O3) therapy forms part of a group of complementary and alternative medical therapies and is gaining more and more interest worldwide. There is, however, some concern regarding O3-toxicity and uncertainty about the effectiveness of O3-therapy. In this study we investigated the possible protective effects of the ...

  20. Assessment of ozone effects on local rice cultivar by portable ozone fumigation system in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Dinh Thi Hai; Ishii, Satoshi; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2009-08-01

    This study examined the effects of troposphere ozone (O3) on rice by developing a portable ozone fumigation system and applied to the field in Hanoi, Vietnam. The system was nearly identical to the open top chamber but designed to easily and cheaply assess the O3 sensitivity of local agricultural crops in the actual field. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) was exposed to ozone during the flowering stage at peri-urban experimental site of Hanoi. The fumigation protocols covered five different levels, namely; non-filtered air (ambient) as the control treatment, 32, 62, 85 and 113 ppb in 7-h mean. It was found that observed impacts corresponded well to similar open-top chamber studies in other Asian countries. The methodology and the system left a large room for improvement and called for very careful interpretation and pre-conditions (e.g. low ambient O3 concentration). However, the portable O3 exposure in the field might open a door to the less developed countries to implement the phytotoxic risk assessment of the local agricultural species.

  1. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2017-07-01

    The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx), HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect caused by the

  2. Ozonation of hospital raw wastewaters for cytostatic compounds removal. Kinetic modelling and economic assessment of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferre-Aracil, J.; Valcárcel, Y.; Negreira, N.; López de Alda, M.; Barceló, D.; Cardona, S.C.; Navarro-Laboulais, J.

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the ozone consumption for the pretreatment of hospital wastewater has been analysed in order to determine the reaction rate coefficients between the ozone and the readily oxidisabled organic matter and cytostatic compounds. The wastewater from a medium size hospital was treated with ozone and peroxone methodologies, varying the ozone concentration, the reaction time and the hydrogen peroxide doses. The analysis shows that there are four cytostatic compounds, i.e. irinotecan, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and capecitabine, detected in the wastewaters and they are completely removed with reasonably short times after the ozone treatment. Considering the reactor geometry, the gas hydrodynamics, the mass transfer of ozone from gas to liquid and the reaction of all oxidisable compounds of the wastewater it is possible to determine the chemical ozone demand, COzD, of the sample as 256 mg O 3 L −1 and the kinetic rate coefficient with the dissolved organic matter as 8.4 M −1 s −1 . The kinetic rate coefficient between the ozone and the cyclophosphamide is in the order of 34.7 M −1 s −1 and higher for the other cytostatics. The direct economic cost of the treatment was evaluated considering this reaction kinetics and it is below 0.3 €/m 3 under given circumstances. - Highlights: • 17 cytostatic compounds were analysed and 4 detected by SPE-LC/MS-MS. • The ozonation is 100% effective on the removal of the detected cytostatics. • The kinetics of cytostatic ozonation reaction is modeled by competitive kinetics. • The economic cost of the treatment of hospital wastewater was assessed.

  3. Ozonation of hospital raw wastewaters for cytostatic compounds removal. Kinetic modelling and economic assessment of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferre-Aracil, J. [Universitat Politècnica de València – EPSA, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Pl. Ferrandiz i Carbonell, 03801 Alcoi, Alicante (Spain); Valcárcel, Y. [Environmental Health and Ecotoxicology Research Group, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Avd. Atenas s/n, Móstoles, 28922 Alcorcón (Spain); Negreira, N.; López de Alda, M. [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, D. [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Cardona, S.C. [Universitat Politècnica de València – EPSA, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Pl. Ferrandiz i Carbonell, 03801 Alcoi, Alicante (Spain); Navarro-Laboulais, J., E-mail: jnavarla@iqn.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València – EPSA, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Pl. Ferrandiz i Carbonell, 03801 Alcoi, Alicante (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    The kinetics of the ozone consumption for the pretreatment of hospital wastewater has been analysed in order to determine the reaction rate coefficients between the ozone and the readily oxidisabled organic matter and cytostatic compounds. The wastewater from a medium size hospital was treated with ozone and peroxone methodologies, varying the ozone concentration, the reaction time and the hydrogen peroxide doses. The analysis shows that there are four cytostatic compounds, i.e. irinotecan, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and capecitabine, detected in the wastewaters and they are completely removed with reasonably short times after the ozone treatment. Considering the reactor geometry, the gas hydrodynamics, the mass transfer of ozone from gas to liquid and the reaction of all oxidisable compounds of the wastewater it is possible to determine the chemical ozone demand, COzD, of the sample as 256 mg O{sub 3} L{sup −1} and the kinetic rate coefficient with the dissolved organic matter as 8.4 M{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The kinetic rate coefficient between the ozone and the cyclophosphamide is in the order of 34.7 M{sup −1} s{sup −1} and higher for the other cytostatics. The direct economic cost of the treatment was evaluated considering this reaction kinetics and it is below 0.3 €/m{sup 3} under given circumstances. - Highlights: • 17 cytostatic compounds were analysed and 4 detected by SPE-LC/MS-MS. • The ozonation is 100% effective on the removal of the detected cytostatics. • The kinetics of cytostatic ozonation reaction is modeled by competitive kinetics. • The economic cost of the treatment of hospital wastewater was assessed.

  4. SWIFT: Semi-empirical and numerically efficient stratospheric ozone chemistry for global climate models

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyling, Daniel; Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The SWIFT model is a fast yet accurate chemistry scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone. It is mainly intended for use in Global Climate Models (GCMs), Chemistry Climate Models (CCMs) and Earth System Models (ESMs). For computing time reasons these models often do not employ full stratospheric chem- istry modules, but use prescribed ozone instead. This can lead to insufficient representation between stratosphere and troposphere. The SWIFT stratospheric ozone chem...

  5. Decadal solar effects on temperature and ozone in the tropical stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fadnavis

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of decadal solar variability on ozone and temperature in the tropical stratosphere, along with interconnections to other features of the middle atmosphere, simultaneous data obtained from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE aboard the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS during the period 1992–2004 have been analyzed using a multifunctional regression model. In general, responses of solar signal on temperature and ozone profiles show good agreement for HALOE and SAGE~II measurements. The inferred annual-mean solar effect on temperature is found to be positive in the lower stratosphere (max 1.2±0.5 K / 100 sfu and near stratopause, while negative in the middle stratosphere. The inferred solar effect on ozone is found to be significant in most of the stratosphere (2±1.1–4±1.6% / 100 sfu. These observed results are in reasonable agreement with model simulations. Solar signals in ozone and temperature are in phase in the lower stratosphere and they are out of phase in the upper stratosphere. These inferred solar effects on ozone and temperature are found to vary dramatically during some months, at least in some altitude regions. Solar effects on temperature are found to be negative from August to March between 9 mb–3 mb pressure levels while solar effects on ozone are maximum during January–March near 10 mb in the Northern Hemisphere and 5 mb–7 mb in the Southern Hemisphere.

  6. Towards an Integrated Assessment Model for Tropospheric Ozone-Emission Inventories, Scenarios and Emission-control Options

    OpenAIRE

    Olsthoorn, X.

    1994-01-01

    IIASA intends to extend its RAINS model for addressing the issue of transboundary ozone air pollution. This requires the development of a VOC-emissions module, VOCs being precursors in ozone formation. The module should contain a Europe-wide emission inventory, a submodule for developing emission scenarios and a database of measures for VOC-emission control, including data about control effectiveness and control costs. It is recommended to use the forthcoming CORINAIR90 inventory for construc...

  7. Stratospheric Ozone Response in Experiments G3 and G4 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitari, Giovanni; Aquila, Valentina; Kravitz, Ben; Watanabe, Shingo; Tilmes, Simone; Mancini, Eva; DeLuca, Natalia; DiGenova, Glauco

    2013-01-01

    Geoengineering with stratospheric sulfate aerosols has been proposed as a means of temporarily cooling the planet, alleviating some of the side effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, one of the known side effects of stratospheric injections of sulfate aerosols is a decrease in stratospheric ozone. Here we show results from two general circulation models and two coupled chemistry climate models that have simulated stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering as part of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). Changes in photolysis rates and upwelling of ozone-poor air in the tropics reduce stratospheric ozone, suppression of the NOx cycle increases stratospheric ozone, and an increase in available surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry modulates reductions in ozone. On average, the models show a factor 20-40 increase of the sulfate aerosol surface area density (SAD) at 50 hPa in the tropics with respect to unperturbed background conditions and a factor 3-10 increase at mid-high latitudes. The net effect for a tropical injection rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year is a decrease in globally averaged ozone by 1.1-2.1 DU in the years 2040-2050 for three models which include heterogeneous chemistry on the sulfate aerosol surfaces. GISS-E2-R, a fully coupled general circulation model, performed simulations with no heterogeneous chemistry and a smaller aerosol size; it showed a decrease in ozone by 9.7 DU. After the year 2050, suppression of the NOx cycle becomes more important than destruction of ozone by ClOx, causing an increase in total stratospheric ozone. Contribution of ozone changes in this experiment to radiative forcing is 0.23 W m-2 in GISS-E2-R and less than 0.1 W m-2 in the other three models. Polar ozone depletion, due to enhanced formation of both sulfate aerosol SAD and polar stratospheric clouds, results in an average 5 percent increase in calculated surface UV-B.

  8. Effect of odd hydrogen on ozone depletion by chlorine reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, T. M.; Cicerone, R. J.; Liu, S. C.; Chameides, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper discusses how the shape of the ozone layer changes under the influence of injected ClX for several choices of two key HOx reaction rates. The two HOx reactions are: OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. Results of calculations are presented which show that the two reaction rates determine the stratospheric concentrations of OH and HO2, and that these concentrations regulate the amount by which the stratospheric ozone column can be reduced due to injections of odd chlorine. It is concluded that the amount of ozone reduction by a given mixing ratio of ClX will remain very uncertain until the significance of several possible feedback effects involving HOx in a chlorine-polluted atmosphere are determined and measurements of the reaction rates and HOx concentrations are made at the relevant temperatures.

  9. Effects of ultraviolet/ozone treatment on benzocyclobutene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viallet, Benoit; Daran, Emmanuelle; Malaquin, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Benzocyclobutene (BCB) is a dielectric polymer resin used in microelectronics for its physical properties and its chemical resistance. UV/ozone photochemical treatment modifies the chemical properties of BCB: It creates a near SiO 2 composition oxidized surface layer and degrades the polymer structure of BCB. The oxidized surface layer can be etched with fluoride acid and the degraded layer underneath is soluble with acetone. These BCB chemical modifications may be useful for BCB reworking after polymerization. UV/ozone treatment also has an effect on surface characteristics improving the surface tension and decreasing surface roughness of BCB

  10. Climate effect of ozone changes caused by present and future air traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Feneberg, B. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Roeckner, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    The potential of aircraft-induced ozone changes to significantly enhance the climate impact of air traffic due to CO{sub 2}-emissions is investigated by means of simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model, coupled to a mixed layer ocean model. Results from several numerical experiments are presented, based on ozone increase patterns for 1992 aviation and on a future scenario for the year 2015. The climate signal is statistically significant for both time slices. Its strength is of comparable magnitude to that arising from aircraft CO{sub 2} emissions, thus meaning a nonnegligible contribution to the total effect. There are indications of a characteristic signature of the aircraft ozone related temperature response pattern, distinctly different from that typically associated with the increase of a well-mixed greenhouse gas. Likewise, the climate sensitivity to nonuniform ozone changes including a strong concentration perturbation at the tropopause appears to he higher than the climate sensitivity to uniform changes of a greenhouse gas. In a hierarchy of experiments based on an aircraft-related ozone perturbation with fixed structure (but increasing amplitude), the climate signal depends in a nonlinear way from the radiative forcing. (orig.) 44 refs.

  11. Statistical analysis and modelling study of local ozone anomalies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodka, Siarhei; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Zhuchkevich, Veronika; Bruchkouski, Ilya; Lapo, Palina; Shlender, Tsimafei

    2017-04-01

    Local ozone anomalies constitute an important short-term component of the stratospheric ozone variability and are usually defined as synoptic-scale deviations in the total ozone column field, having a characteristic lifetime of about a week or a few days. The present study is devoted to investigation of the statistics, dynamical structure and formation mechanisms of local ozone anomalies. First, we process observational and reanalysis data to obtain statistics of all cases of negative ("mini-holes") and positive ("mini-highs") anomalies over the territory of Europe during the last two decades, paying attention to such issues as definition of anomalies, their possible classification, and algorithms for their objective identification. Furthermore, we investigate several prominent cases of both negative and positive anomalies, focusing on the underlying dynamical processes. For that purpose, we combine observations and reanalysis with global-scale numerical simulations by ECMWF OpenIFS model and regional mesoscale simulations by WRF model. Special attention is paid to the cases of deepest negative ozone anomalies (e.g., the 1997-1998 ozone mini-hole, which is responsible for the minimal total ozone column value ever observed over Belarus, 163 DU), and of springtime and summertime ozone mini-holes, when sufficiently low total ozone column values coincide in time with intense solar irradiation. Finally, we discuss the connection of local ozone anomalies with surface weather phenomena, their predictability in numerical weather modelling, and the role of local ozone anomalies in the broad context of stratosphere-troposphere interactions research.

  12. Effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components and radical scavenging system in leaves of African cowpea varieties. ... The O3-induced significant reduction in catalase activity was observed in Blackeye at vegetative and reproductive growth stages; and in Asontem at reproductive growth stage. On the other ...

  13. Effects of ozone and photo‑activated disinfection against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-20

    Apr 20, 2015 ... Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of gaseous ozone (O3) and photo‑activated disinfection (PAD) methods against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms. Materials and Methods: Sixty‑five human mandibular premolars with straight root canals were selected.

  14. Effects of Ozone and Photo‑Activated Disinfection against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of gaseous ozone (O3) and photo‑activated disinfection (PAD) methods against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms. Materials and Methods: Sixty‑five human mandibular premolars with straight root canals were selected. After root canal ...

  15. The effect of blood ozonation on mitochondrial function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... These results indicated that the death of PBMC was probably through apoptosis. These effects were more ... One must bear in mind that only a fraction of the total blood volume is ozonated. Key words: O3-AHT, .... because of rapid degradation of ATP after cell death. WBC were seeded in a microtitre plate ...

  16. Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    drought caused forest fires to burn out of control during October and November in the Indonesian region. During that time biomass burning and meteorological changes had contributed almost equally to the observed increase in tropospheric ozone. By December 2006, the effect of biomass burning was reduced to zero and ...

  17. Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone column over Alipore (22.52°N, 88.33°E), India ... insolation obtained from Solar Geophysical Data Book and El-ñ index collected from National Climatic Data Center, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA.

  18. Origins of Tropospheric Ozone Interannual Variation (IAV) over Reunion: A Model Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhua; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Olsen, Mark A.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Posny, Francoise

    2016-01-01

    Observations from long-term ozonesonde measurements show robust variations and trends in the evolution of ozone in the middle and upper troposphere over Reunion Island (21.1 degrees South Latitude, 55.5 degrees East Longitude) in June-August. Here we examine possible causes of the observed ozone variation at Reunion Island using hindcast simulations by the stratosphere-troposphere Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model for 1992-2014, driven by assimilated Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields. Reunion Island is at the edge of the subtropical jet, a region of strong stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. Our analysis implies that the large interannual variation (IAV) of upper tropospheric ozone over Reunion is driven by the large IAV of the stratospheric influence. The IAV of the large-scale, quasi-horizontal wind patterns also contributes to the IAV of ozone in the upper troposphere. Comparison to a simulation with constant emissions indicates that increasing emissions do not lead to the maximum trend in the middle and upper troposphere over Reunion during austral winter implied by the sonde data. The effects of increasing emission over southern Africa are limited tothe lower troposphere near the surface in August-September.

  19. Diagnosis of Photochemical Ozone Production Rates and Limiting Factors based on Observation-based Modeling Approach over East Asia: Impact of Radical Chemistry Mechanism and Ozone-Control Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Growth of tropospheric ozone, causing health and climate impacts, is concerned over East Asia, because emissions of precursors have dramatically increased. Photochemical production rates of ozone and limiting factors, primarily studied for urban locations, have been poorly assessed within a perspective of regional-scale air pollution over East Asia. We performed comprehensive observations of ozone precursors at several locations with regional representativeness and made such assessment based on the observation-based modeling approach. Here, diagnosis at Fukue Island (32.75°N, 128.68°E) remotely located in western Japan (May 2009) is highlighted, where the highest 10% of hourly ozone concentrations reached 72‒118 ppb during May influenced by Asian continental outflow. The average in-situ ozone production rate was estimated to be 6.8 ppb per day, suggesting that in-travel production was still active, while larger buildup must have occurred beforehand. Information on the chemical status of the air mass arriving in Japan is important, because it affects how further ozone production occurs after precursor addition from Japanese domestic emissions. The main limiting factor of ozone production was usually NOx, suggesting that domestic NOx emission control is important in reducing further ozone production and the incidence of warning issuance (>120 ppb). VOCs also increased the ozone production rate, and occasionally (14% of time) became dominant. This analysis implies that the VOC reduction legislation recently enacted should be effective. The uncertainty in the radical chemistry mechanism governing ozone production had a non-negligible impact, but the main conclusion relevant to policy was not altered. When chain termination was augmented by HO2-H2O + NO/NO2 reactions and by heterogeneous loss of HO2 on aerosol particle surfaces, the daily ozone production rate decreased by <24%, and the fraction of hours when the VOC-limited condition occurred varied from 14% to 13

  20. Ozone and climate - Effects of the excess of critical loads on birches and mountain plants; Ozon og klima - effekter av taalegrenseoverskridelser paa bjoerk og fjellplanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper relates to the environmental effects of high concentrated ozone on the biomass production in Norway. The effects on birches and mountain plants from ozone together with the interaction between ozone and carbon dioxide and their influence on vegetation are discussed

  1. The role of symmetry in the mass independent isotope effect in ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Greg; Bhattacharya, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the internal distribution of “anomalous” isotope enrichments has important implications for validating theoretical postulates on the origin of these enrichments in molecules such as ozone and for understanding the transfer of these enrichments to other compounds in the atmosphere via mass transfer. Here, we present an approach, using the reaction NO2− + O3, for assessing the internal distribution of the Δ17O anomaly and the δ18O enrichment in ozone produced by electric discharge. The Δ17O results strongly support the symmetry mechanism for generating mass independent fractionations, and the δ18O results are consistent with published data. Positional Δ17O and δ18O enrichments in ozone can now be more effectively used in photochemical models that use mass balance oxygen atom transfer mechanisms to infer atmospheric oxidation chemistry. PMID:19307571

  2. Effects of clouds and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Potted native and Phyton-grown (Phyton Technologies) red spruce seedlings were placed in open-top field chambers constructed on Whitetop Mountain, VA (elevation 1680 m) to evaluate the effect of ozone and acid cloud deposition on seedling growth and metabolism. Chamber treatments were (1) exclusion of clouds and an approximate 50% reduction in ambient ozone, (2) ambient ozone with clouds excluded, and (3) exposure to clouds and ambient ozone (control). No differences were detected between chamber treatments for diameter growth, total chlorophyll, chl a and b, chl a/b ratio, and carotenoids. No enhancement of photosynthesis and respiration was seen in exclusion chambers for current and previous year's growth of native seedlings during the growing season. Photosynthesis of Phyton-grown seedlings was consistently higher in exclusion chambers compared to control chambers over the course of the growing season, although differences were not statistically significant. After one growing season, neither pollutant had significant effects on seedling growth and metabolism.

  3. Reliable and effective oxygen-ozone therapy at a crossroads with ozonated saline infusion and ozone rectal insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocci, Velio; Zanardi, Iacopo; Borrelli, Emma; Travagli, Valter

    2012-04-01

    This review aims to highlight the advantages and safety of oxygen-ozone therapy (OOT) and to suggest ways to enhance its acceptance. The treatment of a herniated disk by injecting a gaseous oxygen-ozone mixture inside the nucleus pulposus is a great clinical success. However, the use of OOT lags for a number of reasons, including lack of standardization, the need for numerous treatments, lack of knowledge and even denial. Anecdotally, several million treatments by OOT have been performed worldwide indicating its usefulness, mainly in peripheral arterial diseases and age-related macular degeneration. The scepticism that accompanies the systemic use of ozone can only be overcome by demonstrating the validity of OOT in controlled and randomized clinical trials. Cheaper and quicker methods, such as ozonating physiological saline with successive infusion as well as ozone rectal insufflations, are becoming popular, however, such alternative procedures are erratic, unstable and liable to be toxic, with deleterious consequences, and are likely to discredit the beneficial use of ozone. The approval of ozone in terms of both therapeutic efficacy and safety will depend on the results achieved by authoritative clinical trials. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Numerical modelling of ozone production in a wire-cylinder corona discharge and comparison with a wire-plate corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengxiang; Chen Junhong

    2009-01-01

    The effect of electrode configuration on ozone production in the direct-current corona discharge of dry and humid air is studied by a numerical model that combines the electron distribution in the corona plasma, plasma chemistry and transport phenomena. Two electrode configurations are considered: wire-cylinder discharge with air flowing along the wire axis and wire-plate discharge with air flowing transverse to the wire. The ozone distributions in both types of discharges are compared. For both electrode configurations, the ozone production rate is higher in the negative corona than in the positive corona and it decreases with an increase in relative humidity. More importantly, the detailed ozone distribution in the neighbourhood of the discharge wire, together with the ozone kinetics, reveals the possible difference in the ozone production from the two discharges. With the same operating conditions and sufficiently short flow residence time, the ozone production rate is nearly the same for both electrode configurations. When the flow residence time is longer than the characteristic time for homogeneous ozone destruction, the net ozone production is higher in the wire-cylinder discharge than in the wire-plate discharge due to relatively less ozone destruction.

  5. Numerical modelling of ozone production in a wire-cylinder corona discharge and comparison with a wire-plate corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengxiang; Chen, Junhong

    2009-02-01

    The effect of electrode configuration on ozone production in the direct-current corona discharge of dry and humid air is studied by a numerical model that combines the electron distribution in the corona plasma, plasma chemistry and transport phenomena. Two electrode configurations are considered: wire-cylinder discharge with air flowing along the wire axis and wire-plate discharge with air flowing transverse to the wire. The ozone distributions in both types of discharges are compared. For both electrode configurations, the ozone production rate is higher in the negative corona than in the positive corona and it decreases with an increase in relative humidity. More importantly, the detailed ozone distribution in the neighbourhood of the discharge wire, together with the ozone kinetics, reveals the possible difference in the ozone production from the two discharges. With the same operating conditions and sufficiently short flow residence time, the ozone production rate is nearly the same for both electrode configurations. When the flow residence time is longer than the characteristic time for homogeneous ozone destruction, the net ozone production is higher in the wire-cylinder discharge than in the wire-plate discharge due to relatively less ozone destruction.

  6. Reaction rates of ozone and terpenes adsorbed to model indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springs, M; Wells, J R; Morrison, G C

    2011-08-01

    Reaction rates and reaction probabilities have been quantified on model indoor surfaces for the reaction of ozone with two monoterpenes (Δ(3) -carene and d-limonene). Molar surface loadings were obtained by performing breakthrough experiments in a plug-flow reactor (PFR) packed with beads of glass, polyvinylchloride or zirconium silicate. Reaction rates and probabilities were determined by equilibrating the PFR with both the terpene and the ozone and measuring the ozone consumption rate. To mimic typical indoor conditions, temperatures of 20, 25, and 30°C were used in both types of experiments along with a relative humidity ranging from 10% to 80%. The molar surface loading decreased with increased relative humidity, especially on glass, suggesting that water competed with the terpenes for adsorption sites. The ozone reactivity experiments indicate that higher surface loadings correspond with higher ozone uptake. The reaction probability for Δ(3) -carene with ozone ranged from 2.9 × 10(-6) to 3.0 × 10(-5) while reaction probabilities for d-limonene ranged from 2.8 × 10(-5) to 3.0 × 10(-4) . These surface reaction probabilities are roughly 10-100 times greater than the corresponding gas-phase values. Extrapolation of these results to typical indoor conditions suggests that surface conversion rates may be substantial relative to gas-phase rates, especially for lower volatility terpenoids. At present, it is unclear how important heterogeneous reactions will be in influencing indoor concentrations of terpenes, ozone and their reaction products. We observe that surface reaction probabilities were 10 to 100 times greater than their corresponding gas-phase values. Thus indoor surfaces do enhance effective reaction rates and adsorption of terpenes will increase ozone flux to otherwise low-reactivity surfaces. Extrapolation of these results to typical indoor conditions suggests that surface conversion rates may be substantial relative to gas-phase rates, especially

  7. Global Model Comparison with NOAA Observed Surface Ozone to Understand Transport in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; McClure-Begley, A.; Tummon, F.; Tilmes, S.; Yudina, A.; Crepinsek, S.; Uttal, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic region is rapidly gaining interest and support for scientific studies to help understand and characterize the processes, sources, and chemical composition of the Arctic environment. In order to understand the Arctic climate system and the changes that are occurring, it is imperative to know the behavior and impact of atmospheric constituents. As a secondary pollutant which impacts the oxidation capacity and radiative forcing of the atmosphere, ozone is an imperative species to characterize. Global atmospheric models help to confirm and understand the influence of long-distance transport on local ozone conditions. This analysis highlights the winter season when ozone conditions are not being driven by photochemical influence, and transport is the prevalent means of ozone variation. In order to ensure adequate representation of ozone conditions and source regions, model comparison verifies the ability of models to represent the behavior of ozone at the surface. Ozone mixing ratios observed from Barrow, Alaska and Summit, Greenland, are critical observations to provide fundamental knowledge of the behavior and trends of ground-level ozone in the Arctic. The observed surface ozone and wind data are compared against two different global climate-chemistry models to assess the ability for models to simulate surface ozone in the arctic region. The CCM SOCOL (Modeling tools for studies of Solar Climate Ozone Links) and Community Earth System Model (CESM1) CAM4-chem are compared to observational measurements. Comparisons between the model and observations are used as the first step in understanding of the long-range transport contribution to ozone variability in the boundary layer of the Arctic environment. An improvement in agreement between observations and chemistry-climate hind cast is found when the model is forced with reanalysis wind conditions.

  8. Ozone gas is an effective and practical antibacterial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manju; Hudson, James B

    2008-10-01

    Bacterial infections continue to pose a threat to health in many institutional and communal settings, and epidemics are frequent. Current control measures are clearly inadequate; thus, there is a need for a simple, effective, and safe way to decontaminate surfaces. We evaluated the efficacy of a portable ozone-generating machine, equipped with a catalytic converter and an accessory humidifier, to inactivate 15 different species of medically important bacteria. An ozone dosage of 25 ppm for 20 minutes, with a short burst of humidity in excess of 90% relative humidity, was able to inactivate more than 3 log(10) colony-forming units of most of the bacteria, including Acinetobacter baumannii, Clostridium difficile, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, in both in a laboratory test system and simulated field conditions. In many cases, complete eradication was achieved. Dried and wet samples were equally vulnerable to the ozone. Inactivation of bacterial samples dried onto soft surfaces (eg, fabric, cotton, filter paper) were comparable with that observed for samples on plastic. The ozone generator can provide a valuable decontamination tool for the removal of bacteria in many institutional and communal settings, including hospitals and other health care institutions.

  9. Substrate effects in the photoenhanced ozonation of pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Styler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the effects of actinic illumination on the heterogeneous ozonation kinetics of solid pyrene films and pyrene adsorbed at air-octanol and air-aqueous interfaces. Upon illumination, the ozonation of solid pyrene films and pyrene at the air-aqueous interface proceeds more quickly than in darkness; no such enhancement is observed for pyrene at the air-octanol interface. Under dark conditions, the reaction of pyrene at all three interfaces proceeds via a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type surface mechanism. In the presence of light, Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics are observed for solid pyrene films but a linear dependence upon gas-phase ozone concentration is observed at the air-aqueous interface. We interpret these results as evidence of the importance of charge-transfer pathways for the ozonation of excited-state pyrene. The dramatically different behaviour of pyrene at the surface of these three simple reaction environments highlights the difficulties inherent in representing complex reactive surfaces in the laboratory, and suggests caution in extrapolating laboratory results to environmental surfaces.

  10. Effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on ozone concentrations in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Gregory L; Denholm, Paul; Hannigan, Michael P; Milford, Jana B

    2010-08-15

    This study explores how ozone concentrations in the Denver, CO area might have been different if plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) had replaced light duty gasoline vehicles in summer 2006. A unit commitment and dispatch model was used to estimate the charging patterns of PHEVs and dispatch power plants to meet electricity demand. Emission changes were estimated based on gasoline displacement and the emission characteristics of the power plants providing additional electricity. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was used to simulate the effects of these emissions changes on ozone concentrations. Natural gas units provided most of the electricity used for charging PHEVs in the scenarios considered. With 100% PHEV penetration, nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions were reduced by 27 tons per day (tpd) from a fleet of 1.7 million vehicles and were increased by 3 tpd from power plants; VOC emissions were reduced by 57 tpd. These emission changes reduced modeled peak 8-h average ozone concentrations by approximately 2-3 ppb on most days. Ozone concentration increases were modeled for small areas near central Denver. Future research is needed to forecast when significant PHEV penetration may occur and to anticipate characteristics of the corresponding power plant and vehicle fleets.

  11. Scaling of The Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations and Anthropogenic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audiffren, N.; Duroure, C.

    The statistical characteristics of long time series of ozone mixing ratios in free tro- posphere and in urban environment are compared.We use a five year dataset with 15 minute resolution of ozone concentrations in a free tropospheric condition (Puy de Dôme) and in four different towns in the mesoscale vicinity (Auvergne region), (data from Atmo-Auvergne) The free tropospheric ozone field have the same scaling behaviour (Fourier spectrum, structure functions and intermittency measure) than a passive scalar in a 3D higthly turbulent dynamic field. We don't observe a mesoscale gap and the inertial range is ranging from (at least) one minute to a few days for eule- rian measurements (from hundred meters to hundreds of kilometers for the lagrangian space scale). The probability density functions (PDF) of the ozone mixing ratio incre- ments are higthly non gaussian, with tails decreasing slower than negative exponential, indicating an "intermittent" behaviour. The scale evolution of the intermittency is esti- mated using the normalized fourth moment of the discrete laplacian and is compared with other turbulent geophysical fields (mesoscale cloud coverage, updraft velocity, rainfall serie). On the opposite, for the urban measurements, the modifications of the statistical properties not only affect the mean but also the scaling exponent (Fourier slope closer to -1) and the intermittency structure function. The one day periodic peak is more pronounced than for the free troposphere measurements and appears a (purely anthropogenic) peak of seven days. For large towns ,the PDF of gradient are close to a Levy-stable PDF with a characteristic exponent close to 2 (the Gaussian limit). The anthropogenic effects on ozone concentration make the statistical characteristics closer to those observed for the web flux, the traffic jams, or the properties of speach and music.

  12. Radioaerosol clearance to monitor effects of ozone on lung permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.A.; Utell, M.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Banko, T.M.; Waldman, D.L.; Morrow, P.E.; Hyde, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Tc-99m DTPA aerosol clearance procedure was used to investigate the effects of low level ozone inhalation on lung permeability. Total and regional lung clearance was determined by scintillation camera imaging of 15 adult subjects presenting no history of lung disease using a radioaerosol with an aerodynamic diameter 0.5 μm(σg=1.50). Pulmonary function measurements and the radioaerosol procedure were conducted in each patient on at least two separate occasions. FVC, FEVl and airway resistance was measured pre and post monitored breathing of room air (30 min) and a subsequent aerosol clearance procedure was conducted as a baseline study; the same procedures were repeated after three or more days with 0.5 ppm ozone substituted for room air. The major observations from the clearance studies and the pulmonary function tests include: 1) no significant changes were detected between the baseline and ozone pulmonary function tests, 2) ROI analyses of the 30 min clearance data show no significant changes in the average Tc-99m DTPA clearance between the baseline room air (t1/2=85+-30 min) and ozone (t1/2=83+-24min) inhalation studies, and, 3) despite consistent average clearance rates, 7/15 subjects showed large changes in clearance (Δ=24-72 min) and functional mapping showed major shifts in distribution in 5/15 subjects after ozone inhalation. The apparent high sensitivity, yet somewhat disparate observations, support the need of further investigation of factors influencing radioaerosol for the study of lung epithelial permeability

  13. Iodine chemistry in the troposphere and its effect on ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Fernandez, R. P.; Ordóñez, C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Gómez Martín, J. C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the potential influence of iodine chemistry on the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, reactive iodine distributions and their impact on tropospheric ozone remain almost unexplored aspects of the global atmosphere. Here we present a comprehensive global modelling experiment aimed at estimating lower and upper limits of the inorganic iodine burden and its impact on tropospheric ozone. Two sets of simulations without and with the photolysis of IxOy oxides (i.e. I2O2, I2O3 and I2O4) were conducted to define the range of inorganic iodine loading, partitioning and impact in the troposphere. Our results show that the most abundant daytime iodine species throughout the middle to upper troposphere is atomic iodine, with an annual average tropical abundance of (0.15-0.55) pptv. We propose the existence of a "tropical ring of atomic iodine" that peaks in the tropical upper troposphere (~11-14 km) at the equator and extends to the sub-tropics (30° N-30° S). Annual average daytime I / IO ratios larger than 3 are modelled within the tropics, reaching ratios up to ~20 during vigorous uplift events within strong convective regions. We calculate that the integrated contribution of catalytic iodine reactions to the total rate of tropospheric ozone loss (IOx Loss) is 2-5 times larger than the combined bromine and chlorine cycles. When IxOy photolysis is included, IOx Loss represents an upper limit of approximately 27, 14 and 27% of the tropical annual ozone loss for the marine boundary layer (MBL), free troposphere (FT) and upper troposphere (UT), respectively, while the lower limit throughout the tropical troposphere is ~9%. Our results indicate that iodine is the second strongest ozone-depleting family throughout the global marine UT and in the tropical MBL. We suggest that (i) iodine sources and its chemistry need to be included in global tropospheric chemistry models, (ii) experimental programs designed to quantify the iodine budget in the troposphere should include

  14. Modelling annual pasture dynamics: Application to stomatal ozone deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Ignacio; Bermejo, Victoria; Elvira, Susana; Sanz, Javier; Gimeno, Benjamín S.; Alonso, Rocío

    2010-07-01

    Modelling ozone (O 3) deposition for impact risk assessment is still poorly developed for herbaceous vegetation, particularly for Mediterranean annual pastures. High inter-annual climatic variability in the Mediterranean area makes it difficult to develop models characterizing gas exchange behaviour and air pollutant absorption suitable for risk assessment. This paper presents a new model to estimate stomatal conductance (g s) of Trifolium subterraneum, a characteristic species of dehesa pastures. The MEDPAS (MEDiterranean PAStures) model couples 3 modules estimating soil water content (SWC), vegetation growth and gs. The gs module is a reparameterized version of the stomatal component of the EMEP DO 3SE O 3 deposition model. The MEDPAS model was applied to two contrasting years representing typical dry and humid springs respectively and with different O 3 exposures. The MEDPAS model reproduced realistically the gs seasonal and inter-annual variations observed in the field. SWC was identified as the major driver of differences across years. Despite the higher O 3 exposure in the dry year, meteorological conditions favoured 2.1 times higher gs and 56 day longer growing season in the humid year compared to the dry year. This resulted in higher ozone fluxes absorbed by T. subterraneum in the humid year. High inter-family variability was found in gas exchange rates, therefore limiting the relevance of single species O 3 deposition flux modelling for dehesa pastures. Stomatal conductance dynamics at the canopy level need to be considered for more accurate O 3 flux modelling for present and future climate scenarios in the Mediterranean area.

  15. Effects of an ozone-generating air purifier on indoor secondary particles in three residential dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H F; Coleman, B K; Sarwar, G; Corsi, R L

    2005-12-01

    The use of indoor ozone generators as air purifiers has steadily increased over the past decade. Many ozone generators are marketed to consumers for their ability to eliminate odors and microbial agents and to improve health. In addition to the harmful effects of ozone, recent studies have shown that heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions between ozone and some unsaturated hydrocarbons can be an important source of indoor secondary pollutants, including free radicals, carbonyls, carboxylic acids, and fine particles. Experiments were conducted in one apartment and two detached single-family dwellings in Austin, TX, to assess the effects of an ozone generator on indoor secondary organic aerosol concentrations in actual residential settings. Ozone was generated using a commercial ozone generator marketed as an air purifier, and particle measurements were recorded before, during, and after the release of terpenes from a pine oil-based cleaning product. Particle number concentration, ozone concentration, and air exchange rate were measured during each experiment. Particle number and mass concentrations increased when both terpenes and ozone were present at elevated levels. Experimental results indicate that ozone generators in the presence of terpene sources facilitate the growth of indoor fine particles in residential indoor atmospheres. Human exposure to secondary organic particles can be reduced by minimizing the intentional release of ozone, particularly in the presence of terpene sources. Past studies have shown that ozone-initiated indoor chemistry can lead to elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter, but have generally been completed in controlled laboratory environments and office buildings. We explored the effects of an explicit ozone generator marketed as an air purifier on the formation of secondary organic aerosol mass in actual residential indoor settings. Results indicate significant increases in number and mass concentrations for particles

  16. Impact on ozone of high-speed stratospheric aircraft: effects of the emission scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pitari

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available A photochemical-transport two-dimensional model has been used to assess the impact of a projected fleet of high-speed stratospheric aircraft using different emissions scenarios. It is shown that the presence in the background atmosphere of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols is responsible for a lower stratospheric denoxification in addition to that caused by the sulfate aerosol layer. This has the effect of further decreasing the relative role of the odd nitrogen catalytic cycle for ozone destruction, so that the lower stratosphere is primarily controlled by chlorine species. The effect of aircraft injection of nitric oxides is that of decreasing the level of ClO, so that the lower stratospheric ozone (below about 20-25 km altitude increases. The net effect on global ozone is that of a small increase even at Mach 2.4, and is enhanced by adopting emission scenarios including altitude restriction at 15 or 18 km. Reductions of the emission index (EI of nitric oxides below relatively small values (about 15 are shown to reduce the aircraft-induced ozone increase, because of the associated smaller decrease of ClO. This conclusion is no more valid when the emission index is raised at the present values (about 45.

  17. Impact on ozone of high-speed stratospheric aircraft: effects of the emission scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Visconti

    Full Text Available A photochemical-transport two-dimensional model has been used to assess the impact of a projected fleet of high-speed stratospheric aircraft using different emissions scenarios. It is shown that the presence in the background atmosphere of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols is responsible for a lower stratospheric denoxification in addition to that caused by the sulfate aerosol layer. This has the effect of further decreasing the relative role of the odd nitrogen catalytic cycle for ozone destruction, so that the lower stratosphere is primarily controlled by chlorine species. The effect of aircraft injection of nitric oxides is that of decreasing the level of ClO, so that the lower stratospheric ozone (below about 20-25 km altitude increases. The net effect on global ozone is that of a small increase even at Mach 2.4, and is enhanced by adopting emission scenarios including altitude restriction at 15 or 18 km. Reductions of the emission index (EI of nitric oxides below relatively small values (about 15 are shown to reduce the aircraft-induced ozone increase, because of the associated smaller decrease of ClO. This conclusion is no more valid when the emission index is raised at the present values (about 45.

  18. Isotope effects in photo dissociation of ozone with visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Früchtl, Marion; Janssen, Christof; Röckmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Ozone (O3) plays a key role for many chemical oxidation processes in the Earth's atmosphere. In these chemical reactions, ozone can transfer oxygen to other trace gases. This is particularly interesting, since O3 has a very peculiar isotope composition. Following the mass dependent fractionation equation δ17O = 0.52 * δ18O, most fractionation processes depend directly on mass. However, O3 shows an offset to the mass dependent fractionation line. Processes, which show such anomalies, are termed mass independent fractionations (MIF). A very well studied example for a chemical reaction that leads to mass independent fractionation is the O3 formation reaction. To what degree O3 destruction reactions need to be considered in order to understand the isotope composition of atmospheric O3 is still not fully understood and an open question within scientific community. We set up new experiments to investigate the isotope effect resulting from photo dissociation of O3 in the Chappuis band (R1). Initial O3 is produced by an electric discharge. After photolysis O3 is collected in a cold trap at the triple point temperature of nitrogen (63K). O3 is then converted to O2 in order to measure the oxygen isotopes of O3 using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. To isolate O3 photo dissociation (R1) from O3 decomposition (R2) and secondary O3 formation (R3), we use varying amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) as O atom quencher (R4). In this way we suppress the O + O3 reaction (R3) and determine the isotope fractionation in R1 and R2 separately. We present first results on the isotope effects in O3 photo dissociation with visible light in the presence of different bath gases. Results are interpreted based on chemical kinetics modeling. (R1) O3 + hυ → O (3P) + O2 (R2) O3 + O (3P) → 2 O2 (R3) O + O2 + M → O3 + M (R4) O (3P) + CO + M → CO2 + M

  19. Ozone Concentration Prediction via Spatiotemporal Autoregressive Model With Exogenous Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, W.; Senoussi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Forecast of environmental variables are nowadays of main concern for public health or agricultural management. In this context a large literature is devoted to spatio-temporal modelling of these variables using different statistical approaches. However, most of studies ignored the potential contribution of local (e.g. meteorological and/or geographical) covariables as well as the dynamical characteristics of observations. In this study, we present a spatiotemporal short term forecasting model for ozone concentration based on regularly observed covariables in predefined geographical sites. Our driving system simply combines a multidimensional second order autoregressive structured process with a linear regression model over influent exogenous factors and reads as follows: ‘2 ‘q j Z (t) = A (Î&,cedil;D )Ã- [ αiZ(t- i)]+ B (Î&,cedil;D )Ã- [ βjX (t)]+ ɛ(t) i=1 j=1 Z(t)=(Z1(t),…,Zn(t)) represents the vector of ozone concentration at time t of the n geographical sites, whereas Xj(t)=(X1j(t),…,Xnj(t)) denotes the jth exogenous variable observed over these sites. The nxn matrix functions A and B account for the spatial relationships between sites through the inter site distance matrix D and a vector parameter Î&.cedil; Multidimensional white noise ɛ is assumed to be Gaussian and spatially correlated but temporally independent. A covariance structure of Z that takes account of noise spatial dependences is deduced under a stationary hypothesis and then included in the likelihood function. Statistical model and estimation procedure: Contrarily to the widely used choice of a {0,1}-valued neighbour matrix A, we put forward two more natural choices of exponential or power decay. Moreover, the model revealed enough stable to readily accommodate the crude observations without the usual tedious and somewhat arbitrarily variable transformations. Data set and preliminary analysis: In our case, ozone variable represents here the daily maximum ozone

  20. Tropospheric ozone trend over Beijing from 2002–2010: ozonesonde measurements and modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of ozonesonde data and numerical simulations of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS, the trend of tropospheric ozone (O3 during 2002–2010 over Beijing was investigated. Tropospheric ozone over Beijing shows a winter minimum and a broad summer maximum with a clear positive trend in the maximum summer ozone concentration over the last decade. The observed significant trend of tropospheric column ozone is mainly caused by photochemical production (3.1% yr−1 for a mean level of 52 DU. This trend is close to the significant trend of partial column ozone in the lower troposphere (0–3 km resulting from the enhanced photochemical production during summer (3.0% yr−1 for a mean level of 23 DU. Analysis of the CLaMS simulation shows that transport rather than chemistry drives most of the seasonality of tropospheric ozone. However, dynamical processes alone cannot explain the trend of tropospheric ozone in the observational data. Clearly enhanced ozone values and a negative vertical ozone gradient in the lower troposphere in the observational data emphasize the importance of photochemistry within the troposphere during spring and summer, and suggest that the photochemistry within the troposphere significantly contributes to the tropospheric ozone trend over Beijing during the last decade.

  1. Laboratory studies on the effect of ozonation on THM formation in swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram

    2015-01-01

    Water samples from indoor swimming pool were ozonated at different pH values to evaluate the effect of pH on decomposition of ozone in swimming pool water. Furthermore, drinking and pool water were repeatedly ozonated followed by chlorination to evaluate THM formation. Decomposition of ozone...... was not affected by pH in the range relevant to swimming pools (pH 6.8 – 7.8) and a half-life time at 10-12 min was obtained. Repeating the ozonation, the decomposition of ozone increased at the second dose of ozone added (t½,2=8 min) and then decreased again at the third and fourth dose of ozone (t½,3=17 min; t...... chlorine for drinking water as lower TTHM formation occurred than in non-ozonated samples. For pool water, a higher TTHM formation was observed in ozonated than non-ozonated pool water. Thus, it was observed that ozone reacts markedly different in swimming pool water from the known pattern in drinking...

  2. Comparing i-Tree modeled ozone deposition with field measurements in a periurban Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Morani; D. Nowak; S. Hirabayashi; G. Guidolotti; M. Medori; V. Muzzini; S. Fares; G. Scarascia Mugnozza; C. Calfapietra

    2014-01-01

    Ozone flux estimates from the i-Tree model were compared with ozone flux measurements using the Eddy Covariance technique in a periurban Mediterranean forest near Rome (Castelporziano). For the first time i-Tree model outputs were compared with field measurements in relation to dry deposition estimates. Results showed generally a...

  3. A model study of ozone in the eastern Mediterranean free troposphere during MINOS (August 2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, GJ; Scheeren, HA; Heland, J; Ziereis, H; Lelieveld, J

    2003-01-01

    A coupled tropospheric chemistry-climate model is used to analyze tropospheric ozone distributions observed during the MINOS campaign in the eastern Mediterranean region ( August, 2001). Modeled ozone profiles are generally in good agreement with the observations. Our analysis shows that the

  4. Ozone damage to crops in southern Africa: An initial modeling study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available of this research is to investigate the feasibility of including the stomatal flux algorithms in the CAMx model, and so improve the estimates of ozone uptake in plants and the subsequent risk of ozone damage posed to crops. The initial model results indicate...

  5. Protective Effect of Ozone against Hemiscorpius lepturus Envenomation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shahi, Farshad; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ashtari, Khadijeh; Panahi, Yoones; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Izadi, Morteza

    2017-08-01

    Scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus) stings are a public health concern in Iran, particularly in south and southwestern regions of Iran. The gold standard for the treatment of a scorpion sting is anti-venom therapy. However, immunotherapy can have serious side effects, such as anaphylactic shock (which can sometimes even lead to death). The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the protective effect of ozone against toxicity induced by Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) venom in mice. Eight hours after the injection of ozone to the experimental design groups, the male mice were decapitated and mitochondria were isolated from five different tissues (liver, kidney, heart, brain, and spinal cord) using differential ultracentrifugation. Then, assessment of mitochondrial parameters including mitochondrial reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP level, and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria was performed. Our results showed that H. lepturus venom-induced oxidative stress is related to ROS production and MMP collapse, which is correlated with cytochrome c release and ATP depletion, indicating the predisposition to the cell death signaling. In general, ozone therapy in moderate dose can be considered as clinically effective for the treatment of H. lepturus sting as a protective and antioxidant agent. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. The sensitivity of modeled ozone to the temporal distribution of point, area, and mobile source emissions in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Patricia; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ehrman, Sheryl H.

    Ozone remains one of the most recalcitrant air pollution problems in the US. Hourly emissions fields used in air quality models (AQMs) generally show less temporal variability than corresponding measurements from continuous emissions monitors (CEM) and field campaigns would imply. If emissions control scenarios to reduce emissions at peak ozone forming hours are to be assessed with AQMs, the effect of emissions' daily variability on modeled ozone must be understood. We analyzed the effects of altering all anthropogenic emissions' temporal distributions by source group on 2002 summer-long simulations of ozone using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) v4.5 and the Carbon Bond IV (CBIV) chemical mechanism with 12 km resolution. We find that when mobile source emissions were made constant over the course of a day, 8-h maximum ozone predictions changed by ±7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) in many urban areas on days when ozone concentrations greater than 80 ppbv were simulated in the base case. Increasing the temporal variation of point sources resulted in ozone changes of +6 and -6 ppbv, but only for small areas near sources. Changing the daily cycle of mobile source emissions produces substantial changes in simulated ozone, especially in urban areas at night; results suggest that shifting the emissions of NO x from day to night, for example in electric powered vehicles recharged at night, could have beneficial impacts on air quality.

  7. Acute effect of ozone exposure on daily mortality in seven cities of Jiangsu Province, China: No clear evidence for threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-05-01

    Few multicity studies have addressed the health effects of ozone in China due to the scarcity of ozone monitoring data. A critical scientific and policy-relevant question is whether a threshold exists in the ozone-mortality relationship. Using a generalized additive model and a univariate random-effects meta-analysis, this research evaluated the relationship between short-term ozone exposure and daily total mortality in seven cities of Jiangsu Province, China during 2013-2014. Spline, subset, and threshold models were applied to further evaluate whether a safe threshold level exists. This study found strong evidence that short-term ozone exposure is significantly associated with premature total mortality. A 10μg/m 3 increase in the average of the current and previous days' maximum 8-h average ozone concentration was associated with a 0.55% (95% posterior interval: 0.34%, 0.76%) increase of total mortality. This finding is robust when considering the confounding effect of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , NO 2 , and SO 2 . No consistent evidence was found for a threshold in the ozone-mortality concentration-response relationship down to concentrations well below the current Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (CAAQS) level 2 standard (160μg/m 3 ). Our findings suggest that ozone concentrations below the current CAAQS level 2 standard could still induce increased mortality risks in Jiangsu Province, China. Continuous air pollution control measures could yield important health benefits in Jiangsu Province, China, even in cities that meet the current CAAQS level 2 standard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrological controls on the tropospheric ozone greenhouse gas effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Kuai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the hydrological cycle in the greenhouse gas (GHG effect of tropospheric ozone (O3 is quantified in terms of the O3longwave radiative effect (LWRE, which is defined as the net reduction of top-of-atmosphere flux due to total tropospheric O3absorption. The O3LWRE derived from the infrared spectral measurements by Aura’s Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES show that the spatiotemporal variation of LWRE is relevant to relative humidity, surface temperature, and tropospheric O3column. The zonally averaged subtropical LWRE is ~0.2 W m-2higher than the zonally averaged tropical LWRE, generally due to lower water vapor concentrations and less cloud coverage at the downward branch of the Hadley cell in the subtropics. The largest values of O3LWRE over the Middle East (>1 W/m2 are further due to large thermal contrasts and tropospheric ozone enhancements from atmospheric circulation and pollution. Conversely, the low O3LWRE over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (on average 0.4 W m-2 is due to strong water vapor absorption and cloudiness, both of which reduce the tropospheric O3absorption in the longwave radiation. These results show that changes in the hydrological cycle due to climate change could affect the magnitude and distribution of ozone radiative forcing.

  9. Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Change to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A Chemistry/Climate Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Pawson, S.; Schoeberl, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term changes in greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, are expected to lead to a warming of the troposphere and a cooling of the stratosphere. We examine the cooling of the stratosphere and compare the contributions greenhouse gases and ozone change for the decades between 1980 and 2000. We use 150 years of simulation done with our coupled chemistry/climate model (GEOS 4 GCM with GSFC CTM chemistry) to calculate temperatures and constituents fiom,1950 through 2100. The contributions of greenhouse gases and ozone to temperature change are separated by a time-series analysis using a linear trend term throughout the period to represent the effects of greenhouse gases and an equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) term to represent the effects of ozone change. The temperature changes over the 150 years of the simulation are dominated by the changes in greenhouse gases. Over the relatively short period (approx. 20 years) of ozone decline between 1980 and 2000 changes in ozone are competitive with changes in greenhouse gases. The changes in temperature induced by the ozone change are comparable to, but smaller than, those of greenhouse gases in the upper stratosphere (1-3 hPa) at mid latitudes. The ozone term dominates the temperature change near both poles with a negative temperature change below about 3-5 hPa and a positive change above. At mid latitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere (above about 1 hPa) and in the middle stratosphere (3 to 70 ma), the greenhouse has term dominates. From about 70 hPa down to the tropopause at mid latitudes, cooling due to ozone changes is the largest influence on temperature. Over the 150 years of the simulation, the change in greenhouse gases is the most important contributor to temperature change. Ozone caused a perturbation that is expected to reverse over the coming decades. We show a model simulation of the expected temperature change over the next two decades (2006-2026). The simulation shows a

  10. Effects of various meteorological conditions and spatial emission resolutions on the ozone concentration & ROG/NOx limitation in the Milan area (I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärtsch-Ritter, N.; Keller, J.; Dommen, J.; Prévát, A. S. H.

    2003-02-01

    The three-dimensional photochemical model UAM-V is used to investigate the effects of various meteorological conditions and of the coarseness of emission inventories on the ozone concentration and ROG/NOx limitation of the ozone production in the Po Basin in the northern part of Italy. As a base case, the high ozone episode with up to 200 ppb on 13 May 1998 was modelled and previously thoroughly evaluated with measurements gained during a large field experiment. The performed variations in meteorology are applied to mixing height, air temperature, specific humidity and wind speed. Three coarser emission inventories are obtained by resampling from 3×3 km2 up to 54×54 km2 emission grids. The model results show that changes in meteorological input files have the largest effect on peak ozone. In the modelled ozone plume a slope of 10.1 ppb ozone/°C and in Milan of 2.8 ppb ozone/°C were found. The net ozone formation in northern Italy is more strongly temperature than humidity dependent, while the humidity is very important for the ROG/NOx limitation of the ozone production. For each of the meteorological variations (e.g. doubling the mixing height), the modelled ozone plume remains ROG limited for this case. A strong change towards NOx sensitivity in the ROG limited areas is only found if much coarser emission inventories were applied. Increasing ROG limited areas with increasing wind speed are found, because the ROG limited ozone chemistry induced by point sources is spread over a larger area. Simulations without point sources tend to increase the NOx limited areas.

  11. Assessing photochemical ozone formation in the Pearl River Delta with a photochemical trajectory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H. R.; Guo, H.; Saunders, S. M.; Lam, S. H. M.; Jiang, F.; Wang, X. M.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Louie, P. K. K.; Wang, T. J.

    2010-11-01

    A photochemical trajectory model (PTM), coupled with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) describing the degradation of 139 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere, was developed and used for the first time to simulate the formation of photochemical pollutants at Wangqingsha (WQS), Guangzhou during photochemical pollution episodes between 12 and 17 November, 2007. The simulated diurnal variations and mixing ratios of ozone were in good agreement with observed data ( R2 = 0.80, P toluene, etc. A further investigation of the relative contribution of the main emission source categories to ozone formation suggested that mobile sources were the largest contributor to regional O 3 formation (40%), followed by biogenic sources (29%), VOC product-related sources (23%), industry (6%), biomass burning (1%), and power plants (1%). The findings obtained in this study would advance our knowledge of air quality in the PRD region, and provide useful information to local government on effective control of photochemical smog in the region.

  12. Modeled and observed ozone sensitivity to mobile-source emissions in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission characteristics of mobile sources in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA have changed significantly over the past few decades in response to emission control policies, advancements in vehicle technologies and improvements in fuel quality, among others. Along with these changes, concurrent non-linear changes in photochemical levels and criteria pollutants have been observed, providing a unique opportunity to understand the effects of perturbations of mobile emission levels on the photochemistry in the region using observational and modeling approaches. The observed historical trends of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NOx suggest that ozone production in the MCMA has changed from a low to a high VOC-sensitive regime over a period of 20 years. Comparison of the historical emission trends of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons derived from mobile-source emission studies in the MCMA from 1991 to 2006 with the trends of the concentrations of CO, NOx, and the CO/NOx ratio during peak traffic hours also indicates that fuel-based fleet average emission factors have significantly decreased for CO and VOCs during this period whereas NOx emission factors do not show any strong trend, effectively reducing the ambient VOC/NOx ratio.

    This study presents the results of model analyses on the sensitivity of the observed ozone levels to the estimated historical changes in its precursors. The model sensitivity analyses used a well-validated base case simulation of a high pollution episode in the MCMA with the mathematical Decoupled Direct Method (DDM and the standard Brute Force Method (BFM in the 3-D CAMx chemical transport model. The model reproduces adequately the observed historical trends and current photochemical levels. Comparison of the BFM and the DDM sensitivity techniques indicates that the model yields ozone values that increase linearly with

  13. Land use regression modeling of ultrafine particles, ozone, nitrogen oxides and markers of particulate matter pollution in Augsburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kathrin; Cyrys, Josef; Harciníková, Tatiana; Gu, Jianwei; Kusch, Thomas; Hampel, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Peters, Annette

    2017-02-01

    Important health relevance has been suggested for ultrafine particles (UFP) and ozone, but studies on long-term effects are scarce, mainly due to the lack of appropriate spatial exposure models. We designed a measurement campaign to develop land use regression (LUR) models to predict the spatial variability focusing on particle number concentration (PNC) as indicator for UFP, ozone and several other air pollutants in the Augsburg region, Southern Germany. Three bi-weekly measurements of PNC, ozone, particulate matter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ), soot (PM 2.5 abs) and nitrogen oxides (NO x , NO 2 ) were performed at 20 sites in 2014/15. Annual average concentration were calculated and temporally adjusted by measurements from a continuous background station. As geographic predictors we offered several traffic and land use variables, altitude, population and building density. Models were validated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Adjusted model explained variance (R 2 ) was high for PNC and ozone (0.89 and 0.88). Cross-validation adjusted R 2 was slightly lower (0.82 and 0.81) but still indicated a very good fit. LUR models for other pollutants performed well with adjusted R 2 between 0.68 (PM coarse ) and 0.94 (NO 2 ). Contrary to previous studies, ozone showed a moderate correlation with NO 2 (Pearson's r=-0.26). PNC was moderately correlated with ozone and PM 2.5 , but highly correlated with NO x (r=0.91). For PNC and NO x , LUR models comprised similar predictors and future epidemiological analyses evaluating health effects need to consider these similarities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of acute ozone stress on reproductive traits of tomato, fruit yield and fruit composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwe, Aye Aye; Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Hélène; Gay, Frédéric; Phattaralerphong, Jessada; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2015-02-01

    Tomato is sensitive to ozone. Fruit growth and composition are altered under ozone stress by modification of reproductive development. Fifty-one-day-old plants were exposed to three concentrations of ozone (200, 350 and 500 µg m(-3)) for 4 h. Ozone reduced well-developed fruit number and fruit size, but it did not significantly affect flowering rate and fruit setting rate. The effect of ozone depends on organ developmental stage at the time of ozone application, as flowers and young fruits at the time of ozone exposure were more affected. Contents of total soluble sugars (total SS), total organic acids (total OA) and ascorbic acid (AsA) increased in fruits harvested from ozone-treated plants. Tomato fruit composition was altered under ozone stress, leading to a lower sugar:acid ratio. These changes were mostly due to increased contents of malic acid, ascorbate and glucose despite a decrease in sucrose. Acute ozone exposure up to 500 µg m(-3) greatly influences tomato fruit quality. As final fruit yield was not significantly reduced, it highlighted that there may be compensatory mechanisms present in the reproductive structures of tomato. Further research would be necessary to determine how reproductive traits are affected by repeated ozone exposure or longer-term exposure. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Comparisons of measured and modelled ozone deposition to forests in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touvinen, J. P.; Simpson, D.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a new dry deposition module, developedfor the European-scale mapping and modelling of ozone flux to vegetation, was tested against micrometeorological ozone and water vapour flux measurements. The measurement data are for twoconiferous (Scots pine in Finland, Norway spruce...

  16. Performance characterization and kinetic modeling of ozonation using a new method: ROH,O3concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Minhwan; Kye, Homin; Jung, Youmi; Yoon, Yeojoon; Kang, Joon-Wun

    2017-10-01

    Ozonation is an effective treatment for removing various organic pollutants from aquatic systems. The R ct concept, which is defined as the ratio of OH exposure to O 3 exposure, has been widely used to predict the removal efficiency of target compounds, but it has significant variations by water temperature and initial O 3 dose which are crucial parameters in drinking water plant. The R OH,O3 concept, which is defined as the OH exposure by O 3 consumption, was proposed as a kinetic parameter for characterization and kinetic modeling for ozonation. The R OH,O3 concept is independent of temperature and initial O 3 dose. A higher R OH,O3 value indicates a higher OH formation when the same amount of O 3 is consumed in different water samples; therefore, the OH yield from O 3 decomposition of the water samples can be compared using the R OH,O3 values. The R OH,O3 concept can also be used to characterize and model the initial ozone demand phase, and it is more convenient method compared to Rct concept. Using the R OH,O3 concept, the dynamic O 3 and OH kinetics and the removal efficiencies of iopromide and ibuprofen were well predicted (R 2  = 0.98) over a wide range of experimental conditions (n = 124). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On the Effects of NOx Emission Control and Drought on an Ozone-Polluted Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusede, S.; Geddes, J.; Buysse, C. E.; Esperanza, A.; Najacht, E.; Anderson, J. F.; Bailey, C. B.; Munyan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Regulatory emission controls are typically designed to reduce ozone when ozone is highest. However, high ozone concentrations are often asynchronous with periods of the greatest ozone harm to plants and ecosystems, particularly during drought. Because ozone production chemistry is nonlinear, emissions reductions designed to be effective in polluted cities may have a range of effects on downwind ecosystems. Here, we investigate the influence of regional NOx emission controls on ozone pollution in Sequoia National Park (SNP). First, we show that steep declines in NOx throughout the region have had smaller impacts in SNP than in cities upwind, and that these reductions have been least effective at times of day and year when plants are most sensitive to ozone. Second, in recent years (2012-2015), California experienced the worst drought in recorded history. We present observational evidence of the ozone response in SNP to drought conditions, finding that the drought altered the chemical sensitivity of local ozone production to NOx emissions and, hence, the effectiveness of NOx emission controls. We show that drought impacts on the ozone sensitivity to NOx have persisted at least two years since the drought ended.

  18. The effects of colorectally insufflated oxygen-ozone on red blood cell rheology in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, A Seda; Aydogan, Sami; Sahin, M Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    Currently, with reappraisal of ozone therapy, it has been utilized worldwide in research and clinical field. Most of the studies investigating effects of ozone on blood parameters are conducted by directly ozonating the blood. Rectal insufflation is a simple, easy and inexpensive method of delivering ozone. Little is known how these gases affect some fundamental hemorheologic parameters when given by insufflation. We aimed to investigate the effects of colorectally insufflated oxygen-ozone on red blood cell rheology in rabbits. Rabbits were divided into Group 1 (control); Groups 2, 3 and 4 (oxygen rectally insufflated respectively for 15, 21 and 36 days); Groups 5, 6 and 7 (ozone rectally insufflated respectively for 15, 21 and 36 days). Erythrocyte deformability, aggregation and osmotic fragility were determined from blood samples at the end of each treatment period. Our study showed an improvement in deformability, a decrease in aggregation and an increase in fragility following a 15 day ozone treatment. With longer ozone application the changes in aggregation and fragility returned back to control levels, however its effect on deformability sustained. Therefore, more than two weeks ozone insufflation may induce adaptation to changes induced by ozone suggesting its systemic effects.

  19. Impacts of Climate Change on Surface Ozone and Intercontinental Ozone Pollution: A Multi-Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, R. M.; Wild, O.; Shindell, D. T.; Zeng, G.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Collins, W. J.; Fiore, A. M.; Stevenson, D. S.; Dentener, F. J.; Schultz, M. G.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change between 2000 and 2095 SRES A2 climates on surface ozone (O)3 and on O3 source-receptor (S-R) relationships is quantified using three coupled climate-chemistry models (CCMs). The CCMs exhibit considerable variability in the spatial extent and location of surface O3 increases that occur within parts of high NOx emission source regions (up to 6 ppbv in the annual average and up to 14 ppbv in the season of maximum O3). In these source regions, all three CCMs show a positive relationship between surface O3 change and temperature change. Sensitivity simulations show that a combination of three individual chemical processes-(i) enhanced PAN decomposition, (ii) higher water vapor concentrations, and (iii) enhanced isoprene emission-largely reproduces the global spatial pattern of annual-mean surface O3 response due to climate change (R2 = 0.52). Changes in climate are found to exert a stronger control on the annual-mean surface O3 response through changes in climate-sensitive O3 chemistry than through changes in transport as evaluated from idealized CO-like tracer concentrations. All three CCMs exhibit a similar spatial pattern of annual-mean surface O3 change to 20% regional O3 precursor emission reductions under future climate compared to the same emission reductions applied under present-day climate. The surface O3 response to emission reductions is larger over the source region and smaller downwind in the future than under present-day conditions. All three CCMs show areas within Europe where regional emission reductions larger than 20% are required to compensate climate change impacts on annual-mean surface O3.

  20. Climate and emission changes contributing to changes in near-surface ozone in Europe over the coming decades: results from model studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engardt, Magnuz; Bergström, Robert; Andersson, Camilla

    2009-12-01

    We used an off-line, regional, model of atmospheric transport and chemistry to investigate current and future levels of near-surface ozone and accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb(v) (AOT40) in Europe. To describe the current situation and enable an evaluation of the model's performance we simulated a number of years around 2000. To assess changes in ozone concentrations due to possible emission changes in Europe, the model was run with the meteorology of the early 2000s and precursor emissions from a set of Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) emissions scenarios. By extrapolation of the observed increase in near-surface O3 at coastal locations in northwest Europe we constructed model boundaries that were used to simulate the impact of increasing hemispheric background in 2020. To assess changes in ozone concentrations due to climate change, the model was run with recent (2000) emissions but using meteorology from a regional climate model simulating a control (1961-1990) and a future (2021-2050) climate. The results indicate that climate change will have a small impact on ozone concentrations and AOT40 in the Nordic countries. Changes in hemispheric background concentrations and changes in precursor emissions in Europe will have a larger effect on ozone in Northern Europe. The situation is quite different in southern Europe, where climate change is expected to result in a very large increase in near-surface ozone concentrations.

  1. Children's Use of Metaphors in Relation To Their Mental Models: The Case of the Ozone Layer and Its Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidou, Vasilia; Koulaidis, Vasilis; Christidis, Theodor

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship between children's use of metaphors and their mental models concerning the ozone layer and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate that the way children represent the role and depletion of ozone is strongly correlated with the types of metaphors they use while constructing and/or articulating their models. Also discusses…

  2. The effect of clouds on photolysis rates and ozone formation in the unpolluted troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    The photochemistry of the lower atmosphere is sensitive to short- and long-term meteorological effects; accurate modeling therefore requires photolysis rates for trace gases which reflect this variability. As an example, the influence of clouds on the production of tropospheric ozone has been investigated, using a modification of Luther's two-stream radiation scheme to calculate cloud-perturbed photolysis rates in a one-dimensional photochemical transport model. In the unpolluted troposphere, where stratospheric inputs of odd nitrogen appear to represent the photochemical source of O3, strong cloud reflectance increases the concentration of NO in the upper troposphere, leading to greatly enhanced rates of ozone formation. Although the rate of these processes is too slow to verify by observation, the calculation is useful in distinguishing some features of the chemistry of regions of differing mean cloudiness.

  3. Ozone in dentistry: microbiological effects of gas action depending on the method and the time of application using the ozonytron device. Experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyńska-Borawska, Magdalena; Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Nowosielski, Cezary; Stokowska, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Bactericidal, virucidal, and fungicidal activity of ozone is generally known and has been exploited for years in industry and medicine. Ozone therapy became an inherent element of the treatment of infection in such fields as surgery, dermatology, cosmetics, and dentistry. Ozone is a gas, so it penetrates very well even into such tissues and spaces that are not easily accessible. Thanks to the property of deep penetration and long ozone presence in tissues after treatment, a long-lasting bactericidal effect is achieved. The action of oxygen radicals is, however, not neutral for the human organism, therefore the use of an appropriate procedure and therapy algorithms is essential. We decided to confirm the effect of antibacterial activity of ozone applied by means of the Ozonytron device (made by Biozonix) on model strains of Streptococcus salivarius, pneumonia, pyogenes, and agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis, using two application patterns developed by us. We found a statistically significant difference in the size of zones of inhibited bacterial growth on all media depending on the time of action of ozone. In the present paper, the bactericidal activity of ozone in relation to bacterial strains that are most frequently isolated from the oral cavity was confirmed. What is more, two models of application of the gas on the infected medium were compared. Research on the use of ozone in combatting bacteria typical for dental diseases has shown that the gas has an oxidizing effect on these bacteria and is bactericidal.

  4. Effect of ozonation on the biological treatability of a textile mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, O; Dulkadiroglu, H; Kabdasli, I; Sozen, S; Babuna, F Germirli; Orhon, D

    2002-12-01

    Ozonation applied prior to biological processes, has proved to be a very effective chemical treatment step mostly for colour removal when soluble dyes are used in textile finishing operations. Its impact on biological treatability however has not been fully evaluated yet. This study evaluates the effect of ozonation on the quality of wastewater from a textile mill involving bleaching and reactive dyeing of cotton and synthetic knit fabric. The effect of ozonation on COD fractionation and kinetic coefficients defining major biological processes is emphasised. The results indicate that the extent of ozone applied greatly affects the remaining organic carbon composition in the wastewater. The relative magnitude of different COD fractions varies as a function of the ozone dose. Ozonation does not however exert a measurable impact on the rate of major biological processes.

  5. Why are models unable to reproduce multi-decadal trends in lower tropospheric baseline ozone levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L.; Liu, J.; Mickley, L. J.; Strahan, S. E.; Steenrod, S.

    2017-12-01

    Assessments of tropospheric ozone radiative forcing rely on accurate model simulations. Parrish et al (2014) found that three chemistry-climate models (CCMs) overestimate present-day O3 mixing ratios and capture only 50% of the observed O3 increase over the last five decades at 12 baseline sites in the northern mid-latitudes, indicating large uncertainties in our understanding of the ozone trends and their implications for radiative forcing. Here we present comparisons of outputs from two chemical transport models (CTMs) - GEOS-Chem and the Global Modeling Initiative model - with O3 observations from the same sites and from the global ozonesonde network. Both CTMs are driven by reanalysis meteorological data (MERRA or MERRA2) and thus are expected to be different in atmospheric transport processes relative to those freely running CCMs. We test whether recent model developments leading to more active ozone chemistry affect the computed ozone sensitivity to perturbations in emissions. Preliminary results suggest these CTMs can reproduce present-day ozone levels but fail to capture the multi-decadal trend since 1980. Both models yield widespread overpredictions of free tropospheric ozone in the 1980s. Sensitivity studies in GEOS-Chem suggest that the model estimate of natural background ozone is too high. We discuss factors that contribute to the variability and trends of tropospheric ozone over the last 30 years, with a focus on intermodel differences in spatial resolution and in the representation of stratospheric chemistry, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, halogen chemistry, and biogenic VOC emissions and chemistry. We also discuss uncertainty in the historical emission inventories used in models, and how these affect the simulated ozone trends.

  6. Ozone flux of an urban orange grove: multiple scaled measurements and model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstad, K. P.; Grulke, N. E.; Jenerette, D. G.; Schilling, S.; Marrett, K.

    2009-12-01

    There is significant uncertainty about the ozone sink properties of the phytosphere due to a complexity of interactions and feedbacks with biotic and abiotic factors. Improved understanding of the controls on ozone fluxes is critical to estimating and regulating the total ozone budget. Ozone exchanges of an orange orchard within the city of Riverside, CA were examined using a multiple-scaled approach. We access the carbon, water, and energy budgets at the stand- to leaf- level to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the variability in ozone fluxes of this agro-ecosystem. The two initial goals of the study were 1. To consider variations and controls on the ozone fluxes within the canopy; and, 2. To examine different modeling and scaling approaches for totaling the ozone fluxes of this orchard. Current understanding of the total ozone flux between the atmosphere near ground and the phytosphere (F-total) include consideration of a fraction which is absorbed by vegetation through stomatal uptake (F-absorb), and fractional components of deposition on external, non-stomatal, surfaces of the vegetation (F-external) and soil (F-soil). Multiplicative stomatal-conductance models have been commonly used to estimate F-absorb, since this flux cannot be measured directly. We approach F-absorb estimates for this orange orchard using chamber measurement of leaf stomatal-conductance, as well as non-chamber sap-conductance collected on branches of varied aspect and sun/shade conditions within the canopy. We use two approaches to measure the F-total of this stand. Gradient flux profiles were measured using slow-response ozone sensors collecting within and above the canopy (4.6 m), and at the top of the tower (8.5 m). In addition, an eddy-covariance system fitted with a high-frequency chemiluminescence ozone system will be deployed (8.5 m). Preliminary ozone gradient flux profiles demonstrate a substantial ozone sink strength of this orchard, with diurnal concentration differentials

  7. Medical ozone therapy reduces oxidative stress and testicular damage in an experimental model of testicular torsion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tusat

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Testicular torsion (TT refers to rotation of the testis and twisting of the spermatic cord. TT results in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury involving increased oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, and can even lead to infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone therapy on testicular damage due to I/R injury in an experimental torsion model. Materials and Methods: 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; shamoperated, torsion/detorsion (T/D, and T/D+ozone. Ozone (1mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 120 minutes before detorsion and for the following 24h. Blood and tissue samples were collected at the end of 24h. Johnsen score, ischemia modified albumin (IMA, total antioxidant status (TAS, total oxidant status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI levels were determined. Results: Levels of IMA, TOS, OSI, and histopathological scores increased in the serum/tissue of the rats in the experimental T/D group. Serum IMA, TOS, and OSI levels and tissue histopathological scores were lower in the rats treated with ozone compared with the T/D group. Conclusion: Our study results suggest that ozone therapy may exhibit beneficial effects on both biochemical and histopathological findings. Clinical trials are now necessary to confirm this.

  8. Medical ozone therapy reduces oxidative stress and testicular damage in an experimental model of testicular torsion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusat, Mustafa; Mentese, Ahmet; Demir, Selim; Alver, Ahmet; Imamoglu, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Testicular torsion (TT) refers to rotation of the testis and twisting of the spermatic cord. TT results in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involving increased oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, and can even lead to infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone therapy on testicular damage due to I/R injury in an experimental torsion model. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; sham-operated, torsion/detorsion (T/D), and T/D+ozone. Ozone (1mg/kg) was injected intraperi-toneally 120 minutes before detorsion and for the following 24h. Blood and tissue samples were collected at the end of 24h. Johnsen score, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were determined. Levels of IMA, TOS, OSI, and histopathological scores increased in the serum/tissue of the rats in the experimental T/D group. Serum IMA, TOS, and OSI levels and tissue histo-pathological scores were lower in the rats treated with ozone compared with the T/D group. Our study results suggest that ozone therapy may exhibit beneficial effects on both biochemical and histopathological findings. Clinical trials are now necessary to confirm this. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  9. Impacts of aerosol direct effects on tropospheric ozone ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol direct effects (ADE), i.e., scattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation, reduce radiation reaching the ground and the resultant photolysis attenuation can decrease O3 formation in polluted areas. One the other hand, evidence also suggests that ADE associated cooling suppresses atmospheric ventilation thereby enhancing surface-level O3. Assessment of ADE impacts is thus important for understanding emission reduction strategies that seek co-benefits associated with reductions in both particulate matter and O3 levels. This study quantifies the impacts of ADE on tropospheric ozone by using a two-way online coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry model, WRF-CMAQ, instrumented with process analysis methodology. Two manifestations of ADE impacts on O3 including changes in atmospheric dynamics (∆Dynamics) and changes in photolysis rates (∆Photolysis) were assessed separately through multiple scenario simulations for January and July of 2013 over China. Results suggest that ADE reduced surface daily maxima 1h O3 (DM1O3) in China by up to 39 µg m-3 1 through the combination of ∆Dynamics and ∆Photolysis in January, but enhanced surface DM1O3 by up to 4 µg m-3 in July. Increased O3 in July is largely attributed to ∆Dynamics which causes a weaker O3 sink of dry deposition and a stronger O3 source of photochemistry due to the stabilization of atmosphere. Meanwhile, surface OH is also enhanced at noon in July, though its daytime average valu

  10. Ozone observations over the UAE and their analysis with GEM-AQ model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Tariq; Kaminski, Jacek; Iqbal, Mazhar; Abbasi, Naveed; Lootah, Nadia; Struzewska, Joanna; Durka, Pawel

    A study of ozone climatology in the UAE began in 2006 with a couple of ozone sounding experiments to the measure the vertical profiles of ozone and their analysis by using the Global Environmental Multiscale - Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the chemical and dynamical structures in the atmosphere of this unique subtropical location (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). Ozone sounding with balloon-borne ECC ozonesonde has been continued since 2006. In this paper, we present ozone profiles throughout the troposphere and the stratosphere characterizing the wet (January - April) and dry (May - August) seasons of 2013 over the UAE. Preliminary results of wet season profiles indicate that the stratospheric ozone is quite stable while thick polluted layers confined to the lower tropospheric heights, showing enhancements in ozone contents. The amount of tropospheric ozone which is transported from the stratosphere by dynamical processes, although not well known, shows considerable variation both geographically and seasonally. Excessive values of ozone mixing ratios in the range 50 - 55 ppb near the ground are observed. These values are 20 to 30% larger than those observed at nearby sounding stations like New Delhi (India) and Esfahan (Iran) using the same technique. The surface ozone in the dry season is observed to be even larger compared to the wet season exceeding 100 ppb on occasions. The difference in these values probably reflects the elevated levels of air pollution due to petrochemicals and automobile emissions in the UAE. We will present ECC sounding data and GEM-AQ results including a discussion on the high levels of surface ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.

  11. Model estimates of enhanced photochemical production of ozone resulting from convective transport of precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    1989-01-01

    Vertical profiles of net photochemical ozone production rates and total tropospheric column production rates were estimated using two models, a simple photochemical box model and a time-dependent one-dimensional transport/kinetics model. Photochemical production of ozone is found to dominate over destruction throughout the vertical extent of the troposphere over the central United States during typical summertime convective conditions. The column net production can be enhanced by the transport of the ozone precursors NO and NMHC from the boundary layer to the free troposphere by convective activity.

  12. Investigating the effect of gas flow rate, inlet ozone concentration and relative humidity on the efficacy of catalytic ozonation process in the removal of xylene from waste airstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. MokaramI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsThe catalytic ozonation is an efficient process for the degradation of volatile organic compounds from contaminated air stream. This study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of catalytic ozonation process in removal of xylene from the polluted air stream andthe influence of retention time (gas flow rate, inlet ozone dose and relative humidity on this performanceMethodsthe catalytic ozonation of xylene was conducted using a bench scale set-up consisted of a syringe pump,an air pump, an ozone generator, and a glass reactor packed with activated carbon. Several experimental run was defined to investigate the influence of the selectedoperational variables.ResultsThe results indicated that the efficiency of catalytic ozonation was greater than that of single adsorption in removal of xylene under similar inlet concentration and relative humidity. We found a significant catalytic effect for activated carbon when used in combination with ozonation process, leading to improvement of xylene removal percentage. In addition, the elimination capacity of the system improved with the increase of inlet ozone dose as well as gas flow rate. The relative humidity showed a positive effect of the xylene removal at the range of 5 to 50%, while the higher humidity (more than 50% resulted in reduction of the performance.ConclusionThe findings of the present work revealed that the catalytic ozonation process can be an efficient technique for treating the air streams containing industrial concentrations of xylene. Furthermore, there is a practical potential to retrofit the present adsorption systems intothe catalytic ozonation simply by coupling them with the ozonation system. the catalytic ozonation of xylene was conducted using a bench scale set-up consisted of a syringe pump,an air pump, an ozone generator, and a glass reactor packed with activated carbon. Several experimental run was defined to investigate the influence of the selected

  13. Effects of ozonation on the permeate flux of nanocrystalline ceramic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Bhavana S; Davies, Simon H R; Chen, Kuan C; Jaglowski, David R; Baumann, Melissa J; Masten, S J

    2005-02-01

    Titania membranes, with a molecular weight cut-off of 15 kD were used in an ozonation/membrane system that was fed with water from Lake Lansing, which had been pre-filtered through a 0.45 microm glass fiber filter. The application of ozone gas prior to filtration resulted in significant decreases in membrane fouling. The effects of ozonation could not be explained by physical scouring of the filter cake. Decrease in the pH resulted in a concomitant increase in the dissolved ozone concentration in the feed water and in an improvement in permeate flux recovery. Increasing the ozone concentration beyond a threshold value had no beneficial effect on permeate flux recovery. Ozone decomposition, resulting in the formation of OH or other radicals at the membrane surface, is thought to result in the decomposition of organic foulants at the membrane surface and reduce the extent of membrane fouling.

  14. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Xu

    Full Text Available Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L. at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system. These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2 = 0.85 & T2: R(2 = 0.89 of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2 of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter

  15. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2) = 0.85 & T2: R(2) = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2) of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter

  16. Weight-of-evidence evaluation of long-term ozone exposure and cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prueitt, Robyn L; Lynch, Heather N; Zu, Ke; Sax, Sonja N; Venditti, Ferdinand J; Goodman, Julie E

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a weight-of-evidence (WoE) analysis to assess whether the current body of research supports a causal relationship between long-term ozone exposure (defined by EPA as at least 30 days in duration) at ambient levels and cardiovascular (CV) effects. We used a novel WoE framework based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards causal framework for this analysis. Specifically, we critically evaluated and integrated the relevant epidemiology and experimental animal data and classified a causal determination based on categories proposed by the Institute of Medicine's 2008 report, Improving the Presumptive Disability Decision-making Process for Veterans. We found that the risks of CV effects are largely null across human and experimental animal studies. The few positive associations reported in studies of CV morbidity and mortality are very small in magnitude, mainly reported in single-pollutant models, and likely attributable to bias, chance, or confounding. The few positive effects in experimental animal studies were observed mainly in ex vivo studies at high exposures, and even the in vivo findings are not likely relevant to humans. The available data also do not support a biologically plausible mechanism for the effects of ozone on the CV system. Overall, the current WoE provides no convincing case for a causal relationship between long-term exposure to ambient ozone and adverse effects on the CV system in humans, but the limitations of the available studies preclude definitive conclusions regarding a lack of causation; thus, we categorize the strength of evidence for a causal relationship between long-term exposure to ozone and CV effects as "below equipoise."

  17. Distributions of chemical reactive compounds: Effects of different emissions on the formation of ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Fiedler, F.; Vogel, B.

    1993-01-01

    By using the model system the concentration distributions are simulated in accordance to the conditions of the beginning of August 1990. For this situation the influence of the emissions outside of the modelling region and the influence of biogenic emissions of hydrocarbons on the ozone formation in the modeling region was investigated. Comparing the results of the different simulations one can find differences concerning the netto production of the oxidants. For the first simulation day the emissions outside of the modeling region show a strong influence on the ozone production. Integrated over the whole boundary layer the ozone mass increases by 24%. If additionally the biogenic emissions are taken into account one can find only an increase of 7% for the 1. day. In contrast at the 2. simulation day the ozone production increases by 81%. For this case the ozone concentration near the ground is up to 20 ppb higher than for the model rund without biogenic emissions. (orig./BBR) [de

  18. Modeling winter ozone episodes near oil and natural gas fields in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuling; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Field, Robert A.; Soltis, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Wintertime ozone episodes have been reported in the oil and natural gas (O&NG) producing fields in Uintah Basin, Utah and the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in Wyoming in recent years. High concentrations of ozone precursors facilitated by favorable meteorological conditions, including low wind and shallow boundary layer (BL), were found in these episodes, although the exact roles of these precursor species in different O&NG fields are to be determined. Meanwhile, snow cover is also found to play an important role in these winter ozone episodes as the cold snow covered surface enhances the inversion, further limits the BL and the high snow albedo greatly boosts photolysis reactions that are closely related to ozone chemistry. In this study, we utilize model simulation to explore the role of chemical compositions, in terms of different VOC groups and NOx, and that of the enhanced photolysis due to snow cover in the UGRB ozone episodes in the late winter of 2011.

  19. Error budget analysis of SCIAMACHY limb ozone profile retrievals using the SCIATRAN model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rahpoe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive error characterization of SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY limb ozone profiles has been established based upon SCIATRAN transfer model simulations. The study was carried out in order to evaluate the possible impact of parameter uncertainties, e.g. in albedo, stratospheric aerosol optical extinction, temperature, pressure, pointing, and ozone absorption cross section on the limb ozone retrieval. Together with the a posteriori covariance matrix available from the retrieval, total random and systematic errors are defined for SCIAMACHY ozone profiles. Main error sources are the pointing errors, errors in the knowledge of stratospheric aerosol parameters, and cloud interference. Systematic errors are of the order of 7%, while the random error amounts to 10–15% for most of the stratosphere. These numbers can be used for the interpretation of instrument intercomparison and validation of the SCIAMACHY V 2.5 limb ozone profiles in a rigorous manner.

  20. Effects of process parameters on ozone washing for denim using 3/sup 3/ factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asim, F.; Mahmood, M.

    2017-01-01

    Denim garment is getting popular day by day. It is highly demandable because of its versatility, comfort and durability. Different techniques of denim washing increase this demand drastically. Denim washing is the process to enhance the appearance of a garment. This enhanced appearance may be the aged look, faded look, greyer cast, or any other shade setting or resin application. The two most advanced washing techniques are; ozone wash and laser wash. The effects of ozone on environment as well as on the garment are significant and cannot be neglected because number of benefits achieved such as time saving, less energy consumption, chemical, labour cost reduction, less discharge of water and chemicals. Therefore, effects of process parameters on ozone washing for denim fabric have been investigated in this research work using three level factorial design. 33 factorial design has been designed and conducted to investigate the effect of gas concentration, time and speed on the response variables namely; Shrinkage, Tensile and Tear strength of ozone washing. The influence of individual factors and their interactions has been critically examined using software Design Expert 8.0. Prior to the analysis of variance model accuracy has been examined through various residuals plots. The study of residuals plots shown that the residuals are normally distributed and significant evidence of possible outliers was not found. So the model can be used to predicted results with 95% confidence interval. The results from the experiment suggest that two out of three factors were significant, which are speed and time that influences mainly on the tear strength of the denim garment. (author)

  1. Dependence of model-simulated response to ozone depletion on stratospheric polar vortex climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pu; Paynter, David; Polvani, Lorenzo; Correa, Gustavo J. P.; Ming, Yi; Ramaswamy, V.

    2017-06-01

    We contrast the responses to ozone depletion in two climate models: Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3) and Geophysical Fuild Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) AM3. Although both models are forced with identical ozone concentration changes, the stratospheric cooling simulated in CAM3 is 30% stronger than in AM3 in annual mean, and twice as strong in December. We find that this difference originates from the dynamical response to ozone depletion, and its strength can be linked to the timing of the climatological springtime polar vortex breakdown. This mechanism is further supported by a variant of the AM3 simulation in which the southern stratospheric zonal wind climatology is nudged to be CAM3-like. Given that the delayed breakdown of the southern polar vortex is a common bias among many climate models, previous model-based assessments of the forced responses to ozone depletion may have been somewhat overestimated.

  2. Impact of interannual variability (1979-1986) of transport and temperature on ozone as computed using a two-dimensional photochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Douglass, Anne R.; Chandra, Sushil; Stolarski, Richard S.; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Kaye, Jack A.

    1991-01-01

    Values of the monthly mean heating rates and the residual circulation characteristics were calculated using NMC data for temperature and the solar backscattered UV ozone for the period between 1979 and 1986. The results were used in a two-dimensional photochemical model in order to examine the effects of temperature and residual circulation on the interannual variability of ozone. It was found that the calculated total ozone was more sensitive to variations in interannual residual circulation than in the interannual temperature. The magnitude of the modeled ozone variability was found to be similar to the observed variability, but the observed and modeled year-to-year deviations were, for the most part, uncorrelated, due to the fact that the model did not account for most of the QBO forcing and for some of the observed tropospheric changes.

  3. Application of Resonant Converter in Ozone Generator Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Facta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is one of the favorable oxidant to use in home appliance and industry as disinfectant for food processing, food storage, odor abatement, groundwater remediation, and drinking water purification. The common and previous technical method for generating ozone uses a high voltage and low frequency. This kind of method has disadvantage of energy efficiency, size and weight. This paper proposed the use power electronics in the inverter resonant circuit to produce alternating current with high frequency. The basic RLC resonance circuit is used for early study to determine resonance frequency for inverter. As the result, the ozone chamber terminal voltage had been achieved for initiation by using resonance frequency.

  4. Effect of climate change relative to ozone depletion on UV exposure in subarctic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienitz, R; Vincent, W F

    2000-03-30

    The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on increases in ambient levels of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation in high-latitude regions' has raised concerns about the response of northern ecosystems to environmental change. The concentration of coloured dissolved organic material, which is derived from terrestrial vegetation and acts as a screen for ultraviolet radiation, is low in high-latitude lakes. The underwater light environment in these lakes is therefore likely to be sensitive to small variations in the supply of this material, in addition to the effects of ozone depletion. Here we use fossil diatom assemblages in combination with bio-optical models to estimate the magnitude of past variations in the underwater light regime of a lake at the boreal tree line. We find large shifts in underwater UV-B, UV-A and photosynthetically available radiation associated with changes in the input of coloured dissolved organic material into subarctic lakes during the Holocene. The inferred changes in biological exposure to UV radiation were at least two orders of magnitude greater than those associated with moderate (30%) ozone depletion. Our findings indicate that freshwater ecosystems at present located across vegetation gradients will experience significant shifts in underwater spectral irradiance through the effects of climate change on catchment vegetation and the export of coloured dissolved organic material.

  5. Effect of sequences of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on plant dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozone (O3) is the most important gaseous air pollutant in the world because of its adverse effects on vegetation in general and crop plants in particular. Since nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a precursor of ozone, studying the implication of sequences of these two gases is very important. Hence, the effects of sequences of ...

  6. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the "Air pollution and health : A European approach" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryparis, A; Forsberg, B; Katsouyanni, K; Analitis, A; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Samoli, E; Medina, S; Anderson, HR; Niciu, EM; Wichmann, HE; Kriz, B; Kosnik, M; Skorkovsky, J; Vonk, JM; Dortbudak, Z

    2004-01-01

    In the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA2) project, the effects of ambient ozone concentrations on mortality were investigated. Data were collected on daily ozone concentrations, the daily number of deaths, confounders, and potential effect modifiers from 23 cities/areas for at

  7. effect of sequences of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on plant dry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Ozone (O3) is the most important gaseous air pollutant in the world because of its adverse effects on vegetation in general and crop plants in particular. Since nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a precursor of ozone, studying the implication of sequences of these two gases is very important. Hence, the effects of sequences of ...

  8. Effect of gaseous ozone for control of stored product pests at low and high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Hansen, Peer; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous ozone (O3) has shown potential for control of insects in stored grain. A previous laboratory study determined doses of ozone necessary to control freely exposed and internal stages of eleven stored product pest species at 20 C. In this study the impact of temperature on the effect of ozone...... was tested on two species of stored product pests: Sitophilus granarius and Plodia interpunctella. Insects were exposed to continuous flows of ozone in doses of approximately 33 ppm for 6 d or approximately 131 ppm for 8 d at low temperatures between 7.3 and 7.9 C and high temperatures between 29.6 and 31...

  9. Effects of Botrytis and ozone on bracts and flowers of poinsettia cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1972-09-01

    Variability, ranging from complete resistance to extensive susceptibility, was observed when flowers and bracts of 14 cultivars of poinsettia were inoculated with spores of Botrytis cinerea. Flowers and bracts were not visibly injured by exposure to ozone levels up to 45 pphm. Ozone did not have significant fungicidal effects, as measured by visual disease incidence following incubation, when inoculated flowers and bracts were exposed to ozone at 15, 25, 35, and 45 pphm ozone for 4 hr prior to incubation. 8 references, 1 table.

  10. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Khatri

    2015-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction. 14 patients (70% with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30% whereas only 8 patients (40% out of 13 (65% in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  11. Effects of oxygen-ozone therapy on age-related degenerative retinal maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Sanseverino, E; Meduri, R A; Pizzino, A; Prantera, M; Martini, E

    1990-01-01

    The effects of oxygen-ozone therapy on 20 patients affected by age-related degenerative maculopathy have been studied. Visual acuity and eye fluorangiography were the parameters used in order to evaluate the efficacy of the therapy. Medical ozone was administered intravenously according to the technique called "ozonized major autohemoinfusion", the total amount of ozone ranging from 1,500 to 2,000 micrograms per session for a 4 months period. The results have indicated that the majority of patients showed an improvement of their ocular condition, suggesting continuation of this type of investigation on a larger group of people.

  12. Testing of models of stomatal ozone fluxes with field measurements in a mixed Mediterranean forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fares, S.; Matteucci, G.; Mugnozza, S.; Morani, A.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Salvatori, E.; Fusaro, L.; Manes, F.; Loreto, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, MAR (2013), s. 242-251 ISSN 1352-2310 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Ozone fluxes * Stomatal conductance models * GPP * Mediterranean forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2013

  13. Potential Vorticity based parameterization for specification of Upper troposphere/lower stratosphere ozone in atmospheric models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Potential Vorticity based parameterization for specification of Upper troposphere/lower stratosphere ozone in atmospheric models - the data set consists of 3D O3...

  14. The Ozone Budget in the Upper Troposphere from Global Modeling Initiative (GMI)Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, J.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone concentrations in the upper troposphere are influenced by in-situ production, long-range tropospheric transport, and influx of stratospheric ozone, as well as by photochemical removal. Since ozone is an important greenhouse gas in this region, it is particularly important to understand how it will respond to changes in anthropogenic emissions and changes in stratospheric ozone fluxes.. This response will be determined by the relative balance of the different production, loss and transport processes. Ozone concentrations calculated by models will differ depending on the adopted meteorological fields, their chemical scheme, anthropogenic emissions, and treatment of the stratospheric influx. We performed simulations using the chemical-transport model from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) with meteorological fields from (It)h e NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM), (2) the atmospheric GCM from NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office(GMAO), and (3) assimilated winds from GMAO . These simulations adopt the same chemical mechanism and emissions, and adopt the Synthetic Ozone (SYNOZ) approach for treating the influx of stratospheric ozone -. In addition, we also performed simulations for a coupled troposphere-stratosphere model with a subset of the same winds. Simulations were done for both 4degx5deg and 2degx2.5deg resolution. Model results are being tested through comparison with a suite of atmospheric observations. In this presentation, we diagnose the ozone budget in the upper troposphere utilizing the suite of GMI simulations, to address the sensitivity of this budget to: a) the different meteorological fields used; b) the adoption of the SYNOZ boundary condition versus inclusion of a full stratosphere; c) model horizontal resolution. Model results are compared to observations to determine biases in particular simulations; by examining these comparisons in conjunction with the derived budgets, we may pinpoint

  15. Ozone Production in Global Tropospheric Models: Quantifying Errors due to Grid Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, O.; Prather, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the Western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes at a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63 and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but still indicates large errors at 120~km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is still too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over East Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution, but subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is less significantly affected.

  16. Multidecadal Changes in the UTLS Ozone from the MERRA-2 Reanalysis and the GMI Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargan, Krzysztof; Orbe, Clara; Pawson, Steven; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Oman, Luke; Olsen, Mark; Coy, Lawrence; Knowland, Emma

    2018-01-01

    Long-term changes of ozone in the UTLS (Upper Troposphere / Lower Stratosphere) reflect the response to decreases in the stratospheric concentrations of ozone-depleting substances as well as changes in the stratospheric circulation induced by climate change. To date, studies of UTLS ozone changes and variability have relied mainly on satellite and in-situ observations as well as chemistry-climate model simulations. By comparison, the potential of reanalysis ozone data remains relatively untapped. This is despite evidence from recent studies, including detailed analyses conducted under SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP), that demonstrate that stratospheric ozone fields from modern atmospheric reanalyses exhibit good agreement with independent data while delineating issues related to inhomogeneities in the assimilated observations. In this presentation, we will explore the possibility of inferring long-term geographically and vertically resolved behavior of the lower stratospheric (LS) ozone from NASA's MERRA-2 (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications -2) reanalysis after accounting for the few known discontinuities and gaps in its assimilated input data. This work builds upon previous studies that have documented excellent agreement between MERRA-2 ozone and ozonesonde observations in the LS. Of particular importance is a relatively good vertical resolution of MERRA-2 allowing precise separation of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone contents. We also compare the MERRA-2 LS ozone results with the recently completed 37-year simulation produced using Goddard Earth Observing System in "replay"� mode coupled with the GMI (Global Modeling Initiative) chemistry mechanism. Replay mode dynamically constrains the model with the MERRA-2 reanalysis winds, temperature, and pressure. We will emphasize the areas of agreement of the reanalysis and replay and interpret differences between them in the context

  17. The Histological Effects of Ozone Therapy on Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somay, Hakan; Emon, Selin Tural; Uslu, Serap; Orakdogen, Metin; Meric, Zeynep Cingu; Ince, Umit; Hakan, Tayfun

    2017-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common, important problem that lacks a definitive, effective treatment. It can cause neurologic deficits ranging from paresthesia to paralysis. This study evaluated the effect of ozone therapy on sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into control sham surgery, sciatic nerve injury, and sciatic nerve injury with ozone groups (each n = 8). The sciatic nerve injury was inflicted via De Koning's crush-force method. The sciatic nerve injury group received medical air and the sciatic nerve injury ozone group received 0.7 mg/kg ozone. Sciatic nerve samples were obtained 4 weeks after injury. Vascular congestion, vacuolization, edema formation, S100 expression, and the thicknesses of the perineurium and endoneurium and diameter of the injured sciatic nerves were evaluated. The diameter of the sciatic nerve and thicknesses of the perineurium and epineurium were significantly greater in the sciatic nerve injury group (P ozone group (P ozone group (P Ozone therapy improved sciatic nerve injury recovery without causing an increase in fibrotic tissue. Ozone reduced fibrosis, vascular congestion, vacuolization, and edema in rodents. Ozone treatment might be used to assist in sciatic nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of various meteorological conditions and spatial emissionresolutions on the ozone concentration and ROG/NOx limitationin the Milan area (I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertsch-, N., , Ritter; Keller, J.; Dommen, J.; Prevot, A. S. H.

    2004-03-01

    The three-dimensional photochemical model UAM-V is used to investigate the effects of various meteorological conditions and of the coarseness of emission inventories on the ozone concentration and ROG/NOx limitation of the ozone production in the Po Basin in the northern part of Italy. As a base case, the high ozone episode with up to 200ppb on 13 May 1998 was modelled and previously thoroughly evaluated with measurements gained during a large field experiment. Systematic variations in meteorology are applied to mixing height, air temperature, specific humidity and wind speed. Three coarser emission inventories are obtained by resampling from 3x3km2 up to 54x54km2 emission grids. The model results show that changes in meteorological input files strongly influence ozone in this area. For instance, temperature changes peak ozone by 10.1ppb/°C and the ozone concentrations in Milan by 2.8ppb/°C. The net ozone formation in northern Italy is more strongly temperature than humidity dependent, while the humidity is very important for the ROG/NOx limitation of the ozone production. For all meteorological changes (e.g. doubling the mixing height), the modelled peak ozone remains ROG limited. A strong change towards NOx sensitivity in the ROG limited areas is only found if much coarser emission inventories were applied. Increasing ROG limited areas with increasing wind speed are found, because the ROG limited ozone chemistry induced by point sources is spread over a larger area. Simulations without point sources tend to increase the NOx limited areas.

  19. Effects of various meteorological conditions and spatial emissionresolutions on the ozone concentration and ROG/NOx limitationin the Milan area (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baertsch-Ritter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional photochemical model UAM-V is used to investigate the effects of various meteorological conditions and of the coarseness of emission inventories on the ozone concentration and ROG/NOx limitation of the ozone production in the Po Basin in the northern part of Italy. As a base case, the high ozone episode with up to 200ppb on 13 May 1998 was modelled and previously thoroughly evaluated with measurements gained during a large field experiment. Systematic variations in meteorology are applied to mixing height, air temperature, specific humidity and wind speed. Three coarser emission inventories are obtained by resampling from 3x3km2 up to 54x54km2 emission grids. The model results show that changes in meteorological input files strongly influence ozone in this area. For instance, temperature changes peak ozone by 10.1ppb/°C and the ozone concentrations in Milan by 2.8ppb/°C. The net ozone formation in northern Italy is more strongly temperature than humidity dependent, while the humidity is very important for the ROG/NOx limitation of the ozone production. For all meteorological changes (e.g. doubling the mixing height, the modelled peak ozone remains ROG limited. A strong change towards NOx sensitivity in the ROG limited areas is only found if much coarser emission inventories were applied. Increasing ROG limited areas with increasing wind speed are found, because the ROG limited ozone chemistry induced by point sources is spread over a larger area. Simulations without point sources tend to increase the NOx limited areas.

  20. Accounting for local meteorological effects in the ozone time-series of Lovozero (Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tarasova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between local meteorological conditions and the surface ozone variability was studied by means of statistical modeling, using ozone and meteorological parameters measured at Lovozero (250 m a.s.l., 68.5°N, 35.0°E, Kola Peninsula for the period of 1999-2000. The regression model of daily mean ozone concentrations on such meteorological parameters as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed explains up to 70% of day-to-day ozone variability in terms of meteorological condition changes, if the seasonal cycle is also considered. A regression model was created for separated time scales of the variables. Short-term, synoptical and seasonal components are separated by means of Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filtering. The synoptical scale variations were chosen as the most informative from the point of their mutual relation with meteorological parameters. Almost 40% of surface ozone variations in time periods of 11-60 days can be explained by the regression model on separated scales that is 30% more efficient than ozone residuals usage. Quantitative and qualitative estimations of the relations between surface ozone and meteorological predictors let us preliminarily conclude that at the Lovozero site surface ozone variability is governed mainly by dynamical processes of various time scale rather than photochemistry, especially during the cold season.

  1. Understanding Differences in Upper Stratospheric Ozone Response to Changes in Chlorine and Temperature as Computed Using CCMVal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L. D.

    2012-01-01

    Projections of future ozone levels are made using models that couple a general circulation model with a representation of atmospheric photochemical processes, allowing interactions among photochemical processes, radiation, and dynamics. Such models are known as chemistry and climate models (CCMs). Although developed from common principles and subject to the same boundary conditions, simulated ozone time series vary for projections of changes in ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases. In the upper stratosphere photochemical processes control ozone level, and ozone increases as ODSs decrease and temperature decreases due to greenhouse gas increase. Simulations agree broadly but there are quantitative differences in the sensitivity of ozone to chlorine and to temperature. We obtain insight into these differences in sensitivity by examining the relationship between the upper stratosphere annual cycle of ozone and temperature as produced by a suite of models. All simulations conform to expectation in that ozone is less sensitive to temperature when chlorine levels are highest because chlorine catalyzed loss is nearly independent of temperature. Differences in sensitivity are traced to differences in simulated temperature, ozone and reactive nitrogen when chlorine levels are close to background. This work shows that differences in the importance of specific processes underlie differences in simulated sensitivity of ozone to composition change. This suggests a) the multi-model mean is not a best estimate of the sensitivity of upper ozone to changes in ODSs and temperature; b) the spread of values is not an appropriate measure of uncertainty.

  2. Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucamp, Pieter J

    2007-03-01

    The ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is mainly formed by the action of the ultraviolet rays of the sun on the diatomic oxygen molecules in the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere (called the stratosphere). Atmospheric pollution near the Earth's surface can form localized areas of ozone. The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the mid 1970s it was discovered that some manmade products destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere. This destruction can result in damage to ecosystems and to materials such as plastics. It may cause an increase in human diseases such as skin cancers and cataracts. The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field. Computer models predicted a disaster if no action was taken to protect the ozone layer. Based on this research and monitoring, the nations of the world took action in 1985 with the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer followed by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The Convention and Protocol were amended and adjusted several times as new knowledge was obtained. The Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol appointed three Assessment Panels to review the progress in scientific knowledge on their behalf. These panels are the Scientific Assessment Panel, the Technological and Economic Assessment Panel and the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel. Each panel covers a designated area and there is a natural level of overlap. The main reports of the Panels are published every four years as required by the Meeting of the Parties. All the reports have an executive summary that is distributed more widely than the main report itself. It became customary to add a set of questions and answers--mainly for non-expert readers--to the executive summaries. This

  3. 3D QSPR models for the removal of trace organic contaminants by ozone and free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongxia; Snyder, Shane A

    2007-10-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected at low levels in water resources around the world and one impact of their detection is the continuous concern on their fate and removal by various water treatment processes. In this research, a 3D quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model characterized by the utilization of 3D molecular structures is explored as a potential tool to prescreen these compounds and help focus research on more persistent compounds during typical water treatment processes. Monte Carlo (MC) statistical mechanics simulations were utilized to generate 3D molecular descriptors and physicochemical properties for the development of multiple linear regression analysis. The relevance of each parameter to removals of target compounds by ozone (O3) and free chlorine was determined based on data matrices generated in bench- and pilot-scale experiments. Calculated removals were correlated with experimental data with linear regression coefficients of 0.84 for ozonation and 0.71 for chlorination. The increased predictability of ozone removal reflects the fundamental simplicity of ozone reaction mechanisms, which is dominated by oxidation reactions. Interestingly, the weakly polar surface area, in addition to the pi surface area of these molecules, seems critical to ozone removal. The removal of these compounds by free chlorine is related to their ozone removal, ionization potential and three other parameters. The developed QSPR models help disclose the removal mechanism during ozonation and chlorination.

  4. An Evaluation of Ozone Dry Deposition in Global Scale Chemistry Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardacre, C.; Wild, O.; Emberson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Dry deposition of atmospheric oxidants to the Earth's surface or vegetation is important as both a major removal pathway governing their atmospheric abundance and as a key input of oxidants and nutrients to sensitive vegetation surfaces. By linking the atmosphere and biosphere, dry deposition processes contribute to wider climate and Earth system feedbacks which need to be adequately quantified for a full understanding of Earth system responses. In addition, they have immediate policy-relevant implications for air quality, ecosystem health and crop productivity that need to be assessed on local, regional and global scales. In this study we use results from the recent Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP) model intercomparison to explore how dry deposition of ozone varies across 15 current atmospheric chemistry and transport models. While most models take a similar, resistances-based approach to parameterising dry deposition, there are substantial differences across the models in the magnitude and variability of the annual and monthly ozone deposition fluxes which contribute to the differences in modelled surface ozone and in the global tropospheric ozone budget. We find that the range in global ozone deposition flux over the HTAP model ensemble spans about 30% with deposition to ocean, grass land and tropical forests being particularly variable. Further, we compare modelled dry deposition of ozone to measurements made at a variety of locations in Europe and North America, noting differences of up to a factor of two but no clear systematic bias over the sites examined. We extend this analysis by running sensitivity studies to determine the importance of key parameters in the ozone dry deposition process, including soil moisture and leaf area index. This study provides an important first step towards quantifying the uncertainty in ozone dry deposition and permitting a more thorough, observation-based evaluation of this important process.

  5. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  6. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Isha; Moger, Ganapathi; Kumar, N Anil

    2015-01-01

    Ozone is highly valued for various therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antihypoxic, analgesic, and immunostimulating for more than a century in the medical profession. Ozone therapy is now gaining a strong foothold in dentistry. Ozone has bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal properties. Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate and compare the ability of ozonated water and topical clotrimazole in reducing the Candidal species colony-forming unit (CFU) count in oral candidiasis. The study included 40 candidiasis patients of either sex aged between 18 and 60 years attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. The patients were randomly assigned to either topical ozone therapy or topical clotrimazole groups. Salivary Candidal CFU counts were assessed during and after the treatments. There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction) was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction). 14 patients (70%) with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30%) whereas only 8 patients (40%) out of 13 (65%) in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  7. Effects of cold fronts on ozone in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, R.; Talbot, R. W.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S. C.; Estes, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    A cold front may have confounding effects on ozone by bringing in contaminated air masses to an area and causing lower temperatures which likely lead to low ozone production rates. Literature reports on individual cold front events showing increasing and decreasing effects on ozone. The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area as the energy capital of USA suffers relatively high ozone levels. The effect of cold fronts on HGB ozone in the long-term range remains unknown. Weather Prediction Center (WPC) Surface Analysis Archive from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) which records cold fronts' positions since 2003 has been employed in this study. The results show the count of cold fronts passing the HGB area shows no clear trend but great interannual variation. Cold front appearance in summer is much less than in other seasons. In general, both mean MDA8 and background ozone during cold front days increased compared non-cold front days. This increasing effect has been enhanced during post-front days and summer season. Cluster analysis on meteorological parameters shows cold front days with high precipitation or wind speed could lower the MDA8 and background ozone but the proportion of those days are low in all cold front days. It may explain why cold fronts show increasing effects on ozone in the HGB area.

  8. Effects of Ozone on Sciatic Nerve in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Q.; Chen, H.; Lu, C.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; He, X.; Yu, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ozone on rat sciatic nerve structure and function. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5). In groups I to IV, 1ml of ozone (O3) 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 8 0μg/ml was injected at the junction of gluteus maximus margin and lateral edge of the long head of biceps femoris respectively, in group V, 1 ml of pure O2 was injected at the same point, and group V had puncture without any injection. Ozone was manufactured by an ozone ge...

  9. Nitrogen mediates above-ground effects of ozone but not below-ground effects in a rhizomatous sedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.L.M.; Hodges, G.; Mills, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ozone and atmospheric nitrogen are co-occurring pollutants with adverse effects on natural grassland vegetation. Plants of the rhizomatous sedge Carex arenaria were exposed to four ozone regimes representing increasing background concentrations (background-peak): 10-30, 35-55, 60-80 and 85-105 ppb ozone at two nitrogen levels: 12 and 100 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . Ozone increased the number and proportion of senesced leaves, but not overall leaf number. There was a clear nitrogen x ozone interaction with high nitrogen reducing proportional senescence in each treatment and increasing the ozone dose (AOT40) at which enhanced senescence occurred. Ozone reduced total biomass due to significant effects on root biomass. There were no interactive effects on shoot:root ratio. Rhizome tissue N content was increased by both nitrogen and ozone. Results suggest that nitrogen mediates above-ground impacts of ozone but not impacts on below-ground resource translocation. This may lead to complex interactive effects between the two pollutants on natural vegetation. - Nitrogen alters threshold of ozone-induced senescence, but not below-ground resource allocation.

  10. CARRY-OVER EFFECTS OF OZONE ON ROOT GROWTH AND CARBOHYDRATE CONCENTRATIONS OF PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure decreases belowground carbon allocation and root growth of plants;however,the extent to which these effects persist and the cumulative impact of ozone stress on plant growth are poorly understood.To evaluate the potential for plant compensation,we followed the prog...

  11. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats ...

  12. Ozone layer - climate change interactions. Influence on UV levels and UV related effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelfkens G; Bregman A; de Gruijl FR; van der Leun JC; Piquet A; van Oijen T; Gieskes WWC; van Loveren H; Velders GJM; Martens P; Slaper H; NOP; LPI; LLO

    2002-01-01

    Ozone in the atmosphere serves as a partially protective filter against the most harmful part of the solar UV-spectrum. Decreases in ozone lead to increases in ambient UV with a wide variety of adverse effects on human health, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and food chains. Human health

  13. Air toxics and epigenetic effects: ozone altered microRNAs in the sputum of human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone (03) is a criteria air pollutant that is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including altered respiratory immune responses. Despite its deleterious health effects, possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying 03-induced health effects remain understudied. MicroRN...

  14. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  15. Modelling and analysis of ozone concentration by artificial intelligent techniques for estimating air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan, Osman

    2017-02-01

    High ozone concentration is an important cause of air pollution mainly due to its role in the greenhouse gas emission. Ozone is produced by photochemical processes which contain nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the lower atmospheric level. Therefore, monitoring and controlling the quality of air in the urban environment is very important due to the public health care. However, air quality prediction is a highly complex and non-linear process; usually several attributes have to be considered. Artificial intelligent (AI) techniques can be employed to monitor and evaluate the ozone concentration level. The aim of this study is to develop an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy inference approach (ANFIS) to determine the influence of peripheral factors on air quality and pollution which is an arising problem due to ozone level in Jeddah city. The concentration of ozone level was considered as a factor to predict the Air Quality (AQ) under the atmospheric conditions. Using Air Quality Standards of Saudi Arabia, ozone concentration level was modelled by employing certain factors such as; nitrogen oxide (NOx), atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Hence, an ANFIS model was developed to observe the ozone concentration level and the model performance was assessed by testing data obtained from the monitoring stations established by the General Authority of Meteorology and Environment Protection of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The outcomes of ANFIS model were re-assessed by fuzzy quality charts using quality specification and control limits based on US-EPA air quality standards. The results of present study show that the ANFIS model is a comprehensive approach for the estimation and assessment of ozone level and is a reliable approach to produce more genuine outcomes.

  16. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone

  17. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-01-01

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α 2 -macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic

  18. Convection links biomass burning to increased tropical ozone - However, models will tend to overpredict O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Delany, Anthony C.

    1990-01-01

    Biomass burning throughout the inhabited portions of the tropics generates precursors which lead to significant local atmospheric ozone pollution. Several simulations show how this smog could be only an easily observed, local manifestation of a much broader increase in tropospheric ozone. The basic processes are illustrated with a one-dimensional time-dependent model that is closer to true meteorological motions than commonly used eddy diffusion models. Its application to a representative region of South America gives reasonable simulations of the local pollutants measured there. Three illustrative simulations indicate the importance of dilution, principally due to vertical transport, in increasing the efficiency of ozone production, possibly enough for high ozone to be apparent on a very large, intercontinental scale.

  19. Rates and regimes of photochemical ozone production over Central East China in June 2006: a box model analysis using comprehensive measurements of ozone precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An observation-based box model approach was undertaken to estimate concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals and the net photochemical production rate of ozone at the top of Mount Tai, located in the middle of Central East China, in June 2006. The model calculation was constrained by the measurements of O3, H2O, CO, NO, NO2, hydrocarbon, HCHO, and CH3CHO concentrations, and temperature and J values. The net production rate of ozone was estimated to be 6.4 ppb h−1 as a 6-h average (09:00–15:00 CST, suggesting 58±37 ppb of ozone is produced in one day. Thus the daytime buildup of ozone recorded at the mountain top as ~23 ppb on average is likely affected by in situ photochemistry as well as by the upward transport of polluted air mass in the daytime. On days with high ozone concentrations (hourly values exceeding 100 ppb at least once, in situ photochemistry was more active than it was on low ozone days, suggesting that in situ photochemistry is an important factor controlling ozone concentrations. Sensitivity model runs for which different NOx and hydrocarbon concentrations were assumed suggested that the ozone production occurred normally under NOx-limited conditions, with some exceptional periods (under volatile-organic-compound-limited conditions in which there was fresh pollution. We also examined the possible influence of the heterogeneous loss of gaseous HO2 radicals in contact with aerosol particle surfaces on the rate and regimes of ozone production.

  20. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects Are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Desinia B.; Snow, Samantha J.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Richards, Judy E.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2016-01-01

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats underwent bilateral adrenal demedullation (DEMED), total bilateral adrenalectomy (ADREX), or sham surgery (SHAM). After a 4 day recovery, rats were exposed to air or ozone (1 ppm), 4 h/day for 1 or 2 days and responses assessed immediately postexposure. Circulating adrenaline levels dropped to nearly zero in DEMED and ADREX rats relative to SHAM. Corticosterone tended to be low in DEMED rats and dropped to nearly zero in ADREX rats. Adrenalectomy in air-exposed rats caused modest changes in metabolites and lung toxicity parameters. Ozone-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance were markedly attenuated in DEMED rats with nearly complete reversal in ADREX rats. Ozone increased circulating epinephrine and corticosterone in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Free fatty acids (P = .15) and branched-chain amino acids increased after ozone exposure in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Lung minute volume was not affected by surgery or ozone but ozone-induced labored breathing was less pronounced in ADREX rats. Ozone-induced increases in lung protein leakage and neutrophilic inflammation were markedly reduced in DEMED and ADREX rats (ADREX > DEMED). Ozone-mediated decreases in circulating white blood cells in SHAM were not observed in DEMED and ADREX rats. We demonstrate that ozone-induced peripheral metabolic effects and lung injury/inflammation are mediated through adrenal-derived stress hormones likely via the activation of stress response pathway. PMID:26732886

  1. QBO effects manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sitnov

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ozonesonde records up to 1998 the responses on the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind (QBO effects were isolated in the region from the ground to altitudes as high as 35km at 22 stations located in Europe (7, North America (7, Japan (4, Hawaii (1, Australia (2, and Antarctic (1. The vertical structures of the QBO effects of ozone are represented as an alternation of layers of well-developed quasi-biennial signals, whose phases gradually change with height and thin transitional layers of ill-developed signals, whose phases change abruptly with height. The amplitudes of the effects depend on height and reach the maxima of 3–6nbar in the lower stratosphere. At the majority of sites the effects are found to be approximately in phase between 20 and 23km. Two types of the vertical structures of the temperature QBO effects are found. At most of the sites located equatorward of about 50° the stratospheric temperature anomalies are characterized by downward propagation, whereas at sites situated poleward of about 50° they look as column-like structures. Near the tropopause the effects frequently reveal dipole-like structure, when the stratospheric and tropospheric anomalies are of opposite signs. The amplitudes of the effects are in the range of 0.5–1°C. The vertical structures of the QBO effects of horizontal wind components reveal a diversity of patterns. The amplitudes of the QBO effects of the meridional and zonal winds are comparable and lie in the range of 0.5–2m s–1. As a rule, the maxima of the effects are noticed slightly below the tropopause, as well as in the middle stratosphere. In general, a statistical assurance of the obtained QBO effects is rather poor. However, a considerable part of them reveal similarity, which can be hardly explained by chance. Furthermore, the results agree with possible physical mechanisms of off-equatorial influence of the QBO, as well

  2. Effectiveness of chlorination and ozonation methods on pure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-01-16

    Jan 16, 2005 ... Chlorination is a very useful control method of filamentous bulking in activated sludge systems; however, it favours forma- tion of undesirable compounds such as trihalomethanes. Other oxidants, such as ozone, could be used for bulking control. In view of the fact that chlorine and ozone are both ...

  3. Effectiveness of chlorination and ozonation methods on pure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other oxidants, such as ozone, could be used for bulking control. In view of the fact that chlorine and ozone are both non-selective chemical agents affecting filamentous and floc-forming micro-organisms, the determination of optimum dosage conditions becomes essential to minimise the impact produced on the activated ...

  4. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric

  5. Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    humidity, solar insolation, tropospheric, and total ozone column (TOC) showed slight increasing tenden- cies from October 2004 to December 2011, while total rainfall and El-Ni˜no index showed little decreasing tendencies for the same period. Amongst selected climatic parameters and ozone precursors, the solar.

  6. Rate acceleration of the heterogeneous reaction of ozone with a model alkene at the air-ice interface at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debajyoti; Malongwe, Joseph K'Ekuboni; Klán, Petr

    2013-07-02

    The kinetics of the ozonation reaction of 1,1-diphenylethylene (DPE) on the surface of ice grains (also called "artificial snow"), produced by shock-freezing of DPE aqueous solutions or DPE vapor-deposition on pure ice grains, was studied in the temperature range of 268 to 188 K. A remarkable and unexpected increase in the apparent ozonation rates with decreasing temperature was evaluated using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal kinetic models, and by estimating the apparent specific surface area of the ice grains. We suggest that an increase of the number of surface reactive sites, and possibly higher ozone uptake coefficients are responsible for the apparent rate acceleration of DPE ozonation at the air-ice interface at lower temperatures. The increasing number of reactive sites is probably related to the fact that organic molecules are displaced more to the top of a disordered interface (or quasi-liquid) layer on the ice surface, which makes them more accessible to the gas-phase reactants. The effect of NaCl as a cocontaminant on ozonation rates was also investigated. The environmental implications of this phenomenon for natural ice/snow are discussed. DPE was selected as an example of environmentally relevant species which can react with ozone. For typical atmospheric ozone concentrations in polar areas (20 ppbv), we estimated that its half-life on the ice surface would decrease from ∼5 days at 258 K to ∼13 h at 188 K at submonolayer DPE loadings.

  7. Ozone generation in oxygen-fed wire-to-cylinder ozonizer: effect of CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CCl4 diluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalný, J. D.; Ráheľ, J.; Holubčík, Ľ.

    1999-03-01

    The inhibition effect of methylene chloride CH2Cl2, chloroform CHCl3 and carbon tetrachloride CCl4 on the ozone generation process from oxygen by negative corona discharge was experimentally investigated. The experiments were performed in a system of coaxial cylindrical electrodes at total gas pressure of 900 mbar and ambient temperature of gaseous mixtures. The rate of ozone generation as well as ozone concentration apparently decreases with a rising number of substituted chlorine atoms in the methane molecule at constant specific energy consumption dissipated in the discharge and at constant concentration of gaseous impurities in oxygen. In addition to experimental results, the paper presents theoretical considerations aimed at identifying the main process responsible for inhibition of ozone generation. The consumption of considerable fraction of oxygen atoms by CH x Cl y-1 radicals formed in discharge, is likely the most important mechanism responsible for the deleterious effect of such compounds on the efficiency of ozone production.

  8. Daytime ozone and temperature variations in the mesosphere: a comparison between SABER observations and HAMMONIA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dikty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the latest version 1.07 SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry tropical ozone from the 1.27 μm as well as from the 9.6 μm retrieval and temperature data with respect to day time variations in the upper mesosphere. The processes involved are compared to day time variations of the three-dimensional general circulation and chemistry model HAMMONIA (Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere. The results show a good qualitative agreement for ozone. The amplitude of daytime variations is in both cases approximately 60% of the daytime mean. During equinox the daytime maximum ozone abundance is for both, the observations and the model, higher than during solstice, especially above 0.01 hPa (approx. 80 km. The influence of tidal signatures either directly in ozone or indirectly via a temperature response above 0.01 hPa can not be fully eliminated. Below 0.01 hPa (photo-chemistry is the main driver for variations. We also use the HAMMONIA output of daytime variation patterns of several other different trace gas species, e.g., water vapor and atomic oxygen, to discuss the daytime pattern in ozone. In contrast to ozone, temperature data show little daytime variations between 65 and 90 km and their amplitudes are on the order of less than 1.5%. In addition, SABER and HAMMONIA temperatures show significant differences above 80 km.

  9. Effect of isoprene emissions from major forests on ozone formation in the city of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Geng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient surface level concentrations of isoprene (C5H8 were measured in the major forest regions located south of Shanghai, China. Because there is a large coverage of broad-leaved trees in this region, high concentrations of isoprene were measured, ranging from 1 to 6 ppbv. A regional dynamical/chemical model (WRF-Chem is applied for studying the effect of such high concentrations of isoprene on the ozone production in the city of Shanghai. The evaluation of the model shows that the calculated isoprene concentrations agree with the measured concentrations when the measured isoprene concentrations are lower than 3 ppb, but underestimate the measurements when the measured values are higher than 3 ppb. Isoprene was underestimated only at sampling sites near large bamboo plantations, a high isoprene source, indicating the need to include geospatially resolved bamboo distributions in the biogenic emission model. The assessment of the impact of isoprene on ozone formation suggests that the concentrations of peroxy radicals (RO2 are significantly enhanced due to the oxidation of isoprene, with a maximum of 30 ppt. However, the enhancement of RO2 is confined to the forested regions. Because the concentrations of NOx were low in the forest regions, the ozone production due to the oxidation of isoprene (C5H8 + OH → → RO2 + NO → → O3 is low (less than 2–3 ppb h−1. The calculation further suggests that the oxidation of isoprene leads to the enhancement of carbonyls (such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the regions downwind of the forests, due to continuous oxidation of isoprene in the forest air. As a result, the concentrations of HO2 radical are enhanced, resulting from the photo-disassociation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Because the enhancement of HO2 radical occurs in regions downwind of the forests

  10. Studies on the Biological Effects of Ozone: 10. Release of Factors from Ozonated Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valacchi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work we have shown that heparin, in the presence of ozone (O3, promotes a dose-dependent platelet aggregation, while after Ca2+ chelation with citrate, platelet aggregation is almost negligible. These results led us to think that aggregation may enhance the release of platelet components. We have here shown that indeed significantly higher amount of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 and interleukin-8(IL-8 are released in a dose-dependent manner after ozonation of heparinised platelet-rich plasma samples. These findings may explain the enhanced healing of torpid ulcers in patients with chronic limbischemia treated with O3 autohaemoteraphy (O3-AHT.

  11. Reformulated and alternative fuels: modeled impacts on regional air quality with special emphasis on surface ozone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Benedikt; Ackermann, Ingmar J; Hass, Heinz

    2002-07-15

    The comprehensive European Air Pollution and Dispersion model system was used to estimate the impacts of the usage of reformulated and alternative fuels on regional air quality with special emphasis on surface ozone concentrations. A severe western European summer smog episode in July 1994 has been used as a reference, and the model predictions have been evaluated for this episode. A forecast simulation for the year 2005 (TREND) has been performed, including the future emission development based on the current legislation and technologies available. The results of the scenario TREND are used as a baseline for the other 2005 fuel scenarios, including fuel reformulation, fuel sulfur content, and compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel. Compared to the year 1994, significant reductions in episode peak ozone concentrations and ozone grid hours are predicted for the TREND scenario. These reductions are even more pronounced within the investigated alternative and reformulated fuel scenarios. Especially, low sulfur fuels are appropriate for an immediate improvement in air quality, because they effect the emissions of the whole fleet. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the introduction of CNG vehicles would also enhance air quality with respect to ozone.

  12. Analysis of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide profiles over South America based on MOZAIC/IAGOS database and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Yamasoe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We analysed ozone and carbon monoxide profiles measured by commercial aircrafts from the MOZAIC/IAGOS fleet, during ascending and descending flights over Caracas, in Venezuela, from August 1994 to December 2009, over Rio de Janeiro, from 1994 to 2004 and from July 2012 to June 2013, and over São Paulo, in Brazil, from August 1994 to 2005. For ozone, results showed a clean atmosphere over Caracas presenting the highest seasonal mean in March, April and May. Backward trajectory analyses with FLEXPART, of case studies for which the measured concentrations were high, showed that contributions from local, Central and North America, the Caribbean and Africa either from anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning or lightning were possible. Satellite products as fire counts from MODIS, lightning flash rates from LIS, and CO and O3 from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer and wind maps at different levels helped corroborate previous findings. Sensitivity studies performed with the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem captured the effect of anthropogenic emissions but underestimated the influence of biomass burning, which could be due to an underestimation of GFEDv2 emission inventory. The model detected the contribution of lightning from Africa in JJA and SON and from South America in DJF, possibly from the northeast of Brazil. Over São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, GEOS-Chem captured the seasonal variability of lightning produced in South America and attributed this source as the most important in this region, except in JJA, when anthropogenic emissions were addressed as the more impacting source of ozone precursors. However, comparison with the measurements indicated that the model overestimated ozone formation, which could be due to the convective parameterisation or the stratospheric influence. The highest ozone concentration was observed during September to November, but the model attributed only a small influence of biomass burning from South

  13. The Hole in the Ozone Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Jeanne S.; Jacob, Anthony T.

    This document contains information on the hole in the ozone layer. Topics discussed include properties of ozone, ozone in the atmosphere, chlorofluorocarbons, stratospheric ozone depletion, effects of ozone depletion on life, regulation of substances that deplete the ozone layer, alternatives to CFCs and Halons, and the future of the ozone layer.…

  14. Comparative evaluation of effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges on estuarine and freshwater organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; Sugam, R.; Meldrim, J.W.; Holmstrom, E.R.; Balog, G.E.

    1980-08-01

    As a part of a program at PSE and G designed to examine the feasibility of ozonation as an alternative to chlorination for control of biofouling in once-through cooling systems, the biological effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges were evaluated with estuarine and freshwater organisms. Mortality at salinities between 0.5 to 2.5 ppt with mummichog and white perch indicated greater toxicity for chlorine while the alewife, spottail shiner, rainbow trout and white perch in freshwater were more sensitive to ozone. Behavioral and physograhic results were consistent with those observed in toxicity studies. Initial cough response and avoidance concentrations of mummicog and white perch in estuarine waters were lower when exposed to chlorine than to ozone. In freshwater, blueback herring, alewife, rainbow trout, spottail shiner, banded killifish, and white perch avoided lower concentrations of ozone than chlorine.

  15. A stochastic cloud model for cloud and ozone retrievals from UV measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremenko, Dmitry S.; Schüssler, Olena; Doicu, Adrian; Loyola, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of satellite instruments provides measurements in and around the Oxygen A-band on a global basis and with a relatively high spatial resolution. These data are commonly used for the determination of cloud properties. A stochastic model and radiative transfer model, previously developed by the authors, is used as the forward model component in retrievals of cloud parameters and ozone total and partial columns. The cloud retrieval algorithm combines local and global optimization routines, and yields a retrieval accuracy of about 1% and a fast computational time. Retrieved parameters are the cloud optical thickness and the cloud-top height. It was found that the use of the independent pixel approximation instead of the stochastic cloud model leads to large errors in the retrieved cloud parameters, as well as, in the retrieved ozone height resolved partial columns. The latter can be reduced by using the stochastic cloud model to compute the optimal value of the regularization parameter in the framework of Tikhonov regularization. - Highlights: • A stochastic radiative transfer model for retrieving clouds/ozone is designed. • Errors of independent pixel approximation (IPA) for O3 total column are small. • The error of IPA for ozone profile retrieval may become large. • The use of stochastic model reduces the error of ozone profile retrieval.

  16. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    concentration. The experiment was conducted during 70 days during the autumn. Our system could not detect any ozone effects on dark respiration, but eventually effects on dark respiration could be masked in signal noise. An inhibition of daily net photosynthesis in ozone treated shoots was apparent......, and it is was found that a mean increase in ozone concentration of 10 nl l(-1) reduced net photosynthesis with 7.4 %. This effect should be related to a pre-exposure during the season of AOT40 12.5 mul l(-1) h....

  17. Systemic metabolic derangement, pulmonary effects, and insulin insufficiency following subchronic ozone exposure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Desinia B.; Snow, Samantha J.; Henriquez, Andres; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy E.; Andrews, Debora L.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2016-01-01

    Acute ozone exposure induces a classical stress response with elevated circulating stress hormones along with changes in glucose, protein and lipid metabolism in rats, with similar alterations in ozone-exposed humans. These stress-mediated changes over time have been linked to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that acute ozone-induced stress response and metabolic impairment would persist during subchronic episodic exposure and induce peripheral insulin resistance. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to air or 0.25 ppm or 1.00 ppm ozone, 5 h/day, 3 consecutive days/week (wk) for 13 wks. Pulmonary, metabolic, insulin signaling and stress endpoints were determined immediately after 13 wk or following a 1 wk recovery period (13 wk + 1 wk recovery). We show that episodic ozone exposure is associated with persistent pulmonary injury and inflammation, fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, as well as, elevated circulating adrenaline and cholesterol when measured at 13 wk, however, these responses were largely reversible following a 1 wk recovery. Moreover, the increases noted acutely after ozone exposure in non-esterified fatty acids and branched chain amino acid levels were not apparent following a subchronic exposure. Neither peripheral or tissue specific insulin resistance nor increased hepatic gluconeogenesis were present after subchronic ozone exposure. Instead, long-term ozone exposure lowered circulating insulin and severely impaired glucose-stimulated beta-cell insulin secretion. Thus, our findings in young-adult rats provide potential insights into epidemiological studies that show a positive association between ozone exposures and type 1 diabetes. Ozone-induced beta-cell dysfunction may secondarily contribute to other tissue-specific metabolic alterations following chronic exposure due to impaired regulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. - Highlights: • Subchronic episodic ozone exposure caused pulmonary and metabolic effects. • These

  18. Comparison of laser and ozone treatments on oral mucositis in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Suzan; Kazancioglu, Hakki Oguz; Acar, Ahmet Hüseyin; Demirtas, Nihat; Kandas, Nur Ozten

    2017-04-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) induces severe pain and limits fundamental life behaviors such as eating, drinking, and talking for patients receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In addition, through opportunistic microorganisms, OM frequently leads to systemic infection which then leads to prolonged hospitalization. Severe lesions often adversely affect curative effects in cancer cases. Therefore, the control of OM is important for oral health quality of life and prognosis. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and ozone may be useful to accelerate wound healing. In this study, 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as control, ozone, and laser groups. All groups received 5-fluorouracil intraperitoneally and trauma to the mouth pouch with a needle. After the formation of OM in the mouth, the control group had no treatment; the ozone group was administered ozone, and the laser group, LLLT. Then, all groups were sacrificed and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor (TGF-β), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were evaluated in all groups. LLLT was determined to be statistically significantly more effective than ozone on FGF and PDGF. However, in respect of TGF-β, no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. In conclusion, within the limitations of this study, LLLT is more effective than ozone. However, further studies on this subject are required.

  19. Stomatal ozone fluxes over a barley field in Italy. "Effective exposure" as a possible link between exposure- and flux-based approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Cieslik, Stanislaw; Ballarin-Denti, Antonio

    Fluxes of ozone as well as of sensible and latent heat were measured over a barley field in Northern Italy from April to June 2002 with the eddy-correlation technique in order to determine the dose of ozone taken up by plants during the whole grain filling and maturation period. Stomatal ozone fluxes were then calculated by using the similarity between gaseous exchange processes occurring inside the stomata involving ozone and water vapour, whose flux was available from the measurements. The dose was then obtained by integrating the stomatal flux over time. On the average, the stomatal flux was found to be approximately 50% of the total flux. This approach was compared to the currently used ozone risk assessment procedure based on the use of the exposure index AOT40, calculated from routine ozone concentration records. Important differences between these two approaches appeared. In order to assess ozone risk to vegetation in a realistic way, a new concept of "effective exposure", which combines both exposure and uptake approaches, is developed. A new risk assessment index is obtained by weighting exposure by a factor which includes stomatal conductance, obtained by a modelling procedure, which uses observational data available from routine monitoring stations. This new index, formally similar to AOT40, uses a lower ozone concentration threshold (evolution than the original AOT40 index. This approach permits to calculate ozone exposure taking physiological aspects into account, for situations where only ozone concentrations and meteorological observations are available, as direct flux data are difficult to obtain on a routine basis.

  20. Biological UV-doses and the effect on an ozone layer depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlback, A.; Henriksen, T.

    1988-08-01

    Effective UV-doses were calculated based on the integrated product of the biological action spectrum and the solar radiation. The calculations included absorption and scattering of UV-radiation in the atmosphere, both for normal ozone conditions as well as for a depleted ozone layer. The effective annual UV-dose increases by approximately 4% per degree of latitude towards the equator. An ozone depletion of 1% increases the annual UV-dose by approximately 1% at 60 o N. A large depletion of 50% over Scandinavia (60 o N) would give this region an effective UV-dose similar to that obtained, with normal ozone conditions, at a latitude of 40 o N (California or the Mediterranean countries). The Antarctic ozone hole increases the annual UV-dose by 20 to 25% which is a similar increase as that attained by moving 5 to 6 degrees of latitude nearer the equator. The annual UV-dose on higher latitudes is mainly determined by the summer values of ozone. Both the ozone values and the effective UV-doses vary from one year to another (within ±4%). No positive or negative trend is observed for Scandinavia from 1978 to 1988

  1. Evaluation of Antifungal Effect of Gaseous Ozone in a Meat Processing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Lisa; Stella, Simone

    2014-04-17

    Ozone is already known as effective food/environmental disinfection agent, thanks to its oxidative action towards microbial cell components. Bactericidal effect of ozone is well documented, while data concerning its inhibitory activity towards fungi are still ambiguous. Our study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of gaseous ozone towards potentially contaminant fungi in a meat production plant in real working conditions. M 2 and M 5 S 5 plates were inoculated with Aspergillus niger , Penicillium roqueforti , Mucor racemosus , Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and positioned in a deboning room, where gaseous ozone was dispensed throughout the night (until a maximum concentration of 20 ppm). Nine different points were chosen, based on height and distance from the ozone dispenser. After the treatment, the presence of strains growth was evaluated. Gaseous ozone did not show any inhibitory activity against mould strains, as optimum growth during all the trials was observed. An appreciable and constant microbicidal effect against S. cerevisiae was evidenced, with a mean value of 2.8 Log reduction. Our results suggest the importance of the definition of environmental and technical use conditions in order to optimise the antimicrobial efficacy of ozone in real working situations in food industries.

  2. Evaluation of antifungal effect of gaseous ozone in a meat processing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Vallone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is already known as effective food/environmental disinfection agent, thanks to its oxidative action towards microbial cell components. Bactericidal effect of ozone is well documented, while data concerning its inhibitory activity towards fungi are still ambiguous. Our study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of gaseous ozone towards potentially contaminant fungi in a meat production plant in real working conditions. M2 and M5S5 plates were inoculated with Aspergillus niger, Penicillium roqueforti, Mucor racemosus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and positioned in a deboning room, where gaseous ozone was dispensed throughout the night (until a maximum concentration of 20 ppm. Nine different points were chosen, based on height and distance from the ozone dispenser. After the treatment, the presence of strains growth was evaluated. Gaseous ozone did not show any inhibitory activity against mould strains, as optimum growth during all the trials was observed. An appreciable and constant microbicidal effect against S. cerevisiae was evidenced, with a mean value of 2.8 Log reduction. Our results suggest the importance of the definition of environmental and technical use conditions in order to optimise the antimicrobial efficacy of ozone in real working situations in food industries.

  3. Megacity impacts on regional ozone formation: observations and WRF-Chem modeling for the MIRAGE-Shanghai field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The MIRAGE-Shanghai experiment was designed to characterize the factors controlling regional air pollution near a Chinese megacity (Shanghai and was conducted during September 2009. This paper provides information on the measurements conducted for this study. In order to have some deep analysis of the measurements, a regional chemical/dynamical model (version 3 of Weather Research and Forecasting Chemical model – WRF-Chemv3 is applied for this study. The model results are intensively compared with the measurements to evaluate the model capability for calculating air pollutants in the Shanghai region, especially the chemical species related to ozone formation. The results show that the model is able to calculate the general distributions (the level and the variability of air pollutants in the Shanghai region, and the differences between the model calculation and the measurement are mostly smaller than 30%, except the calculations of HONO (nitrous acid at PD (Pudong and CO (carbon monoxide at DT (Dongtan. The main scientific focus is the study of ozone chemical formation not only in the urban area, but also on a regional scale of the surrounding area of Shanghai. The results show that during the experiment period, the ozone photochemical formation was strongly under the VOC (volatile organic compound-limited condition in the urban area of Shanghai. Moreover, the VOC-limited condition occurred not only in the city, but also in the larger regional area. There was a continuous enhancement of ozone concentrations in the downwind of the megacity of Shanghai, resulting in a significant enhancement of ozone concentrations in a very large regional area in the surrounding region of Shanghai. The sensitivity study of the model suggests that there is a threshold value for switching from VOC-limited condition to NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide-limited condition. The threshold value is strongly dependent on the emission ratio of NOx / VOCs. When the

  4. Seasonal Characteristics of Widespread Ozone Pollution in China and India: Current Model Capabilities and Source Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M.; Song, S.; Beig, G.; Zhang, H.; Hu, J.; Ying, Q.; McElroy, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in China and India have led to severe ozone pollution, threatening public health in these densely populated countries. We show the spatial and seasonal characteristics of ozone concentrations using nation-wide observations for these two countries in 2013. We used the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to chemistry (WRF-Chem) to conduct one-year simulations and to evaluate how current models capture the important photochemical processes using the exhaustive available datasets in China and India, including surface measurements, ozonesonde data and satellite retrievals. We also employed the factor separation approach to distinguish the contributions of different sectors to ozone during different seasons. The back trajectory model FLEXPART was applied to investigate the role of transport in highly polluted regions (e.g., North China Plain, Yangtze River delta, and Pearl River Delta) during different seasons. Preliminary results indicate that the WRF-Chem model provides a satisfactory representation of the temporal and spatial variations of ozone for both China and India. The factor separation approach offers valuable insights into relevant sources of ozone for both countries providing valuable guidance for policy options designed to mitigate the related problem.

  5. Ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects are diminished in adrenalectomized rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set is an excel file pertaining to the study that examined ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects in rats that underwent SHAM surgery (control),...

  6. Effects of temperature-dependent NOx emissions on continental ozone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Paul S.; Duffey, Kaitlin C.; Wooldridge, Paul J.; Edgerton, Eric; Baumann, Karsten; Feiner, Philip A.; Miller, David O.; Brune, William H.; Koss, Abigail R.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Misztal, Pawel K.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2018-02-01

    Surface ozone concentrations are observed to increase with rising temperatures, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect in rural and remote continental regions remain uncertain. Better understanding of the effects of temperature on ozone is crucial to understanding global air quality and how it may be affected by climate change. We combine measurements from a focused ground campaign in summer 2013 with a long-term record from a forested site in the rural southeastern United States, to examine how daily average temperature affects ozone production. We find that changes to local chemistry are key drivers of increased ozone concentrations on hotter days, with integrated daily ozone production increasing by 2.3 ppb °C-1. Nearly half of this increase is attributable to temperature-driven increases in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), most likely by soil microbes. The increase of soil NOx emissions with temperature suggests that ozone will continue to increase with temperature in the future, even as direct anthropogenic NOx emissions decrease dramatically. The links between temperature, soil NOx, and ozone form a positive climate feedback.

  7. Effects of temperature-dependent NOx emissions on continental ozone production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Romer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface ozone concentrations are observed to increase with rising temperatures, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect in rural and remote continental regions remain uncertain. Better understanding of the effects of temperature on ozone is crucial to understanding global air quality and how it may be affected by climate change. We combine measurements from a focused ground campaign in summer 2013 with a long-term record from a forested site in the rural southeastern United States, to examine how daily average temperature affects ozone production. We find that changes to local chemistry are key drivers of increased ozone concentrations on hotter days, with integrated daily ozone production increasing by 2.3 ppb °C−1. Nearly half of this increase is attributable to temperature-driven increases in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, most likely by soil microbes. The increase of soil NOx emissions with temperature suggests that ozone will continue to increase with temperature in the future, even as direct anthropogenic NOx emissions decrease dramatically. The links between temperature, soil NOx, and ozone form a positive climate feedback.

  8. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    variability of the PREDICTED to OBSERVED ozone concentrations of both BASELINE model and simulations with modified emissions assessed by the sensitivity analysis. All simulations were found to vary within acceptable ranges of these two criteria variables. Simulation results indicate ozone formation in the PdN region is VOC-limited. Under VOC-limited conditions, modifications to NOx emissions do not produce a marked increase or decrease in ozone concentrations. Modifications to VOC emissions generated the highest variability in ozone concentrations. Increasing VOC emissions by 75% produced results which minimized model bias and error when comparing PREDICTED and OBSERVED ozone concentrations. Increasing VOC emissions by 75% either alone or in combination with a 75% increase in NOx emissions generated PREDICTED ozone concentrations very near to OBSERVED ozone. By evaluating the changes in ambient ozone concentrations through photochemical modeling, air quality planners may identify the most efficient or effective VOC emissions control strategies for area sources. Among the strategies to achieve emissions reductions are installation of gasoline vapor recovery systems, replacing high-pressure low-volume surface coating paint spray guns with high-volume low-pressure spray paint guns, requiring emissions control booths for surface coating operations as well as undertaking solvent management practices, requiring the sale of low VOC paint solvents in the surface-coating industry, and requiring low-VOC solvents in the dry cleaning industry. Other strategies to reduce VOC emissions include initiating Eco-Driving strategies to reduce fuel consumption from mobile sources and minimize vehicle idling at the international ports of entry by reducing bridge wait times. This dissertation depicts a tool for evaluating impacts of emissions on regional air quality by addressing the highly unresolved fugitive emissions in the Paso del Norte region. It provides a protocol for decision makers to

  9. Improvements to the WRF-Chem 3.5.1 model for quasi-hemispheric simulations of aerosols and ozone in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelle, Louis; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Shrivastava, Manish; Thomas, Jennie L.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the WRF-Chem regional model is updated to improve simulated short-lived pollutants (e.g., aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic. Specifically, we include in WRF-Chem 3.5.1 (with SAPRC-99 gas-phase chemistry and MOSAIC aerosols) (1) a correction to the sedimentation of aerosols, (2) dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oceanic emissions and gas-phase chemistry, (3) an improved representation of the dry deposition of trace gases over seasonal snow, and (4) an UV-albedo dependence on snow and ice cover for photolysis calculations. We also (5) correct the representation of surface temperatures over melting ice in the Noah Land Surface Model and (6) couple and further test the recent KF-CuP (Kain-Fritsch + Cumulus Potential) cumulus parameterization that includes the effect of cumulus clouds on aerosols and trace gases. The updated model is used to perform quasi-hemispheric simulations of aerosols and ozone, which are evaluated against surface measurements of black carbon (BC), sulfate, and ozone as well as airborne measurements of BC in the Arctic. The updated model shows significant improvements in terms of seasonal aerosol cycles at the surface and root mean square errors (RMSEs) for surface ozone, aerosols, and BC aloft, compared to the base version of the model and to previous large-scale evaluations of WRF-Chem in the Arctic. These improvements are mostly due to the inclusion of cumulus effects on aerosols and trace gases in KF-CuP (improved RMSE for surface BC and BC profiles, surface sulfate, and surface ozone), the improved surface temperatures over sea ice (surface ozone, BC, and sulfate), and the updated trace gas deposition and UV albedo over snow and ice (improved RMSE and correlation for surface ozone). DMS emissions and chemistry improve surface sulfate at all Arctic sites except Zeppelin, and correcting aerosol sedimentation has little influence on aerosols except in the upper troposphere.

  10. Global sensitivity analysis of GEOS-Chem modeled ozone and hydrogen oxides during the INTEX campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Kenneth E.; Brune, William H.; Mao, Jingqiu; Ren, Xinrong

    2018-02-01

    Making sense of modeled atmospheric composition requires not only comparison to in situ measurements but also knowing and quantifying the sensitivity of the model to its input factors. Using a global sensitivity method involving the simultaneous perturbation of many chemical transport model input factors, we find the model uncertainty for ozone (O3), hydroxyl radical (OH), and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) mixing ratios, and apportion this uncertainty to specific model inputs for the DC-8 flight tracks corresponding to the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX) campaigns of 2004 and 2006. In general, when uncertainties in modeled and measured quantities are accounted for, we find agreement between modeled and measured oxidant mixing ratios with the exception of ozone during the Houston flights of the INTEX-B campaign and HO2 for the flights over the northernmost Pacific Ocean during INTEX-B. For ozone and OH, modeled mixing ratios were most sensitive to a bevy of emissions, notably lightning NOx, various surface NOx sources, and isoprene. HO2 mixing ratios were most sensitive to CO and isoprene emissions as well as the aerosol uptake of HO2. With ozone and OH being generally overpredicted by the model, we find better agreement between modeled and measured vertical profiles when reducing NOx emissions from surface as well as lightning sources.

  11. Global sensitivity analysis of GEOS-Chem modeled ozone and hydrogen oxides during the INTEX campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Christian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Making sense of modeled atmospheric composition requires not only comparison to in situ measurements but also knowing and quantifying the sensitivity of the model to its input factors. Using a global sensitivity method involving the simultaneous perturbation of many chemical transport model input factors, we find the model uncertainty for ozone (O3, hydroxyl radical (OH, and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2 mixing ratios, and apportion this uncertainty to specific model inputs for the DC-8 flight tracks corresponding to the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX campaigns of 2004 and 2006. In general, when uncertainties in modeled and measured quantities are accounted for, we find agreement between modeled and measured oxidant mixing ratios with the exception of ozone during the Houston flights of the INTEX-B campaign and HO2 for the flights over the northernmost Pacific Ocean during INTEX-B. For ozone and OH, modeled mixing ratios were most sensitive to a bevy of emissions, notably lightning NOx, various surface NOx sources, and isoprene. HO2 mixing ratios were most sensitive to CO and isoprene emissions as well as the aerosol uptake of HO2. With ozone and OH being generally overpredicted by the model, we find better agreement between modeled and measured vertical profiles when reducing NOx emissions from surface as well as lightning sources.

  12. Atmospheric lifetimes and Ozone Depletion Potentials of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropylene and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene in a three-dimensional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Patten

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The chloroalkenes trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropylene (tCFP and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (tDCE have been proposed as candidate replacements for other compounds in current use that cause concerns regarding potential environmental effects including destruction of stratospheric ozone. Because tCFP and tDCE contain chlorine atoms, the effects of these short-lived compounds on stratospheric ozone must be established. In this study, we derive the atmospheric lifetimes and Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs for tCFP and for tDCE assuming emissions from land surfaces at latitudes 30° N to 60° N using the MOZART 3 three-dimensional model of atmospheric chemistry and physics. 53% of the ozone loss due to tCFP and 98% of the ozone loss due to tDCE take place in the troposphere, rather than in the stratosphere as generally expected from longer-lived chlorocarbons. The atmospheric lifetime of tCFP against chemical reaction is 40.4 days, and its ODP is quite small at 0.00034. The tDCE atmospheric lifetime is 12.7 days, and its ODP is 0.00024, which is the lowest ODP found for any chlorocarbon we have studied. Our study suggests that chlorine from tCFP and tDCE are unlikely to affect ozone at quantities likely to be emitted to the atmosphere.

  13. Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of positive corona discharge: ozone generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A; Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.

  14. Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of positive corona discharge: ozone generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanallah, K; Pontiga, F; Fernández-Rueda, A; Castellanos, A

    2009-03-01

    The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.

  15. New mechanistically based model for predicting reduction of biosolids waste by ozonation of return activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isazadeh, Siavash; Feng, Min; Urbina Rivas, Luis Enrique; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-04-15

    Two pilot-scale activated sludge reactors were operated for 98 days to provide the necessary data to develop and validate a new mathematical model predicting the reduction of biosolids production by ozonation of the return activated sludge (RAS). Three ozone doses were tested during the study. In addition to the pilot-scale study, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted with mixed liquor suspended solids and with pure cultures to parameterize the biomass inactivation process during exposure to ozone. The experiments revealed that biomass inactivation occurred even at the lowest doses, but that it was not associated with extensive COD solubilization. For validation, the model was used to simulate the temporal dynamics of the pilot-scale operational data. Increasing the description accuracy of the inactivation process improved the precision of the model in predicting the operational data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of positive corona discharge: ozone generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A [Departamento de FIsica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-03-21

    The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Technical Note: SWIFT - a fast semi-empirical model for polar stratospheric ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, M.; Kremser, S.; Huck, P.; Bodeker, G.; Wohltmann, I.; Santee, M. L.; Bernath, P.

    2014-07-01

    An extremely fast model to estimate the degree of stratospheric ozone depletion during polar winters is described. It is based on a set of coupled differential equations that simulate the seasonal evolution of vortex-averaged hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), chlorine nitrate (ClONO2), active forms of chlorine (ClOx = Cl + ClO + 2 ClOOCl) and ozone (O3) on isentropic levels within the polar vortices. Terms in these equations account for the chemical and physical processes driving the time rate of change of these species. Eight empirical fit coefficients associated with these terms are derived by iteratively fitting the equations to vortex-averaged satellite-based measurements of HCl, HNO3 and ClONO2 and observationally derived ozone loss rates. The system of differential equations is not stiff and can be solved with a time step of one day, allowing many years to be processed per second on a standard PC. The inputs required are the daily fractions of the vortex area covered by polar stratospheric clouds and the fractions of the vortex area exposed to sunlight. The resultant model, SWIFT (Semi-empirical Weighted Iterative Fit Technique), provides a fast yet accurate method to simulate ozone loss rates in polar regions. SWIFT's capabilities are demonstrated by comparing measured and modeled total ozone loss outside of the training period.

  18. Daytime ozone and temperature variations in the mesosphere: A comparison between SABER observations and HAMMONIA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikty, Sebastian; Weber, Mark; Savigny, Christian von [Institute of Environmental Physics, Bremen (Germany); Schmidt, Hauke [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Mlynczak, Martin [Langley Research Center, NASA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The scope of this paper is to investigate the latest version 1.07 SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) tropical ozone and temperature data with respect to daytime variations in the upper mesosphere. For a better understanding of the processes involved we compare these daytime variations to the output of the three-dimensional general circulation and chemistry model HAMMONIA (Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere). The results show good agreement for ozone. The amplitude of daytime variations is in both cases approximately 60 % of the daytime mean. During equinox the daytime maximum ozone abundance is for both, the observations and the model, higher than during solstice, especially above 80 km. We also use the HAMMONIA output of daytime variation patterns of several other different trace gas species, e.g., water vapor and atomic oxygen, to discuss the daytime pattern in ozone. In contrast to ozone, temperature data show little daytime variations between 65 and 90 km and their amplitudes are on the order of less than 1.5 %. In addition, SABER and HAMMONIA temperatures show significant differences above 80 km.

  19. QBO effects manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sitnov

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ozonesonde records up to 1998 the responses on the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind (QBO effects were isolated in the region from the ground to altitudes as high as 35km at 22 stations located in Europe (7, North America (7, Japan (4, Hawaii (1, Australia (2, and Antarctic (1.

    The vertical structures of the QBO effects of ozone are represented as an alternation of layers of well-developed quasi-biennial signals, whose phases gradually change with height and thin transitional layers of ill-developed signals, whose phases change abruptly with height. The amplitudes of the effects depend on height and reach the maxima of 3–6nbar in the lower stratosphere. At the majority of sites the effects are found to be approximately in phase between 20 and 23km.

    Two types of the vertical structures of the temperature QBO effects are found. At most of the sites located equatorward of about 50° the stratospheric temperature anomalies are characterized by downward propagation, whereas at sites situated poleward of about 50° they look as column-like structures. Near the tropopause the effects frequently reveal dipole-like structure, when the stratospheric and tropospheric anomalies are of opposite signs. The amplitudes of the effects are in the range of 0.5–1°C.

    The vertical structures of the QBO effects of horizontal wind components reveal a diversity of patterns. The amplitudes of the QBO effects of the meridional and zonal winds are comparable and lie in the range of 0.5–2m s–1. As a rule, the maxima of the effects are noticed slightly below the tropopause, as well as in the middle stratosphere.

    In general, a statistical assurance of the obtained QBO effects is rather poor. However, a considerable part of them reveal similarity

  20. A review of ozone-induced effects on the forests of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bauer, María de Lourdes; Hernández-Tejeda, Tomás

    2007-06-01

    The first report on oxidant-induced plant damage in the Valley of Mexico was presented over 30 years ago. Ozone is known to occur in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and elsewhere as the cause of chlorotic mottling on pine needles that are 2 years old or older as observed in 1976 on Pinus hartwegii and Pinus leiophylla. Visible evidences for the negative effects of ozone on the vegetation of central Mexico include foliar injury expressed as chlorotic mottling and premature defoliation on pines, a general decline of sacred fir, visible symptoms on native forest broadleaved species (e.g. Mexican black cherry). Recent investigations have also indicated that indirect effects are occurring such as limited root colonization by symbiotic fungi on ozone-damaged P. hartwegii trees and a negative influence of the pollutant on the natural regeneration of this species. The negative ozone-induced effects on the vegetation will most likely continue to increase.

  1. Assessing the effects of transboundary ozone pollution between Ontario, Canada and New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brankov, Elvira; Henry, Robert F.; Civerolo, Kevin L.; Hao, Winston; Rao, S.T.; Misra, P.K.; Bloxam, Robert; Reid, Neville

    2003-01-01

    Observations and modeling results were used to examine spatial scales and transport patterns of ozone pollution in the Ontario-New York region. - We investigated the effects of transboundary pollution between Ontario and New York using both observations and modeling results. Analysis of the spatial scales associated with ozone pollution revealed the regional and international character of this pollutant. A back-trajectory-clustering methodology was used to evaluate the potential for transboundary pollution trading and to identify potential pollution source regions for two sites: CN tower in Toronto and the World Trade Center in New York City. Transboundary pollution transport was evident at both locations. The major pollution source areas for the period examined were the Ohio River Valley and Midwest. Finally, we examined the transboundary impact of emission reductions through photochemical models. We found that emissions from both New York and Ontario were transported across the border and that reductions in predicted O 3 levels can be substantial when emissions on both sides of the border are reduced

  2. Ozone effects on Sphagnum mosses, carbon dioxide exchange and methane emission in boreal peatland microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, Riikka; Holopainen, Toini; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Silvola, Jouko

    2002-01-01

    Microcosms of a boreal peatland originating from an oligotrophic fen in Eastern Finland were fumigated under four ozone concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 ppb O 3 ) in laboratory growth chambers during two separate experiments (autumn and summer) for 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Ozone effects on Sphagnum mosses and the fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane were evaluated. In both experiments, the three Sphagnum species studied showed only a few significant responses to ozone. In the autumn experiment, membrane permeability of S. angustifolium, measured as conductivity and magnesium leakage, was significantly higher under ozone fumigation (P=0.005 and 2 exchange during the 6-week-long summer experiment, but dark ecosystem respiration was transiently increased by ozone concentration of 100 ppb after 14 days of exposure (P<0.05). Fumigation with 100 ppb of ozone, however, more than doubled (P<0.05) methane emission from the peatland monoliths. Our results suggest that increasing tropospheric ozone concentration may cause substantial changes in the carbon gas cycling of boreal peatlands, even though these changes are not closely associated with the changes in Sphagnum vegetation

  3. Simulating ozone dry deposition at a boreal forest with a multi-layer canopy deposition model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Putian; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Rannik, Ullar; Zhou, Luxi; Gierens, Rosa; Taipale, Ditte; Mammarella, Ivan; Boy, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A multi-layer ozone (O3) dry deposition model has been implemented into SOSAA (a model to Simulate the concentrations of Organic vapours, Sulphuric Acid and Aerosols) to improve the representation of O3 concentration and flux within and above the forest canopy in the planetary boundary layer. We

  4. Budget calculations for ozone and its precursors: Seasonal and episodic features based on model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memmesheimer, M.; Ebel, A.; Roemer, M.

    1997-01-01

    Results from two air quality models (LOTOS, EURAD) have been used to analyse the contribution of the different terms in the continuity equation to the budget of ozone, NO(x) and PAN. Both models cover large parts of Europe and describe the processes relevant for tropospheric chemistry and dynamics.

  5. DO3SE modelling of soil moisture to determine ozone flux to forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Büker; T. Morrissey; A. Briolat; R. Falk; D. Simpson; J.-P. Tuovinen; R. Alonso; S. Barth; M. Baumgarten; N. Grulke; P.E. Karlsson; J. King; F. Lagergren; R. Matyssek; A. Nunn; R. Ogaya; J. Peñuelas; L. Rhea; M. Schaub; J. Uddling; W. Werner; L.D. Emberson

    2012-01-01

    The DO3SE (Deposition of O3 for Stomatal Exchange) model is an established tool for estimating ozone (O3) deposition, stomatal flux and impacts to a variety of vegetation types across Europe. It has been embedded within the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) photochemical model to...

  6. Model selection for local and regional meteorological normalisation of background concentrations of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libiseller, Claudia; Grimvall, Anders

    Meteorological normalisation of time series of air quality data aims to extract anthropogenic signals by removing natural fluctuations in the collected data. We showed that the currently used procedures to select normalisation models can cause over-fitting to observed data and undesirable smoothing of anthropogenic signals. A simulation study revealed that the risk of such effects is particularly large when: (i) the observed data are serially correlated, (ii) the normalisation model is selected by leave-one-out cross-validation, and (iii) complex models, such as artificial neural networks, are fitted to data. When the size of the test sets used in the cross-validation was increased, and only moderately complex linear models were fitted to data, the over-fitting was less pronounced. An empirical study of the predictive ability of different normalisation models for tropospheric ozone in Finland confirmed the importance of using appropriate model selection strategies. Moderately complex regional models involving contemporaneous meteorological data from a network of stations were found to be superior to single-site models as well as more complex regional models involving both contemporaneous and time-lagged meteorological data from a network of stations.

  7. The effects of greenhouse gases on the Antarctic ozone hole in the past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Li, F.; Lait, L. R.; Oman, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole is primarily caused by human-produced ozone depleting substances such as chlorine-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and bromine-containing halons. The large ozone spring-time depletion relies on the very-cold conditions of the Antarctic lower stratosphere, and the general containment of air by the polar night jet over Antarctica. Here we show the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) coupled ocean-atmosphere-chemistry model for exploring the impact of increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs). Model simulations covering the 1960-2010 period are shown for: 1) a control ensemble with observed levels of ODSs and GHGs, 2) an ensemble with fixed 1960 GHG concentrations, and 3) an ensemble with fixed 1960 ODS levels. We look at a similar set of simulations (control, 2005 fixed GHG levels, and 2005 fixed ODS levels) with a new version of GEOSCCM over the period 2005-2100. These future simulations show that the decrease of ODSs leads to similar ozone recovery for both the control run and the fixed GHG scenarios, in spite of GHG forced changes to stratospheric ozone levels. These simulations demonstrate that GHG levels will have major impacts on the stratosphere by 2100, but have only small impacts on the Antarctic ozone hole.

  8. Progesterone attenuates airway remodeling and glucocorticoid resistance in a murine model of exposing to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Bao, Wuping; Fei, Xia; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Min

    2018-03-01

    Airway remodeling is a vital component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite the broad anti-inflammation effects of glucocorticoids, they exhibit relatively little therapeutic benefit in COPD, indicating the accelerating demands of new agents for COPD. We aim to explore the effect of progesterone on airway remodeling in a murine modeling of exposing to ozone and to further examine the potential effect of progesterone on glucocorticoid insensitivity. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to ozone for 12 times over 6 weeks, and were administered with progesterone alone or combined with budesonide (BUD) after each exposure until the 10th week. The peribronchial collagen deposition was measured. The protein levels of MMP8 and MMP9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs were assessed. Western blot analysis was used to detect the levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). The expression of VEGF and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the lung were determined by Immunohistochemical analyses. We observe that progesterone attenuates the peribronchial collagen deposition, as well as the expression of MMP8, MMP9, HIF-1α, VEGF, α-SMA, and GSK-3β in BALF or lung tissues. Progesterone or BUD monotherapy has no effect on HDAC2 production. Progesterone combines with BUD induce dramatically enhanced effects. Thus, these results demonstrate novel roles of progesterone for the pathogenesis and airway remodeling in COPD. Progesterone plus BUD administration exerts more significant inhibition on airway remodeling with dose-independent. Additionally, progesterone may, to some extent, improve the glucocorticoid insensitivity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment zone profiles and evaluation of stratospheric transport in a global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, A.T.J.de; Landgraf, J.; Aben, I.; Hasekamp, O.; Bregman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone (O3) profiles which are used to evaluate stratospheric transport in the chemistry transport model (CTM) Tracer Model version 5 (TM5) using a linearized stratospheric O3 chemistry scheme. A comparison of GOME O3

  10. Effects of a three-year exposure to ambient ozone on biomass allocation in poplar using ethylenediurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Pecori, Francesco; Conese, Ilaria; Bardelli, Tommaso; Marchi, Enrico; Manning, William J.; Badea, Ovidiu; Paoletti, Elena

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of ambient ozone on visible foliar injury, growth and biomass in field-grown poplar cuttings of an Oxford clone sensitive to ozone (Populus maximoviczii Henry × berolinensis Dippel) irrigated with ethylenediurea (EDU) or water for three years. EDU is used as an ozone protectant for plants. Protective effects of EDU on ozone visible injury were found. As a result, poplar trees grown under EDU treatment increased leaves, lateral branches and root density in the third year, although no significant enhancement of stem height and diameter was found. Ambient ozone (AOT40, 24.6 ppm h; diurnal hourly average, 40.3 ppb) may finally reduce carbon gain by reducing the number of branches, and thus sites for leaf formation, in ozone-sensitive poplar trees under not-limiting conditions. -- Highlights: •A fast-growing ozone-sensitive poplar clone was treated with the ozone protectant ethylenediurea (EDU) for three years. •Ambient ozone reduced allocation of biomass to leaves, roots and lateral branches. •Effects on stem length and diameter were not significant. •EDU protected from ozone visible foliar injury and reduction of biomass accumulation. -- Ozone reduced allocation of biomass to leaves, roots and lateral branches, but did not affect stem length and diameter

  11. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-06-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

  12. Causes and effects of a hole. [in Antarctic ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margitan, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary results from the U.S. National Ozone Expedition (NOZE) to Antarctica are reviewed. The NOZE ozonesonde measurements showed significant vertical structure in the hole, with 80 percent depletion in some of the 1 km layers but only 20 percent in adjacent layers. The depletion was confined to the 12-20 km region, beginning first at higher altitude and progressing downward. This is strong evidence against the theory that the ozone hole is due to solar activity producing odd nitrogen at high altitudes which is transported downwards, leading to enhanced odd-nitrogen catalytic cycles that destroy ozone. Nitrous oxide data show unusually low concentrations within the polar vortex, which is evidence against the theory that the hole is caused by a purely dynamical mechanism in which rising air motions within the polar vortex lead to reduced column densities of ozone. It is tentatively concluded that a chemical mechanism involving man-made chlorofluorocarbons is the likely cause of ozone depletion in the hole.

  13. Effect of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized control clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Sanjeev Indurkar; Renu Verma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several chemotherapeutic agents have been developed to prevent gingivitis and its progression into periodontitis. In this present study, the efficacy of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel was assessed and compared on plaque induced gingivitis. Aim: To evaluate the effect of ozonated oil on plaque induced gingivitis and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine gel. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 subjects, aged from 18 to 65 years, with plaque-induced gingivitis were selecte...

  14. Modeling Stomatal Conductance to Estimate Seasonal Uptake in the Ozone-Sensitive Bioindicator Plant Common Milkweed (A. syriaca L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergweiler, C.

    2008-12-01

    The US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) was not conceived to nor does it provide an accurate definition of the absorbed ozone dose or baseline exposure level to protect vegetation. This research presents a multiplicative modeling approach based not only on atmospheric, but on equally important physiological, phenological, and environmental parameters. Physiological constraints on ozone uptake demonstrate that actual absorption is substantially lower than that assumed by a simple interpretation of hourly atmospheric ozone concentrations. Coupled with development of foliar injury expression this provides evidence that tropospheric ozone is more toxic to vegetation than is currently understood.

  15. Interannual and seasonal variations in ozone in different atmospheric layers over St. Petersburg based on observational data and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyshlyaev, S. P.; Virolainen, Ya. A.; Motsakov, M. A.; Timofeev, Yu. M.; Poberovskiy, A. V.; Polyakov, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzes atmospheric ozone variability at different altitudes over St. Petersburg for the period 2009-2014 on the basis of surface observations at the Peterhof station, satellite measurements with an SBUV instrument, and numerical simulations. Simulation data on temperature, wind velocity, humidity, and surface pressure are taken from the MERRA reanalysis database. Based on ozone measurements, numerical modeling, and reanalysis data, characteristics of ozone seasonal and interannual changes are identified; the role of photochemical and dynamic factors in ozone variations is estimated.

  16. Disinfection of water contaminated with fecal coliform using ozone: Effect of Some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zazouli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Purpose:Chlorine is the most important matter to water disinfection due to a residual effect. But by formation of by-products could be harmful to consumers’ health ,The researchers decided to use the method or other material. For this reason, in this study ozone used to water disinfection and its performance to disinfect of contaminated water with Escherichia coli was investigated. Methods: E. coli was utilized to contaminated water preparation. Culture and counting methods were performed according to the standard methods and recorded with CFU/ml. Normality of the data was analyzed by using Asmynrf-Kolmogrov test and T-test and ANOVA were used to statistical analysis, too. Results :Theresults showed that the destruction of E. coli increased by increasing of ozone concentration and decreasing of density. Removal of the concentration of 1 mg per liter, compared with a concentration of 5 mg per liter of ozone in the ozone density〖10〗^4و〖10〗^5 CFU / ml is significant(P_value0.05. Conclusion :Ozone due to its oxidizing effect on microorganisms is a good disinfectant properties. The results of this study, ozone can be highly contaminated with E. coli was significantly effective in disinfecting water.

  17. Effect of Pre-Ozonation and UF Membrane Modification with CNT on Fouling Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kailun; Guan, Yuqi; Zhu, Xuedong; Dong, Dan; Guo, Jin

    2018-01-01

    The effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT) modification on ultrafiltration membrane fouling control was explored. Three kinds of base membrane were chosen in the study: 20 kDa polysulfone (PS) membrane, 20 kDa and 100 kDa polyethersulfone (PES) membrane. Besides, the effect of pre-ozonation on the three CNT modified membranes for fouling alleviation was further studied. CNT modification presented antifouling properties at the beginning of filtration, while the recoverability of the CNT modified membranes are relatively lower as for the blocking of CNT layer by foulants. Pre-ozonation with a lower ozone concentration (0.25 mgO3/mgDOC) did not efficiently alleviate the fouling of CNT modified membranes. With the ozone concentration increased to 0.81 mgO3/mgDOC, the CNT modified membranes exhibited their higher antifouling properties. Water quality analysis results showed that CNT modification presented a higher capture ability for the humic-like and protein-like substances. After pre-ozonation, more organic materials could be retained in the interior of CNT layer, which decreased the fouling of base membranes and increased the permeate quality as well. Base membrane with large molecular size cut-off is more helpful for the synergistic effect of pre-ozonation and CNT modification.

  18. Measurement and modeling of ozone and nitrogen oxides produced by laser breakdown in oxygen-nitrogen atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornushkin, Igor B; Stevenson, Chris L; Galbács, Gábor; Smith, Ben W; Winefordner, James D

    2003-11-01

    The production of ozone nad nitrogen oxides was studied during multiple laser breakdown in oxygen-nitrogen mixtures at atmospheric pressure. About 2000 laser shots at 10(10) W cm-2 were delivered into a sealed reaction chamber. The chamber with a long capillary was designed to measure absorption of O3, NO, and NO2 as a function of the number of laser shots. The light source for absorption measurements was the continuum radiation emitted by the plasma during the first 0.2 microsecond of its evolution. A kinetic model was developed that encompassed the principal chemical reactions between the major atmospheric components and the products of laser breakdown. In the model, the laser plasma was treated as a source of nitric oxide and atomic oxygen, whose rates of production were calculated using measured absorption by NO, NO2, and O3. The calculated concentration profiles for NO, NO2, and O3 were in good agreement with measured profiles over a time scale of 0-200 s. The steady-state concentration of ozone was measured in a flow cell in air. For a single breakdown in air, the estimated steady-state yield of ozone was 2 x 10(12) molecules, which agreed with the model prediction. This study can be of importance for general understanding of laser plasma chemistry and for elucidating the nature of spectral interferences and matrix effects that may take place in applied spectrochemical analysis.

  19. Effects of ozone on sciatic nerve in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q; Chen, H; Lu, C; Wang, B; Zhang, Y; He, X; Yu, B

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ozone on rat sciatic nerve structure and function. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5). In groups I to IV, 1ml of ozone (O(3)) 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 8 0 μg/ml was injected at the junction of gluteus maximus margin and lateral edge of the long head of biceps femoris respectively, in group V, 1 ml of pure O(2) was injected at the same point, and group V had puncture without any injection. Ozone was manufactured by an ozone generator (Ozone Line Co, Italy). The rats were investigated by both gross measurement and behavioral changes. One day, one week and three weeks after injection, rat hindlimb footprints were measured and the sciatic nerve function index (SFI) was calculated, and after three weeks, all right sciatic nerves were exposed under anesthesia. Near neural stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve was calculated and nerve conduction velocity, latency and maximum amplitude recorded. Animals were sacrificed for pathology, and ipsilateral triceps surae were taken for wet weight. No serious behavioral abnormalities were observed in any animal. SFI comparison in the various times and various groups showed no significant differences (pozone concentrations from 10 μg/ml to 80 μg/ml injected around rat's peripheral nerve will not cause serious sequelae or serious damage to the structure and function of peripheral nerve. This finding provides evidence of the safety of ozone injected around the peripheral nerve.

  20. Ozone correlates with antibacterial effects from indirect air dielectric barrier discharge treatment of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovich, Matthew J; Chang, Hung-Wen; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Clark, Douglas S; Graves, David B

    2013-01-01

    Ambient-condition air plasma produced by indirect dielectric barrier discharges can rapidly disinfect aqueous solutions contaminated with bacteria and other microorganisms. In this study, we measured key chemical species in plasma-treated aqueous solutions and the associated antimicrobial effect for varying discharge power densities, exposure times, and buffer components in the aqueous medium. The aqueous chemistry corresponded to air plasma chemistry, and we observed a transition in composition from ozone mode to nitrogen oxides mode as the discharge power density increased. The inactivation of E. coli correlates well with the aqueous-phase ozone concentration, suggesting that ozone is the dominant species for bacterial inactivation under these conditions. Published values of ozone-water antibacterial inactivation kinetics as a function of the product of ozone concentration and contact time are consistent with our results. In contrast to earlier studies of plasma-treated water disinfection, ozone-dependent bacterial inactivation does not require acidification of the aqueous medium and the bacterial inactivation rates are far higher. Furthermore, we show that the antimicrobial effect depends strongly on gas-liquid mixing following plasma treatment, apparently because of the low solubility of ozone and the slow rate of mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid. Without thorough mixing of the ozone-containing gas and bacteria-laden water, the antimicrobial effect will not be observed. However, it should be recognized that the complexity of atmospheric pressure plasma devices, and their sensitivity to subtle differences in design and operation, can lead to different results with different mechanisms. (paper)

  1. Effect of ozonation of swimming pool water on formation of volatile disinfection by-products - A laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram

    2016-01-01

    dosage, however this decreased with subsequent treatments. For tap and polluted pool water, ozone reacted directly with the pollutants resulting in a short ozone half-life, removing reactivity towards chlorine oxidation and preventing TTHM production. Conversely for pool water samples, due to the long......) was observed to increase in pool water with ozone treatment. Thus, ozonation dosage regimes should be designed such that ozone mostly oxidizes fresh pollutants before chlorine is able to react with it.......Ozonation experiments were performed using unchlorinated tap water used for filling municipal swimming pools, actual pool water and pool water polluted by addition of fresh tap water and artificial body fluid to evaluate ozone kinetics and water quality effects on formation of volatile disinfection...

  2. The effect of ozone on pollen development in Lolium perenne L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, K.; Franz, J.-Th.; Masuch, G

    2004-10-01

    Perennial ryegrass plants (Lolium perenne L.) were exposed in 'Closed-Top Chambers' to different ozone concentrations and to charcoal filtered ambient air to study the effect of ozone on the development of pollen. Ozone at ambient (65 nl l{sup -1}, 8 h) and elevated (110 nl l{sup -1}, 4 h) concentrations affected the maturing of pollen by inhibiting starch accumulation in pollen throughout the anther. Affected pollen persisted in the vacuolated state while normal pollen in the same anther were filled with amyloplasts. The percentage of underdeveloped pollen--determined in transversal sections--was significantly higher in exposed plants than in plants grown in filtered air. Results indicate that ozone stress was responsible for the disrupted development of pollen in L. perenne.

  3. Modeling and experimental validation of TCE abatement and ozone formation with non thermal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Aerts, Robby; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Bogaerts, Annemie; Leys, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the formation of ozone and the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE) with non thermal plasma was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The model predicts that the ozone formation increases with the energy deposition and decreases with the relative humidity (RH) of the air, which is qualitatively in agreement with experimental data. For an energy deposition of 0.136 J/cm³, the abatement of 1000 ppm TCE in air with 5 % RH is dominated by atomic oxygen and to a lesser exte...

  4. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bianca C.; Brune, William H.; Miller, David O.; Blake, Donald; Long, Russell; Wisthaler, Armin; Cantrell, Christopher; Fried, Alan; Heikes, Brian; Brown, Steven; McDuffie, Erin; Flocke, Frank; Apel, Eric; Kaser, Lisa; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3), to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3) calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3) is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3) to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS) directly measured net P(O3) in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3) was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3) was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO) levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3) for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3) behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3) and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2) discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3) discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model-data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3), then these results would imply that P(O3) in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3) regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone regulations

  5. Effect of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized control clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indurkar, Maya Sanjeev; Verma, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Several chemotherapeutic agents have been developed to prevent gingivitis and its progression into periodontitis. In this present study, the efficacy of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel was assessed and compared on plaque induced gingivitis. To evaluate the effect of ozonated oil on plaque induced gingivitis and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine gel. A total of 20 subjects, aged from 18 to 65 years, with plaque-induced gingivitis were selected from the outpatient Department of Periodontology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Aurangabad, for this study. They were divided randomly into the test or ozonated oil group (Group I) and the control or chlorhexidine gel group (Group II) with 10 subjects in each group. Subjects were randomly assigned to massage their gingiva thrice a day for 3 weeks with ozonated oil (test), and chlorhexidine gel (control). Plaque index and gingival index scores were recorded for the 20 subjects at baseline and after 3 weeks. Ozonated oil (Group I) and chlorhexidine gel (Group II) groups showed statistically significant differences with respect to plaque index and gingival index, from the baseline to 3 weeks (P plaque index and gingival index. The ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel, both can be used as an effective agent in maintaining and improving gingival health.

  6. Effect of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized control clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Sanjeev Indurkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several chemotherapeutic agents have been developed to prevent gingivitis and its progression into periodontitis. In this present study, the efficacy of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel was assessed and compared on plaque induced gingivitis. Aim: To evaluate the effect of ozonated oil on plaque induced gingivitis and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine gel. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 subjects, aged from 18 to 65 years, with plaque-induced gingivitis were selected from the outpatient Department of Periodontology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Aurangabad, for this study. They were divided randomly into the test or ozonated oil group (Group I and the control or chlorhexidine gel group (Group II with 10 subjects in each group. Subjects were randomly assigned to massage their gingiva thrice a day for 3 weeks with ozonated oil (test, and chlorhexidine gel (control. Plaque index and gingival index scores were recorded for the 20 subjects at baseline and after 3 weeks. Results: Ozonated oil (Group I and chlorhexidine gel (Group II groups showed statistically significant differences with respect to plaque index and gingival index, from the baseline to 3 weeks (P < 0.001 in both. But the difference between Group I and Group II, at the end of the study period, was not statistically significant with respect to the plaque index and gingival index. Conclusions: The ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel, both can be used as an effective agent in maintaining and improving gingival health.

  7. The bactericidal effect of an ionizer under low concentration of ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Soo; Sung, Bong-Jo; Yoon, Kyung-Soo; Jeong, Choon-Soo

    2016-07-30

    Several mechanisms have been suggested for the bactericidal action of ionizers including electrical phenomena, effects of negative and positive ions and electrostatic repulsion. Negative and positive ions have indeed been shown to have bactericidal effects. In addition, since ozone is generated along with ions, these may contribute to the bacterial killing. In this study, we used a newly developed ionizer, which generates a relatively low concentration of ozone, to determine whether its effect on bacterial cells were due to ions or ozone, and, if ions, how the ions exerted their effects. The effect of ions on bacterial killing was compared with that of the ozone produced using an ion trap to remove the ions. The ionizer had the ability to kill the bacteria, and ion capture dramatically reduced its bactericidal effect, indicating that the ozone generated had little or no bactericidal effect under these conditions, and the ions produced were responsible for almost all the bacterial killing. Operation of the ionizer increased the level of 8-oxo-dG, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and decreased aconitase activity, which is known to be sensitive to ROS. The ionizer further affected the adenylate energy charge of bacterial cells. Removal of the ions with the ion trap greatly reduced all these effects. These results indicate that negative and positive ions generated by the ionizer are responsible for inducing oxidative stress and so reducing bacterial survival.

  8. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Baier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3, to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3 calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3 is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3 to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS directly measured net P(O3 in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3 was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3 was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3 for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3 behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3 and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2 discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3 discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model–data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3, then these results would imply that P(O3 in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3 regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone

  9. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the physiochemical properties of proteins. (i.e., gluten, glutenin, and gliadin) isolated from non-ozone-treated flour were examined by studying chemical characteristics using SDS-. PAGE, free SH groups, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) parameters, secondary structure, and rheological measurements.

  10. Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been observed that the maximum, minimum and mean temperature, relative humidity, solar insolation, tropospheric, and total ozone column (TOC) showed slight increasing tendencies from October 2004 to December 2011, while total rainfall and El-ñ index showed little decreasing tendencies for the same period.

  11. The Effect of Intermittent Noise Stress on Ozone-Induced ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have established that acute exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction. Intrinsic factors are likely the most important determinants of how the body responds to an exposure. But data also suggests that non-environmental stressors like noise, which is a common urban public health problem, can modify and indeed worsen the response. Noise can cause obvious psychological disturbances typical of non-specific stress, but also changes that can increase the number of cardiovascular disease related mortalities. Therefore, we hypothesized that short-term exposure to noise would worsen the cardiovascular response to ozone. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were implanted with radiotelemeters for the measurement of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) and exposed to intermittent noise (85-90 dB) for one week after which they were exposed to either ozone (0.8 ppm) or filtered air. Left ventricular functional responses to dobutamine were measured using a Millar probe as well as arrhythmic sensitivity to aconitine in a separate set of untelemetered rats 24 hours after exposure. HR and BP decreased in all telemetered animals during ozone exposure; noise caused BP and HR to increase. Baseline left ventricular pressure (LVP) was significantly higher in animals exposed to both noise and ozone when compared to no noise; furthermore those animals had the least amount of change in LVP, dP/dT max and min with increasi

  12. Impact of chemical lateral boundary conditions in a regional air quality forecast model on surface ozone predictions during stratospheric intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendlebury, Diane; Gravel, Sylvie; Moran, Michael D.; Lupu, Alexandru

    2018-02-01

    A regional air quality forecast model, GEM-MACH, is used to examine the conditions under which a limited-area air quality model can accurately forecast near-surface ozone concentrations during stratospheric intrusions. Periods in 2010 and 2014 with known stratospheric intrusions over North America were modelled using four different ozone lateral boundary conditions obtained from a seasonal climatology, a dynamically-interpolated monthly climatology, global air quality forecasts, and global air quality reanalyses. It is shown that the mean bias and correlation in surface ozone over the course of a season can be improved by using time-varying ozone lateral boundary conditions, particularly through the correct assignment of stratospheric vs. tropospheric ozone along the western lateral boundary (for North America). Part of the improvement in surface ozone forecasts results from improvements in the characterization of near-surface ozone along the lateral boundaries that then directly impact surface locations near the boundaries. However, there is an additional benefit from the correct characterization of the location of the tropopause along the western lateral boundary such that the model can correctly simulate stratospheric intrusions and their associated exchange of ozone from stratosphere to troposphere. Over a three-month period in spring 2010, the mean bias was seen to improve by as much as 5 ppbv and the correlation by 0.1 depending on location, and on the form of the chemical lateral boundary condition.

  13. Effect of ozone on the microbiological status of five dried aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Martha; Parlapani, Foteini F; Boziaris, Ioannis S; Vellios, Evangelos K; Lykas, Christos

    2018-03-01

    Aromatic plants may be contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms, making them a potential health hazard when infused or added to ready-to-eat meals. To ensure safety, the effect of gaseous ozone treatment on the population of aerobic plate counts (APC), hygienic indicators (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) and fungi was investigated for five dried aromatic plants: oregano, thyme, mountain tea, lemon verbena and chamomile. Selection, isolation and further fungi identification were based on the phenotypic and macro- and microscopic characteristics. Prior to ozonation, APC on five dried aromatic plants was in the range 5-7 log colony-forming units (CFU) g -1 . The APC exhibited a 4 log reduction, from around 6.5 to 2.5 in the case of oregano, and only a 1-2 log reduction for other herbs after 30 or 60 min of 4 ppm gaseous ozone treatment. Enterococcus spp. and E. coli were not detected on any of the tested dried aromatic plants. The fungi counts were 2-4 log CFU g -1 before ozonation. Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp, Cladosporium spp, Alternaria spp, Fusarium spp., Ulocladium spp. and some unknown fungi were detected on plants before ozone treatment. Aspergillus spp. and/or Penicillium spp. were only detected on mountain tea and thyme plant material after 60 min of ozonation. The present study provides information about the efficiency of ozone on the microbial decontamination of dried aromatic plants. Treatment with gaseous ozone at 4 ppm for 30 min in the case of dried oregano and 60 min in the case of chamomile and lemon verbena could be used as alternative disinfection methods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of ozone and relative humidity on fluorescence spectra of octapeptide bioaerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yong-Le; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Corson, Elizabeth; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Hill, Steven C.; Williamson, Chatt C.; Coleman, Mark; Bare, Christopher; Kinahan, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ozone and relative humidity (RH) at common atmospheric levels on the properties of single octapeptide bioaerosol particles were studied using an improved rotating reaction chamber, an aerosol generator, an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS), an improved single particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS), and equipments to generate, monitor and control the ozone and RH. Aerosol particles (mean diameter 2 μm) were generated from a slurry of octapeptide in phosphate buffered saline, injected into the rotating chamber, and kept airborne for hours. Bioaerosols were sampled from the chamber hourly for the measurements of particle-size distribution, concentration, total fluorescence excited at 355-nm, and single particle fluorescence spectra excited at 266-nm and 351-nm under different controlled RH (20%, 50%, or 80%) and ozone concentration (0 or 150 ppb). The results show that: (1) Particle size, concentration, and the 263-nm-excited fluorescence intensity decrease at different rates under different combinations of the RH and ozone concentrations used. (2) The 263-nm-excited UV fluorescence (280-400 nm) decreased more rapidly than the 263-nm-excited visible fluorescence (400-560 nm), and decreased most rapidly when ozone is present and RH is high. (3) The UV fluorescence peak near 340 nm slightly shifts to the shorter wavelength (blue-shift), consistent with a more rapid oxidation of tryptophan than tyrosine. (4) The 351/355-nm-excited fluorescence (430-580 nm/380-700 nm) increases when ozone is present, especially when the RH is high. (5) The 351/355-nm-excited fluorescence increase that occurs as the tryptophan emission in the UV decreases, and the observation that these changes occur more rapidly at higher RH with the present of ozone, are consistent with the oxidation of tryptophan by ozone and the conversion of the resulting ozonides to N-formyl kynurenine and kynurenine.

  15. Effects and mechanism on Kapton film under ozone exposure in a ground near space simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Yang, Guimin; Liu, Gang; Jiang, Haifu; Zhang, Tingting

    2018-05-01

    The effect on aircraft materials in the near space environment is a key part of air-and-space integration research. Ozone and aerodynamic fluids are important organizational factors in the near space environment and both have significant influences on the performance of aircraft materials. In the present paper a simulated ozone environment was used to test polyimide material that was rotated at the approximate velocity of 150-250 m/s to form an aerodynamic fluid field. The goal was to evaluate the performance evolution of materials under a comprehensive environment of ozone molecular corrosion and aerodynamic fluids. The research results show that corrosion and sputtering by ozone molecules results in Kapton films exhibiting a rugged "carpet-like" morphology exhibits an increase in surface roughness. The morphology after ozone exposure led to higher surface roughness and an increase in surface optical diffuse reflection, which is expressed by the lower optical transmittance and the gradual transition from light orange to brown. The mass loss test, XPS, and FTIR analysis show that the molecular chains on the surface of the Kapton film are destroyed resulting in Csbnd C bond breaking to form small volatile molecules such as CO2 or CO, which are responsible for a linear increase in mass loss per unit area. The Csbnd N and Csbnd O structures exhibit weakening tendency under ozone exposure. The present paper explores the evaluation method for Kapton's adaptability under the ozone exposure test in the near space environment, and elucidates the corrosion mechanism and damage mode of the polyimide material under the combined action of ozone corrosion and the aerodynamic fluid. This work provides a methodology for studying materials in the near-space environment.

  16. Effects of ozonation on disinfection and microbial activity in waste activated sludge for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyu-Hong; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lim, Byung-Ran

    2003-07-01

    Effects of ozonation on microbial biomass activity and community structure in waste activated sludges from various treatment plants were investigated. The densities of viable cells and microbial community structure in the sludges treated with ozone at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS were measured on the basis of the respiratory quinone profile and LIVE/DEAD Backlight(TM). The results from the bacterial concentration and quinone profiles of the waste activated sludge showed that respiratory activities of microorganisms were detected at the ozone dose of 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS. However, fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus and Salmonella sp. in the ozonized sludge were not detected. This result implies that some microorganisms might be more tolerant to ozonation than the pathogenic indicators. The pathogens reduction requirements for Class A biosolids were still met by the ozonation at 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS.

  17. Effects of ozone on the various digital print technologies: Photographs and documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, D.; Gordeladze, N.; Bigourdan, J.-L.; Nishimura, D.

    2010-06-01

    The harmful effects of ozone on inkjet photographs have been well documented. This project expands on that research by performing ozone tests on a greater variety of digital prints including colour electrophotographic and dye sublimation. The sensitivities of these materials are compared to traditionally printed materials (black-and-white electrophotographic, colour photographic and offset lithographic) to determine if the digital prints require special care practices. In general, the digital prints were more sensitive to ozone than traditional prints. Dye inkjet prints were more sensitive to fade than pigment inkjet, though pigment was not immune. The dye sublimation, colour electrophotographic (dry and liquid toner), and traditional print systems were relatively resistant to ozone. Text-based documents were evaluated in addition to photographic images, since little work has been done to determine if the type of object (image or text) has an impact on its sensitivity to ozone. The results showed that documents can be more resistant to ozone than photographs even when created using the same printer and inks. It is recommended that cultural heritage institutions not expose their porous-coated, dye-based inkjet photos to open air for extended periods of time. Other inkjet prints should be monitored for early signs of change.

  18. Effects of ozone on the various digital print technologies: Photographs and documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, D; Gordeladze, N; Bigourdan, J-L; Nishimura, D

    2010-01-01

    The harmful effects of ozone on inkjet photographs have been well documented. This project expands on that research by performing ozone tests on a greater variety of digital prints including colour electrophotographic and dye sublimation. The sensitivities of these materials are compared to traditionally printed materials (black-and-white electrophotographic, colour photographic and offset lithographic) to determine if the digital prints require special care practices. In general, the digital prints were more sensitive to ozone than traditional prints. Dye inkjet prints were more sensitive to fade than pigment inkjet, though pigment was not immune. The dye sublimation, colour electrophotographic (dry and liquid toner), and traditional print systems were relatively resistant to ozone. Text-based documents were evaluated in addition to photographic images, since little work has been done to determine if the type of object (image or text) has an impact on its sensitivity to ozone. The results showed that documents can be more resistant to ozone than photographs even when created using the same printer and inks. It is recommended that cultural heritage institutions not expose their porous-coated, dye-based inkjet photos to open air for extended periods of time. Other inkjet prints should be monitored for early signs of change.

  19. Projections of UV radiation changes in the 21st century: impact of ozone recovery and cloud effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Bais

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Monthly averaged surface erythemal solar irradiance (UV-Ery for local noon from 1960 to 2100 has been derived using radiative transfer calculations and projections of ozone, temperature and cloud change from 14 chemistry climate models (CCM, as part of the CCMVal-2 activity of SPARC. Our calculations show the influence of ozone depletion and recovery on erythemal irradiance. In addition, we investigate UV-Ery changes caused by climate change due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. The latter include effects of both stratospheric ozone and cloud changes. The derived estimates provide a global picture of the likely changes in erythemal irradiance during the 21st century. Uncertainties arise from the assumed scenarios, different parameterizations – particularly of cloud effects on UV-Ery – and the spread in the CCM projections. The calculations suggest that relative to 1980, annually mean UV-Ery in the 2090s will be on average ~12 % lower at high latitudes in both hemispheres, ~3 % lower at mid latitudes, and marginally higher (~1 % in the tropics. The largest reduction (~16 % is projected for Antarctica in October. Cloud effects are responsible for 2–3 % of the reduction in UV-Ery at high latitudes, but they slightly moderate it at mid-latitudes (~1 %. The year of return of erythemal irradiance to values of certain milestones (1965 and 1980 depends largely on the return of column ozone to the corresponding levels and is associated with large uncertainties mainly due to the spread of the model projections. The inclusion of cloud effects in the calculations has only a small effect of the return years. At mid and high latitudes, changes in clouds and stratospheric ozone transport by global circulation changes due to greenhouse gases will sustain the erythemal irradiance at levels below those in 1965, despite the removal of ozone depleting substances. At northern high latitudes (60°–90°, the projected decreases in cloud

  20. [Studies of ozone formation potentials for benzene and ethylbenzene using a smog chamber and model simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Long; Xu, Yong-Fu

    2014-02-01

    Ozone formation potentials from irradiations of benzene-NO(x) and ethylbenzene-NO(x) systems under the conditions of different VOC/NO(x) ratios and RH were investigated using a characterized chamber and model simulation. The repeatability of the smog chamber experiment shows that for two sets of ethylbenzene-NO(x) irradiations with similar initial concentrations and reaction conditions, such as temperature, relative humidity and relative light intensity, the largest difference in O3 between two experiments is only 4% during the whole experimental run. On the basis of smog chamber experiments, ozone formation of photo-oxidation of benzene and ethylbenzene was simulated in terms of the master chemical mechanism (MCM). The peak ozone values for benzene and ethylbenzene simulated by MCM are higher than the chamber data, and the difference between the MCM-simulated results and chamber data increases with increasing RH. Under the conditions of sunlight irradiations, with benzene and ethylbenzene concentrations being in the range of (10-50) x 10(-9) and NO(x) concentrations in the range of (10-100) x 10(-9), the 6 h ozone contributions of benzene and ethylbenzene were obtained to be (3.1-33) x 10(-9) and (2.6-122) x 10(-9), whereas the peak O3 contributions of benzene and ethylbenzene were (3.5-54) x 10(-9) and (3.8-164) x 10(-9), respectively. The MCM-simulated maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) values for benzene and ethylbenzene were 0.25/C and 0.97/C (per carbon), respectively. The maximum ozone reactivity (MOR) values for these two species were obtained to be 0.73/C and 1.03/C, respectively. The MOR value of benzene from MCM is much higher than that obtained by carter from SAPRC, indicating that SAPRC may underestimate the ozone formation potential of benzene.

  1. Predicting photosynthesis and transpiration responses to ozone: decoupling modeled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lombardozzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants exchange greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and water with the atmosphere through the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration, making them essential in climate regulation. Carbon dioxide and water exchange are typically coupled through the control of stomatal conductance, and the parameterization in many models often predict conductance based on photosynthesis values. Some environmental conditions, like exposure to high ozone (O3 concentrations, alter photosynthesis independent of stomatal conductance, so models that couple these processes cannot accurately predict both. The goals of this study were to test direct and indirect photosynthesis and stomatal conductance modifications based on O3 damage to tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera in a coupled Farquhar/Ball-Berry model. The same modifications were then tested in the Community Land Model (CLM to determine the impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP and transpiration at a constant O3 concentration of 100 parts per billion (ppb. Modifying the Vcmax parameter and directly modifying stomatal conductance best predicts photosynthesis and stomatal conductance responses to chronic O3 over a range of environmental conditions. On a global scale, directly modifying conductance reduces the effect of O3 on both transpiration and GPP compared to indirectly modifying conductance, particularly in the tropics. The results of this study suggest that independently modifying stomatal conductance can improve the ability of models to predict hydrologic cycling, and therefore improve future climate predictions.

  2. Characterization and mitigation of water vapor effects in the measurement of ozone by chemiluminescence with nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, P.; Helmig, D.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water vapor on the reaction of nitric oxide with ozone in a gas-phase chemiluminescence instrument used for fast response and high sensitivity detection of atmospheric ozone. Water vapor was introduced into a constant level ozone standard and both ozone and water vapor signals were recorded at 10 Hz. The presence of water vapor was found to reduce, i.e. quench, the ozone signal. A dimensionless correction factor was determined to be 4.15 ± 0.14 × 10-3, which corresponds to a 4.15% increase in the corrected ozone signal per 10 mmol mol-1 of co-sampled water vapor. An ozone-inert water vapor permeable membrane (a Nafion dryer with a counterflow of dry air from a compressed gas cylinder) was installed in the sampling line and was shown to remove the bulk of the water vapor in the sample air. At water vapor mole fractions above 25 mmol mol-1, the Nafion dryer removed over 75% of the water vapor in the sample. This reduced the required ozone signal correction from over 11% to less than 2.5%. The Nafion dryer was highly effective at reducing the fast fluctuations of the water vapor signal (more than 97%) while leaving the ozone signal unaffected, which is a crucial improvement for minimizing the quenching interference of water vapor fluxes and required density correction in the determination of ozone fluxes by the eddy covariance technique.

  3. Ozone Bioindicator Gardens: an Educational Tool to Raise Awareness about Environmental Pollution and its Effects on Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, K.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2014-12-01

    High concentrations of ground-level ozone cause health problems in humans and a number of negative effects on plants, from reduced yield for major agricultural crops to reduced amounts of carbon stored in trees. The Denver Metro/Colorado Front Range is exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone on a regular basis in summer and the efforts to reduce the ozone levels are hampered by the presence of diverse pollution sources and complex meteorology in the region. To raise public awareness of air quality in the Colorado Front Range and to educate all age groups about ground-level ozone, two ozone bioindicator gardens were planted in Boulder in Spring 2014. The gardens contain ozone-sensitive plants that develop a characteristic ozone injury when exposed to high levels of ozone. The ozone gardens are providing the general public with a real-life demonstration of the negative effects of ozone pollution through observable plant damage. Additionally, the gardens are useful in teaching students how to collect and analyze real-world scientific data.

  4. A statistical model for forecasting hourly ozone levels during fire season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Shiyuan (Sharon) Zhong; Annie Esperanza; Leland Tarnay; Julide Kahyaoglu-Koracin

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about smoke from large high-intensity and managed low intensity fires have been increasing during the past decade. Because smoke from large high-intensity fires are known to contain and generate secondary fine particles (PM2.5) and ozone precursors, the effect of fires on air quality in the southern Sierra Nevada is a serious management...

  5. Regional differences in tropospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Builtjes, P.; Esser, P. [TNO Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    Analysis of ozone measurements over Europe, as well as model calculations indicate large differences in the relative importance of the phenomena controlling ozone over different areas in Europe. The ozone budget, consisting of chemistry, deposition and horizontal and vertical transport, shows differences due to differences in emission density and in dry deposition values, best exemplified by the land-sea effect. In this paper, some initial results will be presented of an analysis of regional differences, using the results of the 3-D Eulerian grid model LOTOS (Long Term Ozone Simulation) over 1994, based on the hourly O{sub 3} results of LOTOS on a grid scale of 1/2 deg. Latitude * 1 deg. Longitude. (au)

  6. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  7. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  8. Ozone and childhood respiratory disease in three US cities: evaluation of effect measure modification by neighborhood socioeconomic status using a Bayesian hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Lenick, Cassandra R; Chang, Howard H; Kramer, Michael R; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Friberg, Mariel D; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2017-04-05

    Ground-level ozone is a potent airway irritant and a determinant of respiratory morbidity. Susceptibility to the health effects of ambient ozone may be influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Questions remain regarding the manner and extent that factors such as SES influence ozone-related health effects, particularly across different study areas. Using a 2-stage modeling approach we evaluated neighborhood SES as a modifier of ozone-related pediatric respiratory morbidity in Atlanta, Dallas, & St. Louis. We acquired multi-year data on emergency department (ED) visits among 5-18 year olds with a primary diagnosis of respiratory disease in each city. Daily concentrations of 8-h maximum ambient ozone were estimated for all ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTA) in each city by fusing observed concentration data from available network monitors with simulations from an emissions-based chemical transport model. In the first stage, we used conditional logistic regression to estimate ZCTA-specific odds ratios (OR) between ozone and respiratory ED visits, controlling for temporal trends and meteorology. In the second stage, we combined ZCTA-level estimates in a Bayesian hierarchical model to assess overall associations and effect modification by neighborhood SES considering categorical and continuous SES indicators (e.g., ZCTA-specific levels of poverty). We estimated ORs and 95% posterior intervals (PI) for a 25 ppb increase in ozone. The hierarchical model combined effect estimates from 179 ZCTAs in Atlanta, 205 ZCTAs in Dallas, and 151 ZCTAs in St. Louis. The strongest overall association of ozone and pediatric respiratory disease was in Atlanta (OR = 1.08, 95% PI: 1.06, 1.11), followed by Dallas (OR = 1.04, 95% PI: 1.01, 1.07) and St. Louis (OR = 1.03, 95% PI: 0.99, 1.07). Patterns of association across levels of neighborhood SES in each city suggested stronger ORs in low compared to high SES areas, with

  9. An investigation of ozone and planetary boundary layer dynamics over the complex topography of Grenoble combining measurements and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Couach

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns an evaluation of ozone (O3 and planetary boundary layer (PBL dynamics over the complex topography of the Grenoble region through a combination of measurements and mesoscale model (METPHOMOD predictions for three days, during July 1999. The measurements of O3 and PBL structure were obtained with a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL system, situated 20 km south of Grenoble at Vif (310 m ASL. The combined lidar observations and model calculations are in good agreement with atmospheric measurements obtained with an instrumented aircraft (METAIR. Ozone fluxes were calculated using lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles concentrations and the horizontal wind speeds measured with a Radar Doppler wind profiler (DEGREANE. The ozone flux patterns indicate that the diurnal cycle of ozone production is controlled by local thermal winds. The convective PBL maximum height was some 2700 m above the land surface while the nighttime residual ozone layer was generally found between 1200 and 2200 m. Finally we evaluate the magnitude of the ozone processes at different altitudes in order to estimate the photochemical ozone production due to the primary pollutants emissions of Grenoble city and the regional network of automobile traffic.

  10. What Is the Best Strategy for Enhancing the Effects of Topically Applied Ozonated Oils in Cutaneous Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zanardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and ageing, there are several million patients undergoing skin lesions degenerated into infected ulcers with very little tendency to heal and implying a huge socioeconomical cost. Previous medical experience has shown that the daily application of ozonated oil eliminates the infection and promotes a rapid healing. The purpose of the study is the optimization of the antimicrobial effect of ozonated oils by testing in vitro four bacterial species and one yeast without or in the presence of different amounts of human serum. The results obtained suggest that a gentle and continuous removal of debris and exudate is an essential condition for the potent bactericidal effect of ozonated oils. In fact, even small amounts of human serum inactivate ozone derivatives and protect bacteria. The application of ozonated oil preparations is very promising in a variety of skin and mucosal infections. Moreover, ozonated oils are far less expensive than antibiotic preparations.

  11. Studies on the biological effects of ozone: 2. Induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) on human leucocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulesu, L.; Luzzi, E.; Bocci, V. (Institute of General Physiology, University of Siena (Italy))

    1991-10-01

    The effect of ozone as a probable inducer of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) has been investigated on human blood and on Ficoll-purified blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Samples were exposed at different ozone concentrations ranging from 2.2 to 108 micrograms/ml and incubated at 37 degrees C in an 95% air-5% CO2 atmosphere. At predetermined times, all cell supernatants were tested for TNF activity and some PBMC cultures were examined for DNA synthesis. The authors have shown that ozone concentration is critical in terms of TNF production and of cell mitogenesis and that, owing to the presence of erythrocytes, higher ozone concentrations are required to be effective in blood than in PBMC. Because ozonization of blood is a procedure followed in several European countries for the treatment of viral diseases and tumors, the release of factors with antiviral and immunomodulatory activities by leukocytes may explain the mechanism of action of ozone and of autohemotherapy.

  12. Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, the Societal Consequences of Reducing CO2 Emissions and the Problem of Ozone Layer Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Bjorn; Wallin, Anita

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to the growing body of knowledge about students' conceptions and views of environmental and natural resource issues. Questions 9th and 12th grade Swedish students' understandings of the greenhouse effect, reduction of CO2 emissions, and the depletion of the ozone layer. Observes five models of the greenhouse effect that appear among…

  13. Dual roles of hydroxyl radicals and effects of competition on ozonation kinetics of two phenazone-type pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozonation has been proved to be a promising approach for eliminating emerging pollutants in wastewater. In previous studies, emerging pollutants including diverse pharmaceuticals were found to exhibit significantly different ozonation reactivity. However, how the structural differences of emerging pollutants determine ozonation reactivity and mechanisms are still ambiguous. In this work, ozonation of dimethylaminophenazone (DMP and acetylaminophenazone (AAA with the same parent structure of phenazone but different substitution groups was investigated, in order to probe influencing mechanisms of structural differences on ozonation reactivity. Results show that DMP reacts with ozone and HO·≡ almost 2 and 1 order of magnitude faster than AAA, respectively. At pH 8, HO·≡ accelerates ozonation of DMP, but decreases ozonation of AAA. Competition simultaneously decreases degradation rate of the two phenazones, but effects on AAA are more significant than that on DMP. According to theoretical calculation results, differences in ozonation reactivity and mechanisms of the two phenazones can be mainly attributed to different substitution groups. The dimethylamino group in the structure of DMP increases the ozonation reactivity of phenazone by increasing reaction orbital energies and altering reaction sites, while the acetylamino group in the structure of AAA decreases the reaction orbital energy and therefore lowers the reactivity.

  14. Effects of different concentrations of oxygen-ozone on rats' astrocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nai-bao; Fu, Zhi-jian; Sun, Tao

    2008-08-22

    Although the widespread use of the oxygen-ozone in pain management, there is currently no consensus on its mechanisms of action and nearly no report for its action on nervous cells. Accordingly, the present study was designed to assess the effects of oxygen-ozone on astrocytes. Astrocytes were cultured in vitro through methods of trypsinization, different-speed cultivation and passaging to purify, then seeded into 24 well plates and divided to one of four groups (n=7) to receive the following treatments: respectively added 400 microl complete medium (CM) after effects of 20 microg/ml oxygen-ozone (Group O-20), 40 microg/ml oxygen-ozone (Group O-40), 60 microg/ml oxygen-ozone (Group O-60); without intervention (Group C). After incubation of 2 h or 4 h, cell morphology was observed and endocellular superoxide dismutase (SOD), endocellular malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leaking ratio, and dead cells' percentage were detected. The results showed cell damage in Group O-60. As compared with Group C, endocellular SOD increased in all groups, MDA at 2 h increased in Groups O-40 and O-60 and MDA at 4 h decreased in Groups O-20 and O-40; LDH leaking ratio at 2 h in Group O-20 and those at 2 and 4 h in Group O-40 decreased, while LDH leaking ratio at 4 h increased and dead cells' percentage in Group O-60 increased. We conclude that in short time (2 and 4 h), oxygen-ozone of 60 microg/ml showed a damaging role on astrocytes in vitro, while oxygen-ozone of 20 and 40 microg/ml did not show damaging role obviously.

  15. Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone formation in the Mediterranean area - a BEMA modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunis, P.; Cuvelier, C.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this modelling study is to understand and quantify the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions on the formation of tropospheric ozone in the Burriana area (north of Valencia) on the east coast of Spain. The mesoscale modelling system used consists of the meteorology/transport module TVM and the chemical reaction mechanism RACM. The results of the model simulations are validated and compared with the data collected during the biogenic emissions in the mediterranean area (BEMA) field campaign that took place in June 1997. Anthropogenic and biogenic emission inventories have been constructed with an hourly resolution. Averaged (over the land area and over 24 h) emission fluxes for AVOC, anthropogenic NO x , BVOC and biogenic NO x are given by 16.0, 9.9, 6.2, and 0.7 kg km -2 day -1 , respectively. The impact of biogenic emissions is investigated on peak ozone values by performing simulations with and without biogenic emissions; while keeping anthropogenic emissions constant. The impact on ozone formation is also studied in combination with some anthropogenic emissions reduction strategies, i.e. when anthropogenic VOC emissions and/or NO x emissions are reduced. A factor separation technique is applied to isolate the impact due to biogenic emissions from the overall impact due to biogenic and anthropogenic emissions together. The results indicate that the maximum impact of biogenic emissions on ozone formation represents at the most 10 ppb, while maximum ozone values are of the order of 100 ppb. At different locations the maximum impact is reached at different times of the day depending on the arrival time of the sea breeze. It is also shown that this impact does not coincide in time with the maximum simulated ozone concentrations that are reached over the day. By performing different emission reduction scenarios, BVOC impacts are found to be sensitive mainly to NO x , and not to AVOC. Finally, it is shown that amongst the various

  16. A review of ozone-induced effects on the forests of central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Maria de Lourdes de; Hernandez-Tejeda, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The first report on oxidant-induced plant damage in the Valley of Mexico was presented over 30 years ago. Ozone is known to occur in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and elsewhere as the cause of chlorotic mottling on pine needles that are 2 years old or older as observed in 1976 on Pinus hartwegii and Pinus leiophylla. Visible evidences for the negative effects of ozone on the vegetation of central Mexico include foliar injury expressed as chlorotic mottling and premature defoliation on pines, a general decline of sacred fir, visible symptoms on native forest broadleaved species (e.g. Mexican black cherry). Recent investigations have also indicated that indirect effects are occurring such as limited root colonization by symbiotic fungi on ozone-damaged P. hartwegii trees and a negative influence of the pollutant on the natural regeneration of this species. The negative ozone-induced effects on the vegetation will most likely continue to increase. - Ozone induced symptoms, poor tree regeneration and limited root colonization by mycorrhiza fungi observed in the valley of Mexico

  17. Effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle on pulmonary response to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Long-term effects of ozone on CO2 exchange in peatland microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapala, JK; Mörsky, SK; Rinnan, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone concentration on the CO2 exchange of peatland microcosms and the photosynthetic capacity of the dominating sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum, were studied in a four-year open-field experiment. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and the dark respiration rate of the mic......Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone concentration on the CO2 exchange of peatland microcosms and the photosynthetic capacity of the dominating sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum, were studied in a four-year open-field experiment. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and the dark respiration rate...... of the microcosms were measured with the closed chamber method. The CO2 assimilation rate and chlorophyll fluorescence (maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII, Fv/Fm) of E. vaginatum leaves were also measured. The gross photosynthesis rate of the microcosms was transiently decreased by ozone exposure during...... the first year. During the fourth year, the gross photosynthesis and dark respiration rate were both slightly increased by ozone exposure but this was due to the increased density of sedge leaves and no difference was found in Fv/Fm. In overall, chronic ozone exposure had only slight effect on the CO2...

  19. A review of ozone-induced effects on the forests of central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Maria de Lourdes de [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carretera Los Reyes-Texcoco, 56230 Montecillo, Edo. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: libauer@colpos.mx; Hernandez-Tejeda, Tomas [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas y Pecuarias, Mexico, Col. Viveros de Coyoacan, 04110 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    The first report on oxidant-induced plant damage in the Valley of Mexico was presented over 30 years ago. Ozone is known to occur in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and elsewhere as the cause of chlorotic mottling on pine needles that are 2 years old or older as observed in 1976 on Pinus hartwegii and Pinus leiophylla. Visible evidences for the negative effects of ozone on the vegetation of central Mexico include foliar injury expressed as chlorotic mottling and premature defoliation on pines, a general decline of sacred fir, visible symptoms on native forest broadleaved species (e.g. Mexican black cherry). Recent investigations have also indicated that indirect effects are occurring such as limited root colonization by symbiotic fungi on ozone-damaged P. hartwegii trees and a negative influence of the pollutant on the natural regeneration of this species. The negative ozone-induced effects on the vegetation will most likely continue to increase. - Ozone induced symptoms, poor tree regeneration and limited root colonization by mycorrhiza fungi observed in the valley of Mexico.

  20. Numerical simulation for regional ozone concentrations: A case study by weather research and forecasting/chemistry (WRF/Chem) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib Al Razi, Khandakar Md; Hiroshi, Moritomi [Environmental and Renewable Energy System, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu City, 501-1193 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this research is to better understand and predict the atmospheric concentration distribution of ozone and its precursor (in particular, within the Planetary Boundary Layer (Within 110 km to 12 km) over Kasaki City and the Greater Tokyo Area using fully coupled online WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry) model. In this research, a serious and continuous high ozone episode in the Greater Tokyo Area (GTA) during the summer of 14–18 August 2010 was investigated using the observation data. We analyzed the ozone and other trace gas concentrations, as well as the corresponding weather conditions in this high ozone episode by WRF/Chem model. The simulation results revealed that the analyzed episode was mainly caused by the impact of accumulation of pollution rich in ozone over the Greater Tokyo Area. WRF/Chem has shown relatively good performance in modeling of this continuous high ozone episode, the simulated and the observed concentrations of ozone, NOx and NO2 are basically in agreement at Kawasaki City, with best correlation coefficients of 0.87, 0.70 and 0.72 respectively. Moreover, the simulations of WRF/Chem with WRF preprocessing software (WPS) show a better agreement with meteorological observations such as surface winds and temperature profiles in the ground level of this area. As a result the surface ozone simulation performances have been enhanced in terms of the peak ozone and spatial patterns, whereas WRF/Chem has been succeeded to generate meteorological fields as well as ozone, NOx, NO2 and NO.

  1. 3-D evaluation of tropospheric ozone simulations by an ensemble of regional Chemistry Transport Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zyryanov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed 3-D evaluation of an ensemble of five regional Chemistry Transport Models (RCTM and one global CTM with focus on free tropospheric ozone over Europe is presented. It is performed over a summer period (June to August 2008 in the context of the GEMS-RAQ project. A data set of about 400 vertical ozone profiles from balloon soundings and commercial aircraft at 11 different locations is used for model evaluation, in addition to satellite measurements with the infrared nadir sounder (IASI showing largest sensitivity to free tropospheric ozone. In the middle troposphere, the four regional models using the same top and boundary conditions from IFS-MOZART exhibit a systematic negative bias with respect to observed profiles of about −20%. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values are constantly growing with altitude, from 22% to 32% to 53%, respectively for 0–2 km, 2–8 km and 8–10 km height ranges. Lowest correlation is found in the middle troposphere, with minimum coefficients (R between 0.2 to 0.45 near 8 km, as compared to 0.7 near the surface and similar values around 10 km. A sensitivity test made with the CHIMERE mode also shows that using hourly instead of monthly chemical boundary conditions generally improves the model skill (i.e. improve RMSE and correlation. Lower tropospheric 0–6 km partial ozone columns derived from IASI show a clear North-South gradient over Europe, which is qualitatively reproduced by the models. Also the temporal variability showing decreasing ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere (0–6 km columns during summer is well reproduced by models even if systematic bias remains (the value of the bias being also controlled by the type of used boundary conditions. A multi-day case study of a trough with low tropopause was conducted and showed that both IASI and models were able to resolve strong horizontal gradients of middle and upper tropospheric ozone occurring in the vicinity of an upper

  2. Eight years of stratospheric ozone observations at Marambio, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damski, J.; Taalas, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research

    1995-12-31

    In this work behaviour of the stratospheric ozone using the total ozone and ozone sounding measurements from Marambio (64 deg 14`S, 56 deg 37`W) at Antarctic Peninsula has been studied. The effects of depleted stratospheric ozone to the UV-B-radiation are investigated employing a radiative transfer model, and the Marambio total ozone measurements. The levels of UV-B radiation have been studied from the point of the erythemal UV-B-doses on the horizontal human epidermis. The low values of total ozone at Marambio are also reflected to the received UV-doses which have increased roughly 20-80% (compared to long term average) during austral spring and summer. In respective to the total amount of ozone, the model calculations show that during October the UV-B-doses can be at the same level they should be during normal summer

  3. Effect of ozonation on activated sludge from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Chakrabarti, S K; Singh, S

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic biological treatment with activated sludge is the predominant process all over the world for treatment of pulp and paper industry wastewater. 50-70% of the biodegradable organic material is oxidized to CO₂ and the rest is converted to bacterial biomass, typically termed as excess sludge or waste activated sludge (WAS). Handling and disposal of WAS in general and in particular from the pulp and paper industry face different processing difficulties, regulatory stringency due to organochlorine contamination and reluctance of people for reuse. With an objective of reducing the net disposable biomass, ozonation of WAS from a pulp and paper mill and from a laboratory scale batch activated sludge process operated with the wastewater and bacterial seed of the same pulp and paper mill have been carried out. With the mill sludge having predominant filamentous organisms 18% MLSS was reduced at an ozone dosage of 55 mg O₃/g dry MLSS solid (DS) resulting in 2.5 times COD increase. With the laboratory sludge which is well structured and flocculating, only 6% MLSS was reduced at an ozone dosage of 55 mg O₃/g DS. Ozonation mineralizes 26% and 20% AOX compounds embedded in the secondary sludge in the mill and laboratory sludge respectively at an ozone dosage of 55 mg O₃/g DS. During ozonation, absorbed/adsorbed lignin on biomass was released which resulted in increased colour concentration. Ozonation can be a potential oxidative pretreatment process for reducing the WAS and paving the way for cost effective overall treatment of WAS.

  4. Effects of ozone on lung tissue of E-supplemented rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R.D.; Abedin, M.Z.; Alfin-Slater, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin E (E) in protecting lung tissue of rats exposed to ozone were studied in male, pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats fed synthetic diets containing 0, 10 and 50 IU E/Kg for 6 wks. Thereafter, half of the animals in each group were exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone for 4 days, the other half to filtered air, then all animals were killed. Plasma E levels increased with increasing dietary E in both ozone-exposed and air-breathing rats; values in both groups were 12 times higher at 50 IU than what was observed in E-free dietary controls. Even greater increases were seen in lung and liver. Ozone enhanced the observed increased levels in the lung but diminished those in the liver. Ozone produced lipid oxidation in the lung at 0 and 10 IU E as measured by a modified TBA test whereas 50 IU was protective. In the lung, mean organ weight, cytosolic protein content, and activities of NADPH-generating and sulfhydryl-metabolizing enzymes were not affected by the level of dietary E in air-breathing controls. Ozone exposure, however, increased these indices but the extent of increase varied inversely with the E level in the tissue. It is suggested that the enhanced enzyme activity and lipid oxidation in the lung reflects injury from ozone exposure. Reduction in the extent of these changes with increased tissue E suggests that dietary vitamin E may offer protection against the oxidant-induced lung injury.

  5. Effect of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on the Bacteria Counts and Oxidative Properties of Ground Hanwoo Beef at Refrigeration Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngjae; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the effect of ozone exposure on the bacteria counts and oxidative properties of ground Hanwoo beef contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 at refrigeration temperature. Ground beef was inoculated with 7 Log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from domestic pigs and was then subjected to ozone exposure (10×10−6 kg O3 h−1) at 4℃ for 3 d. E. coli O157:H7, total aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth and oxidative properties including instrumental color changes, TBARS, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were evaluated. Ozone exposure significantly prohibited (prefrigerated storage. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further application of ozone exposure by integrating an ozone generator inside a refrigerator. Further studies regarding the ozone concentrations and exposure times are needed. PMID:26761291

  6. Influence of synoptic condition and holiday effects on VOCs and ozone production in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengning; Huang, Xin; Nie, Wei; Chi, Xuguang; Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Longfei; Sun, Peng; Ding, Aijun

    2017-11-01

    Both anthropogenic emission and synoptic conditions play important roles in ozone (O3) formation and accumulation. In order to understand the influence of synoptic condition and holiday effects on ozone production in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, concentrations of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and O3 as well as other relevant trace gases were simultaneously measured at the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES) in Nanjing around the National Day holidays of China in 2014, which featured substantial change of emissions and dominated by typical anti-cyclones. Different groups of VOC species and their chemical reactivities were comprehensively analyzed. We observed clear diurnal variations of short alkenes during the measurement period, considerable amount of short alkenes were observed during night (more than 10 ppb) while almost no alkenes were measured during daytime, which might be attributed to different chemical processes. The obvious enhancement of the VOC tracers during the National Day holidays (Oct. 1st-Oct. 7th) indicated that the holiday effect strongly influenced the distribution of VOC profile and chemical reactivity in the atmosphere. At the same time, two meso-scale anticyclone processes were also observed during the measurement period. The synoptic condition contributed to the accumulation of VOCs and other precursors, which consequently impacted the ozone production in this region. The integrated influence of synoptic and holiday effects was also analyzed with an Observation Based Model (OBM) based on simplified MCM (Master Chemical Mechanism) chemical mechanism. The calculated relative increment reactivity (RIR) of different VOC groups revealed that during the holidays, this region was in VOC-limited regime and the variation of RIR shows a close linkage to the development and elimination of anti-cyclones, indicating an in-negligible contribution of synoptic effect toward ozone production in this

  7. Ozone depletion and solar ultraviolet radiation: ocular effects, a United nations environment programme perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Anthony P

    2011-07-01

    To describe he role played by the United Nations Environmental Effects Panel with respect to the ocular effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and present the essence of the Health Chapter of the 2010 Assessment. A consideration of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the Earth's surface as it is affected by atmospheric changes and how these influence sunlight-related eye diseases. A review of the current Assessment with emphasis on pterygium, cataract, ocular melanoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Although the ozone layer is projected to recover slowly in the coming decades, continuing vigilance is required regarding exposure to the sun. Evidence implicating solar UVR, especially UVB, in every tissue of the eye continues to be amassed. The need for ocular UV protection existed before the discovery of the depletion of the ozone layer and will continue even when the layer fully recovers in approximately 2100.

  8. Effect of cloud on atmospheric ozone formation over Kolkata (22°34'N, 88°24'E), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, P. K.; Saha, D. K.; Midya, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    The paper presents the nature of variations of clouds and total ozone over Kolkata (22°34'N, 88°24'E), India. The low-level cloud over Kolkata has been noticed to occur for many days and nights, particularly in the months from June to September. The low level cloud occurrences were minimum in winter months. The effect of cloud occurrence on ozone concentration has been critically analyzed and explained. It has been observed that the concentration of ozone increased with the increase of cloud occurrence. The related possible chemical explanation for ozone production processes has been offered.

  9. Influence of inter-annual variations of stratospheric dynamics in model simulations of ozone losses by aircraft emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadin, E.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The questions of model predictions of aircraft emission impacts on the ozone variations are considered. Using the NMC data it is shown that the stratospheric circulation underwent the abrupt transition to a new regime in summer 1980. The strong correlations are found between the monthly mean total ozone and stratospheric angular momentum anomalies during 1979-1991. The natural long-term changes of transport processes are necessary to take into account in model simulations of anthropogenic impacts on the ozone layer. (author) 12 refs.

  10. Measurement, modeling, and analysis of nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in the southeast United States national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daiwen

    In this research, the sources, distributions, transport, ozone formation potential, and biogenic emissions of VOCs are investigated focusing on three Southeast United States National Parks: Shenandoah National Park, Big Meadows site (SHEN), Great Smoky Mountains National Park at Cove Mountain (GRSM) and Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA). A detailed modeling analysis is conducted using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. Nine emissions perturbation using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O 3 surface concentrations. In the observation-based analysis, source classification techniques based on correlation coefficient, chemical reactivity, and certain ratios were developed and applied to the data set. Anthropogenic VOCs from automobile exhaust dominate at Mammoth Cave National Park, and at Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, while at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park, the source composition is complex and changed from 1995 to 1996. The dependence of isoprene concentrations on ambient temperatures is investigated, and similar regressional relationships are obtained for all three monitoring locations. Propylene-equivalent concentrations are calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the OH and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contributions to ozone formation. Isoprene fluxes were also estimated for all these rural areas. Model predictions (base scenario) tend to give lower daily maximum O 3 concentrations than observations by 10 to 30%. Model predicted concentrations of lumped paraffin compounds are of the same order of magnitude as the observed values, while the observed concentrations for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene) are usually an

  11. Analysis of the ozone profile specifications in the WRF-ARW model and their impact on the simulation of direct solar radiation

    OpenAIRE

    A. Montornès; B. Codina; J. W. Zack

    2014-01-01

    Although ozone is an atmospheric gas with high spatial and temporal variability, mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) models simplify the specification of ozone concentrations used in their shortwave schemes by using a few ozone profiles. In this paper, a two-part study is presented: (i) an assessment of the quality of the ozone profiles provided for use with the shortwave schemes in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-AR...

  12. Modeling of recovery mechanism of ozone zero phenomenaby adding small amount of nitrogen in atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu

    2013-09-01

    Ozone zero phenomena in an atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges have been one of the major problems during a long time operation of ozone generators. But it is also known that the adding a small amount of nitrogen makes the recover from the ozone zero phenomena. To make clear the mechanism of recovery, authors have been simulated the discharges with using the results of Ref. 3. As a result, the recovery process can be seen and ozone density increased. It is found that the most important species would be nitrogen atoms. The reaction of nitrogen atoms and oxygen molecules makes oxygen atoms which is main precursor species of ozone. This generation of oxygen atoms is effective to increase ozone. The dependence of oxygen atom density (nO) and nitrogen atom density (nN) ratio was examined in this paper. In the condition of low nN/nO ratio case, generation of nitrogen oxide is low, and the quenching of ozone by the nitrogen oxide would be low. But in the high ratio condition, the quenching of ozone by nitrogen oxide would significant. This work was supported by KAKENHI(23560352).

  13. The GEOS Chemistry Climate Model: Implications of Climate Feedbacks on Ozone Depletion and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Pawson, Steven; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Kawa, S. Randy; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rodriquez, Jose; Strahan, Susan; Oman, Luke; Waugh, Darryn

    2008-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) has been developed by combining the atmospheric chemistry and transport modules developed over the years at Goddard and the GEOS general circulation model, also developed at Goddard. The first version of the model was used in the CCMVal intercomparison exercises that contributed to the 2006 WMO/UNEP Ozone Assessment. The second version incorporates the updated version of the GCM (GEOS 5) and will be used for the next round of CCMVal evaluations and the 2010 Ozone Assessment. The third version, now under development, incorporates the combined stratosphere and troposphere chemistry package developed under the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI). We will show comparison to past observations that indicate that we represent the ozone trends over the past 30 years. We will also show the basic temperature, composition, and dynamical structure of the simulations. We will further show projections into the future. We will show results from an ensemble of transient and time-slice simulations, including simulations with fixed 1960 chlorine, simulations with a best guess scenario (Al), and simulations with extremely high chlorine loadings. We will discuss planned extensions of the model to include emission-based boundary conditions for both anthropogenic and biogenic compounds.

  14. Effect of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on the Bacteria Counts and Oxidative Properties of Ground Hanwoo Beef at Refrigeration Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngjae; Muhlisin; Choi, Ji Hye; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the effect of ozone exposure on the bacteria counts and oxidative properties of ground Hanwoo beef contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 at refrigeration temperature. Ground beef was inoculated with 7 Log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from domestic pigs and was then subjected to ozone exposure (10×10(-6) kg O3 h(-1)) at 4℃ for 3 d. E. coli O157:H7, total aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth and oxidative properties including instrumental color changes, TBARS, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were evaluated. Ozone exposure significantly prohibited (pOzone exposure reduced (pozone had no clear effect. Ozone exposure increased the TBARS values during 1 to 3 d of storage (pozone exposure until 2 and 3 d of storage, respectively. This study provides information about the use of ozone exposure as an antimicrobial agent for meat under refrigerated storage. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further application of ozone exposure by integrating an ozone generator inside a refrigerator. Further studies regarding the ozone concentrations and exposure times are needed.

  15. Ozone and cardiovascular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainaldi Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. The long-terms effects are related to the lifetime risk of death from cardiac causes. The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year. The evidence supporting these data is very strong nonetheless, epidemiologic and observational data have the main limitation of imprecise measurements. Moreover, the lack of clinical experimental models makes it difficult to demonstrate the individual risk. The other limitation is related to the lack of a clear mechanism explaining the effects of pollution on cardiovascular mortality. In the present review we will explore the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence of the effects of ozone on cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiologic consequences of air pollutant exposures have been extensively investigated in pulmonary systems, and it is clear that some of the major components of air pollution (e.g. ozone and particulate matter can initiate and exacerbate lung disease in humans 1. It is possible that pulmonary oxidant stress mediated by particulate matter and/or ozone (O3 exposure can result in downstream perturbations in the cardiovasculature, as the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are intricately associated, and it is well documented that specific environmental toxins (such as tobacco smoke 2 introduced through the lungs can initiate and/or accelerate cardiovascular disease development. Indeed, several epidemiologic studies have proved that there is an association between PM and O3 and the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity

  16. Ozone exposure and pulmonary effects in panel and human clinical studies: Considerations for design and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C

    2018-04-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding the pulmonary effects of ozone, a photochemical pollutant produced by the reaction of nitrogen oxide and volatile organic precursors in the presence of sunlight. This paper focuses on epidemiological panel studies and human clinical studies of ozone exposure, and discusses issues specific to this pollutant that may influence study design and interpretation as well as other, broader considerations relevant to ozone-health research. The issues are discussed using examples drawn from the wider literature. The recent panel and clinical literature is also reviewed. Health outcomes considered include lung function, symptoms, and pulmonary inflammation. Issues discussed include adversity, reversibility, adaptation, variability in ozone exposure metric used and health outcomes evaluated, co-pollutants in panel studies, influence of temperature in panel studies, and multiple comparisons. Improvements in and standardization of panel study approaches are recommended to facilitate comparisons between studies as well as meta-analyses. Additional clinical studies at or near the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 70 ppb are recommended, as are clinical studies in sensitive subpopulations such as asthmatics. The pulmonary health impacts of ozone exposure have been well documented using both epidemiological and chamber study designs. However, there are a number of specific methodological and related issues that should be considered when interpreting the results of these studies and planning additional research, including the standardization of exposure and health metrics to facilitate comparisons among studies.

  17. Variation in estimated ozone-related health impacts of climate change due to modeling choices and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Ellen S; Grambsch, Anne; Weaver, Chris; Morefield, Philip; Huang, Jin; Leung, Lai-Yung; Nolte, Christopher G; Adams, Peter; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Zhu, Jin-Hong; Mahoney, Hardee

    2012-11-01

    Future climate change may cause air quality degradation via climate-induced changes in meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and emissions into the air. Few studies have explicitly modeled the potential relationships between climate change, air quality, and human health, and fewer still have investigated the sensitivity of estimates to the underlying modeling choices. Our goal was to assess the sensitivity of estimated ozone-related human health impacts of climate change to key modeling choices. Our analysis included seven modeling systems in which a climate change model is linked to an air quality model, five population projections, and multiple concentration-response functions. Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP), we estimated future ozone (O(3))-related health effects in the United States attributable to simulated climate change between the years 2000 and approximately 2050, given each combination of modeling choices. Health effects and concentration-response functions were chosen to match those used in the U.S. EPA's 2008 Regulatory Impact Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for O(3). Different combinations of methodological choices produced a range of estimates of national O(3)-related mortality from roughly 600 deaths avoided as a result of climate change to 2,500 deaths attributable to climate change (although the large majority produced increases in mortality). The choice of the climate change and the air quality model reflected the greatest source of uncertainty, with the other modeling choices having lesser but still substantial effects. Our results highlight the need to use an ensemble approach, instead of relying on any one set of modeling choices, to assess the potential risks associated with O(3)-related human health effects resulting from climate change.

  18. Modeling weekday to weekend changes in emissions and ozone in the Los Angeles basin for 1997 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarwood, Greg; Grant, John; Koo, Bonyoung; Dunker, Alan M.

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we used numerical models to investigate weekday to weekend ozone differences in the Los Angeles (LA) basin in 1997 and 2010. We developed relatively complete descriptions of weekday to weekend emission changes for nitrogen oxides (NOx) with 80% of the weekday NOx emissions receiving a weekend adjustment in 1997 and 67% in 2010. Weekend NOx decreases of 34% on Saturday and 45% on Sunday relative to weekdays for 1997 are predicted to become slightly greater by 2010 and are dominated by NOx decreases for on-road vehicles (especially heavy-duty diesel vehicles) and off-road construction equipment. Weekend anthropogenic reactive organic gas (ROG) decreases for 1997 (12% on Saturday and 16% on Sunday) are smaller than for NOx and become even smaller in 2010. However, there is less certainty in the weekend ROG emission changes because only 47% of the weekday ROG emissions received a weekend adjustment in 1997 and only 21% in 2010. The ozone modeling used multiple representations of the meteorology and chemistry in order to identify results that are consistent across these inputs. Weekend ozone increased in central portions of the basin in response to weekend NOx and ROG decreases for both 1997 and 2010, with both the SAPRC99 and CB4 chemical mechanisms, and with all meteorological data sets. Weekend ozone decreased in other portions of the basin in all models. Comparing 2010 to 1997, weekend ozone increases are smaller and confined to smaller portions of the LA basin near the Pacific coast, whereas weekend ozone decreases are larger and more widespread in 2010. For 2010, all models show lower 8-h ozone on Sunday than weekdays in the Riverside/San Bernardino area. First-order sensitivity analysis (via the decoupled direct method) shows that the weekday/weekend ozone changes are mainly due to the NOx emission changes. Also, the weekday/weekend ozone changes for 2010 are sensitive to the choice of initial and boundary concentrations.

  19. The protective effect of prophylactic ozone administration against retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, Ali; Kal, Oznur; Akillioglu, Ishak; Celik, Esin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Gonul, Saban; Solmaz, Merve; Onal, Ozkan

    2017-03-01

    Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is associated with many ocular diseases. Retinal IR injury leads to the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), loss of retinal function and ultimately vision loss. The aim of this study was to show the protective effects of prophylactic ozone administration against retinal IR injury. A sham group (S) (n = 7) was administered physiological saline (PS) intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 7 d. An ischemia reperfusion (IR) group (n = 7) was subjected to retinal ischemia followed by reperfusion for 2 h. An ozone group (O) (n = 7) was administered 1 mg/kg of ozone i.p. for 7 d. In the ozone + IR (O + IR) group (n = 7), 1 mg/kg of ozone was administered i.p. for 7 d before the IR procedure and at 8 d, the IR injury was created (as in IR group). The rats were anesthetized after second hour of reperfusion and their intracardiac blood was drawn completely and they were sacrificed. Blood samples were sent to a laboratory for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant score (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The degree of retinal injury was evaluated according to changes in retinal cells and necrotic and apoptotic cells using the TUNEL method. Data were evaluated statistically with the Kruskal-Wallis test. The number of RGCs and the inner retinal thickness were significantly decreased after ischemia, and treatment with ozone significantly inhibited retinal ischemic injury. In the IR group, the degree of retinal injury was found to be the highest. In the O + IR group, retinal injury was found to be decreased in comparison to the IR group. In the ozone group without retinal IR injury, the retinal injury score was the lowest. The differences in the antioxidant parameters SOD, GSH-Px and TAC were increased in the ozone group and the lowest in the IR group. The oxidant parameters MDA and TOS were found to be the highest in the IR group and

  20. Long-term ozone decline and its effect on night airglow intensity of Li ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    internal workings. Standard stellar models cannot. Keywords. Ozone depletion; airglow emission; excitation mechanism; intensity. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 120, No. 2, April 2011, pp. 291–300 c Indian Academy of Sciences. 291 ... intensity of OH (8, 3) for the period 1973–1984 have been presented by Midya (1994). It has been.

  1. How to most effectively expand the global surface ozone observing network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofen, E. D.; Bowdalo, D.; Evans, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Surface ozone observations with modern instrumentation have been made around the world for more than 40 years. Some of these observations have been made as one-off activities with short-term, specific science objectives and some have been made as part of wider networks which have provided a foundational infrastructure of data collection, calibration, quality control, and dissemination. These observations provide a fundamental underpinning to our understanding of tropospheric chemistry, air quality policy, atmosphere-biosphere interactions, etc. brought together eight of these networks to provide a single data set of surface ozone observations. We investigate how representative this combined data set is of global surface ozone using the output from a global atmospheric chemistry model. We estimate that on an area basis, 25 % of the globe is observed (34 % land, 21 % ocean). Whereas Europe and North America have almost complete coverage, other continents, Africa, South America, Australia, and Asia (12-17 %) show significant gaps. Antarctica is surprisingly well observed (78 %). Little monitoring occurs over the oceans, with the tropical and southern oceans particularly poorly represented. The surface ozone over key biomes such as tropical forests and savanna is almost completely unmonitored. A chemical cluster analysis suggests that a significant number of observations are made of polluted air masses, but cleaner air masses whether over the land or ocean (especially again in the tropics) are significantly under-observed. The current network is unlikely to see the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) but may be capable of detecting other planetary-scale signals. Model assessment and validation activities are hampered by a lack of observations in regions where the models differ substantially, as is the ability to monitor likely changes in surface ozone over the next century. Using our methodology we are able to suggest new sites which would help to close

  2. How to most effectively expand the global surface ozone observing network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Sofen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface ozone observations with modern instrumentation have been made around the world for more than 40 years. Some of these observations have been made as one-off activities with short-term, specific science objectives and some have been made as part of wider networks which have provided a foundational infrastructure of data collection, calibration, quality control, and dissemination. These observations provide a fundamental underpinning to our understanding of tropospheric chemistry, air quality policy, atmosphere–biosphere interactions, etc. brought together eight of these networks to provide a single data set of surface ozone observations. We investigate how representative this combined data set is of global surface ozone using the output from a global atmospheric chemistry model. We estimate that on an area basis, 25 % of the globe is observed (34 % land, 21 % ocean. Whereas Europe and North America have almost complete coverage, other continents, Africa, South America, Australia, and Asia (12–17 % show significant gaps. Antarctica is surprisingly well observed (78 %. Little monitoring occurs over the oceans, with the tropical and southern oceans particularly poorly represented. The surface ozone over key biomes such as tropical forests and savanna is almost completely unmonitored. A chemical cluster analysis suggests that a significant number of observations are made of polluted air masses, but cleaner air masses whether over the land or ocean (especially again in the tropics are significantly under-observed. The current network is unlikely to see the impact of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO but may be capable of detecting other planetary-scale signals. Model assessment and validation activities are hampered by a lack of observations in regions where the models differ substantially, as is the ability to monitor likely changes in surface ozone over the next century. Using our methodology we are able to suggest new

  3. Sensitivity Study of Cloud Cover and Ozone Modeling to Microphysics Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałaszek, Kinga; Kryza, Maciej; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Werner, Małgorzata; Ojrzyńska, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    Cloud cover is a significant meteorological parameter influencing the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground surface, and therefore affecting the formation of photochemical pollutants, most of all tropospheric ozone (O3). Because cloud amount and type in meteorological models are resolved by microphysics schemes, adjusting this parameterization is a major factor determining the accuracy of the results. However, verification of cloud cover simulations based on surface data is difficult and yields significant errors. Current meteorological satellite programs provide many high-resolution cloud products, which can be used to verify numerical models. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) has been applied for the area of Poland for an episode of June 17th-July 4th, 2008, when high ground-level ozone concentrations were observed. Four simulations were performed, each with a different microphysics parameterization: Purdue Lin, Eta Ferrier, WRF Single-Moment 6-class, and Morrison Double-Moment scheme. The results were then evaluated based on cloud mask satellite images derived from SEVIRI data. Meteorological variables and O3 concentrations were also evaluated. The results show that the simulation using Morrison Double-Moment microphysics provides the most and Purdue Lin the least accurate information on cloud cover and surface meteorological variables for the selected high ozone episode. Those two configurations were used for WRF-Chem runs, which showed significantly higher O3 concentrations and better model-measurements agreement of the latter.

  4. Tropospheric Ozone Changes, Radiative Forcing and Attribution to Emissions in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D.S.; Young, P.J.; Naik, V.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Shindell, D. T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Skeie, R. B.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Myhre, G.; Berntsen, T. K.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Ozone (O3) from 17 atmospheric chemistry models taking part in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) has been used to calculate tropospheric ozone radiative forcings (RFs). All models applied a common set of anthropogenic emissions, which are better constrained for the present-day than the past. Future anthropogenic emissions follow the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, which define a relatively narrow range of possible air pollution emissions. We calculate a value for the pre-industrial (1750) to present-day (2010) tropospheric ozone RF of 410 mW m-2. The model range of pre-industrial to present-day changes in O3 produces a spread (+/-1 standard deviation) in RFs of +/-17%. Three different radiation schemes were used - we find differences in RFs between schemes (for the same ozone fields) of +/-10 percent. Applying two different tropopause definitions gives differences in RFs of +/-3 percent. Given additional (unquantified) uncertainties associated with emissions, climate-chemistry interactions and land-use change, we estimate an overall uncertainty of +/-30 percent for the tropospheric ozone RF. Experiments carried out by a subset of six models attribute tropospheric ozone RF to increased emissions of methane (44+/-12 percent), nitrogen oxides (31 +/- 9 percent), carbon monoxide (15 +/- 3 percent) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (9 +/- 2 percent); earlier studies attributed more of the tropospheric ozone RF to methane and less to nitrogen oxides. Normalising RFs to changes in tropospheric column ozone, we find a global mean normalised RF of 42 mW m(-2) DU(-1), a value similar to previous work. Using normalised RFs and future tropospheric column ozone projections we calculate future tropospheric ozone RFs (mW m(-2); relative to 1750) for the four future scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) of 350, 420, 370 and 460 (in 2030), and 200, 300, 280 and 600 (in 2100). Models show some

  5. Tropospheric ozone changes, radiative forcing and attribution to emissions in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Stevenson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 from 17 atmospheric chemistry models taking part in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP has been used to calculate tropospheric ozone radiative forcings (RFs. All models applied a common set of anthropogenic emissions, which are better constrained for the present-day than the past. Future anthropogenic emissions follow the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios, which define a relatively narrow range of possible air pollution emissions. We calculate a value for the pre-industrial (1750 to present-day (2010 tropospheric ozone RF of 410 mW m−2. The model range of pre-industrial to present-day changes in O3 produces a spread (±1 standard deviation in RFs of ±17%. Three different radiation schemes were used – we find differences in RFs between schemes (for the same ozone fields of ±10%. Applying two different tropopause definitions gives differences in RFs of ±3%. Given additional (unquantified uncertainties associated with emissions, climate-chemistry interactions and land-use change, we estimate an overall uncertainty of ±30% for the tropospheric ozone RF. Experiments carried out by a subset of six models attribute tropospheric ozone RF to increased emissions of methane (44±12%, nitrogen oxides (31 ± 9%, carbon monoxide (15 ± 3% and non-methane volatile organic compounds (9 ± 2%; earlier studies attributed more of the tropospheric ozone RF to methane and less to nitrogen oxides. Normalising RFs to changes in tropospheric column ozone, we find a global mean normalised RF of 42 mW m−2 DU−1, a value similar to previous work. Using normalised RFs and future tropospheric column ozone projections we calculate future tropospheric ozone RFs (mW m−2; relative to 1750 for the four future scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 of 350, 420, 370 and 460 (in 2030, and 200, 300, 280 and 600 (in 2100. Models show some coherent responses of ozone to climate change

  6. Confirmation of the sterilization effect using a high concentration of ozone gas for the bio-clean room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Takuji; Nagano, Katsunori; Nogami, Toshihiro; Matsuki, Noritomo; Kosaka, Noriyoshi; Shintani, Hideharu; Katoh, Miyoshi

    2013-01-01

    A high-level aseptic environment must be maintained in bio-cleanrooms used for the manufacture of sterile products. In the past, formaldehyde gas was most commonly used to sterilize bio-cleanrooms, but due to strict residual limitations there has been a need to develop a less toxic alternative choice. The authors have developed a revolutionary new sterilization system using a high concentration of ozone gas and used this system to sterilize an actual bio-cleanroom. This system integrates the ozone gas generator with the air conditioning system by proper control. The design specifications for the system included an ozone gas concentration of 200 ppm or more, relative humidity of 80% or more, and a sterilizing time of 120 min. Blow vents and suction ports were placed to ensure a uniform airflow which would extend through the entire room during ozone gas sterilization. Tests regarding long-term material exposure to ozone gas were conducted when the system was introduced to distinguish usable and unusable materials. In an actually constructed cleanroom, simulations were used to predict the evenness of the diffusion of ozone gas concentration and relative humidity during ozone gas sterilization, and measurements of the actual indoor ozone gas concentration, temperature and relative humidity during sterilization revealed that the ozone concentration and relative humidity needed for sterilization had been achieved generally throughout the entire environment. In addition, the CT value (mg/m(3) (=ppm) × min) , derived by multiplying the ozone gas concentration during ozone gas sterilization by the sterilization time, was equal to or greater than the target value of 24 × 10(3) (ppm·min) . When the results of sterilization in a cleanroom were confirmed using a biological indicator (BI) , negative results were obtained at all measurement points, demonstrating that sterilization was being performed effectively in the actual factory at which the ozone gas sterilization system

  7. Influence of an Internally-Generated QBO on Modeled Stratospheric Dynamics and Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Newman, P. A.; Song, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    A GEOS V2 CCM simulation with an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) signal is compared to an otherwise identical simulation without a QBO. In a present-day climate, inclusion of the modeled QBO makes a significant difference to stratospheric dynamics and ozone throughout the year. The QBO enhances variability in the tropics, as expected, but also in the polar stratosphere in some seasons. The modeled QBO also affects the mean stratospheric climate. Because tropical zonal winds in the baseline simulation are generally easterly, there is a relative increase in zonal wind magnitudes in tropical lower and middle stratosphere in the QBO simulation. Extra-tropical differences between the QBO and 'no QBO' simulations thus reflect a bias toward the westerly phase of the QBO: a relative strengthening and poleward shifting the polar stratospheric jets, and a reduction in Arctic lower stratospheric ozone.

  8. Ozone levels in the Empty Quarter of Saudi Arabia--application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Masiur; Khondaker, A N; Khan, Rouf Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    In arid regions, primary pollutants may contribute to the increase of ozone levels and cause negative effects on biotic health. This study investigates the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for ozone prediction. The initial fuzzy inference system is developed by using fuzzy C-means (FCM) and subtractive clustering (SC) algorithms, which determines the important rules, increases generalization capability of the fuzzy inference system, reduces computational needs, and ensures speedy model development. The study area is located in the Empty Quarter of Saudi Arabia, which is considered as a source of huge potential for oil and gas field development. The developed clustering algorithm-based ANFIS model used meteorological data and derived meteorological data, along with NO and NO₂ concentrations and their transformations, as inputs. The root mean square error and Willmott's index of agreement of the FCM- and SC-based ANFIS models are 3.5 ppbv and 0.99, and 8.9 ppbv and 0.95, respectively. Based on the analysis of the performance measures and regression error characteristic curves, it is concluded that the FCM-based ANFIS model outperforms the SC-based ANFIS model.

  9. Synergistic Effect of Copper and Cobalt in Cu-Co-O Composite Nanocatalyst for Catalytic Ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuming; Wu, Lina; Wang, Guangli; Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Pingping; Feng, Cuiyun

    2013-01-01

    A novel Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst was designed and prepared for the ozonation of phenol. A synergistic effect of copper and cobalt was observed over the Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst, which showed higher activity than either copper or cobalt oxide alone. In addition, the Cu-Co-O composite revealed good activity in a wide initial pH range (4.11-8.05) of water. The fine dispersion of cobalt on the surface of copper oxide boosted the interaction between catalyst and ozone, and the surface Lewis acid sites on the Cu-Co-O composite were determined as the active sites. The Raman spectroscopy also proved that the Cu-Co-O composite was quite sensitive to the ozone. The trivalent cobalt in the Cu-Co-O composite was proposed as the valid state

  10. Effect of ozonation combined with heterogeneous catalysts and ultraviolet radiation on recycling of gas-station wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Emam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozonation is extensively applied in the treatment of drinking water and wastewater due to the powerful oxidation potential of ozone. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation (HCO of wastewater proceeds through hydroxyl radicals as the oxidation species. The effect of ozonation alone and combined with catalysts in the presence and absence of UV-radiation was investigated to reuse the biologically pretreated gas-station wastewater instead of fresh water. Two types of catalysts: titanium dioxide (TiO2 and activated carbon (AC were studied. The concentration of catalyst, dark adsorption, reaction time and the improvement of biodegradability were studied. The combination of catalysts and ozonation reveals a significant improvement in the removal of contaminants present in wastewater by using the ozonation, adsorption or photocatalysis systems. Maximum dissolved organic carbon (DOC removal of 91% was achieved by the combination of ozone, TiO2 and the UV-radiation system. But, an increase in biodegradability from 0.12 to 0.33 was realised with ozone and the TiO2 system. Furthermore, the biodegradability was increased with increasing catalyst concentration combined with ozone up to 1 g/L with TiO2 and 0.5 g/L with AC.

  11. Effects of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on Bacterial Counts and Oxidative Properties in Chicken and Duck Breast Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin, Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of gaseous ozone exposure on the bacterial counts and oxidative properties were evaluated in duck and chicken breast fillets, which were stored under a continuous flux of gaseous ozone (10×10(-6) kg O3/m(3)/h) at 4±1℃ for 4 d. The ozone generator was set to on for 15 min and off for 105 min, and this cyclic timer was set during storage. Ozone effectively reduced the growth of coliform, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in both chicken and duck breast. However, lipid oxidation occurred faster in duck breast than chicken breast with higher degree of discoloration, TBARS value, and antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase and catalase) activity decline rates. It is concluded that ozone effectively controlled the growth of bacteria in both chicken and duck breast with less effects on oxidative deterioration in chicken breast.

  12. Uncertainties in modelling heterogeneous chemistry and Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2009/2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wohltmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric chemistry and denitrification are simulated for the Arctic winter 2009/2010 with the Lagrangian Chemistry and Transport Model ATLAS. A number of sensitivity runs is used to explore the impact of uncertainties in chlorine activation and denitrification on the model results. In particular, the efficiency of chlorine activation on different types of liquid aerosol versus activation on nitric acid trihydrate clouds is examined. Additionally, the impact of changes in reaction rate coefficients, in the particle number density of polar stratospheric clouds, in supersaturation, temperature or the extent of denitrification is investigated. Results are compared to satellite measurements of MLS and ACE-FTS and to in-situ measurements onboard the Geophysica aircraft during the RECONCILE measurement campaign. It is shown that even large changes in the underlying assumptions have only a small impact on the modelled ozone loss, even though they can cause considerable differences in chemical evolution of other species and in denitrification. Differences in column ozone between the sensitivity runs stay below 10% at the end of the winter. Chlorine activation on liquid aerosols alone is able to explain the observed magnitude and morphology of the mixing ratios of active chlorine, reservoir gases and ozone. This is even true for binary aerosols (no uptake of HNO3 from the gas-phase allowed in the model. Differences in chlorine activation between sensitivity runs are within 30%. Current estimates of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT number density and supersaturation imply that, at least for this winter, NAT clouds play a relatively small role compared to liquid clouds in chlorine activation. The change between different reaction rate coefficients for liquid or solid clouds has only a minor impact on ozone loss and chlorine activation in our sensitivity runs.

  13. Sensitivity of the tropical stratospheric ozone response to the solar rotational cycle in observations and chemistry-climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéblemont, Rémi; Marchand, Marion; Bekki, Slimane; Bossay, Sébastien; Lefèvre, Franck; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2017-08-01

    The tropical stratospheric ozone response to solar UV variations associated with the rotational cycle (˜ 27 days) is analyzed using MLS satellite observations and numerical simulations from the LMDz-Reprobus chemistry-climate model. The model is used in two configurations, as a chemistry-transport model (CTM) where dynamics are nudged toward ERA-Interim reanalysis and as a chemistry-climate model (free-running) (CCM). An ensemble of five 17-year simulations (1991-2007) is performed with the CCM. All simulations are forced by reconstructed time-varying solar spectral irradiance from the Naval Research Laboratory Solar Spectral Irradiance model. We first examine the ozone response to the solar rotational cycle during two 3-year periods which correspond to the declining phases of solar cycle 22 (October 1991-September 1994) and solar cycle 23 (September 2004-August 2007), when the satellite ozone observations of the two Microwave Limb Sounders (UARS MLS and Aura MLS) are available. In the observations, during the first period, ozone and UV flux are found to be correlated between about 10 and 1 hPa with a maximum of 0.29 at ˜ 5 hPa; the ozone sensitivity (% change in ozone for 1 % change in UV) peaks at ˜ 0.4. Correlation during the second period is weaker and has a peak ozone sensitivity of only 0.2, possibly due to the fact that the solar forcing is weaker during that period. The CTM simulation reproduces most of these observed features, including the differences between the two periods. The CCM ensemble mean results comparatively show much smaller differences between the two periods, suggesting that the amplitude of the rotational ozone signal estimated from MLS observations or the CTM simulation is strongly influenced by other (non-solar) sources of variability, notably dynamics. The analysis of the ensemble of CCM simulations shows that the estimation of the ensemble mean ozone sensitivity does not vary significantly either with the amplitude of the solar

  14. Overview of Global/Regional Models Used to Evaluate Tropospheric Ozone in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important greenhouse gas, toxic pollutant, and plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry. Tropospheric O3 which resides in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of days, however, O3 in the free troposphere and stratosphere has a lifetime on the order of weeks or months. Modeling O3 mixing ratios at and above the surface is difficult due to the multiple formation/destruction processes and transport pathways that cause large spatio-temporal variability in O3 mixing ratios. This talk will summarize in detail the global/regional models that are commonly used to simulate/predict O3 mixing ratios in the United States. The major models which will be focused on are the: 1) Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), 2) Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), 3) Goddard Earth Observing System with Chemistry (GEOS-Chem), 4) Real Time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS), 5) Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART), and 7) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) AM3 model. I will discuss the major modeling components which impact O3 mixing ratio calculations in each model and the similarities/differences between these models. This presentation is vital to the 2nd Annual Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) Conference as it will provide an overview of tools, which can be used in conjunction with TOLNet data, to evaluate the complex chemistry and transport pathways controlling tropospheric O3 mixing ratios.

  15. Pre-ozonation of commercial textile tannins: effects on biodegradability and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunluoglu, Sebnem; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Eremektar, Gulen; Germirli-Babuna, Fatos

    2006-01-01

    The effect of ozonation on the biodegradability and acute toxicity of two frequently used textile dye assisting chemicals, namely natural tannin (NT) having an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD0) of 1195 mg L-1; initial total organic carbon (TOC0) of 342 mg L-1; initial 5th-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,0) of 86 mg L-1; initial ultraviolet absorbance at 280 nm wavelength (UV280,0) of 32.2 cm-1; initial ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254,0) of 19.35 cm-1 and synthetic tannin (ST); with a COD0 of 465 mg L-1; TOC0 of 155 mg L-1; BOD5,0 of 6 mg L-1; UV280,0 of 11.78 cm-1; UV254,0 of 13.74 cm-1 was investigated. Synthetic wastewater bearing these tannin formulations was individually prepared and subjected to ozonation at varying doses (500 and 1000 mg h-1), and pHs (3.5 and 7.0) to elucidate the effect of ozone dose and pH on oxidation efficiency. Changes in the environmental sum parameters chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), 5th-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), ultraviolet absorbance at 280 nm wavelength (UV280) and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), the latter two representing the aromaticity and double bonds of the studied textile tannins, respectively, were monitored during the course of ozonation. In the second part of the study, the biodegradability and acute toxicity of the raw and pre-ozonated textile tannins were evaluated in terms of the BOD5 parameter and an activated sludge inhibition test, respectively. Results indicated no significant changes in acute toxicity for NT, whereas the inhibitory effect of ST could be completely eliminated after 40 min ozonation at a rate of 1000 mg h-1 (i.e., at a specific ozone dose of 1.4 mg (O)3 (mg COD0)-1 and a pH of 3.5. In conclusion, pre-ozonation appeared to be potential pretreatment option to achieve complete detoxification and a fair biodegradability improvement of the otherwise refractory synthetic tannin.

  16. Analgesic effect of subcutaneous administration of oxygen-ozone. A blind study in the rat on the modulation of the capsaicin-induced edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccherelli, F; Gagliardi, G; Faggian, L; Loprete, F; Giron, G

    1998-01-01

    The Authors have explored a new complementary approach, employed in the last 40 years for, among other uses, medical purposes: oxygen-ozone therapy. Anecdotal works have highlighted interesting results obtained in disk herniation with infiltration of paravertebral muscles with oxygen-ozone. To verify the existence of a nociceptive effect and investigate a possible mechanism of action, an experimental model of edema induction by subcutaneous capsaicin injection in the rat paw was employed. Oxygen-ozone, in different concentrations (10 microg/ml, 20 microg/ml and 30 microg/ml) has been injected both ipsi- and contralaterally to the paw 30 minutes before the administration of 50 microg capsaicin in 50 microl of physiological solution. Results show that the contralateral injection of the O2-O3 mixture modulates the edema response in the paw. Statistical significance, for the 20 microg/ml mixture, lasts as far as 45 minutes after administration of the capsaicin. No efficacy has been found for the 10 and 30 microg/ml concentrations. An injection of the same quantity of gas in the ipsilateral paw to the capsaicin-induced edema determines a worse edema than that observed in the control group, as if the ozone mixture added its irritative effect to that of capsaicin. It is interesting to note that the administration of oxygen alone cause a greater edema than the oxygen-ozone mixture.

  17. Solar Energy Deposition Rates in the Mesosphere Derived from Airglow Measurements: Implications for the Ozone Model Deficit Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Roble, Raymond G.; Hagan, Maura

    2000-01-01

    We derive rates of energy deposition in the mesosphere due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone. The rates are derived directly from measurements of the 1.27-microns oxygen dayglow emission, independent of knowledge of the ozone abundance, the ozone absorption cross sections, and the ultraviolet solar irradiance in the ozone Hartley band. Fifty-six months of airglow data taken between 1982 and 1986 by the near-infrared spectrometer on the Solar-Mesosphere Explorer satellite are analyzed. The energy deposition rates exhibit altitude-dependent annual and semi-annual variations. We also find a positive correlation between temperatures and energy deposition rates near 90 km at low latitudes. This correlation is largely due to the semiannual oscillation in temperature and ozone and is consistent with model calculations. There is also a suggestion of possible tidal enhancement of this correlation based on recent theoretical and observational analyses. The airglow-derived rates of energy deposition are then compared with those computed by multidimensional numerical models. The observed and modeled deposition rates typically agree to within 20%. This agreement in energy deposition rates implies the same agreement exists between measured and modeled ozone volume mixing ratios in the mesosphere. Only in the upper mesosphere at midlatitudes during winter do we derive energy deposition rates (and hence ozone mixing ratios) consistently and significantly larger than the model calculations. This result is contrary to previous studies that have shown a large model deficit in the ozone abundance throughout the mesosphere. The climatology of solar energy deposition and heating presented in this paper is available to the community at the Middle Atmosphere Energy Budget Project web site at http://heat-budget.gats-inc.com.

  18. Global budget of tropospheric ozone: Evaluating recent model advances with satellite (OMI), aircraft (IAGOS), and ozonesonde observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Liu, Xiong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Lin; Kim, Patrick S.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Yantosca, Robert M.

    2017-10-01

    The global budget of tropospheric ozone is governed by a complicated ensemble of coupled chemical and dynamical processes. Simulation of tropospheric ozone has been a major focus of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) over the past 20 years, and many developments over the years have affected the model representation of the ozone budget. Here we conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the standard version of GEOS-Chem (v10-01) with ozone observations from ozonesondes, the OMI satellite instrument, and MOZAIC-IAGOS commercial aircraft for 2012-2013. Global validation of the OMI 700-400 hPa data with ozonesondes shows that OMI maintained persistent high quality and no significant drift over the 2006-2013 period. GEOS-Chem shows no significant seasonal or latitudinal bias relative to OMI and strong correlations in all seasons on the 2° × 2.5° horizontal scale (r = 0.88-0.95), improving on previous model versions. The most pronounced model bias revealed by ozonesondes and MOZAIC-IAGOS is at high northern latitudes in winter-spring where the model is 10-20 ppbv too low. This appears to be due to insufficient stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE). Model updates to lightning NOx, Asian anthropogenic emissions, bromine chemistry, isoprene chemistry, and meteorological fields over the past decade have overall led to gradual increase in the simulated global tropospheric ozone burden and more active ozone production and loss. From simulations with different versions of GEOS meteorological fields we find that tropospheric ozone in GEOS-Chem v10-01 has a global production rate of 4960-5530 Tg a-1, lifetime of 20.9-24.2 days, burden of 345-357 Tg, and STE of 325-492 Tg a-1. Change in the intensity of tropical deep convection between these different meteorological fields is a major factor driving differences in the ozone budget.

  19. Using Citizen Scientists to Measure the Effects of Ozone Damage on Native Wildflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Patricia Lynn; Sachs, Susan; Binkley, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Since 2004, middle and high school students have been monitoring the effects of ground-level ozone by collecting data on observable leaf injury on cutleaf coneflower ("Rudbeckia laciniata") and crownbeard ("Verbesina occidentalis") in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. This project is part of an ongoing citizen-science effort in which…

  20. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable...

  1. Students' Misconceptions about the Ozone Layer and the Effect of Internet-Based Media on It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungordu, Nahide; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2017-01-01

    In this study, students' misconceptions about the ozone layer were investigated, looking specifically at the effect internet-based media has on the formation of these misconceptions. Quantitative and qualitative research approaches were used to perform the research. As part of the quantitative portion of the research, the descriptive survey…

  2. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  3. Long-term ozone decline and its effect on night airglow intensity of Li ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40 99–110. Meneguzzi M, Audouze J and Reeves H 1971 The produc- tion of the elements Li, Be, B by galactic cosmic rays in space and its relation with stellar observations; Astron. Astrophys. 15 337–359. Midya S K 1994 Ozone decline and its effect on night airglow intensity of OH (8, 3) band; Earth Moon Planets 65 1–6.

  4. Evaluating ozone air pollution effects on pines in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Miller; Kenneth W. Stolte; Daniel M. Duriscoe; John Pronos

    1996-01-01

    Historical and technical background is provided about ozone air pollution effects on ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) and Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) pines in forests of the western United States. The principal aim is to document the development of field survey methods to be applied to assessment of chronic...

  5. Spaceship Nigeria: A Topic Study for Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect and Ozone Layer Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter; Akpan, Ben B.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the concept of a topic study, how it meets the needs of teachers seeking to integrate their teaching, and how it is especially well suited for environmental education. Outlines curriculum for a topic study on the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. (DDR)

  6. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  7. Long-term ozone decline and its effect on night airglow intensity of Li ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    term ozone decline and its effect on night airglow intensity of Li 6708 Å at Varanasi (25°N, 83°E) and Halley Bay (76°S, 27°W). P K Jana I Saha S Mukhopadhyay. Volume 120 Issue 2 April 2011 pp 291-300 ...

  8. Ozone therapy effectiveness in patients with ulcerous lesions due to diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosul, Myroslav V; Patskan, Bohdan M

    2016-01-01

    Development of purulo-necrotic foot lesions is one of the most dangerous surgical complications of diabetes mellitus, it causes high lethality, early disability, considerable economical expenses on treatment and rehabilitation. Mentioned above determine substantial actuality of diabetic foot problem and condition the necessity of further search of new ways and effective methods of lower extremities lesions complex treatment. of our research was to study the effectiveness of ozone use in complex therapy among patients with diabetic foot. Under our observation were 47 patients with I and II stages of diabetic foot that correspond to superficial and deep ulcers without involving of subcutaneous tissue, ligaments, tendons and muscles into the process, without bone lesion, phlegmons and abscess forming according to Meggit-Wagner (1978) classification. Depending on treatment every group of patients was divided into subgroups. B group composed patients that received traditional therapy.A group composed patients that along with traditional therapy course received course of systemic and regional ozone therapy for 12-14 days, one session per day. Cytological examination of discharge from wounds was carried, lipid peroxidation state and antioxidant protection state was assessed. Ozone use has more evident clinical effect, significantly affects the phase course of wound process, promotes the improvement of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection indexes, reduces the length of hospital stay and term of treatment of patients with diabetic foot. СONCLUSIONS: Studies conducted showed that including of ozone therapy into complex surgical treatment has positive effect on wound process.

  9. Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa – Part 2: Fingerprints of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry and effects on mean values and long-term changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Rieder

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the frequency of days with extreme low (termed ELOs and extreme high (termed EHOs total ozone values and their influence on mean values and trends are analyzed for the world's longest total ozone record (Arosa, Switzerland. The results show (i an increase in ELOs and (ii a decrease in EHOs during the last decades and (iii that the overall trend during the 1970s and 1980s in total ozone is strongly dominated by changes in these extreme events. After removing the extremes, the time series shows a strongly reduced trend (reduction by a factor of 2.5 for trend in annual mean. Excursions in the frequency of extreme events reveal "fingerprints" of dynamical factors such as ENSO or NAO, and chemical factors, such as cold Arctic vortex ozone losses, as well as major volcanic eruptions of the 20th century (Gunung Agung, El Chichón, Mt. Pinatubo. Furthermore, atmospheric loading of ozone depleting substances leads to a continuous modification of column ozone in the Northern Hemisphere also with respect to extreme values (partly again in connection with polar vortex contributions. Application of extreme value theory allows the identification of many more such "fingerprints" than conventional time series analysis of annual and seasonal mean values. The analysis shows in particular the strong influence of dynamics, revealing that even moderate ENSO and NAO events have a discernible effect on total ozone. Overall the approach to extremal modelling provides new information on time series properties, variability, trends and the influence of dynamics and chemistry, complementing earlier analyses focusing only on monthly (or annual mean values.

  10. Impacts of aerosol direct effects on tropospheric ozone through changes in atmospheric dynamics and photolysis rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jia; Wang, Jiandong; Mathur, Rohit; Wang, Shuxiao; Sarwar, Golam; Pleim, Jonathan; Hogrefe, Christian; Zhang, Yuqiang; Jiang, Jingkun; Wong, David C.; Hao, Jiming

    2017-08-01

    Aerosol direct effects (ADEs), i.e., scattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation, reduce radiation reaching the ground and the resultant photolysis attenuation can decrease ozone (O3) formation in polluted areas. One the other hand, evidence also suggests that ADE-associated cooling suppresses atmospheric ventilation, thereby enhancing surface-level O3. Assessment of ADE impacts is thus important for understanding emission reduction strategies that seek co-benefits associated with reductions in both particulate matter and O3 levels. This study quantifies the impacts of ADEs on tropospheric ozone by using a two-way online coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry model, WRF-CMAQ, using a process analysis methodology. Two manifestations of ADE impacts on O3 including changes in atmospheric dynamics (ΔDynamics) and changes in photolysis rates (ΔPhotolysis) were assessed separately through multiple scenario simulations for January and July of 2013 over China. Results suggest that ADEs reduced surface daily maxima 1 h O3 (DM1O3) in China by up to 39 µg m-3 through the combination of ΔDynamics and ΔPhotolysis in January but enhanced surface DM1O3 by up to 4 µg m-3 in July. Increased O3 in July is largely attributed to ΔDynamics, which causes a weaker O3 sink of dry deposition and a stronger O3 source of photochemistry due to the stabilization of the atmosphere. Meanwhile, surface OH is also enhanced at noon in July, though its daytime average values are reduced in January. An increased OH chain length and a shift towards more volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited conditions are found due to ADEs in both January and July. This study suggests that reducing ADEs may have the potential risk of increasing O3 in winter, but it will benefit the reduction in maxima O3 in summer.

  11. Effects of ozone oxidative preconditioning on radiation-induced organ damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultekin, Fatma Ayca; Bakkal, Bekir Hakan; Guven, Berrak; Tasdoven, Ilhan; Bektas, Sibel; Can, Murat; Comert, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Because radiation-induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to harmful effects of free radicals, molecules with direct free radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radioprotectors. It has been demonstrated that controlled ozone administration may promote an adaptation to oxidative stress, preventing the damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Thus, we hypothesized that ozone would ameliorate oxidative damage caused by total body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6 Gy in rat liver and ileum tissues. Rats were randomly divided into groups as follows: control group; saline-treated and irradiated (IR) groups; and ozone oxidative preconditioning (OOP) and IR groups. Animals were exposed to TBI after a 5-day intraperitoneal pretreatment with either saline or ozone (1 mg/kg/day). They were decapitated at either 6 h or 72 h after TBI. Plasma, liver and ileum samples were obtained. Serum AST, ALT and TNF-α levels were elevated in the IR groups compared with the control group and were decreased after treatment with OOP. TBI resulted in a significant increase in the levels of MDA in the liver and ileal tissues and a decrease of SOD activities. The results demonstrated that the levels of MDA liver and ileal tissues in irradiated rats that were pretreated with ozone were significantly decreased, while SOD activities were significantly increased. OOP reversed all histopathological alterations induced by irradiation. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that ozone could increase the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism in rats and there by protect the animals from radiation-induced organ toxicity. (author)

  12. CHEM2D-OPP: A new linearized gas-phase ozone photochemistry parameterization for high-altitude NWP and climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. McCormack

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The new CHEM2D-Ozone Photochemistry Parameterization (CHEM2D-OPP for high-altitude numerical weather prediction (NWP systems and climate models specifies the net ozone photochemical tendency and its sensitivity to changes in ozone mixing ratio, temperature and overhead ozone column based on calculations from the CHEM2D interactive middle atmospheric photochemical transport model. We evaluate CHEM2D-OPP performance using both short-term (6-day and long-term (1-year stratospheric ozone simulations with the prototype high-altitude NOGAPS-ALPHA forecast model. An inter-comparison of NOGAPS-ALPHA 6-day ozone hindcasts for 7 February 2005 with ozone photochemistry parameterizations currently used in operational NWP systems shows that CHEM2D-OPP yields the best overall agreement with both individual Aura Microwave Limb Sounder ozone profile measurements and independent hemispheric (10°–90° N ozone analysis fields. A 1-year free-running NOGAPS-ALPHA simulation using CHEM2D-OPP produces a realistic seasonal cycle in zonal mean ozone throughout the stratosphere. We find that the combination of a model cold temperature bias at high latitudes in winter and a warm bias in the CHEM2D-OPP temperature climatology can degrade the performance of the linearized ozone photochemistry parameterization over seasonal time scales despite the fact that the parameterized temperature dependence is weak in these regions.

  13. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment

  14. Modelled long term trends of surface ozone over South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available timescale seeks to provide a spatially comprehensive view of trends while also creating a baseline for comparisons with future projections of air quality through the forcing of air quality models with modelled predicted long term meteorology. Previous...

  15. Weight-of-evidence evaluation of short-term ozone exposure and cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Lynch, Heather N; Zu, Ke; Lemay, Julie C; King, Joseph M; Venditti, Ferdinand J

    2014-10-01

    There is a relatively large body of research on the potential cardiovascular (CV) effects associated with short-term ozone exposure (defined by EPA as less than 30 days in duration). We conducted a weight-of-evidence (WoE) analysis to assess whether it supports a causal relationship using a novel WoE framework adapted from the US EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards causality framework. Specifically, we synthesized and critically evaluated the relevant epidemiology, controlled human exposure, and experimental animal data and made a causal determination using the same categories proposed by the Institute of Medicine report Improving the Presumptive Disability Decision-making Process for Veterans ( IOM 2008). We found that the totality of the data indicates that the results for CV effects are largely null across human and experimental animal studies. The few statistically significant associations reported in epidemiology studies of CV morbidity and mortality are very small in magnitude and likely attributable to confounding, bias, or chance. In experimental animal studies, the reported statistically significant effects at high exposures are not observed at lower exposures and thus not likely relevant to current ambient ozone exposures in humans. The available data also do not support a biologically plausible mechanism for CV effects of ozone. Overall, the current WoE provides no convincing case for a causal relationship between short-term exposure to ambient ozone and adverse effects on the CV system in humans, but the limitations of the available studies preclude definitive conclusions regarding a lack of causation. Thus, we categorize the strength of evidence for a causal relationship between short-term exposure to ozone and CV effects as "below equipoise."

  16. Economic damages of ozone air pollution to crops using combined air quality and GIS modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Nastis, S. A.; Achillas, Ch.; Kalogeropoulos, K.; Karmiris, I.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Chourdakis, E.; Banias, G.; Limperi, N.

    2010-09-01

    This study aims at presenting a combined air quality and GIS modelling methodological approach in order to estimate crop damages from photochemical air pollution, depict their spatial resolution and assess the order of magnitude regarding the corresponding economic damages. The analysis is conducted within the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Greece, a Mediterranean territory which is characterised by high levels of photochemical air pollution and considerable agricultural activity. Ozone concentration fields for 2002 and for specific emission reduction scenarios for the year 2010 were estimated with the Ozone Fine Structure model in the area under consideration. Total economic damage to crops turns out to be significant and estimated to be approximately 43 M€ for the reference year. Production of cotton presents the highest economic loss, which is over 16 M€, followed by table tomato (9 M€), rice (4.2 M€), wheat (4 M€) and oilseed rape (2.8 M€) cultivations. Losses are not spread uniformly among farmers and the major losses occur in areas with valuable ozone-sensitive crops. The results are very useful for highlighting the magnitude of the total economic impacts of photochemical air pollution to the area's agricultural sector and can potentially be used for comparison with studies worldwide. Furthermore, spatial analysis of the economic damage could be of importance for governmental authorities and decision makers since it provides an indicative insight, especially if the economic instruments such as financial incentives or state subsidies to farmers are considered.

  17. The Investigation of Decontamination Effects of Ozone Gas on Microbial Load and Essential Oil of Several Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh VALI ASILL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, Ozone as a disinfectant method, without putting on the harmful effects on human and plant products, it is alternative common methods for disinfection of plant material. The research as a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications and the effects of Ozone gas on decreasing the microbial load of some important medicinal plants include: Peppermint (Mentha piperita, Summer savory (Satureja hortensis, Indian valerian(Valeriana wallichii, Meliss (Melissa officinalis and Iranian thyme (Zataria multiflora were investigated. Medicinal plants leaves were treated with Ozone gas concentration 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 ml/L at times of 10 and 30 then total count, coliform and mold and yeast of the samples were studied. The result showed that Ozone gas decreases microbial load of medicinal plants samples. But Ozone gas and Ozone gas in medicinal plants interaction effect had no effect on essential oil content. The lowest and the highest of microbial load were detected in samples treated with concentration of 0.9 ml/L of Ozone gas and control respectively. The highest and the lowest of microbial load were observed in Iranian thyme and Indian valerian respectively. Also result showed that Ozone gas treatment for 30 min had the greatest of effect in reducing the microbial load and 0.9 ml/L Ozone gas concentration had the lowest of microbial load. Results of this survey reflect that the use of Ozone as a method of disinfection for medicinal plants is a decontamination.

  18. Ozonation of ranitidine: Effect of experimental parameters and identification of transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophoridis, Christophoros; Nika, Maria-Christina; Aalizadeh, Reza; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on the effect of experimental parameters on the removal of ranitidine (RAN) during ozonation and the identification of the formed transformation products (TPs). The influence of pH value, the initial concentrations, the inorganic and the organic matter on RAN's removal were evaluated. Results indicated high reactivity of RAN with molecular aqueous ozone. Initial ozone concentration and pH were proven the major process parameters. Alkaline pH values promoted degradation and overall mineralization. Dissolved organic matter reacts competitively to RAN with the oxidants (ozone and/or radicals), influencing the target compound's removal. The presence of inorganic ions in the matrix did not seem to affect RAN ozonation. A total of eleven TPs were identified and structurally elucidated, with the complementary use of both Reversed Phase (RP) and Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (HILIC) quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-ToF-MS/MS). Most of the TPs (TP-304, TP-315b, TP-299b, TP-333, TP-283) were generated by the attack of ozone at the double bond or the adjacent secondary amine, with the abstraction of NO2 moiety, forming TPs with an aldehyde group and an imine bond. Oxidized derivatives with a carboxylic group (TP-315a, TP-331a, TP-331b, TP-299a) were also formed. RAN S-oxide was identified as an ozonation TP (TP-330) and its structure was confirmed through the analysis of a reference standard. TP-214 was also produced during ozonation, through the CN bond rupture adjacent to the NO2 moiety. HILIC was used complementary to RP, either for the separation and identification of TPs with isomeric structures that may have been co-eluted in RPLC or for the detection of new TPs that were not eluted in the RP chromatographic system. Retention time prediction was used as a supporting tool for the identification of TPs and results were in accordance with the experimental ones in both RP and HILIC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Improvements to the WRF-Chem 3.5.1 model for quasi-hemispheric simulations of aerosols and ozone in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marelle, Louis; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Shrivastava, Manish; Thomas, Jennie L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the WRF-Chem regional model is updated to improve simulated short-lived pollutants (e.g., aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic. Specifically, we include in WRF-Chem 3.5.1 (with SAPRC-99 gas-phase chemistry and MOSAIC aerosols) (1) a correction to the sedimentation of aerosols, (2) dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oceanic emissions and gas-phase chemistry, (3) an improved representation of the dry deposition of trace gases over seasonal snow, and (4) an UV-albedo dependence on snow and ice cover for photolysis calculations. We also (5) correct the representation of surface temperatures over melting ice in the Noah Land Surface Model and (6) couple and further test the recent KF-CuP (Kain–Fritsch + Cumulus Potential) cumulus parameterization that includes the effect of cumulus clouds on aerosols and trace gases. The updated model is used to perform quasi-hemispheric simulations of aerosols and ozone, which are evaluated against surface measurements of black carbon (BC), sulfate, and ozone as well as airborne measurements of BC in the Arctic. The updated model shows significant improvements in terms of seasonal aerosol cycles at the surface and root mean square errors (RMSEs) for surface ozone, aerosols, and BC aloft, compared to the base version of the model and to previous large-scale evaluations of WRF-Chem in the Arctic. These improvements are mostly due to the inclusion of cumulus effects on aerosols and trace gases in KF-CuP (improved RMSE for surface BC and BC profiles, surface sulfate, and surface ozone), the improved surface temperatures over sea ice (surface ozone, BC, and sulfate), and the updated trace gas deposition and UV albedo over snow and ice (improved RMSE and correlation for surface ozone). DMS emissions and chemistry improve surface sulfate at all Arctic sites except Zeppelin, and correcting aerosol sedimentation has little influence on aerosols except in the upper troposphere.

  20. Improvements to the WRF-Chem 3.5.1 model for quasi-hemispheric simulations of aerosols and ozone in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marelle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the WRF-Chem regional model is updated to improve simulated short-lived pollutants (e.g., aerosols, ozone in the Arctic. Specifically, we include in WRF-Chem 3.5.1 (with SAPRC-99 gas-phase chemistry and MOSAIC aerosols (1 a correction to the sedimentation of aerosols, (2 dimethyl sulfide (DMS oceanic emissions and gas-phase chemistry, (3 an improved representation of the dry deposition of trace gases over seasonal snow, and (4 an UV-albedo dependence on snow and ice cover for photolysis calculations. We also (5 correct the representation of surface temperatures over melting ice in the Noah Land Surface Model and (6 couple and further test the recent KF-CuP (Kain–Fritsch + Cumulus Potential cumulus parameterization that includes the effect of cumulus clouds on aerosols and trace gases. The updated model is used to perform quasi-hemispheric simulations of aerosols and ozone, which are evaluated against surface measurements of black carbon (BC, sulfate, and ozone as well as airborne measurements of BC in the Arctic. The updated model shows significant improvements in terms of seasonal aerosol cycles at the surface and root mean square errors (RMSEs for surface ozone, aerosols, and BC aloft, compared to the base version of the model and to previous large-scale evaluations of WRF-Chem in the Arctic. These improvements are mostly due to the inclusion of cumulus effects on aerosols and trace gases in KF-CuP (improved RMSE for surface BC and BC profiles, surface sulfate, and surface ozone, the improved surface temperatures over sea ice (surface ozone, BC, and sulfate, and the updated trace gas deposition and UV albedo over snow and ice (improved RMSE and correlation for surface ozone. DMS emissions and chemistry improve surface sulfate at all Arctic sites except Zeppelin, and correcting aerosol sedimentation has little influence on aerosols except in the upper troposphere.

  1. Effects of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} injections by supersonic aviation on sulfate aerosol and ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyominov, I.G.; Zadorozhny, A.M. [Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Elansky, N.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    1997-12-31

    The impact of supersonic aviation on atmospheric ozone and sulfate aerosol is examined with the help of a two-dimensional dynamical/radiative/chemical model of ozonosphere including aerosol physics. For SO{sub 2} emissions from aircraft as gas, gas/particles (90%/10%) mix, and particles of 0.01 {mu}m radius the sulphate aerosol surface density at maximum of changes increases against its background value by {approx}50%, {approx}75%, and {approx}200%, respectively. This effect of SO{sub 2} emissions with insignificant NO{sub x} injection leads to a significant decrease of total ozone by 2015 in the entire atmosphere. For NO{sub x} emissions which are anticipated in future (EI(NO{sub x}) = 15) any kind of SO{sub 2} emission results in significant weakening of supersonic aviation impact on ozone layer in the Northern Hemisphere. (author) 14 refs.

  2. Numerical simulation for regional ozone concentrations: A case study by weather research and forecasting/chemistry (WRF/Chem) model

    OpenAIRE

    Khandakar Md Habib Al Razi, Moritomi Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to better understand and predict the atmospheric concentration distribution of ozone and its precursor (in particular, within the Planetary Boundary Layer (Within 110 km to 12 km) over Kasaki City and the Greater Tokyo Area using fully coupled online WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry) model. In this research, a serious and continuous high ozone episode in the Greater Tokyo Area (GTA) during the summer of 14–18 August 2010 was investigated u...

  3. The influence of the Calbuco eruption on the 2015 Antarctic ozone hole in a fully coupled chemistry-climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, D; Solomon, S; Kinnison, D; Mills, M; Schmidt, A; Neely III, RR

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the concentrations of anthropogenic halocarbons have decreased in response to the worldwide phaseout of ozone depleting substances. Yet in 2015 the Antarctic ozone hole reached a historical record daily average size in October. Model simulations with specified dynamics and temperatures based on a reanalysis suggested that the record size was likely due to the eruption of Calbuco but did not allow for fully coupled dynamical or thermal feedbacks. We presen...

  4. Improved simulation of tropospheric ozone by a global-multi-regional two-way coupling model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale nonlinear chemical and physical processes over pollution source regions affect the tropospheric ozone (O3, but these processes are not captured by current global chemical transport models (CTMs and chemistry–climate models that are limited by coarse horizontal resolutions (100–500 km, typically 200 km. These models tend to contain large (and mostly positive tropospheric O3 biases in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we use the recently built two-way coupling system of the GEOS-Chem CTM to simulate the regional and global tropospheric O3 in 2009. The system couples the global model (at 2.5° long.  ×  2° lat. and its three nested models (at 0.667° long.  ×  0.5° lat. covering Asia, North America and Europe, respectively. Specifically, the nested models take lateral boundary conditions (LBCs from the global model, better capture small-scale processes and feed back to modify the global model simulation within the nested domains, with a subsequent effect on their LBCs. Compared to the global model alone, the two-way coupled system better simulates the tropospheric O3 both within and outside the nested domains, as found by evaluation against a suite of ground (1420 sites from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division (GMD, the Chemical Coordination Centre of European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System (AQS, aircraft (the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO and Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In- Service Aircraft (MOZAIC and satellite measurements (two Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI products. The two-way coupled simulation enhances the correlation in day-to-day variation of afternoon mean surface O3

  5. A regional scale model for ozone in the United States with subgrid representation of urban and power plant plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillman, S.; Logan, J.A.; Wofsy, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to modeling regional air chemistry is presented for application to industrialized regions such as the continental US. Rural chemistry and transport are simulated using a coarse grid, while chemistry and transport in urban and power plant plumes are represented by detailed subgrid models. Emissions from urban and power plant sources are processed in generalized plumes where chemistry and dilution proceed for 8-12 hours before mixing with air in a large resolution element. A realistic fraction of pollutants reacts under high-NO x conditions, and NO x is removed significantly before dispersal. Results from this model are compared with results from grid odels that do not distinguish plumes and with observational data defining regional ozone distributions. Grid models with coarse resolution are found to artificially disperse NO x over rural areas, therefore overestimating rural levels of both NO x and O 3 . Regional net ozone production is too high in coarse grid models, because production of O 3 is more efficient per molecule of NO x in the low-concentration regime of rural areas than in heavily polluted plumes from major emission sources. Ozone levels simulated by this model are shown to agree with observations in urban plumes and in rural regions. The model reproduces accurately average regional and peak ozone concentrations observed during a 4-day ozone episode. Computational costs for the model are reduced 25-to 100-fold as compared to fine-mesh models

  6. The use of artificial neural network for modeling the decolourization of acid orange 7 solution of industrial by ozonation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, S.; Wiharto, W.

    2017-02-01

    Acid Orange 7 (AO7) is one of the synthetic dye in the dyeing process in the textile industry. The use of this dye can produce wastewater which will be endangered if not treated well. Ozonation method is one technique to solve this problem. Ozonation is a waste processing techniques using ozone as an oxidizing agent. Variables used in this research is the ozone concentration, the initial concentration of AO7, temperature, and pH. Based on the experimental result that the optimum value decolourization percentage is 80% when the ozone concentration is 560 mg/L, the initial concentration AO7 is 14 mg/L, the temperature is 390 °C, and pH is 7,6. Decolourization efficiency of experimental results and predictions successfully modelled by the neural network architecture. The data used to construct a neural network architecture quasi newton one step secant as many as 31 data. A comparison between the predicted results of the designed ANN models and experiment was conducted. From the modeling results obtained MAPE value of 0.7763%. From the results of this artificial neural network architecture obtained the optimum value decolourization percentage in 80,64% when the concentration of ozone is 550 mg/L, the initial concentration AO7 is 11 mg/L, the temperature is 41 °C, and the pH is 7.9.

  7. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  8. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, G.R.; Hardie, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Barrera-Roldan, A. [Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This reports on the collection and preparation of data (costs and air quality improvement) for the strategic evaluation portion of the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI). Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions. Information from appropriate options identified by SCAQMD for Southem California were also used in the analysis. A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}. The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy.

  9. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.; Hardie, R.W.; Barrera-Roldan, A.

    1993-01-01

    This reports on the collection and preparation of data (costs and air quality improvement) for the strategic evaluation portion of the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI). Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions. Information from appropriate options identified by SCAQMD for Southem California were also used in the analysis. A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO x emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO x . The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO x concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy

  10. Linear and regressive stochastic models for prediction of daily maximum ozone values at Mexico City atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, J. L [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Nava, M. M [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gay, C [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    We developed a procedure to forecast, with 2 or 3 hours, the daily maximum of surface ozone concentrations. It involves the adjustment of Autoregressive Integrated and Moving Average (ARIMA) models to daily ozone maximum concentrations at 10 monitoring atmospheric stations in Mexico City during one-year period. A one-day forecast is made and it is adjusted with the meteorological and solar radiation information acquired during the first 3 hours before the occurrence of the maximum value. The relative importance for forecasting of the history of the process and of meteorological conditions is evaluated. Finally an estimate of the daily probability of exceeding a given ozone level is made. [Spanish] Se aplica un procedimiento basado en la metodologia conocida como ARIMA, para predecir, con 2 o 3 horas de anticipacion, el valor maximo de la concentracion diaria de ozono. Esta basado en el calculo de autorregresiones y promedios moviles aplicados a los valores maximos de ozono superficial provenientes de 10 estaciones de monitoreo atmosferico en la Ciudad de Mexico y obtenidos durante un ano de muestreo. El pronostico para un dia se ajusta con la informacion meteorologica y de radiacion solar correspondiente a un periodo que antecede con al menos tres horas la ocurrencia esperada del valor maximo. Se compara la importancia relativa de la historia del proceso y de las condiciones meteorologicas previas para el pronostico. Finalmente se estima la probabilidad diaria de que un nivel normativo o preestablecido para contingencias de ozono sea rebasado.

  11. The influence of biogenic emissions from Africa on tropical tropospheric ozone during 2006: a global modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Williams

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed simulations using a 3-D global chemistry-transport model to investigate the influence that biogenic emissions from the African continent exert on the composition of the troposphere in the tropical region. For this purpose we have applied two recently developed biogenic emission inventories provided for use in large-scale global models (Granier et al., 2005; Lathière et al., 2006 whose seasonality and temporal distribution for biogenic emissions of isoprene, other volatile organic compounds and NO is markedly different. The use of the 12 year average values for biogenic emissions provided by Lathière et al. (2006 results in an increase in the amount of nitrogen sequestrated into longer lived reservoir compounds which contributes to the reduction in the tropospheric ozone burden in the tropics. The associated re-partitioning of nitrogen between PAN, HNO3 and organic nitrates also results in a ~5% increase in the loss of nitrogen by wet deposition. At a global scale there is a reduction in the oxidizing capacity of the model atmosphere which increases the atmospheric lifetimes of CH4 and CO by ~1.5% and ~4%, respectively. Comparisons against a range of different measurements indicate that applying the 12 year average of Lathière et al. (2006 improves the performance of TM4_AMMA for 2006 in the tropics. By the use of sensitivity studies we show that the release of NO from soils in Africa accounts for between ~2–45% of tropospheric ozone in the African troposphere, ~10% in the upper troposphere and between ~5–20% of the tropical tropospheric ozone column over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The subsequent reduction in OH over the source regions allows enhanced transport of CO out of the region. For biogenic volatile organic C1 to C3 species released from Africa, the effects on tropical tropospheric ozone are rather limited, although this source contributes to the global burden of VOC by between ~2–4% and

  12. Ozone and the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the stratospheric ozone is effective in absorbing almost all radiation below 300 nm at heights below 300 km. The distribution of global ozone in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, and the latitudinal variations of the total ozone column over four seasons are considered. The theory of the ozone layer production is discussed together with catalytic reactions for ozone loss and the mechanisms of ozone transport. Special attention is given to the anthropogenic perturbations, such as SST exhaust gases and freon gas from aerosol cans and refrigerators, that may cause an extensive destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer and thus have a profound impact on the world climate and on life.

  13. Atmospheric Ozone 1985. Assessment of our understanding of the processes controlling its present distribution and change, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Topics addressed include: assessment models; model predictions of ozone changes; ozone and temperature trends; trace gas effects on climate; kinetics and photchemical data base; spectroscopic data base (infrared to microwave); instrument intercomparisons and assessments; and monthly mean distribution of ozone and temperature.

  14. Assessment and Applications of NASA Ozone Data Products Derived from Aura OMI-MLS Satellite Measurements in Context of the GMI Chemical Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Wargan, K.; Liu, X.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Yang, K.; Kaplan, T. B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), both onboard the Aura spacecraft, have been used to produce daily global maps of column and profile ozone since August 2004. Here we compare and evaluate three strategies to obtain daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from OMI and MLS measurements: trajectory mapping, direct profile retrieval, and data assimilation. Evaluation is based upon an assessment that includes validation using ozonesondes and comparisons with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model (CTM). We investigate applications of the three ozone data products from near-decadal and inter-annual timescales to day-to-day case studies. Zonally averaged inter-annual changes in tropospheric ozone from all of the products in any latitude range are of the order 1-2 Dobson Units while changes (increases) over the 8-year Aura record investigated http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/atbd-category/49 vary approximately 2-4 Dobson Units. It is demonstrated that all of the ozone products can measure and monitor exceptional tropospheric ozone events including major forest fire and pollution transport events. Stratospheric ozone during the Aura record has several anomalous inter-annual events including stratospheric warming split events in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics that are well captured using the data assimilation ozone profile product. Data assimilation with continuous daily global coverage and vertical ozone profile information is the best of the three strategies at generating a global tropospheric and stratospheric ozone product for science applications.

  15. Observed seasonal cycles in tropospheric ozone at three marine boundary layer locations and their comparison with models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Observational data have been used to define the seasonal cycles in tropospheric ozone at the surface at three marine boundary layer (MBL) locations at Mace Head in Ireland, Trinidad Head in the USA and at Cape Grim in Tasmania. Least-squares fits of a sine function to the observed monthly mean ozone mixing ratios allowed ozone seasonal cycles to be defined quantitatively, as follows: y = Y0 + A1 sin(θ + φ1) + A2 sin(2θ + φ2), where Y0 is the annual average ozone mixing ratio over the entire set of observations or model results, A1 and A2 are amplitudes, φ1 and φ2 are phase angles and θ is a variable that spans one year's time period in radians. The seasonal cycles of fourteen tropospheric ozone models, together with our own STOCHEM-CRI model, at the three MBL stations were then analysed by fitting sine curves and defining the five parameters: Y0, A1, φ1, A2, φ2. Compared to the fundamental term: A1 sin(θ + φ1), all models more accurately reproduced the observed second harmonic terms: A2 sin(2θ + φ2). This accurate agreement both in amplitude and phase angle suggested that the term arose from a cyclic phenomenon that was well predicted by all models, namely, the photochemical destruction of ozone. Model treatments of the fundamental term were in many cases far removed from the observations and it was not clear why there was so much variability across the tropospheric ozone models.

  16. Effects of ozone therapy on pain, swelling, and trismus following third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazancioglu, H O; Kurklu, E; Ezirganli, S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic ozone application in the management of pain, swelling, and trismus associated with the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. Sixty consecutive patients with asymptomatic bilateral impacted mandibular third molars were recruited into the study. Randomly, by use of envelops, the molar on one side was extracted and ozone therapy was given (study side); the molar on the other side was extracted 2 weeks later and sham ozone therapy was given (negative control side). The mean age of the 60 patients was 22.6±2.3 years (range 18-25 years). No differences were found between the two sides for mouth opening or swelling. The degree of pain and the number of analgesic tablets taken was significantly lower for the study side. This study showed ozone therapy to have a positive effect on OHIP-14 questionnaire results. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of ozone on the pain and disability in patients with failed back surgery syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Costa Barbosa

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Low back pain is one of the painful disorders of higher prevalence. It has several etiologies and surgery may be indicated in the presence of neurological deficits or compression syndromes. However, in up to 40% of cases, patients develop worsening of pain and failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS, which is an important cause of chronic pain with high morbidity and disability. In the last two decades, ozone has been shown to be a new therapeutic option for FBSS due to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To evaluate the effect of ozone therapy on pain and disability in patients with failed back surgery syndrome. Method: We selected 19 patients undergoing epiduroscopy and injection of ozone. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and 21 days after the procedure, using the following instruments: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Brief Pain Inventory, Roland-Morris Questionnaire Disability, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory and Douleur Neuropathique 4. Results: The patients showed significant pain relief, but no improvement was observed in the functional scales. Conclusion: Our results suggest that epidural ozone therapy can be a treatment option in FBSS to reduce the intensity of the pain.

  18. Pulmonary and symptom threshold effects of ozone in airline passenger and cockpit crew surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lategola, M.T.; Melton, C.E.; Higgins, E.A.

    1980-09-01

    Previous studies showed that the ozone concentration for pulmonary and symptom threshold effects in flight attendant surrogates lies between 0.20 and 0.30 ppMv for a 3-h exposure with intermittent treadmill exercise at 1829 m (MSL) stimulated cabin altitude. In the present study of sedentary occupants of the in-flight airline cabin, the same protocol was used except for omitting all treadmill exercise. Symptoms were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Pulmonary function was assessed using standardized quantitative spirometry. Male smoker and nonsmoker airline passenger and cockpit crew surrogates 40 to 59 years of age were used. Small but statistically significant displacements occurred in symptoms and in some spirometry parameters. In general, the younger subjects appeared more sensitive to ozone than the older subjects. No significant differences appeared between smokers' and nonsmokers' responses to ozone exposure. It is concluded that the ozone threshold of these sedentary surrogates under these experimental conditions is right at 0.30 ppMv.

  19. Modeling of a severe dust event and its impacts on ozone photochemistry over the downstream Nanjing megacity of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Tijian; Han, Yong; Xie, Min; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Chen, Pulong

    2017-07-01

    Dust aerosols could affect tropospheric photochemistry by interacting with solar radiation or providing reactive surfaces for heterogeneous reactions. This study examines the effects of a typical springtime dust storm (16-18 March, 2014) on ozone photochemistry over the downstream Nanjing megacity in eastern China. The on-line coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model is used, with the inclusion of eight heterogeneous reactions on dust surfaces. Comparisons with satellite data and visibility record indicate that the model is capable of reproducing the onset time and downstream transport of this dust event. Dust particles act as a sink for all these trace gases examined here. The net decreases of O3, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, rad OH, HO2rad and H2O2 in the atmosphere are estimated as -6.1%, -16.0%, -37.4%, -13.9%, -47.7%, -6.0%, -9.2% and -29.7%, of which more than 80% can be explained by heterogeneous chemistry on dust surfaces. The decreases in ground photolysis rate and rad OH concentration, along with changes in other weather variables induced by dust aerosols (i.e., radiation and temperature) lead to lower photochemical activity and a small decrease of O3 mixing ratio by roughly 0.5%. This study highlights the importance of dust interaction with ozone photochemistry, and also sets the stage for further investigation of the complicated dust impacts on tropospheric aerosol chemistry.

  20. Photochemical model estimated fire impacts on ozone and aerosol evaluated wit